Science.gov

Sample records for activity decay heat

  1. Activation, decay heat, and waste classification studies of the European DEMO concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, M. R.; Eade, T.; Bachmann, C.; Fischer, U.; Taylor, N. P.

    2017-04-01

    Inventory calculations have a key role to play in designing future fusion power plants because, for a given irradiation field and material, they can predict the time evolution in chemical composition, activation, decay heat, gamma-dose, gas production, and even damage (dpa) dose. For conceptual designs of the European DEMO fusion reactor such calculations provide information about the neutron shielding requirements, maintenance schedules, and waste disposal prospects; thereby guiding future development. Extensive neutron-transport and inventory calculations have been performed for a reference DEMO reactor model with four different tritium-breeding blanket concepts. The results have been used to chart the post-operation variation in activity and decay heat from different vessel components, demonstrating that the shielding performance of the different blanket concepts—for a given blanket thickness—varies significantly. Detailed analyses of the simulated nuclide inventories for the vacuum vessel (VV) and divertor highlight the most dominant radionuclides, potentially suggesting how changes in material composition could help to reduce activity. Minor impurities in the raw composition of W used in divertor tiles, for example, are shown to produce undesirable long-lived radionuclides. Finally, waste classifications, based on UK regulations, and a recycling potential limit, have been applied to estimate the time-evolution in waste masses for both the entire vessel (including blanket modules, VV, divertor, and some ex-vessel components) and individual components, and also to suggest when a particular component might be suitable for recycling. The results indicate that the large mass of the VV will not be classifiable as low level waste on the 100 year timescale, but the majority of the divertor will be, and that both components will be potentially recyclable within that time.

  2. COMBINED ACTIVE/PASSIVE DECAY HEAT REMOVAL APPROACH FOR THE 24 MWt GAS-COOLED FAST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    CHENG,L.Y.; LUDEWIG, H.

    2007-06-01

    Decay heat removal at depressurized shutdown conditions has been regarded as one of the key areas where significant improvement in passive response was targeted for the GEN IV GFR over the GCFR designs of thirty years ago. It has been recognized that the poor heat transfer characteristics of gas coolant at lower pressures needed to be accommodated in the GEN IV design. The design envelope has therefore been extended to include a station blackout sequence simultaneous with a small break/leak. After an exploratory phase of scoping analysis in this project, together with CEA of France, it was decided that natural convection would be selected as the passive decay heat removal approach of preference. Furthermore, a double vessel/containment option, similar to the double vessel/guard vessel approach of the SFR, was selected as the means of design implementation to reduce the PRA risks of the depressurization accident. However additional calculations in conjunction with CEA showed that there was an economic penalty in terms of decay heat removal system heat exchanger size, elevation heights for thermal centers, and most of all in guard containment back pressure for complete reliance on natural convection only. The back pressure ranges complicated the design requirements for the guard containment. Recognizing that the definition of a loss-of-coolant-accident in the GFR is a misnomer, since gas coolant will always be present, and the availability of some driven blower would reduce fuel temperature transients significantly; it was decided instead to aim for a hybrid active/passive combination approach to the selected BDBA. Complete natural convection only would still be relied on for decay heat removal but only after the first twenty four hours after the initiation of the accident. During the first twenty four hour period an actively powered blower would be relied on to provide the emergency decay power removal. However the power requirements of the active blower

  3. Decay of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    2005-01-01

    We examine the record of sunspot group areas observed over a period of 100 years to determine the rate of decay of solar active regions. We exclude observations of groups when they are more than 60deg in longitude from the central meridian and only include data when at least three days of observations are available following the date of maximum area for a spot group's disk passage. This leaves data for some 24,000 observations of active region decay. We find that the decay rate is a constant 20 microHem/day for spots smaller than about 200 microHem (about the size of a supergranule). This decay rate increases linearly to about 90 microHem/day for spots with areas of 1000 microHem. We find no evidence for significant variations in active region decay from one solar cycle to another. However, we do find that the decay rate is slower at lower latitudes. This gives a slower decay rate during the declining phase of sunspot cycles.

  4. Review of new integral determinations of decay heat

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Over a decade ago, concern over possible serious consequences of a loss-of-coolant accident in a commercial light-water reactor prompted support in several countries of several experiments designed specifically to measure the decay heat of beta-ray and gamma-ray emanations from fission products for thermal reactors. In 1979, a new standard for use in computing decay heat in real reactor environs (for example, for regulatory requirements) was approved by the American Nuclear Society. Since then there have been additional experimental measurements, in particular for fission-induced by fast neutrons. In addition, the need for decay-heat data has been extended well beyond the time regime of a loss-of-coolant accident. The efficacy of the 1979 ANS standard has been a subject of study with generally positive results. However, a specific problem, namely, the consequences for decay heat of fission-product neutron capture merits further experimental study.

  5. Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) Decay Heat Removal Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    K. D. Weaver; L-Y. Cheng; H. Ludewig; J. Jo

    2005-09-01

    Current research and development on the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) has focused on the design of safety systems that will remove the decay heat during accident conditions, ion irradiations of candidate ceramic materials, joining studies of oxide dispersion strengthened alloys; and within the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) the fabrication of carbide fuels and ceramic fuel matrix materials, development of non-halide precursor low density and high density ceramic coatings, and neutron irradiation of candidate ceramic fuel matrix and metallic materials. The vast majority of this work has focused on the reference design for the GFR: a helium-cooled, direct power conversion system that will operate with an outlet temperature of 850ºC at 7 MPa. In addition to the work being performed in the United States, seven international partners under the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) have identified their interest in participating in research related to the development of the GFR. These are Euratom (European Commission), France, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Of these, Euratom (including the United Kingdom), France, and Japan have active research activities with respect to the GFR. The research includes GFR design and safety, and fuels/in-core materials/fuel cycle projects. This report is a compilation of work performed on decay heat removal systems for a 2400 MWt GFR during this fiscal year (FY05).

  6. Decay Heat Measurements Using Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, S.; Valencia, E.; Algora, A.; Taín, J. L.; Regan, P. H.; Podolyák, Z.; Agramunt, J.; Gelletly, W.; Nichols, A. L.

    2012-09-01

    A knowledge of the decay heat emitted by thermal neutron-irradiated nuclear fuel is an important factor in ensuring safe reactor design and operation, spent fuel removal from the core, and subsequent storage prior to and after reprocessing, and waste disposal. Decay heat can be readily calculated from the nuclear decay properties of the fission products, actinides and their decay products as generated within the irradiated fuel. Much of the information comes from experiments performed with HPGe detectors, which often underestimate the beta feeding to states at high excitation energies. This inability to detect high-energy gamma emissions effectively results in the derivation of decay schemes that suffer from the pandemonium effect, although such a serious problem can be avoided through application of total absorption γ-ray spectroscopy (TAS). The beta decay of key radionuclei produced as a consequence of the neutron-induced fission of 235U and 239Pu are being re-assessed by means of this spectroscopic technique. A brief synopsis is given of the Valencia-Surrey (BaF2) TAS detector, and their method of operation, calibration and spectral analysis.

  7. The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor: Report on Safety System Design for Decay Heat Removal

    SciTech Connect

    K. D. Weaver; T. Marshall; T. Y. C. Wei; E. E. Feldman; M. J. Driscoll; H. Ludewig

    2003-09-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) was chosen as one of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems to be developed based on its excellent potential for sustainability through reduction of the volume and radiotoxicity of both its own fuel and other spent nuclear fuel, and for extending/utilizing uranium resources orders of magnitude beyond what the current open fuel cycle can realize. In addition, energy conversion at high thermal efficiency is possible with the current designs being considered, thus increasing the economic benefit of the GFR. However, research and development challenges include the ability to use passive decay heat removal systems during accident conditions, survivability of fuels and in-core materials under extreme temperatures and radiation, and economical and efficient fuel cycle processes. This report addresses/discusses the decay heat removal options available to the GFR, and the current solutions. While it is possible to design a GFR with complete passive safety (i.e., reliance solely on conductive and radiative heat transfer for decay heat removal), it has been shown that the low power density results in unacceptable fuel cycle costs for the GFR. However, increasing power density results in higher decay heat rates, and the attendant temperature increase in the fuel and core. Use of active movers, or blowers/fans, is possible during accident conditions, which only requires 3% of nominal flow to remove the decay heat. Unfortunately, this requires reliance on active systems. In order to incorporate passive systems, innovative designs have been studied, and a mix of passive and active systems appears to meet the requirements for decay heat removal during accident conditions.

  8. Microscopic beta and gamma data for decay-heat needs

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    Microscopic beta and gamma data for decay-heat needs are defined as absolute-intensity spectral distributions of beta and gamma rays following radioactive decay of radionuclides created by, or following, the fission process. Four well-known evaluated data files, namely the US ENDF/B-V, the UK UKFPDD-2, the French BDN (for fission products), and the Japanese JNDC Nuclear Data Library, are reviewed. Comments regarding the analyses of experimental data (particularly gamma-ray data) are given; the need for complete beta-ray spectral measurements is emphasized. Suggestions on goals for near-term future experimental measurements are presented. 34 references.

  9. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  10. Emergency Decay Heat Removal in a GEN-IV Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Lap Y.; Ludewig, Hans; Jo, Jae

    2006-07-01

    A series of transient analyses using the system code RELAP5-3d has been performed to confirm the efficacy of a proposed hybrid active/passive combination approach to the decay heat removal for an advanced 2400 MWt GEN-IV gas-cooled fast reactor. The accident sequence of interest is a station blackout simultaneous with a small break (10 sq.inch/0.645 m{sup 2}) in the reactor vessel. The analyses cover the three phases of decay heat removal in a depressurization accident: (1) forced flow cooling by the power conversion unit (PCU) coast down, (2) active forced flow cooling by a battery powered blower, and (3) passive cooling by natural circulation. The blower is part of an emergency cooling system (ECS) that by design is to sustain passive decay heat removal via natural circulation cooling 24 hours after shutdown. The RELAP5 model includes the helium-cooled reactor, the ECS (primary and secondary side), the PCU with all the rotating machinery (turbine and compressors) and the heat transfer components (recuperator, pre-cooler and inter-cooler), and the guard containment that surrounds the reactor and the PCU. The transient analysis has demonstrated the effectiveness of passive decay heat removal by natural circulation cooling when the guard containment pressure is maintained at or above 800 kPa. (authors)

  11. Current status of decay heat measurements, evaluations, and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, J.K.

    1986-07-01

    Over a decade ago serious concern over possible consequences of a loss-of-coolant accident in a commercial light-water reactor prompted support of several experiments designed specifically to measure the latent energy of beta-ray and gamma-ray emanations from fission products for thermal reactors. This latent energy was termed Decay Heat. At about the same time the American Nuclear Society convened a working group to develop a standard for use in computing decay heat in real reactor environs primarily for regulatory requirements. This working group combined the new experimental results and best evaluated data into a standard which was approved by the ANS and by the ANSI. The primary work since then has been: (a) on improvements to computational efforts and (b) experimental measurements for fast reactors. In addition, the need for decay-heat data has been extended well beyond the time regime of a loss-of-coolant accident; new concerns involve, for example, away-from-reactor shipments and storage. The efficacy of the ANS standard for these longer time regimes has been a subject of study with generally positive results. However, a specific problem, namely, the consequences of fission-product neutron capture, remains contentious. Satisfactory resolution of this problem merits a high priority. 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Castor-1C spent fuel storage cask decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; McCann, R.A.; Jenquin, U.P.; Heeb, C.M.; Creer, J.M.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1986-12-01

    This report documents the decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses of the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear Services (GNS) CASTOR-1C cask used in a spent fuel storage demonstration performed at Preussen Elektra's Wurgassen nuclear power plant. The demonstration was performed between March 1982 and January 1984, and resulted in cask and fuel temperature data and cask exterior surface gamma-ray and neutron radiation dose rate measurements. The purpose of the analyses reported here was to evaluate decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding computer codes. The analyses consisted of (1) performing pre-look predictions (predictions performed before the analysts were provided the test data), (2) comparing ORIGEN2 (decay heat), COBRA-SFS and HYDRA (heat transfer), and QAD and DOT (shielding) results to data, and (3) performing post-test analyses if appropriate. Even though two heat transfer codes were used to predict CASTOR-1C cask test data, no attempt was made to compare the two codes. The codes are being evaluated with other test data (single-assembly data and other cask data), and to compare the codes based on one set of data may be premature and lead to erroneous conclusions.

  13. PANDA asymmetric-configuration passive decay heat removal test results

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, O.; Dreier, J.; Aubert, C.

    1997-12-01

    PANDA is a large-scale, low-pressure test facility for investigating passive decay heat removal systems for the next generation of LWRs. In the first series of experiments, PANDA was used to examine the long-term LOCA response of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) for the General Electric (GE) Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). The test objectives include concept demonstration and extension of the database available for qualification of containment codes. Also included is the study of the effects of nonuniform distributions of steam and noncondensable gases in the Dry-well (DW) and in the Suppression Chamber (SC). 3 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie

    2015-07-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. We summarize the published evidence from observation and modeling of the influence of meridional flow variations and decaying active region flux's spatial distribution, such as the Joy's law tilt angle. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms covering cycles 21-24, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed trailing-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with trailing-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. The activity complexes of the cycle 21 and 22 maxima were larger and longer-lived than those of the cycle 23 and 24 maxima, and the poleward surges were stronger and more unipolar and the polar field changes larger and faster. The cycle 21 and 22 polar reversals were dominated by only a few long-lived complexes whereas the cycle 23 and 24 reversals were the cumulative effects of more numerous, shorter-lived regions. We conclude that sizes and lifetimes of activity complexes are key to

  15. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed lagging-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with lagging-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. This work is carried out through the National Solar Observatory Summer Research Assistantship (SRA) Program. The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  16. Supergranule Diffusion and Active Region Decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    2004-01-01

    Models of the Sun's magnetic dynamo include turbulent diffusion to parameterize the effects of convective motions on the evolution of the Sun's magnetic field. Supergranules are known to dominate the evolution of the surface magnetic field structure as evidenced by the structure of both the active and quiet magnetic network. However, estimates for the dif hivity attributed to su perymules differ by an order of magnitude from about 100 km sup2/s to more than 1000 km sup2/s. We examine this question of the e i v i t y using three merent approaches. 1) We study the decay of more than 30,000 active regions by determining the rate of change in the sunspot area of each active region from day-to-day. 2) We study the decay of a single isolated active region near the time of solar minimum by examining the magnetic field evolution over five solar rotations fiom SOHOMDI magnetograms obtained at 96-minute intervals. 3) We study the characteristics of supergranules that influence the estimates of their diffusive properties - flow speeds and lifetimes as functions of size - fiom SOHO/MDI Dopplergrams.

  17. Grouping of light water reactors for evaluation of decay heat removal capability

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, R.; Fresco, A.; Perkins, K.R.

    1984-06-01

    This grouping report provides a compilation of decay heat removal systems (DHRS) data for operating commercial light water reactors. The reactors have been divided into 12 groups based on similarity of the DHRS and related systems as part of the NRC Task Action Plan on Shutdown Decay Heat Removal Requirements.

  18. Mixed-oxide fuel decay heat analysis for BWR LOCA safety evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, R. T.

    2013-07-01

    The mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel decay heat behavior is analyzed for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) safety evaluation. The physical reasoning on why the decay heat power fractions of MOX fuel fission product (FP) are significantly lower than the corresponding decay heat power fractions of uranium-oxide (UOX) fuel FP is illustrated. This is primarily due to the following physical phenomena. -The recoverable energies per fission of plutonium (Pu)-239 and Pu-241 are significantly higher than those of uranium (U)-235 and U-238. Consequently, the fission rate required to produce the same amount of power in MOX fuel is significantly lower than that in UOX fuel, which leads to lower subsequent FP generation rate and associated decay heat power in MOX fuel than those in UOX fuel. - The effective FP decay energy per fission of Pu-239 is significantly lower than the corresponding effective FP decay energy per fission of U-235, e.g., Pu-239's 10.63 Mega-electron-Volt (MeV) vs. U-235's 12.81 MeV at the cooling time 0.2 second. This also leads to lower decay heat power in MOX fuel than that in UOX fuel. The FP decay heat is shown to account for more than 90% of the total decay heat immediately after shutdown. The FP decay heat results based on the American National Standard Institute (ANSI)/American Nuclear Society (ANS)-5.1-1979 standard method are shown very close to the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-2005 standard method. The FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 simplified method are shown very close to but mostly slightly lower than the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1971 method. The FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 simplified method or the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1971 method are shown significantly larger than the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 standard method or the ANSI/ANS-5.1-2005 standard method. (authors)

  19. Decay heat removal from a Particle Bed Reactor Nuclear Thermal Rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, Eric

    1993-06-01

    Nuclear Thermal Rockets used in propulsion systems for planetary exploration will generate significant amounts of heat following normal engine shutdown due to the buildup of and decay of radioactive fission products. The amount of energy that is generated as decay heat is approximately 2-5 percent of the energy released during nominal operation. Various schemes are possible for removing this heat, including using primary coolant (hydrogen) to cool the reactor. Depending on the amount of coolant required, this may result in a large weight penalty for the mission. This paper quantifies the amount of decay heat that must be removed from the engine, shows the resulting impact on the vehicle design for particular missions, and examines possible approaches for reducing the amount of coolant required for decay heat removal. The costs and benefits of these schemes will be shown for several different missions. The missions that will be considered include both manned Mars missions and unmanned planetary exploration missions.

  20. Distinguishing activity decay and cell death from bacterial decay for two types of methanogens.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaodi; Cai, Zhengqing; Fu, Kunming; Zhao, Dongye

    2012-03-15

    As bacterial decay consists of cell death and activity decay, and the corresponding information about AOB/NOB, OHO, PAOs and GAOs has been experimentally acquired, another functional type of bacteria in biological wastewater treatment, methanogens, remains to be investigated, to gather the same information, which is extremely important for such bacteria with low growth rates. With successfully selection and enrichment of both aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and by means of measuring specific methane activity (SMA) and hydrogen consumption rate (HCR), a series of decay experiments and molecular techniques such as FISH verification and LIVE/DEAD staining revealed, identified and calculated the decay and death rates of both aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens respectively. The results indicated that the decay rates of aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens were 0.070 and 0.034 d(-1) respectively, and the death rates were thus calculated at 0.022 and 0.016 d(-1) respectively. For this reason, cell deaths were only responsible for 31% and 47% of the total bacterial decay of aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and activity decays actually contributed significantly to the total bacterial decay, respectively at 69% and 53%.

  1. [The influence of oil heat treatment on wood decay resistance by Fourier infrared spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Mei; Ma, Shu-Ling; Feng, Li-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Wood preservative treatment can improve defects of plantation wood such as easy to corrupt and moth eaten. Among them heat-treatment is not only environmental and no pollution, also can improve the corrosion resistance and dimension stability of wood. In this test Poplar and Mongolian Seoteh Pine was treated by soybean oil as heat-conducting medium, and the heat treatment wood was studied for indoor decay resistance; wood chemical components before and after treatment, the effect of heat treatment on wood decay resistance performance and main mechanism of action were analysed by Fourier infrared spectrometric. Results showed that the mass loss rate of poplar fell from 19.37% to 5% and Mongolian Seoteh Pine's fell from 8.23% to 3.15%, so oil heat treatment can effectively improve the decay resistance. Infrared spectrum analysis shows that the heat treatment made wood's hydrophilic groups such as hydroxyl groups in largely reduced, absorbing capacity decreased and the moisture of wood rotting fungi necessary was reduced; during the heat treatment wood chemical components such as cellulose, hemicellu lose were degraded, and the nutrient source of wood rotting fungi growth necessary was reduced. Wood decay fungi can grow in the wood to discredit wood is because of that wood can provide better living conditions for wood decay fungi, such as nutrients, water, oxygen, and so on. The cellulose and hemicellulose in wood is the main nutrition source of wood decay fungi. So the oil heat-treatment can reduce the cellulose, hemicellulose nutrition source of wood decay fungi so as to improve the decay resistance of wood.

  2. Heat transfer in turbulent decaying swirl flow in a circular pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algifri, A. H.; Bhardwaj, R. K.; Rao, Y. V. N.

    1988-08-01

    Heat transfer coefficients for air are measured along a heated pipe for decaying swirl flow, generated by radial blade cascade. The results are compared with an expression proposed for predicting the heat transfer coefficients in swirling flow. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data, with average and maximum deviations of 7 and 11 percent, respectively. The application of the theoretical approach to the experimental results obtained by other investigators for heat transfer in a decaying swirl flow generated by short-twisted tapes and tangential slots at inlet also give rise to encouraging agreement.

  3. Total Absorption Spectroscopy of Fission Fragments Relevant for Reactor Antineutrino Spectra and Decay Heat Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porta, A.; Zakari-Issoufou, A.-A.; Fallot, M.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.; Valencia, E.; Rice, S.; Bui, V. M.; Cormon, S.; Estienne, M.; Agramunt, J.; Äystö, J.; Bowry, M.; Briz, J. A.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cucouanes, A.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Estévez, E.; Farrelly, G. F.; Garcia, A. R.; Gelletly, W.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gorlychev, V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Jordan, M. D.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Kondev, F. G.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E.; Molina, F.; Moore, I.; Perez-Cerdán, A. B.; Podolyák, Zs.; Penttilä, H.; Regan, P. H.; Reponen, M.; Rissanen, J.; Rubio, B.; Shiba, T.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Weber, C.

    2016-03-01

    Beta decay of fission products is at the origin of decay heat and antineutrino emission in nuclear reactors. Decay heat represents about 7% of the reactor power during operation and strongly impacts reactor safety. Reactor antineutrino detection is used in several fundamental neutrino physics experiments and it can also be used for reactor monitoring and non-proliferation purposes. 92,93Rb are two fission products of importance in reactor antineutrino spectra and decay heat, but their β-decay properties are not well known. New measurements of 92,93Rb β-decay properties have been performed at the IGISOL facility (Jyväskylä, Finland) using Total Absorption Spectroscopy (TAS). TAS is complementary to techniques based on Germanium detectors. It implies the use of a calorimeter to measure the total gamma intensity de-exciting each level in the daughter nucleus providing a direct measurement of the beta feeding. In these proceedings we present preliminary results for 93Rb, our measured beta feedings for 92Rb and we show the impact of these results on reactor antineutrino spectra and decay heat calculations.

  4. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  5. Los Alamos PWR decay-heat-removal studies. Summary results and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B E; Henninger, R J; Horley, E; Lime, J F; Nassersharif, B; Smith, R

    1986-03-01

    The adequacy of shutdown-decay-heat removal in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) is currently under investigation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. One part of this effort is the review of feed-and-bleed procedures that could be used if the normal cooling mode through the steam generators were unavailable. Feed-and-bleed cooling is effected by manually activating the high-pressure injection (HPI) system and opening the power-operated relief valves (PORVs) to release the core decay energy. The feasibility of the feed-and-bleed concept as a diverse mode of heat removal has been evaluated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The TRAC-PF1 code has been used to predict the expected performance of the Oconee-1 and Calvert Cliffs-1 reactors of Bobcock and Wilcox and Combustion Engineering, respectively, and the Zion-1 and H.B. Robinson-2 plants of Westinghouse. Feed and bleed was successfully applied in each of the four plants studied, provided it was initiated no later than the time of loss of secondary heat sink. Feed and bleed was successfully applied in two of the plants, Oconee-1 and Zion-1, provided it was initiated no later than the time of primary system saturation. Feed and bleed in Calvert Cliffs-1 when initiated at the time of primary system saturation did result in core dryout; however, the core heatup was eventually terminated by coolant injection. Feed-and-bleed initiation at primary system saturation was not studied for H.B. Robinson-2. Insights developed during the analyses of specific plant transients have been identified and documented. 33 refs., 107 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. Decay-phase cooling and inferred heating of M- and X-class solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Daniel F.; Gallagher, Peter T.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Milligan, Ryan O.

    2013-11-20

    In this paper, the cooling of 72 M- and X-class flares is examined using GOES/XRS and SDO/EVE. The observed cooling rates are quantified and the observed total cooling times are compared with the predictions of an analytical zero-dimensional hydrodynamic model. We find that the model does not fit the observations well, but does provide a well-defined lower limit on a flare's total cooling time. The discrepancy between observations and the model is then assumed to be primarily due to heating during the decay phase. The decay-phase heating necessary to account for the discrepancy is quantified and found be ∼50% of the total thermally radiated energy, as calculated with GOES. This decay-phase heating is found to scale with the observed peak thermal energy. It is predicted that approximating the total thermal energy from the peak is minimally affected by the decay-phase heating in small flares. However, in the most energetic flares the decay-phase heating inferred from the model can be several times greater than the peak thermal energy.

  7. Radiotoxicity and decay heat power of spent nuclear fuel of VVER type reactors at long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Radiotoxicity and decay heat power of the spent nuclear fuel of VVER-1000 type reactors are calculated during storage time up to 300,000 y. Decay heat power of radioactive waste (radwaste) determines parameters of the heat removal system for the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel. Radiotoxicity determines the radiological hazard of radwaste after its leakage and penetration into the environment.

  8. Natural circulation decay heat removal from an SP-100, 550 kWe power system for a lunar outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Xue, Huimin

    1992-01-01

    This research investigated the decay heat removal from the SP-100 reactor core of a 550-kWe power system for a lunar outpost by natural circulation of lithium coolant. A transient model that simulates the decay heat removal loop (DHRL) of the power system was developed and used to assess the system's decay heat removal capability. The effects of the surface area of the decay heat rejection radiator, the dimensions of the decay heat exchanger (DHE) flow duct, the elevation of the DHE, and the diameter of the rise and down pipes in the DHRL on the decay heat removal capability were examined. Also, to determine the applicability of test results at earth gravity to actual system performance on the lunar surface, the effect of the gravity constant (1 g and 1/6 g) on the thermal behavior of the system after shutdown was investigated.

  9. Method for utilizing decay heat from radioactive nuclear wastes

    DOEpatents

    Busey, H.M.

    1974-10-14

    Management of radioactive heat-producing waste material while safely utilizing the heat thereof is accomplished by encapsulating the wastes after a cooling period, transporting the capsules to a facility including a plurality of vertically disposed storage tubes, lowering the capsules as they arrive at the facility into the storage tubes, cooling the storage tubes by circulating a gas thereover, employing the so heated gas to obtain an economically beneficial result, and continually adding waste capsules to the facility as they arrive thereat over a substantial period of time.

  10. An analytical model for decaying swirl flow and heat transfer inside a tube

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.Y.; Cheng, H.E.; Shuai, R.J.; Zhou, Q.T.

    2000-02-01

    Decaying swirl flow can enhance the heat transfer inside a tube. For the decaying swirl flow of which maximum tangential velocity is located in the immediate vicinity of the wall, an analytical model based on the fluid theorem about the moment of momentum is proposed for the local maximum tangential velocity, local friction factor, and local Nusselt number in this paper. The analytical solutions compare favorably with the experimental data. Influences of the Reynolds number, wall roughness and initial tangential-to-axial velocity ratio on the decaying characteristics of the friction factor and Nusselt number have been analyzed. The analytical results show that the swirl flow decays more rapidly at the initial segment; for same conditions, the friction factor decays more severely than the Nusselt number; relative to the values of the nonswirl flow, the friction factor increases more intensely than the Nusselt number.

  11. Estimation of heat generation by radioactive decay of some phosphate rocks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Din, Khaled Salahel

    2009-11-01

    Radiogenic heat production data for phosphate rocks outcropping on the three main areas Eastern Desert, Western Desert and Nile Valley are presented. They were derived from uranium, thorium and potassium concentration measurements of gamma radiation originating from the decay of (214)Bi ((238)U series), (208)Tl ((232)Th series) and the primary decay of (40)K. A low radioactive heat production rate (0.32+/-0.1 microWm(-3)) was found for Wadi Hegaza, whereas the highest value (19+/-4.1 microWm(-3)) was found for Gabel Anz, Eastern Desert of Egypt.

  12. Transient testing of the FFTF for decay-heat removal by natural convection

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, T R; Johnson, H G; Stover, R L

    1982-06-01

    This paper reports on the series of transient tests performed in the FFTF as a major part of the pre-operations testing program. The structure of the transient test program was designed to verify the capability of the FFTF to safely remove decay heat by natural convection. The series culminated in a scram from full power to complete natural convection in the plant, simulating a loss of all electrical power. Test results and acceptance criteria related to the verification of safe decay heat removal are presented.

  13. Analysis of MERCI decay heat measurement for PWR UO{sub 2} fuel rod

    SciTech Connect

    Jaboulay, J.C.; Bourganel, S.

    2012-01-15

    Decay heat measurements, called the MERCI experiment, were conducted at Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)/Saclay to characterize accurately residual power at short cooling time and verify its prediction by decay code and nuclear data. The MOSAIC calorimeter, developed and patented by CEA/Grenoble (DTN/SE2T), enables measurement of the decay heat released by a pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel rod sample between 200 and 4 W within a precision of 1%. The MERCI experiment included three phases. At first, a UO{sub 2} fuel rod sample was irradiated in the CEA/Saclay experimental reactor OSIRIS. The burnup achieved at the end of irradiation was similar to 3.5 GWd/tonne. The second phase was the transfer of the fuel rod sample from its irradiation location to a hot cell, to be inserted inside the MOSAIC calorimeter. It took 26 min to carry out the transfer. Finally, decay heat released by the PWR sample was measured from 27 min to 42 days after shutdown. Post irradiation examinations were performed to measure concentrations of some heavy nuclei (U, Pu) and fission products (Cs, Nd). The decay heat was predicted using a calculation scheme based on the PEPIN2 depletion code, the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code, and the JEFF3.1.1 nuclear data file. The MERCI experiment analysis shows that the discrepancy between the calculated and the experimental decay heat values is included between -10% at 27 min and +6% at 12 h, 30 min otter shutdown. From 4 up to 42 days of cooling time, the difference between calculation and measurement is about ± 1%, i.e., experimental uncertainty. The MERCI experiment represents a significant contribution for code validation; the time range above 10{sup 5} s has not been validated previously. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of spent fuel isotopics, radiation spectra and decay heat using the scale computational system

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Hermann, O.W.; Ryman, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    In order to be a self-sufficient system for transport/storage cask shielding and heat transfer analysis, the SCALE system developers included modules to evaluate spent fuel radiation spectra and decay heat. The primary module developed for these analyses is ORIGEN-S which is an updated verision of the original ORIGEN code. The COUPLE module was also developed to enable ORIGEN-S to easily utilize multigroup cross sections and neutron flux data during a depletion analysis. Finally, the SAS2 control module was developed for automating the depletion and decay via ORIGEN-S while using burnup-dependent neutronic data based on a user-specified fuel assembly and reactor history. The ORIGEN-S data libraries available for depletion and decay have also been significantly updated from that developed with the original ORIGEN code.

  15. Thermal Capacitance (Slug) Calorimeter Theory Including Heat Losses and Other Decaying Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hightower, T. Mark; Olivares, Ricardo A.; Philippidis, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model, termed the Slug Loss Model, has been developed for describing thermal capacitance (slug) calorimeter behavior when heat losses and other decaying processes are not negligible. This model results in the temperature time slope taking the mathematical form of exponential decay. When data is found to fit well to this model, it allows a heat flux value to be calculated that corrects for the losses and may be a better estimate of the cold wall fully catalytic heat flux, as is desired in arc jet testing. The model was applied to the data from a copper slug calorimeter inserted during a particularly severe high heating rate arc jet run to illustrate its use. The Slug Loss Model gave a cold wall heat flux 15% higher than the value of 2,250 W/sq cm obtained from the conventional approach to processing the data (where no correction is made for losses). For comparison, a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model was created and applied to the same data, where conduction heat losses from the slug were simulated. The heat flux determined by the FEA model was found to be in close agreement with the heat flux determined by the Slug Loss Model.

  16. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forseberg, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This document describes passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor which employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated evaporator located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  17. Turbulence decay downstream of an active grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bewley, Gregory; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2015-11-01

    A grid in a wind tunnel stirs up turbulence that has a certain large-scale structure. The moving parts in a so-called ``active grid'' can be programmed to produce different structures. We use a special active grid in which each of 129 paddles on the grid has its own position-controlled servomotor that can move independently of the others. We observe among other things that the anisotropy in the amplitude of the velocity fluctuations and in the correlation lengths can be set and varied with an algorithm that oscillates the paddles in a specified way. The variation in the anisotropies that we observe can be explained by our earlier analysis of anisotropic ``soccer ball'' turbulence (Bewley, Chang and Bodenschatz 2012, Phys. Fluids). We define the influence of this variation in structure on the downstream evolution of the turbulence. with Eberhard Bodenschatz and others.

  18. Decay-phase Cooling and Inferred Heating of M- and X-class Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Daniel; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Gallagher, Peter T

    2014-06-01

    Hydrodynamic modelling is a well established and important field in understanding the evolution of solar flares. However, in order to be of greatest use the results of such models must be compared to statistically significant samples of flare observations. In this talk we observationally investigate the hydrodynamic decay phase evolution of 72 M- and X-class flares using GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE and Hinode/XRT and quantify their cooling rates. The results are then compared to the predictions of an analytical zero-dimensional hydrodynamic model. We find that the model does not fit the observations well, but does provide a well-defined lower limit on a flare's total cooling time. The discrepancy between observations and the model is then assumed to be primarily due to heating during the decay phase. The decay-phase heating necessary to account for the discrepancy is quantified and found be ~50% of the total thermally radiated energy, as calculated with GOES/XRS. This suggests that the energy released during the decay phase may be as significant as that released during the rise phase.

  19. Heat as a tracer for examining depth-decaying permeability in gravel deposits.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Yoshitaka

    2015-04-01

    Depth dependence of permeability can appear in any geologic setting; however, vertical trends in alluvial gravel deposits are poorly understood because of the high variability of hydraulic conductivity K in monotonic sequences. This paper examines the sensitivity of depth-decaying permeability through heat transport simulation around a river's losing reach in the Toyohira River alluvial fan, Japan. Observed variations in groundwater temperature indicate that heat fluxes are dominant in the shallow zone, despite a vertical hydraulic gradient. In eight cases with different conditions (presence or absence of exponential decay trend, large or small variogram range, and cell isotropy or anisotropy) 1000 K realizations are stochastically generated throughout a cross-sectional model. The groundwater flow and heat transport are transiently calculated, and the averaged root mean square error RMSE‾ is used for sensitivity comparison. The variance of RMSE‾ shows that small RMSE‾ realizations are effectively reproduced with vertical trend assumed. Plausible realizations of RMSE‾ below a given threshold were obtained only when a vertical trend was assumed. The most plausible realization almost completely matched the observations. However, the number of plausible realizations per case was ≤10 and the median RMSE‾ were insensitive to all the conditions. Statistical testing suggested that these plausible realizations may be statistically significant, aiding in generating a connected K zone for high heat flows. The cell anisotropy condition had the smallest effect on the simulation. Thus, effective modeling of the vertical trend contributes to heat transport; however, the model's efficiency is low without detailed information about the sedimentary structure.

  20. Nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, R.B.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    This document has been prepared to assist research reactor operators possessing spent fuel containing enriched uranium of United States origin to prepare part of the documentation necessary to ship this fuel to the United States. Data are included on the nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate, and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies. Isotopic masses of U, Np, Pu and Am that are present in spent research reactor fuel are estimated for MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assembly types. The isotopic masses of each fuel assembly type are given as functions of U-235 burnup in the spent fuel, and of initial U-235 enrichment and U-235 mass in the fuel assembly. Photon dose rates of spent MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assemblies are estimated for fuel assemblies with up to 80% U-235 burnup and specific power densities between 0.089 and 2.857 MW/kg[sup 235]U, and for fission product decay times of up to 20 years. Thermal decay heat loads are estimated for spent fuel based upon the fuel assembly irradiation history (average assembly power vs. elapsed time) and the spent fuel cooling time.

  1. System Analysis for Decay Heat Removal in Lead-Bismuth Cooled Natural Circulated Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Takaaki Sakai; Yasuhiro Enuma; Takashi Iwasaki; Kazuhiro Ohyama

    2002-07-01

    Decay heat removal analyses for lead-bismuth cooled natural circulation reactors are described in this paper. A combined multi-dimensional plant dynamics code (MSG-COPD) has been developed to conduct the system analysis for the natural circulation reactors. For the preliminary study, transient analysis has been performed for a 100 MWe lead-bismuth-cooled reactor designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In addition, decay heat removal characteristics of a 400 MWe lead-bismuth-cooled natural circulation reactor designed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been evaluated by using MSG-COPD. PRACS (Primary Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System) is prepared for the JNC's concept to get sufficient heat removal capacity. During 2000 sec after the transient, the outlet temperature shows increasing tendency up to the maximum temperature of 430 Centigrade, because the buoyancy force in a primary circulation path is temporary reduced. However, the natural circulation is recovered by the PRACS system and the out let temperature decreases successfully. (authors)

  2. System Analysis for Decay Heat Removal in Lead-Bismuth-Cooled Natural-Circulation Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Takaaki; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Takashi

    2004-03-15

    Decay heat removal analyses for lead-bismuth-cooled natural-circulation reactors are described in this paper. A combined multidimensional plant dynamics code (MSG-COPD) has been developed to conduct the system analysis for the natural-circulation reactors. For the preliminary study, transient analysis has been performed for a 300-MW(thermal) lead-bismuth-cooled reactor designed by Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, decay heat removal characteristics of a 400-MW(electric) lead-bismuth-cooled natural-circulation reactor designed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been evaluated by using MSG-COPD. The primary reactor auxiliary cooling system (PRACS) is prepared for the JNC concept to get sufficient heat removal capacity. During 2000 s after the transient, the outlet temperature shows increasing tendency up to the maximum temperature of 430 deg. C because the buoyancy force in a primary circulation path is temporarily reduced. However, the natural circulation is recovered by the PRACS system, and the outlet temperature decreases successfully.

  3. Mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement and slow decay of swirl in tubes using tangential injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, F.; Dhir, V. K.

    1995-04-01

    The turbulent flowfield in a tube heated uniformly from the wall has been experimentally studied when fluid is injected tangentially. The experiments were conducted by injecting air through injectors placed on the periphery of a 88.9-mm inside diameter and 2.5-m long acrylic tube. Six injectors of 22.23-mm inside diameter were used and tangential to total momentum flux ratio of 2.67 was obtained in the experiments. Temperature profiles were measured with a resistance thermometer probe. Profiles for mean velocities in the axial and tangential directions, as well as the Reynolds stresses were obtained using a single rotated straight hot wire and a single rotated slanted hot wire anemometer. No significant difference in mean velocities and Reynolds stresses were found between the adiabatic experiments and diabatic ones. Two major mechanisms for enhancement of heat transfer are identified: (1) high maximum axial velocity near the wall produces higher heat flux from the wall; and (2) high turbulence level in the middle region of the tube improves mixing and, thus, rate of heat transfer. Furthermore, it is observed that both the kinetic energy of the mean flow and the turbulence level decrease as swirl decays. However, during the decay process, the high turbulence-energy-production from Reynolds stresses is necessary to transfer the kinetic energy of the mean flow to the turbulence energy. This high turbulence-production, in turn, slows down the rate of decrease of the turbulence level. As a result, the swirl and the heat transfer enhancement are preserved for a long distance.

  4. FIP BIAS EVOLUTION IN A DECAYING ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.; Yardley, S. L.; Driel-Gesztelyi, L. van; Long, D. M.; Green, L. M.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.

    2015-04-01

    Solar coronal plasma composition is typically characterized by first ionization potential (FIP) bias. Using spectra obtained by Hinode’s EUV Imaging Spectrometer instrument, we present a series of large-scale, spatially resolved composition maps of active region (AR)11389. The composition maps show how FIP bias evolves within the decaying AR during the period 2012 January 4–6. Globally, FIP bias decreases throughout the AR. We analyzed areas of significant plasma composition changes within the decaying AR and found that small-scale evolution in the photospheric magnetic field is closely linked to the FIP bias evolution observed in the corona. During the AR’s decay phase, small bipoles emerging within supergranular cells reconnect with the pre-existing AR field, creating a pathway along which photospheric and coronal plasmas can mix. The mixing timescales are shorter than those of plasma enrichment processes. Eruptive activity also results in shifting the FIP bias closer to photospheric in the affected areas. Finally, the FIP bias still remains dominantly coronal only in a part of the AR’s high-flux density core. We conclude that in the decay phase of an AR’s lifetime, the FIP bias is becoming increasingly modulated by episodes of small-scale flux emergence, i.e., decreasing the AR’s overall FIP bias. Our results show that magnetic field evolution plays an important role in compositional changes during AR development, revealing a more complex relationship than expected from previous well-known Skylab results showing that FIP bias increases almost linearly with age in young ARs.

  5. Passive decay heat removal by natural air convection after severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Erbacher, F.J.; Neitzel, H.J.; Cheng, X.

    1995-09-01

    The composite containment proposed by the Research Center Karlsruhe and the Technical University Karlsruhe is to cope with severe accidents. It pursues the goal to restrict the consequences of core meltdown accidents to the reactor plant. One essential of this new containment concept is its potential to remove the decay heat by natural air convection and thermal radiation in a passive way. To investigate the coolability of such a passive cooling system and the physical phenomena involved, experimental investigations are carried out at the PASCO test facility. Additionally, numerical calculations are performed by using different codes. A satisfying agreement between experimental data and numerical results is obtained.

  6. New insights into the decay of ion waves to turbulence, ion heating, and soliton generation

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, T. Banks, J. W.; Berger, R. L.; Cohen, B. I.; Williams, E. A.; Brunner, S.

    2014-04-15

    The decay of a single-frequency, propagating ion acoustic wave (IAW) via two-ion wave decay to a continuum of IAW modes is found to result in a highly turbulent plasma, ion soliton production, and rapid ion heating. Instability growth rates, thresholds, and sensitivities to plasma conditions are studied via fully kinetic Vlasov simulations. The decay rate of IAWs is found to scale linearly with the fundamental IAW potential amplitude ϕ{sub 1} for ZT{sub e}/T{sub i}≲20, beyond which the instability is shown to scale with a higher power of ϕ{sub 1}, where Z is the ion charge number and T{sub e} (T{sub i}) is the electron (ion) thermal temperature. The threshold for instability is found to be smaller by an order of magnitude than linear theory estimates. Achieving a better understanding of the saturation of stimulated Brillouin scatter levels observed in laser-plasma interaction experiments is part of the motivation for this study.

  7. Decay Heat Removal in GEN IV Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Lap-Yan; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    2009-01-01

    The safety goal of the current designs of advanced high-temperature thermal gas-cooled reactors (HTRs) is that no core meltdown would occur in a depressurization event with a combination of concurrent safety system failures. This study focused on the analysis of passive decay heat removal (DHR) in a GEN IV direct-cycle gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) which is based on the technology developments of the HTRs. Given the different criteria and design characteristics of the GFR, an approach different from that taken for the HTRs for passive DHR would have to be explored. Different design options based on maintaining core flow weremore » evaluated by performing transient analysis of a depressurization accident using the system code RELAP5-3D. The study also reviewed the conceptual design of autonomous systems for shutdown decay heat removal and recommends that future work in this area should be focused on the potential for Brayton cycle DHRs.« less

  8. Active and sterile neutrino mass effects on beta decay spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Boillos, Juan Manuel; Moya de Guerra, Elvira

    2013-06-10

    We study the spectra of the emitted charged leptons in charge current weak nuclear processes to analyze the effect of neutrino masses. Standard active neutrinos are studied here, with masses of the order of 1 eV or lower, as well as sterile neutrinos with masses of a few keV. The latter are warm dark matter (WDM) candidates hypothetically produced or captured as small mixtures with the active neutrinos. We compute differential decay or capture rates spectra in weak charged processes of different nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 187}Re, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 163}Ho, etc) using different masses of both active and sterile neutrinos and different values of the mixing parameter.

  9. Radioactive decay products in neutron star merger ejecta: heating efficiency and γ-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotokezaka, K.; Wanajo, S.; Tanaka, M.; Bamba, A.; Terada, Y.; Piran, T.

    2016-06-01

    The radioactive decay of the freshly synthesized r-process nuclei ejected in compact binary mergers powers optical/infrared macronovae (kilonovae) that follow these events. The light curves depend critically on the energy partition among the different decay products and it plays an important role in estimates of the amount of ejected r-process elements from a given observed signal. We show that 20-50 per cent of the total radioactive energy is released in γ-rays on time-scales from hours to a month. The number of emitted γ-rays per unit energy interval has roughly a flat spectrum between a few dozen keV and 1 MeV so that most of the energy is carried by ˜1 MeV γ-rays. However, at the peak of macronova emission the optical depth of the γ-rays is ˜0.02 and most of the γ-rays escape. The loss of these γ-rays reduces the heat deposition into the ejecta and hence reduces the expected macronova signals if those are lanthanides dominated. This implies that the ejected mass is larger by a factor of 2-3 than what was previously estimated. Spontaneous fission heats up the ejecta and the heating rate can increase if a sufficient amount of transuranic nuclei are synthesized. Direct measurements of these escaping γ-rays may provide the ultimate proof for the macronova mechanisms and an identification of the r-process nucleosynthesis sites. However, the chances to detect these signals are slim with current X-ray and γ-ray missions. New detectors, more sensitive by at least a factor of 10, are needed for a realistic detection rate.

  10. Reactor Decay Heat in {sup 239}Pu: Solving the {gamma} Discrepancy in the 4-3000-s Cooling Period

    SciTech Connect

    Algora, A.; Jordan, D.; Tain, J. L.; Rubio, B.; Agramunt, J.; Perez-Cerdan, A. B.; Molina, F.; Caballero, L.; Nacher, E.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Hunyadi, M. D.; Gulyas, J.; Vitez, A.; Csatlos, M.; Csige, L.; Aeysto, J.; Penttilae, H.; Moore, I. D.; Eronen, T.; Jokinen, A.

    2010-11-12

    The {beta} feeding probability of {sup 102,104,105,106,107}Tc, {sup 105}Mo, and {sup 101}Nb nuclei, which are important contributors to the decay heat in nuclear reactors, has been measured using the total absorption technique. We have coupled for the first time a total absorption spectrometer to a Penning trap in order to obtain sources of very high isobaric purity. Our results solve a significant part of a long-standing discrepancy in the {gamma} component of the decay heat for {sup 239}Pu in the 4-3000 s range.

  11. Reactor decay heat in 239Pu: solving the γ discrepancy in the 4-3000-s cooling period.

    PubMed

    Algora, A; Jordan, D; Taín, J L; Rubio, B; Agramunt, J; Perez-Cerdan, A B; Molina, F; Caballero, L; Nácher, E; Krasznahorkay, A; Hunyadi, M D; Gulyás, J; Vitéz, A; Csatlós, M; Csige, L; Aysto, J; Penttilä, H; Moore, I D; Eronen, T; Jokinen, A; Nieminen, A; Hakala, J; Karvonen, P; Kankainen, A; Saastamoinen, A; Rissanen, J; Kessler, T; Weber, C; Ronkainen, J; Rahaman, S; Elomaa, V; Rinta-Antila, S; Hager, U; Sonoda, T; Burkard, K; Hüller, W; Batist, L; Gelletly, W; Nichols, A L; Yoshida, T; Sonzogni, A A; Peräjärvi, K

    2010-11-12

    The β feeding probability of (102,104,105,106,107)Tc, 105Mo, and 101Nb nuclei, which are important contributors to the decay heat in nuclear reactors, has been measured using the total absorption technique. We have coupled for the first time a total absorption spectrometer to a Penning trap in order to obtain sources of very high isobaric purity. Our results solve a significant part of a long-standing discrepancy in the γ component of the decay heat for 239Pu in the 4-3000 s range.

  12. Reactor Decay Heat in 239Pu: Solving the Gamma Discrepancy in the 4–3000-s Cooling Period

    SciTech Connect

    Algora, A.; Sonzogni, A.; Algora,A.; Jordan,D.; Tain,J.L.; Rubio,B.; Agramunt,J.; Perez-Cerdan,A.B.; Molina,F; Caballero,L.; Nacher,E.; Krasznahorkay,A.; Hunyadi,M.D.; Gulyas,J; Vitez,A.; Csatlos,M.; Csige,L.; Aysto,J.; Penttila,H.; Moore,I.D.; Eronen,T.; Jokinen,A.; Nieminen,A.; Hakala,J.; Karvonen,P.; Kankainen,A.; Saastamoinen,A.; Rissanen,J.; Kessler,T.; Weber,C.; Ronkainen,J.; Rahaman,S.; Elomaa,V.; Rinta-Antila,S.; Hager,U.; Sonoda,T.; Burkard,K.; Huller,W.; Batist,L.; Gelletly,W.; Nichols,A.L.; Yoshida,T.; Sonzogni,A.A.; Perajarvi,K.

    2010-11-08

    The {beta} feeding probability of {sup 102,104,105,106,107}Tc, {sup 105}Mo, and {sup 101}Nb nuclei, which are important contributors to the decay heat in nuclear reactors, has been measured using the total absorption technique. We have coupled for the first time a total absorption spectrometer to a Penning trap in order to obtain sources of very high isobaric purity. Our results solve a significant part of a long-standing discrepancy in the {gamma} component of the decay heat for {sup 239}Pu in the 4-3000 s range.

  13. Activation energy of methyl radical decay in methane hydrate.

    PubMed

    Takeya, Kei; Nango, Kouhei; Sugahara, Takeshi; Ohgaki, Kazunari; Tani, Atsushi

    2005-11-10

    The thermal stability of gamma-ray-induced methyl radicals in methane hydrate was studied using the ESR method at atmospheric pressure and 210-260 K. The methyl radical decay proceeded with the second-order reaction, and ethane molecules were generated from the dimerization process. The methyl radical decay proceeds by two different temperature-dependent processes, that is, the respective activation energies of these processes are 20.0 +/- 1.6 kJ/mol for the lower temperature region of 210-230 K and 54.8 +/- 5.7 kJ/mol for the higher temperature region of 235-260 K. The former agrees well with the enthalpy change of methane hydrate dissociation into ice and gaseous methane, while the latter agrees well with the enthalpy change into liquid water and gaseous methane. The present findings reveal that methane hydrates dissociate into liquid (supercooled) water and gaseous methane in the temperature range of 235-260 K.

  14. Modeling the decay of energy containing eddies: A source of solar wind heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, M.; Gray, P. C.; Pontius, D. H.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Oughton, S.

    1995-01-01

    To understand the solar wind heating and acceleration mechanisms one needs to understand the decay of energy containing eddies. With this goal in mind, attempts have been made to extend the fluid dynamic phenomenology of large scale quasi-equilibrium to the case of magnetohydrodynamics. Matthaeus et al. have proposed a model for the inhomogeneous transport and decay of five mean variables, namely, two mean square Elsasser variables z(exp 2) (sub +/-) their correlation lengths, and the difference between the kinetic and magnetic energies. We test the validity of this model in the simplified case of homogeneous turbulence simulated in a periodic box. We propose a class of models and show that they may fit the simulation satisfactorily. Analytic solutions of this class of model reveal their inherent properties and demonstrate the difficulties associated with finite cross helicity. It is noted that adjustments are required to make the simplest models, which are based upon isotropic turbulence, scale properly with respect to the strength of the mean magnetic field. This can be interpreted as due to anisotropic turbulence, which can be modelled by simple parameterization in the phenomenology.

  15. Gap between active and passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

  16. High temperature active heat exchanger research for latent heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alario, J.; Haslett, R.

    1982-02-01

    An active heat exchange method in a latent heat (salt) thermal energy storage system that prevents a low conductivity solid salt layer from forming on heat transfer surfaces was developed. An evaluation of suitable media with melting points in the temperature range of interest (250 to 400 C) limited the candidates to molten salts from the chloride, hydroxide and nitrate families, based on high storage capacity, good corrosion characteristics and availability in large quantities at reasonable cost. The specific salt recommended for laboratory tests was a choride eutectic (20.5KCL o 24.5NaCL o 55.MgCl2% by wt.), with a nominal melting point of 385 C. Various active heat exchange concepts were given a technical and economic comparison to a passive tube shell design for a reference application (300 MW sub t for 6 hours). Test hardware was then built for the most promising concept: a direct contact heat exchanger in which molten salt droplets are injected into a cooler counter flowing stream of liquid metal carrier fluid (lead/Bismuth).

  17. BWR spent fuel storage cask performance test. Volume 2. Pre- and post-test decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, L.E.; Lombardo, N.J.; Heeb, C.M.; Jenquin, U.P.; Michener, T.E.; Wheeler, C.L.; Creer, J.M.; McCann, R.A.

    1986-06-01

    This report describes the decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses conducted in support of performance testing of a Ridhihalgh, Eggers and Associates REA 2033 boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel storage cask. The cask testing program was conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and by General Electric at the latters' Morris Operation (GE-MO) as reported in Volume I. The analyses effort consisted of performing pretest calculations to (1) select spent fuel for the test; (2) symmetrically load the spent fuel assemblies in the cask to ensure lateral symmetry of decay heat generation rates; (3) optimally locate temperature and dose rate instrumentation in the cask and spent fuel assemblies; and (4) evaluate the ORIGEN2 (decay heat), HYDRA and COBRA-SFS (heat transfer), and QAD and DOT (shielding) computer codes. The emphasis of this second volume is on the comparison of code predictions to experimental test data in support of the code evaluation process. Code evaluations were accomplished by comparing pretest (actually pre-look, since some predictions were not completed until testing was in progress) predictions with experimental cask testing data reported in Volume I. No attempt was made in this study to compare the two heat transfer codes because results of other evaluations have not been completed, and a comparison based on one data set may lead to erroneous conclusions.

  18. Von Kármán energy decay and heating of protons and electrons in a kinetic turbulent plasma.

    PubMed

    Wu, P; Wan, M; Matthaeus, W H; Shay, M A; Swisdak, M

    2013-09-20

    Decay in time of undriven weakly collisional kinetic plasma turbulence in systems large compared to the ion kinetic scales is investigated using fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations initiated with transverse flow and magnetic disturbances, constant density, and a strong guide field. The observed energy decay is consistent with the von Kármán hypothesis of similarity decay, in a formulation adapted to magnetohydrodyamics. Kinetic dissipation occurs at small scales, but the overall rate is apparently controlled by large scale dynamics. At small turbulence amplitudes the electrons are preferentially heated. At larger amplitudes proton heating is the dominant effect. In the solar wind and corona the protons are typically hotter, suggesting that these natural systems are in the large amplitude turbulence regime.

  19. The heating of nova ejecta by radioactive decays of the beta-unstable nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pistinner, Shlomi; Shaviv, Giora; Starrfield, Sumner

    1994-01-01

    Recent nucleosynthesis and hydrodynamic calculations of the consequences of accretion onto massive ONeMg white dwarf stars show that under certain circumstances significant amounts of the beta-unstable nuclei can be produced and ejected by the resulting explosion. We use these calculations as a guide in order to obtain the conditions under which the heating of the ejected material by the nonthermal electrons and positrons produced by the decays of the beta-unstable nuclei is sufficient to overcome the cooling from adiabatic expansion and lead to the production of X-ray-emitting coronal gas. These conditions are as follows: (1) a mass fraction for Na-22 of the order of 10(exp -3) or greater, (2) an expansion velocity in the range approximately 10(exp 2) - 10(exp 3) km/s, (3) a photospheric radius of approximately 10(exp 14) cm, (4) if the density distribution in the atmosphere satisfies a power law, then the exponent must be less than 3 for heating to overcome adiabatic cooling. Both the simulations of the outburst and the model atmosphere fits to the observed energy distributions, however, imply that the exponent is greater than or = 3 during the early phases of the outburst. Nevertheless, for a value of the exponent of 2, we predict the time when hot coronal gas can form during the expansion phases of the envelope.

  20. Scientists Design Heat-Activated Penis Implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... implant, Le used a heat-activated exoskeleton of nitinol, a metal known for its elasticity. A urologist could do a simplified operation to insert the nitinol implant, which would remain flaccid at body temperature ...

  1. Effect of Permissive Dehydration on Induction and Decay of Heat Acclimation, and Temperate Exercise Performance

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Rebecca A.; Massey, Heather C.; Tipton, Michael J.; Young, John S.; Corbett, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: It has been suggested that dehydration is an independent stimulus for heat acclimation (HA), possibly through influencing fluid-regulation mechanisms and increasing plasma volume (PV) expansion. There is also some evidence that HA may be ergogenic in temperate conditions and that this may be linked to PV expansion. We investigated: (i) the influence of dehydration on the time-course of acquisition and decay of HA; (ii) whether dehydration augmented any ergogenic benefits in temperate conditions, particularly those related to PV expansion. Methods: Eight males [VO2max: 56.9(7.2) mL·kg−1·min−1] undertook two HA programmes (balanced cross-over design), once drinking to maintain euhydration (HAEu) and once with restricted fluid-intake (HADe). Days 1, 6, 11, and 18 were 60 min exercise-heat stress tests [HST (40°C; 50% RH)], days 2–5 and 7–10 were 90 min, isothermal-strain (Tre ~ 38.5°C), exercise-heat sessions. Performance parameters [VO2max, lactate threshold, efficiency, peak power output (PPO)] were determined pre and post HA by graded exercise test (22°C; 55%RH). Results: During isothermal-strain sessions hypohydration was achieved in HADe and euhydration maintained in HAEu [average body mass loss −2.71(0.82)% vs. −0.56(0.73)%, P < 0.001], but aldosterone concentration, power output, and cardiovascular strain were unaffected by dehydration. HA was evident on day 6 {reduced end-exercise Tre [−0.30(0.27)°C] and exercise heart rate [−12(15) beats.min−1], increased PV [+7.2(6.4)%] and sweat-loss [+0.25(0.22) L.h−1], P < 0.05} with some further adaptations on day 11 {further reduced end-exercise Tre [−0.25(0.19)°C] and exercise heart rate [−3(9) beats.min−1], P < 0.05}. These adaptations were not notably affected by dehydration and were generally maintained 7-days post HA. Performance parameters were unchanged, apart from increased PPO (+16(20) W, irrespective of condition). Conclusions: When thermal-strain is matched

  2. Dual Active Surface Heat Flux Gage Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  3. Dual active surface heat flux gage probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-02-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  4. Thermalhydraulic aspects of decay heat removal by natural circulation in fast reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, C.M.; Hetsroni, G.; Banerjee, S.

    1990-01-01

    Natural convection in enclosures have been studied numerically to provide insight into the scaling laws existing for removal of decay heat in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFR). Specifically, 3-D simulations have been carried out for natural circulation in a cylinder with small aspect ratio (of the order of 0.5). These results have been compared to the results of an experiment conducted by UCSB, in collaboration with GE, to provide benchmark data for code validation. Parametric studies have been conducted to establish the validity of a 3-D Finite difference code that uses body-fitted grids for simulations of complex geometries. Further, numerical simulations have been carried out to demonstrate the importance of 3-D computer codes as tools in the design and scale-up of prototype LMFRs. It has been shown that the geometry of the passive safety systems is key to safe operation of LMFRs under shutdown conditions. The key phenomena that occur in such situations have bee studied and the available experimental studies have been identified. The future direction for modeling of natural convection recirculating flows in confined enclosures has been proposed. 31 refs.

  5. Thermalhydraulic aspects of decay heat removal by natural circulation in fast reactor systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, C.M.; Hetsroni, G.; Banerjee, S.

    1990-12-31

    Natural convection in enclosures have been studied numerically to provide insight into the scaling laws existing for removal of decay heat in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFR). Specifically, 3-D simulations have been carried out for natural circulation in a cylinder with small aspect ratio (of the order of 0.5). These results have been compared to the results of an experiment conducted by UCSB, in collaboration with GE, to provide benchmark data for code validation. Parametric studies have been conducted to establish the validity of a 3-D Finite difference code that uses body-fitted grids for simulations of complex geometries. Further, numerical simulations have been carried out to demonstrate the importance of 3-D computer codes as tools in the design and scale-up of prototype LMFRs. It has been shown that the geometry of the passive safety systems is key to safe operation of LMFRs under shutdown conditions. The key phenomena that occur in such situations have bee studied and the available experimental studies have been identified. The future direction for modeling of natural convection recirculating flows in confined enclosures has been proposed. 31 refs.

  6. Development of a water boil-off spent-fuel calorimeter system. [To measure decay heat generation rate

    SciTech Connect

    Creer, J.M.; Shupe, J.W. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    A calorimeter system was developed to measure decay heat generation rates of unmodified spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear reactors. The system was designed, fabricated, and successfully tested using the following specifications: capacity of one BWR or PWR spent fuel assembly; decay heat generation range 0.1 to 2.5 kW; measurement time of < 12 h; and an accuracy of +-10% or better. The system was acceptance tested using a dc reference heater to simulate spent fuel assembly heat generation rates. Results of these tests indicated that the system could be used to measure heat generation rates between 0.5 and 2.5 kW within +- 5%. Measurements of heat generation rates of approx. 0.1 kW were obtained within +- 15%. The calorimeter system has the potential to permit measurements of heat generation rates of spent fuel assemblies and other devices in the 12- to 14-kW range. Results of calorimetry of a Turkey Point spent fuel assembly indicated that the assembly was generating approx. 1.55 kW.

  7. BWR spent fuel storage cask performance test. Volume 1. Cask handling experience and decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding data

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, M.A.; Doman, J.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Guenther, R.J.; Creer, J.M.; King, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report documents a heat transfer and shielding performance test conducted on a Ridihalgh, Eggers and Associates REA 2023 boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel storage cask. The testing effort consisted of three parts: pretest preparations, performance testing, and post-test activities. Pretest preparations included conducting cask handling dry runs and characterizing BWR spent fuel assemblies from Nebraska Public Power District's Cooper Nuclear Station. The performance test matrix included 14 runs consisting of two loadings, two cask orientations, and three backfill environments. Post-test activities included calorimetry and axial radiation scans of selected fuel assemblies, in-basin sipping of each assembly, crud collection, video and photographic scans, and decontamination of the cask interior and exterior.

  8. Antiviral activities of heated dolomite powder.

    PubMed

    Motoike, Koichi; Hirano, Shozo; Yamana, Hideaki; Onda, Tetsuhiko; Maeda, Takayoshi; Ito, Toshihiro; Hayakawa, Motozo

    2008-12-01

    The effect of the heating conditions of dolomite powder on its antiviral activity was studied against the H5N3 avian influenza virus. Calcium oxide (CaO) and magnesium oxide (MgO), obtained by the thermal decomposition of dolomite above 800 degrees C, were shown to have strong antiviral activity, but the effect was lessened when the heating temperature exceeded 1400 degrees C. Simultaneous measurement of the crystallite size suggested that the weakening of the activity was due to the considerable grain growth of the oxides. It was found that the presence of Mg in dolomite contributed to the deterrence of grain growth of the oxides during the heating process. Although both CaO and MgO exhibited strong antiviral activity, CaO had the stronger activity but quickly hydrated in the presence of water. On the other hand, the hydration of MgO took place gradually under the same conditions. Separate measurements using MgO and Mg(OH)2 revealed that MgO had a higher antiviral effect than Mg(OH)2. From the overall experiments, it was suggested that the strong antiviral activity of dolomite was related to the hydration reaction of CaO.

  9. Study on natural convection capability of liquid gallium for passive decay heat removal system (PDHRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Ha, K. S.; Lee, S. W.; Park, S. D.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H.; Kim, J. H.; Bang, I. C.

    2012-07-01

    The safety issues of the SFRs are important due to the fact that it uses sodium as a nuclear coolant, reacting vigorously with water and air. For that reason, there are efforts to seek for alternative candidates of liquid metal coolants having excellent heat transfer property and to adopt improved safety features to the SFR concepts. This study considers gallium as alternative liquid metal coolant applicable to safety features in terms of chemical activity issue of the sodium and aims to experimentally investigate the natural convection capability of gallium as a feasibility study for the development of gallium-based passive safety features in SFRs. In this paper, the design and construction of the liquid gallium natural convection loop were carried out. The experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of liquid gallium resulting in heat removal {approx}2.53 kW were compared with existing correlations and they were much lower than the correlations. To comparison of the experimental data with computer code analysis, gallium property code was developed for employing MARS-LMR (Korea version of RELAP) based on liquid gallium as working fluid. (authors)

  10. Activation heat, activation metabolism and tension-related heat in frog semitendinosus muscles

    PubMed Central

    Homsher, E.; Mommaerts, W. F. H. M.; Ricchiuti, N. V.; Wallner, A.

    1972-01-01

    1. Frog semitendinosus muscles were stretched to various lengths beyond the rest length (l0) and their initial heat and isometric tension production were measured. 2. As the overlap between the thick and thin filaments is reduced, the initial twitch heat and tension decline in a linear manner. At a point at which the twitch tension approaches zero, the initial heat is 30% of that seen at l0. It is concluded that this heat is the activation heat and reflects the energetics of calcium release and reaccumulation. The initial heat at shorter sarcomere lengths appears to be the sum of the activation heat plus a heat production associated with the interaction of the thick and thin filaments. 3. A similar relationship between heat and tension production is seen in tetanic contractions. 4. The time course of activation heat production in a twitch can be resolved into two phases: a temperature insensitive (Q10 < 1·3) `fast' phase (with a time constant of 45 msec) and a temperature sensitive (Q10 = 2·8) `slow' phase (with a time constant of 330 msec at 0° C). 5. Measurements of the creatine phosphate (PC) hydrolysis by muscles contracting isometrically at various muscle lengths at and beyond l0, indicate an enthalpy change of -11·2 kcal/mole PC hydrolysed. The enthalpy change for the ATP hydrolysis by muscles stretched so that little or no tension was produced with stimulation was -9·9 kcal/mole ATP hydrolysed. It is concluded that the net activation heat is produced by the hydrolysis of PC or ATP. PMID:4536938

  11. Decay heat of sodium fast reactor: Comparison of experimental measurements on the PHENIX reactor with calculations performed with the French DARWIN package

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, J. C.; Bourdot, P.; Eschbach, R.; Boucher, L.; Pascal, V.; Fontaine, B.; Martin, L.; Serot, O.

    2012-07-01

    A Decay Heat (DH) experiment on the whole core of the French Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor PHENIX has been conducted in May 2008. The measurements began an hour and a half after the shutdown of the reactor and lasted twelve days. It is one of the experiments used for the experimental validation of the depletion code DARWIN thereby confirming the excellent performance of the aforementioned code. Discrepancies between measured and calculated decay heat do not exceed 8%. (authors)

  12. Incresing antioxidant activity and reducing decay of blueberries by essential oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several naturally occurring essential oils including carvacrol, anethole, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, perillaldehyde, linalool, and p-cymene were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing decay and increasing antioxidant levels and activities in ‘Duke’ blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum). Carv...

  13. LOW-LATITUDE CORONAL HOLES, DECAYING ACTIVE REGIONS, AND GLOBAL CORONAL MAGNETIC STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G. J. D.; Haislmaier, K. J.

    2013-10-01

    We study the relationship between decaying active-region magnetic fields, coronal holes, and the global coronal magnetic structure using Global Oscillations Network Group synoptic magnetograms, Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory extreme-ultraviolet synoptic maps, and coronal potential-field source-surface models. We analyze 14 decaying regions and associated coronal holes occurring between early 2007 and late 2010, 4 from cycle 23 and 10 from cycle 24. We investigate the relationship between asymmetries in active regions' positive and negative magnetic intensities, asymmetric magnetic decay rates, flux imbalances, global field structure, and coronal hole formation. Whereas new emerging active regions caused changes in the large-scale coronal field, the coronal fields of the 14 decaying active regions only opened under the condition that the global coronal structure remained almost unchanged. This was because the dominant slowly varying, low-order multipoles prevented opposing-polarity fields from opening and the remnant active-region flux preserved the regions' low-order multipole moments long after the regions had decayed. Thus, the polarity of each coronal hole necessarily matched the polar field on the side of the streamer belt where the corresponding active region decayed. For magnetically isolated active regions initially located within the streamer belt, the more intense polarity generally survived to form the hole. For non-isolated regions, flux imbalance and topological asymmetry prompted the opposite to occur in some cases.

  14. Experimental observation of microwave absorption and electron heating due to the two plasmon decay instability and resonance absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The interaction of intense microwaves with an inhomogeneous plasma is studied in two experimental devices. In the first device an investigation was made of microwave absorption and electron heating due to the parametric decay of microwaves into electron plasma waves (Two Plasmon Decay instability, TPDI), modeling a process which can occur near the quarter critical surface in laser driven pellets. P-polarized microwave (f = 1.2 GHz, P/sub 0/ less than or equal to 12 kW) are applied to an essentially collisionless, inhomogeneous plasma, in an oversized waveguide, in the U.C. Davis Prometheus III device. The initial density scale length near the quarter critical surface is quite long (L/lambda/sub De/ approx. = 3000 or k/sub 0/L approx. = 15). The observed threshold power for the TPDI is quite low (P/sub T/approx. = 0.1 kW or v/sub os//v/sub e/ approx. = 0.1). Near the threshold the decay waves only occur near the quarter critical surface. As the incident power is increased above threshold, the decay waves spread to lower densities, and for P/sub 0/ greater than or equal to lkW, (v/sub os//v/sub e/ greater than or equal to 0.3) suprathermal electron heating is strong for high powers (T/sub H/ less than or equal to 12 T/sub e/ for P/sub 0/ less than or equal to 8 kW or v/sub os//v/sub e/ less than or equal to 0.9).

  15. Correlation of Coronal Plasma Properties and Solar Magnetic Field in a Decaying Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Young, Peter R.; Muglach, Karin; Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio

    2016-08-01

    We present the analysis of a decaying active region observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode during 2009 December 7-11. We investigated the temporal evolution of its structure exhibited by plasma at temperatures from 300,000 to 2.8 million degrees, and derived the electron density, differential emission measure, effective electron temperature, and elemental abundance ratios of Si/S and Fe/S (as a measure of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect). We compared these coronal properties to the temporal evolution of the photospheric magnetic field strength obtained from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. We find that, while these coronal properties all decreased with time during this decay phase, the largest change was at plasma above 1.5 million degrees. The photospheric magnetic field strength also decreased with time but mainly for field strengths lower than about 70 Gauss. The effective electron temperature and the FIP bias seem to reach a “basal” state (at 1.5 × 106 K and 1.5, respectively) into the quiet Sun when the mean photospheric magnetic field (excluding all areas <10 G) weakened to below 35 G, while the electron density continued to decrease with the weakening field. These physical properties are all positively correlated with each other and the correlation is the strongest in the high-temperature plasma. Such correlation properties should be considered in the quest for our understanding of how the corona is heated. The variations in the elemental abundance should especially be considered together with the electron temperature and density.

  16. Evaluation of the heat-storage capability of shallow aquifers using active heat tracer tests and Fiber-Optics Distributed-Temperature-Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suibert Oskar Seibertz, Klodwig; Chirila, Marian Andrei; Bumberger, Jan; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In the course of the energy transition, geothermal energy storage and heat generation and cooling have proven to be environmental friendly alternatives to conventional energy. However, to ensure sustain usage, the heat transport behavior of aquifers and its distribution has to be studied. A tool to achieve this is the active heat tracer test, eg. Leaf et al. (2012). If active heat tracer tests are combined with in aquifer heat testing via electric heating-cables, eg. Liu et al. (2013), it is possible to observe heat transport and temperature signal decay without disturbing the original pressure field within the aquifer. In this field study a two channel High-Resolution-Fiber-Optic-Distributed-Temperature-Sensing and Pt100 were used to measure temperature signals within in two wells of 1.4 m distance, where the temperature difference was generated using a self regulating heating cable in the upstream well. High resolution Distributed-Temperature-Sensing measurements were achieved by coiling the fiber around screened plastic tubes. The upstream well was also used to observe heating (Δ Tmax approx. 24K) and temperature signal decay, while the downstream well was used to observe heat transport between both wells. The data was analyzed and compared to thermal conductivity of soil samples and Direct-Push (DP) Electrical-Conductivity-Logging and DP Hydraulic-Profiling results. The results show good agreement between DP data and temperature measurements proving the active heat tracer test is a suitable tool for providing reliable information on aquifer heat-storage capability. References Leaf, A.T., Hart, D.J., Bahr, J.M.: Active Thermal Tracer Tests for Improved Hydrostratigraphic Characterization. Ground Water, vol. 50, 2012 Liu, G., Knobbe, S., Butler, J.J.Jr.: Resolving centimeter-scale flows in aquifers and their hydrostratigraphic controls. Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 40, 2013

  17. Evaluation of heat generation by radioactive decay of sedimentary rocks in Eastern Desert and Nile Valley, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abbady, Adel G E

    2010-10-01

    Radioactive heat-production (RHP) data of sedimentary outcrops in Gebel Anz (Eastern Desert) and Gebel Sarai (Nile Valley) are presented. A total of 103 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the areas. RHP were derived from uranium, thorium and potassium concentrations measured from gamma-radiation originating from the decay of (214)Bi ((238)U series), (208)Tl ((232)Th series) and the primary decay of (40)K, obtained with a NaI (Tl) detector. The heat-production rate of Gebel Anz ranges from 0.94 (Nubai Sandstone ) to 5.22 microW m(-3) (Duwi Formation). In Gebel Sarai it varies from 0.82 (Esna Shale) to 7 microW m(-3) (Duwi Formation). The contribution due to U is about 62%, from Th is 34% and 4% from K in Gebel Anz. The corresponding values in Gebel Sarai are 69.6%, 26.9% and 3.5%, respectively. These data can be used to discuss the effects of the lateral variation of the RHP rate on the heat flux and the temperature fields in the upper crust.

  18. Heating and melting of small icy satellites by the decay of 26Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prialnik, D.; Bar-Nun, A.; Owen, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    We study the effect of radiogenic heating due to 26Al on the thermal evolution of small icy satellites. Our object is to find the extent of internal melting as a function of the satellite radius and of the initial 26Al abundance. The implicit assumption, based on observations of young stars, is that planet and satellite accretion occurred on a time scale of approximately 10(6) yr (comparable with the lifetime of 26Al). The icy satellites are modeled as spheres of initially amorphous ice, with chondritic abundances of 40K, 232Th, 235U, 238U, corresponding to an ice/dust mass ratio of 1. Evolutionary calculations are carried out, spanning 4.5 x 10(9) yr, for different combinations of the two free parameters. Heat transfer by subsolidus convection is neglected for these small satellites. Our main conclusion is that the initial 26Al abundance capable of melting icy bodies of satellite size to a significant extent is more than 10 times lower than that prevailing in the interstellar medium (or that inferred from the Ca-Al rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite, approximately 7 x 10(-7) by mass). We find, for example, that an initial 26Al mass fraction of approximately 4 x 10(-8) is sufficient for melting almost completely icy spheres with radii of 800 km, typical of the larger icy planetary satellites. We also find that for any given 26Al abundance, there is a narrow range of radii below which only marginal melting occurs and above which most of the ice melts (and refreezes later). Since extensive melting may have important consequences, such as differentiation, gas release, and volcanic activity, the effect of 26Al should be included in future studies of satellite interiors.

  19. Heating and melting of small icy satellites by the decay of 26Al.

    PubMed

    Prialnik, D; Bar-Nun, A

    1990-05-20

    We study the effect of radiogenic heating due to 26Al on the thermal evolution of small icy satellites. Our object is to find the extent of internal melting as a function of the satellite radius and of the initial 26Al abundance. The implicit assumption, based on observations of young stars, is that planet and satellite accretion occurred on a time scale of approximately 10(6) yr (comparable with the lifetime of 26Al). The icy satellites are modeled as spheres of initially amorphous ice, with chondritic abundances of 40K, 232Th, 235U, 238U, corresponding to an ice/dust mass ratio of 1. Evolutionary calculations are carried out, spanning 4.5 x 10(9) yr, for different combinations of the two free parameters. Heat transfer by subsolidus convection is neglected for these small satellites. Our main conclusion is that the initial 26Al abundance capable of melting icy bodies of satellite size to a significant extent is more than 10 times lower than that prevailing in the interstellar medium (or that inferred from the Ca-Al rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite, approximately 7 x 10(-7) by mass). We find, for example, that an initial 26Al mass fraction of approximately 4 x 10(-8) is sufficient for melting almost completely icy spheres with radii of 800 km, typical of the larger icy planetary satellites. We also find that for any given 26Al abundance, there is a narrow range of radii below which only marginal melting occurs and above which most of the ice melts (and refreezes later). Since extensive melting may have important consequences, such as differentiation, gas release, and volcanic activity, the effect of 26Al should be included in future studies of satellite interiors.

  20. Rethinking growth and decay kinetics in activated sludge - towards a new adaptive kinetics approach.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Michael; Jimenez, Jose; Pruden, Amy; Miller, Jennifer H; Metch, Jacob; Takács, Imre

    2017-02-01

    Growth kinetics in activated sludge modelling (ASM) are typically assumed to be the result of intrinsic growth and decay properties and thus process parameters are deemed to be constant. The activity change in a microbial population is expressed in terms of variance of the active biomass fraction and not actual shifts in bacterial cellular activities. This approach is limited, in that it does not recognise the reality that active biomass is highly physiologically adaptive. Here, a strong correlation between maximum specific growth rate (μmax) and decay rate (be) of ordinary heterotrophic organisms was revealed in both low solids retention times (SRT) and high SRT activated sludge systems. This relationship is indicative of physiological adaptation either for growth (high μmax and be) or survival optimization (low μmax and be). Further, the nitrifier decay process was investigated using molecular techniques to measure decay rates of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrite oxidizing bacteria over a range of temperatures. This approach revealed decay rates 10-12% lower than values previously accepted and used in ASM. These findings highlight potential benefits of incorporating physiological adaptation of heterotrophic and nitrifying populations in future ASM.

  1. Activated barrier crossing dynamics in the non-radiative decay of NADH and NADPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacker, Thomas S.; Marsh, Richard J.; Duchen, Michael R.; Bain, Angus J.

    2013-08-01

    In live tissue, alterations in metabolism induce changes in the fluorescence decay of the biological coenzyme NAD(P)H, the mechanism of which is not well understood. In this work, the fluorescence and anisotropy decay dynamics of NADH and NADPH were investigated as a function of viscosity in a range of water-glycerol solutions. The viscosity dependence of the non-radiative decay is well described by Kramers and Kramers-Hubbard models of activated barrier crossing over a wide viscosity range. Our combined lifetime and anisotropy analysis indicates common mechanisms of non-radiative relaxation in the two emitting states (conformations) of both molecules. The low frequencies associated with barrier crossing suggest that non-radiative decay is mediated by small scale motion (e.g. puckering) of the nicotinamide ring. Variations in the fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and NADPH when bound to different enzymes may therefore be attributed to differing levels of conformational restriction upon binding.

  2. Proteasome activator 200: the heat is on...

    PubMed

    Savulescu, Anca F; Glickman, Michael H

    2011-05-01

    Proteasomes play a key regulatory role in all eukaryotic cells by removing proteins in a timely manner. There are two predominant forms: The 20S core particle (CP) can hydrolyze peptides and certain unstructured proteins, and the 26S holoenzyme is able to proteolyse most proteins conjugated to ubiquitin. The 26S complex consists of a CP barrel with a 19S regulatory particle (RP; a.k.a PA700) attached to its outer surface. Several studies purified another proteasome activator with a MW of 200 kDa (PA200) that attaches to the same outer ring of the CP. A role for PA200 has been demonstrated in spermatogenesis, in response to DNA repair and in maintenance of mitochondrial inheritance. Enhanced levels of PA200-CP complexes are observed under conditions in which either activated or disrupted CP prevail, suggesting it participates in regulating overall proteolytic activity. PA200, or its yeast ortholog Blm10, may also incorporate into 26S proteasomes yielding PA200-CP-RP hybrids. A three-dimensional molecular structure determined by x-ray crystallography of Blm10-CP provides a model for activation. The carboxy terminus of Blm10 inserts into a dedicated pocket in the outer ring of the CP surface, whereas multiple HEAT-like repeats fold into an asymmetric solenoid wrapping around the central pore to stabilize a partially open conformation. The resulting hollow domelike structure caps the entire CP surface. This asymmetric structure may provide insight as to how the 19S RP, with two HEAT repeatlike subunits (Rpn1, Rpn2) alongside six ATPases (Rpt1-6), attaches to the same surface of the CP ring, and likewise, induces pore opening.

  3. Development and testing of heat transport fluids for use in active solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Work on heat transport fluids for use with active solar heating and cooling systems is described. Program objectives and how they were accomplished including problems encountered during testing are discussed.

  4. ANITA-2000 activation code package - updating of the decay data libraries and validation on the experimental data of the 14 MeV Frascati Neutron Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisoni, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    ANITA-2000 is a code package for the activation characterization of materials exposed to neutron irradiation released by ENEA to OECD-NEADB and ORNL-RSICC. The main component of the package is the activation code ANITA-4M that computes the radioactive inventory of a material exposed to neutron irradiation. The code requires the decay data library (file fl1) containing the quantities describing the decay properties of the unstable nuclides and the library (file fl2) containing the gamma ray spectra emitted by the radioactive nuclei. The fl1 and fl2 files of the ANITA-2000 code package, originally based on the evaluated nuclear data library FENDL/D-2.0, were recently updated on the basis of the JEFF-3.1.1 Radioactive Decay Data Library. This paper presents the results of the validation of the new fl1 decay data library through the comparison of the ANITA-4M calculated values with the measured electron and photon decay heats and activities of fusion material samples irradiated at the 14 MeV Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) of the NEA-Frascati Research Centre. Twelve material samples were considered, namely: Mo, Cu, Hf, Mg, Ni, Cd, Sn, Re, Ti, W, Ag and Al. The ratios between calculated and experimental values (C/E) are shown and discussed in this paper.

  5. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein N.

    1988-01-01

    An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.

  6. Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

  7. Characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils from fresh and decaying leaves of Eucalyptus tereticornis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harminder P; Mittal, Sunil; Kaur, Shalinder; Batish, Daizy R; Kohli, Ravinder K

    2009-08-12

    The composition of essential oils hydrodistilled from fresh and decaying leaves of Eucalyptus tereticornis was analyzed by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and a total of 68 constituents were identified. The essential oils were assayed for antioxidant activity in terms of scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH(*)) radical, and superoxide anion (O2(-*)).The major constituents of the fresh leaf oil were alpha-pinene (28.53%) and 1,8-cineole (19.48%), whereas in the decaying leaf oil, beta-citronellal (14.15%), (-)-isopulegol (13.35%), and (+)-beta-citronellol (10.73%) were the major components. Both essential oils exhibited a strong radical scavenging activity against DPPH radical with IC50 values of 110 and 139.8 microg/mL for fresh and decaying leaf oil, respectively (IC50 of BHT = 164.2 microg/mL). Further, the essential oils (at 400 microg/mL) also exhibited OH(*) (56-62%) and O2(-*) (65-69%) scavenging activity parallel to the commercial antioxidant BHT/ascorbic acid. However, unlike the essential oils, the major monoterpene constituents exhibited significantly less scavenging activity (<35% DPPH or OH(*); at 400 microg/mL). The study concluded that fresh and decaying leaves of E. tereticornis are a source of monoterpenoid rich oil exhibiting antioxidant activity.

  8. microRNA Decay: Refining microRNA Regulatory Activity.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Genevieve; Gantier, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short 19-25 nucleotide RNA molecules that impact on most biological processes by regulating the efficiency of messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. To date, most research activities have been focused on the control of miRNA expression and its functional consequences. Nonetheless, much remains unknown about the mechanisms affecting the level of specific miRNAs in the cell, a critical feature impacting their regulatory activity. This review focuses on the factors that regulate the abundance of miRNAs, including synthesis, post-transcriptional modifications, nucleases, target binding, and secretion.

  9. Comparison of deterministic and stochastic approaches for isotopic concentration and decay heat uncertainty quantification on elementary fission pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaye, S.; Huynh, T. D.; Tsilanizara, A.

    2016-03-01

    Uncertainty quantification of interest outputs in nuclear fuel cycle is an important issue for nuclear safety, from nuclear facilities to long term deposits. Most of those outputs are functions of the isotopic vector density which is estimated by fuel cycle codes, such as DARWIN/PEPIN2, MENDEL, ORIGEN or FISPACT. CEA code systems DARWIN/PEPIN2 and MENDEL propagate by two different methods the uncertainty from nuclear data inputs to isotopic concentrations and decay heat. This paper shows comparisons between those two codes on a Uranium-235 thermal fission pulse. Effects of nuclear data evaluation's choice (ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.1 and JENDL-2011) is inspected in this paper. All results show good agreement between both codes and methods, ensuring the reliability of both approaches for a given evaluation.

  10. Actinide, Activation Product and Fission Product Decay Data for Reactor-based Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.J.; Dean, C.J.; Nichols, A.L.

    2014-06-15

    The UK Activation Product Decay Data Library was first released in September 1977 as UK-PADD1, to be followed by regular improvements on an almost yearly basis up to the assembly of UKPADD6.12 in March 2013. Similarly, the UK Heavy Element and Actinide Decay Data Library followed in December 1981 as UKHEDD1, with the implementation of various modifications leading to UKHEDD2.6, February 2008. Both the data content and evaluation procedures are defined, and the most recent evaluations are described in terms of specific radionuclides and the resulting consistency of their recommended decay-data files. New versions of the UKPADD and UKHEDD libraries are regularly submitted to the NEA Data Bank for possible inclusion in the JEFF library.

  11. Radioactive decay.

    PubMed

    Groch, M W

    1998-01-01

    When a parent radionuclide decays to its daughter radionuclide by means of alpha, beta, or isomeric transition, the decay follows an exponential form, which is characterized by the decay constant lambda. The decay constant represents the probability per unit time that a single radioatom will decay. The decay equation can be used to provide a useful expression for radionuclide decay, the half-life, the time when 50% of the radioatoms present will have decayed. Radiotracer half-life has direct implications in nuclear imaging, radiation therapy, and radiation safety because radionuclide half-life affects the ability to evaluate tracer kinetics and create appropriate nuclear images and also affects organ, tumor, and whole-body radiation dose. The number of radioatoms present in a sample is equal to the activity, defined as the number of transitions per unit time, divided by the decay constant; the mass of radioatoms present in a sample can be calculated to determine the specific activity (activity per unit mass). The dynamic relationship between the number of parent and daughter atoms present over time may lead to radioactive equilibrium, which takes two forms--secular and transient--and has direct relevance to generator-produced radionuclides.

  12. Modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow for decaying swirl flow in a circular pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Bali, T.

    1998-04-01

    The economic benefits of energy and material savings have prompted and received greatest attention in order to increase convective heat transfer rates in the process equipment. In the present study, a propeller type swirl generator was developed, and its effects on heat transfer and fluid flow were investigated numerically and experimentally for air flow in a pipe. In the numerical study, for axisymmetrically, incompressible turbulent swirl flows, the Navier-Stokes equations were solved using the {kappa}-{var_epsilon} turbulent model. So that a computer program in Fortran was constructed using the SIMPLEC Algorithm. In experimental work, axial and tangential velocity distributions behind the swirl generator were measured by using hot-wire anemometry. Experimental and numerical axial and tangential velocity distributions along the pipe were compared, and good agreement was found. Axial velocity profile showed a decrement in the central portion of the pipe and an increased axial velocity was seen in near the wall. Tangential velocity profiles had a maximum value and its location moved in radially with distance. The effects of swirl flow on the heat transfer and pressure drop were also investigated experimentally.

  13. United States Department of Energy Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, R.J.; Adcock, P.W.; DeVault, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working with partners from the gas heating and cooling industry to improve energy efficiency using advance absorption technologies, to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), to reduce global warming through more efficient combustion of natural gas, and to impact electric peak demand of air conditioning. To assist industry in developing these gas heating and cooling absorption technologies, the US DOE sponsors the Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program. It is divided into five key activities, addressing residential gas absorption heat pumps, large commercial chillers, advanced absorption fluids, computer-aided design, and advanced ``Hi-Cool`` heat pumps.

  14. Polyamine regulation of heat-shock-induced spermidine N1-acetyltransferase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, D J; Carper, S W; Clay, L; Chen, J R; Gerner, E W

    1990-01-01

    The enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (N1-SAT) is rapidly induced by heat shock in CHO and A549 cells, with activity declining by 24 h. Depletion of intracellular polyamines by alpha-difluoromethylornithine, an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, blocks this induction. Re-addition of putrescine to these cultures restores the response to heat shock, with a concomitant increase in intracellular N1-acetylspermidine. Diaminopropane is more than twice as effective as the naturally occurring diamine putrescine, suggesting that the propylamine moiety of spermidine is involved in the regulation of N1-SAT induction. Inhibitor studies indicate transcriptional activation and that the enzyme has an apparent half-life of 30-60 min. A second heat shock rapidly inhibits induced N1-SAT activity, which decays with a half-life of 2-3 min. Despite its induction by heat, N1-SAT is not a stable enzyme, suggesting that the activity observed is not due to a modification of an existing peptide, but is due to a transcriptional event, which may justify the inclusion of this enzyme in the family of heat-shock proteins. Images Fig. 2. PMID:2111132

  15. Heat dissipation guides activation in signaling proteins

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jeffrey K.; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    Life is fundamentally a nonequilibrium phenomenon. At the expense of dissipated energy, living things perform irreversible processes that allow them to propagate and reproduce. Within cells, evolution has designed nanoscale machines to do meaningful work with energy harnessed from a continuous flux of heat and particles. As dictated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics and its fluctuation theorem corollaries, irreversibility in nonequilibrium processes can be quantified in terms of how much entropy such dynamics produce. In this work, we seek to address a fundamental question linking biology and nonequilibrium physics: can the evolved dissipative pathways that facilitate biomolecular function be identified by their extent of entropy production in general relaxation processes? We here synthesize massive molecular dynamics simulations, Markov state models (MSMs), and nonequilibrium statistical mechanical theory to probe dissipation in two key classes of signaling proteins: kinases and G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). Applying machinery from large deviation theory, we use MSMs constructed from protein simulations to generate dynamics conforming to positive levels of entropy production. We note the emergence of an array of peaks in the dynamical response (transient analogs of phase transitions) that draw the proteins between distinct levels of dissipation, and we see that the binding of ATP and agonist molecules modifies the observed dissipative landscapes. Overall, we find that dissipation is tightly coupled to activation in these signaling systems: dominant entropy-producing trajectories become localized near important barriers along known biological activation pathways. We go on to classify an array of equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular switches that harmonize to promote functional dynamics. PMID:26240354

  16. Heating and melting of small icy satellites by the decay of Al-26

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prialnik, Dina; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    1990-01-01

    The effect of radiogenic heating due to Al-26 on the thermal evolution of small icy satellites is studied. The object is to find the extent of internal melting as a function of the satellite radius and of the initial Al-26 abundance. The implicit assumption, based on observations of young stars, is that planet and satellite accretion occurred on a time scale of about 10 to the 6th yr (comparable with the lifetime of Al-26. The icy satellites are modeled as spheres of initially amorphous ice, with chondritic abundances of K-40, Th-232, U-235, and U-238, corresponding to an ice/dust mass ratio of 1. Evolutionary calculations are carried out, spanning 4.5 x 10 to the 9th yr, for different combinations of the two free parameters. Heat transfer by subsolidus convection is neglected for these small satellites. The main conclusion is that the initial Al-26 abundance capable of melting icy bodies of satellite size to a significant extent is more than 10 times lower than that prevailing in the interstellar medium (or that inferred from the Ca-Al rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite, about 7 x 10 to the -7th by mass).

  17. Heating and melting of small icy satellites by the decay of Al-26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prialnik, Dina; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    1990-05-01

    The effect of radiogenic heating due to Al-26 on the thermal evolution of small icy satellites is studied. The object is to find the extent of internal melting as a function of the satellite radius and of the initial Al-26 abundance. The implicit assumption, based on observations of young stars, is that planet and satellite accretion occurred on a time scale of about 10 to the 6th yr (comparable with the lifetime of Al-26. The icy satellites are modeled as spheres of initially amorphous ice, with chondritic abundances of K-40, Th-232, U-235, and U-238, corresponding to an ice/dust mass ratio of 1. Evolutionary calculations are carried out, spanning 4.5 x 10 to the 9th yr, for different combinations of the two free parameters. Heat transfer by subsolidus convection is neglected for these small satellites. The main conclusion is that the initial Al-26 abundance capable of melting icy bodies of satellite size to a significant extent is more than 10 times lower than that prevailing in the interstellar medium (or that inferred from the Ca-Al rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite, about 7 x 10 to the -7th by mass).

  18. Heating and melting of small icy satellites by the decay of Al-26

    SciTech Connect

    Prialnik, D.; Bar-Nun, A. )

    1990-05-01

    The effect of radiogenic heating due to Al-26 on the thermal evolution of small icy satellites is studied. The object is to find the extent of internal melting as a function of the satellite radius and of the initial Al-26 abundance. The implicit assumption, based on observations of young stars, is that planet and satellite accretion occurred on a time scale of about 10 to the 6th yr (comparable with the lifetime of Al-26). The icy satellites are modeled as spheres of initially amorphous ice, with chondritic abundances of K-40, Th-232, U-235, and U-238, corresponding to an ice/dust mass ratio of 1. Evolutionary calculations are carried out, spanning 4.5 x 10 to the 9th yr, for different combinations of the two free parameters. Heat transfer by subsolidus convection is neglected for these small satellites. The main conclusion is that the initial Al-26 abundance capable of melting icy bodies of satellite size to a significant extent is more than 10 times lower than that prevailing in the interstellar medium (or that inferred from the Ca-Al rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite, about 7 x 10 to the -7th by mass). 34 refs.

  19. Decay of Activity Complexes, Formation of Unipolar Magnetic Regions, and Coronal Holes in Their Causal Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubeva, E. M.; Mordvinov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The peculiar development of solar activity in the current cycle resulted in an asynchronous reversal of the Sun's polar fields. The asymmetry is also observed in the formation of polar coronal holes. A stable coronal hole was first formed at the South Pole, despite the later polar-field reversal there. The aim of this study is to understand the processes making this situation possible. Synoptic magnetic maps from the Global Oscillation Network Group and corresponding coronal-hole maps from the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory are analyzed here to study the causal relationship between the decay of activity complexes, evolution of large-scale magnetic fields, and formation of coronal holes. Ensembles of coronal holes associated with decaying active regions and activity complexes are presented. These ensembles take part in global rearrangements of the Sun's open magnetic flux. In particular, the south polar coronal hole was formed from an ensemble of coronal holes that came into existence after the decay of multiple activity complexes observed during 2014.

  20. Heat transport in active harmonic chains

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Mei C.; Ellis, Fred M.; Kottos, Tsampikos; Fleischmann, Ragnar; Geisel, Theo; Prosen, Tomaz

    2011-08-15

    We show that a harmonic lattice model with amplifying and attenuating elements, when coupled to two thermal baths, exhibits unique heat transport properties. Some of these novel features include anomalous nonequilibrium steady-state heat currents, negative differential thermal conductance, as well as nonreciprocal heat transport. We find that when these elements are arranged in a PT-symmetric manner, the domain of existence of the nonequilibrium steady state is maximized. We propose an electronic experimental setup based on resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) transmission lines, where our predictions can be tested.

  1. The Impact of Invasive Earthworm Activity on Biopolymer Character of ýDecayed Litter ý

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, T.; Crow, S.; Johnston, C.; McCormick, M.; Szlavecz, K.

    2007-12-01

    Over the last 400-500 years invasive European earthworm populations have ýmoved steadily into North American forests either previously devoid of ýearthworms or that contained their own native populations. This has profound ýimpacts upon litter decay and soil organic matter dynamics. To determine the ýimpact of earthworm activity on the biopolymer and stable isotope chemistry of ýlitter residues and the nature of organic carbon moved to the soil profile we ýanalyzed tulip poplar leaves from a multi-year addition experiment in open ýsurface decay litter and litter bag decay experiments, as well as the associated ýsoils among forest plots that varied in non-native earthworm density and ýbiomass. The chemical alteration of biopolymers was tracked with FTIR ýspectroscopy, 13C-TMAH thermochemolysis, alkaline CuO extraction, and stable ýisotope mass spectrometry. Earthworm activity resulted in residues and soil ýparticulate organic matter depleted in cuticular aliphatic components and ýpolyphenols but highly enriched in ether-linked lignin with respect to initial litter ýmaterial. Decay in low earthworm abundance plots, as well as all experiments ýwith earthworm-excluding litter bags, resulted in enrichment in cutin aliphatics ýand only minor increases in ether linked lignin phenols which was also reflected ýin the soils below the amendments. Additionally, the stable carbon and nitrogen ýisotope composition of tulip poplar residues became isotopically distinct. The ýresults from litter bag decays were only reflective of the chemistry at sites with ývery low earthworm abundances. ý

  2. The prolactin responses to active and passive heating in man.

    PubMed

    Low, David; Purvis, Alison; Reilly, Thomas; Cable, N Tim

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prolactin and blood pressure responses at identical core temperatures during active and passive heat stresses, using prolactin as an indirect marker of central fatigue. Twelve male subjects cycled to exhaustion at 60% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a room maintained at 33 degrees C (active). In a second trial they were passively heated (passive) in a water bath (41.56 +/- 1.65 degrees C) until core temperature was equal to the core temperature observed at exhaustion during the active trial. Blood samples were taken from an indwelling venous cannula for the determination of serum prolactin during active heating and at corresponding core temperatures during passive heating. Core temperature was not significantly different between the two methods of heating and averaged 38.81 +/- 0.53 and 38.82 +/- 0.70 degrees C (data expressed as means +/- s.d.) at exhaustion during active heating and at the end of passive heating, respectively (P > 0.05). Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly lower throughout passive heating (active, 73 +/- 9 mmHg; passive, 62 +/- 12 mmHg; P < 0.01). Despite the significantly reduced blood pressure responses during passive heating, during both forms of heating the prolactin response was the same (active, 14.9 +/- 12.6 ng ml(-1); passive, 13.3 +/- 9.6 ng ml(-1); n.s.). These results suggest that thermoregulatory, i.e. core temperature, and not cardiovascular afferents provide the key stimulus for the release of prolactin, an indirect marker of central fatigue, during exercise in the heat.

  3. Hot-electron production and suprathermal heat flux scaling with laser intensity from the two-plasmon-decay instability

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, H. X.; DuBois, D. F.; Myatt, J. F.; Russell, D. A.

    2012-10-15

    The fully kinetic reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) method has been applied to simulations of two-plasmon-decay (TPD) instability, driven by crossed laser beams, in an inhomogeneous plasma for parameters consistent with recent direct-drive experiments related to laser-driven inertial fusion. The nonlinear saturated state is characterized by very spiky electric fields, with Langmuir cavitation occurring preferentially inside density channels produced by the ponderomotive beating of the crossed laser beams and the primary TPD Langmuir waves (LWs). The heated electron distribution function is, in all cases, bi-Maxwellian, with instantaneous hot-electron temperatures in the range 60-100 keV. The net hot-electron energy flux out of the system is a small fraction ({approx}1% to 2%) of the input laser intensity in these simulations. Scalings of the hot-electron temperature and suprathermal heat flux as functions of the laser intensity are obtained numerically from RPIC simulations. These simulations lead to the preliminary conclusion that Langmuir cavitation and collapse provide dissipation by producing suprathermal electrons, which stabilize the system in saturation and drive the LW spectrum to the small dissipation scales at the Landau cutoff. The Langmuir turbulence originates at an electron density 0.241 Multiplication-Sign the laser's critical density, where the crossed laser beams excite a 'triad' mode-a common forward LW plus a pair of backward LWs. Remnants of this 'triad' evolve in k-space and dominate the time-averaged energy spectrum. At times exceeding 10 ps, the excited Langmuir turbulence spreads toward lower densities. Comparisons of RPIC simulations with the extended Zakharov model are presented in appropriate regimes, and the necessary requirements for the validity of a quasi-linear Zakharov model (where the spatially averaged electron-velocity distribution is evolved) are verified by RPIC simulation results.

  4. Annual DOE Active Solar Heating and Cooling Contractors Review meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Ninety three project summaries dicussing the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling are presented: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology.

  5. Simulation of decay heat removal by natural convection in a pool type fast reactor model-ramona-with coupled 1D/2D thermal hydraulic code system

    SciTech Connect

    Kasinathan, N.; Rajakumar, A.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    Post shutdown decay heat removal is an important safety requirement in any nuclear system. In order to improve the reliability of this function, Liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) are equipped with redundant hot pool dipped immersion coolers connected to natural draught air cooled heat exchangers through intermediate sodium circuits. During decay heat removal, flow through the core, immersion cooler primary side and in the intermediate sodium circuits are also through natural convection. In order to establish the viability and validate computer codes used in making predictions, a 1:20 scale experimental model called RAMONA with water as coolant has been built and experimental simulation of decay heat removal situation has been performed at KfK Karlsruhe. Results of two such experiments have been compiled and published as benchmarks. This paper brings out the results of the numerical simulation of one of the benchmark case through a 1D/2D coupled code system, DHDYN-1D/THYC-2D and the salient features of the comparisons. Brief description of the formulations of the codes are also included.

  6. Active decay of composite excitatory postsynaptic potentials in hippocampal slices from young rats.

    PubMed

    Dozmorov, Mikhail; Niu, Yin-Ping; Xu, Hui-Ping; Xiao, Min-Yi; Li, Rui; Sandberg, Mats; Wigström, Holger

    2003-05-23

    NMDA receptor dependent synaptic plasticity was examined in hippocampal slices using a novel pharmacological pairing procedure. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were recorded from the CA1 area of slices maintained in a low Mg(2+) solution using a stimulus rate of 0.1-0.2 Hz. The NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5) was initially included in the perfusion solution to establish baseline recording of isolated AMPA EPSPs. Washing out AP5 led to the expression of composite EPSPs, containing both AMPA and NMDA receptor mediated components. Following an initial, transient potentiation of the AMPA component, the composite responses gradually decayed for several hours, involving AMPA and NMDA components to a similar extent. This decay was input specific and could be terminated at any stage by reapplication of AP5. Subsequent long-term potentiation (LTP) reversed the effect to an extent inversely related to the degree of depression. Experiments to test the interaction with long-term depression (LTD) revealed a significant but incomplete overlap between the two depression processes. In conclusion, pairing synaptic activation at test stimulus frequency with pharmacological unblocking of NMDA receptors allows for expression of composite EPSPs that decay substantially, due to an active mechanism. The underlying process appears to be at least partly distinct from those involved in homosynaptic LTP and LTD.

  7. Solar neutrinos, solar flares, solar activity cycle and the proton decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raychaudhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that there may be a correlation between the galactic cosmic rays and the solar neutrino data, but it appears that the neutrino flux which may be generated during the large solar cosmic ray events cannot in any way effect the solar neutrino data in Davis experiment. Only initial stage of mixing between the solar core and solar outer layers after the sunspot maximum in the solar activity cycle can explain the higher (run number 27 and 71) of solar neutrino data in Davis experiment. But solar flare induced atmospheric neutrino flux may have effect in the nucleon decay detector on the underground. The neutrino flux from solar cosmic rays may be a useful guide to understand the background of nucleon decay, magnetic monopole search, and the detection of neutrino flux in sea water experiment.

  8. Decay Heat Calculations for PWR and BWR Assemblies Fueled with Uranium and Plutonium Mixed Oxide Fuel using SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, Brian J; Gauld, Ian C

    2011-10-01

    in MOX fuel is generally obtained from reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuel, whereas weapons-grade plutonium is obtained from decommissioned nuclear weapons material and thus has a different plutonium (and other actinides) concentration. Using MOX fuel instead of UOX fuel has potential impacts on the neutronic performance of the nuclear fuel and the design of the nuclear fuel must take these differences into account. Each of the plutonium sources (RG and WG) has different implications on the neutronic behavior of the fuel because each contains a different blend of plutonium nuclides. The amount of heat and the number of neutrons produced from fission of plutonium nuclides is different from fission of {sup 235}U. These differences in UOX and MOX do not end at discharge of the fuel from the reactor core - the short- and long-term storage of MOX fuel may have different requirements than UOX fuel because of the different discharged fuel decay heat characteristics. The research documented in this report compares MOX and UOX fuel during storage and disposal of the fuel by comparing decay heat rates for typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies with and without weapons-grade (WG) and reactor-grade (RG) MOX fuel.

  9. Calcium promotes activity and confers heat stability on plant peroxidases

    PubMed Central

    Plieth, Christoph; Vollbehr, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how peroxidase (PO) activities and their heat stability correlate with the availability of free Ca2+ ions. Calcium ions work as a molecular switch for PO activity and exert a protective function, rendering POs heat stable. The concentration ranges of these two activities differ markedly. POs are activated by µM Ca2+ concentration ranges, whereas heat stabilization is observed in the nM range. This suggests the existence of different Ca2+ binding sites. The heat stability of POs depends on the source plant species. Terrestrial plants have POs that exhibit higher temperature stability than those POs from limnic and marine plants. Different POs from a single species can differ in terms of heat stability. The abundance of different POs within a plant is dependent on age and developmental stage. The heat stability of a PO does not necessarily correlate with the maximum temperature the source species is usually exposed to in its natural habitat. This raises questions on the role of POs in the heat tolerance of plants. Consequently, detailed investigations are needed to identify and characterize individual POs, with regard to their genetic origin, subcellular expression, tissue abundance, developmental emergence and their functions in innate and acquired heat tolerance. PMID:22580695

  10. Calcium promotes activity and confers heat stability on plant peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Plieth, Christoph; Vollbehr, Sonja

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how peroxidase (PO) activities and their heat stability correlate with the availability of free Ca(2+) ions. Calcium ions work as a molecular switch for PO activity and exert a protective function, rendering POs heat stable. The concentration ranges of these two activities differ markedly. POs are activated by µM Ca(2+) concentration ranges, whereas heat stabilization is observed in the nM range. This suggests the existence of different Ca(2+) binding sites. The heat stability of POs depends on the source plant species. Terrestrial plants have POs that exhibit higher temperature stability than those POs from limnic and marine plants. Different POs from a single species can differ in terms of heat stability. The abundance of different POs within a plant is dependent on age and developmental stage. The heat stability of a PO does not necessarily correlate with the maximum temperature the source species is usually exposed to in its natural habitat. This raises questions on the role of POs in the heat tolerance of plants. Consequently, detailed investigations are needed to identify and characterize individual POs, with regard to their genetic origin, subcellular expression, tissue abundance, developmental emergence and their functions in innate and acquired heat tolerance.

  11. Heat-activated heat-pump development and potential application of Stirling-engine technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, P. D.; West, C. D.

    1982-06-01

    Presented is a brief overview of the heat-activated heat pump technology development program being carried out with emphasis on the Stirling engine technology projects. The major projects are reviewed as they were formulated and carried out under the previous product development guidelines. The revised technology development focus and current status of those major hardware projects are discussed. The key issues involved in applying Stirling engine technology to heat pump equipment are assessed. The approach and planned future activities to address those issues are described. Also included are brief descriptions of two projects in this area supported by the Gas Research Institute.

  12. Active latent heat storage with a screw heat exchanger - experimental results for heat transfer and concept for high pressure steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipf, Verena; Willert, Daniel; Neuhäuser, Anton

    2016-05-01

    An innovative active latent heat storage concept was invented and developed at Fraunhofer ISE. It uses a screw heat exchanger (SHE) for the phase change during the transport of a phase change material (PCM) from a cold to a hot tank or vice versa. This separates heat transfer and storage tank in comparison to existing concepts. A test rig has been built in order to investigate the heat transfer coefficients of the SHE during melting and crystallization of the PCM. The knowledge of these characteristics is crucial in order to assess the performance of the latent heat storage in a thermal system. The test rig contains a double shafted SHE, which is heated or cooled with thermal oil. The overall heat transfer coefficient U and the convective heat transfer coefficient on the PCM side hPCM both for charging and discharging have been calculated based on the measured data. For charging, the overall heat transfer coefficient in the tested SHE was Uch = 308 W/m2K and for discharging Udis = 210 W/m2K. Based on the values for hPCM the overall heat transfer coefficients for a larger SHE with steam as heat transfer fluid and an optimized geometry were calculated with Uch = 320 W/m2K for charging and Udis = 243 W/m2K for discharging. For pressures as high as p = 100 bar, an SHE concept has been developed, which uses an organic fluid inside the flight of the SHE as working media. With this concept, the SHE can also be deployed for very high pressure, e.g. as storage in solar thermal power plants.

  13. Heat of Hydration of Low Activity Cementitious Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Nasol, D.

    2015-07-23

    During the curing of secondary waste grout, the hydraulic materials in the dry mix react exothermally with the water in the secondary low-activity waste (LAW). The heat released, called the heat of hydration, can be measured using a TAM Air Isothermal Calorimeter. By holding temperature constant in the instrument, the heat of hydration during the curing process can be determined. This will provide information that can be used in the design of a waste solidification facility. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the heat of hydration and other physical properties are being collected on grout prepared using three simulants of liquid secondary waste generated at the Hanford Site. From this study it was found that both the simulant and dry mix each had an effect on the heat of hydration. It was also concluded that the higher the cement content in the dry materials mix, the greater the heat of hydration during the curing of grout.

  14. Balloons and Bottles: Activities on Air-Sea Heat Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphree, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity designed to demonstrate how heating and cooling an air mass affects its temperature, volume, density, and pressure. Illustrates how thermal energy can cause atmospheric motion such as expansion, contraction, and winds. (Author/WRM)

  15. Oxidative Activity of Heated Coal Affected by Antypirogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Borovikov, I. F.; Yakutova, V. A.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of antypirogens on chemical activity of heated coal is studied. It is proved that ammonium sulfate, calcium phosphate, calcium chloride, calcium nitrate and acid fluoride are the most effective antypirogens.

  16. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefrois, R. T.; Knowles, G. R.; Mathur, A. K.; Budimir, J.

    1979-01-01

    Active heat exchange concepts for use with thermal energy storage systems in the temperature range of 250 C to 350 C, using the heat of fusion of molten salts for storing thermal energy are described. Salt mixtures that freeze and melt in appropriate ranges are identified and are evaluated for physico-chemical, economic, corrosive and safety characteristics. Eight active heat exchange concepts for heat transfer during solidification are conceived and conceptually designed for use with selected storage media. The concepts are analyzed for their scalability, maintenance, safety, technological development and costs. A model for estimating and scaling storage system costs is developed and is used for economic evaluation of salt mixtures and heat exchange concepts for a large scale application. The importance of comparing salts and heat exchange concepts on a total system cost basis, rather than the component cost basis alone, is pointed out. The heat exchange concepts were sized and compared for 6.5 MPa/281 C steam conditions and a 1000 MW(t) heat rate for six hours. A cost sensitivity analysis for other design conditions is also carried out.

  17. Numerical simulations of active region scale flux emergence: From spot formation to decay

    SciTech Connect

    Rempel, M.; Cheung, M. C. M.

    2014-04-20

    We present numerical simulations of active region scale flux emergence covering a time span of up to 6 days. Flux emergence is driven by a bottom boundary condition that advects a semi-torus of magnetic field with 1.7 × 10{sup 22} Mx flux into the computational domain. The simulations show that, even in the absence of twist, the magnetic flux is able the rise through the upper 15.5 Mm of the convection zone and emerge into the photosphere to form spots. We find that spot formation is sensitive to the persistence of upflows at the bottom boundary footpoints, i.e., a continuing upflow would prevent spot formation. In addition, the presence of a torus-aligned flow (such flow into the retrograde direction is expected from angular momentum conservation during the rise of flux ropes through the convection zone) leads to a significant asymmetry between the pair of spots, with the spot corresponding to the leading spot on the Sun being more axisymmetric and coherent, but also forming with a delay relative to the following spot. The spot formation phase transitions directly into a decay phase. Subsurface flows fragment the magnetic field and lead to intrusions of almost field free plasma underneath the photosphere. When such intrusions reach photospheric layers, the spot fragments. The timescale for spot decay is comparable to the longest convective timescales present in the simulation domain. We find that the dispersal of flux from a simulated spot in the first two days of the decay phase is consistent with self-similar decay by turbulent diffusion.

  18. [Isolation of wood-decaying fungi and evaluation of their enzymatic activity (Quindío, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Deisy Fernanda; Rosas, Diana Carolina; Varela, Amanda

    2009-12-31

    White rot fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) were collected on fallen trunks with different decay stages, in a subandean forest (La Montaña del Ocaso nature reserve), and it was evaluated their ligninolitic activity. They were cultured on malt extract agar. Then it was performed semiquantitative tests for laccase and cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) activity using ABTS and DCPIP as enzymatic inducers. Based on the results of these tests, the fungi with higher activities from trunks with different decay stages were selected: Cookeina sulcipes (for stage 1), a fungus from the family Corticiaceae (for stage 2), Xylaria polymorpha (for stage 3) and Earliella sp. (for stage 4). A fermentation was performed at 28 degrees C, during 11 days, in a rotatory shaker at 150 rpm. Biomass, glucose, proteins and enzyme activities measurements were performed daily. The fungi that were in the trunks with decay states from 1 to 3, showed higher laccase activity as the state of decay increased. A higher DCH activity was also associated with a higher. Also, there was a positive relationship between both enzymes' activities. Erliella was the fungus which presented the highest biomass production (1140,19 g/l), laccase activity (157 UL(-1)) and CDH activity (43,50 UL(-1)). This work is the first report of laccase and CDH activity for Cookeina sulcipes and Earliella sp. Moreover, it gives basis for the use of these native fungi in biotechnological applications and the acknowledgment of their function in the wood decay process in native forest.

  19. Response repetition biases in human perceptual decisions are explained by activity decay in competitive attractor models

    PubMed Central

    Bonaiuto, James J; de Berker, Archy; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Animals and humans have a tendency to repeat recent choices, a phenomenon known as choice hysteresis. The mechanism for this choice bias remains unclear. Using an established, biophysically informed model of a competitive attractor network for decision making, we found that decaying tail activity from the previous trial caused choice hysteresis, especially during difficult trials, and accurately predicted human perceptual choices. In the model, choice variability could be directionally altered through amplification or dampening of post-trial activity decay through simulated depolarizing or hyperpolarizing network stimulation. An analogous intervention using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) yielded a close match between model predictions and experimental results: net soma depolarizing currents increased choice hysteresis, while hyperpolarizing currents suppressed it. Residual activity in competitive attractor networks within dlPFC may thus give rise to biases in perceptual choices, which can be directionally controlled through non-invasive brain stimulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20047.001 PMID:28005007

  20. Genetic and cytological evidence that heterocyst patterning is regulated by inhibitor gradients that promote activator decay.

    PubMed

    Risser, Douglas D; Callahan, Sean M

    2009-11-24

    The formation of a pattern of differentiated cells from a group of seemingly equivalent, undifferentiated cells is a central paradigm of developmental biology. Several species of filamentous cyanobacteria differentiate nitrogen-fixing heterocysts at regular intervals along unbranched filaments to form a periodic pattern of two distinct cell types. This patterning has been used to exemplify application of the activator-inhibitor model to periodic patterns in biology. The activator-inhibitor model proposes that activators and inhibitors of differentiation diffuse from source cells to form concentration gradients that in turn mediate patterning, but direct visualization of concentration gradients of activators and inhibitors has been difficult. Here we show that the periodic pattern of heterocysts produced by cyanobacteria relies on two inhibitors of heterocyst differentiation, PatS and HetN, in a manner consistent with the predictions of the activator-inhibitor model. Concentration gradients of the activator, HetR, were observed adjacent to heterocysts, the natural source of PatS and HetN, as well as adjacent to vegetative cells that were manipulated to overexpress a gene encoding either of the inhibitors. Gradients of HetR relied on posttranslational decay of HetR. Deletion of both patS and hetN genes prevented the formation of gradients of HetR, and a derivative of the inhibitors was shown to promote decay of HetR in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results provide strong support for application of the activator-inhibitor model to heterocyst patterning and, more generally, the formation of periodic patterns in biological systems.

  1. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefrois, R. T.; Mathur, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    Five tasks to select, design, fabricate, test and evaluate candidate active heat exchanger modules for future applications to solar and conventional utility power plants were discussed. Alternative mechanizations of active heat exchange concepts were analyzed for use with heat of fusion phase change materials (PCMs) in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C. Twenty-six heat exchange concepts were reviewed, and eight were selected for detailed assessment. Two candidates were selected for small-scale experimentation: a coated tube and shell heat exchanger and a direct contact reflux boiler. A dilute eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide was selected as the PCM from over 50 candidate inorganic salt mixtures. Based on a salt screening process, eight major component salts were selected initially for further evaluation. The most attractive major components in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C appeared to be NaNO3, NaNO2, and NaOH. Sketches of the two active heat exchange concepts selected for test are given.

  2. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefrois, R. T.; Mathur, A. K.

    1980-04-01

    Five tasks to select, design, fabricate, test and evaluate candidate active heat exchanger modules for future applications to solar and conventional utility power plants were discussed. Alternative mechanizations of active heat exchange concepts were analyzed for use with heat of fusion phase change materials (PCMs) in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C. Twenty-six heat exchange concepts were reviewed, and eight were selected for detailed assessment. Two candidates were selected for small-scale experimentation: a coated tube and shell heat exchanger and a direct contact reflux boiler. A dilute eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide was selected as the PCM from over 50 candidate inorganic salt mixtures. Based on a salt screening process, eight major component salts were selected initially for further evaluation. The most attractive major components in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C appeared to be NaNO3, NaNO2, and NaOH. Sketches of the two active heat exchange concepts selected for test are given.

  3. Temperature-gated thermal rectifier for active heat flow control.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia; Hippalgaonkar, Kedar; Shen, Sheng; Wang, Kevin; Abate, Yohannes; Lee, Sangwook; Wu, Junqiao; Yin, Xiaobo; Majumdar, Arun; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-08-13

    Active heat flow control is essential for broad applications of heating, cooling, and energy conversion. Like electronic devices developed for the control of electric power, it is very desirable to develop advanced all-thermal solid-state devices that actively control heat flow without consuming other forms of energy. Here we demonstrate temperature-gated thermal rectification using vanadium dioxide beams in which the environmental temperature actively modulates asymmetric heat flow. In this three terminal device, there are two switchable states, which can be regulated by global heating. In the "Rectifier" state, we observe up to 28% thermal rectification. In the "Resistor" state, the thermal rectification is significantly suppressed (<1%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of solid-state active-thermal devices with a large rectification in the Rectifier state. This temperature-gated rectifier can have substantial implications ranging from autonomous thermal management of heating and cooling systems to efficient thermal energy conversion and storage.

  4. Diagnostics of Coronal Heating in Active-region Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fludra, A.; Hornsey, C.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding coronal heating remains a central problem in solar physics. Many mechanisms have been proposed to explain how energy is transferred to and deposited in the corona. We summarize past observational studies that attempted to identify the heating mechanism and point out the difficulties in reproducing the observations of the solar corona from the heating models. The aim of this paper is to study whether the observed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission in individual coronal loops in solar active regions can provide constraints on the volumetric heating function, and to develop a diagnostic for the heating function for a subset of loops that are found close to static thermal equilibrium. We reconstruct the coronal magnetic field from Solar Dynamics Observatory/HMI data using a nonlinear force-free magnetic field model. We model selected loops using a one-dimensional stationary model, with a heating rate dependent locally on the magnetic field strength along the loop, and we calculate the emission from these loops in various EUV wavelengths for different heating rates. We present a method to measure a power index β defining the dependence of the volumetric heating rate EH on the magnetic field, {E}H\\propto {B}β , and controlling also the shape of the heating function: concentrated near the loop top, uniform and concentrated near the footpoints. The diagnostic is based on the dependence of the electron density on the index β. This method is free from the assumptions of the loop filling factor but requires spectroscopic measurements of the density-sensitive lines. The range of applicability for loops of different length and heating distributions is discussed, and the steps to solving the coronal heating problem are outlined.

  5. Activated-Carbon Sorbent With Integral Heat-Transfer Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Yavrouian, Andre

    1996-01-01

    Prototype adsorption device used, for example, in adsorption heat pump, to store natural gas to power automobile, or to separate components of fluid mixtures. Device includes activated carbon held together by binder and molded into finned heat-transfer device providing rapid heating or cooling to enable rapid adsorption or desorption of fluids. Concepts of design and fabrication of device equally valid for such other highly thermally conductive devices as copper-finned tubes, and for such other high-surface-area sorbents as zeolites or silicates.

  6. Stellar activity and coronal heating: an overview of recent results

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Paola; Saar, Steven H.; Drake, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the coronae of the Sun and of solar-like stars provide complementary information to advance our understanding of stellar magnetic activity, and of the processes leading to the heating of their outer atmospheres. While solar observations allow us to study the corona at high spatial and temporal resolution, the study of stellar coronae allows us to probe stellar activity over a wide range of ages and stellar parameters. Stellar studies therefore provide us with additional tools for understanding coronal heating processes, as well as the long-term evolution of solar X-ray activity. We discuss how recent studies of stellar magnetic fields and coronae contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon of activity and coronal heating in late-type stars. PMID:25897087

  7. Stellar activity and coronal heating: an overview of recent results.

    PubMed

    Testa, Paola; Saar, Steven H; Drake, Jeremy J

    2015-05-28

    Observations of the coronae of the Sun and of solar-like stars provide complementary information to advance our understanding of stellar magnetic activity, and of the processes leading to the heating of their outer atmospheres. While solar observations allow us to study the corona at high spatial and temporal resolution, the study of stellar coronae allows us to probe stellar activity over a wide range of ages and stellar parameters. Stellar studies therefore provide us with additional tools for understanding coronal heating processes, as well as the long-term evolution of solar X-ray activity. We discuss how recent studies of stellar magnetic fields and coronae contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon of activity and coronal heating in late-type stars.

  8. DOE Solar Process Heat Program: FY1991 Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, R.

    1992-11-01

    During fiscal year (FY) 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Process Heat Program implemented a Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity. For Program purposes, a prefeasibility study is an engineering assessment that investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a solar system for a specific application for a specific end-user. The study includes an assessment of institutional issues (e.g., financing, availability of insurance, etc.) that impact the feasibility of the proposed solar project. Solar process heat technology covers solar thermal energy systems (utilizing flat plate or concentrating solar Collectors) for water heating, water preheating, cooling/refrigeration, steam generation, ventilation air heating/preheating, etc. for applications in industry, commerce, and government. The studies are selected for funding through a competitive solicitation. For FY 1991, six projects were selected for funding. As of August 31, 1992, three teams had completed their studies. This paper describes the prefeasibility studies activity, presents the results from the study performed by United Solar Technologies, and summarizes the conclusions from the studies that have been completed to date and their implications for the Solar Process Heat Program.

  9. Department of Energy solar process heat program: FY 1991 solar process heat prefeasibility studies activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, R.

    1992-11-01

    During fiscal year (FY) 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Process Heat Program implemented a Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity. For Program purposes, a prefeasibility study is an engineering assessment that investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a solar system for a specific application for a specific end-user. The study includes an assessment of institutional issues (e.g., financing, availability of insurance, etc.) that impact the feasibility of the proposed solar project. Solar process heat technology covers solar thermal energy systems (utilizing flat plate or concentrating solar collectors) for water heating, water preheating, cooling/refrigeration, steam generation, ventilation air heating/preheating, etc., for applications in industry, commerce, and government. The studies are selected for funding through a competitive solicitation. For FY-91, six projects were selected for funding. As of 31 Aug. 1992, three teams had completed their studies. This paper describes the prefeasibility studies activity, presents the results from the study performed by United Solar Technologies, and summarizes the conclusions from the studies that have been completed to date and their implications for the Solar Process Heat Program.

  10. Nuclide Importance to Criticality Safety, Decay Heating, and Source Terms Related to Transport and Interim Storage of High-Burnup LWR Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I. C.; Ryman, J. C.

    2000-12-11

    This report investigates trends in the radiological decay properties and changes in relative nuclide importance associated with increasing enrichments and burnup for spent LWR fuel as they affect the areas of criticality safety, thermal analysis (decay heat), and shielding analysis of spent fuel transport and storage casks. To facilitate identifying the changes in the spent fuel compositions that most directly impact these application areas, the dominant nuclides in each area have been identified and ranked by importance. The importance is investigated as a function of increasing burnup to assist in identifying the key changes in spent fuel characteristics between conventional- and extended-burnup regimes. Studies involving both pressurized water-reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies and boiling-water-reactor (BWR) assemblies are included. This study is seen to be a necessary first step in identifying the high-burnup spent fuel characteristics that may adversely affect the accuracy of current computational methods and data, assess the potential impact on previous guidance on isotopic source terms and decay-heat values, and thus help identify areas for methods and data improvement. Finally, several recommendations on the direction of possible future code validation efforts for high-burnup spent fuel predictions are presented.

  11. Heat shock factor 2 is activated during mouse heart development.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, M; Jokinen, E; Sistonen, L; Leppä, S

    2000-08-01

    Two members of the heat shock transcription factor family, HSF1 and HSF2, have been identified as activators of mammalian heat shock gene expression. HSF1 acts as a classical stress-responsive factor, whereas HSF2 might play a role in embryogenesis, since it is active during pre- and post-implantation periods up to 15.5 days of mouse embryonic development. In this study, we analyzed HSF1 and HSF2 expression and activation during mouse heart formation. Our results show an abundant expression of HSF1 throughout heart development. In contrast, expression of the alternatively spliced HSF2-alpha and HSF2-beta, and an additional higher molecular weight isoform is strongly upregulated in the developing mouse heart at E11.5-12.5, a stage after which tubular heart has looped and chambers formed, and the myocardial walls are maturating and the valves differentiating. At the same developmental stage, HSF2 DNA-binding activity is transiently induced, whereas the weak HSE-binding activity, which is detected throughout heart development, consists primarily of HSF1. Interestingly, heat shock gene expression shows no temporal or spatial correlation with HSF2 expression and activation. Taken together, our results indicate that HSF2 activation is associated with specific stages of heart formation but is not involved in the regulation of inducible heat shock gene expression.

  12. Hyperphosphorylation amplifies UPF1 activity to resolve stalls in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Sébastien; Franks, Tobias M.; Lykke-Andersen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Many gene expression factors contain repetitive phosphorylation sites for single kinases, but the functional significance is poorly understood. Here we present evidence for hyperphosphorylation as a mechanism allowing UPF1, the central factor in nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), to increasingly attract downstream machinery with time of residence on target mRNAs. Indeed, slowing NMD by inhibiting late-acting factors triggers UPF1 hyperphosphorylation, which in turn enhances affinity for factors linking UPF1 to decay machinery. Mutational analyses reveal multiple phosphorylation sites contributing to different extents to UPF1 activity with no single site being essential. Moreover, the ability of UPF1 to undergo hyperphosphorylation becomes increasingly important for NMD when downstream factors are depleted. This hyperphosphorylation-dependent feedback mechanism may serve as a molecular clock ensuring timely degradation of target mRNAs while preventing degradation of non-targets, which, given the prevalence of repetitive phosphorylation among central gene regulatory factors, may represent an important general principle in gene expression. PMID:27511142

  13. Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mudali, U.K.; Khatak, H.S.; Dayal, R.K.; Gnanamoorthy, J.B. )

    1993-02-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800, 9Cr-1 Mo steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated that 9Cr-1Mo steel in the normalized and tempered condition can be considered for the above application from the standpoint of corrosion resistance.

  14. Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to- air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamachi Mudali, U.; Khatak, H. S.; Dayal, R. K.; Gnanamoorthy, J. B.

    1993-02-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800,9Cr-lMo steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated that 9Cr-lMo steel in the normalized and tempered condition can be considered for the above application from the standpoint of corrosion resistance.

  15. Storage-stable foamable polyurethane is activated by heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Polyurethane foamable mixture remains inert in storage unit activated to produce a rapid foaming reaction. The storage-stable foamable composition is spread as a paste on the surface of an expandable structure and, when heated, yields a rigid open-cell polyurethane foam that is self-bondable to the substrate.

  16. Neutron activation analysis via nuclear decay kinetics using gamma-ray spectroscopy at SFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo, Thomas; Chester, Aaron; Starosta, Krzysztof; Williams, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool used in a variety of fields including nuclear and analytical chemistry, environmental science, and health risk management. At SFU, the Germanium detector for Elemental Analysis and Radiation Studies (GEARS), a low-background shielded high-purity germanium gamma-ray detector, has been used recently in all of the above fields. The current project aims to expand upon the number of applications for which GEARS can be used while enhancing its current functionality. A recent addition to the SFU Nuclear Science laboratory is the Thermo Scientific P 385 neutron generator. This device provides a nominal yield of 3 ×108 neutrons/s providing the capacity for neutron activation analysis, opening a major avenue of research at SFU which was previously unavailable. The isotopes created via neutron activation have a wide range of half-lives. To measure and study isotopes with half-lives above a second, a new analogue data acquisition system has been installed on GEARS allowing accurate measurements of decay kinetics. This new functionality enables identification and quantification of the products of neutron activation. Results from the neutron activation analysis of pure metals will be presented.

  17. Active heat exchange: System development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alario, J.; Haslett, R.

    1981-03-01

    An active heat exchange method in a latent heat (salt) thermal energy storage system that prevents a low conductivity solid salt layer from forming on heat transfer surfaces was developed. An evaluation of suitable media with melting points in the temperature range of interest (250 to 400 C) limited the candidates to molten salts from the chloride, hydroxide, and nitrate families, based on high storage capacity, good corrosion characteristics, and availability in large quantities at reasonable cost. The specific salt recommended for laboratory tests was a choride eutectic (20.5KCl, 24.5NaCl, 55.0MgCl2 percent by wt.), with a nominal melting point of 385 C.

  18. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefrois, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Alternative mechanizations of active heat exchange concepts were analyzed for use with heat of fusion Phase Change Materials (PCM's) in the temperature range of 250 C to 350 C for solar and conventional power plant applications. Over 24 heat exchange concepts were reviewed, and eight were selected for detailed assessment. Two candidates were chosen for small-scale experimentation: a coated tube and shell that exchanger, and a direct contact reflux boiler. A dilute eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide was selected as the PCM from over fifty inorganic salt mixtures investigated. Preliminary experiments with various tube coatings indicated that a nickel or chrome plating of Teflon or Ryton coating had promise of being successful. An electroless nickel plating was selected for further testing. A series of tests with nickel-plated heat transfer tubes showed that the solidifying sodium nitrate adhered to the tubes and the experiment failed to meet the required discharge heat transfer rate of 10 kW(t). Testing of the reflux boiler is under way.

  19. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefrois, R. T.

    1980-03-01

    Alternative mechanizations of active heat exchange concepts were analyzed for use with heat of fusion Phase Change Materials (PCM's) in the temperature range of 250 C to 350 C for solar and conventional power plant applications. Over 24 heat exchange concepts were reviewed, and eight were selected for detailed assessment. Two candidates were chosen for small-scale experimentation: a coated tube and shell that exchanger, and a direct contact reflux boiler. A dilute eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide was selected as the PCM from over fifty inorganic salt mixtures investigated. Preliminary experiments with various tube coatings indicated that a nickel or chrome plating of Teflon or Ryton coating had promise of being successful. An electroless nickel plating was selected for further testing. A series of tests with nickel-plated heat transfer tubes showed that the solidifying sodium nitrate adhered to the tubes and the experiment failed to meet the required discharge heat transfer rate of 10 kW(t). Testing of the reflux boiler is under way.

  20. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J.; Kosson, R.; Haslett, R.

    1980-01-01

    Various active heat exchange concepts were identified from among three generic categories: scrapers, agitators/vibrators and slurries. The more practical ones were given a more detailed technical evaluation and an economic comparison with a passive tube-shell design for a reference application (300 MW sub t storage for 6 hours). Two concepts were selected for hardware development: (1) a direct contact heat exchanger in which molten salt droplets are injected into a cooler counterflowing stream of liquid metal carrier fluid, and (2) a rotating drum scraper in which molten salt is sprayed onto the circumference of a rotating drum, which contains the fluid salt is sprayed onto the circumference of a rotating drum, which contains the fluid heat sink in an internal annulus near the surface. A fixed scraper blade removes the solidified salt from the surface which was nickel plated to decrease adhesion forces. In addition to improving performance by providing a nearly constant transfer rate during discharge, these active heat exchanger concepts were estimated to cost at least 25% less than the passive tube-shell design.

  1. Rotating single cycle two-phase thermally activated heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Fabris, G.

    1993-06-08

    A thermally activated heat pump is described which utilizes single working fluid which as a whole passes consecutively through all parts of the apparatus in a closed loop series; the working fluid in low temperature saturated liquid state at condensation is pumped to higher pressure with a pump; subsequently heat is added to the liquid of increased pressure, the liquid via the heating is brought to a high temperature saturated liquid state; the high temperature liquid passes and flashes subsequently in form of two-phase flow through a rotating two-phase flow turbine; in such a way the working fluid performs work on the two-phase turbine which in turn powers the liquid pump and a lower compressor; two-phase flow exiting the two-phase turbine separated by impinging tangentially on housing of the turbine; low temperature heat is added to the housing in such a way evaporating the separated liquid on the housing; in such a way the liquid is fully vaporized the vapor then enters a compressor, the compressor compresses the vapor to a higher condensation pressure and corresponding increased temperature, the vapor at the condensation pressure enters a condenser whereby heat is rejected and the vapor is fully condensed into state of saturated liquid, mid saturated liquid enters the pump and repeats the cycle.

  2. Microbial biomass governs enzyme activity decay during aging of worm-worked substrates through vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Aira, Manuel; Monroy, Fernando; Domínguez, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Vermicomposting is the biooxidation and stabilization of organic matter involving the joint action of earthworms and microorganisms, thereby turning wastes into a valuable soil amendment called vermicompost. Studies have focused on the changes in the type of substrates available before and after vermicomposting, but little is known on how these changes take place, especially those changes related with maturation of vermicompost. This study investigated the effects of aging on the microbiological properties of fresh vermicompost produced from pig slurry by analyzing the substrate after the earthworms had left it. We incubated 16-wk-old vermicompost and sampled it after 15, 30, 45, and 60 d analyzing microbial biomass and activity (assessed as microbial biomass N and basal respiration respectively) and four enzymatic activities (beta-glucosidase, cellulase, protease, and alkaline phosphatase). Aging of vermicompost resulted in decreases of microbial biomass and activity. Three of the four enzymes analyzed also showed decrease. An initial increase followed by a rapid decrease in alkaline phosphatase was also recorded. High and significant correlations between microbial biomass and beta-glucosidase (r = 0.62, P < 0.001), cellulase (r = 0.56, P < 0.01), and protease (r = 0.82, P < 0.001) were found. Results suggest that there may be two steps involved in the aging dynamics of vermicompost with regards to extracellular enzyme activity; the first step was characterized by a decrease in microbial populations, which resulted in a reduction in the synthesis of new enzymes. The second step was the degradation of the pool of remaining enzymes. This dynamic does not seem to be affected by earthworms because similar decaying patterns of microbial biomass and activity were found in substrate where earthworms were present.

  3. A decaying factor accounts for contained activity in neuronal networks with no need of hierarchical or modular organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N., Jr.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms responsible for containing activity in systems represented by networks are crucial in various phenomena, for example, in diseases such as epilepsy that affect the neuronal networks and for information dissemination in social networks. The first models to account for contained activity included triggering and inhibition processes, but they cannot be applied to social networks where inhibition is clearly absent. A recent model showed that contained activity can be achieved with no need of inhibition processes provided that the network is subdivided into modules (communities). In this paper, we introduce a new concept inspired in the Hebbian theory, through which containment of activity is achieved by incorporating a dynamics based on a decaying activity in a random walk mechanism preferential to the node activity. Upon selecting the decay coefficient within a proper range, we observed sustained activity in all the networks tested, namely, random, Barabási-Albert and geographical networks. The generality of this finding was confirmed by showing that modularity is no longer needed if the dynamics based on the integrate-and-fire dynamics incorporated the decay factor. Taken together, these results provide a proof of principle that persistent, restrained network activation might occur in the absence of any particular topological structure. This may be the reason why neuronal activity does not spread out to the entire neuronal network, even when no special topological organization exists. .

  4. Activation of Polyphenol Oxidase in Dormant Wild Oat Caryopses by a Seed-Decay Isolate of Fusarium avenaceum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incubation of dormant wild oat (Avena fatua L., isoline M73) caryopses for 1 to 3 days with Fusarium avenaceum seed-decay isolate F.a.1 induced activity of the plant defense enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Both extracts and leachates obtained from F.a.1-treated caryopses had decreased abundance of ...

  5. Body heat transfer during hip surgery using active core warming.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, P; Webster, J; Carli, F

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of core warming on heat redistribution from the core to the periphery as manifested by changes in core, mean skin temperature and mean body heat, investigated in a group of 30 patients undergoing total hip replacement. The control group (n = 10) had no active warming. Core warming was achieved in the humidifier group (n = 10) by using humidified and warmed gases at 40 degrees C, whilst in the oesophageal group (n = 10), an oesophageal heat exchanger was used to achieve active warming. Operating room temperature and relative humidity was standardised. Aural canal and skin temperatures (15 sites) were measured before induction of anaesthesia, at the end of surgery and one hour of recovery after anaesthesia. Mean skin temperatures were calculated for a weighted four and unweighted 15 points, and mean body heat were calculated to quantify the distribution of body heat. Core temperature decreased in the control and the oesophageal groups, but not in the humidifier group at the end of surgery; by mean values +/- SD of 1.9 degrees C +/- 0.6, 1.2 degrees C +/- 0.6 and 0.4 degree C +/- 0.2 degree C, respectively (P < 0.01). Mean skin temperature (MST15) decreased in the control group by 1.0 degree C +/- 1.0, but not in the actively warmed groups where the mean increased by 0.1 degree C +/- 1.4 and 0.2 degree C +/- 0.2 in the oesophageal and humidifier groups, respectively (P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Few active mechanisms of the 0νββ decay and effective mass of Majorana neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimkovic, Fedor; Vergados, John; Faessler, Amand

    2010-12-01

    It is well known that there exist many mechanisms that may contribute to neutrinoless double beta decay. By exploiting the fact that the associated nuclear matrix elements are target dependent we show that, given definite experimental results on a sufficient number of targets, one can determine or sufficiently constrain all lepton violating parameters including the mass term. As a specific example we show that, assuming the observation of the 0νββ decay in three different nuclei, e.g., Ge76, Mo100, and Te130, and just three lepton number violating mechanisms (light- and heavy-neutrino mass mechanisms as well as the R-parity breaking supersymmetry mechanism) being active, there are only four different solutions for the lepton violating parameters, provided that they are relatively real. In particular, our analysis shows that the effective neutrino Majorana mass |mββ| can be almost uniquely extracted by utilizing other existing constraints (cosmological observations and tritium β-decay experiments). We also point out the possibility that the nonobservation of the 0νββ decay for some isotopes could be in agreement with a value of |mββ| in the sub-eV region. We thus suggest that it is important to have at least two different 0νββ-decay experiments for a given nucleus. We note that obtained results are sensitive to the accuracy of measured half-lives and to uncertainties in calculated nuclear matrix elements.

  7. Heated Proteins are Still Active in a Functionalized Nanoporous Support

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Qi, Wen N.; Li, Xiaolin; Lei, Chenghong; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-08

    We report that even under the heated condition, the conformation and activity of a protein can be hoarded in a functionalized nanoporous support via non-covalent interaction, although the hoarded protein was not exhibiting the full protein activity, the protein released subsequently still maintained its native conformation and activity. Glucose oxidase (GOX) was spontaneously and largely entrapped in aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica (NH2-FMS) at 20 oC via a dominant electrostatic interaction. Although FMS-GOX displayed 45% activity of the free enzyme in solution, the GOX released from FMS exhibited its 100% activity prior to the entrapment. Surprisingly, the released GOX from FMS still maintained 89% of its initial activity prior to the entrapment after FMS-GOX was incubated at 60 oC for 1 h prior to release, while the free GOX in solution lost nearly all activity under the same incubation. Intrinsic fluorescence emission of GOX and native electrophoresis demonstrated that the heating resulted in significant conformational changes and oligomeric structures of the free GOX, but FMS efficiently maintained the thermal stability of GOX therein and resisted the thermal denaturation and oligomeric aggregation.

  8. Temperature dependence of decay time and intensity of alpha pulses in pure and thallium-activated cesium iodide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Martinez, P.; Alekna, V.P.

    1962-01-01

    The intensity and decay time of Po210 ?? particle scintillations produced in pure and thallium-activated cesium iodide have been measured with a fast electronic system as a function of temperature down to 77??K. Three modes of decay due to alpha excitation have been observed for CsI(Tl), and two for CsI. Other than the 7- and 0.55-??sec modes (at room temperature) reported in the literature for CsI(Tl), an additional temperature-independent mode of about 1.3 ??sec has been detected between 77 and 150??K. In CsI a fast temperature-dependent mode of decay (???100 nsec) was observed between 100-200??K in addition to the known principal mode. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.

  9. THE AIMS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE INTERNATIONAL NETWORK OF NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND DECAY DATA EVALUATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    NICHOLS,A.L.; TULI, J.K.

    2007-04-22

    International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) Evaluators consists of a number of evaluation groups and data service centers in several countries that appreciate the merits of working together to maintain and ensure the quality and comprehensive content of the ENSDF database (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File). Biennial meetings of the network are held under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to assign evaluation responsibilities, monitor progress, discuss improvements and emerging difficulties, and agree on actions to be undertaken by individual members. The evaluated data and bibliographic details are made available to users via various media, such as the journals ''Nuclear Physics A'' and ''Nuclear Data Sheets'', the World Wide Web, on CD-ROM, wall charts of the nuclides and ''Nuclear Wallet Cards''. While the ENSDF master database is maintained by the US National Nuclear Data Center at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, these data are also available from other nuclear data centers including the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, in cooperation with the IAEA, organizes workshops on NSDD at regular intervals. The primary aims of these particular workshops are to provide hands-on training in the data evaluation processes, and to encourage new evaluators to participate in NSDD activities. The technical contents of these NSDD workshops are described, along with the rationale for the inclusion of various topics.

  10. Using the Inflection Points and Rates of Growth and Decay to Predict Levels of Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    The ascending and descending inflection points and rates of growth and decay at specific times during the sunspot cycle are examined as predictors for future activity. On average, the ascending inflection point occurs about 1-2 yr after sunspot minimum amplitude (Rm) and the descending inflection point occurs about 6-7 yr after Rm. The ascending inflection point and the inferred slope (including the 12-mo moving average (12-mma) of (Delta)R (the month-to-month change in the smoothed monthly mean sunspot number (R)) at the ascending inflection point provide strong indications as to the expected size of the ongoing cycle s sunspot maximum amplitude (RM), while the descending inflection point appears to provide an indication as to the expected length of the ongoing cycle. The value of the 12-mma of (Delta)R at elapsed time T = 27 mo past the epoch of RM (E(RM)) seems to provide a strong indication as to the expected size of Rm for the following cycle. The expected Rm for cycle 24 is 7.6 +/- 4.4 (the 90-percent prediction interval), occurring before September 2008. Evidence is also presented for secular rises in selected cycle-related parameters and for preferential grouping of sunspot cycles by amplitude and/or period.

  11. Impact of active geomagnetic conditions on stimulated radiation during ionospheric second electron gyroharmonic heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordikar, M. R.; Scales, W. A.; Mahmoudian, A.; Kim, H.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Redmon, R.; Samimi, A. R.; Brizcinski, S.; McCarrick, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, narrowband emissions ordered near the H+ (proton) gyrofrequency (fcH) were reported in the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) spectrum during active geomagnetic conditions. This work presents new observations and theoretical analysis of these recently discovered emissions. These emission lines are observed in the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) spectrum when the transmitter is tuned near the second electron gyroharmonic frequency (2fce) during recent ionospheric modification experiments at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research (HAARP) facility near Gakona, Alaska. The spectral lines are typically shifted below and above the pump wave frequency by harmonics of a frequency roughly 10% less than fcH (≈ 800 Hz) with a narrow emission bandwidth less than the O+ gyrofrequency (≈ 50 Hz). However, new observations and analysis of emission lines ordered by a frequency approximately 10% greater than fcH are presented here for the first time as well. The interaction altitude for the heating for all the observations is in the range of 160 km up to 200 km. As described previously, proton precipitation due to active geomagnetic conditions is considered as the reason for the presence of H+ ions known to be a minor background constituent in this altitude region. DMSP satellite observations over HAARP during the heating experiments and ground-based magnetometer and riometer data validate active geomagnetic conditions. The theory of parametric decay instability in multi-ion component plasma including H+ ions as a minority species described in previous work is expanded in light of simultaneously observed preexisting SEE features to interpret the newly reported observations. Impact of active geomagnetic conditions on the SEE spectrum as a diagnostic tool for proton precipitation event characterization is discussed.

  12. A Stress-Activated, p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase–ATF/CREB Pathway Regulates Posttranscriptional, Sequence-Dependent Decay of Target RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Wagnon, Jacy L.; Protacio, Reine M.; Glazko, Galina V.; Beggs, Marjorie; Raj, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    Broadly conserved, mitogen-activated/stress-activated protein kinases (MAPK/SAPK) of the p38 family regulate multiple cellular processes. They transduce signals via dimeric, basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors of the ATF/CREB family (such as Atf2, Fos, and Jun) to regulate the transcription of target genes. We report additional mechanisms for gene regulation by such pathways exerted through RNA stability controls. The Spc1 (Sty1/Phh1) kinase-regulated Atf1-Pcr1 (Mts1-Mts2) heterodimer of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe controls the stress-induced, posttranscriptional stability and decay of sets of target RNAs. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing data revealed that decay is associated nonrandomly with transcripts that contain an M26 sequence motif. Moreover, the ablation of an M26 sequence motif in a target mRNA is sufficient to block its stress-induced loss. Conversely, engineered M26 motifs can render a stable mRNA into one that is targeted for decay. This stress-activated RNA decay (SARD) provides a mechanism for reducing the expression of target genes without shutting off transcription itself. Thus, a single p38-ATF/CREB signal transduction pathway can coordinately induce (promote transcription and RNA stability) and repress (promote RNA decay) transcript levels for distinct sets of genes, as is required for developmental decisions in response to stress and other stimuli. PMID:23732911

  13. Eruption of the magnetic flux rope in a fast decayed active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shangbin

    2012-07-01

    An isolated and fast decayed active region was observed when passing through solar disk. There is only one CME related with it that give us a good opportunity to investigate the whole process of the CME. Filament in this active region rises up rapidly and then hesitates and disintegrates into flare loops. The rising filament from EIT images separates into two parts just before eruption. It is interesting that this filament rises up with positive kink which is opposite to the negative helicity according to the inverse S-shaped X-ray sigmoid and accumulated magnetic helicity. A new filament reforms several hours later after CME and the axis of this new one rotates clockwise about 22° comparing with that of the former one. We also observed a bright transient J-shaped X-ray sigmoid immediately appears after filament eruption. It quickly develops into a soft X-ray cusp and rises up firstly then drops down. We propose that field lines underneath bald-patch sparatrix surface (BPSS) where for the formation of a magnetic tangential discontinuity are locally rooted to the photosphere near the bald-patch (BP) inversion line. Field lines above the surface are detached from the photosphere to form this CME and partially open the field which make the filament loses equilibrium to rise quickly and then be drawn back by the tension force of magnetic field after eruption to form a new filament. Two magnetic cancelation regions have been observed clearly just before filament eruption that reflect the existence of BPs. On the other hand, the values of total magnetic helicity to the corona taken by emergence and differential rotation normalized by the square total magnetic flux implies the possibility of upper bound on the total magnetic helicity that a force-free field can contain.

  14. Relationship between typhoon activity and upper ocean heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, A.; Chan, J. C. L.

    2008-09-01

    A 44-year mean distribution of tropical cyclone heat potential (TCHP), a measure of the oceanic heat content from the surface to the 26°C-isotherm depth, shows that TCHP is locally high in the western North Pacific (WNP). TCHP varies on interannual time scales and has a relationship with tropical cyclone (TC) activity. The third mode of an empirical orthogonal function analysis of TCHP shows that an increase in the total number of TCs is accompanied with a warm central Pacific and cool WNP. Negative TCHP anomalies in the WNP suggest that an increase in total number of TCs results in cooling due to their passages. On the other hand, the first mode shows that the number of super typhoons increases in mature El Niño years. An increase in accumulated TCHP is related to the increase in the number of super typhoons due to long duration.

  15. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J.; Haslett, R.

    1980-01-01

    Various active heat exchange concepts were identified from among three generic categories: scrapers, agitators/vibrators and slurries. The more practical ones were given a more detailed technical evaluation and an economic comparison with a passive tube-shell design for a reference application. Two concepts selected for hardware development are a direct contact heat exchanger in which molten salt droplets are injected into a cooler counterflowing stream of liquid metal carrier fluid, and a rotating drum scraper in which molten salt is sprayed onto the circumference of a rotating drum, which contains the fluid heat sink in an internal annulus near the surface. A fixed scraper blade removes the solidified salt from the surface which has been nickel plated to decrease adhesion forces. Suitable phase change material (PCM) storage media with melting points in the temperature range of interest (250 C to 400 C) were investigated. The specific salt recommended for laboratory tests was a chloride eutectic (20.5KCl-24/5 NaCl-55.0MgCl 2% by wt.), with a nominal melting point of 385 C.

  16. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alario, J.; Haslett, R.

    1980-03-01

    Various active heat exchange concepts were identified from among three generic categories: scrapers, agitators/vibrators and slurries. The more practical ones were given a more detailed technical evaluation and an economic comparison with a passive tube-shell design for a reference application. Two concepts selected for hardware development are a direct contact heat exchanger in which molten salt droplets are injected into a cooler counterflowing stream of liquid metal carrier fluid, and a rotating drum scraper in which molten salt is sprayed onto the circumference of a rotating drum, which contains the fluid heat sink in an internal annulus near the surface. A fixed scraper blade removes the solidified salt from the surface which has been nickel plated to decrease adhesion forces. Suitable phase change material (PCM) storage media with melting points in the temperature range of interest (250 C to 400 C) were investigated. The specific salt recommended for laboratory tests was a chloride eutectic (20.5KCl-24/5 NaCl-55.0MgCl 2% by wt.), with a nominal melting point of 385 C.

  17. Observation of beat oscillation generation by coupled waves associated with parametric decay during radio frequency wave heating of a spherical tokamak plasma.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Oosako, Takuya; Takase, Yuichi; Ejiri, Akira; Watanabe, Osamu; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Adachi, Yuuki; Tojo, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kurashina, Hiroki; Yamada, Kotaro; An, Byung Il; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Shimpo, Fujio; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Matsuzawa, Haduki; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanashima, Kentaro; Kakuda, Hidetoshi; Sakamoto, Takuya; Wakatsuki, Takuma

    2010-06-18

    We present an observation of beat oscillation generation by coupled modes associated with parametric decay instability (PDI) during radio frequency (rf) wave heating experiments on the Tokyo Spherical Tokamak-2. Nearly identical PDI spectra, which are characterized by the coexistence of the rf pump wave, the lower-sideband wave, and the low-frequency oscillation in the ion-cyclotron range of frequency, are observed at various locations in the edge plasma. A bispectral power analysis was used to experimentally discriminate beat oscillation from the resonant mode for the first time. The pump and lower-sideband waves have resonant mode components, while the low-frequency oscillation is exclusively excited by nonlinear coupling of the pump and lower-sideband waves. Newly discovered nonlocal transport channels in spectral space and in real space via PDI are described.

  18. Nanovalve-Controlled Cargo Release Activated by Plasmonic Heating

    PubMed Central

    Croissant, Jonas; Zink, Jeffrey I.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis and operation of a light-operated nanovalve that controls the pore openings of mesoporous silica nanoparticles containing gold cores nanoparticles is described. The nanoparticles, consisting of 20 nm gold cores inside ~150 nm mesoporous silica spheres, were synthesized using a unique one-pot method. The nanovalves are comprised of cucurbit[6]uril rings encircling stalks that are attached to the ~2 nm pore openings. Plasmonic heating of the gold core raises the local temperature and decreases the ring-stalk binding constant, thereby unblocking the pore and releasing the cargo molecules that were preloaded inside. Bulk heating of the suspended particles to 60 °C is required to release the cargo, but no bulk temperature change was observed in the plasmonic heating release experiment. High intensity irradiation caused thermal damage to the silica particles, but low intensity illumination caused a sufficient local temperature increase to operate the valves without damaging the nanoparticles containers. These light-stimulated, thermally activated mechanized nanoparticles demonstrate a new system with potential utility for on-command drug release. PMID:22540671

  19. EVIDENCE OF IMPULSIVE HEATING IN ACTIVE REGION CORE LOOPS

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2010-11-01

    Using a full spectral scan of an active region from the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) we have obtained emission measure EM(T) distributions in two different moss regions within the same active region. We have compared these with theoretical transition region EMs derived for three limiting cases, namely, static equilibrium, strong condensation, and strong evaporation from Klimchuk et al. The EM distributions in both the moss regions are strikingly similar and show a monotonically increasing trend from log T[K] = 5.15-6.3. Using photospheric abundances, we obtain a consistent EM distribution for all ions. Comparing the observed and theoretical EM distributions, we find that the observed EM distribution is best explained by the strong condensation case (EM{sub con}), suggesting that a downward enthalpy flux plays an important and possibly dominant role in powering the transition region moss emission. The downflows could be due to unresolved coronal plasma that is cooling and draining after having been impulsively heated. This supports the idea that the hot loops (with temperatures of 3-5 MK) seen in the core of active regions are heated by nanoflares.

  20. Emission Measure Distribution and Heating of Two Active Region Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode, we have studied the coronal plasma in the core of two active regions. Concentrating on the area between opposite polarity moss, we found emission measure distributions having an approximate power-law form EM/T(exp 2.4) from log T = 5.55 up to a peak at log T = 6.57. The observations are explained extremely well by a simple nanoflare model. However, in the absence of additional constraints, the observations could possibly also be explained by steady heating.

  1. The effect of Peltier heat during current activated densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, A.; Angst, S.; Schmitz, A.; Engenhorst, M.; Stoetzel, J.; Gautam, D.; Wiggers, H.; Wolf, D. E.; Schierning, G.; Schmechel, R.

    2012-07-01

    It is shown that current-activated pressure-assisted densification (CAPAD) is sensitive to the Peltier effect. Under CAPAD, the Peltier effect leads to a significant redistribution of heat within the sample during the densification. The densification of highly p-doped silicon nanoparticles during CAPAD and the properties of the obtained samples are investigated experimentally and by computer simulation. Both, simulation and experiments, indicate clearly a higher temperature on the cathode side and a decreasing temperature from the center to the outer shell. Furthermore, computer simulations provide additional insights into the temperature profile which explain the anisotropic properties of the measured sample.

  2. Effect of Water Activities of Heating and Recovery Media on Apparent Heat Resistance of Bacillus cereus Spores

    PubMed Central

    Coroller, Louis; Leguérinel, Ivan; Mafart, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus cereus were heated and recovered in order to investigate the effect of water activity of media on the estimated heat resistance (i.e., the D value) of spores. The water activity (ranging from 0.9 to 1) of the heating medium was first successively controlled with three solutes (glycerol, glucose, and sucrose), while the water activity of the recovery medium was kept near 1. Reciprocally, the water activity of the heating medium was then kept at 1, while the water activity of the recovery medium was controlled from 0.9 to 1 with the same depressors. Lastly, in a third set of experiments, the heating medium and the recovery medium were adjusted to the same activity. As expected, added depressors caused an increase of the heat resistance of spores with a greater efficiency of sucrose with respect to glycerol and glucose. In contrast, when solutes were added to the recovery medium, under an optimal water activity close to 0.98, a decrease of water activity caused a decrease in the estimated D values. This effect was more pronounced when sucrose was used as a depressor instead of glycerol or glucose. When the heating and the recovery media were adjusted to the same water activity, a balancing effect was observed between the protective influence of the solutes during heat treatment and their negative effect during the recovery of injured cells, so that the overall effect of water activity was reduced, with an optimal value near 0.96. The difference between the efficiency of depressors was also less pronounced. It may then be concluded that the overall protective effect of a decrease in water activity is generally overestimated. PMID:11133461

  3. Sequential activation of multiple grounding pads reduces skin heating.

    PubMed

    Schutt, D J; Haemmerich, D

    2006-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) tumor ablation has become an accepted treatment modality for tumors not amenable to surgery. The need for larger ablation zones has required increase in RF generator power, with current generation devices delivering 200-250 W. Skin burns due to ground pad heating have become a common complication and are now a limiting factor for further increase in ablation zone and generator power. We performed ex vivo experiments with three ground pads (5 x 5 cm) placed on a tissue phantom. We applied 100 W of power for 12 min between the pads, and an RF electrode while we measured leading edge temperature below each pad, and temperature profile on the pads using temperature-sensitive LCD-paper. We compared conventional operation (i.e. simultaneous connection of all three pads) to sequential activation of the pads where each pad is only active for approximately 0.5 s. The timing during sequential activation was adjusted to keep leading edge temperature equal between the pads. Temperature rise below the leading edge for proximal, middle and distal ground pad was 10.7 +/- 1.04, 1.0 +/- 0.15 and 0.3 +/- 0.07 degrees C for conventional operation, and 4.8 +/- 0.16, 4.4 +/- 0.20 and 4.5 +/- 0.35 degrees C for sequentially activated operation. The maximum leading edge temperature rise was more than twice as high for conventional compared to switched operation (p<0.001). Sequential activation of multiple ground pads resulted in reduced maximum leading edge temperature, and allows control of each pad such that leading edge temperature of all pads is the same. This may reduce the incidence of ground pad burns by allowing each pad to reach same temperatures independent of location, and may allow higher power RF generators due to reduced skin heating.

  4. Selective disruption of high sensitivity heat activation but not capsaicin activation of TRPV1 channels by pore turret mutations.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fan; Cao, Xu; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Wang, KeWei; Zheng, Jie

    2012-04-01

    The capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)1 is a highly heat-sensitive ion channel. Although chemical activation and heat activation of TRPV1 elicit similar pungent, painful sensation, the molecular mechanism underlying synergistic activation remains mysterious. In particular, where the temperature sensor is located and whether heat and capsaicin share a common activation pathway are debated. To address these fundamental issues, we searched for channel mutations that selectively affected one form of activation. We found that deletion of the first 10 amino acids of the pore turret significantly reduced the heat response amplitude and shifted the heat activation threshold, whereas capsaicin activation remained unchanged. Removing larger portions of the turret disrupted channel function. Introducing an artificial sequence to replace the deleted region restored sensitive capsaicin activation in these nonfunctional channels. The heat activation, however, remained significantly impaired, with the current exhibiting diminishing heat sensitivity to a level indistinguishable from that of a voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv7.4. Our results demonstrate that heat and capsaicin activation of TRPV1 are structurally and mechanistically distinct processes, and the pore turret is an indispensible channel structure involved in the heat activation process but is not part of the capsaicin activation pathway. Synergistic effect of heat and capsaicin on TRPV1 activation may originate from convergence of the two pathways on a common activation gate.

  5. Complexation of imazalil with beta-cyclodextrin, residue uptake, persistence, and activity against penicillium decay in citrus fruit following postharvest dip treatments.

    PubMed

    Schirra, Mario; Delogu, Giovanna; Cabras, Paolo; Angioni, Alberto; D'hallewin, Guy; Veyrat, Ana; Marcos, Jose F; Candelas, Luis González

    2002-11-06

    A method for the inclusion of imazalil (IMZ) in the beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD), structural characterization of the inclusion complex and its antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum assessed by in vitro and in vivo tests are reported. According to the starting stoichiometry of betaCD with respect to IMZ, an equimolar ratio beta-cyclodextrin-IMZ (betaCD-IMZ) was detected by (1)H NMR. In vitro assays showed that the freshly prepared betaCD-IMZ was as effective as IMZ, although 1- and 4-day-old betaCD-IMZ mixtures were more effective. Studies on Star Ruby grapefruit showed no significant differences in residue uptake between treatments with an IMZ commercially available fungicide (Deccozil) or betaCD-IMZ when equal active ingredient (a.i.) concentrations (250 mg/L) and dip temperatures (20 or 50 degrees C) were used. By contrast, treatments of Tarocco oranges and Di Massa lemons with 250 mg/L betaCD-IMZ at 50 degrees C produced significant differences in residue uptake in comparison with 250 mg/L Deccozil treatments at 50 degrees C. The a.i. degradation rate in grapefruit during postquarantine and simulated marketing period (SMP) at 20 degrees C was not affected by the type of formulation used, whether at 20 or 50 degrees C. Conversely, IMZ in oranges and lemons had greater persistence when applied at 50 degrees C. All fungicide treatments showed a comparable efficacy against decay in grapefruit and oranges, whereas treatment in lemons at 250 mg/L a.i. of heated fungicides had higher suppressive effects against decay than unheated chemicals having equal a.i. concentrations and comparable activity at 1200 mg/L IMZ at 20 degrees C.

  6. "Radio-Active" Learning: Visual Representation of Radioactive Decay Using Dice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Lynda; Kagan, David

    2010-01-01

    The idea of using a dice game to simulate radioactive decay is not new. However, modern pedagogy encourages, if not requires, us to provide multiple representations and visualizations for our students. The advantage of interactive engagement methods also has been made clear. Here we describe a highly visual and interactive use of dice to develop…

  7. Glass transition temperatures and fermentative activity of heat-treated commercial active dry yeasts.

    PubMed

    Schebor, C; Galvagno, M; del Pilar Buera, M; Chirife, J

    2000-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms of various samples of commercial instant active dry yeasts revealed a clear glass transition typical of amorphous carbohydrates and sugars. The resulting glass transition temperatures were found to decrease with increasing moisture content. The observed glass curve was similar to that of pure trehalose, which is known to accumulate in large amounts in baker's yeast. The effect of heat treatment at various temperatures on the fermentative activity (as measured by the metabolic production of CO(2)) of dry yeast was studied. First-order plots were obtained representing the loss of fermentative activity as a function of heating time at the various temperatures assayed. Significant losses of fermentative activity were observed in vitrified yeast samples. The dependence of rate constants with temperature was found to follow Arrhenius behavior. The relationship between the loss of fermentative activity and glass transition was not verified, and the glass transition was not reflected on the temperature dependence of fermentative activity loss.

  8. Teratogen metabolism: spontaneous decay hydrolysis products of thalidomide and thalidomide analogue are not activated by liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, A.G.; Weinreb, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    Thalidomide and two analogues, EM87 and EM12, inhibit the attachment of tumor cells to concanavalin A coated surfaces only if the drugs are treated with hepatic microsomes and cofactors. Pre-incubation of these drugs in buffered saline at 37 C results in a progressive decline in their ability to be activated to inhibitory products. Similarly, post-incubation of the inhibitory products leads to a decline in their ability to inhibit attachment. Decay rates differ for the three compounds. Thalidomide, EM87 and EM12 require 3 hours, 1 hour and 6 hours, respectively, to decline to control levels. These relative rates of decay are consistent with the relative teratogenicity of the three drugs.

  9. Infrared micro-thermography of an actively heated preconcentrator device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furstenberg, Robert; Kendziora, C. A.; Stepnowski, Stanley V.; Mott, David R.; McGill, R. Andrew

    2008-03-01

    We report infrared micro-thermography measurements and analysis of static and transient temperature maps of an actively heated micro-fabricated preconcentrator device that incorporates a dual serpentine platinum heater trace deposited on a perforated polyimide membrane and suspended over a silicon frame. The sorbent coated perforated membrane is used to collect vapors and gases that flow through the preconcentrator. After heating, a concentrated pulse of analyte is released into the detector. Due to its small thermal mass, precise thermal management of the preconcentrator is critical to its performance. The sizes of features, the semi-transparent membrane, the need to flow air through the device, and changes in surface emissivity on a micron scale present many challenges for traditional infrared micro-thermography. We report an improved experimental test-bed. The hardware incorporates a custom-designed miniature calibration oven which, in conjunction with spatial filtering and a simple calibration algorithm, allows accurate temperature maps to be obtained. The test-bed incorporates a micro-bolometer array as the infrared imager. Instrumentation design, calibration and image processing algorithms are discussed and analyzed. The procedure does not require prior knowledge of the emissivity. We show that relatively inexpensive uncooled bolometers arrays can be used in certain radiometric applications. Heating profiles were examined with both uniform and non-uniform air flow through the device. The conclusions from this study provide critical information for optimal integration of the preconcentrator within a detection system, and in the design of the heater trace layout to achieve a more even temperature distribution across the device.

  10. Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of heated foods

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M.G.; Johansson, M.; Jones, A.L.; Blakley, M.; Felton, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    Cooked foods were extracted and analyzed for mutagenic activity and assayed for known heterocyclic amines (HAs) by the Ames/Salmonella test and HPLC, respectively. Fried meats contain HAs (predominantly PhIP, MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and A{alpha}C) that are potent promutagens in bacteria, mutagenic in cultured mammalian cells, and carcinogenic in rodents and in nonhuman primates. Meats contain levels ranging from undetectable (< 0.1 ppb) to 50 ppb of known HAs when fried at temperatures from 190 to 250{degrees}C. These identified compounds are responsible for ca 75% of the measured mutagenic activity in Salmonella strain TA98. Barbecued beef and chicken have up to several thousand TA98 revertants per gram (rev/g) of cooked meat, with only ca 30% of the mutagenic activity accounted for by known heterocyclic amines. Some heated nonmeat foods also contain potent mutagenic activity. Toasted breads, cereals and snack foods have 0 to 10 TA98 rev/g, but overtoasting yields up to 40 rev/g, wheat and gluten-containing products are associated with higher activity. Grain-based coffee-substitute powders and instant coffees have 190 to 380 rev/g in TA98, and 1100 to 4000 rev/g in strain YG1024. The identify of the compounds responsible for the mutagenic activity are unknown in these non-meat foods. Toasted grain-based foods probably contribute less than 10% of the total mutagenic activity of the diet, with meat products responsible for the reminder. The finding of varying amounts of known and unknown mutagens in some cooked foods may be responsible for the poorly understood variation in human cancer incidence worldwide.

  11. Ion Heating Anisotropy during Dynamo Activity in the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, D. J.; Chapman, J. T.; Craig, D.; Fiksel, G.; Fontana, P. W.

    1999-11-01

    MHD dynamo activity is large in the MST Reversed-Field Pinch during sawtooth crashes, and small otherwise. During a sawtooth crash, ion temperature increases rapidly to a level several times as high as the temperature between sawteeth, which itself can be larger than the electron temperature. Several theories have been developed to explain this ion heating, some indicating a possible asymmetry in perpendicular to parallel heating [C. G. Gimblett, Europhys. Lett. 11, 541 (1990); Z. Yoshida, Nucl. Fusion 31, 386 (1991); N. Mattor, P. W. Terry, and S. C. Prager, Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 15, 65 (1992)]. In standard MST discharges, impurity ion temperature measured perpendicular to the magnetic field (T_⊥) is higher than impurity ion temperature parallel to the magnetic field (T_allel) during a sawtooth crash. Throughout the rest of the sawtooth cycle, T_⊥ <= T_allel. This is in contrast to results obtained on the EXTRAP-T2 RFP which showed T_⊥ < T_allel throughout the discharge [K. Sasaki et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 39, 333 (1997)

  12. Thermal design for areas of interference heating on actively cooled hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, R. L.; Stone, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Numerous actively cooled panel design alternatives for application in regions on high speed aircraft that are subject to interference heating effects were studied. Candidate design concepts were evaluated using mass, producibility, reliability and inspectability/maintainability as figures of merit. Three design approaches were identified as superior within certain regimes of the matrix of design heating conditions considered. Only minor modifications to basic actively cooled panel design are required to withstand minor interference heating effects. Designs incorporating internally finned coolant tubes to augment heat transfer are recommended for moderate design heating conditions. At severe heating conditions, an insulated panel concept is required.

  13. Active solar heating and cooling information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on active solar heating and cooling (SHAC). An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 19 SHAC groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Manufacturers (4 groups), Distributors, Installers, Architects, Builders, Planners, Engineers (2 groups), Representatives of Utilities, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, Building Owners/Managers, and Homeowners (2 groups). The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  14. mRNA Decay of Most Arabidopsis miRNA Targets Requires Slicer Activity of AGO11[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression in animals and plants. They guide RNA-induced silencing complexes to complementary target mRNA, thereby mediating mRNA degradation or translational repression. ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins bind directly to miRNAs and may catalyze cleavage (slicing) of target mRNAs. In animals, miRNA target degradation via slicing occurs only exceptionally, and target mRNA decay is induced via AGO-dependent recruitment of deadenylase complexes. Conversely, plant miRNAs generally direct slicing of their targets, but it is unclear whether slicer-independent mechanisms of target mRNA decay also exist, and, if so, how much they contribute to miRNA-induced mRNA decay. Here, we compare phenotypes and transcript profiles of ago1 null and slicer-deficient mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We also construct conditional loss-of-function mutants of AGO1 to allow transcript profiling in true leaves. Although phenotypic differences between ago1 null and slicer-deficient mutants can be discerned, the results of both transcript profiling approaches indicate that slicer activity is required for mRNA repression of the vast majority of miRNA targets. A set of genes exhibiting up-regulation specifically in ago1 null, but not in ago1 slicer-deficient mutants was also identified, leaving open the possibility that AGO1 may have functions in gene regulation independent of small RNAs. PMID:27208258

  15. Energy-Storage Modules for Active Solar Heating and Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    34 page report describes a melting salt hydrate that stores 12 times as much heat as rocks and other heavy materials. Energy is stored mostly as latent heat; that is, heat that can be stored and recovered without any significant change in temperature. Report also describes development, evaluation and testing of permanently sealed modules containing salt hydrate mixture.

  16. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that hydrocarbon addition to soil provokes soil organic matter priming (Zyakun et al., 2011). It has further been shown that petroleum hydrocarbons deposit to roadside soils bound to fine mineral particles and together with vehicle spray (Mykhailova et al., 2014), and that hydrocarbon concentrations decrease to safe levels within the first 15 m from the road, reaching background concentrations at 60-100 m distance (Mykhailova et al., 2013). It was the aim of this study to (I) identify the bioavailability of different petroleum hydrocarbon fractions to degradation and to (II) identify the native (i.e. pedogenic) C fraction affected by hydrocarbon-mediated soil organic matter priming during decay. To address this aim, we collected soil samples at distances from 1 to 100 m (sampling depth 15 cm) near the Traktorostroiteley avenue and the Pushkinskaya street in Kharkov, as well as near the country road M18 near Kharkov, Ukraine. The roads have been under exploitation for several decades, so microbial adaptation to enhanced hydrocarbon levels and full expression of effects could be assumed. The following C fractions were quantified using 13C-CP/MAS-NMR: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lignin, Aliphates, Carbonyl/Carboxyl as well as black carbon according to Nelson and Baldock (2005). Petroleum hydrocarbons were determind after hexane extraction using GC-MS and divided into a light fraction (chain-length C27, Mykhailova et al., 2013). Potential soil respiration was determined every 48 h by trapping of CO2 evolving from 20 g soil in NaOH at 20 ° C and at 60% of the maximum water holding capacity and titration after a total incubation period of 4 weeks in the lab. It was found that soil respiration positively correlated with the ratio of the light fraction to the sum of medium and heavy fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons, which indicates higher biodegradation primarily of the light petroleum hydrocarbon fraction. Further, soil respiration was

  17. Radioactive Decay

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  18. Fluid flow and heat convection studies for actively cooled airframes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, A. F.

    This report details progress made on the jet impingement - liquid crystal - digital imaging experiment. With the design phase complete, the experiment is currently in the construction phase. In order to reach this phase two design related issues were resolved. The first issue was to determine NASP leading edge active cooling design parameters. Meetings were arranged with personnel at SAIC International, Torrance, CA in order to obtain recent publications that characterized expected leading edge heat fluxes as well as other details of NASP operating conditions. The information in these publications was used to estimate minimum and maximum jet Reynolds numbers needed to accomplish the required leading edge cooling, and to determine the parameters of the experiment. The details of this analysis are shown in Appendix A. One of the concerns for the NASP design is that of thermal stress due to large surface temperature gradients. Using a series of circular jets to cool the leading edge will cause a non-uniform temperature distribution and potentially large thermal stresses. Therefore it was decided to explore the feasibility of using a slot jet to cool the leading edge. The literature contains many investigations into circular jet heat transfer but few investigations of slot jet heat transfer. The first experiments will be done on circular jets impinging on a fiat plate and results compared to previously published data to establish the accuracy of the method. Subsequent experiments will be slot jets impinging on full scale models of the NASP leading edge. Table 1 shows the range of parameters to be explored. Next a preliminary design of the experiment was done. Previous papers which used a similar experimental technique were studied and elements of those experiments adapted to the jet impingement study. Trade-off studies were conducted to determine which design was the least expensive, easy to construct, and easy to use. Once the final design was settled, vendors were

  19. Fluid flow and heat convection studies for actively cooled airframes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, A. F.

    1993-01-01

    This report details progress made on the jet impingement - liquid crystal - digital imaging experiment. With the design phase complete, the experiment is currently in the construction phase. In order to reach this phase two design related issues were resolved. The first issue was to determine NASP leading edge active cooling design parameters. Meetings were arranged with personnel at SAIC International, Torrance, CA in order to obtain recent publications that characterized expected leading edge heat fluxes as well as other details of NASP operating conditions. The information in these publications was used to estimate minimum and maximum jet Reynolds numbers needed to accomplish the required leading edge cooling, and to determine the parameters of the experiment. The details of this analysis are shown in Appendix A. One of the concerns for the NASP design is that of thermal stress due to large surface temperature gradients. Using a series of circular jets to cool the leading edge will cause a non-uniform temperature distribution and potentially large thermal stresses. Therefore it was decided to explore the feasibility of using a slot jet to cool the leading edge. The literature contains many investigations into circular jet heat transfer but few investigations of slot jet heat transfer. The first experiments will be done on circular jets impinging on a fiat plate and results compared to previously published data to establish the accuracy of the method. Subsequent experiments will be slot jets impinging on full scale models of the NASP leading edge. Table 1 shows the range of parameters to be explored. Next a preliminary design of the experiment was done. Previous papers which used a similar experimental technique were studied and elements of those experiments adapted to the jet impingement study. Trade-off studies were conducted to determine which design was the least expensive, easy to construct, and easy to use. Once the final design was settled, vendors were

  20. Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    You call it a cavity. Your dentist calls it tooth decay or dental caries. They're all names for a hole in your tooth. The cause of tooth decay is plaque, a sticky substance in your mouth made up mostly of germs. Tooth decay starts in the outer layer, called the enamel. Without ...

  1. Development and demonstration of a Stirling/Rankine heat activated heat pump. Phase 3B: Engine technology development testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-11-01

    The results of the Phase 3B Stirling/Rankine Heat Activated Heat Pump product development program are given. Results of the Phase 2 program indicated deficiencies in the performance of the free-piston Stirling engine and mismatching of the dynamic characteristics of the engine and the compressor. These deficiencies were further investigated during in-depth diagnostic testing of the engine/compressor unit in the Phase 3B and indicated appropriate engine/compressor matching criteria.

  2. The Chemistry of Self-Heating Food Products: An Activity for Classroom Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Pinto, Gabriel; Llorens-Molina, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Two commercial self-heating food products have been used to apply chemical concepts such as stoichiometry, enthalpies of reactions and solutions, and heat transfer in a classroom activity. These products are the self-heating beverages sold in Europe and the Meals, Ready to Eat or MREs used primarily by the military in the United States. The main…

  3. Degradation of Biochemical Activity in Soil Sterilized by Dry Heat and Gamma Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, K. L.; Souza, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of soil sterilization by dry heat (0.08% relative humidity), gamma radiation, or both on soil phosphatase, urease, and decarboxylase activity was studied. Soil sterilized by a long exposure to dry heat at relatively low temperatures (eight weeks at 100.5 C) retained higher activities than did soil exposed to a higher temperature (two weeks at 124.5 C), while all activity was destroyed by four days at 148.5 C. Sterilization with 7.5 Mrads destroyed less activity than did heat sterilization. The effect of several individually nonsterizing doses of heat radiation is described.

  4. Subcontracted activities related to TES for building heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The subcontract program elements related to thermal energy storage for building heating and cooling systems are outlined. The following factors are included: subcontracts in the utility load management application area; life and stability testing of packaged low cost energy storage materials; and development of thermal energy storage systems for residential space cooling. Resistance storage heater component development, demonstration of storage heater systems for residential applications, and simulation and evaluation of latent heat thermal energy storage (heat pump systems) are also discussed. Application of thermal energy storage for solar application and twin cities district heating are covered including an application analysis and technology assessment of thermal energy storage.

  5. Subcontracted activities related to TES for building heating and cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J.

    1980-03-01

    The subcontract program elements related to thermal energy storage for building heating and cooling systems are outlined. The following factors are included: subcontracts in the utility load management application area; life and stability testing of packaged low cost energy storage materials; and development of thermal energy storage systems for residential space cooling. Resistance storage heater component development, demonstration of storage heater systems for residential applications, and simulation and evaluation of latent heat thermal energy storage (heat pump systems) are also discussed. Application of thermal energy storage for solar application and twin cities district heating are covered including an application analysis and technology assessment of thermal energy storage.

  6. When and where the aftershock activity was depressed: Contrasting decay patterns of the proximate large earthquakes in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogata, Y.; Jones, L.M.; Toda, S.

    2003-01-01

    Seismic quiescence has attracted attention as a possible precursor to a large earthquake. However, sensitive detection of quiescence requires accurate modeling of normal aftershock activity. We apply the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model that is a natural extension of the modified Omori formula for aftershock decay, allowing further clusters (secondary aftershocks) within an aftershock sequence. The Hector Mine aftershock activity has been normal, relative to the decay predicted by the ETAS model during the 14 months of available data. In contrast, although the aftershock sequence of the 1992 Landers earthquake (M = 7.3), including the 1992 Big Bear earthquake (M = 6.4) and its aftershocks, fits very well to the ETAS up until about 6 months after the main shock, the activity showed clear lowering relative to the modeled rate (relative quiescence) and lasted nearly 7 years, leading up to the Hector Mine earthquake (M = 7.1) in 1999. Specifically, the relative quiescence occurred only in the shallow aftershock activity, down to depths of 5-6 km. The sequence of deeper events showed clear, normal aftershock activity well fitted to the ETAS throughout the whole period. We argue several physical explanations for these results. Among them, we strongly suspect aseismic slips within the Hector Mine rupture source that could inhibit the crustal relaxation process within "shadow zones" of the Coulomb's failure stress change. Furthermore, the aftershock activity of the 1992 Joshua Tree earthquake (M = 6.1) sharply lowered in the same day of the main shock, which can be explained by a similar scenario.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 70 lacks immune modulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Pooe, Ofentse Jacob; Köllisch, Gabriele; Heine, Holger; Shonhai, Addmore

    2017-02-14

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family are conserved molecules that constitute a major part of the cell's protein folding machinery. The role of Hsp70s of parasitic origin in host cell immune modulation has remained contentious. This is largely due to the fact that several studies implicating Hsp70 in immune modulation rely on the use of recombinant protein derived from bacteria which is often fraught contamination. Thus, in the current study, we expressed recombinant Plasmodium falciparum Hsp70 (PfHsp70) using in three bacterial expression hosts: E. coli XL1 Blue, E. coli ClearColi BL21 and Brevibacillus choshinensis, respectively. We further investigated the immunostimulatory capability of the protein by assessing cytokine production by murine immune cells cultured in the presence of the protein. Recombinant PfHsp70 obtained from E. coli XL1 Blue expression host induced IL6 and IL8 cytokines. On the other hand, PfHsp70 produced in E. coli ClearColi and B. choshinensis expression systems was associated with no detectable traces of LPS and exhibited no immunomodulatory activity. Our findings suggest that PfHsp70 does not possess immunomodulatory function. Furthermore, our study suggests that E. coli ClearColi and B. choshinensis are versatile for the production of recombinant protein for use in immunomodulatory studies.

  8. Active region emission measure distributions and implications for nanoflare heating

    SciTech Connect

    Cargill, P. J.

    2014-03-20

    The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of active regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ∼ T{sup a} below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (T{sub N} ) and the distribution of nanoflare energies. If T{sub N} is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the distribution of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly distributed, or a power law. Power law distributions where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, T{sub N} must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.

  9. Active Region Emission Measure Distributions and Implications for Nanoflare Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cargill, P. J.

    2014-03-01

    The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of active regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ~ Ta below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (TN ) and the distribution of nanoflare energies. If TN is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the distribution of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly distributed, or a power law. Power law distributions where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, TN must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.

  10. HEAT INPUT AND POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON REDUCED-ACTIVATION FERRITIC/MARTENSITIC STEEL FRICTION STIR WELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Wei; Chen, Gaoqiang; Chen, Jian; Yu, Xinghua; Frederick, David Alan; Feng, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are an important class of structural materials for fusion reactor internals developed in recent years because of their improved irradiation resistance. However, they can suffer from welding induced property degradations. In this paper, a solid phase joining technology friction stir welding (FSW) was adopted to join a RAFM steel Eurofer 97 and different FSW parameters/heat input were chosen to produce welds. FSW response parameters, joint microstructures and microhardness were investigated to reveal relationships among welding heat input, weld structure characterization and mechanical properties. In general, FSW heat input results in high hardness inside the stir zone mostly due to a martensitic transformation. It is possible to produce friction stir welds similar to but not with exactly the same base metal hardness when using low power input because of other hardening mechanisms. Further, post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is a very effective way to reduce FSW stir zone hardness values.

  11. Beta and gamma decay heat measurements between 0.1s--50,000s for neutron fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu. Final report, June 1, 1992--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schier, W. A.; Couchell, G. P.

    1996-01-01

    This is a final reporting on the composition of separate beta and gamma decay heat measurements following neutron fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu and on cumulative and independent yield measurements of fission products of {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U. What made these studies unique was the very short time of 0.1 s after fission that could be achieved by incorporating the helium jet and tape transport system as the technique for transporting fission fragments from the neutron environment of the fission chamber to the low-background environment of the counting area. This capability allowed for the first time decay heat measurements to extend nearly two decades lower on the logarithmic delay time scale, a region where no comprehensive aggregate decay heat measurements had extended to. This short delay time capability also allowed the measurement of individual fission products with half lives as short as 0.2s. The purpose of such studies was to provide tests both at the aggregate level and at the individual nuclide level of the nation`s evaluated nuclear data file associated with fission, ENDF/B-VI. The results of these tests are in general quite encouraging indicating this data base generally predicts correctly the aggregate beta and aggregate gamma decay heat as a function of delay time for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu. Agreement with the measured individual nuclide cumulative and independent yields for fission products of {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U was also quite good although the present measurements suggest needed improvements in several individual cases.

  12. Drosophila painless is a Ca2+-requiring channel activated by noxious heat.

    PubMed

    Sokabe, Takaaki; Tsujiuchi, Seiya; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2008-10-01

    Thermal changes activate some members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel super family. They are primary sensors for detecting environmental temperatures. The Drosophila TRP channel Painless is believed responsible for avoidance of noxious heat because painless mutant flies display defects in heat sensing. However, no studies have proven its heat responsiveness. We show that Painless expressed in human embryonic kidney-derived 293 (HEK293) cells is a noxious heat-activated, Ca(2+)-permeable channel, and the function is mostly dependent on Ca(2+). In Ca(2+)-imaging, Painless mediated a robust intracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(i)) increase during heating, and it showed heat-evoked inward currents in whole-cell patch-clamp mode. Ca(2+) permeability was much higher than that of other cations. Heat-evoked currents were negligible in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(o)) and Ca(2+)(i), whereas 200 nm Ca(2+)(i) enabled heat activation of Painless. Activation kinetics were significantly accelerated in the presence of Ca(2+)(i). The temperature threshold for Painless activation was 42.6 degrees C in the presence of Ca(2+)(i), whereas the threshold was significantly increased to 44.1 degrees C when only Ca(2+)(o) was present. Temperature thresholds were further reduced after repetitive heating in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Ca(2+)-dependent heat activation of Painless was observed at the single-channel level in excised membranes. We found that a Ca(2+)-regulatory site is located in the N-terminal region of Painless. Painless-expressing HEK293 cells were insensitive to various thermosensitive TRP channel activators including allyl isothiocyanate, whereas mammalian TRPA1 inhibitors, ruthenium red, and camphor, reversibly blocked heat activation of Painless. Our results demonstrate that Painless is a direct sensor for noxious heat in Drosophila.

  13. Melatonin treatment attenuates postharvest decay and maintains nutritional quality of strawberry fruits (Fragaria×anannasa cv. Selva) by enhancing GABA shunt activity.

    PubMed

    Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Fard, Javad Rezapour

    2017-04-15

    Fresh strawberry fruits as perishable commodities have a short postharvest life and are prone to postharvest fungal decay. In this study, the impact of 0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000μmol/L melatonin on attenuating fungal decay and maintaining nutritional quality of strawberry fruits was investigated during storage at 4°C for 12days. Melatonin treatment at 100μmol/L triggered H2O2 accumulation, which result from higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, associated with lower catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, leading to fruits with lower decay. Higher H2O2 accumulation was concurrent with higher phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme activity leading to higher total phenols and anthocyanins accumulation along with higher DPPH scavenging capacity. Also, strawberry fruits treated with melatonin exhibited higher γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) enzyme activity which ensured sufficient ATP supplying leading to higher unsaturated/saturated fatty acids (unSFA/SFA) ratio.

  14. The composition, anti-mildew and anti-wood-decay fungal activities of the leaf and fruit oils of Juniperus formosana from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Chang; Hsu, Kuan-Ping; Wang, Eugene I-Chen; Ho, Chen-Lung

    2013-09-01

    In this study, anti-mildew and anti-wood-decay fungal activities of the leaf and fruits essential oil and its constituents from Juniperus formosana were evaluated in vitro against seven mildew fungi and four wood decay fungi, respectively. The main compounds responsible for the anti-mildew and anti-wood-decay fungal activities were also identified. The essential oil from the fresh leaves and fruits of J. formosana were isolated using hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The leaf oil mainly consisted of alpha-pinene (41.0%), limonene (11.5%), alpha-cadinol (11.0%), elemol (6.3%), and beta-myrcene (5.8%); the fruit oil was mostly alpha-pinene (40.9%), beta-myrcene (32.4%), alpha-thujene (5.9%) and limonene (5.9%). Comparing the anti-mildew and anti-wood-decay fungal activities of the oils suggested that the leaf oil was the most effective. For the anti-mildew and anti-wood-decay fungal activities of the leaf oil, the active source compounds were determined to be alpha-cadinol and elemol.

  15. Inhibition of Geobacter dechlorinators at elevated trichloroethene concentrations is explained by a reduced activity rather than by an enhanced cell decay.

    PubMed

    Philips, Jo; Haest, Pieter Jan; Springael, Dirk; Smolders, Erik

    2013-02-05

    Microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) is inhibited at elevated TCE concentrations. A batch experiment and modeling analysis were performed to examine whether this self-inhibition is related to an enhanced cell decay or a reduced dechlorination activity at increasing TCE concentrations. The batch experiment combined four different initial TCE concentrations (1.4-3.0 mM) and three different inoculation densities (4.0 × 10(5) to 4.0 × 10(7)Geobacter cells·mL(-1)). Chlorinated ethene concentrations and Geobacter 16S rRNA gene copy numbers were measured. The time required for complete conversion of TCE to cis-DCE increased with increasing initial TCE concentration and decreasing inoculation density. Both an enhanced decay and a reduced activity model fitted the experimental results well, although the reduced activity model better described the lag phase and microbial decay in some treatments. In addition, the reduced activity model succeeded in predicting the reactivation of the dechlorination reaction in treatments in which the inhibiting TCE concentration was lowered after 80 days. In contrast, the enhanced decay model predicted a Geobacter cell density that was too low to allow recovery for these treatments. Conclusively, our results suggest that TCE self-inhibition is related to a reduced dechlorination activity rather than to an enhanced cell decay at elevated TCE concentrations.

  16. A semi-analytical model for heat and mass transfer in geothermal reservoirs to estimate fracture surface-are-to-volume ratios and thermal breakthrough using thermally-decaying and diffusing tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, Paul W

    2010-12-08

    A semi-analytical model was developed to conduct rapid scoping calculations of responses of thermally degrading and diffusing tracers in multi-well tracer tests in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The model is based on an existing Laplace transform inversion model for solute transport in dual-porosity media. The heat- and mass-transfer calculations are decoupled and conducted sequentially, taking advantage of the fact that heat transfer between fractures and the rock matrix is much more rapid than mass transfer and therefore mass transfer will effectively occur in a locally isothermal system (although the system will be nonisothermal along fracture flow pathways, which is accounted for by discretizing the flow pathways into multiple segments that have different temperature histories). The model takes advantage of the analogies between heat and mass transfer, solving the same governing equations with k{sub m}/({rho}C{sub p}){sub w} being substituted for {phi}D{sub m} in the equation for fracture transport and k{sub m}/({rho}C{sub p}){sub m} being subsituted for D{sub m} in the equation for matrix transport; where k = thermal conductivity (cal/cm-s-K), {rho} = density (g/cm{sup 3}), C{sub p} = heat capacity (at constant pressure) (cal/g-K), {phi} = matrix porosity, and D = tracer diffusion coefficient (cm{sup 2}/s), with the subscripts w and m referring to water and matrix, respectively. A significant advantage of the model is that it executes in a fraction of second on a single-CPU personal computer, making it very amenable for parameter estimation algorithms that involve repeated runs to find global minima. The combined thermal-mass transport model was used to evaluate the ability to estimate when thermal breakthrough would occur in a multi-well EGS configuration using thermally degrading tracers. Calculations were conducted to evaluate the range of values of Arrhenius parameters, A and E{sub {alpha}} (pre-exponential factor, 1/s, and activation energy, cal

  17. Potential techniques and development activities in diver suit heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlosinger, A. P.

    1972-01-01

    A prototype compact reactor suitable for combustion of propane with oxygen under shallow as well as submerged deep submergence diving conditions is reported. The device is used to heat the circulating water in a water tube-type diving suit.

  18. Preparation of high surface area activated carbon from coconut shells using microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kunbin; Peng, Jinhui; Srinivasakannan, C; Zhang, Libo; Xia, Hongying; Duan, Xinhui

    2010-08-01

    The present study attempts to utilize coconut shell to prepare activated carbon using agents such as steam, CO(2) and a mixture of steam-CO(2) with microwave heating. Experimental results show that the BET surface area of activated carbons irrespective of the activation agent resulted in surface area in excess of 2000 m(2)/g. The activation time using microwave heating is very much shorter, while the yield of the activated carbon compares well with the conventional heating methods. The activated carbon prepared using CO(2) activation has the largest BET surface area, however the activation time is approximately 2.5 times higher than the activation using steam or mixture of steam-CO(2). The chemical structure of activated carbons examined using Fourier transformed infra-red spectra (FTIR) did not show any variation in the surface functional groups of the activated carbon prepared using different activation agents.

  19. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Brain Network Connectivity Maintains Cognition across the Lifespan Despite Accelerated Decay of Regional Brain Activation

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Richard N.A.; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Razi, Adeel; Geerligs, Linda; Ham, Timothy E.; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of wellbeing across the lifespan depends on the preservation of cognitive function. We propose that successful cognitive aging is determined by interactions both within and between large-scale functional brain networks. Such connectivity can be estimated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), also known as resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). However, common correlational methods are confounded by age-related changes in the neurovascular signaling. To estimate network interactions at the neuronal rather than vascular level, we used generative models that specified both the neural interactions and a flexible neurovascular forward model. The networks' parameters were optimized to explain the spectral dynamics of rs-fMRI data in 602 healthy human adults from population-based cohorts who were approximately uniformly distributed between 18 and 88 years (www.cam-can.com). We assessed directed connectivity within and between three key large-scale networks: the salience network, dorsal attention network, and default mode network. We found that age influences connectivity both within and between these networks, over and above the effects on neurovascular coupling. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that the relationship between network connectivity and cognitive function was age-dependent: cognitive performance relied on neural dynamics more strongly in older adults. These effects were driven partly by reduced stability of neural activity within all networks, as expressed by an accelerated decay of neural information. Our findings suggest that the balance of excitatory connectivity between networks, and the stability of intrinsic neural representations within networks, changes with age. The cognitive function of older adults becomes increasingly dependent on these factors. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Maintaining cognitive function is critical to successful aging. To study the neural basis of cognitive function across the lifespan, we studied a

  20. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  1. Heat Pipe Solar Receiver Development Activities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.R.; Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.; Rawlinson, K.S.; Showalter, S.K.

    1999-01-08

    Over the past decade, Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in the development of receivers to transfer energy from the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator to the heater tubes of a Stirling engine. Through the isothermal evaporation and condensation of sodium. a heat-pipe receiver can efficiently transfer energy to an engine's working fluid and compensate for irregularities in the flux distribution that is delivered by the concentrator. The operation of the heat pipe is completely passive because the liquid sodium is distributed over the solar-heated surface by capillary pumping provided by a wick structure. Tests have shown that using a heat pipe can boost the system performance by twenty percent when compared to directly illuminating the engine heater tubes. Designing heat pipe solar receivers has presented several challenges. The relatively large area ({approximately}0.2 m{sup 2}) of the receiver surface makes it difficult to design a wick that can continuously provide liquid sodium to all regions of the heated surface. Selecting a wick structure with smaller pores will improve capillary pumping capabilities of the wick, but the small pores will restrict the flow of liquid and generate high pressure drops. Selecting a wick that is comprised of very tine filaments can increase the permeability of the wick and thereby reduce flow losses, however, the fine wick structure is more susceptible to corrosion and mechanical damage. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the issues encountered in the design of heat pipe solar receivers and solutions to problems that have arisen. Topics include: flow characterization in the receiver, the design of wick systems. the minimization of corrosion and dissolution of metals in sodium systems. and the prevention of mechanical failure in high porosity wick structures.

  2. Antibacterial Activity of the Isolation Ethyl Acetate-Soluble Extract Noni Fruit (Morindra citrifolia L.) against Meat Bacterial Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraheni, E. R.; Nurrakhman, M. B. E.; Munawaroh, H.; Saputri, L.

    2017-02-01

    Noni (Morindra citrifolia L.) is native to Indonesia which have medicinal properties. One of them as an antibacterial. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of isolates from the ethanol extract noni fruit to bacterial decay meat is Bacillus licheniformis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus alvei, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. The extraction process using the maceration method, and then made a partition by centrifugation ethyl acetate. Soluble part partition showed bacterial growth inhibition activity of the strong to very strong. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate soluble partition on preparative thin layer chromatography produced 5 isolates. Isolates obtained antibacterial activity test performed with a concentration of 20% and 30%. The results of antibacterial test against bacteria test isolates, showing isolates A can not inhibit the growth of bacteria, isolates B and C have medium activity and strong, isolates D and E isolates have activity against bacteria that were tested. MIC and MBC test results showed that the isolates B gives an inhibitory effect (bacteriostatic) against all bacteria. Content analysis of compounds by TLC using the reagents cerium (IV) sulfate indicates a phenol group. Isolates B contains a major compound which can be used as an antibacterial candidate in food preservation replace chemical preservatives.

  3. Symmetric miniaturized heating system for active microelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, Michael; Mayer, Michael; Jourard, Isaac; Moon, Jeong-Tak; Persic, John

    2010-07-01

    To qualify interconnect technologies such as microelectronic fine wire bonds for mass production of integrated circuit (IC) packages, it is necessary to perform accelerated aging tests, e.g., to age a device at an elevated temperature or to subject the device to thermal cycling and measure the decrease of interconnect quality. There are downsides to using conventional ovens for this as they are relatively large and have relatively slow temperature change rates, and if electrical connections are required between monitoring equipment and the device being heated, they must be located inside the oven and may be aged by the high temperatures. Addressing these downsides, a miniaturized heating system (minioven) is presented, which can heat individual IC packages containing the interconnects to be tested. The core of this system is a piece of copper cut from a square shaped tube with high resistance heating wire looped around it. Ceramic dual in-line packages are clamped against either open end of the core. One package contains a Pt100 temperature sensor and the other package contains the device to be aged placed in symmetry to the temperature sensor. According to the temperature detected by the Pt100, a proportional-integral-derivative controller adjusts the power supplied to the heating wire. The system maintains a dynamic temperature balance with the core hot and the two symmetric sides with electrical connections to the device under test at a cooler temperature. Only the face of the package containing the device is heated, while the socket holding it remains below 75 °C when the oven operates at 200 °C. The minioven can heat packages from room temperature up to 200 °C in less than 5 min and maintain this temperature at 28 W power. During long term aging, a temperature of 200 °C was maintained for 1120 h with negligible resistance change of the heating wires after 900 h (heating wire resistance increased 0.2% over the final 220 h). The device is also subjected to

  4. Symmetric miniaturized heating system for active microelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Michael; Mayer, Michael; Jourard, Isaac; Moon, Jeong-Tak; Persic, John

    2010-07-01

    To qualify interconnect technologies such as microelectronic fine wire bonds for mass production of integrated circuit (IC) packages, it is necessary to perform accelerated aging tests, e.g., to age a device at an elevated temperature or to subject the device to thermal cycling and measure the decrease of interconnect quality. There are downsides to using conventional ovens for this as they are relatively large and have relatively slow temperature change rates, and if electrical connections are required between monitoring equipment and the device being heated, they must be located inside the oven and may be aged by the high temperatures. Addressing these downsides, a miniaturized heating system (minioven) is presented, which can heat individual IC packages containing the interconnects to be tested. The core of this system is a piece of copper cut from a square shaped tube with high resistance heating wire looped around it. Ceramic dual in-line packages are clamped against either open end of the core. One package contains a Pt100 temperature sensor and the other package contains the device to be aged placed in symmetry to the temperature sensor. According to the temperature detected by the Pt100, a proportional-integral-derivative controller adjusts the power supplied to the heating wire. The system maintains a dynamic temperature balance with the core hot and the two symmetric sides with electrical connections to the device under test at a cooler temperature. Only the face of the package containing the device is heated, while the socket holding it remains below 75 degrees C when the oven operates at 200 degrees C. The minioven can heat packages from room temperature up to 200 degrees C in less than 5 min and maintain this temperature at 28 W power. During long term aging, a temperature of 200 degrees C was maintained for 1120 h with negligible resistance change of the heating wires after 900 h (heating wire resistance increased 0.2% over the final 220 h). The

  5. Heat-activated Plasmonic Chemical Sensors for Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Michael; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    A passive plasmonics based chemical sensing system to be used in harsh operating environments was investigated and developed within this program. The initial proposed technology was based on combining technologies developed at the SUNY Polytechnic Institute Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE) and at the University of Minnesota (UM). Specifically, a passive wireless technique developed at UM was to utilize a heat-activated plasmonic design to passively harvest the thermal energy from within a combustion emission stream and convert this into a narrowly focused light source. This plasmonic device was based on a bullseye design patterned into a gold film using focused ion beam methods (FIB). Critical to the design was the use of thermal stabilizing under and overlayers surrounding the gold film. These stabilizing layers were based on both atomic layer deposited films as well as metal laminate layers developed by United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS). While the bullseye design was never able to be thermally stabilized for operating temperatures of 500oC or higher, an alternative energy harvesting design was developed by CNSE within this program. With this new development, plasmonic sensing results are presented where thermal energy is harvested using lithographically patterned Au nanorods, replacing the need for an external incident light source. Gas sensing results using the harvested thermal energy are in good agreement with sensing experiments, which used an external incident light source. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the wavelength parameter space from 665 variables down to 4 variables with similar levels of demonstrated selectivity. The method was further improved by patterning rods which harvested energy in the near infrared, which led to a factor of 10 decrease in data acquisition times as well as demonstrated selectivity with a reduced wavelength data set. The combination of a plasmonic-based energy harvesting

  6. Spectral characteristics of skin sympathetic nerve activity in heat-stressed humans.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Sathishkumar, Mithra; Wilson, Thad E; Shibasaki, Manabu; Davis, Scott L; Crandall, Craig G

    2006-04-01

    Skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) exhibits low- and high-frequency spectral components in normothermic subjects. However, spectral characteristics of SSNA in heat-stressed subjects are unknown. Because the main components of the integrated SSNA during heat stress (sudomotor/vasodilator activities) are different from those during normothermia and cooling (vasoconstrictor activity), we hypothesize that spectral characteristics of SSNA in heat-stressed subjects will be different from those in subjects subjected to normothermia or cooling. In 17 healthy subjects, SSNA, electrocardiogram, arterial blood pressure (via Finapres), respiratory activity, and skin blood flow were recorded during normothermia and heat stress. In 7 of the 17 subjects, these variables were also recorded during cooling. Spectral characteristics of integrated SSNA, R-R interval, beat-by-beat mean blood pressure, skin blood flow variability, and respiratory excursions were assessed. Heat stress and cooling significantly increased total SSNA. SSNA spectral power in the low-frequency (0.03-0.15 Hz), high-frequency (0.15-0.45 Hz), and very-high-frequency (0.45-2.5 Hz) regions was significantly elevated by heat stress and cooling. Interestingly, heat stress caused a greater relative increase of SSNA spectral power within the 0.45- to 2.5-Hz region than in the other spectral ranges; cooling did not show this effect. Differences in the SSNA spectral distribution between normothermia/cooling and heat stress may reflect different characteristics of central modulation of vasoconstrictor and sudomotor/vasodilator activities.

  7. Visible light active photocatalyst from recycled disposable heating pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Meng-Chien; Wang, Chun-Yu; Chen, Che-Chin; Wang, Chih-Ming; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Tsai, Din Ping

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-Fe2O3 (α-Fe2O3) is cheap and abundant and has potential to be a highly efficient photocatalyst for water splitting. According to the report, there are a huge amount of disposable heating pads being created every year, and the pads are used one time then thrown away. We found that the main product of used heating pads is α-Fe2O3. Here, we collect and purify the α-Fe2O3 powder in the used heating pads using low power consumption processes. It is shown that the recycled heating pads can be used as a cost-effective photocatalyst for H2 energy and for decomposition of organic pollutants as well. Additionally, the plasmonic enhanced photocatalysis reaction of α-Fe2O3 is also investigated. It is found that H2 evolution rate can be enhanced 15% using α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with a thin Au layer. The degradation of methylene blue can also enhance 12% compared to photocatalyst α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated without Au layer.

  8. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  9. Process for producing an activated carbon adsorbent with integral heat transfer apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A process for producing an integral adsorbent-heat exchanger apparatus useful in ammonia refrigerant heat pump systems. In one embodiment, the process wets an activated carbon particles-solvent mixture with a binder-solvent mixture, presses the binder wetted activated carbon mixture on a metal tube surface and thereafter pyrolyzes the mixture to form a bonded activated carbon matrix adjoined to the tube surface. The integral apparatus can be easily and inexpensively produced by the process in large quantities.

  10. Experimental evidence in support of Joule heating associated with geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, L. L.

    1971-01-01

    High resolution accelerometer measurements in the altitude region 140 to 300 km from a satellite in a near-polar orbit during a period of extremely high geomagnetic activity indicate that Joule heating is the primary source of energy for atmospheric heating associated with geomagnetic activity. This conclusion is supported by the following observational evidence: (1) There is an atmospheric response in the auroral zone which is nearly simulataneous with the onset of geomagnetic activity, with no significant response in the equatorial region until several hours later; (2) The maximum heating occurs at geographic locations near the maximum current of the auroral electrojet; and (3) There is evidence of atmospheric waves originating near the auroral zone at altitudes where Joule heating would be expected to occur. An analysis of atmospheric response time to this heat shows time delays are apparently independent of altitude but are strongly dependent upon geomagnetic latitude.

  11. Chitosan Controls Postharvest Decay on Cherry Tomato Fruit Possibly via the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Danfeng; Wang, Hongtao; Hu, Yi; Liu, Yongsheng

    2015-08-26

    The inhibitive effects of chitosan on gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea on cherry tomato fruit were evaluated. Decay incidence was tested on tomato stored at 22 °C. Hydrogen peroxide accumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA) production, peroxidase (POD) activity, and several related gene expressions (including MPK3, MPK6, PR1a1, and PR5) were determined. Results showed that 0.2% of chitosan solution significantly inhibited the tomato gray mold 3 days after inoculation. Hydrogen peroxide accumulated in the fruit epidermal peel along with chitosan treatment, while MDA production was not increased. POD activity was remarkably enhanced by the application of chitosan. The relative expressions of MPK3, MPK6, and PR1a1 were significantly induced in 10 min after chitosan treatment, while PR5 was induced in 20 min. These findings suggested that the effects of chitosan on inhibiting gray mold in cherry tomato fruit were probably associated with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway.

  12. Horizontal flow fields in and around a small active region. The transition period between flux emergence and decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Denker, C.; Balthasar, H.; Kuckein, C.; González Manrique, S. J.; Sobotka, M.; Bello González, N.; Hoch, S.; Diercke, A.; Kummerow, P.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados, M.; Feller, A.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Löhner-Böttcher, J.; Nicklas, H.; Pastor Yabar, A.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Schubert, M.; Sigwarth, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Waldmann, T.

    2016-11-01

    Context. The solar magnetic field is responsible for all aspects of solar activity. Thus, emergence of magnetic flux at the surface is the first manifestation of the ensuing solar activity. Aims: Combining high-resolution and synoptic observations aims to provide a comprehensive description of flux emergence at photospheric level and of the growth process that eventually leads to a mature active region. Methods: The small active region NOAA 12118 emerged on 2014 July 17 and was observed one day later with the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope on 2014 July 18. High-resolution time-series of blue continuum and G-band images acquired in the blue imaging channel (BIC) of the GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (GFPI) were complemented by synoptic line-of-sight magnetograms and continuum images obtained with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Horizontal proper motions and horizontal plasma velocities were computed with local correlation tracking (LCT) and the differential affine velocity estimator (DAVE), respectively. Morphological image processing was employed to measure the photometric and magnetic area, magnetic flux, and the separation profile of the emerging flux region during its evolution. Results: The computed growth rates for photometric area, magnetic area, and magnetic flux are about twice as high as the respective decay rates. The space-time diagram using HMI magnetograms of five days provides a comprehensive view of growth and decay. It traces a leaf-like structure, which is determined by the initial separation of the two polarities, a rapid expansion phase, a time when the spread stalls, and a period when the region slowly shrinks again. The separation rate of 0.26 km s-1 is highest in the initial stage, and it decreases when the separation comes to a halt. Horizontal plasma velocities computed at four evolutionary stages indicate a changing pattern of inflows. In LCT maps we find persistent flow patterns

  13. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities after heat injury of listeria monocytogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Dallmier, A.W.; Martin, S.E.

    1988-02-01

    Four strains of Listeria monocytogenes were examined for catalase (CA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. The two strains having the highest CA activities (LCDC and Scott A) also possessed the highest SOD activities. The CA activity of heated cell extracts of all four strains examined decreased sharply between 55 and 60/sup 0/C. SOD was more heat labile than CA. Two L. monocytogenes strains demonstrated a decline in SOD activity after heat treatment at 45/sup 0/C, whereas the other two strains demonstrated a decline at 50/sup 0/C. Sublethal heating of the cells at 55/sup 0/C resulted in increased sensitivity to 5.5% NaCl. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide was added to suspensions of L. monocytogenes; strains producing the highest CA levels showed the greatest H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ resistance.

  14. Expression profile of heat shock response factors during hookworm larval activation and parasitic development.

    PubMed

    Gelmedin, Verena; Delaney, Angela; Jennelle, Lucas; Hawdon, John M

    2015-07-01

    When organisms are exposed to an increase in temperature, they undergo a heat shock response (HSR) regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1). The heat shock response includes the rapid changes in gene expression initiated by binding of HSF-1 to response elements in the promoters of heat shock genes. Heat shock proteins function as molecular chaperones to protect proteins during periods of elevated temperature and other stress. During infection, hookworm infective third stage larvae (L3) undergo a temperature shift from ambient to host temperature. This increased temperature is required for the resumption of feeding and activation of L3, but whether this increase initiates a heat shock response is unknown. To investigate the role of the heat shock in hookworm L3 activation and parasitic development, we identified and characterized the expression profile of several components of the heat shock response in the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. We cloned DNAs encoding an hsp70 family member (Aca-hsp-1) and an hsp90 family member (Aca-daf-21). Exposure to a heat shock of 42°C for one hour caused significant up-regulation of both genes, which slowly returned to near baseline levels following one hour attenuation at 22°C. Neither gene was up-regulated in response to host temperature (37°C). Conversely, levels of hsf-1 remained unchanged during heat shock, but increased in response to incubation at 37°C. During activation, both hsp-1 and daf-21 are down regulated early, although daf-21 levels increase significantly in non-activated control larvae after 12h, and slightly in activated larvae by 24h incubation. The heat shock response modulators celastrol and KNK437 were tested for their effects on gene expression during heat shock and activation. Pre-incubation with celastrol, an HSP90 inhibitor that promotes heat shock gene expression, slightly up-regulated expression of both hsp-1 and daf-21 during heat shock. KNK437, an inhibitor of heat shock

  15. Repairing Student Misconceptions in Heat Transfer Using Inquiry-Based Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Michael; Vigeant, Margot; Nottis, Katharyn

    2016-01-01

    Eight inquiry-based activities, described here in sufficient detail for faculty to adopt in their own courses, were designed to teach students fundamental concepts in heat transfer. The concept areas chosen were (1) factors affecting the rate vs. amount of heat transfer, (2) temperature vs. perceptions of hot and cold, (3) temperature vs. energy…

  16. Inducible Transposition of a Heat-Activated Retrotransposon in Tissue Culture.

    PubMed

    Masuta, Yukari; Nozawa, Kosuke; Takagi, Hiroki; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Ito, Tasuku; Saito, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hisato; Matsunaga, Wataru; Masuda, Seiji; Kato, Atsushi; Ito, Hidetaka

    2016-12-23

    A transposition of a heat-activated retrotransposon named ONSEN required compromise of a small RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation that includes RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) machinery after heat treatment. In the current study, we analyzed the transcriptional and transpositional activation of ONSEN to better understand the underlying molecular mechanism involved in the maintenance and/or induction of transposon activation in plant tissue culture. We found the transposition of heat-primed ONSEN during tissue culture independently of RdDM mutation. The heat activation of ONSEN transcripts was not significantly up-regulated in tissue culture compared with that in heat-stressed seedlings, indicating that the transposition of ONSEN was regulated independently of the transcript level. RdDM-related genes were up-regulated by heat stress in both tissue culture and seedlings. The level of DNA methylation of ONSEN did not show any change in tissue culture, and the amount of ONSEN-derived small RNAs was not affected by heat stress. The results indicated that the transposition of ONSEN was regulated by an alternative mechanism in addition to the RdDM-mediated epigenetic regulation in tissue culture. We applied the tissue culture-induced transposition of ONSEN to Japanese radish, an important breeding species of the family Brassicaceae. Several new insertions were detected in a regenerated plant derived from heat-stressed tissues and its self-fertilized progeny, revealing the possibility of molecular breeding without genetic modification.

  17. Solar Activity and Climate - in Light of the Decay of the Dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friis-Christensen, E.

    2003-12-01

    The geological history shows that climate has always been changing. The climate is the result of very complex interactions between various atmospheric processes, which are not well understood. Variations in solar activity seem to have a significant - but not simple - effect on climate. Recently it has been suggested that solar activity modulation of cosmic rays influences the formation and properties of clouds and thereby the radiation balance of the Earth. This topic was selected as one of six 'Areas to Watch in 2003' in the 20th December 2002 edition of Science. Since the Earth's magnetic field also has a modulating effect on the cosmic ray flux into the atmosphere, one might expect an effect on climate as well. A review of solar activity variations and climate changes will be given with emphasis on those aspects that may be affected by the varying geomagnetic field.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay.

    PubMed

    Lixandru, Brînduşa-Elena; Drăcea, Nicoleta Olguţa; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Drăgulescu, Elena Carmina; Coldea, Ileana Luminiţa; Anton, Liliana; Dobre, Elena; Rovinaru, Camelia; Codiţă, Irina

    2010-01-01

    The currative properties of aromatic and medicinal plants have been recognized since ancient times and, more recently, the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils has been used in several applications, including food preservation. The purpose of this study was to create directly comparable, quantitative data on the antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils prepared in the National Institute of Research-Development for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Bucharest to be used for the further development of food packaging technology, based on their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The essential oils extracted from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and carraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against eleven different bacterial and three fungal strains belonging to species reported to be involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25913, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli ATCC 35218, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Cantacuzino Institute Culture Collection (CICC) 10878, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, Bacillus cereus CIP 5127, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Penicillium spp. CICC 251 and two E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis clinical isolates. The majority of the tested essential oils exibited considerable inhibitory capacity against all the organisms tested, as supported by growth inhibition zone diameters, MICs and MBC's. Thyme, coriander and basil oils proved the best antibacterial activity, while thyme and spearmint oils better inhibited the fungal species.

  19. Plants contain a novel multi-member class of heat shock factors without transcriptional activator potential.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka-Verner, E; Yuan, C X; Scharf, K D; Englich, G; Gurley, W B

    2000-07-01

    Based on phylogeny of DNA-binding domains and the organization of hydrophobic repeats, two families of heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) exist in plants. Class A HSFs are involved in the activation of the heat shock response, but the role of class B HSFs is not clear. When transcriptional activities of full-length HSFs were monitored in tobacco protoplasts, no class B HSFs from soybean or Arabidopsis showed activity under control or heat stress conditions. Additional assays confirmed the finding that the class B HSFs lacked the capacity to activate transcription. Fusion of a heterologous activation domain from human HSF1 (AD2) to the C-terminus of GmHSFB1-34 gave no evidence of synergistic enhancement of AD2 activity, which would be expected if weak activation domains were present. Furthermore, activity of AtHSFB1-4 (class B) was not rescued by coexpression with AtHSFA4-21 (class A) indicating that the class A HSF was not able to provide a missing function required for class B activity. The transcriptional activation potential of Arabidopsis AtHSFA4-21 was mapped primarily to a 39 amino acid fragment in the C-terminus enriched in bulky hydrophobic and acidic residues. Deletion mutagenesis of the C-terminal activator regions of tomato and Arabidopsis HSFs indicated that these plant HSFs lack heat-inducible regulatory regions analogous to those of mammalian HSF1. These findings suggest that heat shock regulation in plants may differ from metazoans by partitioning negative and positive functional domains onto separate HSF proteins. Class A HSFs are primarily responsible for stress-inducible activation of heat shock genes whereas some of the inert class B HSFs may be specialized for repression, or down-regulation, of the heat shock response.

  20. Open clusters as laboratories for stellar spin-down and magnetic activity decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Stephanie; Agueros, Marcel A.; Covey, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    The oldest open clusters within 250 pc of the Sun, the Hyades and Praesepe, are important benchmarks for calibrating stellar properties such as rotation and magnetic activity. As they have the same age and roughly solar metallicity, these clusters serve as an ideal laboratory for testing the agreement between theoretical and empirical rotation-activity relations at ~600 Myr. The repurposed Kepler mission, K2, has allowed us to measure rotation periods for dozens of Hyads and hundreds of Praesepe members, including the first periods measured for fully convective Hyads. These data have enabled new tests of models describing the evolution of stellar rotation; discrepancies with these models imply that we still do not fully understand how magnetic fields affect stellar spin-down. I will present rotation periods measured for 48 Hyads and 699 Praesepe members with K2, along with associated Halpha and X-ray fluxes. I will also show how we can compare the dependence of H-alpha and X-ray emission on rotation in order to test theories of magnetic field topology and stellar dynamos. These tests inform models of stellar wind-driven angular momentum loss and the age-rotation-activity relation.

  1. Active control of near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qimei; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Tongbiao; Liu, Wenxing; Liu, Jiangtao; Yu, Tianbao; Liao, Qinghua; Liu, Nianhua

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered metamaterials is investigated. The electric surface plasmons (SPs) supported by metamaterials can be coupled with the SPs supported by graphene. The near-field heat transfer between the graphene-covered metamaterials is significantly larger than that between metamaterials because of the strong coupling in our studied frequency range. The relationship between heat flux and chemical potential is studied for different vacuum gaps. Given that the chemical potential of graphene can be tuned by the external electric field, heat transfer can be actively controlled by modulating the chemical potential. The heat flux for certain vacuum gaps can reach a maximum value when the chemical potential is at a particular value. The results of this study are beneficial for actively controlling energy transfer.

  2. NF-κB signaling pathway is inhibited by heat shock independently of active transcription factor HSF1 and increased levels of inducible heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Janus, Patryk; Pakuła-Cis, Małgorzata; Kalinowska-Herok, Magdalena; Kashchak, Natalia; Szołtysek, Katarzyna; Pigłowski, Wojciech; Widlak, Wieslawa; Kimmel, Marek; Widlak, Piotr

    2011-12-01

    NF-κB transcription factor regulates numerous genes important for inflammation, immune responses and cell survival. HSF1 is the primary transcription factor activated under stress conditions that is responsible for induction of genes encoding heat shock proteins. Previous studies have shown that the NF-κB activation pathway is blocked by heat shock possibly involving heat shock proteins. Here, we investigate whether active HSF1 inhibited this pathway in the absence of stress conditions. Activation of the NF-κB pathway and expression of NF-κB-dependent genes were analyzed in TNFα-stimulated U-2 OS human osteosarcoma cells that were either heat-shocked or engineered to express a constitutively active form of HSF1 in the absence of heat shock. As expected, heat shock resulted in a general blockade in the degradation of the IκBα inhibitor, nuclear translocation of NF-κB and expression of NF-κB-dependent target genes. In marked contrast, the presence of constitutively active HSF1 did not block TNFα-induced activation of the NF-κB pathway or expression of a set of the NF-κB-dependent genes. We conclude that in the absence of heat shock, the NF-κB activation pathway is inhibited by neither active HSF1 transcription factor nor by increased levels of HSF1-induced heat shock proteins.

  3. Role of HSF activation for resistance to heat, cold and high-temperature knock-down.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Overgaard, Johannes; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Holmstrup, Martin; Justesen, Just; Loeschcke, Volker

    2005-12-01

    Regulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps) by the heat shock factor (HSF) and the importance of these proteins for resistance to heat stress is well documented. Less characterized is the importance of Hsps for cold stress resistance although Hsp70 is known to be induced following long-term cold exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, a temperature-sensitive HSF mutant line was used to investigate the role of HSF activation following heat hardening, rapid cold hardening (RCH) and long-term cold acclimation (LTCA) on heat and cold resistance, and this was correlated with Hsp70 expression. In addition, the effect of HSF activation on high-temperature knock-down resistance was evaluated. We found a significantly decreased HSF activation in the mutant line as compared to a corresponding control line following heat hardening, and this was correlated with decreased heat resistance of the mutant line. However, we did not find this difference in HSF activity to be important for resistance to cold stress or high-temperature knock-down. The findings indicate that induction of stress genes regulated by HSF, such as Hsps, although occurring following LTCA, are not of major importance for cold stress resistance and neither for RCH nor high-temperature knock-down resistance in D. melanogaster.

  4. Evidence for Steady Heating: Observations of an Active Region Core with Hinode and TRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Brooks, David H.

    2010-03-01

    The timescale for energy release is an important parameter for constraining the coronal heating mechanism. Observations of "warm" coronal loops (~1 MK) have indicated that the heating is impulsive and that coronal plasma is far from equilibrium. In contrast, observations at higher temperatures (~3 MK) have generally been consistent with steady heating models. Previous observations, however, have not been able to exclude the possibility that the high temperature loops are actually composed of many small-scale threads that are in various stages of heating and cooling and only appear to be in equilibrium. With new observations from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer and X-ray Telescope (XRT) on Hinode we have the ability to investigate the properties of high temperature coronal plasma in extraordinary detail. We examine the emission in the core of an active region and find three independent lines of evidence for steady heating. We find that the emission observed in XRT is generally steady for hours, with a fluctuation level of approximately 15% in an individual pixel. Short-lived impulsive heating events are observed, but they appear to be unrelated to the steady emission that dominates the active region. Furthermore, we find no evidence for warm emission that is spatially correlated with the hot emission, as would be expected if the high temperature loops are the result of impulsive heating. Finally, we also find that intensities in the "moss," the footpoints of high temperature loops, are consistent with steady heating models provided that we account for the local expansion of the loop from the base of the transition region to the corona. In combination, these results provide strong evidence that the heating in the core of an active region is effectively steady, that is, the time between heating events is short relative to the relevant radiative and conductive cooling times.

  5. Antisense Oligonucleotides Modulating Activation of a Nonsense-Mediated RNA Decay Switch Exon in the ATM Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kralovicova, Jana; Moreno, Pedro M.D.; Cross, Nicholas C.P.; Pêgo, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated) is an important cancer susceptibility gene that encodes a key apical kinase in the DNA damage response pathway. ATM mutations in the germ line result in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), a rare genetic syndrome associated with hypersensitivity to double-strand DNA breaks and predisposition to lymphoid malignancies. ATM expression is limited by a tightly regulated nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) switch exon (termed NSE) located in intron 28. In this study, we identify antisense oligonucleotides that modulate NSE inclusion in mature transcripts by systematically targeting the entire 3.1-kb-long intron. Their identification was assisted by a segmental deletion analysis of transposed elements, revealing NSE repression upon removal of a distant antisense Alu and NSE activation upon elimination of a long terminal repeat transposon MER51A. Efficient NSE repression was achieved by delivering optimized splice-switching oligonucleotides to embryonic and lymphoblastoid cells using chitosan-based nanoparticles. Together, these results provide a basis for possible sequence-specific radiosensitization of cancer cells, highlight the power of intronic antisense oligonucleotides to modify gene expression, and demonstrate transposon-mediated regulation of NSEs. PMID:27658045

  6. Feel the heat: activation, orientation and feeding responses of bed bugs to targets at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Zachary C; Mick, Russell; Schal, Coby

    2016-12-01

    Host location in bed bugs is poorly understood. Of the primary host-associated cues known to attract bed bugs - CO2, odors, heat - heat has received little attention as an independent stimulus. We evaluated the effects of target temperatures ranging from 23 to 48°C on bed bug activation, orientation and feeding. Activation and orientation responses were assessed using a heated target in a circular arena. All targets heated above ambient temperature activated bed bugs (initiated movement) and elicited oriented movement toward the target, with higher temperatures generally resulting in faster activation and orientation. The distance over which bed bugs could orient toward a heat source was measured using a 2-choice T-maze assay. Positive thermotaxis was limited to distances <3 cm. Bed bug feeding responses on an artificial feeding system increased with feeder temperature up to 38 and 43°C, and declined precipitously at 48°C. In addition, bed bugs responded to the relative difference between ambient and feeder temperatures. These results highlight the wide range of temperatures that elicit activation, orientation and feeding responses in bed bugs. In contrast, the ability of bed bugs to correctly orient towards a heated target, independently of other cues, is limited to very short distances (<3 cm). Finally, bed bug feeding is shown to be relative to ambient temperature, not an absolute response to feeder blood temperature.

  7. Decay mechanisms of protonated 4-quinolone antibiotics after electrospray ionization and ion activation.

    PubMed

    Kovačević, Borislav; Schorr, Pascal; Qi, Yulin; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2014-11-01

    This study presents a detailed experimental investigation of charge isomers of protonated 4-quinolone antibiotics molecules formed during electrospray ionization (ESI) with proposed dissociation mechanisms after collisional activation. Piperazinyl quinolones have been previously shown to exhibit erratic behavior during tandem MS analyses of biological samples, which originated from varying ratios of two isomeric variants formed during ESI. Here, a combination of ESI-collision-induced dissociation (CID), differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS), high resolution MS, and density functional theory (DFT) was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of isomer formation and their individual dissociation behaviors. The study focused on ciprofloxacin; major findings were confirmed using structurally related 4-quinolones. DFT calculations showed a reversal of basicity for piperazinyl quinolones between liquid and gas phase. We provide an experimental comparison and theoretical treatment of factors influencing the formation ratio of the charge isomers during ESI, including solvent pH, protic/aprotic nature of solvent, and structural effects such as pK a and proton affinity. The actual dissociation mechanisms of the isomers of the protonated molecules were studied by separating the individual isomers via DMS-MS, which allowed type-specific CID spectra to be recorded. Both primary CID reactions of the two charge isomers originated from the same carboxyl group by charge-remote (CO(2) loss) and charge-mediated (H(2)O loss) fragmentation of the piperazinyl quinolones, depending on whether the proton resides on the more basic keto or the piperazinyl group, followed by a number of secondary dissociation reactions. The proposed mechanisms were supported by calculated energies of precursors, transition states, and products for competing pathways.

  8. Mercury's Magnetic Field: Active, Thermoelectric, or Decaying Dynamo or Crustal Remanence? - The MESSENGER Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohr, D. A.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Slavin, J. A.; Solomon, S. C.; McNutt, R. L.

    2005-12-01

    The discovery of Mercury's intrinsic magnetic field in 1974 by Mariner 10 was a surprise because the planet's size, thermal state, and angular momentum seemed to rule out the possibility of an active dynamo. Additional encounters of Mercury by the Mariner 10 spacecraft in 1975 confirmed the initial results and allowed the estimation of the planetary magnetic dipole moment to within perhaps a factor of two. This discovery prompted a variety of suggestions for the source of the intrinsic field. The presence of sufficient sulfur in the outer core would allow a thin fluid outer core to persist to the present and perhaps serve as host to a thin-shell dynamo. Recent dynamo simulations under conditions appropriate to Mercury support this possibility and point to aspects of the external field that may be observable from an orbiting spacecraft. Remanent magnetization of the crust and mantle by a now-dead core dynamo field was proposed as an alternative explanation of the Mariner 10 observations in 1976, but this suggestion has been questioned on the grounds that the characteristic time between polarity reversals of a core dynamo field is likely much less than the timescale for acquisition of thermoremanence by the cooling crust and upper mantle. The discovery by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) in 1997 of an intensely magnetized Martian crust added fuel to this debate, because the Mariner 10 measurements can be reproduced if Mercury's crust is approximated by a magnetized shell having an intrinsic magnetization of the same order of magnitude as that suggested for Mars by the MGS measurements. The MESSENGER magnetic field investigation is designed to address this and other fundamental questions regarding the nature and origin of Mercury's internal field as well as the planet's thermal history. We present here a summary of the MESSENGER magnetic field investigation goals and an assessment of observations acquired during the spacecraft's Earth flyby on 2 August 2005.

  9. [Effect of August 2003 heat wave in France on a hospital biochemistry laboratory activity in Paris].

    PubMed

    Mario, N; Pernet, P; Lasnier, E; Hermand, C; Vaubourdolle, M

    2004-01-01

    In August 2003, France sustained an exceptional heat wave. Heat-generated pathologies (dehydratation, heat stroke, cardio-vascular diseases) were responsible for additional biological analysis orders at the Saint-Antoine Hospital biochemistry laboratory in Paris from 4 to 18 august, compared to the same period in 2002. Variations were: + 17.6% for analysis orders, + 30.1% for ionograms, + 28.9% for plasma troponins I and + 58.6% for blood gazes analysis. Women and patients older than 75 years ratios were higher in august 2003. Biochemistry results analysis showed higher frequency of elevated plasma sodium, creatinine and troponin in 2003, confirming that most of patients admitted during heat wave were affected by heat-related diseases. Finally, laboratory excess activity was performed and quality was maintained, in spite of reduced staff and unusual climatic conditions.

  10. Magnetic heating properties and neutron activation of tungsten-oxide coated biocompatible FePt core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Seemann, K M; Luysberg, M; Révay, Z; Kudejova, P; Sanz, B; Cassinelli, N; Loidl, A; Ilicic, K; Multhoff, G; Schmid, T E

    2015-01-10

    Magnetic nanoparticles are highly desirable for biomedical research and treatment of cancer especially when combined with hyperthermia. The efficacy of nanoparticle-based therapies could be improved by generating radioactive nanoparticles with a convenient decay time and which simultaneously have the capability to be used for locally confined heating. The core-shell morphology of such novel nanoparticles presented in this work involves a polysilico-tungstate molecule of the polyoxometalate family as a precursor coating material, which transforms into an amorphous tungsten oxide coating upon annealing of the FePt core-shell nanoparticles. The content of tungsten atoms in the nanoparticle shell is neutron activated using cold neutrons at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRMII) neutron facility and thereby transformed into the radioisotope W-187. The sizeable natural abundance of 28% for the W-186 precursor isotope, a radiopharmaceutically advantageous gamma-beta ratio of γβ≈30% and a range of approximately 1mm in biological tissue for the 1.3MeV β-radiation are promising features of the nanoparticles' potential for cancer therapy. Moreover, a high temperature annealing treatment enhances the magnetic moment of nanoparticles in such a way that a magnetic heating effect of several degrees Celsius in liquid suspension - a prerequisite for hyperthermia treatment of cancer - was observed. A rise in temperature of approximately 3°C in aqueous suspension is shown for a moderate nanoparticle concentration of 0.5mg/ml after 15min in an 831kHz high-frequency alternating magnetic field of 250Gauss field strength (25mT). The biocompatibility based on a low cytotoxicity in the non-neutron-activated state in combination with the hydrophilic nature of the tungsten oxide shell makes the coated magnetic FePt nanoparticles ideal candidates for advanced radiopharmaceutical applications.

  11. A novel heat flux study of a geothermally active lake - Lake Rotomahana, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivey, Maurice A.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Tontini, Fabio Caratori; Walker, Sharon L.; Fornari, Daniel J.

    2016-03-01

    A new technique for measuring conductive heat flux in a lake was adapted from the marine environment to allow for multiple measurements to be made in areas where bottom sediment cover is sparse, or even absent. This thermal blanket technique, pioneered in the deep ocean for use in volcanic mid-ocean rift environments, was recently used in the geothermally active Lake Rotomahana, New Zealand. Heat flow from the lake floor propagates into the 0.5 m diameter blanket and establishes a thermal gradient across the known blanket thickness and thereby provides an estimate of the conductive heat flux of the underlying terrain. This approach allows conductive heat flux to be measured over a spatially dense set of stations in a relatively short period of time. We used 10 blankets and deployed them for 1 day each to complete 110 stations over an 11-day program in the 6 × 3 km lake. Results show that Lake Rotomahana has a total conductive heat flux of about 47 MW averaging 6 W/m2 over the geothermally active lake. The western half of the lake has two main areas of high heat flux; 1) a high heat flux area averaging 21.3 W/m2 along the western shoreline, which is likely the location of the pre-existing geothermal system that fed the famous Pink Terraces, mostly destroyed during the 1886 eruption 2) a region southwest of Patiti Island with a heat flux averaging 13.1 W/m2 that appears to be related to the explosive rift that formed the lake in the 1886 Tarawera eruption. A small rise in bottom water temperature over the survey period of 0.01 °C/day suggests the total thermal output of the lake is ~ 112-132 MW and when compared to the conductive heat output suggests that 18-42% of the total thermal energy is by conductive heat transfer.

  12. Cardiopulmonary baroreceptor control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Etzel, R. A.; Farr, D. B.

    1999-01-01

    Whole body heating decreases central venous pressure (CVP) while increasing muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). In normothermia, similar decreases in CVP elevate MSNA, presumably via cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading. The purpose of this project was to identify whether increases in MSNA during whole body heating could be attributed to cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading coincident with the thermal challenge. Seven subjects were exposed to whole body heating while sublingual temperature, skin blood flow, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and MSNA were monitored. During the heat stress, 15 ml/kg warmed saline was infused intravenously over 7-10 min to increase CVP and load the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors. We reported previously that this amount of saline was sufficient to return CVP to pre-heat stress levels. Whole body heating increased MSNA from 25 +/- 3 to 39 +/- 3 bursts/min (P < 0. 05). Central blood volume expansion via rapid saline infusion did not significantly decrease MSNA (44 +/- 4 bursts/min, P > 0.05 relative to heat stress period) and did not alter mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) or pulse pressure. To identify whether arterial baroreceptor loading decreases MSNA during heat stress, in a separate protocol MAP was elevated via steady-state infusion of phenylephrine during whole body heating. Increasing MAP from 82 +/- 3 to 93 +/- 4 mmHg (P < 0.05) caused MSNA to decrease from 36 +/- 3 to 15 +/- 4 bursts/min (P < 0.05). These data suggest that cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading during passive heating is not the primary mechanism resulting in elevations in MSNA. Moreover, arterial baroreceptors remain capable of modulating MSNA during heat stress.

  13. Virus decay and its causes in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Noble, R T; Fuhrman, J A

    1997-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that viruses play an influential role within the marine microbial food web. To understand this role, it is important to determine rates and mechanisms of virus removal and degradation. We used plaque assays to examine the decay of infectivity in lab-grown viruses seeded into natural seawater. The rates of loss of infectivity of native viruses from Santa Monica Bay and of nonnative viruses from the North Sea in the coastal seawater of Santa Monica Bay were determined. Viruses were seeded into fresh seawater that had been pretreated in various ways: filtration with a 0.2-(mu)m-pore-size filter to remove organisms, heat to denature enzymes, and dissolved organic matter enrichment to reconstitute enzyme activity. Seawater samples were then incubated in full sunlight, in the dark, or under glass to allow partitioning of causative agents of virus decay. Solar radiation always resulted in increased rates of loss of virus infectivity. Virus isolates which are native to Santa Monica Bay consistently degraded more slowly in full sunlight in untreated seawater (decay ranged from 4.1 to 7.2% h(sup-1)) than nonnative marine bacteriophages which were isolated from the North Sea (decay ranged from 6.6 to 11.1% h(sup-1)). All phages demonstrated susceptibility to degradation by heat-labile substances, as heat treatment reduced the decay rates to about 0.5 to 2.0% h(sup-1) in the dark. Filtration reduced decay rates by various amounts, averaging 20%. Heat-labile, high-molecular-weight dissolved material (>30 kDa, probably enzymes) appeared responsible for about 1/5 of the maximal decay. Solar radiation was responsible for about 1/3 to 2/3 of the maximal decay of nonnative viruses and about 1/4 to 1/3 of that of the native viruses, suggesting evolutionary adaptation to local light levels. Our results suggest that sunlight is an important contributing factor to virus decay but also point to the significance of particles and dissolved substances in seawater.

  14. Influence of heat treatment of rayon-based activated carbon fibers on the adsorption of formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Rong, Haiqin; Ryu, Zhenyu; Zheng, Jingtang; Zhang, Yuanli

    2003-05-15

    The influence of heat treatment of rayon-based activated carbon fibers on the adsorption behavior of formaldehyde was studied. Heat treatment in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen for rayon-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) resulted in a significant increase in the adsorption capacities and prolongation of breakthrough time on removing of formaldehyde. The effect of different heat-treatment conditions on the adsorption characteristics was investigated. The porous structure parameters of the samples under study were investigated using nitrogen adsorption at the low temperature 77.4 K. The pore size distributions of the samples under study were calculated by density functional theory. With the aid of these analyses, the relationship between structure and adsorption properties of rayon-based ACFs for removing formaldehyde was revealed. Improvement of their performance in terms of adsorption selectivity and adsorption rate for formaldehyde were achieved by heat post-treatment in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen.

  15. Effects of Different Heat Processing on Fucoxanthin, Antioxidant Activity and Colour of Indonesian Brown Seaweeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanto, Eko; Suhaeli Fahmi, A.; Winarni Agustini, Tri; Rosyadi, Septian; Dita Wardani, Ayunda

    2017-02-01

    Fucoxanthin (Fx) is major carotenoids in brown algae. It showed many health beneficial effects for oxidative stress. Fucoxanthin is lower stability which may cause problem in the application for functional food. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various heat processing on Fx, antioxidant activity (IC50), total phenolic content, and colour stability of Sargassum ilicifolium. The various heat processing methods showed were not significantly affected to fucoxanthin and antioxidant activities however all treatments lower affected to brown seaweeds colour. Moreover, this study showed a useful proved in the design of brown seaweeds processing which minimize Fx, antioxidant activity and colour changes.

  16. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  17. A pain-inducing centipede toxin targets the heat activation machinery of nociceptor TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shilong; Yang, Fan; Wei, Ningning; Hong, Jing; Li, Bowen; Luo, Lei; Rong, Mingqiang; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Zheng, Jie; Wang, KeWei; Lai, Ren

    2015-09-30

    The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 ion channel is a polymodal nociceptor that responds to heat with exquisite sensitivity through an unknown mechanism. Here we report the identification of a novel toxin, RhTx, from the venom of the Chinese red-headed centipede that potently activates TRPV1 to produce excruciating pain. RhTx is a 27-amino-acid small peptide that forms a compact polarized molecule with very rapid binding kinetics and high affinity for TRPV1. We show that RhTx targets the channel's heat activation machinery to cause powerful heat activation at body temperature. The RhTx-TRPV1 interaction is mediated by the toxin's highly charged C terminus, which associates tightly to the charge-rich outer pore region of the channel where it can directly interact with the pore helix and turret. These findings demonstrate that RhTx binding to the outer pore can induce TRPV1 heat activation, therefore providing crucial new structural information on the heat activation machinery.

  18. A pain-inducing centipede toxin targets the heat activation machinery of nociceptor TRPV1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shilong; Yang, Fan; Wei, Ningning; Hong, Jing; Li, Bowen; Luo, Lei; Rong, Mingqiang; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Zheng, Jie; Wang, Kewei; Lai, Ren

    2015-09-01

    The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 ion channel is a polymodal nociceptor that responds to heat with exquisite sensitivity through an unknown mechanism. Here we report the identification of a novel toxin, RhTx, from the venom of the Chinese red-headed centipede that potently activates TRPV1 to produce excruciating pain. RhTx is a 27-amino-acid small peptide that forms a compact polarized molecule with very rapid binding kinetics and high affinity for TRPV1. We show that RhTx targets the channel's heat activation machinery to cause powerful heat activation at body temperature. The RhTx-TRPV1 interaction is mediated by the toxin's highly charged C terminus, which associates tightly to the charge-rich outer pore region of the channel where it can directly interact with the pore helix and turret. These findings demonstrate that RhTx binding to the outer pore can induce TRPV1 heat activation, therefore providing crucial new structural information on the heat activation machinery.

  19. A pain-inducing centipede toxin targets the heat activation machinery of nociceptor TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shilong; Yang, Fan; Wei, Ningning; Hong, Jing; Li, Bowen; Luo, Lei; Rong, Mingqiang; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Zheng, Jie; Wang, KeWei; Lai, Ren

    2015-01-01

    The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 ion channel is a polymodal nociceptor that responds to heat with exquisite sensitivity through an unknown mechanism. Here we report the identification of a novel toxin, RhTx, from the venom of the Chinese red-headed centipede that potently activates TRPV1 to produce excruciating pain. RhTx is a 27-amino-acid small peptide that forms a compact polarized molecule with very rapid binding kinetics and high affinity for TRPV1. We show that RhTx targets the channel's heat activation machinery to cause powerful heat activation at body temperature. The RhTx–TRPV1 interaction is mediated by the toxin's highly charged C terminus, which associates tightly to the charge-rich outer pore region of the channel where it can directly interact with the pore helix and turret. These findings demonstrate that RhTx binding to the outer pore can induce TRPV1 heat activation, therefore providing crucial new structural information on the heat activation machinery. PMID:26420335

  20. Is Catalytic Activity of Chaperones a Selectable Trait for the Emergence of Heat Shock Response?

    PubMed Central

    Çetinbaş, Murat; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2015-01-01

    Although heat shock response is ubiquitous in bacterial cells, the underlying physical chemistry behind heat shock response remains poorly understood. To study the response of cell populations to heat shock we employ a physics-based ab initio model of living cells where protein biophysics (i.e., folding and protein-protein interactions in crowded cellular environments) and important aspects of proteins homeostasis are coupled with realistic population dynamics simulations. By postulating a genotype-phenotype relationship we define a cell division rate in terms of functional concentrations of proteins and protein complexes, whose Boltzmann stabilities of folding and strengths of their functional interactions are exactly evaluated from their sequence information. We compare and contrast evolutionary dynamics for two models of chaperon action. In the active model, foldase chaperones function as nonequilibrium machines to accelerate the rate of protein folding. In the passive model, holdase chaperones form reversible complexes with proteins in their misfolded conformations to maintain their solubility. We find that only cells expressing foldase chaperones are capable of genuine heat shock response to the increase in the amount of unfolded proteins at elevated temperatures. In response to heat shock, cells’ limited resources are redistributed differently for active and passive models. For the active model, foldase chaperones are overexpressed at the expense of downregulation of high abundance proteins, whereas for the passive model; cells react to heat shock by downregulating their high abundance proteins, as their low abundance proteins are upregulated. PMID:25606691

  1. Is catalytic activity of chaperones a selectable trait for the emergence of heat shock response?

    PubMed

    Çetinbaş, Murat; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2015-01-20

    Although heat shock response is ubiquitous in bacterial cells, the underlying physical chemistry behind heat shock response remains poorly understood. To study the response of cell populations to heat shock we employ a physics-based ab initio model of living cells where protein biophysics (i.e., folding and protein-protein interactions in crowded cellular environments) and important aspects of proteins homeostasis are coupled with realistic population dynamics simulations. By postulating a genotype-phenotype relationship we define a cell division rate in terms of functional concentrations of proteins and protein complexes, whose Boltzmann stabilities of folding and strengths of their functional interactions are exactly evaluated from their sequence information. We compare and contrast evolutionary dynamics for two models of chaperon action. In the active model, foldase chaperones function as nonequilibrium machines to accelerate the rate of protein folding. In the passive model, holdase chaperones form reversible complexes with proteins in their misfolded conformations to maintain their solubility. We find that only cells expressing foldase chaperones are capable of genuine heat shock response to the increase in the amount of unfolded proteins at elevated temperatures. In response to heat shock, cells' limited resources are redistributed differently for active and passive models. For the active model, foldase chaperones are overexpressed at the expense of downregulation of high abundance proteins, whereas for the passive model; cells react to heat shock by downregulating their high abundance proteins, as their low abundance proteins are upregulated.

  2. Electric currents and coronal heating in NOAA active region 6952

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, T. R.; Canfield, R. C.; Hudson, H. S.; Mickey, D. L.; Wulser, J. -P.; Martens, P. C. H.; Tsuneta, S.

    1994-01-01

    We examine the spatial and temporal relationship between coronal structures observed with the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on board the Yohkoh spacecraft and the vertical electric current density derived from photospheric vector magnetograms obtained using the Stokes Polarimeter at the Mees Solar Observatory. We focus on a single active region: AR 6952 which we observed on 7 days during 1991 December. For 11 independent maps of the vertical electric current density co-aligned with non-flaring X-ray images, we search for a morphological relationship between sites of high vertical current density in the photosphere and enhanced X-ray emission in the overlying corona. We find no compelling spatial or temporal correlation between the sites of vertical current and the bright X-ray structures in this active region.

  3. Closeout Report for the Refractory Metal Accelerated Heat Pipe Life Test Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J.; Reid, R.; Stewart, E.; Hickman, R.; Mireles, O.

    2013-01-01

    With the selection of a gas-cooled reactor, this heat pipe accelerated life test activity was closed out and its resources redirected. The scope of this project was to establish the long-term aging effects on Mo-44.5%Re sodium heat pipes when subjected to space reactor temperature and mass fluences. To date, investigators have demonstrated heat pipe life tests of alkali metal systems up to .50,000 hours. Unfortunately, resources have not been available to examine the effect of temperature, mass fluence, or impurity level on corrosion or to conduct post-test forensic examination of heat pipes. The key objective of this effort was to establish a cost/time effective method to systematically test alkali metal heat pipes with both practical and theoretical benefits. During execution of the project, a heat pipe design was established, a majority of the laboratory test equipment systems specified, and operating and test procedures developed. Procurements for the heat pipe units and all major test components were underway at the time the stop work order was issued. An extremely important outcome was the successful fabrication of an annular wick from Mo-5%Re screen (the single, most difficult component to manufacture) using a hot isostatic pressing technique. This Technical Publication (TP) includes specifics regarding the heat pipe calorimeter water-cooling system, vendor design for the radio frequency heating system, possible alternative calorimeter designs, and progress on the vanadium equilibration technique. The methods provided in this TP and preceding project documentation would serve as a good starting point to rapidly implement an accelerated life test. Relevant test data can become available within months, not years, and destructive examination of the first life test heat pipe might begin within 6 months of test initiation. Final conclusions could be drawn in less than a quarter of the mission duration for a long-lived, fission-powered, deep space probe.

  4. Effects of microwave heating on porous structure of regenerated powdered activated carbon used in xylose.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xinying; Peng, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    The regeneration of spent powdered activated carbons used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating was investigated. Effects of microwave power and microwave heating time on the adsorption capacity of regenerated activated carbons were evaluated. The optimum conditions obtained are as follows: microwave power 800W; microwave heating time 30min. Regenerated activated carbon in this work has high adsorption capacities for the amount of methylene blue of 16 cm3/0.1 g and the iodine number of 1000.06mg/g. The specific surface areas of fresh commercial activated carbon, spent carbon and regenerated activated carbon were calculated according to the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller method, and the pore-size distributions of these carbons were characterized by non-local density functional theory (NLDFT). The results show that the specific surface area and the total pore volume of regenerated activated carbon are 1064 m2/g and 1.181 mL/g, respectively, indicating the feasibility of regeneration of spent powdered activated carbon used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating. The results of surface fractal dimensions also confirm the results of isotherms and NLDFT.

  5. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix A: Active heating system-screening analysis. Appendix B: Reconstituted food heating techniques analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technical data are presented which were used to evaluate active heating methods to be incorporated into the space shuttle food system design, and also to evaluate the relative merits and penalties associated with various approaches to the heating of rehydrated food during space flight. Equipment heating candidates were subject to a preliminary screening performed by a selection rationale process which considered the following parameters; (1) gravitational effect; (2) safety; (3) operability; (4) system compatibility; (5) serviceability; (6) crew acceptability; (7) crew time; (8) development risk; and (9) operating cost. A hot air oven, electrically heated food tray, and microwave oven were selected for further consideration and analysis. Passive, semi-active, and active food preparation approaches were also studied in an effort to determine the optimum method for heating rehydrated food. Potential complexity, cost, vehicle impact penalties, and palatability were considered in the analysis. A summary of the study results is provided along with cost estimates for each of the potential sytems

  6. Baroreflex modulation of sympathetic nerve activity to muscle in heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    To identify whether whole body heating alters arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), MSNA and beat-by-beat arterial blood pressure were recorded in seven healthy subjects during acute hypotensive and hypertensive stimuli in both normothermic and heat stress conditions. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature (P < 0.01), MSNA (P < 0.01), heart rate (P < 0.01), and skin blood flow (P < 0.001), whereas mean arterial blood pressure did not change significantly (P > 0.05). During both normothermic and heat stress conditions, MSNA increased and then decreased significantly when blood pressure was lowered and then raised via intravenous bolus infusions of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine HCl, respectively. The slope of the relationship between MSNA and diastolic blood pressure during heat stress (-128.3 +/- 13.9 U x beats(-1) x mmHg(-1)) was similar (P = 0.31) with normothermia (-140.6 +/- 21.1 U x beats(-1) x mmHg(-1)). Moreover, no significant change in the slope of the relationship between heart rate and systolic blood pressure was observed. These data suggest that arterial baroreflex modulation of MSNA and heart rate are not altered by whole body heating, with the exception of an upward shift of these baroreflex curves to accommodate changes in these variables that occur with whole body heating.

  7. On the relationship between photospheric footpoint motions and coronal heating in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Asgari-Targhi, M.; Berger, M. A.

    2014-05-20

    Coronal heating theories can be classified as either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) mechanisms, depending on whether the coronal magnetic field responds quasi-statically or dynamically to the photospheric footpoint motions. In this paper we investigate whether photospheric footpoint motions with velocities of 1-2 km s{sup –1} can heat the corona in active regions, and whether the corona responds quasi-statically or dynamically to such motions (DC versus AC heating). We construct three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic models for the Alfvén waves and quasi-static perturbations generated within a coronal loop. We find that in models where the effects of the lower atmosphere are neglected, the corona responds quasi-statically to the footpoint motions (DC heating), but the energy flux into the corona is too low compared to observational requirements. In more realistic models that include the lower atmosphere, the corona responds more dynamically to the footpoint motions (AC heating) and the predicted heating rates due to Alfvén wave turbulence are sufficient to explain the observed hot loops. The higher heating rates are due to the amplification of Alfvén waves in the lower atmosphere. We conclude that magnetic braiding is a highly dynamic process.

  8. Pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy: fast gas heating and active particle production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, N. A.

    2016-08-01

    The results of a numerical study on kinetic processes initiated by a pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy, when the dissociation degree of oxygen molecules is high, are presented. The calculations of the temporal dynamics of the electron concentration, density of atomic oxygen, vibrational distribution function of nitrogen molecules, and gas temperature agree with the experimental data. It is shown that quenching of electronically excited states of nitrogen N2(B3Πg), N2(C3Πu), N2(a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) by oxygen molecules leads to the dissociation of O2. This conclusion is based on the comparison of calculated dynamics of atomic oxygen in air, excited by a pulsed nanosecond discharge, with experimental data. In air plasma at a high dissociation degree of oxygen molecules ([O]/[O2] > 10%), relaxation of the electronic energy of atoms and molecules in reactions with O atoms becomes extremely important. Active production of NO molecules and fast gas heating in the discharge plasma due to the quenching of electronically excited N2(B3Πg, C3Πu, a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) molecules by oxygen atoms is notable. Owing to the high O atom density, electrons are effectively detached from negative ions in the discharge afterglow. As a result, the decay of plasma in the afterglow is determined by electron-ion recombination, and the electron density remains relatively high between the pulses. An increase in the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules at the periphery of the plasma channel at time delay t = 1-30 μs after the discharge is obtained. This is due to intense gas heating and, as a result, gas-dynamic expansion of a hot gas channel. Vibrationally excited N2(v) molecules produced near the discharge axis move from the axial region to the periphery. Consequently, at the periphery the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules is increased.

  9. Hyperthyroidism increases the uncoupled ATPase activity and heat production by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Ana Paula; Da-Silva, Wagner S; Carvalho, Denise P; De Meis, Leopoldo

    2003-01-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase is able to modulate the distribution of energy released during ATP hydrolysis, so that a portion of energy is used for Ca2+ transport (coupled ATPase activity) and a portion is converted into heat (uncoupled ATPase activity). In this report it is shown that T4 administration to rabbits promotes an increase in the rates of both the uncoupled ATPase activity and heat production in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, and that the degree of activation varies depending on the muscle type used. In white muscles hyperthyroidism promotes a 0.8-fold increase of the uncoupled ATPase activity and in red muscle a 4-fold increase. The yield of vesicles from hyperthyroid muscles is 3-4-fold larger than that obtained from normal muscles; thus the rate of heat production by the Ca2+-ATPase expressed in terms of g of muscle in hyperthyroidism is increased by a factor of 3.6 in white muscles and 12.0 in red muscles. The data presented suggest that the Ca2+-ATPase uncoupled activity may represent one of the heat sources that contributes to the enhanced thermogenesis noted in hyperthyroidism. PMID:12887329

  10. Postinfection activity, residue levels, and persistence of azoxystrobin, fludioxonil, and pyrimethanil applied alone or in combination with heat and imazalil for green mold control on inoculated oranges.

    PubMed

    Schirra, Mario; Palma, Amedeo; Barberis, Antonio; Angioni, Alberto; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Cabras, Paolo; D'Aquino, Salvatore

    2010-03-24

    The postinfection activity of azoxystrobin (AZX), fludioxonil (FLU), and pyrimethanil (PYR), applied alone or in combination with imazalil (IMZ), in controlling postharvest green mold in 'Salustiana' oranges inoculated with Penicillium digitatum was studied. Fruits were immersed for 30 or 60 s in (i) water or water mixtures at 20 degrees C containing AZX, FLU, or PYR at 600 mg/L; and (ii) IMZ at 600 mg/L, alone or in combination with AZX, FLU, or PYR at 600 mg/L. Similar treatments were performed at 50 degrees C using the active ingredients at half rates with respect to the treatments at 20 degrees C. Fungicide residues in fruits were analyzed following treatments and after 14 days of simulated shelf life at 17 degrees C. AZX or FLU mixtures at 20 degrees C for 30-60 s similarly but moderately reduced green mold decay with respect to control fruit; differences due to dip time were not significant. Superior control of decay was achieved by PYR and, especially, IMZ, applied alone or in combination with AZX, FLU, or PYR. The activity of PYR at 20 degrees C was significantly dependent on treatment time, whereas that of IMZ and combined treatments at 20 degrees C was not. The effectiveness of FLU or PYR mixtures at 50 degrees C in controlling decay was similar and superior to that of AZX. The action of single- or double-fungicide application was not dependent on dip time in most samples. IMZ or combined mixtures at 50 degrees C were consistently more effective with respect to single-fungicide treatments with AZX, FLU, or PYR. The application of heated fungicide mixtures resulted in significantly higher residue accumulation in most fruit samples compared to treatments performed at 20 degrees C. The degradation rate of fungicides was generally low and dependent on treatment conditions such as time, temperature, and the presence or not of other fungicides.

  11. Fluxless Brazing and Heat Treatment of a Plate-Fin Sandwich Actively Cooled Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.

    1978-01-01

    The processes and techniques used to fabricate plate-fin sandwich actively cooled panels are presented. The materials were 6061 aluminum alloy and brazing sheet having clad brazing alloy. The panels consisted of small scale specimens, fatigue specimens, and a large 0.61 m by 1.22 m test panel. All panels were fluxless brazed in retorts in heated platen presses while exerting external pressure to assure intimate contact of details. Distortion and damage normally associated with that heat treatment were minimized by heat treating without fixtures and solution quenching in an organic polymer solution. The test panel is the largest fluxless brazed and heat treated panel of its configuration known to exist.

  12. Initial heats of H{sub 2}S adsorption on activated carbons: Effect of surface features

    SciTech Connect

    Bagreev, A.; Adib, F.; Bandosz, T.J.

    1999-11-15

    The sorption of hydrogen sulfide was studied on activated carbons of various origins by means of inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution. The conditions of the experiment were dry and anaerobic. Prior to the experiments the surface of some carbon samples was oxidized using either nitric acid or ammonium persulfate. Then the structural parameters of carbons were evaluated from the sorption of nitrogen. From the IGC experiments at various temperatures, heats of adsorption were calculated. The results showed that the heat of H{sub 2}S adsorption under dry anaerobic conditions does not depend on surface chemistry. The dependence of the heat of adsorption on the characteristic energy of nitrogen adsorption calculated from the Dubinin-Raduskevich equation was found. This correlation can be used to predict the heat of H{sub 2}S adsorption based on the results obtained from nitrogen adsorption.

  13. "Hot" Non-flaring Plasmas in Active Region Cores Heated by Single Nanoflares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Will Thomas; Cargill, Peter; Bradshaw, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    We use hydrodynamic modeling tools, including a two-fluid development of the EBTEL code, to investigate the properties expected of "hot" (i.e. between 106.7 and 107.2 K) non-flaring plasmas due to nanoflare heating in active regions. Here we focus on single nanoflares and show that while simple models predict an emission measure distribution extending well above 10 MK that is consistent with cooling by thermal conduction, many other effects are likely to limit the existence and detectability of such plasmas. These include: differential heating between electrons and ions, ionization non-equilibrium and, for short nanoflares, the time taken for the coronal density to increase. The most useful temperature range to look for this plasma, often called the "smoking gun" of nanoflare heating, lies between 1 MK and 10 MK. Signatures of the actual heating may be detectable in some instances.

  14. Modelling nanoflares in active regions and implications for coronal heating mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Cargill, P. J.; Warren, H. P.; Bradshaw, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations from the Hinode and Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft have provided major advances in understanding the heating of solar active regions (ARs). For ARs comprising many magnetic strands or sub-loops heated by small, impulsive events (nanoflares), it is suggested that (i) the time between individual nanoflares in a magnetic strand is 500–2000 s, (ii) a weak ‘hot’ component (more than 106.6 K) is present, and (iii) nanoflare energies may be as low as a few 1023 ergs. These imply small heating events in a stressed coronal magnetic field, where the time between individual nanoflares on a strand is of order the cooling time. Modelling suggests that the observed properties are incompatible with nanoflare models that require long energy build-up (over 10 s of thousands of seconds) and with steady heating. PMID:25897093

  15. Modelling nanoflares in active regions and implications for coronal heating mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cargill, P J; Warren, H P; Bradshaw, S J

    2015-05-28

    Recent observations from the Hinode and Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft have provided major advances in understanding the heating of solar active regions (ARs). For ARs comprising many magnetic strands or sub-loops heated by small, impulsive events (nanoflares), it is suggested that (i) the time between individual nanoflares in a magnetic strand is 500-2000 s, (ii) a weak 'hot' component (more than 10(6.6) K) is present, and (iii) nanoflare energies may be as low as a few 10(23) ergs. These imply small heating events in a stressed coronal magnetic field, where the time between individual nanoflares on a strand is of order the cooling time. Modelling suggests that the observed properties are incompatible with nanoflare models that require long energy build-up (over 10 s of thousands of seconds) and with steady heating.

  16. Heating decreases epithiospecifier protein activity and increases sulforaphane formation in broccoli.

    PubMed

    Matusheski, Nathan V; Juvik, John A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2004-05-01

    Sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate from broccoli, is one of the most potent food-derived anticarcinogens. This compound is not present in the intact vegetable, rather it is formed from its glucosinolate precursor, glucoraphanin, by the action of myrosinase, a thioglucosidase enzyme, when broccoli tissue is crushed or chewed. However, a number of studies have demonstrated that sulforaphane yield from glucoraphanin is low, and that a non-bioactive nitrile analog, sulforaphane nitrile, is the primary hydrolysis product when plant tissue is crushed at room temperature. Recent evidence suggests that in Arabidopsis, nitrile formation from glucosinolates is controlled by a heat-sensitive protein, epithiospecifier protein (ESP), a non-catalytic cofactor of myrosinase. Our objectives were to examine the effects of heating broccoli florets and sprouts on sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile formation, to determine if broccoli contains ESP activity, then to correlate heat-dependent changes in ESP activity, sulforaphane content and bioactivity, as measured by induction of the phase II detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (QR) in cell culture. Heating fresh broccoli florets or broccoli sprouts to 60 degrees C prior to homogenization simultaneously increased sulforaphane formation and decreased sulforaphane nitrile formation. A significant loss of ESP activity paralleled the decrease in sulforaphane nitrile formation. Heating to 70 degrees C and above decreased the formation of both products in broccoli florets, but not in broccoli sprouts. The induction of QR in cultured mouse hepatoma Hepa lclc7 cells paralleled increases in sulforaphane formation.

  17. DIAGNOSING THE TIME DEPENDENCE OF ACTIVE REGION CORE HEATING FROM THE EMISSION MEASURE. II. NANOFLARE TRAINS

    SciTech Connect

    Reep, J. W.; Bradshaw, S. J.; Klimchuk, J. A. E-mail: stephen.bradshaw@rice.edu

    2013-02-20

    The time dependence of heating in solar active regions can be studied by analyzing the slope of the emission measure distribution coolward of the peak. In a previous study we showed that low-frequency heating can account for 0% to 77% of active region core emission measures. We now turn our attention to heating by a finite succession of impulsive events for which the timescale between events on a single magnetic strand is shorter than the cooling timescale. We refer to this scenario as a 'nanoflare train' and explore a parameter space of heating and coronal loop properties with a hydrodynamic model. Our conclusions are (1) nanoflare trains are consistent with 86% to 100% of observed active region cores when uncertainties in the atomic data are properly accounted for; (2) steeper slopes are found for larger values of the ratio of the train duration {Delta} {sub H} to the post-train cooling and draining timescale {Delta} {sub C}, where {Delta} {sub H} depends on the number of heating events, the event duration and the time interval between successive events ({tau} {sub C}); (3) {tau} {sub C} may be diagnosed from the width of the hot component of the emission measure provided that the temperature bins are much smaller than 0.1 dex; (4) the slope of the emission measure alone is not sufficient to provide information about any timescale associated with heating-the length and density of the heated structure must be measured for {Delta} {sub H} to be uniquely extracted from the ratio {Delta} {sub H}/{Delta} {sub C}.

  18. Evaluation of a Stochastic Inactivation Model for Heat-Activated Spores of Bacillus spp. ▿

    PubMed Central

    Corradini, Maria G.; Normand, Mark D.; Eisenberg, Murray; Peleg, Micha

    2010-01-01

    Heat activates the dormant spores of certain Bacillus spp., which is reflected in the “activation shoulder” in their survival curves. At the same time, heat also inactivates the already active and just activated spores, as well as those still dormant. A stochastic model based on progressively changing probabilities of activation and inactivation can describe this phenomenon. The model is presented in a fully probabilistic discrete form for individual and small groups of spores and as a semicontinuous deterministic model for large spore populations. The same underlying algorithm applies to both isothermal and dynamic heat treatments. Its construction does not require the assumption of the activation and inactivation kinetics or knowledge of their biophysical and biochemical mechanisms. A simplified version of the semicontinuous model was used to simulate survival curves with the activation shoulder that are reminiscent of experimental curves reported in the literature. The model is not intended to replace current models to predict dynamic inactivation but only to offer a conceptual alternative to their interpretation. Nevertheless, by linking the survival curve's shape to probabilities of events at the individual spore level, the model explains, and can be used to simulate, the irregular activation and survival patterns of individual and small groups of spores, which might be involved in food poisoning and spoilage. PMID:20453137

  19. Dehydration, Heat Stroke, or Hyponatremia? The Recognition, Treatment, and Prevention of Hyponatremia Caused by High Exercise Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Brent

    Hyponatremia (severe sodium depletion) has symptoms similar to heat exhaustion and heat stroke and can easily be misdiagnosed. The number of wilderness users and extreme adventure activities has increased in recent years, and more cases are being diagnosed. Given that a 1993 study found that 1 in 10 cases of heat-related illnesses were…

  20. The calcium-activated chloride channel anoctamin 1 acts as a heat sensor in nociceptive neurons.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hawon; Yang, Young Duk; Lee, Jesun; Lee, Byeongjoon; Kim, Tahnbee; Jang, Yongwoo; Back, Seung Keun; Na, Heung Sik; Harfe, Brian D; Wang, Fan; Raouf, Ramin; Wood, John N; Oh, Uhtaek

    2012-05-27

    Nociceptors are a subset of small primary afferent neurons that respond to noxious chemical, thermal and mechanical stimuli. Ion channels in nociceptors respond differently to noxious stimuli and generate electrical signals in different ways. Anoctamin 1 (ANO1 also known as TMEM16A) is a Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel that is essential for numerous physiological functions. We found that ANO1 was activated by temperatures over 44 °C with steep heat sensitivity. ANO1 was expressed in small sensory neurons and was highly colocalized with nociceptor markers, which suggests that it may be involved in nociception. Application of heat ramps to dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons elicited robust ANO1-dependent depolarization. Furthermore, knockdown or deletion of ANO1 in DRG neurons substantially reduced nociceptive behavior in thermal pain models. These results indicate that ANO1 is a heat sensor that detects nociceptive thermal stimuli in sensory neurons and possibly mediates nociception.

  1. An application of active surface heating for augmenting lift and reducing drag of an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Badavi, Forooz F.; Noonan, Kevin W.

    1988-01-01

    Application of active control to separated flow on the RC(6)-08 airfoil at high angle of attack by localized surface heating is numerically simulated by integrating the compressible 2-D nonlinear Navier-Stokes equation solver. Active control is simulated by local modification of the temperature boundary condition over a narrow strip of the upper surface of the airfoil. Both mean and perturbed profiles are favorably altered when excited with the same natural frequency of the shear layer by moderate surface heating for both laminar and turbulent separation. The shear layer is found to be very sensitive to localized surface heating in the vicinity of the separation point. The excitation field at the surface sufficiently altered both the local as well as the global circulation to cause a significant increase in lift and reduction in drag.

  2. Control of the boundary layer separation about an airfoil by active surface heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Badavi, Forooz F.; Noonan, Kevin W.

    1988-01-01

    Application of active control to separated flow on the RC(6)-08 airfoil at high angle of attack by localized surface heating is numerically simulated by integrating the compressible two-dimensional nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations solver. Active control is simulated by local modification of the temperature boundary condition over a narrow strip on the upper surface of the airfoil. Both mean and perturbed profiles are favorably altered when excited with the same natural frequency of the shear layer by moderate surface heating for both laminar and turbulent separation. The shear layer is found to be very sensitive to localized surface heating in the vicinity of the separation point. The excitation field at the surface sufficiently altered both the local as well as the global circulation to cause a significant increase in lift and reduction in drag.

  3. National commercial solar heating and cooling demonstration: purposes, program activities, and implications for future programs

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, R.; Genest, M.; Bryant, B.

    1980-05-01

    The Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974 created a set of activities to demonstrate the potential use of solar heating within a three-year period and of combined solar heating and cooling within a five-year period. This study assesses the Commercial Demonstration Program portion of the activity in terms of its stated goals and objectives. The primary data base was DOE contractor reports on commercial demonstration projects. It was concluded that the program did not provide data to support a positive decision for the immediate construction or purchase of commercial solar systems. However, the program may have contributed to other goals in the subsequent legislation; i.e., research and development information, stimulation of the solar industry, and more informed policy decisions.

  4. Effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines, AMP-activated protein kinase, and heat shock signal molecules in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Min, Li; Cheng, Jian-bo; Shi, Bao-lu; Yang, Hong-jian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-06-01

    Heat stress affects feed intake, milk production, and endocrine status in dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is employed as an index to evaluate the degree of heat stress in dairy cows. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether THI is the most appropriate measurement of heat stress in dairy cows. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and heat shock signal molecules (heat shock transcription factor (HSF) and heat shock proteins (HSP)) in dairy cows and to research biomarkers to be used for better understanding the meaning of THI as a bioclimatic index. To achieve these objectives, two experiments were performed. The first experiment: eighteen lactating Holstein dairy cows were used. The treatments were: heat stress (HS, THI average=81.7, n=9) and cooling (CL, THI average=53.4, n=9). Samples of HS were obtained on August 16, 2013, and samples of CL were collected on April 7, 2014 in natural conditions. The second experiment: HS treatment cows (n=9) from the first experiment were fed for 8 weeks from August 16, 2013 to October 12, 2013. Samples for moderate heat stress, mild heat stress, and no heat stress were obtained, respectively, according to the physical alterations of the THI. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the serum adiponectin, AMPK, HSF, HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90 (P<0.05). Adiponectin is strongly associated with AMPK. The increases of adiponectin and AMPK may be one of the mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in heat-stressed dairy cows. When heat stress treatment lasted 8 weeks, a higher expression of HSF and HSP70 was observed under moderate heat stress. Serum HSF and HSP70 are sensitive and accurate in heat stress and they could be potential indicators of animal response to heat stress. We recommend serum HSF and HSP70 as meaningful biomarkers to supplement the THI and evaluate moderate heat

  5. Effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines, AMP-activated protein kinase, and heat shock signal molecules in dairy cows*

    PubMed Central

    Min, Li; Cheng, Jian-bo; Shi, Bao-lu; Yang, Hong-jian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress affects feed intake, milk production, and endocrine status in dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is employed as an index to evaluate the degree of heat stress in dairy cows. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether THI is the most appropriate measurement of heat stress in dairy cows. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and heat shock signal molecules (heat shock transcription factor (HSF) and heat shock proteins (HSP)) in dairy cows and to research biomarkers to be used for better understanding the meaning of THI as a bioclimatic index. To achieve these objectives, two experiments were performed. The first experiment: eighteen lactating Holstein dairy cows were used. The treatments were: heat stress (HS, THI average=81.7, n=9) and cooling (CL, THI average=53.4, n=9). Samples of HS were obtained on August 16, 2013, and samples of CL were collected on April 7, 2014 in natural conditions. The second experiment: HS treatment cows (n=9) from the first experiment were fed for 8 weeks from August 16, 2013 to October 12, 2013. Samples for moderate heat stress, mild heat stress, and no heat stress were obtained, respectively, according to the physical alterations of the THI. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the serum adiponectin, AMPK, HSF, HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90 (P<0.05). Adiponectin is strongly associated with AMPK. The increases of adiponectin and AMPK may be one of the mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in heat-stressed dairy cows. When heat stress treatment lasted 8 weeks, a higher expression of HSF and HSP70 was observed under moderate heat stress. Serum HSF and HSP70 are sensitive and accurate in heat stress and they could be potential indicators of animal response to heat stress. We recommend serum HSF and HSP70 as meaningful biomarkers to supplement the THI and evaluate moderate heat

  6. Enhanced immunomodulatory activity and stability in simulated digestive juices of Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 by heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Takashi; Hirose, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Murosaki, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the effect of heat treating Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 on its in vitro cytokine-inducing activity, on the stability of this activity in simulated digestive juices, and on its in vivo immunomodulatory properties. L-137 cells were harvested at the stationary phase with or without the subsequent heat treatment and then lyophilized. Heat-killed L-137 cells stimulated mouse spleen cells to produce more interleukin-12p40 than unheated L-137. The interleukin-12p40-inducing activity of unheated L-137 was significantly lower when incubated with simulated intestinal juice, but the activity of heat-killed L-137 cells was maintained. Furthermore, heat-killed L-137 was more protective than unheated L-137 in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. A heat treatment may therefore be effective for enhancing the immunomodulatory activity of L-137 cells.

  7. Repression of the heat shock factor 1 transcriptional activation domain is modulated by constitutive phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Kline, M P; Morimoto, R I

    1997-01-01

    Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) is constitutively expressed in mammalian cells and negatively regulated for DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Upon exposure to heat shock and other forms of chemical and physiological stress, these activities of HSF1 are rapidly induced. In this report, we demonstrate that constitutive phosphorylation of HSF1 at serine residues distal to the transcriptional activation domain functions to repress transactivation. Tryptic phosphopeptide analysis of a collection of chimeric GAL4-HSF1 deletion and point mutants identified a region of constitutive phosphorylation encompassing serine residues 303 and 307. The significance of phosphorylation at serines 303 and 307 in the regulation of HSF1 transcriptional activity was demonstrated by transient transfection and assay of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter construct. Whereas the transfected wild-type GAL4-HSF1 chimera is repressed for transcriptional activity and derepressed by heat shock, mutation of serines 303 and 307 to alanine results in derepression to a high level of constitutive activity. Similar results were obtained with mutation of these serine residues in the context of full-length HSF1. These data reveal that constitutive phosphorylation of serines 303 and 307 has an important role in the negative regulation of HSF1 transcriptional activity at control temperatures. PMID:9121459

  8. Physical Activity in the Heat: Important Considerations to Keep Your Students Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roetert, E. Paul; Richardson, Cheryl L.; Bergeron, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Although July and August tend to be the warmest months of the year, the months leading up to summer as well as the months just following summer can also be quite warm or even very hot. In this article, the authors share some important information to help prepare physical educators for overseeing activities in the heat and, just as importantly, to…

  9. Activation of a heat-stable cytolytic protein associated with the surface membrane of Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed Central

    Lowrey, D M; McLaughlin, J

    1985-01-01

    Surface membrane-enriched fractions of Naegleria fowleri obtained after isopycnic centrifugation experiments contain a potent cytolytic activity as determined by hemolysis and 51Cr release assays. This surface membrane cytolysin was unaffected by a treatment at 75 degrees C for 30 min and accounted for 70 to 90% of cytolysis by whole-cell lysates of amoebae. This heat resistance as well as intimate membrane association distinguished the surface membrane cytolytic activity from a second heat-labile cytolytic activity which appears to be latent within lysosomes. The surface membrane cytolysin was found to be specifically activated by diluted samples of lysosomal fractions. The possible role of this surface membrane cytotoxin in the pathogenicity of N. fowleri is discussed. PMID:4055029

  10. Microbial biomass and activity in soils with different moisture content heated at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro, Ana; Lombao, Alba; Martin, Angela; Cancelo-González, Javier; Carballas, Tarsy; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that soil properties determining the thermal transmissivity (moisture, texture, organic matter, etc.) and the duration and temperatures reached during soil heating are key factors driving the fire-induced changes in soil microbial communities. However, despite its interest, the information about this topic is scarce. The aim of the present study is to analyze, under laboratory conditions, the impact of the thermal shock (infrared lamps reaching temperatures of 100 °C, 200 °C and 400 °C) on microbial communities of three acid soils under different moisture level (0 %, 25 % and 50 % per soil volume). Soil temperature was measured with thermocouples and the impact of soil heating was evaluated by means of the analysis of the temperature-time curves calculating the maximum temperature reached (Tmax) and the degree-hours (GH) as an estimation of the amount of heat supplied to the samples (fire severity). The bacterial growth (leucine incorporation) and the total microbial biomass (PLFA) were measured immediately after the heating and one month after the incubation of reinoculated soils. The results showed clearly the importance of moisture level in the transmission of heat through the soil and hence in the further direct impact of high temperatures on microorganisms living in soil. In general, the values of microbial parameters analyzed were low, particularly immediately after soil heating at higher temperatures; the bacterial activity measurements (leucine incorporation technique) being more sensitive to detect the thermal shock showed than total biomass measurements (PLFA). After 1 month incubation, soil microbial communities tend to recover due to the proliferation of surviving population using as substrate the dead microorganisms (soil sterilization). Thus, time elapsed after the heating was found to be decisive when examining the relationships between the microbial properties and the soil heating parameters (GH, Tmax). Analysis of results also

  11. Heat shock modulates the subcellular localization, stability, and activity of HIPK2.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Mamta; Bhadauriya, Pratibha; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2016-04-15

    The homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase and is involved in transcriptional regulation. HIPK2 is a highly unstable protein, and is kept at a low level under normal physiological conditions. However, exposure of cells to physiological stress - such as hypoxia, oxidative stress, or UV damage - is known to stabilize HIPK2, leading to the HIPK2-dependent activation of p53 and the cell death pathway. Therefore HIPK2 is also known as a stress kinase and as a stress-activated pro-apoptotic factor. We demonstrate here that exposure of cells to heat shock results in the stabilization of HIPK2 and the stabilization is mediated via K63-linked ubiquitination. Intriguingly, a sub-lethal heat shock (42 °C, 1 h) results in the cytoplasmic localization of HIPK2, while a lethal heat shock (45 °C, 1 h) results in its nuclear localization. Cells exposed to the lethal heat shock showed significantly higher levels of the p53 activity than those exposed to the sub-lethal thermal stress, suggesting that both the level and the nuclear localization are essential for the pro-apoptotic activity of HIPK2 and that the lethal heat shock could retain the HIPK2 in the nucleus to promote the cell death. Taken together our study underscores the importance of HIPK2 in stress mediated cell death, and that the HIPK2 is a generic stress kinase that gets activated by diverse set of physiological stressors.

  12. Actively heated high-resolution fiber-optic-distributed temperature sensing to quantify streambed flow dynamics in zones of strong groundwater upwelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Martin; Buckley, Sean F.; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2016-01-01

    Zones of strong groundwater upwelling to streams enhance thermal stability and moderate thermal extremes, which is particularly important to aquatic ecosystems in a warming climate. Passive thermal tracer methods used to quantify vertical upwelling rates rely on downward conduction of surface temperature signals. However, moderate to high groundwater flux rates (>−1.5 m d−1) restrict downward propagation of diurnal temperature signals, and therefore the applicability of several passive thermal methods. Active streambed heating from within high-resolution fiber-optic temperature sensors (A-HRTS) has the potential to define multidimensional fluid-flux patterns below the extinction depth of surface thermal signals, allowing better quantification and separation of local and regional groundwater discharge. To demonstrate this concept, nine A-HRTS were emplaced vertically into the streambed in a grid with ∼0.40 m lateral spacing at a stream with strong upward vertical flux in Mashpee, Massachusetts, USA. Long-term (8–9 h) heating events were performed to confirm the dominance of vertical flow to the 0.6 m depth, well below the extinction of ambient diurnal signals. To quantify vertical flux, short-term heating events (28 min) were performed at each A-HRTS, and heat-pulse decay over vertical profiles was numerically modeled in radial two dimension (2-D) using SUTRA. Modeled flux values are similar to those obtained with seepage meters, Darcy methods, and analytical modeling of shallow diurnal signals. We also observed repeatable differential heating patterns along the length of vertically oriented sensors that may indicate sediment layering and hyporheic exchange superimposed on regional groundwater discharge.

  13. Actively heated high-resolution fiber-optic-distributed temperature sensing to quantify streambed flow dynamics in zones of strong groundwater upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Buckley, Sean F.; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2016-07-01

    Zones of strong groundwater upwelling to streams enhance thermal stability and moderate thermal extremes, which is particularly important to aquatic ecosystems in a warming climate. Passive thermal tracer methods used to quantify vertical upwelling rates rely on downward conduction of surface temperature signals. However, moderate to high groundwater flux rates (>-1.5 m d-1) restrict downward propagation of diurnal temperature signals, and therefore the applicability of several passive thermal methods. Active streambed heating from within high-resolution fiber-optic temperature sensors (A-HRTS) has the potential to define multidimensional fluid-flux patterns below the extinction depth of surface thermal signals, allowing better quantification and separation of local and regional groundwater discharge. To demonstrate this concept, nine A-HRTS were emplaced vertically into the streambed in a grid with ˜0.40 m lateral spacing at a stream with strong upward vertical flux in Mashpee, Massachusetts, USA. Long-term (8-9 h) heating events were performed to confirm the dominance of vertical flow to the 0.6 m depth, well below the extinction of ambient diurnal signals. To quantify vertical flux, short-term heating events (28 min) were performed at each A-HRTS, and heat-pulse decay over vertical profiles was numerically modeled in radial two dimension (2-D) using SUTRA. Modeled flux values are similar to those obtained with seepage meters, Darcy methods, and analytical modeling of shallow diurnal signals. We also observed repeatable differential heating patterns along the length of vertically oriented sensors that may indicate sediment layering and hyporheic exchange superimposed on regional groundwater discharge.

  14. Hot Plasma from Solar Active Region Cores: a Test of AC and DC Coronal Heating Models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Asgari-Targhi, M.; Christian, G. M.; Dhaliwal, R. S.; Pathak, S.

    2015-06-01

    Direct current (DC) models of solar coronal heating invoke magnetic reconnection to convert magnetic free energy into heat, whereas alternating current (AC) models invoke wave dissipation. In both cases the energy is supplied by photospheric footpoint motions. For a given footpoint velocity amplitude, DC models predict lower average heating rates but greater temperature variability when compared to AC models. Therefore, evidence of hot plasma (T > 5 MK) in the cores of active regions could be one of the ways for current observations to distinguish between AC and DC models. We have analyzed data from the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly for 12 quiescent active region cores, all of which were observed in the XRT Be_thick channel. We did Differential Emission Measure (DEM) analysis and achieved good fits for each data set. We then artificially truncated the hot plasma of the DEM model at 5 MK and examined the resulting fits to the data. For some regions in our sample, the XRT intensities continued to be well-matched by the DEM predictions, even without the hot plasma. This truncation, however, resulted in unacceptable fits for the other regions. This result indicates that the hot plasma is present in these regions, even if the precise DEM distribution cannot be determined with the data available. We conclude that reconnection may be heating the hot plasma component of these active regions.

  15. HOT PLASMA FROM SOLAR ACTIVE REGION CORES: A TEST OF AC AND DC CORONAL HEATING MODELS?

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, J. T.; Christian, G. M.; Dhaliwal, R. S.; Pathak, S.; Asgari-Targhi, M.

    2015-06-20

    Direct current (DC) models of solar coronal heating invoke magnetic reconnection to convert magnetic free energy into heat, whereas alternating current (AC) models invoke wave dissipation. In both cases the energy is supplied by photospheric footpoint motions. For a given footpoint velocity amplitude, DC models predict lower average heating rates but greater temperature variability when compared to AC models. Therefore, evidence of hot plasma (T > 5 MK) in the cores of active regions could be one of the ways for current observations to distinguish between AC and DC models. We have analyzed data from the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly for 12 quiescent active region cores, all of which were observed in the XRT Be-thick channel. We did Differential Emission Measure (DEM) analysis and achieved good fits for each data set. We then artificially truncated the hot plasma of the DEM model at 5 MK and examined the resulting fits to the data. For some regions in our sample, the XRT intensities continued to be well-matched by the DEM predictions, even without the hot plasma. This truncation, however, resulted in unacceptable fits for the other regions. This result indicates that the hot plasma is present in these regions, even if the precise DEM distribution cannot be determined with the data available. We conclude that reconnection may be heating the hot plasma component of these active regions.

  16. Heat transfer characteristics of decaying swirl flow through a circular tube with co/counter dual twisted-tape swirl generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changcharoen, W.; Samruaisin, P.; Eiamsa-ard, P.; Eiamsa-ard, S.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of co/counter dual-twisted tapes (CoT/CT) on heat transfer rate in a circular tube has been investigated experimentally. In the experiment, the dual-twisted tapes are placed at the entry of the test tube in two arrangements: (1) each of dual twisted tape was twisted in the same direction that can produce co-swirl flow at the entry and (2) each of dual twisted tape was twisted in the opposite direction that can produce counter-swirl flow. Dual tapes were twisted in three different twist ratios ( y/w = 3, 4, and 5) for generating different swirl intensities at the entry of the test section while the single twisted tape (ST) was also the test for comparison. The aim at using the dual twisted tapes is to create co/counter-rotating swirl flows having a significant influence on the flow turbulence intensity at the entry section leading to higher heat transfer enhancement. Average Nusselt numbers of CoT/CT are determined and also compared with those obtained from other similar cases, i.e., ST. The experimental results on the heat transfer rates indicated that the tubes with the dual twisted tapes (CoT/CT) are higher than those with the single tape at the entry section ( x/D = 0 to 10). The heat transfer rates at longer distance became lower due to high interaction of each swirl. In addition, the mean Nusselt number and friction factor for the swirl generator created by the CT is nearly similar to CoT results.

  17. Evaluation of a large capacity heat pump concept for active cooling of hypersonic aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagel, L. L.; Herring, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Results of engineering analyses assessing the conceptual feasibility of a large capacity heat pump for enhancing active cooling of hypersonic aircraft structure are presented. A unique heat pump arrangement which permits cooling the structure of a Mach 6 transport to aluminum temperatures without the aid of thermal shielding is described. The selected concept is compatible with the use of conventional refrigerants, with Freon R-11 selected as the preferred refrigerant. Condenser temperatures were limited to levels compatible with the use of conventional refrigerants by incorporating a unique multipass condenser design, which extracts mechanical energy from the hydrogen fuel, prior to each subsequent pass through the condenser. Results show that it is technically feasible to use a large capacity heat pump in lieu of external shielding. Additional analyses are required to optimally apply this concept.

  18. Residue levels and effectiveness of pyrimethanil vs imazalil when using heated postharvest dip treatments for control of Penicillium decay on citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    D'Aquino, Salvatore; Schirra, Mario; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Migheli, Quirico

    2006-06-28

    The influence of fungicide concentration and treatment temperature on residue levels of pyrimethanil (PYR) in comparison with the commonly used fungicide imazalil (IMZ) was investigated in orange fruits following postharvest dip treatments. The dissipation rate of PYR residues was recorded as a function of storage conditions. The fungicide efficacy against green and blue molds caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, was evaluated on different citrus varieties following the fungicide application at 20 or 50 degrees C. Residue levels of PYR in Salustiana oranges were significantly correlated with the fungicide dosage, but residue concentrations were notably higher (ca. 13-19-fold) after treatment at 50 degrees C as compared to treatments at 20 degrees C. After treatment at temperatures ranging from 20 to 60 degrees C, PYR and IMZ residues in Salustiana oranges were significantly correlated with dip temperatures. Dissipation rates of PYR during storage were negligible in both Salustiana and Tarocco oranges. Results obtained on wounded, noninoculated Miho satsumas revealed that when treatments were performed at 50 degrees C, PYR or IMZ concentrations needed to achieve the complete control of decay were 8- and 16-fold less than by treatment at 20 degrees C. When fruits were inoculated with either P. digitatum or P. italicum, the application of 400 mg L(-1) PYR at 20 degrees C or 100 mg L(-1) PYR at 50 degrees C similarly reduced green and blue mold development. These results were corroborated by storage trials on Marsh grapefruits and Tarocco oranges. The lowest concentration of PYR required to achieve almost total protection of the fruit against decay accounted for 100 mg L(-1) at 50 degrees C and 400 mg L(-1) at 20 degrees C, respectively. Treatments did not affect fruit external appearance, flavor, and taste. It is concluded that postharvest PYR treatment represents an effective option to control green and blue mold in citrus fruit and

  19. Active Distributed Temperature Sensing to Characterise Soil Moisture and Heat Dynamics of a Vegetated Hillslope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocca, F.; Krause, S.; Chalari, A.; Hannah, D. M.; Mondanos, M.

    2015-12-01

    Complex correlated water and heat dynamics characterise the land surface and shallow subsurface, as consequence of the concurrent action of multiple transport processes. Point sensors and/or remote techniques show limitations in providing precise measurements of key indicators of soil heat and water transport such as soil temperature and moisture, at both high spatiotemporal resolution and large areal coverage. Fibre optics Distributed Temperature Sensors (DTS) allow for precise temperature measurement along optical cables of up to several kilometres, sampling at resolutions of up to few centimetres in space and seconds in time. The optical cable is the sensor and can be buried in the soil with minimum disturbance, to construct soil temperature profiles, over large surveying areas. Soil moisture can be obtained from the analysis of both heating and cooling rates measured by the DTS, when copper conductors embedded in the optical cable are electrically heated (technique known as Active DTS). In July 2015, three loops of optical cable of 500m each have been buried in the soil at different depths (0.05m, 0.25m and 0.40m), along an inclined recently vegetated field in the Birmingham area, UK. Active DTS tests have been set with the aim to characterize the soil temperature and moisture regimes of the field at high spatial resolution, in response to both sporadic events such as showers or scheduled irrigation, and diurnal fluctuations induced by atmospheric forcing. Spatiotemporal variations of the aforementioned regimes will be used to trace vertical and horizontal soil heat and water movements. Finally, assumptions on the possibility to correlate soil heat and water dynamics to a specific process such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil inclination, will be discussed. This research is part of the Marie Curie Initial Training Network (ITN) INTERFACES project and is realised in the context of the Free Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) experiment, in collaboration with

  20. Activated platelets release sphingosine 1-phosphate and induce hypersensitivity to noxious heat stimuli in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Weth, Daniela; Benetti, Camilla; Rauch, Caroline; Gstraunthaler, Gerhard; Schmidt, Helmut; Geisslinger, Gerd; Sabbadini, Roger; Proia, Richard L.; Kress, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    At the site of injury activated platelets release various mediators, one of which is sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). It was the aim of this study to explore whether activated human platelets had a pronociceptive effect in an in vivo mouse model and whether this effect was based on the release of S1P and subsequent activation of neuronal S1P receptors 1 or 3. Human platelets were prepared in different concentrations (105/μl, 106/μl, 107/μl) and assessed in mice with different genetic backgrounds (WT, S1P1fl/fl, SNS-S1P1−/−, S1P3−/−). Intracutaneous injections of activated human platelets induced a significant, dose-dependent hypersensitivity to noxious thermal stimulation. The degree of heat hypersensitivity correlated with the platelet concentration as well as the platelet S1P content and the amount of S1P released upon platelet activation as measured with LC MS/MS. Despite the significant correlations between S1P and platelet count, no difference in paw withdrawal latency (PWL) was observed in mice with a global null mutation of the S1P3 receptor or a conditional deletion of the S1P1 receptor in nociceptive primary afferents. Furthermore, neutralization of S1P with a selective anti-S1P antibody did not abolish platelet induced heat hypersensitivity. Our results suggest that activated platelets release S1P and induce heat hypersensitivity in vivo. However, the platelet induced heat hypersensitivity was caused by mediators other than S1P. PMID:25954148

  1. Heat stress control in the TMI-2 (Three Mile Island Unit 2) defueling and decontamination activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schork, J.S.; Parfitt, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the initial stages of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) defueling and decontamination activities for the reactor building, it was realized that the high levels of loose radioactive contamination would require the use of extensive protective clothing by entry personnel. While there was no doubt that layered protective clothing protects workers from becoming contaminated, it was recognized that these same layers of clothing would impose a very significant heat stress burden. To prevent the potentially serious consequences of a severe reaction to heat stress by workers in the hostile environment of the TMI-2 reactor building and yet maintain the reasonable work productivity necessary to perform the recovery adequately, an effective program of controlling worker exposure to heat stress had to be developed. Body-cooling devices produce a flow of cool air, which is introduced close to the skin to remove body heat through convection and increased sweat evaporation. The cooling effect produced by the Vortex tube successfully protected the workers from heat stress, however, there were several logistical and operational problems that hindered extensive use of these devices. The last type of cooling garment examined was the frozen water garment (FWG) developed by Elizier Kamon at the Pennsylvania State University as part of an Electric Power Research Institute research grant. Personal protection, i.e., body cooling, engineering controls, and administrative controls, have been implemented successfully.

  2. Experimental investigation on the thermal performance of heat storage walls coupled with active solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunyu; You, Shijun; Zhu, Chunying; Yu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the performance of a system combining a low-temperature water wall radiant heating system and phase change energy storage technology with an active solar system. This system uses a thermal storage wall that is designed with multilayer thermal storage plates. The heat storage material is expanded graphite that absorbs a mixture of capric acid and lauric acid. An experiment is performed to study the actual effect. The following are studied under winter conditions: (1) the temperature of the radiation wall surface, (2) the melting status of the thermal storage material in the internal plate, (3) the density of the heat flux, and (4) the temperature distribution of the indoor space. The results reveal that the room temperature is controlled between 16 and 20 °C, and the thermal storage wall meets the heating and temperature requirements. The following are also studied under summer conditions: (1) the internal relationship between the indoor temperature distribution and the heat transfer within the regenerative plates during the day and (2) the relationship between the outlet air temperature and inlet air temperature in the thermal storage wall in cooling mode at night. The results indicate that the indoor temperature is approximately 27 °C, which satisfies the summer air-conditioning requirements.

  3. Deubiquitinase activity is required for the proteasomal degradation of misfolded cytosolic proteins upon heat-stress

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Nancy N.; Zhu, Mang; Rose, Amalia; Wu, Kuen-Phon; Mayor, Thibault

    2016-01-01

    Elimination of misfolded proteins is crucial for proteostasis and to prevent proteinopathies. Nedd4/Rsp5 emerged as a major E3-ligase involved in multiple quality control pathways that target misfolded plasma membrane proteins, aggregated polypeptides and cytosolic heat-induced misfolded proteins for degradation. It remained unclear how in one case cytosolic heat-induced Rsp5 substrates are destined for proteasomal degradation, whereas other Rsp5 quality control substrates are otherwise directed to lysosomal degradation. Here we find that Ubp2 and Ubp3 deubiquitinases are required for the proteasomal degradation of cytosolic misfolded proteins targeted by Rsp5 after heat-shock (HS). The two deubiquitinases associate more with Rsp5 upon heat-stress to prevent the assembly of K63-linked ubiquitin on Rsp5 heat-induced substrates. This activity was required to promote the K48-mediated proteasomal degradation of Rsp5 HS-induced substrates. Our results indicate that ubiquitin chain editing is key to the cytosolic protein quality control under stress conditions. PMID:27698423

  4. Observations of HF backscatter decay rates from HAARP generated FAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, William; Hysell, David

    2016-07-01

    Suitable experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facilities in Gakona, Alaska, create a region of ionospheric Field-Aligned Irregularities (FAI) that produces strong radar backscatter observed by the SuperDARN radar on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Creation of FAI in HF ionospheric modification experiments has been studied by a number of authors who have developed a rich theoretical background. The decay of the irregularities, however, has not been so widely studied yet it has the potential for providing estimates of the parameters of natural irregularity diffusion, which are difficult measure by other means. Hysell, et al. [1996] demonstrated using the decay of radar scatter above the Sura heating facility to estimate irregularity diffusion. A large database of radar backscatter from HAARP generated FAI has been collected over the years. Experiments often cycled the heater power on and off in a way that allowed estimates of the FAI decay rate. The database has been examined to extract decay time estimates and diffusion rates over a range of ionospheric conditions. This presentation will summarize the database and the estimated diffusion rates, and will discuss the potential for targeted experiments for aeronomy measurements. Hysell, D. L., M. C. Kelley, Y. M. Yampolski, V. S. Beley, A. V. Koloskov, P. V. Ponomarenko, and O. F. Tyrnov, HF radar observations of decaying artificial field aligned irregularities, J. Geophys. Res. , 101, 26,981, 1996.

  5. Degradation of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene using heat and chelated-ferrous iron activated persulfate oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, P.; Sleep, B.

    2014-12-01

    Toluene, ethylbenze, and xylene (TEX) are common contaminants in the subsurface. Activated persulfate has shown promise for degrading a wide variety of organic compounds. However, studies of persulfate application for in situ degradation of TEX and effects on the subsequent bioremediation are limited. In this work, degradation studies of TEX in aqueous media and soil are being conducted using heat activated and chelated-ferrous iron activated persulfate oxidation in batch and flow-through column experiments. In the batch experiments, sodium persulfate is being used at different concentrations to provide an initial persulfate to TEX molar ratios between 10:1 and 100:1. Sodium persulfate solutions are being activated at 20, 37, 60, and 80 oC temperatures for the heat activated oxidation. For the chelated-ferrous iron activated oxidation, ferrous iron and citric acid, both are being used at concentration of 5 mM. In the experiments with soil slurry, a soil to water ratio of 1 to 5 is being used. Flow through water saturated column experiments are being conducted with glass columns (45 cm in length and 4 cm in diameter) uniformly packed with soils, and equilibrated with water containing TEX at the target concentrations. Both the heat activation and chelated-ferrous iron activation of persulfate are being employed in the column experiments. Future experiments are planned to determine the suitability of persulfate oxidation of TEX on the subsequent biodegradation using batch microcosms containing TEX degrading microbial cultures. In these experiments, the microbial biomass will be monitored using total phospholipids, and the microbial community will be determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on the extracted DNA. This study is expected to provide suitable operating conditions for in situ chemical oxidation of TEX with activated persulfate followed by bioremediation.

  6. Uncoupling Stress-Inducible Phosphorylation of Heat Shock Factor 1 from Its Activation

    PubMed Central

    Budzyński, Marek A.; Puustinen, Mikael C.; Joutsen, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    In mammals the stress-inducible expression of genes encoding heat shock proteins is under the control of the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). Activation of HSF1 is a multistep process, involving trimerization, acquisition of DNA-binding and transcriptional activities, which coincide with several posttranslational modifications. Stress-inducible phosphorylation of HSF1, or hyperphosphorylation, which occurs mainly within the regulatory domain (RD), has been proposed as a requirement for HSF-driven transcription and is widely used for assessing HSF1 activation. Nonetheless, the contribution of hyperphosphorylation to the activity of HSF1 remains unknown. In this study, we generated a phosphorylation-deficient HSF1 mutant (HSF1Δ∼PRD), where the 15 known phosphorylation sites within the RD were disrupted. Our results show that the phosphorylation status of the RD does not affect the subcellular localization and DNA-binding activity of HSF1. Surprisingly, under stress conditions, HSF1Δ∼PRD is a potent transactivator of both endogenous targets and a reporter gene, and HSF1Δ∼PRD has a reduced activation threshold. Our results provide the first direct evidence for uncoupling stress-inducible phosphorylation of HSF1 from its activation, and we propose that the phosphorylation signature alone is not an appropriate marker for HSF1 activity. PMID:25963659

  7. Experimental investigations on active cooling thermal protection structure of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustor in arc heated facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianqiang, Tu; Jinlong, Peng; Xianning, Yang; Lianzhong, Chen

    2016-10-01

    The active cooling thermal protection technology is the efficient method to resolve the long-duration work and reusable problems of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustor, where worst thermo-mechanical loads occur. The fuel is passed through coolant channels adjacent to the heated surfaces to absorb heat from the heating exchanger panels, prior to injection into the combustor. The heating exchanger both cooled down the wall temperature of the combustor wall and heats and cracks the hydrocarbon fuel inside the panel to permit an easier combustion and satisfying combustion efficiency. The subscale active cooling metallic panels, with dimensions of 100×100 mm and different coolant channel sizes, have been tested under typical combustion thermal environment produced by arc heated Turbulent Flow Duct (TFD). The heat exchange ability of different coolant channel sizes has been obtained. The big-scale active cooling metallic panel, with dimensions of 100 × 750 mm and the coolant channel sizes of better heating exchange performance, has been made and tested in the big-scale arc heated TFD facility. The test results show that the local superheated ablation is easy to happen for the cooling fuel assigned asymmetrically in the bigscale active cooling metallic panel, and the cooling fuel rate can reduce 8%˜10% after spraying the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) in the heating surface.

  8. Heat Shock Factor 1 Is a Substrate for p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dayalan Naidu, Sharadha; Sutherland, Calum; Zhang, Ying; Risco, Ana; de la Vega, Laureano; Caunt, Christopher J.; Hastie, C. James; Lamont, Douglas J.; Torrente, Laura; Chowdhry, Sudhir; Benjamin, Ivor J.; Keyse, Stephen M.; Cuenda, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) monitors the structural integrity of the proteome. Phosphorylation at S326 is a hallmark for HSF1 activation, but the identity of the kinase(s) phosphorylating this site has remained elusive. We show here that the dietary agent phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) inhibits heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), the main negative regulator of HSF1; activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); and increases S326 phosphorylation, trimerization, and nuclear translocation of HSF1, and the transcription of a luciferase reporter, as well as the endogenous prototypic HSF1 target Hsp70. In vitro, all members of the p38 MAPK family rapidly and stoichiometrically catalyze the S326 phosphorylation. The use of stable knockdown cell lines and inhibitors indicated that among the p38 MAPKs, p38γ is the principal isoform responsible for the phosphorylation of HSF1 at S326 in cells. A protease-mass spectrometry approach confirmed S326 phosphorylation and unexpectedly revealed that p38 MAPK also catalyzes the phosphorylation of HSF1 at S303/307, previously known repressive posttranslational modifications. Thus, we have identified p38 MAPKs as highly efficient catalysts for the phosphorylation of HSF1. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the magnitude and persistence of activation of p38 MAPK are important determinants of the extent and duration of the heat shock response. PMID:27354066

  9. Magnetic Characteristics of Active Region Heating Observed with TRACE, SOHO/EIT, and Yohkoh/SXT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J. G.; Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have reported results from studies that have compared the magnetic structure and heating of the transition region and corona (both in active regions and in the quiet Sun) by combining X-ray and EUV images from Yohkoh and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) with photospheric magnetograms from ground-based observatories. Our findings have led us to the hypothesis that most heating throughout the corona is driven from near and below the base of the corona by eruptive microflares occurring in compact low-lying "core magnetic fields (i.e., fields rooted along and closely enveloping polarity inversion lines in the photospheric magnetic flux). We now extend these studies, comparing sequences of UV images from Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) with longitudinal magnetograms from Kitt Peak and vector magnetograms from MUSIC. These comparisons confirm the previous results regarding the importance of core-field activity to active region heating. Activity in fields associated with satellite polarity inclusions and/or magnetically sheared configurations is especially prominent. This work is funded by NASA's Office of Space Science through the Sun-Earth Connection Guest Investigator Program and the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program.

  10. Combustion instability and active control: Alternative fuels, augmentors, and modeling heat release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sammy Ace

    Experimental and analytical studies were conducted to explore thermo-acoustic coupling during the onset of combustion instability in various air-breathing combustor configurations. These include a laboratory-scale 200-kW dump combustor and a 100-kW augmentor featuring a v-gutter flame holder. They were used to simulate main combustion chambers and afterburners in aero engines, respectively. The three primary themes of this work includes: 1) modeling heat release fluctuations for stability analysis, 2) conducting active combustion control with alternative fuels, and 3) demonstrating practical active control for augmentor instability suppression. The phenomenon of combustion instabilities remains an unsolved problem in propulsion engines, mainly because of the difficulty in predicting the fluctuating component of heat release without extensive testing. A hybrid model was developed to describe both the temporal and spatial variations in dynamic heat release, using a separation of variables approach that requires only a limited amount of experimental data. The use of sinusoidal basis functions further reduced the amount of data required. When the mean heat release behavior is known, the only experimental data needed for detailed stability analysis is one instantaneous picture of heat release at the peak pressure phase. This model was successfully tested in the dump combustor experiments, reproducing the correct sign of the overall Rayleigh index as well as the remarkably accurate spatial distribution pattern of fluctuating heat release. Active combustion control was explored for fuel-flexible combustor operation using twelve different jet fuels including bio-synthetic and Fischer-Tropsch types. Analysis done using an actuated spray combustion model revealed that the combustion response times of these fuels were similar. Combined with experimental spray characterizations, this suggested that controller performance should remain effective with various alternative fuels

  11. Heat stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in bubaline ( Bubalus bubalis) oocytes during in vitro maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Raies-ul-Haq, Mohammad; Dhanda, Suman; Kumar, Anil; Goud, T. Sridhar; Chauhan, M. S.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-09-01

    In vitro environments like heat stress usually increase the production of reactive oxygen species in bubaline oocytes which have been implicated as one of the major causes for reduced developmental competence. Oocytes during meiotic maturation are sensitive to oxidative stress, and heat stress accelerates cellular metabolism, resulting in the higher production of free radicals. Therefore, the aim of present work was to assess the impact of heat stress during meiotic maturation on bubaline cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC), denuded oocytes (DO), and cumulus cell mass in terms of their oxidative status. Accordingly, for control group, COC were matured at 38.5 °C for complete 24 h of meiotic maturation and heat stress of 40.5 and 41.5 °C was applied to COC during the first 12 h of maturation and then moved to 38.5 °C for rest of the 12 h. In another group, COC after maturation were denuded from the surrounding cumulus cells by manual pipetting. Results indicated that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide (NO) was significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in the oocytes subjected to heat stress (40.5 and 41.5 °C) during meiotic maturation compared to the oocytes matured under standard in vitro culture conditions (38.5 °C). Also, the antioxidant enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly ( P < 0.05) increased in all the treatment groups compared to the control group. Therefore, the present study clearly establishes that heat stress ensues oxidative stress in bubaline oocytes which triggers the induction of antioxidant enzymatic defense system for scavenging the ROS.

  12. General Purpose Heat Source Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) project seeks to combine the development of an electrically heated, single GPHS module simulator with the evaluation of potential nuclear surface power systems. The simulator is designed to match the form, fit, and function of actual GPHS modules which normally generate heat through the radioactive decay of Pu238. The use of electrically heated modules rather than modules containing Pu238 facilitates the testing of the subsystems and systems without sacrificing the quantity and quality of the test data gathered. Current GPHS activities are centered on developing robust heater designs with sizes and weights which closely match those of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks. Designs are being pursued which will allow operation up to 1100 C.

  13. Ste20-like kinase, SLK, activates the heat shock factor 1 - Hsp70 pathway.

    PubMed

    Cybulsky, Andrey V; Guillemette, Julie; Papillon, Joan

    2016-09-01

    Expression and activation of SLK increases during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. When highly expressed, SLK signals via c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 to induce apoptosis, and it exacerbates apoptosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury. Overexpression of SLK in glomerular epithelial cells (GECs)/podocytes in vivo induces injury and proteinuria. In response to various stresses, cells enhance expression of chaperones or heat shock proteins (e.g. Hsp70), which are involved in the folding and maturation of newly synthesized proteins, and can refold denatured or misfolded proteins. We address the interaction of SLK with the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-Hsp70 pathway. Increased expression of SLK in GECs (following transfection) induced HSF1 transcriptional activity. Moreover, HSF1 transcriptional activity was increased by in vitro ischemia-reperfusion injury (chemical anoxia/recovery) and heat shock, and in both instances was amplified further by SLK overexpression. HSF1 binds to promoters of target genes, such as Hsp70 and induces their transcription. By analogy to HSF1, SLK stimulated Hsp70 expression. Hsp70 was also enhanced by anoxia/recovery and was further amplified by SLK overexpression. Induction of HSF1 and Hsp70 was dependent on the kinase activity of SLK, and was mediated via polo-like kinase-1. Transfection of constitutively active HSF1 enhanced Hsp70 expression and inhibited SLK-induced apoptosis. Conversely, the proapoptotic action of SLK was augmented by HSF1 shRNA, or the Hsp70 inhibitor, pifithrin-μ. In conclusion, increased expression/activity of SLK activates the HSF1-Hsp70 pathway. Hsp70 attenuates the primary proapoptotic effect of SLK. Modulation of chaperone expression may potentially be harnessed as cytoprotective therapy in renal cell injury.

  14. Evaluation of the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero coverage for hydrogen on activated carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohnke, E.; Beckner, M.; Romanos, J.; Olsen, R.; Wexler, C.; Pfeifer, P.

    2011-03-01

    Activated carbons made from corn cob show promise as materials for high-capacity hydrogen storage. As part of our characterization of these materials, we are interested in learning how different production methods affect the adsorption energies. In this talk, we will show how hydrogen adsorption isotherms may be used to calculate these adsorption energies at zero coverage using Henry's law. We will additionally discuss differences between the binding energy and the isosteric heat of adsorption by applying this analysis at different temperatures.

  15. Strong antiviral activity of heated and hydrated dolomite--preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Yamana, Hideaki; Ito, Hiroshi; Ito, Toshihiro; Murase, Toshiyuki; Motoike, Koichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuo; Otsuki, Koichi

    2007-02-01

    Heated and hydrated naturally occurring dolomite showed very strong antiviral activity. Infectivity of avian and human influenza, avian infectious bronchitis (coronavirus), Newcastle disease (paramyxovirus) and avian laryngotracheitis (herpesvirus) viruses dropped at least 1,000 fold following contact with the dolomite for five minutes at 4 degrees C. Dolomite is expected to be useful to inhibit the incidence of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.

  16. Beta and gamma decay heat measurements between 0.1s - 50,000s for neturon fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu. Progress report, June 1, 1992--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schier, W.A.; Couchell, G.P.

    1997-05-01

    In the investigations reported here, a helium-jet/tape-transport system was used for the rapid transfer of fission products to a low-background environment where their aggregate beta and gamma-ray spectra were measured as a function of delay time after neutron induced fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu. Beta and gamma-ray energy distributions have been deduced for delay times as short as 0.2 s and extending out to 100,000s. Instrumentation development during the initial phase of the project included: (1) assembly and characterization of a NaI(Tl) spectrometer for determining aggregate gamma-ray energy distributions, (2) development and characterization of a beta spectrometer (having excellent gamma-ray rejection) for measuring aggregate beta-particle energy distributions, (3) assembly and characterization of a Compton-suppressed HPGe spectrometer for determining gamma-ray intensities of individual fission products to deduce fission-product yields. Spectral decomposition and analysis codes were developed for deducing energy distributions from measured aggregate beta and gamma spectra. The aggregate measurements in the time interval 0.2 - 20s after fission are of special importance since in this region data from many short-lived nuclei are missing and summation calculations in this region rely on model calculations for a large fraction of their predicted beta and gamma decay heat energy spectra. Comparison with ENDF/B-VI fission product data was performed in parallel with the measurements through a close collaboration with Dr. T. England at LANL, assisted by one of our graduate students. Such aggregate measurements provide tests of the Gross Theory of beta decay used to calculated missing contributions to this data base. Fission-product yields deduced from the HPGe studies will check the accuracy of the semi-empirical Gaussian dispersion model used presently by evaluators in the absence of measured yields.

  17. A vascular injury model using focal heat-induced activation of endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sylman, J.L.; Artzer, D.T.; Rana, K.; Neeves, K.B.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells (EC) both inhibit and promote platelet function depending on their activation state. Quiescent EC inhibit platelet activation by constitutive secretion of platelet inhibitors. Activated EC promote platelet adhesion by secretion of von Willebrand factor (vWF). EC also secrete an extracellular matrix that support platelet adhesion when exposed following vascular injury. Previous studies of EC-platelet interactions under flow activate entire monolayers of cells by chemical activation. In this study, EC cultured in microfluidic channels were focally activated by heat from an underlying microelectrode. Based on finite element modeling, microelectrodes induced peak temperature increases of 10–40 °C above 37 °C after applying 5–9 V for 30 s resulting in three zones: (1) A quiescent zone corresponded to peak temperatures of less than 15 °C characterized by no EC activation or platelet accumulation. (2) An activation zone corresponding to an increase of 16–22 °C yielded EC that were viable, secreted elevated levels of vWF, and were P-selectin positive. Platelets accumulated in the retracted spaces between EC in the activation zone at a wall shear rate of 150 s−1. Experiments with blocking antibodies show that platelets adhere via GPIbα-vWF and α6β1-laminin interactions. (3) A kill zone corresponded to peak temperatures of greater than 23 °C where EC were not viable and did not support platelet adhesion. These data define heating conditions for the activation of EC, causing the secretion of vWF and the exposure of a subendothelial matrix that support platelet adhesion and aggregation. This model provides for spatially defined zones of EC activation that could be a useful tool for measuring the relative roles of anti- and prothrombotic roles of EC at the site of vascular injury. PMID:26087748

  18. Semileptonic Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Luth, Vera G.; /SLAC

    2012-10-02

    The following is an overview of the measurements of the CKM matrix elements |V{sub cb}| and |V{sub ub}| that are based on detailed studies of semileptonic B decays by the BABAR and Belle Collaborations and major advances in QCD calculations. In addition, a new and improved measurement of the ratios R(D{sup (*)}) = {Beta}({bar B} {yields} D{sup (*)}{tau}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}})/{Beta}({bar B} {yields} D{sup (*)}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) is presented. Here D{sup (*)} refers to a D or a D* meson and {ell} is either e or {mu}. The results, R(D) = 0.440 {+-} 0.058 {+-} 0.042 and R(D*) = 0.332 {+-} 0.024 {+-} 0.018, exceed the Standard Model expectations by 2.0{sigma} and 2.7{sigma}, respectively. Taken together, they disagree with these expectations at the 3.4{sigma} level. The excess of events cannot be explained by a charged Higgs boson in the type II two-Higgs-doublet model.

  19. Heat shock and genetic activation of HSF-1 enhance immunity to bacteria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varsha; Aballay, Alejandro

    2006-11-01

    The relationship between fever and microbial infections has been known for a number of years, as well as several key mediators involved in its elicitation. However, the mechanisms by which fever confers protection to infected hosts are less clear. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has been extensively used in recent years to study microbial infections and innate immune responses, has recently been used to study the effect of increased temperature in immunity. Upon heat shock exposure, nematodes become more resistant to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the enhanced resistance to the pathogen requires heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF-1) and a system of small and 90 kDa heat shock proteins (HSPs). Experiments using additional Gram negative and Gram positive pathogens show that HSF-1 is part of a multipathogen defense pathway. In addition, C. elegans innate immunity can be activated enhancing HSF-1 activity by directly overexpressing HSF-1 or by overexpressing DAF-16, which is a forkhead transcription factor that acts upstream HSF-1 in aging and immunity. Blocking the inhibitory signal of the DAF-2 insulin like receptor, which acts upstream DAF-16, also results in an enhanced HSF-1 dependent immunity. In addition, mutations that affect DAF-21, C. elegans homologue of Hsp90 which forms an inhibitory complex with HSF-1, appear to boost immunity by activating the HSF-1 pathway. The role of the HSF-1 pathway in innate immunity and immunosenescence is discussed.

  20. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease. PMID:27065102

  1. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaotao; Jiang, Yuping; Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  2. Transcriptional Activation Domains of Human Heat Shock Factor 1 Recruit Human SWI/SNF

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, E. Kelly; Weirich, Christine S.; Guyon, Jeffrey R.; Sif, Saïd; Kingston, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling complexes such as SWI/SNF use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel nucleosomal DNA and increase transcription of nucleosomal templates. Human heat shock factor one (hHSF1) is a tightly regulated activator that stimulates transcriptional initiation and elongation using different portions of its activation domains. Here we demonstrate that hHSF1 associates with BRG1, the ATPase subunit of human SWI/SNF (hSWI/SNF) at endogenous protein concentrations. We also show that hHSF1 activation domains recruit hSWI/SNF to a chromatin template in a purified system. Mutation of hHSF1 residues responsible for activation of transcriptional elongation has the most severe effect on recruitment of SWI/SNF and association of hHSF1 with BRG1, suggesting that recruitment of chromatin remodeling activity might play a role in stimulation of elongation. PMID:11486022

  3. Diversity of laccase-like multicopper oxidase genes in Morchellaceae: identification of genes potentially involved in extracellular activities related to plant litter decay.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Buscot, François

    2007-07-01

    Despite the important role played by soil-inhabiting ascomycetes in plant litter decay processes, studies on the diversity and function of their laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) genes are scarce. In the present work, the LMCO gene diversity in 15 strains representing nine Morchellaceae and one Discinaceae species was evaluated by PCR. One to six different genes were found within the species, representing 26 different sequence types. Cluster analysis revealed LMCO genes belonging to four main gene families encoding different protein classes (Class I-IV). To identify the genes related to extracellular activities and potentially involved in litter decay processes, liquid cultures were induced by different aromatic compounds. Morchella conica and Verpa conica showed the strongest LMCO activity enhancement in the presence of the naturally occurring phenolic compound guaiacol, and their expressed LMCO genes were identified by sequencing. Only genes belonging to the gene families encoding the Class II and III proteins were expressed. Both genes (Class II and III) of the mycorrhizal-like strain M. conica were exclusively expressed in the presence of guaiacol. In contrast to the saprotrophic strain V. conica, the gene encoding the Class III protein was constitutively expressed as it was also found in control cultures without guaiacol.

  4. Heat-processed Panax ginseng and diabetic renal damage: active components and action mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ki Sung; Ham, Jungyeob; Kim, Young-Joo; Park, Jeong Hill; Cho, Eun-Ju; Yamabe, Noriko

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the serious complications in patients with either type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus but current treatments remain unsatisfactory. Results of clinical research studies demonstrate that Panax ginseng can help adjust blood pressure and reduce blood sugar and may be advantageous in the treatment of tuberculosis and kidney damage in people with diabetes. The heat-processing method to strengthen the efficacy of P. ginseng has been well-defined based on a long history of ethnopharmacological evidence. The protective effects of P. ginseng on pathological conditions and renal damage associated with diabetic nephropathy in the animal models were markedly improved by heat-processing. The concentrations of less-polar ginsenosides (20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1) and maltol in P. ginseng were significantly increased in a heat-processing temperature-dependent manner. Based on researches in animal models of diabetes, ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 and maltol were evaluated to have therapeutic potential against diabetic renal damage. These effects were achieved through the inhibition of inflammatory pathway activated by oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproducts. These findings indicate that ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 and maltol are important bioactive constituents of heat-processed ginseng in the control of pathological conditions associated with diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24233065

  5. Whole body heating reduces the baroreflex response of sympathetic nerve activity during Valsalva straining.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Tsutsui, Yuka; Endo, Yutaka; Sagawa, Sueko; Shiraki, Keizo

    2003-01-31

    The present experiment was carried out to examine the possible effects of whole body heating on the baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and heart rate (HR). Nine healthy male volunteers underwent the Valsalva maneuver during exposure to heat stress using a hot water-perfused suit. To exclude an effect from the unloading of the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors during hyperthermia, the central hypovolemia was counterbalanced by head-down tilt (HDT) at 8 degrees. The baroreflex slopes of MSNA and HR against mean arterial pressure were determined by regression analysis during the early phase II (falling blood pressure period) of the Valsalva maneuver. The core temperature increased from 36.9 +/- 0.1 degrees C at thermoneutral to 37.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C during heat exposure, whereas the left atrial diameter (LAD) decreased. Both the MSNA and HR increased (P < 0.05) during hyperthermia. The baroreflex slopes of MSNA and HR in the phase II decreased 30 +/- 8% (P < 0.05) and 24 +/- 9% (P < 0.05), respectively, during hyperthermia. The HDT increased LAD, but there was no change in HR, arterial pressure and the baroreflex slopes. These results suggest that hyperthermia reduces the baroreflex responses of MSNA and HR during a transient falling period of blood pressure. These reduced baroreflex responses may not be attributable to an unloading of the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors during heat stress.

  6. Zero-valent iron enhanced methanogenic activity in anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge after heat and alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Quan, Xie

    2015-04-01

    Heat or alkali pretreatment is the effective method to improve hydrolysis of waste sludge and then enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. However the pretreatment may inactivate the methanogens in the sludge. In the present work, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used to enhance the methanogenic activity in anaerobic sludge digester under two methanogens-suppressing conditions, i.e. heat-pretreatment and alkali condition respectively. With the addition of ZVI, the lag time of methane production was shortened, and the methane yield increased by 91.5% compared to the control group. The consumption of VFA was accelerated by ZVI, especially for acetate, indicating that the acetoclastic methanogenesis was enhanced. In the alkali-condition experiment, the hydrogen produced decreased from 27.6 to 18.8 mL when increasing the ZVI dosage from 0 to 10 g/L. Correspondingly, the methane yield increased from 1.9 to 32.2 mL, which meant that the H2-utilizing methanogenes was enriched. These results suggested that the addition of ZVI into anaerobic digestion of sludge after pretreated by the heat or alkali process could efficiently recover the methanogenic activity and increase the methane production and sludge reduction.

  7. Dependence of heating rates of thermal activation on thermal activation characteristics of 110 °C TL peak of quartz: A simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oniya, Ebenezer O.

    2015-10-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate heating rates effect of thermal activation on the thermal activation characteristic (TAC) by a way of numerical simulation of an existing model. This was done by monitoring charge distributions among trapping states (electron and hole traps), both immediately after thermal activation and after irradiation of test dose. Previously observed 'early activation' and 'late activation' of TACs have been numerically observed in this work by following the exact experimental procedures of varying heating rates of thermal activation that produced them. Indirect thermal transfer signal from high temperature-TL peak at the end of thermal activation was observed to also contribute to the sensitization in the TACs, apart from the popular pre-dose effect. This contribution to the TACs from indirect thermal transfer signal from high temperature-TL peak increases with heating rate utilised for thermal activation. Recombination rate of evicted electron from high temperature-TL peak with holes during the thermal activation resulted into (i) increased sensitization with heating rates of thermal activation and (ii) direct dependence of temperature at glow-peak maximum intensity (Tm) of high temperature TL peak and heating rates of thermal activation on the peak position of the TACs peak. The impact of the electrons loss to recombination during the short irradiation increases with the heating rates of the thermal activation. The overall results have been employed to shed more light on the pre-dose phenomenon and its applications in dating.

  8. Methods for determining enzymatic activity comprising heating and agitation of closed volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David Neil; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo; Reed, David William; Jensen, Jill Renee

    2016-03-15

    Methods for determining thermophilic enzymatic activity include heating a substrate solution in a plurality of closed volumes to a predetermined reaction temperature. Without opening the closed volumes, at least one enzyme is added, substantially simultaneously, to the closed volumes. At the predetermined reaction temperature, the closed volumes are agitated and then the activity of the at least one enzyme is determined. The methods are conducive for characterizing enzymes of high-temperature reactions, with insoluble substrates, with substrates and enzymes that do not readily intermix, and with low volumes of substrate and enzyme. Systems for characterizing the enzymes are also disclosed.

  9. Experimental and analytical studies of passive shutdown heat removal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, D.; Tessier, J.; Heineman, J.; Stewart, R.; Anderson, T.; August, C.; Chawla, T.; Cheung, F.B.; Despe, O.; Haupt, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Using a naturally circulating air stream to remove shutdown decay heat from a nuclear reactor vessel is a key feature of advanced liquid metal reactor (LMR) concepts developed by potential vendors selected by the Department of Energy. General Electric and Rockwell International continue to develop innovative design concepts aimed at improving safety, lowering plant costs, simplifying plant operation, reducing construction times, and most of all, enhancing plant licensability. The reactor program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical support to both organizations. The method of shutdown heat removal proposed employs a totally passive cooling system that rejects heat from the reactor by radiation and natural convection to air. The system is inherently reliable since it is not subject failure modes associated with active decay cooling systems. The system is designed to assure adequate cooling of the reactor under abnormal operating conditions associated with loss of heat removal through other heat transport paths.

  10. Characterization of Hydraulic Active Fractures in a Dolostone Aquifer Using Heat and Contaminants As Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldaner, C. H.; Coleman, T. I.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The number of hydraulically active fractures serving as advective contaminant migration pathways facilitating plume migration in fractured rock aquifers cannot be determined with confidence from indirect means such as visual inspection of core, borehole geophysics, and is only inferred from hydraulic tests. However, the position of depth-discrete hydraulic activity may be determined using contaminants or heat as tracers yet spatially detailed profile measurement techniques are required without imparting measurement bias of an open borehole. Contaminant concentration profiles from numerous samples along continuous core from a site contaminated since the early 1980's and heat injection in the sealed boreholes with high resolution profile monitoring are used to characterize the fracture network . Heat pulse tests using active distributed temperature sensing (DTS) were conducted in coreholes sealed with an impermeable flexible liner manufactured by FLUTe (Santa Fe, NM) to detect hydraulically active fracture zones. Using a Silixa ULTIMA-HSTM DTS, temperature data was acquired every 12.6 cm along an optic fiber cable with a spatial resolution of 29 cm. Temperature precision is on the order of 0.02°C for averaged measurements collected over 5 minute intervals. The test consisted of heating the measurement cable for 4 hours and monitoring the cooling process for over 8 hours. The resulting dataset consists of high-resolution temperature profiles at five-minute time steps during the test period. Dolostone rock composes most of the lithology units of the corehole, therefore it is unlikely that there are significant variations in rock thermal diffusivity. Multiple, successive temperature profiles were used to identify depth-discrete, hydraulically active flow zones with varying transmissivity based on different rates of heat dissipation. These variations were then compared with independent datasets including detected concentrations of contaminants in numerous rock core

  11. Activation of human heat shock genes is accompanied by oligomerization, modification, and rapid translocation of heat shock transcription factor HSF1.

    PubMed Central

    Baler, R; Dahl, G; Voellmy, R

    1993-01-01

    Transcriptional activity of heat shock (hsp) genes is controlled by a heat-activated, group-specific transcription factor(s) recognizing arrays of inverted repeats of the element NGAAN. To date genes for two human factors, HSF1 and HSF2, have been isolated. To define their properties as well as the changes they undergo during heat stress activation, we prepared polyclonal antibodies to these factors. Using these tools, we have shown that human HeLa cells constitutively synthesize HSF1, but we were unable to detect HSF2. In unstressed cells HSF1 is present mainly in complexes with an apparent molecular mass of about 200 kDa, unable to bind to DNA. Heat treatment induces a shift in the apparent molecular mass of HSF1 to about 700 kDa, concomitant with the acquisition of DNA-binding ability. Cross-linking experiments suggest that this change in complex size may reflect the trimerization of monomeric HSF1. Human HSF1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes does not bind DNA, but derepression of DNA-binding activity, as well as oligomerization of HSF1, occurs during heat treatment at the same temperature at which hsp gene expression is induced in this organism, suggesting that a conserved Xenopus protein(s) plays a role in this regulation. Inactive HSF1 resides in the cytoplasm of human cells; on activation it rapidly translocates to a soluble nuclear fraction, and shortly thereafter it becomes associated with the nuclear pellet. On heat shock, activatable HSF1, which might already have been posttranslationally modified in the unstressed cell, undergoes further modification. These different process provide multiple points of regulation of hsp gene expression. Images PMID:8455624

  12. Effect of Repeatedly Heated Palm Olein on Blood Pressure—Regulating Enzymes Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xin-Fang, Leong; Jumat, Salimon; Mohd Rais, Mustafa; Kamsiah, Jaarin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The process of deep-fat frying in dietary cooking oil plays a role in the generation of free radicals. In this study, palm olein heated to 180 °C was tested for its effect on the activity of blood pressure–regulating enzymes and lipid peroxidation. Methods: Forty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally assigned into 6 groups.The first group was fed with normal rat chow as the control group, and the subsequent groups were fed with rat chow fortified with 15% weight/weight of the following: fresh palm olein, palm olein heated once, palm olein heated twice, palm olein heated 5 times, or palm olein heated 10 times. The duration of feeding was 6 months. Fatty acid analyses of oil were performed using gas chromatography. Peroxide values were determined using standard titration. Plasma was collected for biochemical analyses. Results: Repeatedly heated palm olein increased the levels of peroxide, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and lipid peroxidation as well as reduced the level of heme oxygenase. Fresh palm olein and palm olein heated once had lesser effects on lipid peroxidation and a better effect on the activity of blood pressure–regulating enzymes than repeatedly heated palm olein. Conclusion: Repeatedly heated palm olein may negatively affect the activity of blood pressure–regulating enzymes and increase lipid peroxidation. PMID:22977371

  13. Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity, color, and free phenolic acid profile of malt.

    PubMed

    Inns, Elizabeth L; Buggey, Lesley A; Booer, Christopher; Nursten, Harry E; Ames, Jennifer M

    2007-08-08

    Green malt was kilned at 95 degrees C following two regimens: a standard regimen (SKR) and a rapid regimen (RKR). Both resulting malts were treated further in a tray dryer heated to 120 degrees C, as was green malt previously dried to 65 degrees C (TDR). Each regimen was monitored by determining the color, antioxidant activity (by both ABTS(.+) and FRAP methods), and polyphenolic profile. SKR and RKR malts exhibited decreased L* and increased b* values above approximately 80 degrees C. TDR malts changed significantly less, and color did not develop until 110 degrees C, implying that different chemical reactions lead to color in those malts. Antioxidant activity increased progressively with each regimen, although with TDR malts this became significant only at 110-120 degrees C. The RKR malt ABTS(.+) values were higher than those of the SKR malt. The main phenolics, that is, ferulic, p-coumaric, and vanillic acids, were monitored throughout heating. Ferulic acid levels increased upon heating to 80 degrees C for SKR and to 70 degrees C for RKR, with subsequent decreases. However, the levels for TDR malts did not increase significantly. The increase in free phenolics early in kilning could be due to enzymatic release of bound phenolics and/or easier extractability due to changes in the matrix. The differences between the kilning regimens used suggest that further modification of the regimens could lead to greater release of bound phenolics with consequent beneficial effects on flavor stability in beer and, more generally, on human health.

  14. Optimization of activator solution and heat treatment of ground lignite type fly ash geopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, Z.; Szabó, R.; Rácz, Á.; Lakatos, J.; Debreczeni, Á.; Mucsi, G.

    2017-02-01

    Geopolymers are inorganic polymers which can be produced by the reaction between silico aluminate oxides and alkali silicates in alkaline medium. Materialscontaining silica and alumina compounds are suitable for geopolymer production. These can beprimary materials or industrial wastes, i. e. fly ash, metallurgical slag and red mud. In this paper, the results of the systematic experimental series are presented which were carried out in order to optimize the geopolymer preparation process. Fly ash was ground for different residence time (0, 5, 10, 30, 60 min) in order to investigate the optimal specific surface area. NaOH activator solution concentration also varied (6, 8, 10, 12, 14 M). Furthermore, sodium silicate was added to NaOH as a network builder solution. In this last serie different heat curing temperatures (30, 60, 90°C) were also applied. After seven days of ageing the physical properties of the geopolymer(compressive strength and specimen density)were measured. Chemical leaching tests on the rawmaterial and the geopolymers were carried out to determine the elements which can be mobilized by different leaching solutions. It was found that the above mentioned parameters (fly ash fineness, molar concentration and composition of activator solution, heat curing) has great effect on the physical and chemical properties of geopolymer specimens. Optimal conditions were as follows: specific surface area of the fly ash above 2000 cm2/g, 10 M NaOH, 30°C heat curing temperature which resulted in 21 MPa compressive strength geopolymer.

  15. Heat-activated persulfate oxidation of methyl- and ethyl-parabens: Effect, kinetics, and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiqun; Deng, Pinya; Xie, Pengchao; Shang, Ran; Wang, Zongping; Wang, Songlin

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the degradation of methylparaben (MeP) and ethylparaben (EtP), two representative parabens, using the heat-activated persulfate system in a laboratory. Both sulfate and hydroxyl radicals contributed to the removal of the two parabens. The degradations of both MeP and EtP were improved by increasing the heating temperature or persulfate dose in accordance with a pseudo-first-order reaction model. The oxidation efficiency of parabens was found to be pH-dependent; decreasing in the order pH 5.0 > 7.0 > 9.0. The presence of chloride, bicarbonate, or humic acid was found to inhibit the degradation of the two parabens to some extent because of competition for the reactive radicals, with humic acid having the most serious effect. Dealkylation of the methyl unit, decarboxylation of the carboxylic group, and subsequent hydrolysis are proposed to be involved in the degradation pathway of MeP. The results suggest that the heat-activated persulfate system might be efficiently applied in the treatment of paraben-containing water samples. This was also supported by the results of applying this system to treat a real water sample containing both MeP and EtP.

  16. Weight Optimization of Active Thermal Management Using a Novel Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, William E.; Sherif, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    Efficient lightweight power generation and thermal management are two important aspects for space applications. Weight is added to the space platforms due to the inherent weight of the onboard power generation equipment and the additional weight of the required thermal management systems. Thermal management of spacecraft relies on rejection of heat via radiation, a process that can result in large radiator mass, depending upon the heat rejection temperature. For some missions, it is advantageous to incorporate an active thermal management system, allowing the heat rejection temperature to be greater than the load temperature. This allows a reduction of radiator mass at the expense of additional system complexity. A particular type of active thermal management system is based on a thermodynamic cycle, developed by the authors, called the Solar Integrated Thermal Management and Power (SITMAP) cycle. This system has been a focus of the authors research program in the recent past (see Fig. 1). One implementation of the system requires no moving parts, which decreases the vibration level and enhances reliability. Compression of the refrigerant working fluid is accomplished in this scheme via an ejector.

  17. Effect of Microwave Heating Conditions on the Preparation of High Surface Area Activated Carbon from Waste Bamboo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Hongying Xia; Zhang, Libo; Xia, Yi; Peng, Jinhui; Wang, Shixing; Zheng, Zhaoqiang; Zhang, Shengzhou

    2015-11-01

    The present study reports the effect of microwave power and microwave heating time on activated carbon adsorption ability. The waste bamboo was used to preparing high surface area activated carbon via microwave heating. The bamboo was carbonized for 2 h at 600°C to be used as the raw material. According to the results, microwave power and microwave heating time had a significant impact on the activating effect. The optimal KOH/C ratio of 4 was identified when microwave power and microwave heating time were 700 W and 15 min, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, surface area was estimated to be 3441 m2/g with pore volume of 2.093 ml/g and the significant proportion of activated carbon was microporous (62.3%). The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were illustrated that activated carbon surface had abundant functional groups. Additionally the pore structure is characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

  18. Active Heat Rejection System on Mars Exploration Rover - Design Changes from Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Birur, Gajanana C.; Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; McGrath, Paul L.; Patzold, Jack D.

    2003-01-01

    The active Heat Rejection System designed for Mars Pathfinder was modified for the Mars Exploration Rover (Mars '03) mission and will be used to remove excess heat from the Rover electronics during the cruise part of the mission. The Integrated Pump Assembly design from MPF remained essentially intact; changes were primarily made to reduce weight. However, the cooling loop was significantly redesigned to service totally different requirements for the MER rovers. In addition, the vent design was readdressed to alleviate potentially excessive nutation as was induced on the MPF spacecraft in the process of dumping the CFC-11 overboard prior to Entry/Descent/Landing. The current vent design was based on a better understanding of the flow characteristics during the blowdown process. This paper addresses some of the key design changes. This paper also addresses lessons learned from the performance testing, and potential changes to improve the HRS performance (e.g. temperature oscillations).

  19. Using a Differential Emission Measure and Density Measurements in an Active Region Core to Test a Steady Heating Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Schmelz, Joan T.; Warren, Harry P.; Saar, Steve H.; Kashyap, Vinay L.

    2011-10-01

    The frequency of heating events in the corona is an important constraint on the coronal heating mechanisms. Observations indicate that the intensities and velocities measured in active region cores are effectively steady, suggesting that heating events occur rapidly enough to keep high-temperature active region loops close to equilibrium. In this paper, we couple observations of active region (AR) 10955 made with the X-Ray Telescope and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode to test a simple steady heating model. First we calculate the differential emission measure (DEM) of the apex region of the loops in the active region core. We find the DEM to be broad and peaked around 3 MK. We then determine the densities in the corresponding footpoint regions. Using potential field extrapolations to approximate the loop lengths and the density-sensitive line ratios to infer the magnitude of the heating, we build a steady heating model for the active region core and find that we can match the general properties of the observed DEM for the temperature range of 6.3 < log T < 6.7. This model, for the first time, accounts for the base pressure, loop length, and distribution of apex temperatures of the core loops. We find that the density-sensitive spectral line intensities and the bulk of the hot emission in the active region core are consistent with steady heating. We also find, however, that the steady heating model cannot address the emission observed at lower temperatures. This emission may be due to foreground or background structures, or may indicate that the heating in the core is more complicated. Different heating scenarios must be tested to determine if they have the same level of agreement.

  20. Large-Scale Coronal Heating from "Cool" Activity in the Solar Magnetic Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    In Fe XII images from SOHO/EIT, the quiet solar corona shows structure on scales ranging from sub-supergranular (i.e., bright points and coronal network) to multi-supergranular (large-scale corona). In Falconer et al 1998 (Ap.J., 501, 386) we suppressed the large-scale background and found that the network-scale features are predominantly rooted in the magnetic network lanes at the boundaries of the supergranules. Taken together, the coronal network emission and bright point emission are only about 5% of the entire quiet solar coronal Fe XII emission. Here we investigate the relationship between the large-scale corona and the network as seen in three different EIT filters (He II, Fe IX-X, and Fe XII). Using the median-brightness contour, we divide the large-scale Fe XII corona into dim and bright halves, and find that the bright-half/dim half brightness ratio is about 1.5. We also find that the bright half relative to the dim half has 10 times greater total bright point Fe XII emission, 3 times greater Fe XII network emission, 2 times greater Fe IX-X network emission, 1.3 times greater He II network emission, and has 1.5 times more magnetic flux. Also, the cooler network (He II) radiates an order of magnitude more energy than the hotter coronal network (Fe IX-X, and Fe XII). From these results we infer that: 1) The heating of the network and the heating of the large-scale corona each increase roughly linearly with the underlying magnetic flux. 2) The production of network coronal bright points and heating of the coronal network each increase nonlinearly with the magnetic flux. 3) The heating of the large-scale corona is driven by widespread cooler network activity rather than by the exceptional network activity that produces the network coronal bright points and the coronal network. 4) The large-scale corona is heated by a nonthermal process since the driver of its heating is cooler than it is. This work was funded by the Solar Physics Branch of NASA's office of

  1. Heat transfer model to characterize the focal cooling necessary to suppress spontaneous epileptiform activity (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Reynaldo G.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Garcia, Paul A.; Rubinsky, Boris; Berger, Mitchel

    2005-04-01

    Epilepsy is characterized by paroxysmal transient disturbances of the electrical activity of the brain. Symptoms are manifested as impairment of motor, sensory, or psychic function with or without loss of consciousness or convulsive seizures. This paper presents an initial post-operative heat transfer analysis of surgery performed on a 41 year-old man with medically intractable Epilepsy. The surgery involved tumor removal and the resection of adjacent epileptogenic tissue. Electrocorticography was performed before resection. Cold saline was applied to the resulting interictal spike foci resulting in transient, complete cessation of spiking. A transient one dimensional semi-infinite finite element model of the surface of the brain was developed to simulate the surgery. An approximate temperature distribution of the perfused brain was developed by applying the bioheat equation. The model quantifies the surface heat flux reached in achieving seizure cessation to within an order of magnitude. Rat models have previously shown that the brain surface temperature range to rapidly terminate epileptogenic activity is 20-24°C. The developed model predicts that a constant heat flux of approximately -13,000W/m2, applied at the surface of the human brain, would achieve a surface temperature in this range in approximately 3 seconds. A parametric study was subsequently performed to characterize the effects of brain metabolism and brain blood perfusion as a function of the determined heat flux. The results of these findings can be used as a first approximation in defining the specifications of a cooling device to suppress seizures in human models.

  2. T & I--Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating--Heating Units. Kit No. 87. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Mike

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on air conditioning, refrigeration, and heating units are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational…

  3. Radioactive decay data tables

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals.

  4. Fiber optic DTS in sealed and heated boreholes for active groundwater flow characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Thomas; Parker, Beth; Cherry, John; Mondanos, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, advances in technology have allowed temperature profiling to evolve to offer new insight into fractured rock hydrogeology. Temperature profiles in open boreholes within fractured rock have long been used to identify and characterize flow in the rock formation and/or in the borehole. An advance in temperature logging makes use of precision temperature profiles collected using wireline trolling methods in a heated borehole to identify fractures with active groundwater flow by creating a thermal disequilibrium and monitoring the temperature response. A second development is based on collecting wireline temperature profiles within a sealed borehole to eliminate short circuiting effects caused by the open borehole conduit. The borehole is temporarily sealed with a flexible impervious fabric liner so that the water column in the borehole is static and cross-connection is eliminated. Though highly precise temperature and spatial measurements are possible using these techniques, the temporal resolution is limited by the rate at which the wireline probe can be raised and lowered in the borehole. There is a need to measure temperature profiles continuously over time to characterize transient processes. Fibre optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is a technique that allows for collecting temperature profiles continuously. This tool was advanced by the oil and gas industry for collecting temperature data in multi kilometer deep boreholes over relatively coarse measurement scales. In contrast, very fine spatial and temperature resolutions are needed for freshwater contaminant fractured rock hydrogeology where the scale of interest is much more acute. Recent advances in the spatial, temperature, and temporal resolution of DTS systems allow this technology to be adapted well to the shallow subsurface environment. This project demonstrates the first application of DTS used in conjunction with flexible borehole liners in a heated borehole environment. The

  5. Effect of Activating Agent on the Preparation of Bamboo-Based High Surface Area Activated Carbon by Microwave Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hongying; Wu, Jian; Srinivasakannan, Chandrasekar; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo

    2016-06-01

    The present work attempts to convert bamboo into a high surface area activated carbon via microwave heating. Different chemical activating agents such as KOH, NaOH, K2CO3 and Na2CO3 were utilized to identify a most suitable activating agent. Among the activating agents tested KOH was found to generate carbon with the highest porosity and surface area. The effect of KOH/C ratio on the porous nature of the activated carbon has been assessed. An optimal KOH/C ratio of 4 was identified, beyond which the surface area as well as the pore volume were found to decrease. At the optimized KOH/C ratio the surface area and the pore volume were estimated to be 3,441 m2/g and 2.093 ml/g, respectively, with the significant proportion of which being microporous (62.3%). Activated carbon prepared under the optimum conditions was further characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Activated carbons with so high surface area and pore volume are very rarely reported, which could be owed to the nature of the precursor and the optimal conditions of mixture ratio adopted in the present work.

  6. Neutral-Line Magnetic Shear and Enhanced Coronal Heating in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Gary, G. A.; Shimizu, T.

    1997-01-01

    By examining the magnetic structure at sites in the bright coronal interiors of active regions that are not flaring but exhibit persistent strong coronal heating, we establish some new characteristics of the magnetic origins of this heating. We have examined the magnetic structure of these sites in five active regions, each of which was well observed by both the Yohkoh SXT and the Marshall Space Flight Center Vector Magnetograph and showed strong shear in its magnetic field along part of at least one neutral line (polarity inversion). Thus, we can assess whether this form of nonpotential field structure in active regions is a characteristic of the enhanced coronal heating and vice versa. From 27 orbits' worth of Yohkoh SXT images of the five active regions, we have obtained a sample of 94 persistently bright coronal features (bright in all images from a given orbit), 40 long (greater than or approximately equals 20,000 km) neutral-line segments having strong magnetic shear throughout (shear angle greater than 45 deg), and 39 long neutral-line segments having weak magnetic shear throughout (shear angle less than 45 deg). From this sample, we find that: (1) all of our persistently bright coronal features are rooted in magnetic fields that are stronger than 150 G; (2) nearly all (95%) of these enhanced coronal features are rooted near neutral lines (closer than 10,000 km); (3) a great majority (80%) of the bright features are rooted near strong-shear portions of neutral lines; (4) a great majority (85%) of long strong-shear segments of neutral lines have persistently bright coronal features rooted near them; (5) a large minority (40%) of long weak-shear segments of neutral lines have persistently bright coronal features rooted near them; and (6) the brightness of a persistently bright Coronal feature often changes greatly over a few hours. From these results, we conclude that most persistent enhanced heating of coronal loops in active regions: (1) requires the

  7. Induction of heat shock protein 72 in C6 glioma cells by methyl jasmonate through ROS-dependent heat shock factor 1 activation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Su Young; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Min Jung; Kim, Sun Mi; Yoon, Chang Shin; Joo, Young Mi; Park, Jang Su; Han, Song Iy; Park, Hye Gyeong; Kang, Ho Sung

    2005-11-01

    Salicylate and jasmonates are two different types of plant hormone that play critical roles in plant defense responses against insect herbivores and microbial pathogens, through activating defense genes. These two natural products have been shown to have similar activities in animal cells: the compounds are able to induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cells including those of colon, prostate, breast, and leukemia, suggesting the chemicals may potentially be a novel class of anti-cancer drugs. Since sodium salicylate can induce the heat shock response in animals, we examined the effects of jasmonates on the heat shock response in C6 glioma cells. Here, we show that brief exposure to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), but not to jasmonic acid, induces heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), but not HSP73 and HSP90, via heat shock factor I (HSF1) activation in C6 glioma cells without affecting cell viability. Intracellular H2O2 and O2-, and mitochondrial ROS were prominently increased in response to 5 mM MeJA in C6 cells. MeJA-induced HSP72 expression, HSF1 DNA binding, and human HSP70 promoter-driven CAT activity were prevented by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (a general antioxidant), catalase (a specific antioxidant for H2O2), and sodium formate (an inhibitor of OH.), but not by Rac1 dominant negative mutant Rac1N17 and diphenyleneiodonium (a NADPH oxidase inhibitor), indicating that MeJA induces HSP72 expression though HSF1 that is activated via Rac1-NADPH oxidase-independent ROS production pathway. These results suggest that the plant stress hormones share the ability to induce heat shock response in animal cells.

  8. Accuracy of neutron self-activation method with iodine-containing scintillators for quantifying 128I generation using decay-fitting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Wakabayashi, Genichiro

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of a self-activation method with iodine-containing scintillators in quantifying 128I generation in an activation detector; the self-activation method was recently proposed for photo-neutron on-line measurements around X-ray radiotherapy machines. Here, we consider the accuracy of determining the initial count rate R0, observed just after termination of neutron irradiation of the activation detector. The value R0 is directly related to the amount of activity generated by incident neutrons; the detection efficiency of radiation emitted from the activity should be taken into account for such an evaluation. Decay curves of 128I activity were numerically simulated by a computer program for various conditions including different initial count rates (R0) and background rates (RB), as well as counting statistical fluctuations. The data points sampled at minute intervals and integrated over the same period were fit by a non-linear least-squares fitting routine to obtain the value R0 as a fitting parameter with an associated uncertainty. The corresponding background rate RB was simultaneously calculated in the same fitting routine. Identical data sets were also evaluated by a well-known integration algorithm used for conventional activation methods and the results were compared with those of the proposed fitting method. When we fixed RB = 500 cpm, the relative uncertainty σR0 /R0 ≤ 0.02 was achieved for R0/RB ≥ 20 with 20 data points from 1 min to 20 min following the termination of neutron irradiation used in the fitting; σR0 /R0 ≤ 0.01 was achieved for R0/RB ≥ 50 with the same data points. Reasonable relative uncertainties to evaluate initial count rates were reached by the decay-fitting method using practically realistic sampling numbers. These results clarified the theoretical limits of the fitting method. The integration method was found to be potentially vulnerable to short-term variations in background levels, especially

  9. Using microwave heating to improve the desorption efficiency of high molecular weight VOC from beaded activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Fayaz, Mohammadreza; Shariaty, Pooya; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher; Phillips, John H; Anderson, James E; Nichols, Mark

    2015-04-07

    Incomplete regeneration of activated carbon loaded with organic compounds results in heel build-up that reduces the useful life of the adsorbent. In this study, microwave heating was tested as a regeneration method for beaded activated carbon (BAC) loaded with n-dodecane, a high molecular weight volatile organic compound. Energy consumption and desorption efficiency for microwave-heating regeneration were compared with conductive-heating regeneration. The minimum energy needed to completely regenerate the adsorbent (100% desorption efficiency) using microwave regeneration was 6% of that needed with conductive heating regeneration, owing to more rapid heating rates and lower heat loss. Analyses of adsorbent pore size distribution and surface chemistry confirmed that neither heating method altered the physical/chemical properties of the BAC. Additionally, gas chromatography (with flame ionization detector) confirmed that neither regeneration method detectably altered the adsorbate composition during desorption. By demonstrating improvements in energy consumption and desorption efficiency and showing stable adsorbate and adsorbent properties, this paper suggests that microwave heating is an attractive method for activated carbon regeneration particularly when high-affinity VOC adsorbates are present.

  10. Characterization of Metarhizium species and varieties based on molecular analysis, heat tolerance and cold activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Keyser, C.A.; Chong, J.P.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The genetic relationships and conidial tolerances to high and low temperatures were determined for isolates of several Metarhizium species and varieties. Methods and Results: Molecular-based techniques [AFLP and rDNA (ITS1, ITS2 and 5??8S) gene sequencing] were used to characterize morphologically identified Metarhizium spp. isolates from a wide range of sources. Conidial suspensions of isolates were exposed to wet heat (45 ?? 0??2??C) and plated on potato dextrose agar plus yeast extract (PDAY) medium. After 8-h exposure, the isolates divided clearly into two groups: (i) all isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Ma-an) and Metarhizium from the flavoviride complex (Mf) had virtually zero conidial relative germination (RG), (ii) Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Ma-ac) isolates demonstrated high heat tolerance (c. 70-100% RG). Conidial suspensions also were plated on PDAY and incubated at 5??C for 15 days, during which time RGs for Ma-an and Ma-ac isolates were virtually zero, whereas the two Mf were highly cold active (100% RG). Conclusions: Heat and cold exposures can be used as rapid tools to tentatively identify some important Metarhizium species and varieties. Significance and Impact of the Study: Identification of Metarhizium spp. currently relies primarily on DNA-based methods; we suggest a simple temperature-based screen to quickly obtain tentative identification of isolates as to species or species complexes. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Transcriptional activation by heat and cold of a thiol protease gene in tomato. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, M.A.; Fischer, R.L. )

    1990-08-01

    We previously determined that low temperature induces the accumulation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit of a cloned mRNA, designated C14, encoding a polypeptide related to thiol proteases. We now demonstrate that C14 mRNA accumulation is a response common to both high (40{degree}C) and low (4{degree}C) temperature stresses. Exposure of tomato fruit to 40{degree}C results in the accumulation of C14 mRNA, by 8 hours. This response is more rapid than that to 4{degree}C, but slower than the induction of many heat shock messages by 40{degree}C, and therefore unique. We have also studied the mechanism by which heat and cold exposure activate C14 gene expression. Both high and low temperature regulate protease gene expression through transcriptional induction of a single C14 gene. A hypothesis for the function of C14 thiol protease gene expression in response to heat and cold is discussed.

  12. Unrestrained AMPylation targets cytosolic chaperones and activates the heat shock response

    PubMed Central

    Truttmann, Matthias C.; Zheng, Xu; Hanke, Leo; Damon, Jadyn R.; Grootveld, Monique; Krakowiak, Joanna; Pincus, David; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2017-01-01

    Protein AMPylation is a conserved posttranslational modification with emerging roles in endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. However, the range of substrates and cell biological consequences of AMPylation remain poorly defined. We expressed human and Caenorhabditis elegans AMPylation enzymes—huntingtin yeast-interacting protein E (HYPE) and filamentation-induced by cyclic AMP (FIC)-1, respectively—in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a eukaryote that lacks endogenous protein AMPylation. Expression of HYPE and FIC-1 in yeast induced a strong cytoplasmic Hsf1-mediated heat shock response, accompanied by attenuation of protein translation, massive protein aggregation, growth arrest, and lethality. Overexpression of Ssa2, a cytosolic heat shock protein (Hsp)70, was sufficient to partially rescue growth. In human cell lines, overexpression of active HYPE similarly induced protein aggregation and the HSF1-dependent heat shock response. Excessive AMPylation also abolished HSP70-dependent influenza virus replication. Our findings suggest a mode of Hsp70 inactivation by AMPylation and point toward a role for protein AMPylation in the regulation of cellular protein homeostasis beyond the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:28031489

  13. Study of structural active cooling and heat sink systems for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This technology investigation was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a number of thermal protection systems (TPS) concepts which are alternate candidates to the space shuttle baseline TPS. Four independent tasks were performed. Task 1 consisted of an in-depth evaluation of active structural cooling of the space shuttle orbiter. In Task 2, heat sink concepts for the booster were studied to identify and postulate solutions for design problems unique to heat sink TPS. Task 3 consisted of a feasibility demonstration test of a phase change material (PCM) incorporated into a reusable surface insulation (RSI) thermal protection system for the shuttle orbiter. In Task 4 the feasibility of heat pipes for stagnation region cooling was studied for the booster and the orbiter. Designs were developed for the orbiter leading edge and used in trade studies of leading edge concepts. At the time this program was initiated, a 2-stage fully reusable shuttle system was envisioned; therefore, the majority of the tasks were focused on the fully reusable system environments. Subsequently, a number of alternate shuttle system approaches, with potential for reduced shuttle system development funding requirements, were proposed. Where practicable, appropriate shifts in emphasis and task scoping were made to reflect these changes.

  14. High-resolution wind speed measurements using actively heated fiber optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayde, Chadi; Thomas, Christoph K.; Wagner, James; Selker, John

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel technique to simultaneously measure wind speed (U) at thousands of locations continuously in time based on measurement of velocity-dependent heat transfer from a heated surface. Measuring temperature differences between paired passive and actively heated fiber-optic (AHFO) cables with a distributed temperature sensing system allowed estimation of U at over 2000 sections along the 230 m transect (resolution of 0.375 m and 5.5 s). The underlying concept is similar to that of a hot wire anemometer extended in space. The correlation coefficient between U measured by two colocated sonic anemometers and the AHFO were 0.91 during the day and 0.87 at night. The combination of classical passive and novel AHFO provides unprecedented dynamic observations of both air temperature and wind speed spanning 4 orders of magnitude in spatial scale (0.1-1000 m) while resolving individual turbulent motions, opening new opportunities for testing basic theories for near-surface geophysical flows.

  15. Equilibrium and heat of adsorption for organic vapors and activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    David Ramirez; Shaoying Qi; Mark J. Rood; K. James Hay

    2005-08-01

    Determination of the adsorption properties of novel activated carbons is important to develop new air quality control technologies that can solve air quality problems in a more environmentally sustainable manner. Equilibrium adsorption capacities and heats of adsorption are important parameters for process analysis and design. Experimental adsorption isotherms were thus obtained for relevant organic vapors with activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) and coal-derived activated carbon adsorbents (CDAC). The Dubinin-Astakhov (DA) equation was used to describe the adsorption isotherms. The DA parameters were analytically and experimentally shown to be temperature independent. The resulting DA equations were used with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to analytically determine the isosteric heat of adsorption ({Delta}H{sub s}) of the adsorbate-adsorbent systems studied here. ACFC showed higher adsorption capacities for organic vapors than CDAC. {Delta}H{sub s} values for the adsorbates were independent of the temperature for the conditions evaluated. {Delta}H{sub s} values for acetone and benzene obtained in this study are comparable with values reported in the literature. This is the first time that {Delta}H{sub s} values for organic vapors and these adsorbents are evaluated with an expression based on the Polanyi adsorption potential and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. 28 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs., 3 appends.

  16. Dynamic calcium requirements for activation of rabbit papillary muscle calculated from tension-independent heat.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, E M; Mulieri, L A; Alpert, N R

    1990-04-03

    The heat generated by right ventricular papillary muscles of rabbits was measured after adenosine triphosphate (ATP) splitting by the contractile proteins was chemically inhibited. This tension-independent heat (TIH) (1 mJ/g wet weight) was used to calculate the total calcium (Ca) cycled in a muscle twitch by assuming that 87% of TIH was due to Ca2+ transport by the sarcoplasmic reticulum with a coupling ratio of 2 Ca2+/ATP split; the enthalpy of creatine phosphate hydrolysis buffering ATP was taken as -34 KJ/mol. The estimated Ca turnover per muscle twitch at 21 degrees C, 0.2 Hz pacing rate, and 2.5 mM Ca in the Krebs solution was approximately equal to 50 nmol/g wet weight. There was a tight positive correlation between TIH and mechanical activation during steady-state measurements but no correlation during the sharp increase in mechanical activation (treppe) when stimulation was resumed after a rest period. It is suggested that while total Ca cycling remains unchanged during the initial period of tension treppe, the free Ca2+ transient and mechanical activation increase sharply due to resaturation of high affinity Ca2+ buffers, other than troponin C, depleted of Ca2+ during the rest period.

  17. Requirement of extracellular Ca(2+) binding to specific amino acids for heat-evoked activation of TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Kurganov, Erkin; Saito, Shigeru; Saito, Claire T; Tominaga, Makoto

    2017-02-14

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a homotetrameric nonselective cation-permeable channel that has six transmembrane domains and cytoplasmic N- and C-termini. The N-terminus is characterized by an unusually large number of ankyrin repeats. Although the 3-dimensional structure of human TRPA1 has been determined, and TRPA1 channels from insects to birds are known to be activated by heat stimulus, the mechanism for temperature-dependent TRPA1 activation is unclear. We previously reported that extracellular Ca(2+) , but not intracellular Ca(2+) , plays an important role in heat-evoked TRPA1 activation in green anole lizards (gaTRPA1). Here we focus on extracellular Ca(2+) -dependent heat sensitivity of gaTRPA1 by comparing gaTRPA1 with heat-activated TRPA1 channels from rat snake (rsTRPA1) and chicken (chTRPA1). In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) , rsTRPA1 and chTRPA1 are activated by heat and generate small inward currents. A comparison of extracellular amino acids in TRPA1 identified three negatively charged amino acid residues (glutamate and aspartate) near the outer pore vestibule that are involved in heat-evoked TRPA1 activation in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) . These results suggest that neutralization of acidic amino acids by extracellular Ca(2+) is important for heat-evoked activation of gaTRPA1, chTRPA1, and rsTRPA1, which could clarify mechanisms of heat-evoked channel activation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Heat and Mass Transfer in Unsteady Rotating Fluid Flow with Binary Chemical Reaction and Activation Energy

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Faiz G.; Motsa, Sandile; Khumalo, Melusi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the Spectral Relaxation Method (SRM) is used to solve the coupled highly nonlinear system of partial differential equations due to an unsteady flow over a stretching surface in an incompressible rotating viscous fluid in presence of binary chemical reaction and Arrhenius activation energy. The velocity, temperature and concentration distributions as well as the skin-friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients have been obtained and discussed for various physical parametric values. The numerical results obtained by (SRM) are then presented graphically and discussed to highlight the physical implications of the simulations. PMID:25250830

  19. Parametric Study to Characterize Low Activity Waste Tank Heat Removal Alternatives for Phase 1 Specification Development

    SciTech Connect

    GRENARD, C.E.

    2000-09-11

    Alternative for removing heat from Phase 1, low-activity waste feed double-shell tanks using the ventilation systems have been analyzed for Phase 1 waste feed delivery. The analysis was a parametric study using a model that predicted the waste temperatures for a range of primary and annulus ventilation system flow rates. The analysis was performed to determine the ventilation flow required to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding the Limiting Conditions for Operation limits during normal operation and the Safety Limits during off-normal events.

  20. Low effective activation energies for oxygen release from metal oxides: evidence for mass-transfer limits at high heating rates.

    PubMed

    Jian, Guoqiang; Zhou, Lei; Piekiel, Nicholas W; Zachariah, Michael R

    2014-06-06

    Oxygen release from metal oxides at high temperatures is relevant to many thermally activated chemical processes, including chemical-looping combustion, solar thermochemical cycles and energetic thermite reactions. In this study, we evaluated the thermal decomposition of nanosized metal oxides under rapid heating (~10(5) K s(-1)) with time-resolved mass spectrometry. We found that the effective activation-energy values that were obtained using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa isoconversional method are much lower than the values found at low heating rates, indicating that oxygen transport might be rate-determining at a high heating rate.

  1. [The role of thyroid hormones in prevention of disorders of myocardial contractile function and antioxidant activity during heat stress].

    PubMed

    Bozhko, A P; Gorodetskaia, I V

    1998-03-01

    The stress of heat under conditions of immobilisation induced an obvious depression of the cardiodynamic parameters. This correlated well with intensification of lipoperoxydation and a drop in the myocardial antioxydant activity. Small doses of thyroid hormones prevented the decline of the parameters, normalisied myocardial free-radical homeostasis in result of activation of superoxyddysmutase, catalase, and general antioxydant activity.

  2. Quantitative analysis of axonal fiber activation evoked by deep brain stimulation via activation density heat maps

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Christian J.; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Lujan, J. Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cortical modulation is likely to be involved in the various therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, it is currently difficult to predict the changes of cortical modulation during clinical adjustment of DBS. Therefore, we present a novel quantitative approach to estimate anatomical regions of DBS-evoked cortical modulation. Methods: Four different models of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS were created to represent variable electrode placements (model I: dorsal border of the posterolateral STN; model II: central posterolateral STN; model III: central anteromedial STN; model IV: dorsal border of the anteromedial STN). Axonal fibers of passage near each electrode location were reconstructed using probabilistic tractography and modeled using multi-compartment cable models. Stimulation-evoked activation of local axon fibers and corresponding cortical projections were modeled and quantified. Results: Stimulation at the border of the STN (models I and IV) led to a higher degree of fiber activation and associated cortical modulation than stimulation deeply inside the STN (models II and III). A posterolateral target (models I and II) was highly connected to cortical areas representing motor function. Additionally, model I was also associated with strong activation of fibers projecting to the cerebellum. Finally, models III and IV showed a dorsoventral difference of preferentially targeted prefrontal areas (models III: middle frontal gyrus; model IV: inferior frontal gyrus). Discussion: The method described herein allows characterization of cortical modulation across different electrode placements and stimulation parameters. Furthermore, knowledge of anatomical distribution of stimulation-evoked activation targeting cortical regions may help predict efficacy and potential side effects, and therefore can be used to improve the therapeutic effectiveness of individual adjustments in DBS patients. PMID:25713510

  3. On Heating the Sun's Corona by Magnetic Explosions: Feasibility in Active Regions and prospects for Quiet Regions and Coronal Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, D. A.; Porter, Jason G.; Suess, Steven T.

    1999-01-01

    We build a case for the persistent strong coronal heating in active regions and the pervasive quasi-steady heating of the corona in quiet regions and coronal holes being driven in basically the same way as the intense transient heating in solar flares: by explosions of sheared magnetic fields in the cores of initially closed bipoles. We begin by summarizing the observational case for exploding sheared core fields being the drivers of a wide variety of flare events, with and without coronal mass ejections. We conclude that the arrangement of an event's flare heating, whether there is a coronal mass ejection, and the time and place of the ejection relative to the flare heating are all largely determined by four elements of the form and action of the magnetic field: (1) the arrangement of the impacted, interacting bipoles participating in the event, (2) which of these bipoles are active (have sheared core fields that explode) and which are passive (are heated by injection from impacted active bipoles), (3) which core field explodes first, and (4) which core-field explosions are confined within the closed field of their bipoles and which ejectively open their bipoles. We then apply this magnetic-configuration framework for flare heating to the strong coronal heating observed by the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope in an active region with strongly sheared core fields observed by the MSFC vector magnetograph. All of the strong coronal heating is in continually microflaring sheared core fields or in extended loops rooted against the active core fields. Thus, the strong heating occurs in field configurations consistent with the heating being driven by frequent core-field explosions that are smaller but similar to those in confined flares and flaring arches. From analysis of the thermal and magnetic energetics of two selected core-field microflares and a bright extended loop, we find that (1) it is energetically feasible for the sheared core fields to drive all of the coronal

  4. Toward elucidating the heat activation mechanism of the TRPV1 channel gating by molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Han; Qin, Feng; Zheng, Wenjun

    2016-12-01

    As a key cellular sensor, the TRPV1 cation channel undergoes a gating transition from a closed state to an open state in response to various physical and chemical stimuli including noxious heat. Despite years of study, the heat activation mechanism of TRPV1 gating remains enigmatic at the molecular level. Toward elucidating the structural and energetic basis of TRPV1 gating, we have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (with cumulative simulation time of 3 μs), starting from the high-resolution closed and open structures of TRPV1 solved by cryo-electron microscopy. In the closed-state simulations at 30°C, we observed a stably closed channel constricted at the lower gate (near residue I679), while the upper gate (near residues G643 and M644) is dynamic and undergoes flickery opening/closing. In the open-state simulations at 60°C, we found higher conformational variation consistent with a large entropy increase required for the heat activation, and both the lower and upper gates are dynamic with transient opening/closing. Through ensemble-based structural analyses of the closed state versus the open state, we revealed pronounced closed-to-open conformational changes involving the membrane proximal domain (MPD) linker, the outer pore, and the TRP helix, which are accompanied by breaking/forming of a network of closed/open-state specific hydrogen bonds. By comparing the closed-state simulations at 30°C and 60°C, we observed heat-activated conformational changes in the MPD linker, the outer pore, and the TRP helix that resemble the closed-to-open conformational changes, along with partial formation of the open-state specific hydrogen bonds. Some of the residues involved in the above key hydrogen bonds were validated by previous mutational studies. Taken together, our MD simulations have offered rich structural and dynamic details beyond the static structures of TRPV1, and promising targets for future mutagenesis and functional studies of the TRPV1 channel

  5. Chaperone Activity of Small Heat Shock Proteins Underlies Therapeutic Efficacy in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis*

    PubMed Central

    Kurnellas, Michael P.; Brownell, Sara E.; Su, Leon; Malkovskiy, Andrey V.; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Dolganov, Gregory; Chopra, Sidharth; Schoolnik, Gary K.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Webster, Jonathan; Ousman, Shalina S.; Becker, Rachel A.; Steinman, Lawrence; Rothbard, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the therapeutic activity of αB crystallin, small heat shock protein B5 (HspB5), was shared with other human sHsps, a set of seven human family members, a mutant of HspB5 G120 known to exhibit reduced chaperone activity, and a mycobacterial sHsp were expressed and purified from bacteria. Each of the recombinant proteins was shown to be a functional chaperone, capable of inhibiting aggregation of denatured insulin with varying efficiency. When injected into mice at the peak of disease, they were all effective in reducing the paralysis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Additional structure activity correlations between chaperone activity and therapeutic function were established when linear regions within HspB5 were examined. A single region, corresponding to residues 73–92 of HspB5, forms amyloid fibrils, exhibited chaperone activity, and was an effective therapeutic for encephalomyelitis. The linkage of the three activities was further established by demonstrating individual substitutions of critical hydrophobic amino acids in the peptide resulted in the loss of all of the functions. PMID:22955287

  6. Design and Testing of an Active Heat Rejection Radiator with Digital Turn-Down Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunada, Eric; Birur, Gajanana C.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Miller, Jennifer; Berisford, Daniel; Stephan, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    NASA's proposed lunar lander, Altair, will be exposed to vastly different external environment temperatures. The challenges to the active thermal control system (ATCS) are compounded by unfavorable transients in the internal waste heat dissipation profile: the lowest heat load occurs in the coldest environment while peak loads coincide with the warmest environment. The current baseline for this fluid is a 50/50 inhibited propylene glycol/water mixture with a freeze temperature around -35 C. While the overall size of the radiator's heat rejection area is dictated by the worst case hot scenario, a turn-down feature is necessary to tolerate the worst case cold scenario. A radiator with digital turn-down capability is being designed as a robust means to maintain cabin environment and equipment temperatures while minimizing mass and power consumption. It utilizes active valving to isolate and render ineffective any number of parallel flow tubes which span across the ATCS radiator. Several options were assessed in a trade-study to accommodate flow tube isolation and how to deal with the stagnant fluid that would otherwise remain in the tube. Bread-board environmental tests were conducted for options to drain the fluid from a turned-down leg as well an option to allow a leg to freeze/thaw. Each drain option involved a positive displacement gear pump with different methods of providing a pressure head to feed it. Test results showed that a start-up heater used to generate vapor at the tube inlet held the most promise for tube evacuation. Based on these test results and conclusions drawn from the trade-study, a full-scale radiator design is being worked for the Altair mission profile.

  7. Heat Transfer Measurements with Surface Mounted Foil-Sensors in an Active Mode: A Comprehensive Review and a New Design

    PubMed Central

    Mocikat, Horst; Herwig, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive review of film-sensors shows that they are primarily operated in a passive mode, i.e. without being actively heated to an extent, whereby they create a heat transfer situation on their own. Only when these sensors are used for wall shear stress measurements, the detection of laminar/turbulent transition, or the measurement of certain flow velocities, they are operated in an active mode, i.e. heated by an electrical current (after an appropriate calibration). In our study we demonstrate how these R(T)-based sensors (temperature dependence of the electrical resistance R) can also be applied in an active mode for heat transfer measurements. These measurements can be made on cold, unheated bodies, provided certain requirements with respect to the flow field are fulfilled. Our new sensors are laminated nickel- and polyimide-foils manufactured with a special technology, which is also described in detail. PMID:22574060

  8. Detection of heat-labile enterotoxin-like activity in stools of patients with cholera and Escherichia coli diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Echeverria, P; Verheart, L; Ulyanco, C V; Santiago, L T

    1978-01-01

    The Y1 adrenal cell tissue culture assay was used to detect heat-labile enterotoxin-like activity in the stools of 14 of 74 patients with diarrhea. A positive effect of the stool on the adrenal cells was heat-labile and neutralized by cholera antitoxin. Enterotoxin-like activity was detected in the stools of 10 of 30 patients with cholera and in those of 2 of 4 from whom heat-labile Escherichia coli were isolated. None of the stools from nine individuals with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella, or Shigella infections were positive. Two of 31 individuals from whom no pathogens were isolated had detectable toxin-like activity in their stools. The Y1 adrenal cell assay provides a rapid method of diagnosing heat-labile enterotoxigenic diarrhea and could be an adjunct in epidemiological studies of gastroenteritis. PMID:342414

  9. Heat shock inhibits. alpha. -amylase synthesis in barley aleurone without inhibiting the activity of endoplasmic reticulum marker enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Sticher, L.; Biswas, A.K.; Bush, D.S.; Jones, R.L. )

    1990-02-01

    The effects of heat shock on the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase and on the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone were studied. Heat shock, imposed by raising the temperature of incubation from 25{degree}C to 40{degree}C for 3 hours, inhibits the accumulation of {alpha}-amylase and other proteins in the incubation medium of barley aleurone layers treated with gibberellic acid and Ca{sup 2+}. When ER is isolated from heat-shocked aleurone layers, less newly synthesized {alpha}-amylase is found associated with this membrane system. ER membranes, as indicated by the activities of NADH cytochrome c reductase and ATP-dependent Ca{sup 2+} transport, are not destroyed by heat stress, however. Although heat shock did not reduce the activity of ER membrane marker enzymes, it altered the buoyant density of these membranes. Whereas ER from control tissue showed a peak of marker enzyme activity at 27% to 28% sucrose (1.113-1.120 grams per cubic centimeter), ER from heat-shocked tissue peaked at 30% to 32% sucrose (1.127-1.137 grams per cubic centimeter). The synthesis of a group of proteins designated as heat-shock proteins (HSPs) was stimulated by heat shock. These HSPs were localized to different compartments of the aleurone cell. Several proteins ranging from 15 to 30 kilodaltons were found in the ER and the mitochondrial/plasma membrane fractions of heat-shocked cells, but none of the HSPs accumulated in the incubation medium of heat-shocked aleurone layers.

  10. Renal R2 chemoreceptor activity is attenuated after back heating in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wu, M S; Chien, C T; Chen, C F

    1997-06-27

    Recent study in our laboratory has found that renal afferent nervous activity (RANA) was decreased during and after 42 degrees C back heating (BH). To investigate which renal sensory receptor is influenced during and after BH, a C-shaped glass heating pad (42 degrees C) was used on the skin of the back overlying the kidneys. A single-unit recording was used to identify four types of renal sensory receptors, the R2 chemoreceptor (CR2), arterial mechanoreceptor (MRa), ureteropelvic mechanoreceptor (MRu) and venous mechanoreceptor (MRv) in anesthetized female Wistar rats. Renal cortical microvascular blood flow (CMBF) and urinary water, potassium and sodium output were measured. It was found that CR2 activity was significantly decreased during and after BH, but three types of MRs were not altered. CMBF and urine output were significantly increased during and after BH. It is concluded that the increase in renal hemodynamics by BH may dilute some chemicals in the kidney and decrease the firing rate of R2 chemoreceptors.

  11. The transcription activity of heat shock factor 4b is regulated by FGF2.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan-Zhong; Zhang, Jun; Li, Shulian; Wang, Chuan; Chu, Liujie; Zhang, Zhi; Ma, Zengyi; Wang, Mingli; Jiang, Qiying; Liu, Guangchao; Qi, Yijun; Ma, Yuanfang

    2013-02-01

    Heat shock factor 4b has been found to be closely associated with postnatal lens development. It expresses in postnatal lens epithelial and secondary fiber cells and controls the expression of small heat shock proteins which are important for lens homeostasis. However, the signal pathways underlying Hsf4b are still not completely understood. Here we present that Hsf4b transcription activity is regulated by FGF2 a key growth factor that is involved in regulating lens development at multiple stages. FGF2 can promote Hsf4b nuclear-translocation and the expression of Hsp25 and αB-crystallin, the key downstream targets of Hsf4b in the Hsf4b-reconstituted mouse hsf4-/- lens epithelial cells. Further study indicates that FGF2 can induce Hsf4b protein stabilization through ERK1/2-mediated posttranslational phosphorylation or sumoylation. Hsf4b can promote FGF2-induced morphology transition from lens epithelial cell to the fiber cell, and this morphology transition can be inhibited by ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Hsf4b is a novel downstream transcription factor of FGF2, and its transcription activity is associated with FGF2-modulated lens epithelial cell-fiber cell transition.

  12. Neutrino-heated stars and broad-line emission from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, James; Stanev, Todor; Biermann, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation from active galactic nuclei indicates the presence of highly relativistic particles. The interaction of these high-energy particles with matter and photons gives rise to a flux of high-energy neutrinos. In this paper, the influence of the expected high neutrino fluxes on the structure and evolution of single, main-sequence stars is investigated. Sequences of models of neutrino-heated stars in thermal equilibrium are presented for masses 0.25, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 solar mass. In addition, a set of evolutionary sequences for mass 0.5 solar mass have been computed for different assumed values for the incident neutrino energy flux. It is found that winds driven by the heating due to high-energy particles and hard electromagnetic radiation of the outer layers of neutrino-bloated stars may satisfy the requirements of the model of Kazanas (1989) for the broad-line emission clouds in active galactic nuclei.

  13. Exploration of the Role of Heat Activation in Enhancing Serpentine Carbon Sequestration Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    McKelvy, M.J.; Chizmeshya, A.V.G.; Diefenbacher, J.; Bearat, H.; Wolf, G.

    2005-03-29

    As compared with other candidate carbon sequestration technologies, mineral carbonation offers the unique advantage of permanent disposal via geologically stable and environmentally benign carbonates. The primary challenge is the development of an economically viable process. Enhancing feedstock carbonation reactivity is key. Heat activation dramatically enhances aqueous serpentine carbonation reactivity. Although the present process is too expensive to implement, the materials characteristics and mechanisms that enhance carbonation are of keen interest for further reducing cost. Simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) of the serpentine mineral lizardite was used to isolate a series of heat-activated materials as a function of residual hydroxide content at progressively higher temperatures. Their structure and composition are evaluated via TGA/DTA, X-ray powder diffraction (including phase analysis), and infrared analysis. The meta-serpentine materials that were observed to form ranged from those with longer range ordering, consistent with diffuse stage-2 like interlamellar order, to an amorphous component that preferentially forms at higher temperatures. The aqueous carbonation reaction process was investigated for representative materials via in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Magnesite was observed to form directly at 15 MPa CO{sub 2} and at temperatures ranging from 100 to 125 C. Carbonation reactivity is generally correlated with the extent of meta-serpentine formation and structural disorder.

  14. General Purpose Heat Source Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, Bill

    2008-01-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) simulator project is designed to replicate through the use of electrical heaters, the form, fit, and function of actual GPHS modules which generate heat through the radioactive decay of Pu238. The use of electrically heated modules rather than modules containing Pu238 facilitates the testing of spacecraft subsystems and systems without sacrificing the quantity and quality of the test data gathered. Previous GPHS activities are centered around developing robust heater designs with sizes and weights that closely matched those of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks. These efforts were successful, although their maximum temperature capabilities were limited to around 850 C. New designs are being pursued which also replicate the sizes and weights of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks but will allow operation up to 1100 C.

  15. Self-folding origami: shape memory composites activated by uniform heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolley, Michael T.; Felton, Samuel M.; Miyashita, Shuhei; Aukes, Daniel; Rus, Daniela; Wood, Robert J.

    2014-09-01

    Self-folding is an approach used frequently in nature for the efficient fabrication of structures, but is seldom used in engineered systems. Here, self-folding origami are presented, which consist of shape memory composites that are activated with uniform heating in an oven. These composites are rapidly fabricated using inexpensive materials and tools. The folding mechanism based on the in-plane contraction of a sheet of shape memory polymer is modeled, and parameters for the design of composites that self-fold into target shapes are characterized. Four self-folding shapes are demonstrated: a cube, an icosahedron, a flower, and a Miura pattern; each of which is activated in an oven in less than 4 min. Self-sealing is also investigated using hot melt adhesive, and the resulting structures are found to bear up to twice the load of unsealed structures.

  16. Modulation of heat-shock protein 27 (Hsp27) anti-apoptotic activity by methylglyoxal modification.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Mashima, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Tsuruo, Takashi

    2002-11-29

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is one of the side-products in glycolysis, and it reacts with proteins under physiological conditions. Here, we identified heat-shock protein 27 (Hsp27) as a major MG-modified protein in cells. MG modification of Hsp27 selectively occurs at Arg-188 to form argpyrimidine, and mutation in the residue represses the formation of a large oligomer. This modification process is essential to its repressing activity for cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation. Inhibition of MG modification of Hsp27 causes sensitization of the cells to anti-tumor drug-induced apoptosis. Thus, MG is a novel modulator of cell survival by directly incorporating with the specific protein residue.

  17. AGN ACTIVITY AND IGM HEATING IN THE FOSSIL CLUSTER RX J1416.4+2315

    SciTech Connect

    Miraghaei, H.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Abbassi, S.; Sengupta, C.; Raychaudhury, S.

    2015-12-15

    We study active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in the fossil galaxy cluster RX J1416.4+2315. Radio observations were carried out using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at two frequencies, 1420 and 610 MHz. A weak radio lobe that extends from the central nucleus is detected in the 610 MHz map. Assuming the radio lobe originated from the central AGN, we show that the energy injection into the intergalactic medium is only sufficient to heat up the central 50 kpc within the cluster core, while the cooling radius is larger (∼130 kpc). In the hardness ratio map, three low energy cavities have been identified. No radio emission is detected for these regions. We evaluated the power required to inflate the cavities and showed that the total energy budget is sufficient to offset the radiative cooling. We showed that the initial conditions would change the results remarkably. Furthermore, the efficiency of the Bondi accretion in powering the AGN has been estimated.

  18. Water maser emission from X-ray-heated circumnuclear gas in active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Maloney, Philip R.; Conger, Sarah

    1994-01-01

    We have modeled the physical and chemical conditions present within dense circumnuclear gas that is irradiated by X-rays from an active galactic nucleus. Over a wide range of X-ray fluxes and gas pressures, the effects of X-ray heating give rise to a molecular layer at temperatures of 400-1000 K within which the water abundance is large. The physical conditions within this molecular layer naturally give rise to collisionally pumped maser emission in the 6(sub 16) - 5(sub 23) 22 GHz transition of ortho-water, with predicted maser luminosities of 10(exp 2 +/- 0.5) solar luminosity per sq. pc of illuminated area. Given plausible assumptions about the geometry of the source and about the degree to which the maser emission is anisotropic, such surface luminosities are sufficient to explain the large apparent luminosities observed in water maser sources that are associated with active galactic nuclei.

  19. Heat shock-induced attenuation of hydroxyl radical generation and mitochondrial aconitase activity in cardiac H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ilangovan, Govindasamy; Venkatakrishnan, C D; Bratasz, Anna; Osinbowale, Sola; Cardounel, Arturo J; Zweier, Jay L; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2006-02-01

    A mild heat shock (hyperthermia) protects cells from apoptotic and necrotic deaths by inducing overexpression of various heat shock proteins (Hsps). These proteins, in combination with the activation of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme, play important roles in the protection of the myocardium against a variety of diseases. In the present work we report that the generation of potent reactive oxygen species (ROS), namely *OH in cardiac H9c2 cells, is attenuated by heat shock treatment (2 h at 42 degrees C). Western blot analyses showed that heat shock treatment induced overexpression of Hsp70, Hsp60, and Hsp25. The observed *OH was found to be derived from the superoxide (O(2)(-)*) generated by the mitochondria. Whereas the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity was increased in the heat-shocked cells, the mitochondrial aconitase activity was reduced. The mechanism of O(2)(-)* conversion into *OH in mitochondria is proposed as follows. The O(2)(-)* leaked from the electron transport chain, oxidatively damages the mitochondrial aconitase, releasing a free Fe(2+). The aconitase-released Fe(2+) combines with H(2)O(2) to generate *OH via a Fenton reaction and the oxidized Fe(3+) recombines with the inactivated enzyme after being reduced to Fe(2+) by other cellular reductants, turning it over to be active. However, in heat-shocked cells, because of higher MnSOD activity, the excess H(2)O(2) causes irreversible damage to the mitochondrial aconitase enzyme, thus inhibiting its activity. In conclusion, we propose that attenuation of *OH generation after heat shock treatment might play an important role in reducing the myocardial ischemic injury, observed in heat shock-treated animals.

  20. Nitric oxide induces heat-shock protein 70 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells via activation of heat shock factor 1.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Q; Hu, Y; Kleindienst, R; Wick, G

    1997-01-01

    Current data suggest that nitric oxide (NO) is a double-edged sword that could result in relaxation and/or cytotoxicity of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) via cGMP- dependent or -independent signal pathways. Stress or heat shock proteins (hsps) have been shown to be augmented in arterial SMCs during acute hypertension and atherosclerosis, both conditions that are believed to correlate with disturbed NO production. In the present study, we demonstrate that NO generated from sodium nitroprusside (SNP), S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, and spermine/nitric oxide complex leads to hsp70 induction in cultured SMCs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that hsp70 protein expression peaked between 6 and 12 h after treatment with SNP, and elevated protein levels were preceded by induction of hsp70 mRNA within 3 h. Induction of hsp70 mRNA was associated with the activation of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), suggesting that the response was regulated at the transcriptional level. HSF1 activation was completely blocked by hemoglobin, dithiothreitol, and cycloheximide, suggesting that the protein damage and nascent polypeptide formation induced by NO may initiate this activation. Furthermore, SMCs pretreated with heat shock (42 degrees C) for 30 min were significantly protected from death induced by NO. Thus, we provide evidence that NO induces hsp70 expression in SMCs via HSF1 activation. Induction of hsp70 could be important in protecting SMCs from injury resulting from NO stimulation. PMID:9276725

  1. Bortezomib-induced heat shock response protects multiple myeloma cells and is activated by heat shock factor 1 serine 326 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shardule P.; Nooka, Ajay K.; Jaye, David L.; Bahlis, Nizar J.; Lonial, Sagar; Boise, Lawrence H.

    2016-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib are highly active in multiple myeloma by affecting signaling cascades and leading to a toxic buildup of misfolded proteins. Bortezomib-treated cells activate the cytoprotective heat shock response (HSR), including upregulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs). Here we inhibited the bortezomib-induced HSR by silencing its master regulator, Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 silencing led to bortezomib sensitization. In contrast, silencing of individual and combination HSPs, except HSP40β, did not result in significant bortezomib sensitization. However, HSP40β did not entirely account for increased bortezomib sensitivity upon HSF1 silencing. To determine the mechanism of HSF1 activation, we assessed phosphorylation and observed bortezomib-inducible phosphorylation in cell lines and patient samples. We determined that this bortezomib-inducible event is phosphorylation at serine 326. Prior clinical use of HSP inhibitors in combination with bortezomib has been disappointing in multiple myeloma therapy. Our results provide a rationale for targeting HSF1 activation in combination with bortezomib to enhance multiple myeloma treatment efficacy. PMID:27487129

  2. Non Destructive Testing by active infrared thermography coupled with shearography under same optical heat excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theroux, Louis-Daniel; Dumoulin, Jean; Maldague, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    As infrastructures are aging, the evaluation of their health is becoming crucial. To do so, numerous Non Destructive Testing (NDT) methods are available. Among them, thermal shearography and active infrared thermography represent two full field and contactless methods for surface inspection. The synchronized use of both methods presents multiples advantages. Most importantly, both NDT are based on different material properties. Thermography depend on the thermal properties and shearography on the mechanical properties. The cross-correlation of both methods result in a more accurate and exact detection of the defects. For real site application, the simultaneous use of both methods is simplified due to the fact that the excitation method (thermal) is the same. Active infrared thermography is the measure of the temperature by an infrared camera of a surface subjected to heat flux. Observation of the variation of temperature in function of time reveal the presence of defects. On the other hand, shearography is a measure of out-of-plane surface displacement. This displacement is caused by the application of a strain on the surface which (in our case) take the form of a temperature gradient inducing a thermal stress To measure the resulting out-of-plane displacement, shearography exploit the relation between the phase difference and the optical path length. The phase difference is measured by the observation of the interference between two coherent light beam projected on the surface. This interference is due to change in optical path length as the surface is deformed [1]. A series of experimentation have been conducted in laboratory with various sample of concrete reinforced with CFRP materials. Results obtained reveal that with both methods it was possible to detect defects in the gluing. An infrared lamp radiating was used as the active heat source. This is necessary if measurements with shearography are to be made during the heating process. A heating lamp in the

  3. Role of heat shock factor-1 activation in the doxorubicin-induced heart failure in mice.

    PubMed

    Vedam, Kaushik; Nishijima, Yoshinori; Druhan, Lawrence J; Khan, Mahmood; Moldovan, Nicanor I; Zweier, Jay L; Ilangovan, Govindasamy

    2010-06-01

    Treating cancer patients with chemotherapeutics, such as doxorubicin (Dox), cause dilated cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure because of oxidative stress. On the other hand, heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), a transcription factor for heat shock proteins (Hsps), is also known to be activated in response to oxidative stress. However, the possible role of HSF-1 activation and the resultant Hsp25 in chemotherapeutic-induced heart failure has not been investigated. Using HSF-1 wild-type (HSF-1(+/+)) and knock-out (HSF-1(-/-)) mice, we tested the hypothesis that activation of HSF-1 plays a role in the development of Dox-induced heart failure. Higher levels of Hsp25 and its phosphorylated forms were found in the failing hearts of Dox-treated HSF-1(+/+) mice. More than twofold increase in Hsp25 mRNA level was found in Dox-treated hearts. Proteomic analysis showed that there is accumulation and aggregation of Hsp25 in Dox-treated failing hearts. Additionally, Hsp25 was found to coimmunoprecipitate with p53 and vice versa. Further studies indicated that the Dox-induced higher levels of Hsp25 transactivated p53 leading to higher levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, but other p53-related proteins remained unaltered. Moreover, HSF-1(-/-) mice showed significantly reduced Dox-induced heart failure and higher survival rate, and there was no change in Bax upon treating with Dox in HSF-1(-/-) mice. From these results we propose a novel mechanism for Dox-induced heart failure: increased expression of Hsp25 because of oxidant-induced activation of HSF-1 transactivates p53 to increase Bax levels, which leads to heart failure.

  4. Enhancement of glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene expression by constitutively active heat shock factor 1.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas J; Li, Dapei; Wolf, Irene M; Wadekar, Subhagya A; Periyasamy, Sumudra; Sánchez, Edwin R

    2004-03-01

    To further define the role of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) in the stress potentiation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity, we placed a constitutively active mutant of human HSF1 (hHSF1-E189) under the control of a doxycycline (DOX)-inducible vector. In mouse L929 cells, DOX-induced expression of hHSF1-E189 correlated with in vivo occupancy of the human heat shock protein 70 (hHsp70) promoter (chromatin-immunoprecipitation assay) and with increased activity under nonstress conditions at the hHsp70 promoter controlling expression of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) (p2500-CAT). Comparison of hHSF1-E189 against stress-activated, endogenous HSF1 for DNA-binding, p2500-CAT, and Hsp70 protein expression activities showed the mutant factor to have lower, but clearly detectable, activities as compared with wild-type factor. Thus, the hHSF1-E189 mutant is capable of replicating these key functions of endogenous HSF1, albeit at reduced levels. To assess the involvement of hHSF1-E189 in GR activity, DOX-induced expression of hHSF1-E189 was performed in L929 cells expressing the minimal pGRE(2)E1B-CAT reporter. hHSF1-E189 protein expression in these cells was maximal at 24 h of DOX and remained constant up to 72 h. hHSF1-E189 expressed under these conditions was found both in the cytosolic and nuclear compartments, in a state capable of binding DNA. More importantly, GR activity at the pGRE(2)E1B-CAT promoter was found to increase after DOX-induced expression of hHSF1-E189. The potentiation of GR by hHSF1-E189 occurred at saturating concentrations of hormone and was dependent on at least 48 h of hHSF1-E189 up-regulation, suggesting that time was needed for an HSF1-induced factor to accumulate to a threshold level. Initial efforts to characterize how hHSF1-E189 controls GR signaling showed that it does not occur through alterations of GR protein levels or changes in GR hormone binding capacity. In summary, our observations provide the first molecular evidence for the

  5. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a new active heat moisture exchanger

    PubMed Central

    Chiumello, Davide; Pelosi, Paolo; Park, Gilbert; Candiani, Andrea; Bottino, Nicola; Storelli, Ezio; Severgnini, Paolo; D'Onofrio, Dunia; Gattinoni, Luciano; Chiaranda, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    Introduction In order to improve the efficiency of heat moisture exchangers (HMEs), new hybrid humidifiers (active HMEs) that add water and heat to HMEs have been developed. In this study we evaluated the efficiency, both in vitro and in vivo, of a new active HME (the Performer; StarMed, Mirandola, Italy) as compared with that of existing HMEs (Hygroster and Hygrobac; Mallinckrodt, Mirandola, Italy). Methods We tested the efficiency by measuring the temperature and absolute humidity (AH) in vitro using a test lung ventilated at three levels of minute ventilation (5, 10 and 15 l/min) and at two tidal volumes (0.5 and 1 l), and in vivo in 42 patients with acute lung injury (arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen ratio 283 ± 72 mmHg). We also evaluated the efficiency in vivo after 12 hours. Results In vitro, passive Performer and Hygrobac had higher airway temperature and AH (29.2 ± 0.7°C and 29.2 ± 0.5°C, [P < 0.05]; AH: 28.9 ± 1.6 mgH2O/l and 28.1 ± 0.8 mgH2O/l, [P < 0.05]) than did Hygroster (airway temperature: 28.1 ± 0.3°C [P < 0.05]; AH: 27 ± 1.2 mgH2O/l [P < 0.05]). Both devices suffered a loss of efficiency at the highest minute ventilation and tidal volume, and at the lowest minute ventilation. Active Performer had higher airway temperature and AH (31.9 ± 0.3°C and 34.3 ± 0.6 mgH2O/l; [P < 0.05]) than did Hygrobac and Hygroster, and was not influenced by minute ventilation or tidal volume. In vivo, the efficiency of passive Performer was similar to that of Hygrobac but better than Hygroster, whereas Active Performer was better than both. The active Performer exhibited good efficiency when used for up to 12 hours in vivo. Conclusion This study showed that active Performer may provide adequate conditioning of inspired gases, both as a passive and as an active device. PMID:15469569

  6. Antioxidant enzymes and DPPH-radical scavenging activity in chilled and heat-shocked rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings radicles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho-Min; Saltveit, Mikal E

    2002-01-30

    Chilling whole rice seedlings at 5 degrees C significantly increased the time needed to recover linear growth and reduced the subsequent linear rate of radicle growth. Subjecting nonchilled seedlings to a 45 degrees C heat shock for up to 20 min did not alter subsequent growth, whereas a 3 min heat shock was optimal in reducing growth inhibition caused by 2 days of chilling. The activity of five antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2), and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX; EC 1.11.1.7)] and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)-radical scavenging activity were measured in heat-shocked and/or chilled radicles. Heat shock slightly increased the activity of CAT, APX, and GR and suppressed the increase of GR and GPX activity during recovery from chilling. Increased CAT, APX, GR, and DPPH-radical scavenging activity and protection of CAT activity during chilling appear to be correlated with heat shock-induced chilling tolerance.

  7. Isotropic Heating of Galaxy Cluster Cores via Rapidly Reorienting Active Galactic Nucleus Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babul, Arif; Sharma, Prateek; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2013-05-01

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets carry more than sufficient energy to stave off catastrophic cooling of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the cores of cool-core clusters. However, in order to prevent catastrophic cooling, the ICM must be heated in a near-isotropic fashion and narrow bipolar jets with P jet = 1044 - 45 erg s-1, typical of radio AGNs at cluster centers, are inefficient in heating the gas in the transverse direction to the jets. We argue that due to existent conditions in cluster cores, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) will, in addition to accreting gas via radiatively inefficient flows, experience short stochastic episodes of enhanced accretion via thin disks. In general, the orientation of these accretion disks will be misaligned with the spin axis of the black holes (BHs) and the ensuing torques will cause the BH's spin axis (and therefore the jet axis) to slew and rapidly change direction. This model not only explains recent observations showing successive generations of jet-lobes-bubbles in individual cool-core clusters that are offset from each other in the angular direction with respect to the cluster center, but also shows that AGN jets can heat the cluster core nearly isotropically on the gas cooling timescale. Our model does require that the SMBHs at the centers of cool-core clusters be spinning relatively slowly. Torques from individual misaligned disks are ineffective at tilting rapidly spinning BHs by more than a few degrees. Additionally, since SMBHs that host thin accretion disks will manifest as quasars, we predict that roughly 1-2 rich clusters within z < 0.5 should have quasars at their centers.

  8. A sexual dimorphism influences bicyclol-induced hepatic heat shock factor 1 activation and hepatoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jianjian; Han, Conghui; Dai, Huijuan; Kong, Xianming; Xu, Longmei; Xia, Qiang; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Jianjun

    2015-07-01

    Bicyclol [4,4'-dimethoxy-5,6,5',6'-bis(methylenedioxy)-2-hydroxy-methyl-2'-methoxycarbonyl biphenyl] is a synthetic hepatoprotectant widely used in clinical practice, but resistance to this treatment is often observed. We found that the hepatoprotective effect of bicyclol was greatly compromised in female and castrated male mice. This study was to dissect the molecular basis behind the sex difference, which might underlie the clinical uncertainty. We compared bicyclol-induced hepatoprotection between male and female mice using acute liver damage models. Inducible knockout by the Cre/loxp system was used to decipher the role of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). Functional experiments, western blot, and histopathological analysis were used to determine the key causative factors which might antagonize bicyclol in female livers. HSF1 activation and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression, which were responsible for bicyclol-induced hepatoprotection, were compromised in female and castrated male livers. Compromised HSF1 activation was a result of HSF1 phosphorylation at serine 303, which was catalyzed by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Testosterone was necessary for bicyclol to inhibit hepatic GSK3β activity. Administration of testosterone or GSK3β inhibitors restored bicyclol-induced protection in females. Bicyclol induces sex-specific hepatoprotection based on a sex-specific HSF1/Hsp70 response, in which testosterone and GSK3β play key roles. Because a lot of patients suffering from liver diseases have very low testosterone levels, our results give a possible explanation for the clinical variation in bicyclol-induced hepatoprotection, as well as practicable solutions to improve the effect of bicyclol.

  9. Heat Shock Protein-70 Expression in Vitiligo and its Relation to the Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Reham William; El-Rifaie, Abdel-Aziz A; Abdel-Wahab, Amr M; Gohary, Yasser M; Rashed, Laila A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is a progressive depigmenting disorder characterized by the loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis. The etiopathogenesis of vitiligo is still unclear. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are prime candidates to connect stress to the skin. HSPs were found to be implicated in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and other skin disorders as psoriasis. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study was to map the level of HSP-70 in vitiligo lesions to declare its role in the pathogenesis and activity of vitiligo. Materials and Methods: The study included thirty patients with vitiligo and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Vitiligo patients were divided as regards to the disease activity into highly active, moderately active, and inactive vitiligo groups. Skin biopsies were taken from the lesional and nonlesional skin of patients and from the normal skin of the controls. HSP-70 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was estimated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Our analysis revealed a significantly higher expression of HSP-70 mRNA in lesional skin biopsies from vitiligo patients compared to nonlesional skin biopsies from vitiligo patients (P < 0.001) and compared to skin biopsies from healthy controls (P < 0.001). The level of HSP-70 was not found to be correlated with age, sex, or disease duration. The expression of HSP-70 was correlated with the disease activity and patients with active vitiligo showed higher mean HSP-70 level compared to those with inactive disease. Conclusions: HSP-70 plays a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo and may enhance the immune response in active disease. PMID:27512186

  10. Baryonic B Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistov, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this talk the decays of B-mesons into baryons are discussed. Large mass of B-meson makes possible the decays of the type B → baryon (+mesons). Experimental observations and measurements of these decays at B-factories Belle and BaBar have stimulate the development of theoretical models in this field. We briefly review the experimental results together with the current theoretical models which describe baryonic B decays.

  11. Measurements, modelling and electron cyclotron heating modification of Alfven eigenmode activity in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Van Zeeland, Michael; Heidbrink, W.; Nazikian, Raffi; Austin, M. E.; Cheng, C Z; Chu, M. S.; Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Holcomb, C T; Hyatt, A. W.; Kramer, G.; Lohr, J.T.; Mckee, G. R.; Petty, C C.; Prater, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Spong, Donald A

    2009-01-01

    Neutral beam injection into reversed magnetic shear DIII-D plasmas produces a variety of Alfvenic activity including toroidicity and ellipticity induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE/EAE, respectively) and reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAE) as well as their spatial coupling. These modes are studied during the discharge current ramp phase when incomplete current penetration results in a high central safety factor and strong drive due to multiple higher order resonances. It is found that ideal MHD modelling of eigenmode spectral evolution, coupling and structure are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. It is also found that higher radial envelope harmonic RSAEs are clearly observed and agree with modelling. Some discrepancies with modelling such as that due to up/down eigenmode asymmetries are also pointed out. Concomitant with the Alfvenic activity, fast ion (FIDA) spectroscopy shows large reductions in the central fast ion profile, the degree of which depends on the Alfven eigenmode amplitude. Interestingly, localized electron cyclotron heating (ECH) near the mode location stabilizes RSAE activity and results in significantly improved fast ion confinement relative to discharges with ECH deposition on axis. In these discharges, RSAE activity is suppressed when ECH is deposited near the radius of the shear reversal point and enhanced with deposition near the axis. The sensitivity of this effect to deposition power and current drive phasing as well as ECH modulation are presented.

  12. Heat treatment effects on the antimicrobial activity of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in milk.

    PubMed

    Zorraquino, M A; Althaus, R L; Roca, M; Molina, M P

    2011-02-01

    Antibiotic residues in milk can cause serious problems for consumers and the dairy industry. Heat treatment of milk may diminish the antimicrobial activity of these antibiotic residues. This study analyzed the effect of milk processing (60 °C for 30 min, 120 °C for 20 min, and 140 °C for 10 s) on the antimicrobial activity of milk samples fortified with three concentrations of three macrolides (erythromycin: 20, 40 and 80 μg/liter; spiramycin: 100, 200, and 400 μg/liter; and tylosin: 500, 1,000, and 2,000 μg/liter) and one lincosamide (lincomycin: 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 μg/liter). To measure the loss of antimicrobial activity, a bioassay based on the growth inhibition of Micrococcus luteus was done. The data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression model. The results indicate that treatment at 120 °C for 20 min produces inactivation percentages of 93% (erythromycin), 64% (spiramycin), 51% (tylosin), and 5% (lincomycin), while treatment at 140 °C for 10 s results in generally lower percentages (30% erythromycin, 35% spiramycin, 12% tylosin, and 5% lincomycin). The lowest loss or lowest reduction of antimicrobial activity (21% erythromycin and 13% spiramycin) was obtained by treatment at 60 °C for 30 min.

  13. Mathematical modelling of the combined effect of water activity, pH and redox potential on the heat destruction.

    PubMed

    Reichart, O; Mohácsi-Farkas, C

    1994-12-01

    Heat destruction of seven foodborne microorganisms (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Yarrowia lipolytica, Paecilomyces varioti and Neosartoria fischeri) as a function of the temperature, pH, redox potential and water activity was studied in synthetic heating media. Several mathematical models were developed for describing the heat destruction rate, most of them resulted in a good correlation between the fitted and measured values. The determination coefficients of the model-fitting were the best in case of lactobacilli and moulds (0.96-0.99) and the worst in case of the yeasts (0.81-0.88).

  14. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Fiber Paper by Active Screen Plasma Nitriding and Its Microwave Heating Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Naishu; Ma, Shining; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2016-12-28

    In this paper, active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) treatment was performed on polyacrylonitrile carbon fiber papers. Electric resistivity and microwave loss factor of carbon fiber were described to establish the relationship between processing parameters and fiber's ability to absorb microwaves. The surface processing effect of carbon fiber could be characterized by dynamic thermal mechanical analyzer testing on composites made of carbon fiber. When the process temperature was at 175 °C, it was conducive to obtaining good performance of dynamical mechanical properties. The treatment provided a way to change microwave heating properties of carbon fiber paper by performing different treatment conditions, such as temperature and time parameters. Atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that, during the course of ASPN treatment on carbon fiber paper, nitrogen group was introduced and silicon group was removed. The treatment of nitrogen-doped carbon fiber paper represented an alternative promising candidate for microwave curing materials used in repairing and heating technology, furthermore, an efficient dielectric layer material for radar-absorbing structure composite in metamaterial technology.

  15. Activation of the heat-stable polypeptide of the ATP-dependent proteolytic system.

    PubMed Central

    Ciechanover, A; Heller, H; Katz-Etzion, R; Hershko, A

    1981-01-01

    It had been shown previously that the heat-stable polypeptide of the ATP-dependent proteolytic system of reticulocytes, designated APF-1, forms covalent conjugates with protein substrates in an ATP-requiring process. We now describe an enzyme that carries out the activation by ATP of the polypeptide with pyrophosphate displacement. The formation of AMP-polypeptide and transfer of the polypeptide to a secondary acceptor are suggested by an APF-1 requirement for ATP-PPi and ATP-AMP exchange reactions, respectively. With radiolabeled polypeptide, an ATP-dependent labeling of the enzyme was shown to be by a linkage that is acid stable but is labile to treatment with mild alkali, hydroxylamine, borohydride, or mercuric salts. It therefore appears that the AMP-polypeptide undergoes attack by an -SH group of the enzyme to form a thiolester. PMID:6262770

  16. Chalcones from Angelica keiskei: Evaluation of Their Heat Shock Protein Inducing Activities.

    PubMed

    Kil, Yun-Seo; Choi, Seul-Ki; Lee, Yun-Sil; Jafari, Mahtab; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2015-10-23

    Five new chalcones, 4,2',4'-trihydroxy-3'-[(2E,5E)-7-methoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,5-octadienyl]chalcone (1), (±)-4,2',4'-trihydroxy-3'-[(2E)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2-octenyl]chalcone (2), 4,2',4'-trihydroxy-3'-[(2E)-3-methyl-5-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)-2-pentenyl]chalcone (3), 2',3'-furano-4-hydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (4), and (±)-4-hydroxy-2',3'-(2,3-dihydro-2-methoxyfurano)-4'-methoxychalcone (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Angelica keiskei Koidzumi together with eight known chalcones, 6-13, which were identified as (±)-4,2',4'-trihydroxy-3'-[(6E)-2-hydroxy-7-methyl-3-methylene-6-octenyl]chalcone (6), xanthoangelol (7), xanthoangelol F (8), xanthoangelol G (9), 4-hydroxyderricin (10), xanthoangelol D (11), xanthoangelol E (12), and xanthoangelol H (13), respectively. Chalcones 1-13 were evaluated for their promoter activity on heat shock protein 25 (hsp25, murine form of human hsp27). Compounds 1 and 6 activated the hsp25 promoter by 21.9- and 29.2-fold of untreated control at 10 μM, respectively. Further protein expression patterns of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), HSP70, and HSP27 by 1 and 6 were examined. Compound 6 increased the expression of HSF1, HSP70, and HSP27 by 4.3-, 1.5-, and 4.6-fold of untreated control, respectively, without any significant cellular cytotoxicities, whereas 1 did not induce any expression of these proteins. As a result, 6 seems to be a prospective HSP inducer.

  17. Crystal Structure of an Activated Variant of Small Heat Shock Protein Hsp16.5

    SciTech Connect

    Mchaourab, Hassane S.; Lin, Yi-Lun; Spiller, Benjamin W.

    2013-04-17

    How does the sequence of a single small heat shock protein (sHSP) assemble into oligomers of different sizes? To gain insight into the underlying structural mechanism, we determined the crystal structure of an engineered variant of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Hsp16.5 wherein a 14 amino acid peptide from human heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) was inserted at the junction of the N-terminal region and the {alpha}-crystallin domain. In response to this insertion, the oligomer shell expands from 24 to 48 subunits while maintaining octahedral symmetry. Oligomer rearrangement does not alter the fold of the conserved {alpha}-crystallin domain nor does it disturb the interface holding the dimeric building block together. Rather, the flexible C-terminal tail of Hsp16.5 changes its orientation relative to the {alpha}-crystallin domain which enables alternative packing of dimers. This change in orientation preserves a peptide-in-groove interaction of the C-terminal tail with an adjacent {beta}-sandwich, thereby holding the assembly together. The interior of the expanded oligomer, where substrates presumably bind, retains its predominantly nonpolar character relative to the outside surface. New large windows in the outer shell provide increased access to these substrate-binding regions, thus accounting for the higher affinity of this variant to substrates. Oligomer polydispersity regulates sHSPs chaperone activity in vitro and has been implicated in their physiological roles. The structural mechanism of Hsp16.5 oligomer flexibility revealed here, which is likely to be highly conserved across the sHSP superfamily, explains the relationship between oligomer expansion observed in disease-linked mutants and changes in chaperone activity.

  18. Regional Heat Sources and the Active and Break Phases of Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, H; Sperber, K R

    2003-12-15

    The boreal summer intraseasonal variability (BSISV) associated with the 30-50 day mode is represented by the co-existence of three components, poleward propagation of convection over the Indian and tropical west Pacific longitudes and eastward propagation along the equator. The hypothesis that the three components influence each other has been investigated using observed OLR, NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, and solutions from an idealized linear model. The null hypothesis is that the three components are mutually independent. Cyclostationary EOF (CsEOF) analysis is applied on filtered OLR to extract the life-cycle of the BSISV. The dominant mode of CsEOF is significantly tied to observed rainfall over the Indian subcontinent. The components of the heating patterns from CsEOF analysis serve as prescribed forcings for the linear model. This allows us to ascertain which heat sources and sinks are instrumental in driving the large-scale monsoon circulation during the BSISV life-cycle. We identify three new findings: (1) the circulation anomalies that develop as a Rossby wave response to suppressed convection over the equatorial Indian Ocean associated with the previous break phase of the BSISV precondition the ocean-atmosphere system in the western Indian Ocean and trigger the next active phase of the BSISV, (2) the development of convection over the tropical west Pacific forces descent anomalies to the west. This, in conjunction with the weakened cross-equatorial flow due to suppressed convective anomalies over the equatorial Indian Ocean reduce the tropospheric moisture over the Arabian Sea, and promote westerly wind anomalies that do not recurve over India. As a result the low-level cyclonic vorticity shifts from India to southeast Asia and break conditions are initiated over India, and (3) the circulation anomalies forced by equatorial Indian Ocean convective anomalies significantly influence the active/break phases over the tropical west Pacific. Our model solutions support

  19. Method of testing active latent-heat storage devices based on thermal performance. (ASHRAE standard)

    SciTech Connect

    1985-01-26

    The purpose of this standard is to provide a standard procedure for determining the thermal performance of latent heat thermal energy storage devices used in heating, air-conditioning, and service hot water systems.

  20. Age-related changes of antioxidant enzyme activities, glutathione status and lipid peroxidation in rat erythrocytes after heat stress.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Oğuz; Gümüşlü, Saadet

    2004-08-13

    The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to heat stress would lead to oxidative stress and whether this effect varied with different exposure periods. We kept 1-, 6- and 12-month-old male Wistar rats at an ambient temperature of either 22 degrees C or 40 degrees C for 3 and 7 days and measured glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in erythrocytes and determined GSH/GSSG ratio, total glutathione and the redox index. G-6-PD and CAT activities were found to be significantly increased in 1- and 6-month-old rats after 3 and 7 days of heat stress, but G-6-PD activities decreased in 12-month-old rats. Cu, Zn-SOD activity decreased in 1-month-old rats after heat stress, whereas it increased in 6- and 12-month-old rats. GST activity increased in all groups. GSH and total GSH levels and GSH/GSSG ratios decreased in 1- and 6-month-old rats but they increased in 12-month-old rats after heat stress. GSSG levels increased in 1- and 6-month-old rats but decreased in 12-month-old rats after heat stress. TBARS levels increased in all groups. Seven days of stress is more effective in altering enzyme activities and levels of GSH, GSSG and TBARS. When the effects of both heat stress and aging were examined together, it was interesting to note that they mostly influenced G-6-PD activity.

  1. The effects of Sao Paulo urban heat island on lightning activity: Decadal analysis (1999-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourscheidt, Vandoir; Pinto, Osmar; Naccarato, Kleber P.

    2016-05-01

    Eleven years of lightning data from the Brazilian Integrated National Lightning Detection Network were used to analyze the effects of the urban heat island (UHI) of Sao Paulo on lightning activity, extending the investigation of previous works. Cloud-to-ground lightning data were analyzed in both spatial and temporal perspectives, using different approaches: flash density, flash rate, thunderstorm hours (TH), and the cell initiation technique (CIT), which aims to identify the onset of thunderstorms. Land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) was used to analyze the UHI evolution over the years. MODIS data were validated using ground stations, distributed within the urban area. Different time intervals (seasonal and intraday) were used in an attempt to separate local convective systems from synoptic-scale events. The results indicate significant effects of the UHI (using LST) on THs and CIT. The CIT showed a nearly ring pattern, especially during the afternoon (14:00-18:00 LT) of summer months, reinforcing temperature contrast as a condition for storm initiation. The results also suggest an amplification of the UHI effects on thunderstorm activity by local factors (sea and country breeze, synoptic events, and terrain). Higher flash rates were also observed throughout the urban region, which influences the lightning density. Temporal analysis indicates that minimum temperature and lightning activity increase in wintertime. In summary, the results agree with previous studies about the UHI and indicate its importance on lightning occurrence, especially by increasing the temperature contrast and the instability in these regions.

  2. Passive and Active Microwave Remote Sensing of Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions in the Tropics from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Yang, Song; Haddad, Ziad S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wang, Yansen; Lang, Stephen E.; Braun, Scott A.; Chiu, Christine; Wang, Jian-Jian

    2002-01-01

    Passive and active microwave remote sensing data are analyzed to identify signatures of precipitation and vertical motion in tropical convection. A database of cloud/radiative model simulations is used to quantify surface rain rates and latent heating profiles that are consistent with these signatures. At satellite footprint-scale (approximately 10 km), rain rate and latent heating estimates are subject to significant random errors, but by averaging the estimates in space and time, random errors are substantially reduced, Bias errors have been minimized by improving the microphysics in the supporting cloud/radiative model simulations, and by imposing a consistent definition of remotely-sensed and model-simulated convective/stratiform rain coverage. Remotely-sensed precipitation and latent heating distributions in the tropics are derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/ I) sensor data. The prototype Version 6 TRMM passive microwave algorithm typically yields average heating profiles with maxima between 6 and 7 km altitude for organized mesoscale convective systems. Retrieved heating profiles for individual convective systems are compared to coincident estimates based upon a combination of dual-Doppler radar and rawinsonde data. Also, large-scale latent heating distributions are compared to estimates derived from a simpler technique that utilizes observations of surface rain rate and stratiform rain proportion to infer vertical heating structure. Results of these tests will be presented at the conference.

  3. Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from raw and heat-treated yellow string beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Karaś, Monika; Jakubczyk, Anna; Szymanowska, Urszula; Materska, Małgorzata; Zielińska, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, legume plants have been considered not only a source of valuable proteins necessary for the proper functioning and growth of the body but also a source of bioactive compounds such as bioactive peptides, that may be beneficial to human health and protect against negative change in food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat treatment on the release of antioxidant peptides obtained by hydrolysis of the yellow string beans protein. The antioxidant properties of the hydrolysates were evaluated through free radical scavenging activities (DPPH and ABTS) and inhibition of iron activities (chelation of Fe2+). The results show that the heat treatment had influence on both increased peptides content and antioxidant activity after pepsin hydrolysis of string bean protein. The peptides content after protein hydrolysis derived from raw and heat treated beans were noted 2.10 and 2.50 mg·ml-1, respectively. The hydrolysates obtained from raw (PHR) and heat treated (PHT) beans showed better antioxidant properties than protein isolates (PIR and PIT). Moreover, the hydrolysates obtained from heat treated beans showed the higher ability to scavenge DPPH• (46.12%) and ABTS+• (92.32%) than obtained from raw beans (38.02% and 88.24%, correspondingly). The IC50 value for Fe2+ chelating ability for pepsin hydrolysates obtained from raw and heat treatment beans were noted 0.81 and 0.19 mg·ml-1, respectively. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the heat treatment string beans caused increase in the antioxidant activities of peptide-rich hydrolysates.

  4. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 3: Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaki, S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-04-01

    Several types of solar water heaters are described and assessed. These include thermosiphon water heaters and pump circulation water heaters. Auxiliary water heating is briefly discussed, and new and retrofit systems are compared. Liquid-based space heating systems and solar air heaters are described and assessed, auxiliary space heating are discussed, and new and retrofit solar space heating systems are compared. The status of flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, and thermal storage systems is examined. Systems improvements, reliability, durability and maintenance are discussed. The economic assessment of space and water heating systems includes a comparison of new systems costs with conventional fuels, and sales history and projections. The variety of participants in the solar industry and users of solar heat is discussed, and various incentives and barriers to solar heating are examined. Several policy implications are discussed, and specific government actions are recommended.

  5. Transcriptional Activation of a Constitutive Heterochromatic Domain of the Human Genome in Response to Heat ShockD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Rizzi, Nicoletta; Denegri, Marco; Chiodi, Ilaria; Corioni, Margherita; Valgardsdottir, Rut; Cobianchi, Fabio; Riva, Silvano; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Heat shock triggers the assembly of nuclear stress bodies that contain heat shock factor 1 and a subset of RNA processing factors. These structures are formed on the pericentromeric heterochromatic regions of specific human chromosomes, among which chromosome 9. In this article we show that these heterochromatic domains are characterized by an epigenetic status typical of euchromatic regions. Similarly to transcriptionally competent portions of the genome, stress bodies are, in fact, enriched in acetylated histone H4. Acetylation peaks at 6 h of recovery from heat shock. Moreover, heterochromatin markers, such as HP1 and histone H3 methylated on lysine 9, are excluded from these nuclear districts. In addition, heat shock triggers the transient accumulation of RNA molecules, heterogeneous in size, containing the subclass of satellite III sequences found in the pericentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 9. This is the first report of a transcriptional activation of a constitutive heterochromatic portion of the genome in response to stress stimuli. PMID:14617804

  6. Inference of Heating Properties from "Hot" Non-flaring Plasmas in Active Region Cores. I. Single Nanoflares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, W. T.; Cargill, P. J.; Bradshaw, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    The properties that are expected of “hot” non-flaring plasmas due to nanoflare heating in active regions are investigated using hydrodynamic modeling tools, including a two-fluid development of the Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops code. Here we study a single nanoflare and show that while simple models predict an emission measure distribution extending well above 10 MK, which is consistent with cooling by thermal conduction, many other effects are likely to limit the existence and detectability of such plasmas. These include: differential heating between electrons and ions, ionization non-equilibrium, and for short nanoflares, the time taken for the coronal density to increase. The most useful temperature range to look for this plasma, often called the “smoking gun” of nanoflare heating, lies between 106.6 and 107 K. Signatures of the actual heating may be detectable in some instances.

  7. Triterpenes from Cynomorium songaricium--analysis of HCV protease inhibitory activity, quantification, and content change under the influence of heating.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao-Mei; Wei, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Hattori, Masao

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitory activity of the three major triterpenes from the stems of Cynomorium songaricum--ursolic acid, acetyl ursolic acid, and malonyl ursolic acid hemiester--and their related compounds were tested for their inhibitory activity on HCV protease; malonyl ursolic acid hemiester was the most potent. A HPLC-PAD (photo diode array detector)-MS method was established to quantify the contents of each triterpene in C. songaricum. Using this method, the effect heating had on the contents was also investigated. It was found that among the three triterpenes, the content of malonyl ursolic acid hemiester decreased most quickly during the heating process.

  8. Double beta decay: Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brofferio, Chiara

    2008-11-01

    Calorimeters or, with a more specific definition, low temperature detectors, have been used by now for more than 15 years in Double Beta Decay (DBD) searches, with excellent results: they compete with Ge diodes for the rank of detectors with the highest sensitivity to the effective neutrino mass, which is defined as a linear combination of the neutrino mass eigenvalues. After a brief introduction to the argument, with some notes on DBD and on bolometers, an update on the now closed experiment CUORICINO and on its successor, CUORE, is given. The fundamental role of background is then revealed and commented, introducing in this way the importance of the specific experiment now under construction, CUORE-0, that will precede CUORE to help optimizing the struggle against surface background. The possible future of this technique is then commented, quoting important R&D studies that are going on, for active shielding bolometers and for scintillating bolometers coupled with light detecting bolometers.

  9. Actively Heated Fiber Optics for Distributed Soil Moisture Measurements: Addressing Field Calibration and Spatial Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayde, C.; Moreno, D.; Benitez-buelga, J.; Dong, J.; Ochsner, T. E.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Rodriguez-Sinobas, L.; Selker, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Actively Heated Fiber Optics (AHFO) method has the potential to measure soil water content at high temporal (<1hr) and spatial (every 0.25 m) resolutions along buried fiber optics (FO) cables multiple kilometers in length. This game-changing method can capture soil water dynamics over four orders of magnitude in spatial scale (0.1-1000 m). However, many challenges remain to resolve for the practical applicability of the AHFO at the field scale. In particular, cost effective distributed calibration method that accounts for the spatial variability of the soil thermal properties is still lacking. In fact, AHFO infers soil water content from observing the thermal response of the soil to a heat pulse injected along the fiber optic cable. For a particular location, the temporal variation of the soil thermal response depends mainly on the soil moisture content. Across the field the variability of thermal response will also be a function of the soil thermal properties which change with the soil mineralogy and bulk density. Here we present various strategies for distributed calibration of the AHFO method based on numerical simulation, direct field observation, and/or laboratory experimentation. In particular we will present a novel approach for mapping the soil thermal behavior by conducting AHFO measurements at strategic soil water conditions such as near saturation and dry conditions. We will show results from a large scale deployment at the MOISST site in Stillwater, Oklahoma where 4900 m of fiber optic soil moisture sensing cables are providing daily soil moisture measurements at >39,000 locations in the field. The material is based upon work supported by NASA under award NNX12AP58G, with equipment and assistance also provided by CTEMPs.org with support from the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1129003. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views

  10. Chemical and antihyperglycemic activity changes of ginseng pectin induced by heat processing.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Lili; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Mingzhu; Li, Bo; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Shuying

    2014-12-19

    Six pectic polysaccharides were obtained from white ginseng (GPW-1 and GPW-2), red ginseng (GPR-1 and GPR-2, steamed ginseng at 100°C) and steamed ginseng (GPS-1 and GPS-2, steamed ginseng at 120°C) by combination of water extraction, ion-exchange and gel permeation chromatographies. Based on the data from monosaccharide composition and (13)C NMR analysis, GPW-1, GPR-1 and GPS-1 were identified as type-I rhamnogalacturonan (RG-I)-rich pectins, GPW-2, GPR-2 and GPS-2 were homogalacturonan (HG)-rich pectins with different degrees of methyl-esterification. Remarkably, GalA increased with the increase of processing temperatures in these six fractions, which might be caused by the transformation of esterified GalA into un-esterified form during heat processing. In vivo animal experiments showed that GPs exhibited significant antiohyperglycemic and antioxidant activities in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, and the effects increased with the processing temperature, with the most potent activity in GPS.

  11. Detection of seal contamination in heat-sealed food packaging based on active infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'huys, Karlien; Saeys, Wouter; De Ketelaere, Bart

    2015-05-01

    In the food industry packaging is often applied to protect the product from the environment, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the material used and the closure (seal). The material is selected based on the specific needs of the food product to be wrapped. However, proper closure of the package is often harder to achieve. One problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of food particles between the seal. Seal contamination can cause a decreased seal strength and thus an increased packaging failure risk. It can also trigger the formation of microchannels through which air and microorganisms can enter and spoil the enclosed food. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal-contaminated packages from the production chain is essential. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heat of the sealing bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. The cooling profile of contaminated seals was recorded. The detection performance of four processing methods (based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profile, pulsed phase thermography and a matched filter) was compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify contamination. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter of 0.63 mm) and the lowest processing time (0.42 s per sample) were obtained for the method based on a single frame. Presumably, practical limitations in the recording stage prevented the added value of active thermography to be fully reflected in this application.

  12. Evidence for Multiple Mediator Complexes in Yeast Independently Recruited by Activated Heat Shock Factor

    PubMed Central

    Anandhakumar, Jayamani; Moustafa, Yara W.; Chowdhary, Surabhi; Kainth, Amoldeep S.

    2016-01-01

    Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved coactivator complex essential for RNA polymerase II transcription. Although it has been generally assumed that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mediator is a stable trimodular complex, its structural state in vivo remains unclear. Using the “anchor away” (AA) technique to conditionally deplete select subunits within Mediator and its reversibly associated Cdk8 kinase module (CKM), we provide evidence that Mediator's tail module is highly dynamic and that a subcomplex consisting of Med2, Med3, and Med15 can be independently recruited to the regulatory regions of heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1)-activated genes. Fluorescence microscopy of a scaffold subunit (Med14)-anchored strain confirmed parallel cytoplasmic sequestration of core subunits located outside the tail triad. In addition, and contrary to current models, we provide evidence that Hsf1 can recruit the CKM independently of core Mediator and that core Mediator has a role in regulating postinitiation events. Collectively, our results suggest that yeast Mediator is not monolithic but potentially has a dynamic complexity heretofore unappreciated. Multiple species, including CKM-Mediator, the 21-subunit core complex, the Med2-Med3-Med15 tail triad, and the four-subunit CKM, can be independently recruited by activated Hsf1 to its target genes in AA strains. PMID:27185874

  13. Decadal variation of ocean heat content and tropical cyclone activity over the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Sankar; Kotal, S. D.; Kundu, P. K.

    2016-02-01

    The upper ocean heat content up to 700 m depth (OHC700) is an important climatic parameter required for atmospheric and oceanographic studies like a cyclone. In this study, therefore, an attempt has been made to examine the inter-decadal variations of tropical cyclone (TC) activity and OHC700 over the Bay of Bengal (BOB) for the post-monsoon season (October-December) during 1955-2013 periods. The sea-surface temperature (SST), geopotential height at 500 hPa, low-level vorticity at 850 hPa, vertical wind shear between 200 and 850 hPa, middle tropospheric humidity at 500 hPa and outgoing long-wave radiation are also being studied using seasonal mean data. The results show a significant inter-decadal variation during 1955-2013, with two distinct decadal periods: active decadal period (ADP) (1955-1988) and inactive decadal period (IDP) (1989-2013). The anomalies of these parameters are opposite in phase for two periods. It is found that the large scale atmospheric features and oceanic parameters have significant inter-decadal variability, but frequency of the tropical cyclone is attributed to the variation in the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic conditions rather than the variation of oceanic parameters OHC700 and SSTs during the post-monsoon season.

  14. Suppressing cluster cooling flows by self-regulated heating from a spatially distributed population of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusser, Adi; Silk, Joseph; Babul, Arif

    2006-12-01

    Existing models invoking active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity to resolve the cooling flow conundrum in galaxy clusters focus exclusively on the role of the central galaxy. Such models require fine-tuning of highly uncertain microscopic transport properties to distribute the thermal over the entire cluster cooling core. We propose that the intracluster medium (ICM) is instead heated by multiple, spatially distributed AGN. The central regions of galaxy clusters are rich in spheroidal systems, all of which are thought to host black holes and could participate in the heating of the ICM via AGN activity of varying strengths, and they do. There is mounting observational evidence for multiple AGN in cluster environments. AGN drive bubbles into the ICM. We identify three distinct interactions between the bubble and the ICM: (1) upon injection, the bubbles expand rapidly in situ to reach pressure equilibrium with their surroundings, generating shocks and waves whose dissipation is the principal source of ICM heating; (2) once inflated, the bubbles rise buoyantly at a rate determined by a balance with the viscous drag force, which itself results in some additional heating; and (3) rising bubbles expand and compress their surroundings. This process is adiabatic and does not contribute to any additional heating; rather, the increased ICM density due to compression enhances cooling. Our model sidesteps the `transport' issue by relying on the spatially distributed galaxies to heat the cluster core. We include self-regulation in our model by linking AGN activity in a galaxy to cooling characteristics of the surrounding ICM. We use a spherically symmetric one-dimensional hydrodynamical code to carry out a preliminary study illustrating the efficacy of the model. Our self-regulating scenario predicts that there should be enhanced AGN activity of galaxies inside the cooling regions compared to galaxies in the outer parts of the cluster. This prediction remains to be confirmed or

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock proteins use diverse Toll-like receptor pathways to activate pro-inflammatory signals.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Yonca; Michelsen, Kathrin S; Hayrapetian, Linda; Naiki, Yoshikazu; Spallek, Ralf; Singh, Mahavir; Arditi, Moshe

    2005-06-03

    Although the Toll-like receptors used by Mycobacterium tuberculosis membrane and secreted factors are known, the pathways activated by M. tuberculosis heat shock proteins are not. An efficient immune response against the intracellular pathogen M. tuberculosis is critically dependent on rapid detection of the invading pathogen by the innate immune system and coordinated activation of the adaptive immune response. Macrophage phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis is accompanied by activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and secretion of inflammatory mediators that play an important role in granuloma formation and immune protection during M. tuberculosis infection. The interaction between M. tuberculosis and the various Toll-like receptors is complex, and it appears that distinct mycobacterial components may interact with different members of the Toll-like receptor family. Here we show that recombinant, purified, mycobacterial heat shock proteins 65 and 70 induce NF-kappaB activity in a dose-dependent manner in human endothelial cells. Furthermore, we show that whereas mycobacterial heat shock protein 65 signals exclusively through Toll-like receptor 4, heat shock protein 70 also signals through Toll-like receptor 2. Mycobacterial heat shock protein 65-induced NF-kappaB activation was MyD88-, TIRAP-, TRIF-, and TRAM-dependent and required the presence of MD-2. A better understanding of the recognition of mycobacterial heat shock proteins and their role in the host immune response to the pathogen may open the way to a better understanding of the immunological processes induced by this important human pathogen and the host-pathogen interactions and may help in the rational design of more effective vaccines or vaccine adjuvants.

  16. Preparation of activated carbon from coconut shell chars in pilot-scale microwave heating equipment at 60 kW.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo; Yang, Kunbin; Xia, Hongying; Zhang, Shimin; Guo, Sheng-hui

    2009-02-01

    Experiments to prepare activated carbon by microwave heating indicated that microwave energy can decrease reaction temperature, save the energy and shorten processing time remarkably compared to conventional heating, owing to its internal and volumetric heating effects. The above results were based on the laboratory-scale experiments. It is desirable to develop a pilot-scale microwave heating equipment and investigate the parameters with the aim of technological industrialization. In the present study, the components and features of the self-invented equipment were introduced. The temperature rise curves of the chars were obtained. Iodine numbers of the activated carbons all exceed the state standard of China under the following conditions: 25 kg/h charging rate, 0.42 rev/min turning rate of ceramic tube, flow rate of steam at pressure of 0.01 MPa and 40 kW microwave heating power after 60 kW pre-activation for 30 min. Pore structure of the sample obtained at a time point of 46 h, which contained BET surface area, and pore size distributions of micropores and total pores, was tested by nitrogen adsorption at 77K.

  17. Preparation of activated carbon from coconut shell chars in pilot-scale microwave heating equipment at 60 kW

    SciTech Connect

    Li Wei; Peng Jinhui Zhang Libo; Yang Kunbin; Xia Hongying; Zhang Shimin; Guo Shenghui

    2009-02-15

    Experiments to prepare activated carbon by microwave heating indicated that microwave energy can decrease reaction temperature, save the energy and shorten processing time remarkably compared to conventional heating, owing to its internal and volumetric heating effects. The above results were based on the laboratory-scale experiments. It is desirable to develop a pilot-scale microwave heating equipment and investigate the parameters with the aim of technological industrialization. In the present study, the components and features of the self-invented equipment were introduced. The temperature rise curves of the chars were obtained. Iodine numbers of the activated carbons all exceed the state standard of China under the following conditions: 25 kg/h charging rate, 0.42 rev/min turning rate of ceramic tube, flow rate of steam at pressure of 0.01 MPa and 40 kW microwave heating power after 60 kW pre-activation for 30 min. Pore structure of the sample obtained at a time point of 46 h, which contained BET surface area, and pore size distributions of micropores and total pores, was tested by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K.

  18. Differential fMRI Activation Patterns to Noxious Heat and Tactile Stimuli in the Primate Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pai-Feng; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale local functional organizations of the primate spinal cord are largely unknown. Using high-resolution fMRI at 9.4 T, we identified distinct interhorn and intersegment fMRI activation patterns to tactile versus nociceptive heat stimulation of digits in lightly anesthetized monkeys. Within a spinal segment, 8 Hz vibrotactile stimuli elicited predominantly fMRI activations in the middle part of ipsilateral dorsal horn (iDH), along with significantly weaker activations in ipsilateral (iVH) and contralateral (cVH) ventral horns. In contrast, nociceptive heat stimuli evoked widespread strong activations in the superficial part of iDH, as well as in iVH and contralateral dorsal (cDH) horns. As controls, only weak signal fluctuations were detected in the white matter. The iDH responded most strongly to both tactile and heat stimuli, whereas the cVH and cDH responded selectively to tactile versus nociceptive heat, respectively. Across spinal segments, iDH activations were detected in three consecutive segments in both tactile and heat conditions. Heat responses, however, were more extensive along the cord, with strong activations in iVH and cDH in two consecutive segments. Subsequent subunit B of cholera toxin tracer histology confirmed that the spinal segments showing fMRI activations indeed received afferent inputs from the stimulated digits. Comparisons of the fMRI signal time courses in early somatosensory area 3b and iDH revealed very similar hemodynamic stimulus–response functions. In summary, we identified with fMRI distinct segmental networks for the processing of tactile and nociceptive heat stimuli in the cervical spinal cord of nonhuman primates. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This is the first fMRI demonstration of distinct intrasegmental and intersegmental nociceptive heat and touch processing circuits in the spinal cord of nonhuman primates. This study provides novel insights into the local functional organizations of the primate spinal cord for pain and

  19. The effects of heat activation on Bacillus spore germination, with nutrients or under high pressure, with or without various germination proteins.

    PubMed

    Luu, Stephanie; Cruz-Mora, Jose; Setlow, Barbara; Feeherry, Florence E; Doona, Christopher J; Setlow, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in spores' inner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75 °C heat activation times: 15 min for l-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the L-asparagine-glucose-fructose-K(+) mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates. These results are consistent with heat activation acting primarily on GRs. However, (i) heat activation had no effects on GR or GerD protein conformation, as probed by biotinylation by an external reagent; (ii) spores prepared at low and high temperatures that affect spores' IM properties exhibited large differences in heat activation requirements for nutrient germination; and (iii) spore germination by 550 MPa of HP was also affected by heat activation, but the effects were relatively GR independent. The last results are consistent with heat activation affecting spores' IM and only indirectly affecting GRs. The 150- and 550-MPa HP germinations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores, a potential surrogate for Clostridium botulinum spores in HP treatments of foods, were also stimulated by heat activation.

  20. Whole-genome analysis reveals that active heat shock factor binding sites are mostly associated with non-heat shock genes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Sarah E; Moses, Alan M; Razak, Zak; Robert, Francois; Westwood, J Timothy

    2011-01-14

    During heat shock (HS) and other stresses, HS gene transcription in eukaryotes is up-regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor (HSF). While the identities of the major HS genes have been known for more than 30 years, it has been suspected that HSF binds to numerous other genes and potentially regulates their transcription. In this study, we have used a chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray (ChIP-chip) approach to identify 434 regions in the Drosophila genome that are bound by HSF. We have also performed a transcript analysis of heat shocked Kc167 cells and third instar larvae and compared them to HSF binding sites. The heat-induced transcription profiles were quite different between cells and larvae and surprisingly only about 10% of the genes associated with HSF binding sites show changed transcription. There were also genes that showed changes in transcript levels that did not appear to correlate with HSF binding sites. Analysis of the locations of the HSF binding sites revealed that 57% were contained within genes with approximately 2/3rds of these sites being in introns. We also found that the insulator protein, BEAF, has enriched binding prior to HS to promoters of genes that are bound by HSF upon HS but that are not transcriptionally induced during HS. When the genes associated with HSF binding sites in promoters were analyzed for gene ontology terms, categories such as stress response and transferase activity were enriched whereas analysis of genes having HSF binding sites in introns identified those categories plus ones related to developmental processes and reproduction. These results suggest that Drosophila HSF may be regulating many genes besides the known HS genes and that some of these genes may be regulated during non-stress conditions.

  1. Oral Vaccination with Heat Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis Activates the Complement System to Protect against Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Joseba M.; Aranaz, Alicia; Sevilla, Iker; Villar, Margarita; Boadella, Mariana; Galindo, Ruth C.; Pérez de la Lastra, José M.; Moreno-Cid, Juan A.; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G.; Alberdi, Pilar; Santos, Gracia; Ballesteros, Cristina; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón; Gortazar, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new vaccines. Defining the correlates of vaccine protection is essential to achieve this goal. In this study, we used the wild boar model for mycobacterial infection and TB to characterize the protective mechanisms elicited by a new heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV). Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special impact on the prevention of pulmonary disease, which is one of the limitations of current vaccines. Oral vaccination with the IV induced an adaptive antibody response and activation of the innate immune response including the complement component C3 and inflammasome. Mycobacterial DNA/RNA was not involved in inflammasome activation but increased C3 production by a still unknown mechanism. The results also suggested a protective mechanism mediated by the activation of IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells by MHC I antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in response to vaccination with the IV, without a clear role for Th1 CD4+ T cells. These results support a role for DCs in triggering the immune response to the IV through a mechanism similar to the phagocyte response to PAMPs with a central role for C3 in protection against mycobacterial infection. Higher C3 levels may allow increased opsonophagocytosis and effective bacterial clearance, while interfering with CR3-mediated opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis of mycobacteria, a process that could be enhanced by specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins induced by vaccination with the IV. These results suggest that the IV acts through novel mechanisms to protect against TB in wild boar. PMID:24842853

  2. Lycopene activates antioxidant enzymes and nuclear transcription factor systems in heat-stressed broilers.

    PubMed

    Sahin, K; Orhan, C; Tuzcu, M; Sahin, N; Hayirli, A; Bilgili, S; Kucuk, O

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lycopene supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, and muscle nuclear transcription factor [Kelch like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)] expressions in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress (HS). A total of 180 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned randomly to one of 2×3 factorially arranged treatments: two housing temperatures (22°C for 24 h/d; thermoneutral, TN or 34°C for 8 h/d HS) and three dietary lycopene levels (0, 200, or 400 mg/kg). Each treatment consisted of three replicates of 10 birds. Birds were reared to 42 d of age. Heat stress caused reductions in feed intake and weight gain by 12.2 and 20.7% and increased feed efficiency by 10.8% (P<0.0001 for all). Increasing dietary lycopene level improved performance in both environments. Birds reared under the HS environment had lower serum and muscle lycopene concentration (0.34 vs. 0.50 μg/mL and 2.80 vs. 2.13 μg/g), activities of superoxide dismutase (151 vs. 126 U/mL and 131 vs. 155 U/mg protein), glutathione peroxidase (184 vs. 154 U/mL and 1.39 vs. 1.74 U/mg protein), and higher malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (0.53 vs. 0.83 μg/mL and 0.78 vs. 0.45 μg/ mg protein) than birds reared under the TN environment. Changes in levels of lycopene and MDA and activities of enzymes in serum and muscle varied by the environmental temperature as dietary lycopene level increased. Moreover, increasing dietary lycopene level suppressed muscle Keap1 expression and enhanced muscle Nrf2 expression, which had increased by 150% and decreased by 40%, respectively in response to HS. In conclusion, lycopene supplementation alleviates adverse effects of HS on performance through modulating expressions of stress-related nuclear transcription factors.

  3. Active Control of the Operating Temperature in a Loop Heat Pipe with Two Evaporators and Two Condensers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Birur, Gaj; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The operating temperature of a loop heat pipe (LHP) with multiple evaporators is a function of the total heat load, heat load distribution among evaporators, condenser temperature and ambient temperature. Because of the many variables involved, the operating temperature also showed more hystereses than an LHP with a single evaporator. Tight temperature control can be achieved by controlling its compensation chamber (CC) temperatures at the desired set point. This paper describes a test program on active control of the operating temperature in an LHP with two evaporators and two condensers. Temperature control was achieved by heating one or both CC's. Tests performed included start-up, power cycle, sink temperature cycle, CC temperature cycle, and capillary limit. Test results show that, regardless one or two CC's were heated to the set point temperature, one of CC's was always flooded with liquid. The loop could operate successfully at the desired set point temperature under most conditions, including some fast transients. At low heat loads, however, the CC temperature could suddenly increase above the set point temperature, possibly due to a sudden change of the vapor content inside the evaporator core.

  4. Induction of the DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of heat shock factor 1 is uncoupled in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, S; Hnatov, A; Ali, A; Ovsenek, N

    1998-03-12

    The DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) are repressed under normal conditions and rapidly upregulated by heat stress. Here, we tested for the ability of various stress agents to activate HSF1 in the Xenopus oocyte model system. The HSE-binding activity of HSF1 was induced by a number of chemical stresses including cadmium, aluminum, iron, mercury, arsenite, ethanol, methanol, and salicylate. HSE-binding was not induced by several stresses known to induce the synthesis of hsps in other cell types in different organisms including zinc, copper, cobalt, manganese, recovery from anoxia, UV-irradiation, and increased pH. The inability of several known inducers of the stress response to activate the HSE-binding ability of HSF1 suggests that certain stress activation pathways may be absent or inactive in oocytes. The transcriptional activity of oocyte HSF1 was induced by heat, cadmium, and arsenite, but many of the agents that induced HSE-binding failed to stimulate HSF1-mediated transcription. The apparent uncoupling of inducible HSE-binding and transcriptional activities of HSF1 under a variety of stress regimes indicates that these events are regulated by independent mechanisms in the oocyte.

  5. Radiative decays at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubega, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Precise measurements on rare radiative B decays are performed with the LHCb experiment at LHC. The LHCb results regarding the ratio of branching fractions for two radiative decays, B 0 → K *0 γ and B s → ϕ γ, the direct CP asymmetry in B 0 → K *0 γ decay channel and the observation of the photon polarization in the B ± → K ±π∓π± γ decay, are included. The first two measurements were performed in 1 fb-1 of pp collisions data and the third one in 3 fb-1 of data, respectively.

  6. Adsorption of CO{sub 2} on activated carbon: Simultaneous determination of integral heat and isotherm of adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Berlier, K.; Frere, M.

    1996-09-01

    Simultaneous measurements of isotherms and integral heats of adsorption of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at temperatures ranging from 278 K to 327 K (seven temperatures) and at pressures up to 110 kPa on activated carbon are presented.

  7. Distinct Skeletal Muscle Gene Regulation from Active Contraction, Passive Vibration, and Whole Body Heat Stress in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Michael A.; Kimball, Amy L.; McHenry, Colleen L.; Suneja, Manish; Yen, Chu-Ling; Sharma, Arpit; Shields, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exercise regulates several important metabolic genes in humans. We know little about the effects of environmental stress (heat) and mechanical stress (vibration) on skeletal muscle. Passive mechanical stress or systemic heat stress are often used in combination with many active exercise programs. We designed a method to deliver a vibration stress and systemic heat stress to compare the effects with active skeletal muscle contraction. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine whether active mechanical stress (muscle contraction), passive mechanical stress (vibration), or systemic whole body heat stress regulates key gene signatures associated with muscle metabolism, hypertrophy/atrophy, and inflammation/repair. Methods: Eleven subjects, six able-bodied and five with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the study. The six able-bodied subjects sat in a heat stress chamber for 30 minutes. Five subjects with SCI received a single dose of limb-segment vibration or a dose of repetitive electrically induced muscle contractions. Three hours after the completion of each stress, we performed a muscle biopsy (vastus lateralis or soleus) to analyze mRNA gene expression. Results: We discovered repetitive active muscle contractions up regulated metabolic transcription factors NR4A3 (12.45 fold), PGC-1α (5.46 fold), and ABRA (5.98 fold); and repressed MSTN (0.56 fold). Heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05); while vibration induced FOXK2 (2.36 fold change; p < 0.05). Vibration similarly caused a down regulation of MSTN (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05), but to a lesser extent than active muscle contraction. Vibration induced FOXK2 (p < 0.05) while heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold) and ANKRD1 genes (0.51 fold; p < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings support a distinct gene regulation in response to heat stress, vibration, and muscle contractions. Understanding these responses may assist in developing regenerative

  8. Bond breaking, electron pushing, and proton pulling: active and passive roles in the interaction between aqueous ions and water as manifested in the O 1s Auger decay.

    PubMed

    Pokapanich, W; Ottosson, N; Svensson, S; Ohrwall, G; Winter, B; Björneholm, O

    2012-01-12

    A core-ionized H(2)O molecule in liquid water primarily relaxes through normal Auger decay, leading to a two-hole final state in which both valence holes are localized on the same water molecule. Electronic coupling to the environment, however, allows for alternative decays resembling Intermolecular Coulombic Decay (ICD), producing final states with one of the holes delocalized on a neighboring water molecule. Here we present an experimental study of such minority processes, which adds to our understanding of dynamic interactions of electronically excited H(2)O molecules with their local surrounding in liquid water and aqueous solution. We show that the solvation of metal-halide salts considerably influences these minority decay channels from the water O 1s(-1) state. By breaking water-water bonds, both the metal cations and halide anions are found to reduce the decay into water-water delocalized states, thus having a ″passive″ effect on the Auger spectrum. The halide anions also play an ″active″ role by opening a new ICD-like decay pathway into water-halide delocalized states. The importance of this contribution increases from F(-) to I(-), which we suggest to be caused by a directional polarization of the halide anion toward the core-ionized H(2)O(+) cation in the intermediate state of the Auger process. This increases the electronic overlap between the two centers and makes delocalized decays more probable. We furthermore show that F(-), the smallest and most strongly hydrated of the halides, plays an additional role as proton puller during the core-hole lifetime, resulting in proton dynamics on the low femtosecond time scale. Our results represent a step forward toward a better understanding of how aqueous solutions, when exposed to soft X-rays, channel excess energy. This has implications for several aspects of physical and radiation chemistry, as well as biology.

  9. Dynamics of potentiation and activation: GAGA factor and its role in heat shock gene regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, R C; Lis, J T

    1997-01-01

    GAGA factor (GAF) binds to specific DNA sequences and participates in a complex spectrum of chromosomal activities.Products of the Trithorax-like locus (Trl), which encodes multiple GAF isoforms, are required for homeotic gene expression and are essential for Drosophila development. While homozygous null mutations in Trl are lethal, heterozygotes display enhanced position effect variegation (PEV) indicative of the broad role of GAF in chromatin architecture and its positive role in gene expression.The distribution of GAF on chromosomes is complex, as it is associated with hundreds of chromosomal loci in euchromatin of salivary gland polytene chromosomes, however, it also displays a strong association with pericentric heterochromatin in diploid cells, where it appears to have roles in chromosome condensation and segregation. At higher resolution GAF binding sites have been identified in the regulatory regions of many genes. In some cases, the positive role of GAF in gene expression has been examined in detail using a variety of genetic, biochemical, and cytological approaches. Here we review what is currently known of GAF and, in the context of the heat shock genes of Drosophila, we examine the effects of GAF on multiple steps in gene expression. PMID:9321643

  10. Prosequence switching: an effective strategy to produce biologically active E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin STh.

    PubMed

    Weiglmeier, Philipp R; Berkner, Hanna; Seebahn, Angela; Vogel, Nico; Schreiber, Rainer; Wöhrl, Birgitta M; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Rösch, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections account for the majority of cases of acute secretory diarrhea. The causative agents are enterotoxins secreted by ETEC, among them is the heat-stable enterotoxin, STh. STh is a 19-amino acid peptide containing three disulfide bonds that stimulates fluid secretion in the bowel by binding to the receptor domain of intestinal guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C). Since GC-C agonists have pharmacologic potential for diagnosis and treatment of disorders such as constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C), chronic constipation, and colorectal carcinoma, it is crucial to develop methods for the large-scale production of STh and related peptides. Here, we present a strategy for recombinant expression of STh that relies on the use of the prosequence of human uroguanylin to support proper folding and disulfide bond formation. The chimeric protein CysCys-STh consisting of the propeptide of uroguanylin as N-terminus and the STh peptide as C-terminus was expressed in E. coli, and an efficient purification protocol was developed. Trypsin digestion of this protein released the enterotoxin which could be obtained in high purity. NMR and mass spectrometry confirmed the identity and homogeneity of the toxin, and its biological activity was confirmed by a cell-based in vivo assay. The expression scheme introduced here represents a cost-efficient and scalable way of STh production.

  11. Enzyme Activity Dynamics in Response to Climate Change: 2011 Drought-Heat Wave

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme weather events such as severe droughts and heat waves may have permanent consequences on soil quality and functioning in agroecosystems. The Southern High Plains (SHP) region of Texas, U.S., a large cotton producing area, experienced a historically extreme drought and heat wave during 2011,...

  12. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  13. Preclinical antitumor activity of SST0116CL1: a novel heat shock protein 90 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Vesci, Loredana; Milazzo, Ferdinando Maria; Carollo, Valeria; Pace, Silvia; Giannini, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    4-Amino substituted resorcino-isoxazole (SST0116CL1) (property of Sigma-Tau Research Switzerland S.A.) is a potent, second generation, small-molecule heat shock protein 90 inhibitor (Hsp90i). SST0116CL1 binds to the ATP binding pocket of Hsp90, and interferes with Hsp90 chaperone function thus resulting in client protein degradation and tumor growth inhibition. The aim of the study was to assess SST0116CL1 in various solid and haematological tumors. The antitumor properties of SST0116CL1 were assessed using in vitro cell proliferation and client protein degradation assays and in vivo different tumor xenograft models. Pharmacokinetic (PK) data were also generated in tumor-bearing mice to gain an understanding of optimal dosing schedules and regimens. SST0116CL1 was shown to inhibit recombinant Hsp90α and to induce the destabilization of different client proteins, often overexpressed and constitutively activated in different types of hematological or solid human tumors. In preclinical in vivo studies, it was revealed to induce antitumor effects in murine models of leukemia and of gastric and ovarian carcinoma. A modulation of PD biomarkers in terms of downregulation of Hsp90 client proteins in tumor-bearing mice was found. SST0116CL1 is a new clinical candidate for cancer therapy. The antitumor property of SST0116CL1, likely due to direct inhibition of the Hsp90 enzymatic activity, may prove to be a critical attribute as the compound enters phase I clinical trials.

  14. Firefighter feedback during active cooling: a useful tool for heat stress management?

    PubMed

    Savage, Robbie J; Lord, Cara; Larsen, Brianna L; Knight, Teagan L; Langridge, Peter D; Aisbett, Brad

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring an individual's thermic state in the workplace requires reliable feedback of their core temperature. However, core temperature measurement technology is expensive, invasive and often impractical in operational environments, warranting investigation of surrogate measures which could be used to predict core temperature. This study examines an alternative measure of an individual's thermic state, thermal sensation, which presents a more manageable and practical solution for Australian firefighters operating on the fireground. Across three environmental conditions (cold, warm, hot & humid), 49 Australian volunteer firefighters performed a 20-min fire suppression activity, immediately followed by 20 min of active cooling using hand and forearm immersion techniques. Core temperature (Tc) and thermal sensation (TS) were measured across the rehabilitation period at five minute intervals. Despite the decline in Tc and TS throughout the rehabilitation period, there was little similarity in the magnitude or rate of decline between each measure in any of the ambient conditions. Moderate to strong correlations existed between Tc and TS in the cool (0.41, p<0.05) and hot & humid (0.57, p<0.05) conditions, however this was resultant in strong correlation during the earlier stages of rehabilitation (first five minutes), which were not evident in the latter stages. Linear regression revealed TS to be a poor predictor of Tc in all conditions (SEE=0.45-0.54°C) with a strong trend for TS to over-predict Tc (77-80% of the time). There is minimal evidence to suggest that ratings of thermal sensation, which represent a psychophysical assessment of an individual's thermal comfort, are an accurate reflection of the response of an individual's core temperature. Ratings of thermal sensation can be highly variable amongst individuals, likely moderated by local skin temperature. In account of these findings, fire managers require a more reliable source of information to guide

  15. Oxidation of bisphenol A in water by heat-activated persulfate.

    PubMed

    Potakis, Nikolaos; Frontistis, Zacharias; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2016-05-27

    The heat-activated persulfate oxidation of bisphenol A (BPA), a representative endocrine disrupting compound, was investigated with respect to the effect of several process variables on degradation rates. The activation temperature appears to be the single most important parameter, i.e. a temperature increase from 40 to 70 °C results in an 80-fold rate increase. Regarding initial BPA concentration, the reaction follows a pseudo-first order rate expression, where the kinetic constant decreases from 11.5 10(-2) to 3.5 10(-2) min(-1) when BPA concentration increases from 110 to 440 μg/L. Reactions in actual water matrices, such as bottled water and secondary treated wastewater, are slower than in pure water since various organic/inorganic water constituents compete with BPA for being oxidized by the reactive oxidizing species; this was confirmed with experiments in pure water spiked with humic acid or bicarbonate. Interestingly though, the presence of chloride seems to promote BPA degradation. Furthermore, degradation is favored at near-neutral pH and increased sodium persulfate (SPS) concentrations. Experiments at an increased BPA concentration of 20 mg/L were performed to identify transformation by-products (TBPs), as well as assess the mineralization and toxicity of the treated samples. Liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) revealed the formation of eleven TBPs of BPA and plausible pathways including hydroxylation, oxidation, cleavage and oligomerization reactions are proposed. Mineralization occurs slower than BPA degradation, while the toxicity to marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri increases during the early stages of the reaction but it progressively decreases thereafter.

  16. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  17. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  18. Thermo-Magneto-Electric Generator Arrays for Active Heat Recovery System

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Jinsung; Song, Hyun-Cheol; Kang, Min-Gyu; Kang, Han Byul; Kishore, Ravi Anant; Priya, Shashank

    2017-01-01

    Continued emphasis on development of thermal cooling systems is being placed that can cycle low grade heat. Examples include solar powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and data storage servers. The power efficiency of solar module degrades at elevated temperature, thereby, necessitating the need for heat extraction system. Similarly, data centres in wireless computing system are facing increasing efficiency challenges due to high power consumption associated with managing the waste heat. We provide breakthrough in addressing these problems by developing thermo-magneto-electric generator (TMEG) arrays, composed of soft magnet and piezoelectric polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) cantilever. TMEG can serve dual role of extracting the waste heat and converting it into useable electricity. Near room temperature second-order magnetic phase transition in soft magnetic material, gadolinium, was employed to obtain mechanical vibrations on the PVDF cantilever under small thermal gradient. TMEGs were shown to achieve high vibration frequency at small temperature gradients, thereby, demonstrating effective heat transfer. PMID:28145516

  19. Thermo-Magneto-Electric Generator Arrays for Active Heat Recovery System.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jinsung; Song, Hyun-Cheol; Kang, Min-Gyu; Kang, Han Byul; Kishore, Ravi Anant; Priya, Shashank

    2017-02-01

    Continued emphasis on development of thermal cooling systems is being placed that can cycle low grade heat. Examples include solar powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and data storage servers. The power efficiency of solar module degrades at elevated temperature, thereby, necessitating the need for heat extraction system. Similarly, data centres in wireless computing system are facing increasing efficiency challenges due to high power consumption associated with managing the waste heat. We provide breakthrough in addressing these problems by developing thermo-magneto-electric generator (TMEG) arrays, composed of soft magnet and piezoelectric polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) cantilever. TMEG can serve dual role of extracting the waste heat and converting it into useable electricity. Near room temperature second-order magnetic phase transition in soft magnetic material, gadolinium, was employed to obtain mechanical vibrations on the PVDF cantilever under small thermal gradient. TMEGs were shown to achieve high vibration frequency at small temperature gradients, thereby, demonstrating effective heat transfer.

  20. Thermo-Magneto-Electric Generator Arrays for Active Heat Recovery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Jinsung; Song, Hyun-Cheol; Kang, Min-Gyu; Kang, Han Byul; Kishore, Ravi Anant; Priya, Shashank

    2017-02-01

    Continued emphasis on development of thermal cooling systems is being placed that can cycle low grade heat. Examples include solar powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and data storage servers. The power efficiency of solar module degrades at elevated temperature, thereby, necessitating the need for heat extraction system. Similarly, data centres in wireless computing system are facing increasing efficiency challenges due to high power consumption associated with managing the waste heat. We provide breakthrough in addressing these problems by developing thermo-magneto-electric generator (TMEG) arrays, composed of soft magnet and piezoelectric polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) cantilever. TMEG can serve dual role of extracting the waste heat and converting it into useable electricity. Near room temperature second-order magnetic phase transition in soft magnetic material, gadolinium, was employed to obtain mechanical vibrations on the PVDF cantilever under small thermal gradient. TMEGs were shown to achieve high vibration frequency at small temperature gradients, thereby, demonstrating effective heat transfer.

  1. Decay Studies of NEPTUNIUM-237.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, S. A.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The decay of ^{237}Np (T_{1over2} = 2.14 times 10^6 years) has been investigated from singles and coincidence gamma-ray spectra acquired using Ge detectors and also from internal conversion electron spectra acquired using an iron-free, pi/2 double-focusing, beta-ray spectrometer. Such a long-lived nucleus has a very low specific activity which has previously made the determination of the internal conversion following its decay extremely difficult. In order to overcome this problem, the luminosity of the beta -ray spectrometer has been increased by utilising the multistrip source technique of Bergkvist in conjunction with a sixteen-element proportional counter. Twenty-four gamma-rays have been observed in the singles studies, with four additional gamma -rays observed in the coincidence studies alone, all of which have been placed in the level scheme of ^{233}Pa. The coincidence data also indicates the presence of two unobserved transitions of low energy. The absolute conversion coefficients and multipolarity of five gamma-ray transitions following the decay of ^{237} Np, together with those of seven gamma -ray transitions following the decay of the daughter nucleus, ^{233}Pa, have been determined and the levels of ^{233 }Pa assigned within the framework of the Nilsson Model.

  2. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activates ERK in primary sensory neurons and mediates inflammatory heat hyperalgesia through TRPV1 sensitization.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Zhi-Ye; Xu, Haoxing; Clapham, David E; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2004-09-22

    Although the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) pathway typically regulates cell growth and survival, increasing evidence indicates the involvement of this pathway in neural plasticity. It is unknown whether the PI3K pathway can mediate pain hypersensitivity. Intradermal injection of capsaicin and NGF produce heat hyperalgesia by activating their respective TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1) and TrkA receptors on nociceptor sensory nerve terminals. We examined the activation of PI3K in primary sensory DRG neurons by these inflammatory agents and the contribution of PI3K activation to inflammatory pain. We further investigated the correlation between the PI3K and the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) pathway. Capsaicin and NGF induce phosphorylation of the PI3K downstream target AKT (protein kinase B), which is blocked by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin, indicative of the activation of PI3K by both agents. ERK activation by capsaicin and NGF was also blocked by PI3K inhibitors. Similarly, intradermal capsaicin in rats activated PI3K and ERK in C-fiber DRG neurons and epidermal nerve fibers. Injection of PI3K or MEK (ERK kinase) inhibitors into the hindpaw attenuated capsaicin- and NGF-evoked heat hyperalgesia but did not change basal heat sensitivity. Furthermore, PI3K, but not ERK, inhibition blocked early induction of hyperalgesia. In acutely dissociated DRG neurons, the capsaicin-induced TRPV1 current was strikingly potentiated by NGF, and this potentiation was completely blocked by PI3K inhibitors and primarily suppressed by MEK inhibitors. Therefore, PI3K induces heat hyperalgesia, possibly by regulating TRPV1 activity, in an ERK-dependent manner. The PI3K pathway also appears to play a role that is distinct from ERK by regulating the early onset of inflammatory pain.

  3. Additive effect of heat on the UVB-induced tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis via ERK/p38/MITF pathway in human epidermal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wei-Jie; Ma, Hui-Jun; Zhao, Guang; Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Wen; Ma, Li-Juan; Lei, Xiao-Bing

    2014-08-01

    Heat is known as an environmental factor that causes significant skin pigmentation, but its effects on melanogenesis have been poorly studied. It has been shown that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in ultraviolet B (UVB) and stress-induced melanogenesis in melanocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of heat and UVB, on melanocyte melanogenesis, differentiation, and MAPK phosphorylation. The results showed that heat (1 h at 40 °C for 5 days) increased cell dendrites, enlarged cell bodies, and induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)/p38/MITF activation but did not influence melanogenesis of human epidermal melanocytes from skin phototype III. UVB irradiation (20 mJ/cm(2) for 5 days) induced melanogenesis and c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)/p38/MITF/tyrosinase activation in melanocytes from skin phototype III. UVB combined with heat resulted in much more significant tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis as compared with UVB alone in melanocytes from skin phototype III. Furthermore, heat treatment and UVB irradiation induced JNK, ERK, and p38 activation but not melanogenic and morphological changes in melanocytes from skin phototype I. These findings suggested that heat promoted melanocyte differentiation, probably via heat-induced ERK/p38/MITF/activation. Furthermore, heat had an additive effect on the UVB-induced tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis. These results provide a new clue for dermatologists for the treatment of hypopigmented skin disease with heat combined with UVB irradiation.

  4. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  5. Heat Flow on the South West Indian Ridge at 14°E and the Consequences for Microbiological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, N. E.; Molari, M.; Boetius, A.

    2014-12-01

    During RV POLARSTERN cruise PS81 to the South West Indian Ridge (SWIR) at 52°S, 14°E an integrated study was carried out in more than 4000 m water depth employing seismology, geology, microbiology, deep-sea ecology, heat flow and others. Heat flow is supposed to be an indicator for the varying depth of the magma chamber beneath the ridge axis. Bottom observations from previous work on the SWIR are scarce and visual information about geostructures, habitat landscapes, benthic faunal communities and their distribution in this area have so far been missing. Vigorous fluid flow in the form of black smokers or shimmering water could not be detected but enhanced heat flow due to upward pore water migration occurred. This leads to values of very high heat flow (up to 850 mW/m2) and advection rates up to 25 cm/a Darcy velocity. Enhanced biomass and a greater variation of megafauna along those sites of high heat flow could be inferred from reconnaissance observations with a camera sledge. A closer investigation of microbial activity in the material of gravity corers revealed favorable living conditions for microorganisms. We find the inorganic carbon fixation rates, here applied like a proxy of microbial metabolic activity, were significantly higher (up to 7 times higher) in surficial sediments in proximity of the station PS 81/640 compared to other stations along the ridge. Conversely the extracellular enzymatic activities did not show any significant difference in the potential organic matter degradation between the stations investigated. These results suggest an increase of chemosynthetic activities at St PS 81/649, possibly related to increase of availability of reduced compounds (i.e. sulphide, reduced metals) in presence of pore water flow.

  6. Design of heat shock-resistant surfaces to prevent protein aggregation: Enhanced chaperone activity of immobilized α-Crystallin.

    PubMed

    Ray, Namrata; Roy, Sarita; Singha, Santiswarup; Chandra, Bappaditya; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr; Sarkar, Amitabha

    2014-05-21

    α-Crystallin is a multimeric protein belonging to the family of small heat shock proteins, which function as molecular chaperones by resisting heat and oxidative stress induced aggregation of other proteins. We immobilized α-Crystallin on a self-assembled monolayer on glass surface and studied its activity in terms of the prevention of aggregation of aldolase. We discovered that playing with grafted protein density led to interesting variations in the chaperone activity of immobilized α-Crystallin. This result is in accordance with the hypothesis that dynamicity of subunits plays a vital role in the functioning of α-Crystallin and might be able to throw light on the structure-activity relationship. We showed that the chaperone activity of a certain number of immobilized α-Crystallins was superior compared to a solution containing an equivalent number of the protein and 10 times the number of the protein at temperatures >60 °C. The α-Crystallin grafted surfaces retained activity on reuse. This could also lead to the design of potent heat-shock resistant surfaces that can find wide applications in storage and shipping of protein based biopharmaceuticals.

  7. 3D crustal-scale heat-flow regimes at a developing active margin (Taranaki Basin, New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, K. F.; Funnell, R. H.; Nicol, A.; Fohrmann, M.; Bland, K. J.; King, P. R.

    2013-04-01

    The Taranaki Basin in the west of New Zealand's North Island has evolved from a rifted Mesozoic Gondwana margin to a basin straddling the Neogene convergent Australian-Pacific plate margin. However, given its proximity to the modern subduction front, Taranaki Basin is surprisingly cold when compared to other convergent margins. To investigate the effects of active margin evolution on the thermal regime of the Taranaki Basin we developed a 3D crustal-scale forward model using the petroleum industry-standard basin-modelling software Petromod™. The crustal structure inherited from Mesozoic Gondwana margin breakup and processes related to modern Hikurangi convergent margin initiation are identified to be the main controls on the thermal regime of the Taranaki Basin. Present-day surface heat flow across Taranaki on average is 59 mW/m2, but varies by as much as 30 mW/m2 due to the difference in crustal heat generation between mafic and felsic basement terranes alone. In addition, changes in mantle heat advection, tectonic subsidence, crustal thickening and basin inversion, together with related sedimentary processes result in variability of up to 10 mW/m2. Modelling suggests that increased heating of the upper crust due to additional mantle heat advection following the onset of subduction is an ongoing process and heating has only recently begun to reach the surface, explaining the relatively low surface heat flow. We propose that the depth of the subducted slab and related mantle convection processes control the thermal and structural regimes in the Taranaki Basin. The thermal effects of the subduction initiation process are modified and overprinted by the thickness, structure and composition of the lithosphere.

  8. Enhancing methane production from waste activated sludge using combined free nitrous acid and heat pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-15

    Methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often limited by the slow degradation and poor substrate availability of WAS. Our previous study revealed that WAS pre-treatment using free nitrous acid (FNA, i.e. HNO2) is an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method for promoting methane production. In order to further improve methane production from WAS, this study presents a novel strategy based on combined FNA and heat pre-treatment. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated for 24 h with FNA alone (0.52-1.43 mg N/L at 25 °C), heat alone (35, 55 and 70 °C), and FNA (0.52-1.11 mg N/L) combined with heat (35, 55 and 70 °C). The pre-treated WAS was then used for biochemical methane potential tests. Compared to the control (no FNA or heat pre-treatment of WAS), biochemical methane potential of the pre-treated WAS was increased by 12-16%, 0-6%, 17-26%, respectively; hydrolysis rate was improved by 15-25%, 10-25%, 20-25%, respectively, for the three types of pre-treatment. Heat pre-treatment at 55 and 70 °C, independent of the presence or absence of FNA, achieved approximately 4.5 log inactivation of pathogens (in comparison to ∼1 log inactivation with FNA treatment alone), thus capable of producing Class A biosolids. The combined FNA and heat pre-treatment is an economically and environmentally attractive technology for the pre-treatment of WAS prior to anaerobic digestion, particularly considering that both FNA and heat can be produced as by-products of anaerobic sludge digestion.

  9. Interplay between heat shock proteins HSP101 and HSA32 prolongs heat acclimation memory posttranscriptionally in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-ying; Juan, Yu-ting; Hsu, Yang-hsin; Wu, Sze-hsien; Liao, Hsiu-ting; Fung, Raymond W M; Charng, Yee-yung

    2013-04-01

    Heat acclimation improves the tolerance of organisms to severe heat stress. Our previous work showed that in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the "memory" of heat acclimation treatment decayed faster in the absence of the heat-stress-associated 32-kD protein HSA32, a heat-induced protein predominantly found in plants. The HSA32 null mutant attains normal short-term acquired thermotolerance but is defective in long-term acquired thermotolerance. To further explore this phenomenon, we isolated Arabidopsis defective in long-term acquired thermotolerance (dlt) mutants using a forward genetic screen. Two recessive missense alleles, dlt1-1 and dlt1-2, encode the molecular chaperone heat shock protein101 (HSP101). Results of immunoblot analyses suggest that HSP101 enhances the translation of HSA32 during recovery after heat treatment, and in turn, HSA32 retards the decay of HSP101. The dlt1-1 mutation has little effect on HSP101 chaperone activity and thermotolerance function but compromises the regulation of HSA32. In contrast, dlt1-2 impairs the chaperone activity and thermotolerance function of HSP101 but not the regulation of HSA32. These results suggest that HSP101 has a dual function, which could be decoupled by the mutations. Pulse-chase analysis showed that HSP101 degraded faster in the absence of HSA32. The autophagic proteolysis inhibitor E-64d, but not the proteasome inhibitor MG132, inhibited the degradation of HSP101. Ectopic expression of HSA32 confirmed its effect on the decay of HSP101 at the posttranscriptional level and showed that HSA32 was not sufficient to confer long-term acquired thermotolerance when the HSP101 level was low. Taken together, we propose that a positive feedback loop between HSP101 and HSA32 at the protein level is a novel mechanism for prolonging the memory of heat acclimation.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of plant compounds against Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork and the influence of heat and storage on the antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cynthia H; Ravishankar, Sadhana; Marchello, John; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-07-01

    Salmonella enterica is a predominant foodborne pathogen that causes diarrheal illness worldwide. A potential method of inhibiting pathogenic bacterial growth in meat is through the introduction of plant-derived antimicrobials. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of heat (70°C for 5 min) and subsequent cold storage (4°C up to 7 days) on the effectiveness of oregano and cinnamon essential oils and powdered olive and apple extracts against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork and to evaluate the activity of the most effective antimicrobials (cinnamon oil and olive extract) at higher concentrations in heated ground pork. The surviving Salmonella populations in two groups (heated and unheated) of antimicrobial-treated pork were compared. Higher concentrations of the most effective compounds were then tested (cinnamon oil at 0.5 to 1.0% and olive extract at 3, 4, and 5%) against Salmonella Typhimurium in heated ground pork. Samples were stored at 4°C and taken on days 0, 3, 5, and 7 for enumeration of survivors. The heating process did not affect the activity of antimicrobials. Significant 1.3- and 3-log reductions were observed with 1.0% cinnamon oil and 5% olive extract, respectively, on day 7. The minimum concentration required to achieve . 1-log reduction in Salmonella population was 0.8% cinnamon oil or 4% olive extract. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of these antimicrobials against multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium in ground pork and their stability during heating and cold storage. The most active formulations have the potential to enhance the microbial safety of ground pork.

  11. Effects of heat shocks on microbial community structure and microbial activity of a methanogenic enrichment degrading benzoate.

    PubMed

    Mei, R; Narihiro, T; Nobu, M K; Liu, W-T

    2016-11-01

    In anaerobic digesters, temperature fluctuation could lead to process instability and failure. It is still not well understood how digester microbiota as a whole respond to heat shock, and what specific organisms are vulnerable to perturbation or responsible for process recovery after perturbation. To address these questions, a mesophilic benzoate-degrading methanogenic culture enriched from digester was subjected to different levels of heat shock. Three types of methane production profiles after perturbation were observed in comparison to the control: uninhibited, inhibited with later recovery, and inhibited without recovery. These responses were correlated with the microbial community compositions based on the analyses of 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene. Specifically, the primary benzoate-degrading syntroph was highly affected by heat shock, and its abundance and activity were both crucial to the restoration of benzoate degradation after heat shock. In contrast, methanogens were stable regardless whether methane production was inhibited. Populations related to 'Candidatus Cloacimonetes' and Firmicutes showed stimulated growth. These observations indicated distinct physiological traits and ecological niches associated with individual microbial groups. The results obtained after exposure to heat shock can be critical to more comprehensive characterization of digester ecology under perturbations.

  12. Effect of the Heat-exposure on Peripheral Sudomotor Activity Including the Density of Active Sweat Glands and Single Sweat Gland Output.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Tae-Wook; Shin, Young-Oh; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2010-10-01

    Tropical inhabitants are able to tolerate heat through permanent residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. The goal of this study was to clarify the peripheral mechanisms involved in thermal sweating pre and post exposure (heat-acclimatization over 10 days) by studying the sweating responses to acetylcholine (ACh), a primary neurotransmitter of sudomotor activity, in healthy subjects (n=12). Ten percent ACh was administered on the inner forearm skin for iontophoresis. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing, after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with ACH, was performed to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, as well as oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The post exposure activity had a short onset time (p<0.01), higher active sweat rate [(AXR (p<0.001) and DIR (p<0.001)], higher sweat output per gland (p<0.001) and higher transepidermal water loss (p<0.001) compared to the pre-exposure measurements. The activated sweat rate in the sudomotor activity increased the output for post-exposure compared to the pre-exposure measurements. The results suggested that post-exposure activity showed a higher active sweat gland output due to the combination of a higher AXR (DIR) sweat rate and a shorter onset time. Therefore, higher sudomotor responses to ACh receptors indicate accelerated sympathetic nerve responsiveness to ACh sensitivity by exposure to environmental conditions.

  13. Modeling active galactic nucleus feedback in cool-core clusters: The balance between heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuan; Bryan, Greg L.

    2014-07-01

    We study the long-term evolution of an idealized cool-core galaxy cluster under the influence of momentum-driven active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback using three-dimensional high-resolution (60 pc) adaptive mesh refinement simulations. The feedback is modeled with a pair of precessing jets whose power is calculated based on the accretion rate of the cold gas surrounding the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The intracluster medium first cools into clumps along the propagation direction of the jets. As the jet power increases, gas condensation occurs isotropically, forming spatially extended structures that resemble the observed Hα filaments in Perseus and many other cool-core clusters. Jet heating elevates the gas entropy, halting clump formation. The cold gas that is not accreted onto the SMBH settles into a rotating disk of ∼10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. The hot gas cools directly onto the disk while the SMBH accretes from its innermost region, powering the AGN that maintains a thermally balanced state for a few Gyr. The mass cooling rate averaged over 7 Gyr is ∼30 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, an order of magnitude lower than the classic cooling flow value. Medium resolution simulations produce similar results, while in low resolution runs, the cluster experiences cycles of gas condensation and AGN outbursts. Owing to its self-regulating mechanism, AGN feedback can successfully balance cooling with a wide range of model parameters. Our model also produces cold structures in early stages that are in good agreement with the observations. However, the long-lived massive cold disk is unrealistic, suggesting that additional physical processes are still needed.

  14. Heating mechanisms for intermittent loops in active region cores from AIA/SDO EUV observations

    SciTech Connect

    Cadavid, A. C.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J.; Jess, D. B.; Nigro, G.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate intensity variations and energy deposition in five coronal loops in active region cores. These were selected for their strong variability in the AIA/SDO 94 Å intensity channel. We isolate the hot Fe XVIII and Fe XXI components of the 94 Å and 131 Å by modeling and subtracting the 'warm' contributions to the emission. HMI/SDO data allow us to focus on 'inter-moss' regions in the loops. The detailed evolution of the inter-moss intensity time series reveals loops that are impulsively heated in a mode compatible with a nanoflare storm, with a spike in the hot 131 Å signals leading and the other five EUV emission channels following in progressive cooling order. A sharp increase in electron temperature tends to follow closely after the hot 131 Å signal confirming the impulsive nature of the process. A cooler process of growing emission measure follows more slowly. The Fourier power spectra of the hot 131 Å signals, when averaged over the five loops, present three scaling regimes with break frequencies near 0.1 min{sup –1} and 0.7 min{sup –1}. The low frequency regime corresponds to 1/f noise; the intermediate indicates a persistent scaling process and the high frequencies show white noise. Very similar results are found for the energy dissipation in a 2D 'hybrid' shell model of loop magneto-turbulence, based on reduced magnetohydrodynamics, that is compatible with nanoflare statistics. We suggest that such turbulent dissipation is the energy source for our loops.

  15. Convex optimization of MRI exposure for mitigation of RF-heating from active medical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córcoles, Juan; Zastrow, Earl; Kuster, Niels

    2015-09-01

    Local RF-heating of elongated medical implants during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may pose a significant health risk to patients. The actual patient risk depends on various parameters including RF magnetic field strength and frequency, MR coil design, patient’s anatomy, posture, and imaging position, implant location, RF coupling efficiency of the implant, and the bio-physiological responses associated with the induced local heating. We present three constrained convex optimization strategies that incorporate the implant’s RF-heating characteristics, for the reduction of local heating of medical implants during MRI. The study emphasizes the complementary performances of the different formulations. The analysis demonstrates that RF-induced heating of elongated metallic medical implants can be carefully controlled and balanced against MRI quality. A reduction of heating of up to 25 dB can be achieved at the cost of reduced uniformity in the magnitude of the B1+ field of less than 5%. The current formulations incorporate a priori knowledge of clinically-specific parameters, which is assumed to be available. Before these techniques can be applied practically in the broader clinical context, further investigations are needed to determine whether reduced access to a priori knowledge regarding, e.g. the patient’s anatomy, implant routing, RF-transmitter, and RF-implant coupling, can be accepted within reasonable levels of uncertainty.

  16. Convex optimization of MRI exposure for mitigation of RF-heating from active medical implants.

    PubMed

    Córcoles, Juan; Zastrow, Earl; Kuster, Niels

    2015-09-21

    Local RF-heating of elongated medical implants during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may pose a significant health risk to patients. The actual patient risk depends on various parameters including RF magnetic field strength and frequency, MR coil design, patient's anatomy, posture, and imaging position, implant location, RF coupling efficiency of the implant, and the bio-physiological responses associated with the induced local heating. We present three constrained convex optimization strategies that incorporate the implant's RF-heating characteristics, for the reduction of local heating of medical implants during MRI. The study emphasizes the complementary performances of the different formulations. The analysis demonstrates that RF-induced heating of elongated metallic medical implants can be carefully controlled and balanced against MRI quality. A reduction of heating of up to 25 dB can be achieved at the cost of reduced uniformity in the magnitude of the B(1)(+) field of less than 5%. The current formulations incorporate a priori knowledge of clinically-specific parameters, which is assumed to be available. Before these techniques can be applied practically in the broader clinical context, further investigations are needed to determine whether reduced access to a priori knowledge regarding, e.g. the patient's anatomy, implant routing, RF-transmitter, and RF-implant coupling, can be accepted within reasonable levels of uncertainty.

  17. Dual regulation of heat-shock transcription factor (HSF) activation and DNA-binding activity by H2O2: role of thioredoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Jacquier-Sarlin, M R; Polla, B S

    1996-01-01

    The heat-shock (HS) response is a ubiquitous cellular response to stress, involving the transcriptional activation of HS genes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to regulate the activity of a number of transcription factors. We investigated the redox regulation of the stress response and report here that in the human pre-monocytic line U937 cells, H2O2 induced a concentration-dependent transactivation and DNA-binding activity of heat-shock factor-1 (HSF-1). DNA-binding activity was, however, lower with H2O2 than with HS. We thus hypothesized a dual regulation of HSF by oxidants. We found that oxidizing agents, such as H2O2 and diamide, as well as alkylating agents, such as iodoacetic acid, abolished, in vitro, the HSF-DNA-binding activity induced by HS in vivo. The effects of H2O2 in vitro were reversed by the sulphydryl reducing agent dithiothreitol and the endogenous reductor thioredoxin (TRX), while the effects of iodoacetic acid were irreversible. In addition, TRX also restored the DNA-binding activity of HSF oxidized in vivo, while it was found to be itself induced in vivo by both HS and H2O2. Thus, H2O2 exerts dual effects on the activation and the DNA-binding activity of HSF: on the one hand, H2O2 favours the nuclear translocation of HSF, while on the other, it alters HSF-DNA-binding activity, most likely by oxidizing critical cysteine residues within the DNA-binding domain. HSF thus belongs to the group of ROS-modulated transcription factors. We propose that the time required for TRX induction, which may restore the DNA-binding activity of oxidized HSF, provides an explanation for the delay in heat-shock protein synthesis upon exposure of cells to ROS. PMID:8761470

  18. Induction of polyphenol oxidase activity in dormant wild oat (Avena fatua) seeds and caryopses: a defense response to seed decay fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persistence of the soil seed bank requires both dormancy and resistance to seed decay organisms. However, there is little or no information evaluating biochemical responses of dormant weed seeds to pathogens. Wild oat caryopses were incubated with four pathogenic fungal isolates to evaluate the resp...

  19. Protein kinase C activation potentiates gating of the vanilloid receptor VR1 by capsaicin, protons, heat and anandamide

    PubMed Central

    Vellani, Vittorio; Mapplebeck, Sarah; Moriondo, Andrea; Davis, John B; McNaughton, Peter A

    2001-01-01

    The effects of activation of protein kinase C (PKC) on membrane currents gated by capsaicin, protons, heat and anandamide were investigated in primary sensory neurones from neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and in HEK293 cells (human embryonic kidney cell line) transiently or stably expressing the human vanilloid receptor hVR1. Maximal activation of PKC by a brief application of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased the mean membrane current activated by a low concentration of capsaicin by 1.65-fold in DRG neurones and 2.18-fold in stably transfected HEK293 cells. Bradykinin, which activates PKC, also enhanced the response to capsaicin in DRG neurones. The specific PKC inhibitor RO31-8220 prevented the enhancement caused by PMA. Activation of PKC did not enhance the membrane current at high concentrations of capsaicin, showing that PKC activation increases the probability of channel opening rather than unmasking channels. Application of PMA alone activated an inward current in HEK293 cells transiently transfected with VR1. The current was suppressed by the VR1 antagonist capsazepine. PMA did not, however, activate a current in the large majority of DRG neurones nor in HEK293 cells stably transfected with VR1. Removing external Ca2+ enhanced the response to a low concentration of capsaicin 2.40-fold in DRG neurones and 3.42-fold in HEK293 cells. Activation of PKC in zero Ca2+ produced no further enhancement of the response to capsaicin in either DRG neurones or HEK293 cells stably transfected with VR1. The effects of PKC activation on the membrane current gated by heat, anandamide and low pH were qualitatively similar to those on the capsaicin-gated current. The absence of a current activated by PMA in most DRG neurones or in stably transfected HEK293 cells suggests that activation of PKC does not directly open VR1 channels, but instead increases the probability that they will be activated by capsaicin, heat, low pH or anandamide. Removal of calcium

  20. Comparison of the effects of millimeter wave irradiation, general bath heating, and localized heating on neuronal activity in the leech ganglion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanenko, Sergii; Siegel, Peter H.; Wagenaar, Daniel A.; Pikov, Victor

    2013-02-01

    The use of electrically-induced neuromodulation has grown in importance in the treatment of multiple neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, epilepsy, chronic pain, cluster headaches and others. While electrical current can be applied locally, it requires placing stimulation electrodes in direct contact with the neural tissue. Our goal is to develop a method for localized application of electromagnetic energy to the brain without direct tissue contact. Toward this goal, we are experimenting with the wireless transmission of millimeter wave (MMW) energy in the 10-100 GHz frequency range, where penetration and focusing can be traded off to provide non-contact irradiation of the cerebral cortex. Initial experiments have been conducted on freshly-isolated leech ganglia to evaluate the real-time changes in the activity of individual neurons upon exposure to the MMW radiation. The initial results indicate that low-intensity MMWs can partially suppress the neuronal activity. This is in contrast to general bath heating, which had an excitatory effect on the neuronal activity. Further studies are underway to determine the changes in the state of the membrane channels that might be responsible for the observed neuromodulatory effects.

  1. Determining the nature of active region heating using high spatially and spectrally resolved x-ray observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterrett, M. W.; Cirtain, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Rarely have active regions on the Sun been studied at wavelengths less than 10 nm while simultaneously maintaining both high spatial and high spectral measurements. Marshall's Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) will measure the soft X-ray solar spectrum within a wavelength range of 0.6 - 2.4 nm (0.5 - 2.0 keV) while maintaining a 5 arcsec spatial resolution. The wavelength range of 0.6 - 2.4 nm can provide insight into the heating roles of two of the likely coronal heating mechanisms: nanoflare and Alfven wave heating. The key difference in nanoflares and Alfven wave heating is the high temperature components of plasmas inside single magnetic strands. If the observed frequency of the heating event is low, it is determined to be a nanoflare. If the frequency of the heating event is high, it is Alfvenic in nature. To discriminate between these two distinct events requires that the components of the local high-temperature plasma be measured. MaGIXS is a proposed sounding rocket experiment. Currently in its prototype phase, MaGIXS is being aligned and characterized in hopes of a 2015 launch. To measure the attributes of high-temperature plasma, MaGIXS will employ the use of a matched pair of parabolic mirrors in conjunction with a planar varied-line-space silicon wafer grating. The two mirrors act as a collimator and re-focusing system, molding the beam to desired specifications and removing off-axis optical aberrations in the process. The grating has a HeNe alignment feature which allows the grating to be aligned at atmospheric pressure while focusing the HeNe laser beam near the center of MaGIXS wavelength range. This presentation will cover the alignment procedure of the mirrors, and the results of preliminary testing using both white light and X-ray sources.

  2. Latent heat and cyclone activity in the South Pacific, 10-18 January 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. L.; Vincent, D. G.; Kann, D. M.; Robertson, Franklin R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the heat budget of the tropical South Pacific for the period of January 10-18, 1979 and compares precipitation estimates obtained from the budget equation with those derived from GOES-IR satellite imagery, using data that were part of the total FGGE package. In addition, the relationship between latent heat release and the baroclinic energy conversion is examined for the life cycles of two cyclones which propagated along the South Pacific Convection Zone in that period. It is shown that latent heat plays an important role in the baroclinic energy conversion between potential and kinetic energy through diabatically-induced vertical circulations. For a cyclone where latent heat stays at a high level both spacially and with regard to intensity, there appears to be ample fuel for its intensification. On the other hand, for a filling cyclone, the latent heat impact decreased and the baroclinic conversion fell off rapidly, due to the lack of both potential energy generation and diabatically-induced thermally-direct circulations.

  3. Heat-tolerant flowering plants of active geothermal areas in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Stout, Richard G; Al-Niemi, Thamir S

    2002-08-01

    A broad survey of most of the major geyser basins within Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, USA) was conducted to identify the flowering plants which tolerate high rhizosphere temperatures (> or = 40 degrees C) in geothermally heated environments. Under such conditions, five species of monocots and four species of dicots were repeatedly found. The predominant flowering plants in hot soils (>40 degrees C at 2-5 cm depth) were grasses, primarily Dichanthelium lanuginosum. Long-term (weeks to months) rhizosphere temperatures of individual D. lanuginosum above 40 degrees C were recorded at several different locations, both in the summer and winter. The potential role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the apparent adaptation of these plants to chronically high rhizosphere temperatures was examined. Antibodies to cytoplasmic class I small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) and to HSP101 were used in Western immunoblot analyses of protein extracts from plants collected from geothermally heated soils. Relatively high levels of proteins reacting with anti-sHSP antibodies were consistently detected in root extracts from plants experiencing rhizosphere temperatures above 40 degrees C, though these proteins were usually not highly expressed in leaf extracts from the same plants. Proteins reacting with antibodies to HSP101 were also present both in leaf and root extracts from plants collected from geothermal soils, but their levels of expression were not as closely related to the degree of heat exposure as those of sHSPs.

  4. Design of an actively cooled plate calorimeter for the investigation of pool fire heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J. A.; Keltner, N. R.; Nicolette, V. F.; Wix, S. D.

    1992-01-01

    For final qualification of shipping containers for transport of hazardous materials, thermal testing in accordance with regulations such as 10CFR71 must be completed. Such tests typically consist of 30 minute exposures with the container fully engulfed in flames from a large, open pool of JP4 jet engine fuel. Despite careful engineering analyses of the container, testing often reveals design problems that must be solved by modification and expensive retesting of the container. One source of this problem is the wide variation in surface heat flux to the container that occurs in pool fires. Average heat fluxes of 50 to 60 kW/m{sup 2} are typical and close the values implied by the radiation model in 10CFR71, but peak fluxes up to 150 kW/m{sup 2} are routinely observed in fires. Heat fluxes in pool fires have been shown to be a function of surface temperature of the container, height above the pool, surface orientation, wind, and other variables. If local variations in the surface heat flux to the container could be better predicted, design analyses would become more accurate, and fewer problems will be uncovered during testing. The objective of the calorimeter design described in this paper is to measure accurately pool fire heat fluxes under controlled conditions, and to provide data for calibration of improved analytical models of local flame-surface interactions.

  5. The active disturbance rejection control approach to stabilisation of coupled heat and ODE system subject to boundary control matched disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bao-Zhu; Liu, Jun-Jun; AL-Fhaid, A. S.; Younas, Arshad Mahmood M.; Asiri, Asim

    2015-08-01

    We consider stabilisation for a linear ordinary differential equation system with input dynamics governed by a heat equation, subject to boundary control matched disturbance. The active disturbance rejection control approach is applied to estimate, in real time, the disturbance with both constant high gain and time-varying high gain. The disturbance is cancelled in the feedback loop. The closed-loop systems with constant high gain and time-varying high gain are shown, respectively, to be practically stable and asymptotically stable.

  6. The decapping activator Edc3 and the Q/N-rich domain of Lsm4 function together to enhance mRNA stability and alter mRNA decay pathway dependence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Huch, Susanne; Müller, Maren; Muppavarapu, Mridula; Gommlich, Jessie; Balagopal, Vidya; Nissan, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rate and regulation of mRNA decay are major elements in the proper control of gene expression. Edc3 and Lsm4 are two decapping activator proteins that have previously been shown to function in the assembly of RNA granules termed P bodies. Here, we show that deletion of edc3, when combined with a removal of the glutamine/asparagine rich region of Lsm4 (edc3Δ lsm4ΔC) reduces mRNA stability and alters pathways of mRNA degradation. Multiple tested mRNAs exhibited reduced stability in the edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant. The destabilization was linked to an increased dependence on Ccr4-mediated deadenylation and mRNA decapping. Unlike characterized mutations in decapping factors that either are neutral or are able to stabilize mRNA, the combined edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant reduced mRNA stability. We characterized the growth and activity of the major mRNA decay systems and translation in double mutant and wild-type yeast. In the edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant, we observed alterations in the levels of specific mRNA decay factors as well as nuclear accumulation of the catalytic subunit of the decapping enzyme Dcp2. Hence, we suggest that the effects on mRNA stability in the edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant may originate from mRNA decay protein abundance or changes in mRNPs, or alternatively may imply a role for P bodies in mRNA stabilization. PMID:27543059

  7. Cloning of ubiquitin-activating enzyme and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme genes from Gracilaria lemaneiformis and their activity under heat shock.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang-Qi; Zang, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Lu, Ning; Ding, Yan; Gong, Le; Chen, Wen-Chao

    2014-03-15

    To study the response of Gracilaria lemaneiformis to heat stress, two key enzymes - ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) - of the Ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway (UPP) were studied in three strains of G. lemaneiformis-wild type, heat-tolerant cultivar 981 and heat-tolerant cultivar 07-2. The full length DNA sequence of E1 contained only one exon. The open reading frame (ORF) sequence was 981 nucleotides encoding 326 amino acids, which contained conserved ATP binding sites (LYDRQIRLWGLE, ELAKNVLLAGV, LKEMN, VVCAI) and the ubiquitin-activating domains (VVCAI…LMTEAC, VFLDLGDEYSYQ, AIVGGMWGRE). The gene sequence of E2 contained four exons and three introns. The sum of the four exons gave an open reading frame sequence of 444 nucleotides encoding 147 amino acids, which contained a conserved ubiquitin-activating domain (GSICLDIL), ubiquitin-conjugating domains (RIYHPNIN, KVLLSICSLL, DDPLV) and ubiquitin-ligase (E3) recognition sites (KRI, YPF, WSP). Real-time-PCR analysis of transcription levels of E1 and E2 under heat shock conditions (28°C and 32°C) showed that in wild type, transcriptions of E1 and E2 were up-regulated at 28°C, while at 32°C, transcriptions of the two enzymes were below the normal level. In cultivar 981 and cultivar 07-2 of G. lemaneiformis, the transcription levels of the two enzymes were up-regulated at 32°C, and transcription level of cultivar 07-2 was even higher than that of cultivar 981. These results suggest that the UPP plays an important role in high temperature resistance of G. lemaneiformis and the bioactivity of UPP is directly related to the heat-resistant ability of G. lemaneiformis.

  8. FLOWS AND MOTIONS IN MOSS IN THE CORE OF A FLARING ACTIVE REGION: EVIDENCE FOR STEADY HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, David H.; Warren, Harry P.

    2009-09-20

    We present new measurements of the time variability of intensity, Doppler, and nonthermal velocities in moss in an active region core observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode in 2007 June. The measurements are derived from spectral profiles of the Fe XII 195 A line. Using the 2'' slit, we repeatedly scanned 150'' by 150'' in a few minutes. This is the first time it has been possible to make such velocity measurements in the moss, and the data presented are the highest cadence spatially resolved maps of moss Doppler and nonthermal velocities ever obtained in the corona. The observed region produced numerous C- and M-class flares with several occurring in the core close to the moss. The magnetic field was therefore clearly changing in the active region core, so we ought to be able to detect dynamic signatures in the moss if they exist. Our measurements of moss intensities agree with previous studies in that a less than 15% variability is seen over a period of 16 hr. Our new measurements of Doppler and nonthermal velocities reveal no strong flows or motions in the moss, nor any significant variability in these quantities. The results confirm that moss at the bases of high temperature coronal loops is heated quasi-steadily. They also show that quasi-steady heating can contribute significantly even in the core of a flare productive active region. Such heating may be impulsive at high frequency, but if so it does not give rise to large flows or motions.

  9. Electrospun magnetic nanofibre mats - A new bondable biomaterial using remotely activated magnetic heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yi; Leung, Victor; Yuqin Wan, Lynn; Dutz, Silvio; Ko, Frank K.; Häfeli, Urs O.

    2015-04-01

    A solvothermal process was adopted to produce hydrophilic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles which were subsequently emulsified with a chloroform/methanol (70/30 v/v) solution of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and then electrospun into a 0.2 mm thick PCL mat. The magnetic heating of the mats at a field amplitude of 25 kA/m and frequency of 400 kHz exhibited promising efficiency for magnetic hyperthermia, with a specific absorption rate of about 40 W/g for the magnetic mat. The produced heat was used to melt the magnetic mat onto the surrounding non-magnetic polymer mat from within, without destroying the nanostructure of the non-magnetic polymer more than 0.5 mm away. Magnetic nanofibre mats might thus be useful for internal heat sealing applications, and potentially also for thermotherapy.

  10. RARE KAON DECAYS.

    SciTech Connect

    LITTENBERG, L.

    2005-07-19

    Lepton flavor violation (LFV) experiments have probed sensitivities corresponding to mass scales of well over 100 TeV, making life difficult for models predicting accessible LFV in kaon decay and discouraging new dedicated experiments of this type.

  11. Charmless B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Gradl, Wolfgang; /Edinburgh U.

    2007-03-06

    Rare charmless hadronic B decays are a good testing ground for the standard model. The dominant amplitudes contributing to this class of B decays are CKM suppressed tree diagrams and b {yields} s or b {yields} d loop diagrams (''penguins''). These decays can be used to study interfering standard model (SM) amplitudes and CP violation. They are sensitive to the presence of new particles in the loops, and they provide valuable information to constrain theoretical models of B decays. The B factories BABAR at SLAC and Belle at KEK produce B mesons in the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B}. So far they have collected integrated luminosities of about 406 fb{sup -1} and 600 fb{sup -1}, respectively. The results presented here are based on subsets of about 200-500 fb{sup -1} and are preliminary unless a journal reference is given.

  12. Radiative B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Bard, D.; /Imperial Coll., London

    2011-11-23

    I discuss recent results in radiative B decays from the Belle and BaBar collaborations. I report new measurements of the decay rate and CP asymmetries in b {yields} s{gamma} and b {yields} d{gamma} decays, and measurements of the photon spectrum in b {yields} s{gamma}. Radiative penguin decays are flavour changing neutral currents which do not occur at tree level in the standard model (SM), but must proceed via one loop or higher order diagrams. These transitions are therefore suppressed in the SM, but offer access to poorlyknown SM parameters and are also a sensitive probe of new physics. In the SM, the rate is dominated by the top quark contribution to the loop, but non-SM particles could also contribute with a size comparable to leading SM contributions. The new physics effects are potentially large which makes them theoretically very interesting, but due to their small branching fractions they are typically experimentally challenging.

  13. Heating of vegetable oils influences the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid formation in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Stawarska, Agnieszka; Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2015-10-01

    Dietary intake of lipids and their fatty acids profile influence many aspects of health. Thermal processing changes the properties of edible oils and can also modify their metabolism, for example, eicosanoids formation. The aim of our study was to verify whether the activity of desaturases can be modified by lipids intake, especially by the fatty acids content. The experimental diets contained rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and olive oil, both unheated and heated (for 10 minutes at 200 °C each time before administration), and influenced the fatty acids composition in serum and the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid (AA) formation. The activity of desaturases was determined by measuring the amounts of AA formed in vitro derived from linoleic acid as determined in liver microsomes of Wistar rats. In addition, the indices of ∆(6)-desaturase (D6D) and ∆(5)-desaturase (D5D) have been determined. To realize this aim, the method of high-performance liquid chromatography has been used with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry detection. Diet supplementation with the oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids affects the fatty acids profile in blood serum and the activity of D6D and ∆(5)-desaturase in rat liver microsomes, the above activities being dependent on the kind of oil applied. Diet supplementation with heated oils has been found to increase the amount of AA produced in hepatic microsomes; and in the case of rapeseed oil and sunflower oil, it has also increased D6D activity.

  14. Sequential activation of a segmented ground pad reduces skin heating during radiofrequency tumor ablation: optimization via computational models.

    PubMed

    Schutt, David J; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2008-07-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has become an accepted treatment modality for unresectable tumors. The need for larger ablation zones has resulted in increased RF generator power. Skin burns due to ground pad heating are increasingly limiting further increases in generator power, and thus, ablation zone size. We investigated a method for reducing ground pad heating in which a commercial ground pad is segmented into multiple ground electrodes, with sequential activation of ground electrode subsets. We created finite-element method computer models of a commercial ground pad (14 x 23 cm) and compared normal operation of a standard pad to sequential activation of a segmented pad (two to five separate ground electrode segments). A constant current of 1 A was applied for 12 min in all simulations. Time periods during sequential activation simulations were adjusted to keep the leading edge temperatures at each ground electrode equal. The maximum temperature using standard activation of the commercial pad was 41.7 degrees C. For sequential activation of a segmented pad, the maximum temperature ranged from 39.3 degrees C (five segments) to 40.9 degrees C (two segments). Sequential activation of a segmented ground pad resulted in lower tissue temperatures. This method may reduce the incidence of ground pad burns and enable the use of higher power generators during RF tumor ablation.

  15. Activation of Heat Shock and Antioxidant Responses by the Natural Product Celastrol: Transcriptional Signatures of a Thiol-targeted Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Trott, Amy; West, James D.; Klaić, Lada; Westerheide, Sandy D.; Silverman, Richard B.; Morimoto, Richard I.

    2008-01-01

    Stress response pathways allow cells to sense and respond to environmental changes and adverse pathophysiological states. Pharmacological modulation of cellular stress pathways has implications in the treatment of human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. The quinone methide triterpene celastrol, derived from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has numerous pharmacological properties, and it is a potent activator of the mammalian heat shock transcription factor HSF1. However, its mode of action and spectrum of cellular targets are poorly understood. We show here that celastrol activates Hsf1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae at a similar effective concentration seen in mammalian cells. Transcriptional profiling revealed that celastrol treatment induces a battery of oxidant defense genes in addition to heat shock genes. Celastrol activated the yeast Yap1 oxidant defense transcription factor via the carboxy-terminal redox center that responds to electrophilic compounds. Antioxidant response genes were likewise induced in mammalian cells, demonstrating that the activation of two major cell stress pathways by celastrol is conserved. We report that celastrol's biological effects, including inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor activity, can be blocked by the addition of excess free thiol, suggesting a chemical mechanism for biological activity based on modification of key reactive thiols by this natural product. PMID:18199679

  16. Sequential Activation of a Segmented Ground Pad Reduces Skin Heating During Radiofrequency Tumor Ablation: Optimization via Computational Models

    PubMed Central

    Schutt, David J.; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has become an accepted treatment modality for unresectable tumors. The need for larger ablation zones has resulted in increased RF generator power. Skin burns due to ground pad heating are increasingly limiting further increases in generator power, and thus, ablation zone size. We investigated a method for reducing ground pad heating in which a commercial ground pad is segmented into multiple ground electrodes, with sequential activation of ground electrode subsets. We created finite-element method computer models of a commercial ground pad (14 × 23 cm) and compared normal operation of a standard pad to sequential activation of a segmented pad (two to five separate ground electrode segments). A constant current of 1 A was applied for 12 min in all simulations. Time periods during sequential activation simulations were adjusted to keep the leading edge temperatures at each ground electrode equal. The maximum temperature using standard activation of the commercial pad was 41.7 °C. For sequential activation of a segmented pad, the maximum temperature ranged from 39.3 °C (five segments) to 40.9 °C (two segments). Sequential activation of a segmented ground pad resulted in lower tissue temperatures. This method may reduce the incidence of ground pad burns and enable the use of higher power generators during RF tumor ablation. PMID:18595807

  17. Adsorption of SO2 onto oxidized and heat-treated activated carbon fibers (ACFs)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daley, M.A.; Mangun, C.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Riha, S.; Lizzio, A.A.; Donnals, G.L.; Economy, J.

    1997-01-01

    Oxidation of the ACFs, using an aqueous oxidant, decreased their adsorption capacity for SO2 from flue gas due to a decrease in pore volume and repulsion of the SO2 from acidic surface groups. If these samples were heat-treated to desorb the oxygen containing function groups, the amount of SO2 adsorption increased. This increase in adsorption capacity was directly correlated to the amount of CO2 evolved during heat-treatment of the oxidized ACFs. The amount of SO2 adsorbed for these samples was related to the pore size, pore surface chemistry and pore volume. This analysis is explained in more detail in this paper.

  18. Photocatalytic activity and reusability of ZnO layer synthesised by electrolysis, hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Akhmal Saadon, Syaiful; Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Mohd Yusoff, Abdull Rahim; Hakim Wirzal, Mohd Dzul; Rahmalan, Muhammad Taufiq; Nur, Hadi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the zinc oxide (ZnO) layer was synthesised on the surface of Zn plates by three different techniques, i.e. electrolysis, hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment. The synthesised ZnO layers were characterised using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnO layer was further assessed against methylene blue (MB) degradation under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of MB was achieved up to 84%, 79% and 65% within 1 h for ZnO layers synthesised by electrolysis, heat and hydrogen peroxide treatment, respectively. The reusability results show that electrolysis and heat-treated ZnO layers have considerable photocatalytic stability. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO was directly associated with the thickness and enlarged surface area of the layer. Finally, this study proved that the ZnO layers synthesised by electrolysis and heat treatment had shown better operational stability and reusability.

  19. Particle physics: CP violation in hyperon decays

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, Michael J.

    2000-10-31

    The primary research activities under this grant were in E871 (HyperCP) at Fermilab, a search for CP violation in hyperon decays which completed data taking in January, 2000. HyperCP is an experiment designed to perform a sensitive search for direct CP violation in the decays of cascade ({Xi}) and {Lambda} hyperons by looking for an asymmetry between particle and antiparticle decay parameters. The experiment is expected to achieve a sensitivity {approx}10{sup -4} in the decay parameters. Standard model predictions for this CP-violating asymmetry range from 0.3 to 5 x 10{sup -4}. A difference between the decay parameters for particle and antiparticle is direct evidence that CP symmetry is violated. A non-zero asymmetry would be the first evidence for CP violation outside of the K{sup o} system. Recent results from KTeV indicate a direct CP violation in K{sup o} decays, which suggests that CP violation will appear in other decays. In addition, we will look at a number of rare hyperon decays involving muons. These probe important new physics topics such as Majorana neutrinos and lepton number violating processes. The latter are of great current interest because new evidence for neutrino oscillations indicate lepton flavor violation does occur. Our data will lead to an improvement in the limits on branching ratios for these processes typically by three to four orders-of-magnitude. The muon detector construction and data resulting from it have been the responsibility of the Michigan group. We are now leading the analysis of the rare muon-related decay modes, and were responsible for the muon system and beam monitor upgrades for the 1999 run.

  20. Randomised comparison between adrenaline injection alone and adrenaline injection plus heat probe treatment for actively bleeding ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, S. S.; Lau, J. Y.; Sung, J. J.; Chan, A. C.; Lai, C. W.; Ng, E. K.; Chan, F. K.; Yung, M. Y.; Li, A. K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare endoscopic adrenaline injection alone and adrenaline injection plus heat probe for the treatment of actively bleeding peptic ulcers. DESIGN: Randomised prospective study of patients admitted with actively bleeding peptic ulcers. SETTING: One university hospital. SUBJECTS: 276 patients with actively bleeding ulcers detected by endoscopy within 24 hours of admission: 136 patients were randomised to endoscopic adrenaline injection alone and 140 to adrenaline injection plus heat probe treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Initial endoscopic haemostasis; clinical rebleeding; requirement for operation; requirement for blood transfusion; hospital stay, ulcer healing at four weeks; and mortality in hospital. RESULTS: Initial haemostasis was achieved in 131/134 patients (98%) who received adrenaline injection alone and 135/136 patients (99%) who received additional heat probe treatment (P = 0.33). Outcome as measured by clinical rebleeding (12 v 5), requirement for emergency operation (14 v 8), blood transfusion (2 v 3 units), hospital stay (4 v 4 days), ulcer healing at four weeks (79.1% v 74%), and in hospital mortality (7 v 8) were not significantly different in the two groups. In the subgroup of patients with spurting haemorrhage 8/27 (29.6%; 14.5% to 50.3%) patients from the adrenaline injection alone group and 2/31 (6.5%; 1.1% to 22.9%) patients from the dual treatment group required operative intervention. The relative risk of this was lower in the dual treatment group (0.17; 0.03 to 0.87). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in the dual treatment group than the adrenaline injection alone group (4 v 6 days, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The addition of heat probe treatment after endoscopic adrenaline injection confers an advantage in ulcers with spurting haemorrhage. PMID:9158465

  1. alphaB-crystallin maintains skeletal muscle myosin enzymatic activity and prevents its aggregation under heat-shock stress.

    PubMed

    Melkani, Girish C; Cammarato, Anthony; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2006-05-05

    Here, we provide functional and direct structural evidence that alphaB-crystallin, a member of the small heat-shock protein family, suppresses thermal unfolding and aggregation of the myosin II molecular motor. Chicken skeletal muscle myosin was thermally unfolded at heat-shock temperature (43 degrees C) in the absence and in the presence of alphaB-crystallin. The ATPase activity of myosin at 25 degrees C was used as a parameter to monitor its unfolding. Myosin retained only 65% and 8% of its ATPase activity when incubated at heat-shock temperature for 15 min and 30 min, respectively. However, 84% and 58% of the myosin ATPase activity was maintained when it was incubated with alphaB-crystallin under the same conditions. Furthermore, actin-stimulated ATPase activity of myosin was reduced by approximately 90%, when myosin was thermally unfolded at 43 degrees C for 30 min, but was reduced by only approximately 42% when it was incubated with alphaB-crystallin under the same conditions. Light-scattering assays and bound thioflavin T fluorescence indicated that myosin aggregates when incubated at 43 degrees C for 30 min, while alphaB-crystallin suppressed this thermal aggregation. Photo-labeled bis-ANS alphaB-crystallin fluorescence studies confirmed the transient interaction of alphaB-crystallin with myosin. These findings were further supported by electron microscopy of rotary shadowed molecules. This revealed that approximately 94% of myosin molecules formed inter and intra-molecular aggregates when incubated at 43 degrees C for 30 min. alphaB-Crystallin, however, protected approximately 48% of the myosin molecules from thermal aggregation, with protected myosin appearing identical to unheated molecules. These results are the first to show that alphaB-crystallin maintains myosin enzymatic activity and prevents the aggregation of the motor under heat-shock conditions. Thus, alphaB-crystallin may be critical for nascent myosin folding, promoting myofibrillogenesis

  2. Effect of propolis supplementations on behavioral activities of heat stressed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment investigated effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavior of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four 15-day old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments containing 0, 100, 250, 500, 1000 or 3000 mg kg-1 ...

  3. Effects of Free Molecular Heating on the Space Shuttle Active Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloud, Peter L.; Wobick, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    During Space Transportation System (STS) flight 121, higher than predicted radiator outlet temperatures were experienced from post insertion and up until nominal correction (NC) burn two. Effects from the higher than predicted heat loads on the radiator panels led to an additional 50 lbm of supply water consumed by the Flash Evaporator System (FES). Post-flight analysis and research revealed that the additional heat loads were due to Free Molecular Heating (FMH) on the radiator panels, which previously had not been considered as a significant environmental factor for the Space Shuttle radiators. The current Orbiter radiator heat flux models were adapted to incorporate the effects of FMH in addition to solar, earth infrared and albedo sources. Previous STS flights were also examined to find additional flight data on the FMH environment. Results of the model were compared to flight data and verified against results generated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Johnson Space Center (JSC) Aero-sciences group to verify the accuracy of the model.

  4. Laboratory Activity: Specific Heat by Change in Internal Energy of Silly Putty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koser, John

    2011-01-01

    Students in introductory physics courses often don't study thermodynamics or thermodynamic events. If any thermal physics is taught in introductory courses (e.g., Physics 101 for Liberal Arts Majors), it usually involves the concepts of specific heat and various temperature scales. Seldom are the first and second laws of thermodynamics taught in…

  5. Heat changes during transient tension responses to small releases in active frog muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, S H; Ford, L E

    1988-01-01

    Tension and heat production were measured in frog sartorius muscles in response to small shortening ramps (releases) at high and moderate speed. Transient tension responses to fast releases (0.1 to 0.4 mm in 1 or 4 ms) were similar to the tension transients length-clamped single fibers. Tension time courses during releases at 25 mm/s were like fiber responses calculated from the first two phases of the step responses (Ford et al., 1977). We conclude that similar crossbridge transitions produce tension transients observed in whole muscles and single fibers. Heat was absorbed during rapid tension recovery after fast releases and during the later part of releases at 25 mm/s. Variation of heat absorption with release size was compared with that of crossbridge movement predicted by the Huxley-Simmons hypothesis of force generation (Huxley and Simmons, 1971). Agreement between the two supports the conclusion that heat is absorbed by the crossbridge transitions responsible for rapid tension recovery after release. The results indicate that the entropy change of these transitions is positive. PMID:3265639

  6. Activation of the p38 signaling pathway by heat shock involves the dissociation of glutathione S-transferase Mu from Ask1.

    PubMed

    Dorion, Sonia; Lambert, Herman; Landry, Jacques

    2002-08-23

    Despite the importance of the stress-activated protein kinase pathways in cell death and survival, it is unclear how stressful stimuli lead to their activation. In the case of heat shock, the existence of a specific mechanism of activation has been evidenced, but the molecular nature of this pathway is undefined. Here, we found that Ask1 (apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1), an upstream activator of the stress-activated protein kinase p38 during exposure to oxidative stress and other stressful stimuli, was also activated by heat shock. Ask1 activity was required for p38 activation since overexpression of a kinase dead mutant of Ask1, Ask1(K709M), inhibited heat shock-induced p38 activation. The activation of Ask1 by oxidative stress involves the oxidation of thioredoxin, an endogenous inhibitor of Ask1. A different activation mechanism takes place during heat shock. In contrast to p38 induction by H(2)O(2), induction by heat shock was not antagonized by pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine or by overexpressing thioredoxin and was not accompanied by the dissociation of thioredoxin from Ask1. Instead, heat shock caused the dissociation of glutathione S-transferase Mu1-1 (GSTM1-1) from Ask1 and overexpression of GSTM1-1-inhibited induction of p38 by heat shock. We concluded that because of an alternative regulation by the two distinct repressors thioredoxin and GSTM1-1, Ask1 constitutes the converging point of the heat shock and oxidative stress-sensing pathways that lead to p38 activation.

  7. Design and development of a shape memory alloy activated heat pipe-based thermal switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benafan, O.; Notardonato, W. U.; Meneghelli, B. J.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2013-10-01

    This work reports on the design, fabrication and testing of a thermal switch wherein the open and closed states were actuated by shape memory alloy (SMA) elements while heat was transferred by a two-phase heat pipe. The motivation for such a switch comes from NASA’s need for thermal management in advanced spaceport applications associated with future lunar and Mars missions. As the temperature can approximately vary between -233 and 127 ° C during lunar day/night cycles, the switch was designed to reject heat from a cryogen tank into space during the night cycle while providing thermal isolation during the day cycle. A Ni47.1Ti49.6Fe3.3 (at.%) alloy that exhibited a reversible phase transformation between a trigonal R-phase and a cubic austenite phase was used as the sensing and actuating elements. Thermomechanical actuation, accomplished through an antagonistic spring system, resulted in strokes up to 7 mm against bias forces of up to 45 N. The actuation system was tested for more than thirty cycles, equivalent to one year of operation. The thermal performance, accomplished via a variable length, closed two-phase heat pipe, was evaluated, resulting in heat transfer rates of 13 W using pentane and 10 W using R-134a as working fluids. Experimental data were also compared to theoretical predictions where possible. Direct comparisons between different design approaches of SMA helical actuators, highlighting the effects of the helix angle, were carried out to give a layout of more accurate design methodologies.

  8. Pervasive faint Fe XIX emission from a solar active region observed with EUNIS-13: Evidence for nanoflare heating

    SciTech Connect

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Daw, Adrian N.; Rabin, D. M.

    2014-08-01

    We present spatially resolved EUV spectroscopic measurements of pervasive, faint Fe XIX 592.2 Å line emission in an active region observed during the 2013 April 23 flight of the Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS-13) sounding rocket instrument. With cooled detectors, high sensitivity, and high spectral resolution, EUNIS-13 resolves the lines of Fe XIX at 592.2 Å (formed at temperature T ≈ 8.9 MK) and Fe XII at 592.6 Å (T ≈ 1.6 MK). The Fe XIX line emission, observed over an area in excess of 4920 arcsec{sup 2} (2.58 × 10{sup 9} km{sup 2}, more than 60% of the active region), provides strong evidence for the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. No GOES events occurred in the region less than 2 hr before the rocket flight, but a microflare was observed north and east of the region with RHESSI and EUNIS during the flight. The absence of significant upward velocities anywhere in the region, particularly the microflare, indicates that the pervasive Fe XIX emission is not propelled outward from the microflare site, but is most likely attributed to localized heating (not necessarily due to reconnection) consistent with the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. Assuming ionization equilibrium we estimate Fe XIX/Fe XII emission measure ratios of ∼0.076 just outside the AR core and ∼0.59 in the core.

  9. AICAR prevents heat-induced sudden death in RyR1 mutant mice independent of AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Lanner, Johanna T; Georgiou, Dimitra K; Dagnino-Acosta, Adan; Ainbinder, Alina; Cheng, Qing; Joshi, Aditya D; Chen, Zanwen; Yarotskyy, Viktor; Oakes, Joshua M; Lee, Chang Seok; Monroe, Tanner O; Santillan, Arturo; Dong, Keke; Goodyear, Laurie; Ismailov, Iskander I; Rodney, George G; Dirksen, Robert T; Hamilton, Susan L

    2012-01-08

    Mice with a knock-in mutation (Y524S) in the type I ryanodine receptor (Ryr1), a mutation analogous to the Y522S mutation that is associated with malignant hyperthermia in humans, die when exposed to short periods of temperature elevation (≥37 °C). We show here that treatment with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) prevents this heat-induced sudden death in this mouse model. The protection by AICAR is independent of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and results from a newly identified action of the compound on mutant Ryr1 to reduce Ca(2+) leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to the sarcoplasm. AICAR thus prevents Ca(2+)-dependent increases in the amount of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that act to further increase resting Ca(2+) concentrations. If unchecked, the temperature-driven increases in resting Ca(2+) concentrations and the amounts of ROS and RNS create an amplifying cycle that ultimately triggers sustained muscle contractions, rhabdomyolysis and death. Although antioxidants are effective in reducing this cycle in vitro, only AICAR prevents heat-induced death in vivo. Our findings suggest that AICAR is probably effective in prophylactic treatment of humans with enhanced susceptibility to exercise- and/or heat-induced sudden death associated with RYR1 mutations.

  10. Thermoregulation of water foraging honeybees--balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and functional requirements.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Schmaranzer, Sigu