Monahan, Kathryn C.; Lee, Joanna M.
Little is known about the impact of the relational context of adolescent sexual activity on depressive symptoms. The present study examined trajectories of depressive symptoms among 6,602 adolescents (44% male, 60% White) taken from a nationally representative study (Add Health). Sexually active youth in romantic and casual relationships were…
Elliot, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Catherine; Morgan, George; Anderson, Sharon K.; Morris, Debra
Objective: To study the effects of college students' physical activity and gender on depressive and suicidal symptoms. Method: The National College Health Assessment survey was administered to college students nationwide. Data were analyzed with 4x2 ANOVAs and Games-Howell post hoc tests when appropriate. Results: More frequent physical activity…
Parisi, Jeanine M; Xia, Jin; Spira, Adam P; Xue, Qian-Li; Rieger, Marin L; Rebok, George W; Carlson, Michelle C
The association between lifestyle activities and incident depressive symptoms was examined within the Women's Health and Aging Study II. Measures of activity and depressive symptoms were collected on four occasions, spanning six-years. Discrete-time Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the effects of baseline activity on depressive symptoms over time. Overall, activity was not associated with incident depressive symptoms. When specific activity domains were examined, greater participation in creative activities was associated with a reduced risk of depressive symptoms (hazard ratio = 0.92; CI 95% 0.87, 0.98). Further longitudinal research between diverse activities and incident depressive symptoms is warranted.
Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga
This study examined the relationships between changes in physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Participants were 277 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaire. Data were collected on three occasions over a 3-year…
Neissaar, Inga; Raudsepp, Lennart
The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between naturally occurring changes in leisure-time physical activity, depressive symptoms and self-efficacy in adolescent girls. We also aimed to test whether depressive symptoms would moderate the self-efficacy-physical activity relationship. Participants were 181 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall. Self-efficacy and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. Body height and body mass were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Data were collected on three occasions over a 2-year period. There was a decrease in physical activity and self-efficacy and increase in depressive symptoms across three measurement occasions. There were statistically significant and negative relationships between initial level and change for physical activity and depressive symptoms. Initially higher levels of physical activity were related with initially lower levels of depressive symptoms, and change in physical activity across time was inversely associated with change in levels of depressive symptoms across measurements. There were statistically significant and positive relationships between initial level and change for physical activity and self-efficacy after controlling effect of BMI. Latent growth modeling (LGM) also indicated a moderating effect of depressive symptoms on the self-efficacy-physical activity relationship. Girls who had high initial levels of self-efficacy and smaller increases in depressive symptoms had the lowest decline in physical activity participation. Our results encourage the design of interventions that reduce depressive symptoms and increase self-efficacy as a possible of means of increasing adolescent girls' physical activity.
Waxmonsky, James; Wood, Beatrice L.; Stern, Trudy; Ballow, Mark; Lillis, Kathleen; Cramer-Benjamin, Darci; Mador, Jeffrey; Miller, Bruce D.
Objective: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms in children with asthma and the association between depression and asthma activity. Method: Children ages 7 to 17 (n = 129) were recruited from a hospital emergency department after presenting for asthma symptoms. The majority of subjects were from disadvantaged,…
Moss, Kathryn; Scogin, Forrest; Di Napoli, Elizabeth; Presnell, Andrew
This study investigated behavioral activation (BA) bibliotherapy as a treatment for late-life depressive symptoms. BA bibliotherapy was administered using Addis and Martell's Overcoming depression one step at a time as a stand-alone treatment that was completed by participants (N=26) over a 4-week period [Addis, M.E., & Martell, C.R. (2004). Overcoming depression one step at a time. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.]. Results of an immediate intervention group were compared with those of a delayed treatment control group and treatment response for both groups was evaluated at 1-month follow-up. Primary outcome results showed that symptoms on a clinician-rated measure of depressive symptoms, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, were significantly lower at post-treatment for those who received immediate BA bibliotherapy compared with those who were in the delayed treatment control condition. However, self-reported depressive symptoms (a secondary outcome measured via the Geriatric Depression Scale), were not significantly different at this period. Because study control was lost after the delayed treatment group received the intervention, within-subjects analyses examining both treatment groups combined showed that clinician-rated depressive symptoms significantly decreased from pre-treatment to both post-treatment and 1-month follow-up. Self-reported depressive symptoms were significantly lower from pre-treatment to 1-month follow-up. These findings suggest that BA may be useful in treating mild or subthreshold depressive symptoms in an older adult population.
Uglesić, Boran; Lasić, Davor; Zuljan-Cvitanović, Marija; Buković, Damir; Karelović, Deni; Delić-Brkljacić, Diana; Buković, Nevia; Radan, Mirjana
The present study asses the prevalence of depressive symptoms among college students in Split, Croatia, and positive influence of sport activity on decreasing the depression symptoms. Authors screened all 664 college students of the first year of study. All of them were over the 18 years and the mean age was 19.4 +/- 1.2 years. There were 466 females (70.2%) and 178 (26.8%) males. They answered The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and questionnaire about their sport activity (no sport activity, recreational and active in sports). For the purpose of the analysis depressive symptoms were defined as a score of > 11. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney test were used for data analysis. 9.4% of the students had significant depression symptoms (score > 11). No one student had score > 26 (symptoms of major depression). Statistically significant lower score on BDI have students who are active in sports (score median = 3) compared to group of recreational (score median = 4) and in correlation to group who are not active in sports (score median = 5) (Kruskal-Wallis: p < 0.001). In the group of active in sports (N = 254) there are only 5.5% with depressions symptoms, while in the group of non active in sports (N = 60) are 18 depressive (chi2-test: p = 0,005). Females are statistically more depressed than males (chi2-test: p = 0.01). In the female group 49 (10.5%) are depressed, and in the male group are 9 (5%). Compared to gender in separate analysis we did not find correlation of decreasing depression symptoms and sport activity among males (chi2-test: p = 0.47), while in females we find that sport activity has significant effect (chi2-test: p = 0.026). Our results shoved moderate values of depression symptoms among college population in Split, Croatia. More females than males experienced depressive symptoms. While sport activity did not have significant influence on the depression in male population, it has significant influence in reducing the depression symptoms among females.
Atukunda, Ruth; Imakit, Richard; Memiah, Peter
There is limited data on the prevalence of depression in HIV and AIDS patients in Sub-Saharan Africa and little resources have been allocated to address this issue. Depression affects patient adherence to treatment and predisposes patients to resistance which poses a public health threat. It also affects quality of life and productivity of patients. From August 2008 to March 2009, 731 patient adherence surveys were administered to assess disease, treatment knowledge and services received. The primary variable of interest was patients’ level of depressive symptoms score, constructed using factor analysis from five survey questions relating to: sadness, need to be alone, hopelessness and confusion and was categorized as no depressive symptoms (score 0), low depressive symptoms (score 1-2), moderate depressive symptoms (score 3-4) and high depressive symptoms (score 5-10). Majority of the patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (59%) were found to have depressive symptoms and this was more among women than men (66% vs 43%). There was some association of depressive symptoms with non-disclosure (70% of those who had not disclosed had depressive symptoms compared to 53% among those who had disclosed). There is a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among adult patients on HAART. There is need for in-depth evaluation to find out the root causes of depressive symptoms among HAART patients in AIDSRelief clinics. There is need to integrate mental health management in HIV care and treatment as well as training the existing health workers on mental health management. PMID:28299108
Dotson, Vonetta M.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Langaee, Taimour Y.; McDonough, Caitrin W.; King, Abby C.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Newman, Anne B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Myers, Valerie; Manini, Todd M.; Pahor, Marco
Background Converging evidence suggests that physical activity is an effective intervention for both clinical depression and sub-threshold depressive symptoms; however, findings are not always consistent. These mixed results might reflect heterogeneity in response to physical activity, with some subgroups of individuals responding positively, but not others. Objectives 1) To examine the impact of genetic variation and sex on changes in depressive symptoms in older adults after a physical activity (PA) intervention, and 2) determine if PA differentially improves particular symptom dimensions of depression. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Four field centers (Cooper Institute, Stanford University, University of Pittsburgh, and Wake Forest University). Participants 396 community-dwelling adults aged 70–89 years who participated in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Study (LIFE-P). Intervention 12-month PA intervention compared to an education control. Measurements Polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genes; 12-month change in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale total score, as well as scores on the depressed affect, somatic symptoms, and lack of positive affect subscales. Results Men randomized to the PA arm showed the greatest decreases in somatic symptoms, with a preferential benefit in male carriers of the BDNF Met allele. Symptoms of lack of positive affect decreased more in men compared to women, particularly in those possessing the 5-HTT L allele, but the effect did not differ by intervention arm. APOE status did not affect change in depressive symptoms. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that the impact of PA on depressive symptoms varies by genotype and sex, and that PA may mitigate somatic symptoms of depression more than other symptoms. The results suggest that a targeted approach to recommending PA therapy for
Fernald, Lia C.H.; Jones-Smith, Jessica C.; Ozer, Emily J.; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; DiGirolamo, Ann M.
Objective To test the contribution of maternal depression during late infancy to physical activity in children five years later. Method Children (n=168) from very low-income households in semi-urban Mexico were assessed as toddlers (15 mo, Time 1) and at pre-school age (4–6 y, Time 2). Child low activity level (<20 minutes of activity daily for <7 d/wk) at Time 2 was the primary outcome measure and maternal depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale) by self report at Time 1 was the primary independent variable. Covariates tested included child age, sex, BMI percentile, television viewing and behavior (Behavior Problem Index sub-scales), current maternal depressive symptoms, age, BMI and physical activity level, and family socio-economic status; all covariates were assessed at Time 2 except for socio-economic status. Results At 4–6 years old, 27.5% of children were categorized with low activity level. Exposure to high maternal depressive symptoms at child age 15 months was associated with an increased risk of having a low activity level at age 4–6 years (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.05–5.40); results were unchanged with the inclusion of current maternal depressive symptoms. High child TV-viewing was significantly associated with low activity level (OR, 5.44; 95% CI, 2.06–14.3), but did not change the effect of maternal depressive symptoms in early childhood. Tests of mediation revealed that current child internalizing behavior, but not externalizing behavior, significantly attenuated the association between early high maternal depressive symptoms and later childhood activity level. Conclusion Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms in late infancy is a risk factor for low activity level in later childhood and the association may be mediated by child internalizing factors. PMID:18714208
The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice.
Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca; Chen, Baibing; Fried, Terri; Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard; Doyle, Margaret; Kershaw, Trace
Background When examining older adults’ health behaviors and psychological health it is important to consider the social context. Purpose To examine in older adult marriages whether each spouse’s physical activity predicted changes in their own (actor effects) and their partner’s (partner effects) depressive symptoms. Gender differences were also examined. Method Each spouse within 1,260 married couples (at baseline) in the Cardiovascular Health Study completed self-report measures at wave 1 (1989–1990), wave 3 (1992–1993), and wave 7 (1996–1997). Dyadic path analyses were performed. Results Husbands’ physical activity significantly predicted own decreased depressive symptoms (actor effect). For both spouses, own physical activity did not significantly predict the spouse’s depressive symptoms (partner effects). However, husbands’ physical activity and depressive symptoms predicted wives’ physical activity and depressive symptoms (partner effects), respectively. Depressive symptoms did not predict physical activity. Conclusion Findings suggest that husbands’ physical activity is particularly influential for older married couples’ psychological health. PMID:25868508
Heser, Kathrin; Wagner, Michael; Wiese, Birgitt; Prokein, Jana; Ernst, Annette; König, Hans-Helmut; Brettschneider, Christian; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Luppa, Melanie; Weyerer, Siegfried; Eifflaender-Gorfer, Sandra; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Eisele, Marion
Background Social relations and depressive symptoms are intertwined. They both predict subsequent dementia, but only few studies on the association between social life aspects and subsequent dementia exist. Methods The risk of subsequent dementia was estimated over 2 follow-up assessments, each 18 months apart, depending on leisure activity, social support (general scale and the 3 factors emotional support, practical support, and social integration), and depressive symptoms, using proportional hazard models in a cohort of elderly patients (n = 2,300, with a mean age of 82.45 years) recruited for the study by their general practitioners. Results Higher depressive symptoms and lower cognitive and physical activity were associated with an increased risk of subsequent all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). While neither social engagement nor the general social support scale was associated with subsequent dementia, a higher level of social integration was associated with a lower dementia risk. In combined models, the results for activity variables remained similar, but the strength of the association between depressive symptoms and the subsequent risk of dementia decreased, and the association with social integration disappeared. Conclusions Depressive symptoms increased and activity variables decreased the risk of subsequent dementia; however, activity variables, namely cognitive and physical activity, partly mediated the effect of depressive symptoms on the subsequent risk of all-cause dementia and AD. In many cases, social support was not associated with a risk of subsequent dementia. PMID:25685139
MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Rodman, Samantha; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Brown, Richard A.; Lejuez, C. W.
Objective: Depressive symptoms are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes, and there remains continued interest in behavioral interventions that simultaneously target smoking and depressive symptomatology. In this pilot study, we examined whether a behavioral activation treatment for smoking (BATS) can enhance cessation outcomes. Method:…
Silvia, Paul J.; Nusbaum, Emily C.; Eddington, Kari M.; Beaty, Roger E.; Kwapil, Thomas R.
Motivational approaches to depression emphasize the role of dysfunctional motivational dynamics, particularly diminished reward and incentive processes associated with anhedonia. A study examined how anhedonic depressive symptoms, measured continuously across a wide range of severity, influenced the physiological mobilization of effort during a cognitive task. Using motivational intensity theory as a guide, we expected that the diminished incentive value associated with anhedonic depressive symptoms would reduce effort during a “do your best” challenge (also known as an unfixed or self-paced challenge), in which effort is a function of the value of achieving the task’s goal. Using impedance cardiography, two cardiac autonomic responses were assessed: pre-ejection period (PEP), a measure of sympathetic activity and our primary measure of interest, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of parasympathetic activity. As expected, PEP slowed from baseline to task as anhedonic depressive symptoms increased (as measured with the DASS Depression scale), indicating diminished effort-related sympathetic activity. No significant effects appeared for RSA. The findings support motivational intensity theory as a translational model of effort processes in depression and clarify some inconsistent effects of depressive symptoms on effort-related physiology found in past work. PMID:25431505
Silvia, Paul J; Nusbaum, Emily C; Eddington, Kari M; Beaty, Roger E; Kwapil, Thomas R
Motivational approaches to depression emphasize the role of dysfunctional motivational dynamics, particularly diminished reward and incentive processes associated with anhedonia. A study examined how anhedonic depressive symptoms, measured continuously across a wide range of severity, influenced the physiological mobilization of effort during a cognitive task. Using motivational intensity theory as a guide, we expected that the diminished incentive value associated with anhedonic depressive symptoms would reduce effort during a "do your best" challenge (also known as an unfixed or self-paced challenge), in which effort is a function of the value of achieving the task's goal. Using impedance cardiography, two cardiac autonomic responses were assessed: pre-ejection period (PEP), a measure of sympathetic activity and our primary measure of interest, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of parasympathetic activity. As expected, PEP slowed from baseline to task as anhedonic depressive symptoms increased (as measured with the DASS Depression scale), indicating diminished effort-related sympathetic activity. No significant effects appeared for RSA. The findings support motivational intensity theory as a translational model of effort processes in depression and clarify some inconsistent effects of depressive symptoms on effort-related physiology found in past work.
Background Young women are at high risk for developing depression and participation in physical activity may prevent or treat the disorder. However, the influences on physical activity behaviors of young women with depression are not well understood. The aim of this study was to gather in-depth information about the correlates of physical activity among young women with and without depressive symptoms. Methods A sample of 40 young women (aged 18-30 years), 20 with depressive symptoms (assessed using the CES-D 10) and 20 without depressive symptoms participated in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. A social-ecological framework was used, focusing on the individual, social and physical environmental influences on physical activity. Thematic analyses were performed on transcribed interview data. Results The results indicated several key themes that were unique to women with depressive symptoms. These women more often described negative physical activity experiences during their youth, more barriers to physical activity, participating in more spontaneous than planned activity, lower self-efficacy for physical activity and being influenced by their friends' and family's inactivity. Conclusions Interventions designed to promote physical activity in this important target group should consider strategies to reduce/overcome early life negative experiences, engage support from family and friends and plan for activity in advance. PMID:20157440
Parisi, Jeanine M; Franchetti, Mary Kathryn; Rebok, George W; Spira, Adam P; Carlson, Michelle C; Willis, Sherry L; Gross, Alden L
Within the context of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study (ACTIVE; Ball et al., 2002; Jobe et al., 2001; Willis et al., 2006), we examined the longitudinal association of baseline depressive symptoms on inductive reasoning performance over a 10-year period between the reasoning training and control conditions (N = 1,375). At baseline, 322 participants (23%) reported elevated depressive symptoms, defined by a score ≥9 on the 12-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Mirowsky & Ross, 2003; Radloff, 1977). Differences in baseline depressive status were not associated with immediate posttraining gains or with subsequent annual change in reasoning performance, suggesting that the presence of elevated baseline depressive symptoms does not impact the ability to benefit from reasoning training.
Dueñas-Espín, Iván; Demeyer, Heleen; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Polkey, Michael I; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Rabinovich, Roberto A; Dobbels, Fabienne; Karlsson, Niklas; Troosters, Thierry; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith
Background The role of anxiety and depression in the physical activity (PA) of patients with COPD is controversial. We prospectively assessed the effect of symptoms of anxiety and depression on PA in COPD patients. Methods We evaluated anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), PA (Dynaport® accelerometer), and other relevant characteristics in 220 COPD patients from five European countries at baseline and at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. HADS score was categorized as: no symptoms (score 0–7), suggested (8–10), and probable (>11) anxiety or depression. We estimated the association between anxiety and depression at t (baseline and 6 months) and PA at t+1 (6 and 12 months) using regression models with a repeated measures approach. Results Patients had a mean (standard deviation) age of 67 (8) years, forced expiratory volume in 1 second 57 (20)% predicted. At baseline, the prevalence of probable anxiety and depression was 10% and 5%, respectively. In multivariable models adjusted by confounders and previous PA, patients performed 81 fewer steps/day (95% confidence interval, −149 to −12, P=0.02) per extra point in HADS-depression score. HADS-anxiety symptoms were not associated with PA. Conclusion In COPD patients, symptoms of depression are prospectively associated with a measurable reduction in PA 6 months later. PMID:27354787
Randall, Edin T; Bohnert, Amy M
The current cross-sectional study investigated the links between various dimensions of organized activity involvement and depressive symptoms, loneliness, and peer victimization in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of adolescents (N = 152; 58% female). Results indicate that adolescents who were involved in organized activities for more years also reported lower levels of loneliness. There was evidence of diminishing returns when adolescents were very highly involved in organized activities; those who were either under- or over-involved reported the highest levels of depressive symptoms. Conversely, findings indicate that adolescents who participated in a narrow or wide range of activity contexts reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, results suggested that the relation between organized activity involvement and adjustment differs among adolescents from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Findings from the current study also underscore the importance of considering multiple indices of activity involvement when assessing its association with adjustment.
Morgan, Charlie; Cotten, Shelia R
An Internet survey of college freshmen at a mid-Atlantic mid-sized university was conducted during the spring of 2002 to determine the impact of Internet activities on social support and well-being. Results obtained from the survey allow examination of the impact of amount of time performing different types of Internet activities on depressive symptoms, as measured by the Iowa version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) via a semi-elasticity ordinary least squares regression model. Results indicate that increased e-mail and chat room/instant messaging (IM) hours are associated with decreased depressive symptoms, while increased Internet hours for shopping, playing games, or research is associated with increased depressive symptoms. The implications of these results for institutions of higher education, and Internet and health researchers are discussed.
Rosenström, Tom; Hintsa, Taina; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Lipsanen, Jari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hakulinen, Christian; Pahkala, Katja; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T.
This prospective, community-based study examined trajectories of physical activity from childhood to adulthood and whether these trajectories contributed to depressive symptoms in adulthood to a greater degree than adulthood physical activity. Participants (n = 3596) were from the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study which started in 1980. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in 2012, and physical activity was assessed from 1980 to 2011 with self-reports. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, childhood negative emotionality, socioeconomic factors, previous depressive symptoms, social support, body mass index, and smoking status (1980–2007). Highly, moderately, and lightly physically active trajectory groups were identified. Highly active participants reported lower levels of depressive symptoms compared to lightly active ones (p < 0.001) and compared to moderately active ones (p = 0.001). Moderately active participants had less symptoms than lightly active ones (p < 0.001). High levels of adulthood physical activity associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms (p < 0.001). The findings did not withstand adjustment for previous depressive symptoms (p > 0.05). Lifelong physical activity trajectories or adulthood physical activity was not associated with the progression of depressive symptoms in adulthood. Thus, physical activity history does not contribute to the progression of the depressive symptoms to a greater degree than adulthood physical activity. PMID:27795983
Overdorf, Virginia; Kollia, Betty; Makarec, Katherine; Alleva Szeles, Cassandra
Objective: Depression and inactivity in the elderly are major health problems with significant ramifications for healthy aging. Research shows an inverse relationship between depression and physical activity levels. The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in healthy older women, first within the framework of exercise programs, and second via the impact of an intervention. Method: Two experiments were conducted. In the first, 65 women, all above the age of 60, participated. Measures of physical activity were gained by self-report using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire while the measure of depressive symptomatology was the Beck Depression Inventory. In the second, 11 women participated in a line dancing intervention, and their self-reported depressive symptomatology was measured prior to and just after the 6-week exercise intervention using the Beck Depression Inventory. In addition, during the second experiment, pedometer data were gathered during the fourth week. Results and Conclusion: The data of the first study revealed a relationship between the total amount of physical activity and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory; that is, the more active a person is, the lower her self-reported depressive symptoms. Significant correlations were found between the Beck Depression Inventory and the reports of vigorous and moderate exercise levels, but not with walking. Participants who were part of an organized exercise group exercised significantly more than those who exercised on their own. In the second study, those who participated in a line dancing intervention had significantly lower Beck Depression Inventory scores post intervention. The implications of these findings for public health are discussed.
Overdorf, Virginia; Kollia, Betty; Makarec, Katherine; Alleva Szeles, Cassandra
Objective: Depression and inactivity in the elderly are major health problems with significant ramifications for healthy aging. Research shows an inverse relationship between depression and physical activity levels. The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in healthy older women, first within the framework of exercise programs, and second via the impact of an intervention. Method: Two experiments were conducted. In the first, 65 women, all above the age of 60, participated. Measures of physical activity were gained by self-report using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire while the measure of depressive symptomatology was the Beck Depression Inventory. In the second, 11 women participated in a line dancing intervention, and their self-reported depressive symptomatology was measured prior to and just after the 6-week exercise intervention using the Beck Depression Inventory. In addition, during the second experiment, pedometer data were gathered during the fourth week. Results and Conclusion: The data of the first study revealed a relationship between the total amount of physical activity and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory; that is, the more active a person is, the lower her self-reported depressive symptoms. Significant correlations were found between the Beck Depression Inventory and the reports of vigorous and moderate exercise levels, but not with walking. Participants who were part of an organized exercise group exercised significantly more than those who exercised on their own. In the second study, those who participated in a line dancing intervention had significantly lower Beck Depression Inventory scores post intervention. The implications of these findings for public health are discussed. PMID:28138487
Maglione, Jeanne E.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Peters, Katherine W.; Paudel, Misti L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Tranah, Greg J.; Stone, Katie L.
Objectives Aging is associated with changes in circadian rhythms. Current evidence supports a role for circadian rhythms in the pathophysiology of depression. However, little is known about the relationship between depressive symptoms and circadian activity rhythms in older adults. We examined this association in community-dwelling older women. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 3,020 women (mean age: 83.55 ± 3.79 years) enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale categorizing participants as “normal” (0–2; referent group, N = 1,961), “some depressive symptoms” (3–5, N = 704), or “depressed” (≥6, N = 355). Circadian activity rhythm variables were measured using wrist actigraphy. Results In age-adjusted and Study of Osteoporotic Fractures site–adjusted models, greater levels of depressive symptoms were associated with decreased amplitude (height; df = 3,014, t = −11.31, p for linear trend <0.001), pseudo F-statistic (robustness; df =3,014, t =−8.07, p for linear trend <0.001), and mesor (mean modeled activity; df = 3014, t = −10.36, p for linear trend <0.001) of circadian activity rhythms. Greater levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with increased odds of being in the lowest quartile for amplitude (df =1, χ2 =9240, p for linear trend <0.001), pseudo F-statistic (df =1, χ2 =49.73, p for linear trend <0.001), and mesor (df =1, χ2 =81.12, p for linear trend <0.001). These associations remained significant in multivariate models. Post-hoc analyses comparing mean amplitude, mesor, and pseudo F-statistic values pair-wise between depression-level groups revealed significant differences between women with “some depressive symptoms” and the “normal” group. Conclusion These data suggest a graded association between greater levels of depressive symptoms and more desynchronization of circadian activity rhythms in community
Putnam, Katherine M; McSweeney, Lauren B
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) electroencephalography (EEG) alpha asymmetry has been found in individuals with major depression. However, EEG activity has never been examined in regard to specific depressive symptoms. We examine the relationship between resting baseline PFC alpha activity and both rumination and self-esteem in a depressed outpatient group (N=6) and a healthy control group (N=7) using high-density EEG sampling and multiple longitudinal self report measures, i.e. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). Symptom measures were collected five times daily for 7 days, i.e. 35 assessments. Using a mixed-level analysis, significant Group x Hemisphere interactions for PFC sites and both rumination and self-esteem were found. Within the depressed group, lower bilateral PFC activity predicted higher levels of rumination, and lower right PFC activity predicted higher levels of self-esteem. There were no significant effects for the control group. Results indicate that specific symptoms of depression are uniquely associated with patterns of PFC EEG alpha activity.
The aim of this study is to: (1) compare the association between various levels of physical activity (PA) and mortality; and (2) examine the potential modifying effect of depressive symptoms on the PA-mortality associations. Previous large scale randomized studies rarely assess the association in conjunction with modifying effects of depressive…
Gillihan, Seth J; Rao, Hengyi; Brennan, Lauretta; Wang, Danny J J; Detre, John A; Sankoorikal, Geena Mary V; Brodkin, Edward S; Farah, Martha J
Recent attempts to understand the biological bases of depression vulnerability have revealed that both the short allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and activity in the amygdala are associated with depression. Other studies have reported amygdala hyperactivity associated with the 5-HTTLPR short allele, linking the genetic and neuroimaging lines of research and suggesting a mechanism whereby the short allele confers depression risk. However, fewer investigations have examined the associations among depression, 5-HTTLPR variability, and amygdala activation in a single study. The current study thus investigated whether 5-HTTLPR genotype modulates the association between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among psychiatrically healthy adults. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with perfusion fMRI during a task-free scan. We hypothesized differential associations between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among individuals homozygous for the short allele and individuals homozygous for the long allele. Both whole brain analyses and region-of-interest analyses confirmed this prediction, revealing a significant negative association among the long allele group and a trend of positive association among the short allele group. These results complement existing reports of short allele related amygdala hyperactivity and suggest an additional neurobiological mechanism whereby the 5-HTTLPR is associated with psychiatric outcomes.
Gillihan, Seth J.; Rao, Hengyi; Brennan, Lauretta; Wang, Danny JJ; Detre, John A.; Sankoorikal, Geena Mary V.; Brodkin, Edward S.; Farah, Martha J.
Recent attempts to understand the biological bases of depression vulnerability have revealed that both the short allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and activity in the amygdala are associated with depression. Other studies have reported amygdala hyperactivity associated with the 5-HTTLPR short allele, linking the genetic and neuroimaging lines of research and suggesting a mechanism whereby the short allele confers depression risk. However, fewer investigations have examined the associations between depression, 5-HTTLPR variability, and amygdala activation in a single study. The current study thus investigated whether 5-HTTLPR genotype modulates the association between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among psychiatrically healthy adults. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with perfusion fMRI during a task-free scan. We hypothesized differential associations between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among individuals homozygous for the short allele and individuals homozygous for the long allele. Both whole brain analyses and region-of-interest analyses confirmed this prediction, revealing a significant negative association among the long allele group and a trend of positive association among the short allele group. These results complement existing reports of short allele related amygdala hyperactivity and suggest an additional neurobiological mechanism whereby the 5-HTTLPR is associated with psychiatric outcomes. PMID:21764567
Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fisher, Philip A.; Marceau, Kristine; Harold, Gordon T.; Reiss, David
Child hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity was investigated as a moderator of parental depressive symptom effects on child behavior in an adoption sample ("n" = 210 families). Adoptive parents' depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing were assessed at 18, 27, and 54 months, and child morning and evening HPA…
Kiely, Kim M.; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Luszcz, Mary A.
Background: The association between dual sensory loss (DSL) and mental health has been well established. However, most studies have relied on self-report data and lacked measures that would enable researchers to examine causal pathways between DSL and depression. This study seeks to extend this research by examining the effects of DSL on mental health, and identify factors that explain the longitudinal associations between sensory loss and depressive symptoms. Methods: Piecewise linear-mixed models were used to analyze 16-years of longitudinal data collected on up to five occasions from 1611 adults (51% men) aged between 65 and 103 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D). Vision loss (VL) was defined by corrected visual acuity >0.3 logMAR in the better eye, blindness, or glaucoma. Hearing loss (HL) was defined by pure-tone average (PTA) >25 dB in the better hearing ear. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographics, medical conditions, lifestyle behaviors, activities of daily living (ADLs), cognitive function, and social engagement. Results: Unadjusted models indicated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with HL (B = 1.16, SE = 0.33) and DSL (B = 2.15, SE = 0.39) but not VL. Greater rates of change in depressive symptoms were also evident after the onset of HL (B = 0.16, SE = 0.06, p < 0.01) and DSL (B = 0.30, SE = 0.09, p < 0.01). The associations between depressive symptoms and sensory loss were explained by difficulties with ADLs, and social engagement. Conclusion: Vision and HL are highly prevalent among older adults and their co-occurrence may compound their respective impacts on health, functioning, and activity engagement, thereby exerting strong effects on the mental health and wellbeing of those affected. There is therefore a need for rehabilitation programs to be sensitive to the combined effects of sensory loss on individuals
Ge, Fiona; Pietromonaco, Paula R.; DeBuse, Casey J.; Powers, Sally I.; Granger, Douglas A.
We investigated the extent to which individual differences in activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) are associated with depressive symptoms among newlywed couples. Participants were 218 couples (M age 28.4 years; 94% White) who provided 5 saliva samples (later assayed for cortisol and DHEA-S) before and after participation in a discussion of a major area of disagreement in their relationship. Depressive symptoms were assessed initially, and approximately 19- and 37-months later. Results revealed an interactive effect suggesting that concordant levels of cortisol and DHEA-S (either both high or both low) were concurrently and prospectively associated with higher depression scores. Interestingly, this interactive effect was observed for wives only – not for husbands. These observations underscore contemporary theoretical assumptions that the expression of the association between HPA activity and depression is dependent on factors related to the interaction between characteristics of the person and features of the social environment, and moderated by co-occurring variation in endocrine milieu. PMID:27494071
van den Bulk, Bianca G.; Meens, Paul H. F.; van Lang, Natasja D. J.; de Voogd, E. L.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Crone, Eveline A.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.
Depressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future studies. PMID:24926249
Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure: An Investigation of Relative Symptom Changes in PTSD and Depression During the Course of Integrated Behavioral Activation, Situational Exposure, and Imaginal Exposure Techniques
Gros, Daniel F.; Price, Matthew; Strachan, Martha; Yuen, Erica K.; Milanak, Melissa E.; Acierno, Ron
Effectiveness of exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be adversely influenced by comorbid disorders. The present study investigated behavioral activation and therapeutic exposure (BA-TE), a new integrated treatment designed specifically for comorbid symptoms of PTSD and depression. Combat veterans with PTSD (N = 117) completed eight sessions of BA-TE that included two phases of treatment: (a) behavioral activation (BA) in which some activities involved situational exposures and (b) BA and situational exposures with imaginal exposures. Findings supported improvements in symptoms of PTSD, and overlapping symptoms of PTSD and depression, but not in nonoverlapping symptoms of depression. The findings also demonstrated a relatively consistent rate of change in PTSD and depression symptoms during BA-TE, despite the addition of imaginal exposures midway through the treatment. Together, these findings provide preliminary support for BA-TE as a treatment for PTSD and depression, and highlight the utility of transdiagnostic treatments in addressing comorbidity and symptom overlap. PMID:22679240
Cecchini, José Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Carriedo, Alejandro; Arruza, José Antonio
The purpose was to test a new motivational sequence. It was hypothesized that more autonomous forms of motivation would predict the intensity of physical activity (PA), which in turn, would predict depressive symptoms. In order to evaluate self-determined motivation, the Self-Determination Index (SDI) was used. Because the reasons that can lead a person to engage in walking, moderate PA, or vigorous PA may be different, 3 independent self-determination indexes were measured (SDIWalking, SDIModerate, and SDIVigorous). It was also measured the metabolic equivalent of task values (METs) for walking, moderate, and vigorous PA, as well as the depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 357 college students whose ages ranged from 18 to 29 years. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. The indices of fit showed that the revised model fits the data reasonably well: S-Bχ(2)(11) = 14.83, p = .190; χ(2) /df = 1.35; *comparative fit index = .99; *root mean square error of approximation = .03, 90% CI [.000, .068]; standardised root mean square residual = .03. It was found that vigorous PA is the only intensity that predicts depressive symptoms. In other words, SDIV-predicted vigorous PA (measured as METS V), which subsequently predicted less depressive symptoms (SDIV → METS V → Depressive symptoms). Further research should investigate the effects of vigorous PA on depressive symptoms.
Anand, Shuchi; Johansen, Kirsten L; Grimes, Barbara; Kaysen, George A; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Kutner, Nancy G; Chertow, Glenn M
Symptoms of sleep and mood disturbances are common among patients on dialysis and are associated with significant decrements in survival and health-related quality of life. We used data from the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS) to examine the association of self-reported physical activity with self-reported symptoms of insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS), and depression in patients new to dialysis. The CDS collected data on physical activity, functional status, and health-related quality of life from 1678 patients on either peritoneal (n = 169) or hemodialysis (n = 1509). The Human Activity Profile was used to measure self-reported physical activity. Symptoms were elicited in the following manner: insomnia using three questions designed to capture difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, RLS using three questions based on the National Institutes of Health workshop, and depression using the two-item Patient Health Questionnaire. We obtained data on symptoms of insomnia and depression for 1636, and on symptoms of RLS for 1622 (>98%) patients. Of these, 863 (53%) reported one of three insomnia symptoms as occurring at a persistent frequency. Symptoms of RLS and depression occurred in 477 (29%) and 451 (28%) of patients, respectively. The Adjusted Activity Score of the Human Activity Profile was inversely correlated with all three conditions in models adjusting for demographics, comorbid conditions, and laboratory variables. Sleep and mood disturbances were commonly reported in our large, diverse cohort of patients new to dialysis. Patients who reported lower levels of physical activity were more likely to report symptoms of insomnia, RLS, and depression.
Li, Weidong; Zhu, Yan; Saud, Shakir M; Guo, Qiujun; Xi, Shengyan; Jia, Baohui; Jiao, Shuang; Yang, Xiuyan; Lu, Jun; Song, Sihong; Tu, Ya
Electroacupuncture (EA) has been shown to alleviate the symptoms associated with major depressive disorder; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. While the mainstay treatment for depression are pharmacological agents that modulate serotonergic and/or noradrenergic activity of the brain, recent data suggest that, neurotrophins may play a larger role in the pathogenesis of depression and may offer better therapeutic potential in alleviating symptoms associated with depression. One downstream target of neurotrophins is the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, a major mediator of cellular stress often associated with clinical depression. In this study, we assessed whether the efficacy of EA is due to regulation of these novel pathways using an animal model of depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). We found that EA stimulation at specific locations, Baihui (GV20), and Yintang (GV29) ameliorated the behavioral responses of CUMS, which included reduced locomotion, decreased sucrose intake and weight loss. Furthermore, EA increased the activation of ERK and ribosomal s6 kinase (RSK) levels under stress. Both the behavioral and biochemical responses to EA were attenuated with administration of ERK inhibitor, suggesting that EA improves depression-like symptoms in stressed rats, in part, by activation of ERK signaling.
Khawaja, Shehryar N; Iwasaki, Laura R; Dunford, Robert; Nickel, Jeffrey C; McCall, Willard; Crow, Heidi C; Gonzalez, Yoly
Aim and background The objective of this study was to determine if duty factors (DF) of low-magnitude MMA during awake and sleep periods were associated with self-reports of anxiety, depression, and somatic symptoms, and if so, whether or not any associations were modified by gender or the presence of pain. Limited information is currently available in the literature regarding the association of low-magnitude masseter muscle activities (MMA) in habitual environmental settings and the presence of psychological symptoms. Materials and methods Sixty-eight consenting participants were classified using the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders examination and validated self-reporting psychological symptom evaluation questionnaires. Each subject also had masseter electromyography recordings during standardized biting tasks in 2 laboratory sessions to calibrate the in-field MMA collected during 3 awake and 3 sleep periods. Results During awake periods, subjects with self-reported depression and somatic symptoms had statistically high odds of having higher DF of low-magnitude MMA (defined by ≥ 75th percentile of sample). The association between high DF of low-magnitude MMA and self-reported depression symptoms was significantly augmented among male participants, whereas, the association between high DF of low-magnitude MMA and self-reported somatic symptoms was significantly increased among female participants without pain. Conclusion These pilot data support associations of low-magnitude masseter muscle activities with self-reported depression and somatic symptoms during awake periods. PMID:26709387
Nilsson, Kent W; Sonnby, Karin; Nordquist, Niklas; Comasco, Erika; Leppert, Jerzy; Oreland, Lars; Sjöberg, Rickard L
The Transcription Factor Activating Protein-2β (TFAP-2β) gene has been shown to influence monoaminergic neurotransmission, and several genes important for monoaminergic function have binding sites for TFAP-2β. Familial studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest a hereditary-determined subtype of ADHD with comorbid depression. We examined a functional variation of the TFAP-2β gene in the context of co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression in two independent population-based samples of adolescents (Group A, n = 175 and Group B, n = 1,506) from Sweden. Results indicated 6.1 to 7.8% of adolescents screened positively for ADHD and depression symptoms. Symptoms of depression were more common among girls who screened positively for ADHD and did not carry the nine-repeat allele of the TFAP-2β intron 1 Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) polymorphism. The presence of the nine-repeat variant of the TFAP-2β intron 1 VNTR appears to protect girls with ADHD symptoms from the co-expression of symptoms of depression.
McEachan, R R C; Prady, S L; Smith, G; Fairley, L; Cabieses, B; Gidlow, C; Wright, J; Dadvand, P; van Gent, D; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J
Background The current study explored the association between green space and depression in a deprived, multiethnic sample of pregnant women, and examined moderating and mediating variables. Method 7547 women recruited to the ‘Born in Bradford’ cohort completed a questionnaire during pregnancy. A binary measure of depressive symptoms was calculated using a validated survey. Two green space measures were used: quintiles of residential greenness calculated using the normalised difference vegetation index for three neighbourhood sizes (100, 300 and 500 m buffer zones around participant addresses); access to major green spaces estimated as straight line distance between participant address and nearest green space (>0.5 hectares). Logistic regression analyses examined relationships between green space and depressive symptoms, controlling for ethnicity, demographics, socioeconomic status (SES) and health behaviours. Multiplicative interactions explored variations by ethnic group, SES or activity levels. Mediation analysis assessed indirect effects via physical activity. Results Pregnant women in the greener quintiles were 18–23% less likely to report depressive symptoms than those in the least green quintile (for within 100 m of green space buffer zone). The green space-depressive symptoms association was significant for women with lower education or who were active. Physical activity partially mediated the association of green space, but explained only a small portion of the direct effect. Conclusions Higher residential greenness was associated with a reduced likelihood of depressive symptoms. Associations may be stronger for more disadvantaged groups and for those who are already physically active. Improving green space is a promising intervention to reduce risk of depression in disadvantaged groups. PMID:26560759
Gozdzik-Zelazny, A; Borecki, L; Pokorski, M
Distinction between true negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia is difficult. In the present study we seek to establish the psychological profile of depression-prone schizophrenic patients. We addressed the issue by comparing the expression of psychological indices, such as the feelings of being in control of events, anxiety, mood, and the style of coping with stress in depressive and non-depressive schizophrenics. We also analyzed the strength of the association of these indices with the presence of depressive symptoms. A total of 49 patients (18 women and 31 men, aged 23-59) were enrolled into the study, consisting of a self-reported psychometric survey. We found that the prevalence of clinically significant depression in schizophrenic patients was 61%. The factors which contributed to the intensification of depressive symptoms were the external locus of control, anxiety, gloomy mood, and the emotion-oriented coping with stress. We conclude that psychological testing may discern those schizophrenic patients who would be at risk of depression development and may help separate the blurred boundaries between depressive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Butler, Amy C
Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.
Santos, Fernanda Dutra dos; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro
Introduction Hearing loss is one of the most common problems in the elderly population. Besides compromising oral communication, it directly affects social relations and prevents elderly patients from living actively in society, possibly leading to the onset of depression or other conditions. Objective To analyze the effects of unilateral adaptation of hearing aids on symptoms of depression and the social activity constraints of elderly subjects with hearing impairment. Methods The sample consisted of elderly subjects with hearing loss who did not use hearing aids. Data were collected in two phases. Initially, all participants underwent an audiological assessment and answered the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly (summarized version) and the Geriatric Depression Scale. All subjects participated in the selection and hearing aid adaptation processes and became monaural hearing aid users. After 30 days of hearing aid use, they were assessed with the same instruments. The results of the questionnaires before and after hearing aid adaptation were compared. Results The sample consisted of 13 individuals, between 60 and 90 years old (mean 72.85 ± 11.05 years). Data analysis showed that there was significant improvement in social activity constraints (p < 0.001) and in symptoms of depression (p = 0.031). Conclusion Results show that, in the sample studied, unilateral hearing aid adaptation reduced social activity constraints and depression symptoms. PMID:26157497
Santos, Fernanda Dutra Dos; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro
Introduction Hearing loss is one of the most common problems in the elderly population. Besides compromising oral communication, it directly affects social relations and prevents elderly patients from living actively in society, possibly leading to the onset of depression or other conditions. Objective To analyze the effects of unilateral adaptation of hearing aids on symptoms of depression and the social activity constraints of elderly subjects with hearing impairment. Methods The sample consisted of elderly subjects with hearing loss who did not use hearing aids. Data were collected in two phases. Initially, all participants underwent an audiological assessment and answered the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly (summarized version) and the Geriatric Depression Scale. All subjects participated in the selection and hearing aid adaptation processes and became monaural hearing aid users. After 30 days of hearing aid use, they were assessed with the same instruments. The results of the questionnaires before and after hearing aid adaptation were compared. Results The sample consisted of 13 individuals, between 60 and 90 years old (mean 72.85 ± 11.05 years). Data analysis showed that there was significant improvement in social activity constraints (p < 0.001) and in symptoms of depression (p = 0.031). Conclusion Results show that, in the sample studied, unilateral hearing aid adaptation reduced social activity constraints and depression symptoms.
Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.
The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…
Kinsinger, Stuart; Puhl, Aaron Anthony; Reinhart, Christine J.
Background: The intensive training associated with health care education has been suggested to have unintended negative consequences on students’ mental or emotional health that may interfere with the development of qualities deemed essential for proficient health care professionals. This longitudinal study examined the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms among students at a chiropractic educational institution. Methods: Chiropractic students at all levels of training were surveyed at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College during the academic years of 2000/2001, 2001/2002, and 2002/2003. The measurement tool employed was the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II). Previously established BDI-II cutoff scores were used to assess the severity of reported depression symptoms, and these were compared by sex and year of training. Results: The survey was completed by 1303 students (70%) over the 3 years of the study. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was nearly 25%, with 13.7% of respondents indicating a rating of mild depression, 7.1% indicating moderate depressive symptoms, and 2.8% indicating severe symptoms. Significant differences were found between years of training, with 2nd-year students having the highest prevalence of depressive symptoms, and sex, with females having a higher rate of symptoms. Conclusions: Chiropractic students surveyed at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College had high rates of depression similar to those measured in other health care profession students. Chiropractic educational institutions should be aware of this situation and are encouraged to emphasize students’ awareness of their own personal health and well-being and their access to appropriate care, in addition to the same concerns for their future patients. PMID:22069339
de Paula, Jonas J.; Diniz, Breno S.; Bicalho, Maria A.; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Nicolato, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Edgar N.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.
Cognitive functioning influences activities of daily living (ADL). However, studies reporting the association between ADL and neuropsychological performance show inconsistent results regarding what specific cognitive domains are related to each specific functional domains. Additionally, whether depressive symptoms are associated with a worse functional performance in older adults is still under explored. We investigated if specific cognitive domains and depressive symptoms would affect different aspects of ADL. Participants were 274 older adults (96 normal aging participants, 85 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 93 patients probable with mild Alzheimer’s disease dementia) with low formal education (∼4 years). Measures of ADL included three complexity levels: Self-care, Instrumental-Domestic, and Instrumental-Complex. The specific cognitive functions were evaluated through a factorial strategy resulting in four cognitive domains: Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, and Visuospatial Abilities. The Geriatric Depression Scale measured depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis showed executive functions and episodic memory as significant predictors of Instrumental-Domestic ADL, and executive functions, episodic memory and language/semantic memory as predictors of Instrumental-Complex ADL (22 and 28% of explained variance, respectively). Ordinal regression analysis showed the influence of specific cognitive functions and depressive symptoms on each one of the instrumental ADL. We observed a heterogeneous pattern of association with explained variance ranging from 22 to 38%. Different instrumental ADL had specific cognitive predictors and depressive symptoms were predictive of ADL involving social contact. Our results suggest a specific pattern of influence depending on the specific instrumental daily living activity. PMID:26257644
de Paula, Jonas J; Diniz, Breno S; Bicalho, Maria A; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Nicolato, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Edgar N; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F
Cognitive functioning influences activities of daily living (ADL). However, studies reporting the association between ADL and neuropsychological performance show inconsistent results regarding what specific cognitive domains are related to each specific functional domains. Additionally, whether depressive symptoms are associated with a worse functional performance in older adults is still under explored. We investigated if specific cognitive domains and depressive symptoms would affect different aspects of ADL. Participants were 274 older adults (96 normal aging participants, 85 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 93 patients probable with mild Alzheimer's disease dementia) with low formal education (∼4 years). Measures of ADL included three complexity levels: Self-care, Instrumental-Domestic, and Instrumental-Complex. The specific cognitive functions were evaluated through a factorial strategy resulting in four cognitive domains: Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, and Visuospatial Abilities. The Geriatric Depression Scale measured depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis showed executive functions and episodic memory as significant predictors of Instrumental-Domestic ADL, and executive functions, episodic memory and language/semantic memory as predictors of Instrumental-Complex ADL (22 and 28% of explained variance, respectively). Ordinal regression analysis showed the influence of specific cognitive functions and depressive symptoms on each one of the instrumental ADL. We observed a heterogeneous pattern of association with explained variance ranging from 22 to 38%. Different instrumental ADL had specific cognitive predictors and depressive symptoms were predictive of ADL involving social contact. Our results suggest a specific pattern of influence depending on the specific instrumental daily living activity.
Gregory, Chris M.; Simpson, Annie N.
Background One-third of individuals with stroke report symptoms of depression, which has a negative impact on recovery. Physical activity (PA) is a potentially effective therapy. Our objective was to examine the associations of subjectively assessed PA levels and symptoms of depression in a nationally representative stroke sample. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 175 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2012 cycle. Moderate, vigorous, and combination equivalent PA metabolic equivalent (MET)-minutes per week averages were derived from the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, and .the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines/American College of Sports Medicine recommendations of ≥500 MET-minutes per week of moderate, vigorous, or combination equivalent PA were used as cut points. Depression symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Results Meeting moderate PA guidelines resulted in 74% lower odds of having depression symptoms (P < .0001) and 89% lower odds of major symptoms of depression (P = .0003). Meeting vigorous guidelines showed a 91% lower odds of having mild symptoms of depression (P = .04). Participating in some moderate, vigorous, or combination equivalent PA revealed the odds of depression symptoms 13 times greater compared with meeting guidelines (P = .005); odds of mild symptoms of depression were 9 times greater (P = .01); and odds of major symptoms of depression were 15 times greater (P = .006). Conclusions There is a lower risk of developing mild symptoms of depression when vigorous guidelines for PA are met and developing major symptoms of depression when moderate guidelines met. Participating in some PA is not enough to reduce the risk of depression symptoms. PMID:27145542
Friedman, Allyson K.; Juarez, Barbara; Ku, Stacy M.; Zhang, Hongxing; Calizo, Rhodora C.; Walsh, Jessica J.; Chaudhury, Dipesh; Zhang, Song; Hawkins, Angel; Dietz, David M.; Murrough, James W.; Ribadeneira, Maria; Wong, Erik H.; Neve, Rachael L.; Han, Ming-Hu
Less than half of patients suffering from major depressive disorder, a leading cause of disability worldwide, achieve remission with current antidepressants, making it imperative to develop more effective treatment. A new therapeutic direction is emerging from the increased understanding of natural resilience as an active stress-coping process. It is known that potassium (K+) channels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are an active mediator of resilience. However, no druggable targets have been identified to potentiate active resilience mechanisms. In the chronic social defeat stress model of depression, we report that KCNQ-type K+ channel openers, including FDA-approved drug retigabine (ezogabine), show antidepressant efficacy. We demonstrate that overexpression of KCNQ channels in the VTA dopaminergic neurons and either local infusion or systemic administration of retigabine normalized neuronal hyperactivity and depressive behaviours. These findings identify KCNQ as a target for conceptually novel antidepressants that function through the potentiation of active resilience mechanisms. PMID:27216573
Skidmore, F M; Yang, M; Baxter, L; von Deneen, K; Collingwood, J; He, G; Tandon, R; Korenkevych, D; Savenkov, A; Heilman, K M; Gold, M; Liu, Y
Apathy and depression are heterogeneous syndromes with symptoms that overlap clinically. This clinical overlap leads to problems with classification and diagnosis in clinical populations. No functional imaging study has attempted to separate brain regions altered in apathy from those altered in depression in a clinical population. Parkinson disease (PD) is a disorder in which apathy and depression co-exist in a single population. We evaluate the relationship between apathy, depression, and motor severity of disease in PD, focusing on the relationship between these factors and the amplitude of the low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the resting state. We first evaluated if the resting ALFF signal is a reliable measure for our clinical question. For this, we develop and introduce a cross validation approach we term the "Regional Mapping of Reliable Differences" (RMRD) method to evaluate reliability of regions of interest deemed "significant" by standard voxel-wise techniques. Using this approach, we show that the apathy score in this sample is best predicted by ALFF signal in the left supplementary motor cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, and the right middle frontal cortex, whereas depression score is best predicted by ALFF signal in the right subgenual cingulate. Disease severity was best predicted by ALFF signal in the right putamen. A number of additional regions are also statistically (but not reliably) correlated with our neuropsychological measures and disease severity. Our results support the use of resting fMRI as a means to evaluate neuropsychiatric states and motor disease progression in Parkinson disease, and the clinical and epidemiologic observation that apathy and depression are distinct pathological entities. Our finding that "significance" and "reliability" are dissociated properties of regions of interest identified as significant using standard voxel-wise techniques suggests that including reliability analyses may add useful scientific
Gold, Stefan M; Irwin, Michael R
An increasing body of evidence suggests that patients who have major depressive disorder show alterations in immunologic markers including increases in proinflammatory cytokine activity and inflammation. Inflammation of the central nervous system is a pathologic hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients affected by this disease also show a high incidence of depression. Accumulating evidence from animal studies suggests that some aspects of depression and fatigue in MS may be linked to inflammatory markers. This article reviews the current knowledge in the field and illustrates how the sickness behavior model may be applied to investigate depressive symptoms in inflammatory neurologic diseases.
Kelleher, C.; Hickey, A.; Conroy, R.; Doyle, F.
Background. Depression is an increasing problem in older adults, which is exacerbated by under diagnosis and ineffective treatment options. Broadly speaking, as people age, their levels of regular physical activity (PA) decrease, while their experience of chronic pain increases. PA has been shown to be an effective, yet under-utilised, treatment for depression in this age-cohort although the influence of pain on the relationship between PA and depressive symptoms has not been considered. Methods. Secondary analysis of national data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA, 2011) (n = 8163 participants aged 50 years and older) examined the mediating or moderating role of pain in the relationship between depressive symptoms and PA, and the impact of PA, pain and depressive symptoms on health-care utilisation. Results. Approximately 8.5% TILDA older adults were depressed. No mediating or moderating effects of pain were found in the association between PA and depressive symptoms. Higher levels of PA were found to be independently associated with lower depressive symptoms, while higher levels of pain significantly increased the likelihood of depressive symptoms supporting previous findings. Depressive symptoms and higher levels of pain were also found to significantly increase health-care utilisation. Conclusions. Consistent with previous findings in this field, both PA and pain were found to be independently associated with depressive symptoms in Irish older adults. Furthermore, pain does not play a mediating or moderating role in the relationship between PA and depressive symptoms. Continued support for ongoing initiatives in this area aimed at increasing PA in older adults as a means to improve both physical and mental well-being is advised. The absence of any synergistic effect between PA and pain suggests that clinicians and health service providers should continue to promote PA as a treatment for depression, irrespective of the pain levels of their
Bookwala, Jamila; Lawson, Brendan
Purpose: This study tested the applicability of the activity restriction model of depressed affect to the context of poor vision in late life. This model hypothesizes that late-life stressors contribute to poorer mental health not only directly but also indirectly by restricting routine everyday functioning. Method: We used data from a national…
Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure: An Investigation of Relative Symptom Changes in PTSD and Depression during the Course of Integrated Behavioral Activation, Situational Exposure, and Imaginal Exposure Techniques
Gros, Daniel F.; Price, Matthew; Strachan, Martha; Yuen, Erica K.; Milanak, Melissa E.; Acierno, Ron
Effectiveness of exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be adversely influenced by comorbid disorders. The present study investigated behavioral activation and therapeutic exposure (BA-TE), a new integrated treatment designed specifically for comorbid symptoms of PTSD and depression. Combat veterans with PTSD (N = 117)…
Cristancho, P.; Lenze, E. J.; Avidan, M. S.; Rawson, K. S.
Background Hip fracture is often complicated by depressive symptoms in older adults. We sought to characterize trajectories of depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture and examine their relationship with functional outcomes and walking ability. We also investigated clinical and psychosocial predictors of these trajectories. Method We enrolled 482 inpatients, aged ≥60 years, who were admitted for hip fracture repair at eight St Louis, MO area hospitals between 2008 and 2012. Participants with current depression diagnosis and/or notable cognitive impairment were excluded. Depressive symptoms and functional recovery were assessed with the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Functional Recovery Score, respectively, for 52 weeks after fracture. Health, cognitive, and psychosocial variables were gathered at baseline. We modeled depressive symptoms using group-based trajectory analysis and subsequently identified correlates of trajectory group membership. Results Three trajectories emerged according to the course of depressive symptoms, which we termed ‘resilient’, ‘distressed’, and ‘depressed’. The depressed trajectory (10% of participants) experienced a persistently high level of depressive symptoms and a slower time to recover mobility than the other trajectory groups. Stressful life events prior to the fracture, current smoking, higher anxiety, less social support, antidepressant use, past depression, and type of implant predicted membership of the depressed trajectory. Conclusions Depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture are associated with poorer functional status. Clinical and psychosocial variables predicted membership of the depression trajectory. Early identification and intervention of patients in a depressive trajectory may improve functional outcomes after hip fracture. PMID:27032698
Pradeep, Neeti; Sutin, Angelina R
Depressive symptoms may co-occur within couples and follow similar trajectories, but relatively little is known about this process in old age. This study thus examined the association between some spousal characteristics (spouse's depressive symptoms, age difference between spouses) and the trajectory of depressive symptoms in older adults. Participants ≥ 65 years old were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,010; Mean age = 70.60 and 69.16 for target husbands and wives, respectively). Depressive symptoms were measured with a short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to model up to 9 assessments of depressive symptoms of target spouses (Mean number of CESD assessments per target spouse = 3, range 1-9). Depressive symptoms between spouses were correlated; convergence over time was modest. For both husbands and wives, having a younger spouse was associated with more depressive symptoms at age 65. These results suggest that there is concordance between spouses' depressive symptoms and that the age difference between spouses contribute to depressive symptoms as couples enter old age. The association between spouses' depressive symptoms is nearly as strong as the effect of each decade increase in age.
García-Peña, Carmen; Wagner, Fernando A.; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Espinel-Bermúdez, Claudia; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario; Arango-Lopera, Victoria; Franco-Marina, Francisco; Ramírez-Aldana, Ricardo; Gallo, Joseph
Background Depression is a well-recognised problem in the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with predictors of change in depressive symptoms, both in subjects with and without baseline significant depressive symptoms. Methods Longitudinal study of community-dwelling elderly people (>60 years or older), baseline evaluations, and two additional evaluations were reported. Depressive symptoms were measured using a 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale, and a score of 11 was used as cutoff point for significant depressive symptoms in order to stratify the analyses in two groups: with significant depressive symptoms and without significant depressive symptoms. Sociodemographic data, social support, anxiety, cognition, positive affect, control locus, activities of daily living, recent traumatic life events, physical activity, comorbidities, and quality of life were evaluated. Multi-level generalised estimating equation model was used to assess the impact on the trajectory of depressive symptoms. Results 7,882 subjects were assessed, with 29.42% attrition. At baseline assessment, mean age was 70.96 years, 61.15% were women. Trajectories of depressive symptoms had a decreasing trend. Stronger associations in those with significant depressive symptoms, were social support (OR .971, p<.001), chronic pain (OR 2.277, p<.001) and higher locus of control (OR .581, p<.001). In contrast for those without baseline significant depressive symptoms anxiety and a higher locus of control were the strongest associations. Conclusions New insights into late-life depression are provided, with special emphasis in differentiated factors influencing the trajectory when stratifying regarding basal status of significant depressive symptoms. Limitations The study has not included clinical evaluations and nutritional assessments PMID:23731940
Du, Wen-Jin; Tan, Ji-Ping; Yi, Fang; Zou, Yong-Ming; Gao, Ya; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Wang, Lu-Ning
Background Physical activity is generally considered to be effective in reducing the prevalence of depression and promoting remission of its symptoms. However, large-scale epidemiological research on this issue is lacking in older Chinese adults. We performed a nationwide epidemiological survey to determine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community, with adjustment for potential confounders. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 9,676 community-dwelling older Chinese veterans. Depressive symptoms were identified using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Physical activity was self-reported using a one-year physical activity questionnaire. Information about covariates was obtained by questionnaire-based interview. Relationships between study variables and symptoms of depression were estimated using unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results The median age was 82.29 (interquartile range 80.25–84.60) years. In total, 81.84% of the study participants engaged in physical activity that was predominantly light in intensity. In unadjusted analyses, physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased likelihood of depressive symptoms (5.43% versus 18.83%, P<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression with adjustment and controlling for confounders, physical activity was still inversely associated with depressive symptoms and was the only independent protective factor (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.44–0.72, P<0.0001) among the associated factors in this study. In a univariate general linear model, there was a significant difference in Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score between subjects participating in active physical activity and those who did not (F=59.07, P<0.0001). Conclusion This study found an inverse relationship between physical activity and symptoms of depression in older Chinese veterans in
Varner, Derrick F; Foutch, Brian K
This study investigated the prevalence of depression and burnout symptoms among family medicine providers on active duty in the US Air Force. Results demonstrated that 84% of those surveyed scored positive for degrees of depression symptoms; only sex differences were significant.
Cole, Susan A.; Eamon, Mary Keegan
Objectives: The main purposes of this study were to determine (1) the prevalence of depressive symptoms among foster caregivers, (2) the social-demographics, risk factors, and social support predicting depressive symptoms, and (3) whether social support buffered the effects of the risk factors in the Illinois Foster Caregivers Study. Method:…
Garvey, Michael J.; Goodes, Mike; Furlong, Candy; Tollefson, Gary D.
To examine whether harsh winter weather is associated with depressive symptoms, 45 healthy subjects from Minnesota were compared to 42 subjects from California near the end of the winter season. No differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms were found between the two groups.
... Loss of a Loved One Symptoms of major depression and complicated grief Depression It’s common for people to have sadness, pain, ... might be getting worse—going into a major depression. About 1 in 5 bereaved people will develop ...
Mooreville, Mira; Shomaker, Lauren B; Reina, Samantha A; Hannallah, Louise M; Adelyn Cohen, L; Courville, Amber B; Kozlosky, Merel; Brady, Sheila M; Condarco, Tania; Yanovski, Susan Z; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A
Depressive symptoms in youth may be a risk factor for obesity, with altered eating behaviors as one possible mechanism. We tested whether depressive symptoms were associated with observed eating patterns expected to promote excessive weight gain in two separate samples. In Study 1, 228 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 12-17y (15.3±1.4y; 54.7% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 10,934-kcal buffet meal served at 11:00am after an overnight fast. In Study 2, 204 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 8-17y (13.0±2.8y; 49.5% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children's Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 9835-kcal buffet meal served at 2:30pm after a standard breakfast. In Study 1, controlling for body composition and other relevant covariates, depressive symptoms were positively related to total energy intake in girls and boys. In Study 2, adjusting for the same covariates, depressive symptoms among girls only were positively associated with total energy intake. Youth high in depressive symptoms and dietary restraint consumed the most energy from sweets. In both studies, the effects of depressive symptoms on intake were small. Nevertheless, depressive symptoms were associated with significantly greater consumption of total energy and energy from sweet snack foods, which, over time, could be anticipated to promote excess weight gain.
Khoury, Jennifer E.; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie
Children of mothers with depressive symptoms often have high cortisol levels. Research shows that various child characteristics (e.g., attachment pattern, internalizing behaviours, and temperament) moderate this association. We suggest that these characteristics share common variance with emotion regulation strategy. Therefore, we examine infant…
Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan
Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…
Dishman, Rod K; Hales, Derek P; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Felton, Gwen A; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R
The authors tested whether physical self-concept and self-esteem would mediate cross-sectional relations of physical activity and sport participation with depression symptoms among 1,250 girls in 12th grade. There was a strong positive relation between global physical self-concept and self-esteem and a moderate inverse relation between self-esteem and depression symptoms. Physical activity and sport participation each had an indirect, positive relation with global physical self-concept that was independent of objective measures of cardiorespiratory fitness and body fatness. These correlational findings provide initial evidence suggesting that physical activity and sport participation might reduce depression risk among adolescent girls by unique, positive influences on physical self-concept that operate independently of fitness, body mass index, and perceptions of sports competence, body fat, and appearance.
Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy
The current prospective study investigated transactional relations between maternal depressive symptoms and children's depressive and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 240 children (M age = 11.86 years, SD = 0.56; 53.9% female) and their mothers who were part of a 6-year longitudinal study. Measures of maternal depression (Beck…
Geiser, Franziska; Gessler, Katharina; Conrad, Rupert; Imbierowicz, Katrin; Albus, Christian; Harbrecht, Ursula
Anxiety and depression are associated with an activation of coagulation and impairment of fibrinolysis. This study addresses the question whether these findings are reversed after psychotherapy and improvement of psychiatric symptoms. Three factors of coagulation and fibrinolysis as well as level of anxiety and depression were reassessed in 12 patients 1 to 3 years after intensive inpatient psychotherapy. The patients showed a substantial improvement of their severe anxiety disorder and comorbid depressive disorder. Simultaneously, we found a significant decrease in factor VII and plasminogen activator inhibitor. We conclude that reduction of severe anxiety and depression may be associated with a reversal of the procoagulant effect (activation of coagulation and impairment of fibrinolysis) of these psychological states. Because of the small sample size of this pilot study, further research is needed.
Gold, Stefan M; Irwin, Michael R
There is strong evidence that depression involves alterations in multiple aspects of immunity that may contribute to the development or exacerbation of a number of medical disorders and also may play a role in the pathophysiology of depressive symptoms. Accordingly, aggressive management of depressive disorders in medically ill populations or individuals at risk for disease may improve disease outcome or prevent disease development. On the other hand, in light of data suggesting that immune processes may interact with the pathophysiologic pathways known to contribute to depression, novel approaches to the treatment of depression may target relevant aspects of the immune response. Taken together, the data provide compelling evidence that a psychoimmunologic frame of reference may have profound implications regarding the consequences and treatment of depression. In addition, this approach may be used to investigate the possibility that peripheral and central production of cytokines may account for neuropsychiatric symptoms in inflammatory diseases. This article summarizes evidence for a cytokine-mediated pathogenesis of depression and fatigue in MS. The effects of central inflammatory processes may account for some of the behavioral symptoms seen in patients who have MS that cannot be explained by psychosocial factors or CNS damage. This immune-mediated hypothesis is supported by indirect evidence from experimental and clinical studies of the effect of cytokines on behavior, which have found that both peripheral and central cytokines may cause depressive symptoms. Emerging clinical data from patients who have MS support an association of central inflammation (as measured by MRI) and inflammatory markers with depressive symptoms and fatigue. Based on the literature reviewed in this article, subtypes of MS fatigue and depression may exist that are caused by different pathogenetic mechanisms, including inflammation and CNS damage as well as psychosocial factors or
Cerin, Ester; Sit, Cindy H P; Zhang, Casper J P; Barnett, Anthony; Cheung, Martin M C; Lai, Poh-chin; Johnston, Janice M; Lee, Ruby S Y
Introduction The neighbourhood environment can assist the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle and affect the physical and mental well-being of older adults. The psychosocial and behavioural mechanisms through which the environment may affect physical and mental well-being are currently poorly understood. Aim This observational study aims to examine associations between the physical and social neighbourhood environments, physical activity, quality of life and depressive symptoms in Chinese Hong Kong older adults. Methods and analyses An observational study of the associations of measures of the physical and social neighbourhood environment, and psychosocial factors, with physical activity, quality of life and depressive symptoms in 900 Hong Kong older adults aged 65+ years is being conducted in 2012–2016. The study involves two assessments taken 6 months apart. Neighbourhood walkability and access to destinations are objectively measured using Geographic Information Systems and environmental audits. Demographics, socioeconomic status, walking for different purposes, perceived neighbourhood and home environments, psychosocial factors, health status, social networks, depressive symptoms and quality of life are being assessed using validated interviewer-administered self-report measures and medical records. Physical functionality is being assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours are also being objectively measured in approximately 45% of participants using accelerometers over a week. Physical activity, sedentary behaviours, quality of life and depressive symptoms are being assessed twice (6 months apart) to examine seasonality effects on behaviours and their associations with quality of life and depressive symptoms. Ethics and dissemination The study received ethical approval from the University of Hong Kong Human Research Ethics Committee for Non-Clinical Faculties (EA270211) and the Department
Santiago, Lívia Maria; Mattos, Inês Echenique
OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals. PMID:24897042
BİLGİÇ, Başar; BAYRAM, Ali; HANAĞASI, Haşmet A.; TÜMAÇ, Ayfer; UYSAL, Pınar; ŞENTÜRK, Gülben; ALPSAN, Hale; LOHMANN, Ebba; GÜRVİT, Hakan; EMRE, Murat
Introduction Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) detected on magnetic resonance imaging scans are frequently seen in both Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and depression patients and believed to play an important role in cognition and mood. Depressive symptoms and depression may accompany AD in all stages of the disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship of regional WMHs with depressive symptoms, cognitive status, medial temporal lobe atrophy, and daily living activities in early-stage AD patients. Method Forty-five patients with very mild or mild AD were examined. All subjects underwent MRI and were assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) for the evaluation of depressive symptom severity and cognitive status, respectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on the selected cut-off point in the GDS. CDR sum of the boxes (CDR-sb) scores were calculated as a measure of activities of daily living (ADLs). MRI T2-FLAIR slices were used to rate the white-matter lesions according to the Age-Related White Matter Changes Rating Scale, assessing the WMHs in frontal, parietooccipital, temporal, infratentorial and basal ganglia areas individually. Medial temporal lobe atrophy was assessed with high-resolution T1 images using visual rating scale. Results In the depressive group, frontal WMH scores were found to be higher than in the non-depressive group (p=0.006). ACE-r, CDR-sb and medial temporal lobe atrophy scores did not differ among the groups. CDR-sb scores showed a significant correlation with frontal WMH scores (left frontal WMH r=0.439, p=0.003, right frontal AMH r=0.459, p=0.001). Linear regression models revealed the effect of WMHs on depressive symptoms among the other factors including age, functionality and atrophy in the medial temporal areas. Discussion Our findings underscore the potential role of regional, particularly frontal AMHs in depressive symptoms
Rozzini, Renzo; And Others
Investigated the relationship between somatic symptoms, depression, and life events (health status, function, social satisfaction, income) in a population of 1,201 elderly persons living at home. Found depression was the most important factor in the appearance of somatic complaints; however, life events were important cofactors in defining…
Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary E.
The current study examined depressive symptoms, concerning the week following autism spectrum diagnosis and an average of 1.4 years later, in mothers (n = 75) of young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Over three-quarters of mothers (78.7%) provided retrospective reports of clinically significant depressive symptoms…
Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.
Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158
Pankratz, Nathan; Marder, Karen S; Halter, Cheryl A; Rudolph, Alice; Shults, Cliff W; Nichols, William C; Foroud, Tatiana
Depression is one of the most common nonmotor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) and has a major impact on quality of life. Although several clinical factors have been associated with depression in PD, the relationship between depression and stage of illness as well as between depression and degree of disability remains controversial. We have collected clinical data on 1,378 PD cases from 632 families, using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Parts II (activities of daily living) & III (motor), the Mini-Mental State Exam, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Blessed Functional Activity Scale (Blessed). Analyses were performed using the 840 individuals with verified PD and without evidence of cognitive decline. Logistic regression was used to identify study variables that individually and collectively best predicted the presence of depressive symptoms (GDS >or= 10). After correcting for multiple tests, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with Hoehn and Yahr stage and other clinical measures but not with any genetic variant (parkin, LRRK2, APOE). The Blessed score, education, presence of a first degree relative with signs of depression, and UPDRS Part II were found to best predict depressive symptomatology (R(2) = 0.33; P = 4 x 10(-48)). Contrary to several reports, the results from this large study indicate that stage of illness, motor impairment, and functional disability are strongly correlated with depressive symptoms.
Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao
Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p < 0.001) concentrations than the 'no depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline.
Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alsion; Feng, Xin; Babinski, Dara; Hinze, Amanda; Rischall, Michal; Henneberger, Angela
Symptoms of depression are investigated among 232 preadolescent girls to study if they were predictive and stable of depression. Findings show that early symptoms of depression among preadolescent girls predict depressive disorders. Implications for preventive measures are discussed.
Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara
This descriptive study examined the relationship between volunteer activities, depressive symptoms, and feelings of usefulness among older adults using path analysis. Survey data was collected via interview from residents of a continuing care retirement community. Neither feelings of usefulness nor volunteering were directly associated with depressive symptoms. Volunteering was directly associated with feelings of usefulness and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through total physical activity. Age, fear of falling, pain, physical activity, and physical resilience explained 31% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Engaging in volunteer work may be beneficial for increasing feelings of usefulness and indirectly improving depressive symptoms among older adults.
Sabia, Joseph J.
A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is…
Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.
This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…
Boylan, Khrista; Georgiades, Katholiki; Szatmari, Peter
Objective: Symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and depression show high rates of co-occurrence, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. This study examines the extent to which variation in oppositional symptoms predict, variation in depressive symptoms over time, accounting for co-occurring depressive symptoms and measurement error.…
Records, Kathie; Keller, Colleen; Coonrod, Dean; Ainsworth, Barbara; Todd, Michael; Belyea, Michael; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Permana, Paska; Vega Lopez, Sonia
Depression symptoms and overweight/obesity are common concerns during childbearing. Both conditions are associated with poor outcomes at birth and can have long-lasting consequences. Predictors of depressive symptoms among overweight and obese low-income and ethnically diverse women are not known. Data are from the Madres para la Salud trial with 139 postpartum Latinas. Depressive symptoms during a prior pregnancy were positively related, while social support and moderate intensity physical activity (PA) were negatively related to depressive symptoms after birth. Social support and PA may be effective interventions, particularly for women who have experienced depressive symptoms in a prior pregnancy.
Iliadis, S I; Koulouris, P; Gingnell, M; Sylvén, S M; Sundström-Poromaa, I; Ekselius, L; Papadopoulos, F C; Skalkidou, A
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common childbirth complication, affecting 10-15 % of newly delivered mothers. This study aims to assess the association between personality factors and PPD. All pregnant women during the period September 2009 to September 2010, undergoing a routine ultrasound at Uppsala University Hospital, were invited to participate in the BASIC study, a prospective study designed to investigate maternal well-being. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) while the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) was used as a diagnostic tool for major depression. Personality traits were evaluated using the Swedish Universities Scale of Personality (SSP). One thousand thirty-seven non-depressed pregnant women were included in the study. Non-depressed women reporting high levels of neuroticism in late pregnancy were at high risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDSs) at 6 weeks and 6 months after delivery, even after adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.5 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.9, 95 % CI 1.9-7.9). The same was true for a DSRS-based diagnosis of major depression at 6 months postpartum. Somatic trait anxiety and psychic trait anxiety were associated with increased risk for PPDS at 6 weeks (aOR = 2.1, 95 % CI 1.2-3.5 and aOR = 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1), while high scores of mistrust were associated with a twofold increased risk for PPDS at 6 months postpartum (aOR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.4). Non-depressed pregnant women with high neuroticism scores have an almost fourfold increased risk to develop depressive symptoms postpartum, and the association remains robust even after controlling for most known confounders. Clinically, this could be of importance for health care professionals working with pregnant and newly delivered women.
Field, T; Pickens, J; Prodromidis, M; Malphurs, J; Fox, N; Bendell, D; Yando, R; Schanberg, S; Kuhn, C
Infants of mothers with depressive symptoms show developmental delays if symptoms persist over the first 6 months of the infant's life, thus highlighting the importance of identifying those mothers for early intervention. In Study 1, mothers with depressive symptoms (n = 160) and mothers without depressive symptoms (n = 100) and their infants were monitored to identify variables from the first 3 months that predict which mothers would still be symptomatic at 6 months. A "dysregulation" profile was noted for the infants of depressed mothers, including lower Brazelton scores, more indeterminate sleep, and elevated norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine levels at the neonatal period, and greater right frontal EEG activation, lower vagal tone, and negative interactions at the 3- and 6-month periods. A group of maternal variables from the neonatal and 3-month assessments accounted for 51% of the variance in the mothers' continuing depressive symptoms. These variables included greater right frontal EEG activation, lower vagal tone, and less positive interactions at 3 months, and elevated norepinephrine, serotonin, and cortisol levels at the neonatal stage. In Study 2, a similar sample of mothers with depressive symptoms (n = 160) and without depressive symptoms (n = 100) was recruited and followed to 3 months. Those symptomatic mothers who had values above (or below) the median (depending on the negative direction) on the predictor variables identified in Study 1 (taken from the first 3 months) were then randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group at 3 months. These groups were then compared with each other, as well as with the group without depressive symptoms, at 6 and 12 months. The intervention, conducted from 3 to 6 months, consisted of free day care for the infants and a rehab program (social, educational, and vocational) plus several mood induction interventions for the mothers, including relaxation therapy, music mood induction, massage therapy
Krieger, Tobias; Altenstein, David; Baettig, Isabelle; Doerig, Nadja; Holtforth, Martin Grosse
Self-compassion involves being kind to oneself when challenged with personal weaknesses or hardship and has been claimed to be associated with resilience in various areas. So far, there are only a handful of studies that investigate self-compassion and its relation to clinical depression. Therefore, the principal goals of the present study were (a) to compare self-compassion in clinically depressed patients and never-depressed subjects, (b) to investigate self-compassion and its relation to cognitive-behavioral avoidance and rumination in depressed outpatients, and (c) to investigate rumination and avoidance as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. One hundred and forty-two depressed outpatients and 120 never-depressed individuals from a community sample completed a self-report measure of self-compassion along with other measures. Results indicate that depressed patients showed lower levels of self-compassion than never-depressed individuals, even when controlled for depressive symptoms. In depressed outpatients, self-compassion was negatively related to depressive symptoms, symptom-focused rumination, as well as cognitive and behavioral avoidance. Additionally, symptom-focused rumination and cognitive and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. These findings extend previous research on self-compassion, its relation to depression, as well as processes mediating this relationship, and highlight the importance of self-compassion in clinically depressed patients. Since depressed patients seem to have difficulties adopting a self-compassionate attitude, psychotherapists are well advised to explore and address how depressed patients treat themselves.
Abramowitz, Amy C; Ginger, Emily J; Gollan, Jackie K; Smith, Matthew J
Empathy deficits have been associated with schizophrenia and depression. We compared whether individuals with schizophrenia with and without co-occurring depressive symptoms differed on self-reported and performance-based measures of empathy and social functioning. We also examined the relationships among depressive symptoms, empathy, clinical symptoms, and social functioning. Twenty-eight individuals with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms, 32 individuals with schizophrenia without depressive symptoms, and 44 control subjects were compared on assessments of depressive symptoms, empathy, global neurocognition, clinical symptoms, and social functioning. Both groups of individuals with schizophrenia scored higher than controls on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index personal distress subscale. Individuals with schizophrenia and co-occurring depressive symptoms scored significantly higher than individuals with schizophrenia without depressive symptoms on the personal distress subscale. Personal distress and depressive symptoms were significantly correlated among individuals with schizophrenia and co-occurring depressive symptoms, while both measures negatively correlated with social functioning. Emotional empathy was related to clinical symptoms in both groups of individuals with schizophrenia. Personal distress partially mediated the relationship between co-occurring depressive symptoms and social functioning. Personal distress may be an important implication for social functioning among individuals with schizophrenia and co-occurring depressive symptoms, and should be examined further as a potential treatment target.
Murberg, Terje A.
This study examines the relation between shyness, social support and depressive symptoms in a sample of 259 students (aged 14-16 years) in two secondary schools. Results at both time-points showed positive associations of depressive symptoms with shyness and with being female and negative associations of depressive symptoms with social support and…
Peitl, Vjekoslav; Vidrih, Branka; Karlović, Zoran; Getaldić, Biserka; Peitl, Milena; Karlović, Dalibor
Depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia, but so far they have received less attention than other symptom domains. Impaired serotonergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia. The objectives of this study were to investigate platelet serotonin concentrations in schizophrenic patients with and without depressive symptoms, and to investigate the association between platelet serotonin concentrations and symptoms of schizophrenia, mostly depressive symptoms. A total of 364 patients were included in the study, 237 of which had significant depressive symptoms. Significant depressive symptoms were defined by the cut-off score of 7 or more on Calgary Depression Rating Scale (CDSS). Platelet serotonin concentrations were assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Prevalence of depression in patients with schizophrenia was 65.1%. Schizophrenic patients with depressive symptoms showed lower platelet serotonin concentrations (mean±SD; 490.6±401.2) compared to schizophrenic patients without depressive symptoms (mean±SD; 660.9±471.5). An inverse correlation was established between platelet serotonin concentration and depressive symptoms, with more severe symptoms being associated with lower platelet serotonin concentrations. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients may be associated with reduced concentrations of platelet serotonin.
Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.
The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…
Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.
This research examined two pathways through which depressive symptoms contribute to low social status (i.e., neglect and rejection) within the peer group over time: (a) depressive symptoms promote socially helpless behavior and consequent neglect by peers; and (b) depressive symptoms promote aggressive behavior and consequent rejection by peers.…
Reed-Knight, Bonney; Lobato, Debra; Hagin, Sarah; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Seifer, Ronald; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Boergers, Julie; Nassau, Jack H.; Suorsa, Kristina; Bancroft, Barbara; Shapiro, Jason; LeLeiko, Neal S.
Background Previous investigations have produced mixed findings on whether youth with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) experience elevated rates of depressive symptoms. Our first aim was to compare self-report of depressive symptoms by youth with IBD to a community sample. The second aim was to examine the relationship between symptoms of depression and measures of disease activity. Methods Item-level responses on the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) among a sample of 78 youth diagnosed with IBD were compared to responses from a community sample using one-sample t-tests. Particular attention was given to items assessing somatic symptoms of depression given the potential overlap with IBD disease symptoms. The relationship between depressive symptoms and IBD disease activity was evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and linear regression. Results Youth with IBD reported lower levels of depressive symptoms compared to the community sample on the CDI Total Score, and similar or lower levels of difficulty on items assessing somatic symptoms. The majority of the sample had inactive or mild disease activity at the time of participation, with 14% experiencing moderate/severe disease activity. Higher ratings of disease activity were related to greater depressive symptoms. Responses on somatic items from the CDI were not differentially related to disease activity. Conclusions As a group, pediatric patients with IBD did not experience clinical levels of depressive symptoms or elevations in depressive symptoms when compared to a community sample. Somatic symptoms of depression do not differentiate youth with IBD experiencing elevations in disease activity from youth experiencing non-somatic symptoms of depression. PMID:24518604
Morgan, Amy J; Jorm, Anthony F
Background Research suggests that depressive disorders exist on a continuum, with subthreshold symptoms causing considerable population burden and increasing individual risk of developing major depressive disorder. An alternative strategy to professional treatment of subthreshold depression is population promotion of effective self-help interventions that can be easily applied by an individual without professional guidance. The evidence for self-help interventions for depressive symptoms is reviewed in the present work, with the aim of identifying promising interventions that could inform future health promotion campaigns or stimulate further research. Methods A literature search for randomised controlled trials investigating self-help interventions for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Reference lists and citations of included studies were also checked. Studies were grouped into those involving participants with depressive disorders or a high level of depressive symptoms, or non-clinically depressed participants not selected for depression. A number of exclusion criteria were applied, including trials with small sample sizes and where the intervention was adjunctive to antidepressants or psychotherapy. Results The majority of interventions searched had no relevant evidence to review. Of the 38 interventions reviewed, the ones with the best evidence of efficacy in depressive disorders were S-adenosylmethionine, St John's wort, bibliotherapy, computerised interventions, distraction, relaxation training, exercise, pleasant activities, sleep deprivation, and light therapy. A number of other interventions showed promise but had received less research attention. Research in non-clinical samples indicated immediate beneficial effects on depressed mood for distraction, exercise, humour, music, negative air ionisation, and singing; while potential for helpful longer-term effects
Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa
This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores.
Bühler, Joël; Keller, Ferdinand; Läge, Damian
An adequate assessment of depression has been of concern to many researchers over the last half-century. These efforts have brought forth a manifold of depression rating scales, of which the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is 1 of the most commonly used self-assessment scales. Since its revision, the item structure of the BDI-II has been examined in many factor analytic studies, yet it has not been possible to achieve a consensus about the underlying factor structure. Recent findings from a nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis (Bühler, Keller, & Läge, 2012) of the German norming sample of the BDI-II emphasized a structure with different qualitative aspects of depression, which suggested that the existing factor models do not adequately represent the data. The NMDS results were reviewed, and on the basis of these findings, a different factor model is proposed. In contrast to the common factor models in the literature, the presented model includes an additional factor, which is associated with the activation level of the BDI-II symptoms. The model was evaluated with a 2nd sample of patients diagnosed with a primary affective disorder (N = 569) and obtained good fit indices that even exceeded the fit of the most reliable factor model (Ward, 2006) described in the literature so far. Furthermore, emphasis is placed on the methodological question of how factor models may be derived from the results of NMDS analyses.
Morgan, Judith K.; Olino, Thomas M.; McMakin, Dana L.; Ryan, Neal D.; Forbes, Erika E.
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by significant increases in the onset of depression, but also by increases in depressive symptoms, even among psychiatrically healthy youth. Disrupted reward function has been postulated as a critical factor in the development of depression, but it is still unclear which adolescents are particularly at risk for rising depressive symptoms. We provide a conceptual stance on gender, pubertal development, and reward type as potential moderators of the association between neural response to reward and rises in depressive symptoms. In addition, we describe preliminary findings that support claims of this conceptual stance. We propose that (1) status-related rewards may be particularly salient for eliciting neural response relevant to depressive symptoms in boys, whereas social rewards may be more salient for eliciting neural response relevant to depressive symptoms in girls and (2) the pattern of reduced striatal response and enhanced medial prefrontal response to reward may be particularly predictive of depressive symptoms in pubertal adolescents. We found that greater vmPFC activation when winning rewards predicted greater increases in depressive symptoms over two years, for boys only, and less striatal activation when anticipating rewards predicted greater increases in depressive symptoms over two years, for adolescents in mid to late pubertal stages but not those in pre to early puberty. We also propose directions for future studies, including the investigation of social vs. monetary reward directly and the longitudinal assessment of parallel changes in pubertal development, neural response to reward, and depressive symptoms. PMID:22521464
Bennett, David S.; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael
Neglected children may be at increased risk for depressive symptoms. This study examines shame-proneness as an outcome of child neglect and as a potential explanatory variable in the relation between neglect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 children (52 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] allegation of neglect) seen at age 7. Neglected children reported more shame-proneness and more depressive symptoms than comparison children. Guilt-proneness, in contrast, was unrelated to neglect and depressive symptoms, indicating specificity for shame-proneness. The potential role of shame as a process variable that can help explain how some neglected children exhibit depressive symptoms is discussed. PMID:20724372
Klinedinst, N. Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Dorsey, Susan G.
Purpose of Study: About 25% of older adults suffer from depressive symptoms. Commonly studied candidate genes associated with depression include those that influence serotonin (SLC6A4), dopamine (COMT), or neuroplasticity (BDNF, NTRK3). However, the majority of candidate gene studies do not consider the interplay of genetics, demographic, clinical, and behavioral factors and how they jointly contribute to depressive symptoms among older adults. The purpose of this study was to gain a more comprehensive understanding of depressive symptoms among older adults. Design and methods: In this descriptive study, demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics (age, gender, comorbidities, volunteering, physical activity, pain, and fear of falling) were obtained via interview of 114 residents in a continuing care retirement community. Peripheral whole blood was collected for DNA extraction. We examined common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the aforementioned genes using path analyses. Results: SNPs in the NTRK3 gene, pain, physical activity, and fear of falling were directly associated with depressive symptoms in older adults. Those who had polymorphisms in the NTRK3 gene, pain, fear of falling, and were less physically active were more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. None of the SNPs in SLC6A4, COMT, or BDNF genes were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Implications: Our use of a path analysis to examine a biopsychosocial model of depressive symptoms provided the opportunity to describe a comprehensive clinical picture of older adults at risk for depressive symptoms. Thus, interventions could be implemented to identify older adults at risk for depressive symptoms. PMID:26055783
Eller, L S; Bunch, E H; Wantland, D J; Portillo, C J; Reynolds, N R; Nokes, K M; Coleman, C L; Kemppainen, J K; Kirksey, K M; Corless, I B; Hamilton, M J; Dole, P J; Nicholas, P K; Holzemer, W L; Tsai, Y-F
Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent yet undertreated in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs). As part of a larger study of symptom self-management (N=1217), this study examined the prevalence, correlates, and characteristics (intensity, distress, and impact) of depressive symptoms, and the self-care strategies used to manage those symptoms in PLHAs in five countries. The proportion of respondents from each country in the total sample reporting depressive symptoms in the past week varied and included Colombia (44%), Norway (66%), Puerto Rico (57%), Taiwan (35%), and the USA (56%). Fifty-four percent (n=655) of the total sample reported experiencing depressive symptoms in the past week, with a mean of 4.1 (SD 2.1) days of depression. Mean depression intensity 5.4 (SD 2.7), distressfulness 5.5 (SD 2.86), and impact 5.5 (SD 3.0) were rated on a 1-10 scale. The mean Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score for those reporting depressive symptoms was 27 (SD 11; range 3-58), and varied significantly by country. Respondents identified 19 self-care behaviors for depressive symptoms, which fell into six categories: complementary therapies, talking to others, distraction techniques, physical activity, medications, and denial/avoidant coping. The most frequently used strategies varied by country. In the US sample, 33% of the variance in depressive symptoms was predicted by the combination of education, HIV symptoms, psychological and social support, and perceived consequences of HIV disease.
Pedrelli, Paola; Blais, Mark A.; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Shelton, Richard C.; Walker, Rosemary S. W.; Fava, Maurizio
Current measures for major depressive disorder focus primarily on the assessment of depressive symptoms, while often omitting other common features. However, the presence of comorbid features in the anxiety spectrum influences outcome and may effect treatment. More comprehensive measures of depression are needed that include the assessment of symptoms in the anxiety–depression spectrum. This study examines the reliability and validity of the Symptoms of Depression Questionnaire (SDQ), which assesses irritability, anger attacks, and anxiety symptoms together with the commonly considered symptoms of depression. Analysis of the factor structure of the SDQ identified 5 subscales, including one in the anxiety–depression spectrum, with adequate internal consistency and concurrent validity. The SDQ may be a valuable new tool to better characterize depression and identify and administer more targeted interventions. PMID:25275853
Lai, Betty S.; Auslander, Beth A.; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Podkowirow, Valentina
Background: Disasters are destructive, potentially traumatic events that affect millions of youth each year. Objective: The purpose of this paper was to review the literature on depressive symptoms among youth after disasters. Specifically, we examined the prevalence of depression, risk factors associated with depressive symptoms, and theories…
Depression is an important problem in multiple sclerosis (MS), but the diagnosis is challenging since symptoms of depression overlap with those of MS. In the past, the main strategy has been to remove physical symptoms from scales assessing depressive symptoms in MS, but these attempts have not been successful. Depression and overlapping MS symptoms may actually share pathophysiological mechanisms, so the strategy of attempting to exclude such symptoms may be fundamentally flawed. Current diagnostic criteria provide a pragmatic solution, but it may be possible to develop improved definitions.
Zhang, Amy Y.; Gary, Faye; Zhu, Hui
Background Accurately assessing depression in African American cancer patients is difficult because of the similarities of physical symptoms observed in cancer and depression. Aim To identify universal and distinctive depressive symptoms in African American cancer patients. Methods Seventy-four cancer patients (34 depressed and 23 nondepressed African Americans, and 17 depressed Whites) were interviewed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. Results Compared to nondepressed African Americans, depressed African Americans reported irritability, social isolation, insomnia, fatigue, and crying (p ≤ .05) more frequently over time. Compared to depressed Whites, they reported sadness, frustration, and intrusive thoughts less frequently (p ≤ .05), but insomnia and fatigue more frequently (p ≤ .05) during cancer treatment. There was little racial difference at the time of interview. Conclusion Depressed African American cancer patients may benefit from more culturally sensitive depression measures that consider symptoms of irritability, social isolation, and altered expressions of depressive mood. PMID:25564890
Kennard, Betsy D.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Mayes, Taryn; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Tao, Rongrong; Carmody, Thomas; Emslie, Graham J.
A study examined maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of acute pediatric treatment of children with major depressive disorder (MDD). Results suggested a direct and possible reciprocal association between maternal and child depression severity.
Herres, Joanna; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N = 982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age =16.04, SD = .73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies. PMID:26275359
Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Barker, Ellen C.
Most depressed adolescents do not access medical care for symptoms, yet many improve without professional intervention. While several self-help interventions have empirical support, teens' non-directed efforts to reduce symptoms are not documented. We reviewed 14 depressed adolescents' reports of attempts to reduce depressive symptoms. Results…
Fried, Eiko I; Nesse, Randolph M
Previous studies have established that scores on Major Depressive Disorder scales are correlated with measures of impairment of psychosocial functioning. It remains unclear, however, whether individual depressive symptoms vary in their effect on impairment, and if so, what the magnitude of these differences might be. We analyzed data from 3,703 depressed outpatients in the first treatment stage of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Participants reported on the severity of 14 depressive symptoms, and stated to what degree their depression impaired psychosocial functioning (in general, and in the five domains work, home management, social activities, private activities, and close relationships). We tested whether symptoms differed in their associations with impairment, estimated unique shared variances of each symptom with impairment to assess the degree of difference, and examined whether symptoms had variable impacts across impairment domains. Our results show that symptoms varied substantially in their associations with impairment, and contributed to the total explained variance in a range from 0.7% (hypersomnia) to 20.9% (sad mood). Furthermore, symptoms had significantly different impacts on the five impairment domains. Overall, sad mood and concentration problems had the highest unique associations with impairment and were among the most debilitating symptoms in all five domains. Our findings are in line with a growing chorus of voices suggesting that symptom sum-scores obfuscate relevant differences between depressed patients and that substantial rewards will come from close attention to individual depression symptoms.
Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C.; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John
We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression). PMID:23644673
Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John
We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression).
Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A; Rose, Amanda J
This multi-method, longitudinal study considered the interplay among depressive symptoms, aversive interpersonal behavior, and interpersonal rejection in early and middle adolescents' friendships. In particular, the study examined a newly identified interpersonal process, conversational self-focus (i.e., the tendency to redirect conversations about problems to focus on the self). Traditional interpersonal theories of depression suggest that individuals with depressive symptoms engage in aversive behaviors (such as conversational self-focus) and are rejected by others. However, in the current study, not all adolescents with depressive symptoms engaged in conversational self-focus and were rejected by friends. Instead, conversational self-focus moderated prospective relations of depressive symptoms and later friendship problems such that only adolescents with depressive symptoms who engaged in conversational self-focus were rejected by friends. These findings are consistent with current conceptualizations of the development of psychopathology that highlight heterogeneity among youth who share similar symptoms and the possibility of multifinality of outcomes.
Zunzunegui, M. V.; Beland, F.; Llacer, A.; Keller, I.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To explain the variations in depressive symptomatology among primary caregivers of community dwelling activities of daily living disabled elderly and to evaluate the role of family and religiosity on the mental health consequences of caregiving in Spain. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: City of Leganes in the metropolitan area of Madrid, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: All caregivers of a representative sample of community dwelling activities of daily living disabled persons, aged 65 and over were approached. The response rate was 85% (n = 194). Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. MAIN RESULTS: Controlling for caregivers' income, education, health status, and caregiving stress, religiosity was associated with more depressive symptoms among children caregivers while for spouses the association was negative. Emotional support was negatively associated with depression, but instrumental support was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptomatology is frequent among Spanish caregivers of disabled elderly. This study concludes that religiosity and family emotional support play an important part in the mental health of Spanish caregivers. The role of religiosity may be different according to kinship tie and needs further investigation. PMID:10396484
Pearson, Rahel; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie A; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Beevers, Christopher G
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum-likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with MDD (N = 1,558) who participated in the National Institute of Mental Health Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. A principal components analysis of items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) obtained prior to treatment revealed 4 depression symptom components: (a) appetite, (b) core depression symptoms (e.g., depressed mood, anhedonia), (c) insomnia, and (d) anxiety. These symptom dimensions were associated with SNP-based heritability (hSNP2) estimates of 30%, 14%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicated that the genetic contribution of common SNPs to depression symptom dimensions were not uniform. Appetite and insomnia symptoms in MDD had a relatively strong genetic contribution whereas the genetic contribution was relatively small for core depression and anxiety symptoms. While in need of replication, these results suggest that future gene discovery efforts may strongly benefit from parsing depression into its constituent parts. (PsycINFO Database Record
Raji, Mukaila A; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J
To examine the association between presence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score >or= 16) and subsequent cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]) over a 7-year period in older Mexican Americans, a prospective cohort study was performed. Five south-western states contributed data to the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Participants included 2812 noninstitutionalized Mexican Americans aged 65 and older followed from 1993-1994 until 2000-2001. Cognitive change was assessed using the MMSE at baseline and at 2, 5, and 7 years of follow-up. Independent variables were sociodemographics, CES-D >or= 16, medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke), and activities of daily living (ADL) status. A general linear mixed model was used to estimate cognitive change. There was a cross-sectional association between CES-D >or= 16 and lower MMSE score (estimate = -0.48; standard error [SE] = 0.15; P < .01), independent of age, gender, education, marital status, time of interview, ADL limitations, vision impairment, and medical conditions. In the fully adjusted longitudinal model, subjects with clinically relevant depressive symptoms had a greater decline in MMSE score over 7 years than those without clinically relevant depressive symptoms (estimate = -0.17; SE = 0.05; P < .001), adjusting for sociodemographics, ADL and medical conditions. Each point increase in the CES-D score was associated with a decline of 0.010 point in MMSE score per year (SE = 0.002; P < 0.0001), adjusting for relevant confounders. Presence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms was associated with subsequent decline in cognitive function over 7 years in older Mexican Americans, independent of demographic and health factors.
Jinnin, Ran; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Takagaki, Koki; Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Yamamura, Takanao; Okamoto, Yuri; Miyake, Yoshie; Takebayashi, Yoshitake; Tanaka, Keisuke; Sugiura, Yoshinori; Shimoda, Haruki; Kawakami, Norito; Furukawa, Toshi A; Yamawaki, Shigeto
Purpose Despite its clinical importance, adolescent subthreshold depression remains a largely neglected topic. The aims of this study were to accurately identify the natural course of depressive symptoms and the risk for developing major depressive episode (MDE) in late adolescents with subthreshold depression over 1 year. Patients and methods One hundred and seventy-two participants <20 years of age (mean age: 18.32 years, standard deviation: 0.50), who did not meet the full criteria for an MDE, were selected from 2,494 screened freshmen based on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II). We conducted a cohort study of three groups (low-, middle-, and high-symptom groups) divided based on BDI-II scores, over a 1 year period with the use of bimonthly assessments. Temporal changes of depressive symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed modeling and growth mixture modeling. Results First, we found that late adolescents with subthreshold depression (high depressive symptoms) were split between the increasing and decreasing depressive symptoms groups, whereas the majority of the less-symptoms group remained stable during 1 year. Second, in comparison with late adolescents with less depressive symptoms, those with subthreshold depression had an elevated risk of later depression. Conclusion Some late adolescents with subthreshold depression had increased depressive symptoms and developed an MDE during 1 year. Therefore, it is necessary for us to rigorously assess the changes in subthreshold depressive symptoms over time in late adolescents. PMID:28053534
Noguchi, Rituna; Hiraoka, Mami; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Kagawa, Yasuo
Although several studies have reported associations of depressive state with specific nutrients and foods, few have examined the associations with dietary patterns in adults. We investigated the association between major dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in Japanese patients with depression. Subjects were 166 Japanese patients (104 men and 62 women), aged 22-74 y, who were treated at a hospital psychiatry clinic in Tokyo. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Himorogi Self-rating Depression Scale (H-SDS) and Himorogi Self-rating Anxiety Scale (H-SAS). We categorized depressive symptoms into 3 types: physical, psychiatric, and anxiety symptoms. Dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis of the consumption of 59 food and beverage items, which was assessed by a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) "plant foods and fish products," 2) "fish," and 3) "Western/meat." We calculated the correlation coefficients for the relationship between each dietary pattern score and depressive symptom score in unipolar depression vs. bipolar depression and in men vs. women. In bipolar depression, the plant foods and fish products pattern showed an inverse relationship with physical and psychiatric symptoms, and in men, this pattern showed an inverse relationship with psychiatric symptoms. The fish pattern and Western/meat pattern were not significantly associated with the 3 types of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, we identified 3 dietary patterns and found that associations between these patterns and depressive symptoms were observed only in bipolar depression and only in men.
Blazer, Dan G.; Hybels, Celia F.
Objectives Physical symptoms are known to be associated with late life depression both cross-sectionally and over time. We attempted to determine if self-reported shortness of breath (SoB) is associated with depressive symptoms at long-term (3-year) follow-up in a community sample of older (65+) adults. Methods A sample of 2926 elderly subjects from the Duke Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) were evaluated at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a modified version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression Scale (CES-D) and SoB was assessed by a three-item scale administered at baseline. The analyses were controlled for factors known to be associated with depressive symptoms and SoB. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Eighty-three percent of subjects who experienced SoB survived for three years. Within the analysis sample of those participating at follow-up, 36 percent experienced SoB at baseline. In biavriate analyses, SoB, older age, female sex, history of a heart attack, higher body mass index (BMI), depressive symptoms at baseline, cognitive impairment, and functional impairment were associated with follow-up depressive symptoms. When controlled variables were included in a linear regression model, SoB was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms at follow-up (p <0.0001) as well as baseline depressive symptoms, sex, BMI, and functional status. No two-way interaction terms with SoB were significant. Conclusions SoB is a significant predictor of depressive symptoms at 3-year follow-up. Given that SoB is a symptom that is responsive to therapeutic intervention, active intervention to relieve the symptom when identified could reduce the incidence of depressive symptoms. PMID:20872930
Kandel, D B; Davies, M
We examined sequelae of depressive mood, experienced at ages 15 to 16 years, nine years later at ages 24 to 25 years in subjects formerly enrolled in New York State public high schools. Feelings of dysphoria in adolescence predict most strongly a similar experience in adulthood. Such feelings also predict psychiatric hospitalization for women but not for men, at least up to the period we investigated. In addition, adolescent depression is associated with heavy cigarette smoking, increased use of minor prescription tranquilizers (among women), more deviant activities and accidents as young adults, and selective effects on interpersonal relationships. The long-term effects of adolescent depression manifest themselves in a reduced ability to establish an intimate relationship with a member of the opposite sex rather than the ability to maintain a circle of male and female friends. The distance from spouse (or partner) repeats within the marital dyad the lack of closeness to parents experienced in adolescence. Dysphoric mood seems to be associated with a deficiency to establish close interpersonal relationships within the family that expresses itself differently at different stages of the life cycle: toward parents in adolescence, and toward spouses and parents in young adulthood.
Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.
This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive-positive and harsh-negative parenting behaviors on children's depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children's depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports…
Kistner, Janet A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne F.; Lopez, Cristina M.; Dunkel, Stephanie B.
This study examined ethnic and sex differences in children's depressive symptoms, along with hypothesized mediators of those differences (academic achievement, peer acceptance), in a follow-up of African American (n = 179) and Euro-American (n= 462) children in Grades 3 to 5. African American boys reported more depressive symptoms than African…
Lee, Min-Ah; Song, Rira
This study examined associations among childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood, and whether and how the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms are mediated by the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness). The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey using a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used. Random effects models showed that physical and emotional abuse in childhood significantly increased depressive symptoms in adulthood, even after controlling for personality traits and socio-demographic factors. The coefficients of childhood abuse slightly decreased when personality traits were controlled, suggesting that personality traits mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms. Among the personality traits, extraversion and emotional stability were negatively associated with depressive symptoms whereas agreeableness was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The results of the Sobel test showed that only emotional stability significantly mediated the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms. Those who were exposed to childhood abuse had lower levels of emotional stability, which, in turn, led to depressive symptoms in adulthood. The findings suggest that childhood abuse may have a long lasting effect on mental health over the life course by influencing the formation of personality traits through developmental periods.
VanBoven, Amy M.; Espelage, Dorothy L.
In a 2-phase study with a total of 392 participants, depressive symptoms mediated the association between disordered eating and lower problem-solving confidence and an avoidance problem-solving style. Depressive symptoms did not mediate the association between the ability to generate competent solutions to hypothetical stressful situations and…
Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.
Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…
Weinfield, Nancy S.; Ingerski, Lisa; Moreau, Stacey Coffey
In this study we explored the relation between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and toddler adjustment in a community sample, testing direct, additive, and interactive models of parental depressive symptoms and child adjustment. Participants were 49 families with 30-month-old children. Data were collected on maternal and paternal…
Chaffin, Mark; Bard, David
Objectives: Parental depression symptoms often change over the course of child welfare family preservation and parenting services. This raises the question of whether certain processes in family preservation services might be associated with depression symptom change. This study tests three correlational models of change among family preservation…
Weisz, John R.; Francis, Sarah E.; Bearman, Sarah Kate
Extensive research has linked youth depression symptoms to low levels of perceived control, using measures that reflect "primary control" (i.e., influencing objective conditions to make them fit one's wishes). We hypothesized that depressive symptoms are also linked to low levels of "secondary control" (i.e., influencing the psychological impact…
Brose, Annette; Schmiedek, Florian; Koval, Peter; Kuppens, Peter
The autocorrelation or inertia of negative affect reflects how much negative emotions carry over from moment to moment and has been associated with increased depressive symptoms. In this study, we posed three challenges to this association by examining: (1) whether emotional inertia is relevant for depressive symptoms when assessed on a longer timescale than usual; (2) whether inertia is uniquely related to depressive symptoms after controlling for perseverative thoughts; and (3) whether inertia is related to depressive symptoms over and above the within-person association between affect and perseverative thoughts. Participants (N = 101) provided ratings of affect and perseverative thoughts for 100 days; depressive symptoms were reported before and after the study, and again after 2.5 years. Day-to-day emotional inertia was related to depressive symptoms over and above trait and state perseverative thoughts. Moreover, inertia predicted depressive symptoms when adjusting for its association with perseverative thoughts. These findings establish the relevance of emotional inertia in depressive symptoms independent of perseverative thoughts.
Wei, Meifen; Mallinckrodt, Brent; Larson, Lisa M.; Zakalik, Robyn A.
Attachment working models of self and others may govern adults' preferences for internal vs. external sources of reassurance, which, if unavailable, lead to depressive symptoms. This study examined a model in which the link between depressive symptoms and attachment anxiety is mediated by (a) capacity for self-reinforcement and (b) need for…
Tissot, Hervé; Favez, Nicolas; Frascarolo, France; Despland, Jean-Nicolas
Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother–father–infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents’ depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child’s life. PMID:28018259
Munson, Michelle R; McMillen, Curtis
The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th birthdays. Depression was assessed with the Depression Outcomes Module and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. Data best fit a model of three trajectory classes, describing young people (1) maintaining low levels of depressive symptoms (never depressed class, 78%), (2) with increasing symptoms (increasing class, 6%), and (3) with decreasing symptoms (decreasing class, 15%). The increasing depression group was mostly male youths who were working or in school; the decreasing class was mostly highly maltreated female youths exiting the foster care system from residential care, with low levels of employment, and in school. Implications for social work practice are discussed.
Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Rudolf H.
This study modeled the predictive association between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation in a sample of 442 late-middle-aged smokers; assessments occurred at four time-points across a 10-year period. In addition, the study examined the role of baseline drinking problems in moderating the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation. Findings supported hypotheses. More depressive symptoms prospectively predicted a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. In addition, the presence of baseline drinking problems strengthened the relationship between depressive symptoms and a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. Understanding the mechanisms underlying depression and cigarette smoking among older adults is applicable to secondary prevention and treatment and suggests additional public health benefits from treating depression in older persons. PMID:19372009
Feng, Xin; Forbes, Erika E.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.
This study examined the relations of school-age children's depressive symptoms, frontal EEG asymmetry, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Participants were 73 children, 43 of whom had mothers with COD. Children's EEG was recorded at baseline and while watching happy and sad film clips. Depressive symptoms were measured using…
Emmert-Aronson, Benjamin O; Brown, Timothy A
This study examines the psychometric properties of a major depressive episode using a large sample (N = 2,907) of outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. A two-parameter logistic model yielded item threshold and discrimination parameters. A two-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate gender bias. Item thresholds fell along a continuum with the core features of depressed mood and anhedonia, along with fatigue, endorsed at lower levels of depression, and change in appetite and suicidal ideation endorsed at more severe levels. Item discriminations were highest for depressed mood and anhedonia, and lowest for change in appetite and suicidal ideation. The data indicate that the symptoms of depression assess a range of severity, with varying precision in discriminating depression. No gender differences were observed. Three exploratory symptom sets were compared with the full symptom set for depression, offering quantitative evidence that can be used to modify the psychiatric classification system.
Yilmaz, Adviye Esin; Gençöz, Tülin; Wells, Adrian
This study attempts to examine the unique contributions of "cognitions" or "metacognitions" to depressive symptoms while controlling for their intercorrelations and comorbid anxiety. Two-hundred-and-fifty-one university students participated in the study. Two complementary hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed, in which symptoms of depression were regressed on the dysfunctional attitudes (DAS-24 subscales) and metacognition scales (Negative Beliefs about Rumination Scale [NBRS] and Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale [PBRS]). Results showed that both NBRS and PBRS individually explained a significant amount of variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond dysfunctional schemata while controlling for anxiety. Although dysfunctional attitudes as a set significantly predicted depressive symptoms after anxiety and metacognitions were controlled for, they were weaker than metacognitive variables and none of the DAS-24 subscales contributed individually. Metacognitive beliefs about ruminations appeared to contribute more to depressive symptoms than dysfunctional beliefs in the "cognitive" domain.
Yoo-Jeong, Moka; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; McCoy, Katryna; Ownby, Raymond L
Adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains critical in management of HIV infection. This study evaluated depression as a potential mechanism by which HIV-related symptoms affect medication adherence and explored if particular clusters of HIV symptoms are susceptible to this mechanism. Baseline data from a multi-visit intervention study were analyzed among 124 persons living with HIV (PLWH). A bifactor model showed two clusters of HIV-related symptom distress: general HIV-related symptoms and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that both general HIV-related symptoms and GI symptoms were related to higher levels of depressive symptoms, and higher levels of depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of medication adherence. Although general HIV-related symptoms and GI symptoms were not directly related to adherence, they were indirectly associated with adherence via depression. The findings highlight the importance of early recognition and evaluation of symptoms of depression, as well as the underlying physical symptoms that might cause depression, to improve medication adherence. PMID:27695710
Campellone, Timothy R; Elis, Ori; Mote, Jasmine; Sanchez, Amy H; Kring, Ann M
People high in schizotypy, a risk factor for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, can have negative symptoms, including diminished experience of motivation/pleasure (MAP) and emotional expressivity (EXP). Additionally, people high in schizotypy often report elevated depressive symptoms, which are also associated with diminished MAP and EXP. In this study, we examined whether negative symptoms were related to schizotypy above and beyond the presence of depressive symptoms. Thirty-one people high in schizotypy and 24 people low in schizotypy were administered the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), an interview-based measure of MAP and EXP negative symptoms and completed a self-report measure of cognitive and somatic-affective depressive symptoms. People high in schizotypy had more MAP negative symptoms than people low in schizotypy, but we found no group differences in EXP negative symptoms. Importantly, the relationship between MAP negative symptoms and schizotypy was fully mediated by cognitive depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that depressive symptoms, specifically cognitive depressive symptoms, may be a pathway for motivation and pleasure impairment, in people at elevated risk for developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.
Hooper, Lisa M.; Caroline R. Newman
Building on previous research, the current study examined the relations between parent depressive symptoms, family religious involvement, and adolescent depressive symptoms in a convenience sample of 74 parent-adolescent dyads of southern U.S. families. We used hierarchical regression analysis to explore whether family religious involvement…
Kamysheva, Ekaterina; Skouteris, Helen; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Paxton, Susan J; Milgrom, Jeannette
The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between pregnancy physical discomforts experienced during the second trimester and late pregnancy depressive symptoms, as well as the mediating effect of sleep quality on antenatal depressive symptomatology. Healthy pregnant women (N=257) completed the Physical Symptoms Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Inventory at early-mid second trimester, and then again at late third trimester. Physical symptoms and sleep quality at the first time point were both correlated moderately with depressive symptoms at late pregnancy. Discomfort associated with physical symptoms was a better predictor of depressive symptoms than Frequency of symptoms, although a score combining Frequency, Discomfort and Effect of symptoms on life was the strongest predictor of depressive symptoms. Results of the hierarchical regression analyses of the mediation model indicated that physical symptoms at early-mid second trimester predicted depressive symptoms in the last trimester both directly, and via poor sleep quality (prospectively), which mediated the relationship. The clinical implications of these findings for antenatal care are discussed.
Bershadsky, Svetlana; Trumpfheller, Linda; Kimble, Holly Beck; Pipaloff, Diana; Yim, Ilona S
Perinatal depression impacts maternal and child health, and little is known about effective interventions. The effects of prenatal Hatha yoga on cortisol, affect and depressive symptoms were investigated in 51 women. Twice during pregnancy, yoga group participants reported on affect and provided a saliva sample before and after a 90-min prenatal Hatha yoga session. Corresponding measures were obtained from yoga and control group participants on days of usual activity. Depressive symptoms were assessed in pregnancy and post partum. Cortisol was lower (p < .01) and positive affect higher (p < .001) on yoga compared to usual activity days. Negative affect and contentment (p < .05) improved more in response to the yoga session. Yoga group participants showed fewer postpartum (p < .05) but not antepartum depressive symptoms than control group participants. Findings indicate that prenatal Hatha yoga may improve current mood and may be effective in reducing postpartum depressive symptoms.
Thompson, Renee J.; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H.
Rumination has consistently been found to be associated with the onset and duration of major depressive episodes. Little research, however, has examined factors that may weaken the association between maladaptive coping, such as rumination, and depressive symptoms. In three samples of participants, including 149 never-depressed adolescent girls, 41 never-depressed women, and 39 depressed women, we examined whether generally adaptive forms of coping interacted with generally maladaptive coping to predict depressive symptoms. Age-appropriate measures of coping and depression were administered to participants in each sample. In never-depressed females, maladaptive coping / rumination were more strongly related to depressive symptoms in the presence of lower levels of adaptive coping. The relation between depression and maladaptive coping / rumination was weaker in the context of higher levels of adaptive coping. In contrast, for the depressed females, we found main effects for rumination and adaptive coping, with higher levels of rumination and lower levels of adaptive coping being associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. The present findings highlight how adaptive coping and maladaptive coping, including rumination, differentially relate to each other and depressive symptoms depending on individuals’ current depressive state. PMID:20211463
Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F
Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via…
Air, Tracy; Weightman, Michael J; Baune, Bernhard T
The aim of the present study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with depression when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity. One hundred and eight patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. When healthy controls, remitted depression and currently depressed groups were compared, no associations were found on any of the social cognition subscales. Severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Affective depressive symptoms were inversely related to ACS Pairs and Prosody subscales, while somatic symptoms were inversely related to the ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. There was no association between severity and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. People with MDD exhibiting more severe depressive and anxious symptoms and a cluster of affective symptoms have greater difficulty undertaking complex social cognitive tasks. Given the state like nature to these deficits, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions.
Air, Tracy; Weightman, Michael J.; Baune, Bernhard T.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with depression when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity. One hundred and eight patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. When healthy controls, remitted depression and currently depressed groups were compared, no associations were found on any of the social cognition subscales. Severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Affective depressive symptoms were inversely related to ACS Pairs and Prosody subscales, while somatic symptoms were inversely related to the ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. There was no association between severity and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. People with MDD exhibiting more severe depressive and anxious symptoms and a cluster of affective symptoms have greater difficulty undertaking complex social cognitive tasks. Given the state like nature to these deficits, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:26300814
Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Liu, Yihang; Leake, Barbara
Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention due to its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless young adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults employ. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult’s drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, non-disclosure/avoidance, passive problem-solving and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:21131507
Lancaster, Christie A; Gold, Katherine J; Flynn, Heather A; Yoo, Harim; Marcus, Sheila M; Davis, Matthew M
The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for antepartum depressive symptoms that can be assessed in routine obstetric care. We evaluated articles in the English-language literature from 1980 through 2008. Studies were selected if they evaluated the association between antepartum depressive symptoms and > or =1 risk factors. For each risk factor, 2 blinded, independent reviewers evaluated the overall trend of evidence. In total, 57 studies met eligibility criteria. Maternal anxiety, life stress, history of depression, lack of social support, unintended pregnancy, Medicaid insurance, domestic violence, lower income, lower education, smoking, single status, and poor relationship quality were associated with a greater likelihood of antepartum depressive symptoms in bivariate analyses. Life stress, lack of social support, and domestic violence continued to demonstrate a significant association in multivariate analyses. Our results demonstrate several correlates that are consistently related to an increased risk of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.
Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Issazadegan, Ali; Etemadinia, Mahin; Golssanamlou, Safar; Abdolmanafi, Atefe
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of several cognitive and emotional variables including perfectionism, rumination, and attachment quality with depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian undergraduate students. Two hundred and ninety nine undergraduate students (144 males, 156 females) from Urmia University of Technology, Urmia University, and Urmia University of Medical Sciences participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete Tehran Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (TMPS), Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS), Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The results demonstrated that insecurity of attachment, socially prescribed perfectionism, and rumination could significantly predict the depressive symptoms in undergraduate students. Confirming predictive risk factors of depressive symptoms, results of the present study can produce an empirical basis for designing educational and health programs for people at risk. Accordingly, proper assessment of the risk factors of depressive symptoms in health care settings may provide invaluable information for prevention and management programs.
Atherton, Brennan D; Nevels, Robert M; Moore, Michael T
The literature examining social anhedonia, emotion regulation, and symptoms of depression in psychiatric inpatients has been limited. However, some studies have shown that difficulties in emotion regulation and social anhedonia were independently associated with depression. The current study attempted to examine the effects of these two potential predictors of unipolar depressed mood. Fifty-nine (73% female) psychiatric inpatients were given the measures of emotion regulation, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and social anhedonia. Results showed that difficulties in emotion regulation, specifically dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies and emotional clarity, served as significant predictors of depressive symptoms above and beyond contributions from social anhedonia. These results highlight the importance of attending to emotion regulation in the study and treatment of depression in inpatient samples.
Mills, Paul J.; Wilson, Kathleen; Iqbal, Navaid; Iqbal, Fatima; Alvarez, Milagros; Pung, Meredith A.; Wachmann, Katherine; Rutledge, Thomas; Maglione, Jeanne; Zisook, Sid; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Lunde, Ottar; Greenberg, Barry H.; Maisel, Alan; Raisinghani, Ajit; Natarajan, Loki; Jain, Shamini; Hufford, David J.; Redwine, Laura
Depression adversely predicts prognosis in individuals with symptomatic heart failure. In some clinical populations, spiritual wellness is considered to be a protective factor against depressive symptoms. This study examined associations among depressive symptoms, spiritual wellbeing, sleep, fatigue, functional capacity, and inflammatory biomarkers in 132 men and women with asymptomatic stage B heart failure (age 66.5 years ±10.5). Approximately 32% of the patients scored ≥10 on the Beck Depression Inventory, indicating potentially clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analysis predicting f ewer depressive symptoms included the following significant variables: a lower inflammatory score comprised of disease-relevant biomarkers (p<0.02), less fatigue (p<0.001), better sleep (p<0.04), and more spiritual wellbeing (p<0.01) (overall model F=26.6, p<0.001, adjusted R square = 0.629). Further analyses indicated that the meaning (p<0.01) and peace (p<0.01) subscales, but not the faith (p=0.332) subscale, of spiritual wellbeing were independently associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Interventions aimed at increasing spiritual wellbeing in patients lives, and specifically meaning and peace, may be a potential treatment target for depressive symptoms asymptomatic heart failure. PMID:25533643
Benson, S; Arck, P C; Blois, S; Schedlowski, M; Elsenbruch, S
Subclinical depressive symptoms constitute a primary risk factor for major depression as well as for cardiovascular conditions, which may be mediated by endocrine or immune alterations. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the extent of subclinical depressive symptoms and neuroendocrine and immune cell responses to acute psychosocial stress in healthy females. In N = 33 healthy premenopausal women, state anxiety, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and serum cortisol, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration responses to public speaking stress were assessed. Beck depression inventory (BDI) scores were entered as a covariate in the analyses. The IL-6 response was significantly associated with BDI scores (p < 0.05). Secondary analyses revealed that women with more subclinical depressive symptoms demonstrated a reduced stress-induced increase in circulating IL-6 level (p < 0.05). By contrast, stress-induced neuroendocrine activation was not associated with depressive symptoms. Hence, subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with IL-6 responses to stress in young, healthy women. Unexpectedly, there was a reduced increase of serum IL-6 level in response to stress. Effects of depressive symptoms on the IL-6 response to stress may differ between subclinical and major depression.
Gitlin, Laura N; Roth, David L; Huang, Jin
Older African Americans (N = 208) with depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to a home-based nonpharmacologic intervention (Beat the Blues, or BTB) or wait-list control group. BTB was delivered by licensed social workers and involved up to 10 home visits focused on care management, referral and linkage, depression knowledge and efficacy in symptom recognition, instruction in stress reduction techniques, and behavioral activation through identification of personal goals and action plans for achieving them. Structured interviews by assessors masked to study assignment were used to assess changes in depressive symptoms (main trial endpoint), behavioral activation, depression knowledge, formal care service utilization, and anxiety (mediators) at baseline and 4 months. At 4 months, the intervention had a positive effect on depressive symptoms and all mediators except formal care service utilization. Structural equation models indicated that increased activation, enhanced depression knowledge, and decreased anxiety each independently mediated a significant proportion of the intervention's impact on depressive symptoms as assessed with 2 different measures (PHQ-9 and CES-D). These 3 factors also jointly explained over 60% of the intervention's total effect on both indicators of depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that most of the impact of BTB on depressive symptoms is driven by enhancing activation or becoming active, reducing anxiety, and improving depression knowledge/efficacy. The intervention components appear to work in concert and may be mutually necessary for maximal benefits from treatment to occur. Implications for designing tailored interventions to address depressive symptoms among older African Americans are discussed.
Khalaila, Rabia; Litwin, Howard
Objective To examine the longitudinal association between changes in health behaviors and depression, and to determine the mediating effect of health characteristics on this association. Method Based on the first and second waves of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)-Israel, depressive symptoms of 1,524 Israelis aged 50 or older were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Changes in physical activity and body weight are associated with depressive symptoms after adjusting for confounders. However, after adding measures of health, the respective correlations of weight gain and commenced physical activity with depression disappear, and the correlation between continued activity and depression is reduced. Discussion Changes in health behaviors are related to mental health in late life, but their effect is mediated by physical and functional health. Future interventions should nevertheless target older individuals who stop physical activity and those who remain inactive to lessen the risk of depression. PMID:24401321
Dorn, Lorah D.; Negriff, Sonya; Huang, Bin; Pabst, Stephanie; Hillman, Jennifer; Braverman, Paula; Susman, Elizabeth J.
Purpose Dysmenorrhea affects quality of life and contributes to absenteeism from school and work diminishing opportunities for successful psychosocial and cognitive development during adolescence. In adults, depression, anxiety, and smoking have an impact on menstrual cycles and dysmenorrhea. Associations between these potential problems have not been examined in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between depressive symptoms and anxiety with menstrual symptoms. Smoking was examined as a moderator of this relationship. Methods This study enrolled 154 post-menarcheal girls from a sample of 207 girls age 11, 13, 15, and 17 years [M = 15.4 years (± 1.9)]. Self-reported measures included the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire (MSQ), Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and smoking behavior. Generalized linear regression modeled MSQ outcomes separately for depressive symptoms and anxiety. Results More depressive symptoms/anxiety were related to higher numbers of menstrual symptoms (r = 0.23–0.44, p < .05). Smoking status (ever) was related to higher MSQ scores. Moderating effects of smoking and depressive symptoms or anxiety on menstrual symptoms were consistent across most MSQ factors where effects were stronger in never smokers. Conclusion This is the first study in adolescents showing smoking status and depressive symptoms/anxiety are related to menstrual symptoms and that the impact of depressive symptoms/anxiety on menstrual symptoms is stronger in never smokers. The dynamic and complex nature of smoking, moods, and dysmenorrhea cannot be disentangled without longitudinal analyses. Efforts to reduce menstrual symptoms should begin at a young gynecological age and include consideration of mood and smoking status. PMID:19237109
Bathla, Manish; Singh, Manpreet; Relan, Pankaj
Context: The association between depression and thyroid function is well known. Both conditions express many similar symptoms, thus making the diagnosis and treatment difficult. Aims: To find the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroid. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methodology: A total of 100 patients diagnosed as hypothyroidism were evaluated using Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) and Hamilton scale for anxiety (HAM-A). Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows version 17.0 software. The quantitative data were expressed in number and percentage. The results obtained were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: Females constituted 70% of the sample. A total of 60% reported some degree of depression based on HDRS (males – 56.63% and females – 64.29%) whereas about 63% out of the total patients screened showed some degree of anxiety (males –56.66% and females – 65.72%) based on HAM-A. The most common depressive symptom among the males was depressed mood (73.33%) and among females was gastrointestinal somatic symptoms (68.54%). The most common anxiety symptom among the males was depressed mood (70.0%) and among females was anxious mood (92.85%). Conclusions: Psychiatric symptoms/disorders are common in patients with thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27366712
Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.
This research examined two pathways through which depressive symptoms contribute to low social status (i.e., neglect and rejection) within the peer group over time: (a) depressive symptoms promote socially helpless behavior and consequent neglect by peers; and (b) depressive symptoms promote aggressive behavior and consequent rejection by peers. These pathways were investigated in independent samples of youth at two developmental stages: middle childhood (2nd – 4th grade) and early adolescence (5th – 7th grade). In both Study 1 (M age = 7.97, SD = .37; 338 girls, 298 boys) and Study 2 (M age = 11.74, SD = .68; 305 girls, 300 boys), youth and their teachers completed questionnaires at three waves. Multi-group comparison path analyses were conducted to examine sex differences in the models. Consistent with expectations, two pathways emerged through which depressive symptoms undermined subsequent social status. Support was not found for the reverse direction of effect nor for developmental or sex differences in the pathways with one exception: In early adolescence, neglect directly predicted depressive symptoms. These findings suggest specificity but also heterogeneity in the effects of depressive symptoms on social status, and identify behaviors that may be targeted for preventing the persistence of depression and its interpersonal consequences. PMID:22945342
Agoston, Anna M; Rudolph, Karen D
This research examined two pathways through which depressive symptoms contribute to low social status (i.e., neglect and rejection) within the peer group over time: (a) depressive symptoms promote socially helpless behavior and consequent neglect by peers; and (b) depressive symptoms promote aggressive behavior and consequent rejection by peers. These pathways were investigated in independent samples of youth at two developmental stages: middle childhood (2nd-4th grade) and early adolescence (5th-7th grade). In both Study 1 (M age = 7.97, SD = 0.37; 338 girls, 298 boys) and Study 2 (M age = 11.74, SD = 0.68; 305 girls, 300 boys), youth and their teachers completed questionnaires at three waves. Multi-group comparison path analyses were conducted to examine sex differences in the models. Consistent with expectations, two pathways emerged through which depressive symptoms undermined subsequent social status. Support was not found for the reverse direction of effect nor for developmental or sex differences in the pathways with one exception: In early adolescence, neglect directly predicted depressive symptoms. These findings suggest specificity but also heterogeneity in the effects of depressive symptoms on social status, and identify behaviors that may be targeted for preventing the persistence of depression and its interpersonal consequences.
Vermeer, Julianne; Rice, Danielle; McIntyre, Amanda; Viana, Ricardo; Macaluso, Steven; Teasell, Robert
Background and purpose Depressive symptoms are common post-stroke. We examined stroke deficits and lifestyle factors that are independent predictors for depressive symptomology. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for patients' post-stroke who attended outpatient clinics at a hospital in Southwestern Ontario between 1 January 2014 and 30 September 2014. Demographic variables, stroke deficits, secondary stroke risk factors and disability study measures [Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)] were analyzed. Results Of the 221 outpatients who attended the stroke clinics (53% male; mean age = 65.2 ± 14.9 years; mean time post-stroke 14.6 ± 20.1 months), 202 patients were used in the final analysis. About 36% of patients (mean = 5.17 ± 5.96) reported mild to severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 5). Cognitive impairment (CI), smoking, pain and therapy enrollment (p < 0.01) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Patients reporting CI were 4 times more likely to score highly on the PHQ-9 than those who did not report CI (OR = 4.72). While controlling for age, MoCA scores negatively related to depressive symptoms with higher PHQ-9 scores associated with lower MoCA scores (r= -0.39, p < 0.005). Conclusions High levels of depressive symptoms are common in the chronic phase post-stroke and were partially related to cognition, pain, therapy enrollment and lifestyle factors. Implications for Rehabilitation Stroke patients who report cognitive deficits, pain, tobacco use or being enrolled in therapy may experience increased depressive symptoms. A holistic perspective of disease and lifestyle factors should be considered while assessing risk of depressive symptoms in stroke patients. Patients at risk for depressive symptoms should be monitored at subsequent outpatient visits.
Diniz, D H M P; Blay, S L; Schor, N
Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls) matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001), anxiety trait (P = 0.005) and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62). The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002) and depression (P < 0.001) and the number of recurrent colic episodes (anxiety-state: P = 0.016 and anxiety-trait: P < 0.001). These data suggest an association between recurrent renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.
Wagner, Fernando A.; Sánchez-Garcia, Sergio; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Espinel-Bermúdez, Claudia; García-Gonzalez, José Juan; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Franco-Marina, Francisco; Gallo, Joseph J.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Ageing and depression are associated with disability and have significant consequences for health systems in many other developing countries. Depression prevalence figures among the elderly are scarce in developing countries. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their cross-sectional association with selected covariates in a community sample of Mexico City older adults affiliated to the main healthcare provider. DESIGN Cross-sectional, multistage community survey. PARTICIPANTS A total of 7,449 persons aged 60 years and older. MEASUREMENTS Depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS); cognitive impairment, using the Mini-Mental State Examination; and health-related quality of life with the SF-36 questionnaire. MAIN RESULTS The prevalence of significant depressive symptoms was estimated to be 21.7%, and 25.3% in those aged 80 and older. After correcting for GDS sensitivity and specificity, major depression prevalence was estimated at 13.2%. Comparisons that follow are adjusted for age, sex, education and stressful life events. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was estimated to be 18.9% in depressed elderly and 13.7% in non-depressed. SF-36 overall scores were 48.0 in depressed participants and 68.2 in non-depressed (adjusted mean difference = −20.2, 95% CI = −21.3, −19.1). Compared to non-depressed elderly, the odds of healthcare utilization were higher among those depressed, both for any health problem (aOR 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.7) and for emotional problems (aOR 2.7, 95% CI = 2.2, 3.2). CONCLUSIONS According to GDS estimates, one of every eight Mexican older adults had major depressive symptoms. Detection and management of older patients with depression should be a high priority in developing countries. PMID:18818976
Müller, Matthias Johannes; Olschinski, Christiane; Kundermann, Bernd; Cabanel, Nicole
The stable and persisting preference for activities in the late evening (i.e. eveningness) is associated with a higher risk for depression, suicidality, and non-remission in major depression. The present study investigated symptom patterns in hospitalized patients with depressive syndromes in relation to morningness-eveningness (chronotypes). Depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI-II]) and chronotype (German version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire [D-MEQ]) were assessed after admission and before discharge in inpatients with mainly major depression. Group differences of BDI-II single items and three BDI-II factors (cognitive, affective, somatic) between patients divided at the D-MEQ sample median into "morning preference" (MP) and "evening preference" (EP) were calculated. Data from 64 consecutively admitted patients (31MP/33EP) were analyzed. Both groups (MP/EP) were comparable regarding age, sex, diagnosis, length of stay, and subjective sleep quality, BDI-II scores were significantly higher in EP than in MP at admission. At admission and discharge, cognitive symptoms were significantly more pronounced in EP vs. MP; non-significant differences between EP and MP were found for affective and somatic symptoms. The results underline the importance of the trait-like chronotype for severity and symptomatology in patients with depressive disorders. The patients' chronotype should be taken into account in diagnostics and treatment of depressive disorders.
Technow, Jessica R; Hazel, Nicholas A; Abela, John R Z; Hankin, Benjamin L
Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors' roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every 3 months over the course of 2 years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of dependent stress and stress sensitization processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression.
Kim, S Y; Ge, X
This study examined parenting practices and adolescent depressive symptoms among Chinese Americans. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that self-reported parenting practices by mothers and fathers and adolescent perception of parenting practices loaded adequately on three subscales: Inductive Reasoning, Monitoring, and Harsh Discipline. Second, parents' depressive symptoms were related to disrupted parenting practices, which, in turn, were significantly related to the negative evaluation of these behaviors by the adolescents. Adolescents' perceptions of such parenting practices were significantly associated with their depressive symptoms. Third, the relationships were robust even after parental income, education, and generation status were statistically controlled. Overall, the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent depressive symptoms among Chinese Americans seemed to echo those found among European Americans.
This paper reports the findings of research on relationships between depression and participation in learning using data from a large sample of older adults. The objective was to establish whether learning can reduce the risk of depression. Data were obtained from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a nationally-representative sample of…
Robakis, Thalia K.; Williams, Katherine E.; Crowe, Susan; Kenna, Heather; Gannon, Jamie; Rasgon, Natalie L.
Purpose The transition to motherhood is a time of elevated risk for clinical depression. Dispositional optimism may be protective against depressive symptoms; however the arrival of a newborn presents numerous challenges that may be at odds with initially positive expectations, and which may contribute to depressed mood. We have explored the relative contributions of antenatal and postnatal optimism regarding maternity to depressive symptoms in the postnatal period. Methods 98 pregnant women underwent clinician interview in the third trimester to record psychiatric history, antenatal depressive symptoms, and administer a novel measure of optimism towards maternity. Measures of depressive symptoms, attitudes to maternity, and mother-to-infant bonding were obtained from 97 study completers at monthly intervals through three months postpartum. Results We found a positive effect of antenatal optimism, and a negative effect of postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, on depressive mood postnatally. Postnatal disconfirmation, but not antenatal optimism, was associated with more negative attitudes toward maternity postnatally. Antenatal optimism, but not postnatal disconfirmation, was associated with reduced scores on a mother-to-infant bonding measure. The relationships between antenatal optimism, postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, and postnatal depression held true among primigravidas and multigravidas, as well as among women with prior histories of mood disorders, although antenatal optimism tended to be lower among women with mental health histories. Conclusions We conclude that cautious antenatal optimism, rather than immoderate optimism or frank pessimism, is the approach that is most protective against postnatal depressive symptoms, and that this is true irrespective of either mood disorder history or parity. Factors predisposing to negative cognitive assessments and impaired mother-to-infant bonding may be substantially different than those associated
Ngai, Shirley Pui-Ching; He, Wanjia; Chow, Jason Ka-Wing; Tsang, Hector Wing-Hong
Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms on any type of patients. Methods. A systematic database search was carried out using predefined search terms in 5 databases: AMED, CINHAL, CCRCT, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Outcome measures included scales measuring depressive symptoms levels. Results. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included and two administration methods for the aromatherapy intervention including inhaled aromatherapy (5 studies) and massage aromatherapy (7 studies) were identified. Seven studies showed improvement in depressive symptoms. Limitations. The quality of half of the studies included is low, and the administration protocols among the studies varied considerably. Different assessment tools were also employed among the studies. Conclusions. Aromatherapy showed potential to be used as an effective therapeutic option for the relief of depressive symptoms in a wide variety of subjects. Particularly, aromatherapy massage showed to have more beneficial effects than inhalation aromatherapy. PMID:28133489
Kalil, Ariel; Kunz, James
This longitudinal study tested the contribution of age and marital status at first birth to depressive symptomatology in early adulthood. Findings indicated that unmarried teenage childbearers displayed higher levels of depressive symptoms than women who first gave birth as married adults. The psychological health of married teenage mothers in…
Mohanraj, Rani; Subbaiah, Karunanidhi
Aim: This study aimed to find the prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents studying in schools in Chennai. Settings and Design: The study was a school based cross-sectional survey in which data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire from adolescents studying in classes X, XI and XII. Material: Beck Depression Inventory…
Kiuru, Noona; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina
To examine whether learning difficulties play a role in depressive symptoms, 658 Finnish adolescents were asked to complete scales for depression three times during the transition to post-comprehensive education. They also reported on their learning difficulties and feelings of inadequacy as a student. The results showed that learning difficulties…
Diaz, Naelys; Green, Diane; Horton, Eloise G.
The existing literature indicates high comorbidity rates between depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders. Despite these elevated rates, there is limited empirical work devoted to understanding predictors of depressive symptoms among substance abusers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of spirituality, believing in God's…
Georgiades, Katholiki; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Monroe, Scott M.; Seeley, John R.
Objective: To examine the longitudinal association between individual subthreshold symptoms and onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. Method: Data for analysis come from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project, a prospective epidemiological study of psychological disorders among adolescents, ages 14 to 18 years, from the…
Rodriguez, Aubrey J; Margolin, Gayla
The purposes of this study were to assess the ways adolescents in active-duty military families provide emotional and instrumental support to civilian mothers and to investigate the implications of such support for their own symptoms of depression. Eighty adolescents from active-duty military families provided self-report ratings of emotional and instrumental support rendered to their civilian mothers. Mother-adolescent dyads engaged in a 10-min discussion of military experiences, which was coded for adolescents' emotional validation of their mothers. Path analyses showed that adolescents who provided more instrumental support and showed more emotional validation reported fewer symptoms of depression. However, adolescents' instrumental support to the mother was not inversely associated with their depression symptoms when the mothers reported high depression symptoms. Recent military demands did not moderate associations between adolescent support and depression symptoms. In this, the first study to our knowledge assessing youth-to-parent support provision among military adolescents, results suggest that emotional validation and instrumental support given at will by adolescents to their civilian mothers are associated with lower levels of adolescent depressive symptoms. Results also underscore the impact of maternal depression on family processes and emphasize the importance of careful assessment of support processes within military families.
Dunne, Erin; Wrosch, Carsten; Miller, Gregory E.
Objectives This longitudinal study examined the associations between older adults’ goal adjustment capacities (i.e., goal disengagement and goal reengagement capacities), functional disability, and depressive symptoms. It was expected that goal disengagement capacities would prevent an adverse effect of heightened functional disability on increases in depressive symptoms. Methods Multivariate regression analyses were conducted, using four waves of data from a 6-yr longitudinal study of 135 community-dwelling older adults (> 60 years old). Results Depressive symptoms and functionality disability increased over time. Moreover, poor goal disengagement capacities and high levels of functional disability forecasted six-year increases in depressive symptoms. Finally, goal disengagement buffered the association of functional disability with increases in depressive symptoms. No associations were found for goal reengagement capacities. Conclusion The findings suggest an adaptive role for goal disengagement capacities in older adulthood. When confronted with increases in functional disability, the capacity to withdraw effort and commitment from unattainable goals can help protect older adults from experiencing long-term increases in depressive symptoms. PMID:21604877
Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.; Rose, Amanda J.
This multi-method, longitudinal study considered the interplay among depressive symptoms, aversive interpersonal behavior, and interpersonal rejection in early and middle adolescents’ friendships. In particular, the study examined a newly identified interpersonal process, conversational self-focus (i.e., the tendency to redirect conversations about problems to focus on the self). Traditional interpersonal theories of depression suggest that individuals with depressive symptoms engage in aversive behaviors (such as conversational self-focus) and are rejected by others. However, in the current study, not all adolescents with depressive symptoms engaged in conversational self-focus and were rejected by friends. Instead, conversational self-focus moderated prospective relations of depressive symptoms and later friendship problems such that only adolescents with depressive symptoms who engaged in conversational self-focus were rejected by friends. These findings are consistent with current conceptualizations of the development of psychopathology that highlight heterogeneity among youth who share similar symptoms and the possibility of multifinality of outcomes. PMID:25640911
Surkan, Pamela J.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ryan, Louise M.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Carvalho Vieira, Lina M.; Peterson, Karen E.
Objectives. We assessed whether maternal depressive symptoms and parenting self-efficacy were associated with child growth delay. Methods. We collected data from a random sample of 595 low-income mothers and their children aged 6 to 24 months in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, including information on sociodemographic characteristics, mothers’ depressive symptoms and parenting self-efficacy, and children’s anthropometric characteristics. We used adjusted logistic regression models in our analyses. Results. Depressive symptoms among mothers were associated with 1.8 times higher odds (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 2.9) of short stature among children. Parenting self-efficacy was not associated with short stature, nor did it mediate or modify the relationship between depressive symptoms and short stature. Maternal depressive symptoms and self-efficacy were not related to child underweight. Conclusions. Our results showed that among low-income Brazilian families maternal depressive symptoms, but not self-efficacy, were associated with short stature in children aged 6 to 24 months after adjustment for known predictors of growth. PMID:18048782
Contreras, Mónica Yicette Sánchez; Vargas, Paula Alejandra Osorio; Ramos, Lucero Rengifo; Velandia, Rafael Alarcón
The authors describe a family group studied by the Centro de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, and the Clínica de la Memoria, las Demencias y el Envejecimiento (Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Colombia), and evaluate the association of depressive symptoms with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This family presented a hereditary pattern for AD characterized by an early onset of dementia symptoms, a long preclinical depressive course, and, once the first symptoms of dementia appeared, a rapid progression to severe cognitive function impairment. The authors found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in this family and propose that the symptoms could be an important risk factor for developing AD in the presence of other risk factors such as the APOE E4 allele.
Funderburk, Jennifer S.; Shepardson, Robyn L.; Krenek, Marketa
Objective: To describe how behavioral activation (BA) for depression and stimulus control (SC) for insomnia can be modified to a brief format for use in a university primary care setting, and to evaluate preliminarily their effectiveness in reducing symptoms of depression and insomnia, respectively, using data collected in routine clinical care.…
Williamson, J Austin; O'Hara, Michael W; Stuart, Scott; Hart, Kimberly J; Watson, David
Assessing postpartum depressive symptoms is complicated by the fact that irritability, fatigue, insomnia, and appetite disruptions are also related to normative aspects of the childbearing process. We used multigroup confirmatory factor analysis to compare symptoms in 271 postpartum women with those of 820 non-postpartum women. We found that (a) irritability, insomnia, fatigue, and appetite loss were substantially associated with depressed mood among postpartum women whereas increased appetite was not; (b) irritability, insomnia, fatigue, and appetite changes were as strongly related to depression among postpartum women as they were among non-postpartum women; and (c) after controlling for overall depressed mood, postpartum women reported more irritability, insomnia, and appetite loss than the non-postpartum women. Irritability, fatigue, insomnia, and appetite loss are valid indicators and should be used to measure postpartum depressive symptoms. However, scores on these symptoms should be adjusted downward to account for their higher baseline rates in the postpartum population.
Skarupski, K.A.; Tangney, C.C.; Li, H.; Evans, D.A.; Morris, M.C.
Objective To examine whether adherence to a Mediterranean-based dietary pattern is predictive of depressive symptoms among older adults. Design Generalized estimating equation models were used to test the association between a Mediterranean-based dietary pattern and depressive symptoms over time. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, income, widowhood, antidepressant use, total calorie intake, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, number of self-reported medical conditions, cognitive function, and physical disability. Setting Chicago, Illinois. Participants Community-dwelling participants (n=3502) of the Chicago Health and Aging Project aged 65+ years (59% African American) who had no evidence of depression at the baseline. Measurements Adherence to a Mediterranean-based dietary pattern was assessed by the MedDietScore. Dietary evaluation was performed with a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and related to incident depression as measured by the presence of four or more depressive symptoms from the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Results Over an average follow-up of 7.2 years, greater adherence to a Mediterranean-based diet was associated with a reduced number of newly occurring depressive symptoms (parameter estimate = -0.002, standard error = 0.001; p = 0.04). The annual rate of developing depressive symptoms was 98.6% lower among persons in the highest tertile of a Mediterranean-based dietary pattern compared with persons in the lowest tertile group. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that adherence to a diet comprised of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fish, and legumes may protect against the development of depressive symptoms in older age. PMID:23636545
Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p < .05). In contrast to previous research on Caribbean parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the
Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar
ABSTRACT Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006–2008), aged 19–66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85–1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52–2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26–3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439
McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Papandonatos, George D.; Faulconbridge, Lucy F.; Erar, Bahar; Peter, Inga; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; Anderson, Andrea; Wadden, Thomas A.; Wing, Rena R.
Objective Numerous studies find elevated depressive symptoms among individuals with type 2 diabetes, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. We examined whether genetic loci previously associated with depressive symptoms predict depressive symptoms among overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes or change in depressive symptoms during behavioral weight loss. Methods The Illumina CARe iSelect (IBC) chip and Cardiometabochip were characterized in 2,118 overweight or obese participants with type 2 diabetes from Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a randomized trial to determine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) and Diabetes Support and Education (DSE) on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Primary analyses focused on baseline Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores and depressive symptom change at one year. Results Of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six loci, three a priori SNPs in two loci (Chr5: rs60271; LBR: rs2230419, rs1011319) were associated with baseline BDI scores, but in the opposite direction of prior research. In joint analysis of 90,003 IBC and Cardiometabochip SNPs, rs1543654 in the region of KCNE1 predicted change in BDI scores at year 1 in DSE (beta= −1.05, SE=0.21, p=6.9 × 10−7) at the level of chip-wide significance, while also showing a nominal association with baseline BDI (beta=0.35, SE=0.16, p=0.026). Adjustment for antidepressant medication and/or limiting analyses to Non-Hispanic White individuals did not meaningfully alter results. Conclusions Previously reported genetic associations with depressive symptoms did not replicate in this cohort of overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. We identified KCNE1 as a potential novel locus associated with depressive symptoms. PMID:26489030
Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.
Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…
Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J
Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions.
Premo, Julie E.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.
Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including non-supportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children’s negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children’s demands in order to decrease their children’s and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers’ emotion regulation. Toddlers’ increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers’ caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for non-supportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions. PMID:26461486
Jerez-Roig, Javier; de Oliveira, Nayara Priscila Dantas; de Lima Filho, Bartolomeu Fagundes; de Farias Bezerra, Maria Amanda; Matias, Monayane Grazielly Leite; Ferreira, Lidiane Macedo; Dos Santos Amaral, Fabienne Louise Juvêncio; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra; Lima, Kenio Costa
Background/Study Context: Depression is a common psychiatric disorder in the elderly that leads to a decrease in quality of life and functional impairment, among other health problems. The study of depressive symptoms in institutionalized elderly is scarce in Latin America and can contribute to plan prevention and treatment actions in order to improve health conditions for the residents as well as quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and identify its associated factors in institutionalized elderly.
Dix, Theodore; Meunier, Leah N; Lusk, Kathryn; Perfect, Michelle M
Vibrant expression of emotion is the principal means infants and young children use to elicit appropriate and timely caregiving, stimulation, and support. This study examined the depression-inhibition hypothesis: that declines in mothers' support as their depressive symptoms increase inhibit children's emotional communication. Ninety-four mothers and their 14- to 27-month-olds interacted in a university playroom. Based on microanalytic coding of discrete facial displays, results supported three components of the hypothesis. (a) As mothers' depressive symptoms increased, children displayed less facial emotion (more flat affect, less joy, less sadness, less negative). (b) Mothers' low emotional and behavioral support predicted children's low facial communication and mediated relations between mothers' depressive symptoms and children's infrequent emotion. (c) Children who were passive with mothers behaviorally expressed emotion infrequently. Children's passivity mediated relations between mothers' depressive symptoms and children's infrequent emotion displays. Contrary to modeling and contagion theories, mothers' facial displays did not mediate relations between their depressive symptoms and children's facial displays. Nor were the outcomes children experienced regulating their facial displays. Rather, findings suggest that, even when depressive symptoms are modest, young children inhibit emotion as mothers' depressive symptoms increase to withdraw from unresponsive mothers, which may adversely affect children's subsequent relationships and competencies.
Hu, Xiaolin; Huang, Wenxia; Su, Yonglin; Qu, Moying; Peng, Xingchen
Abstract Depressive symptoms are related to negative health outcomes in caregivers of patients with HF. Understanding the factors that are associated with depressive symptoms among caregivers is essential to providing appropriate interventions. Little is known about which status and factors are related to depressive symptoms among Chinese caregivers of patients with heart failure. This study aimed to investigate the status of depressive symptoms and to identify the factors that are associated with depressive symptoms in family caregivers of patients with heart failure in China. A cross-sectional design and a convenience sample were used. Participants (N = 134) from 1 hospital in Chengdu were recruited from June 2013 to June 2014. The following measurement tools were used in this study: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Coping Strategies Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Zarit Burden Interview. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine which factors were associated with depressive symptoms. The results showed that 31% of the caregivers experienced depressive symptoms. The type of payment for treatment (b = −0.312, P < 0.01), readmissions within the last 3 months (b = 0.397, P < 0.01), duration of caregiving (b = −0.213, P < 0.05), caregiver burden (b = 0.299, P < 0.05), active coping (b = −0.235, P < 0.01), and negative coping (b = 0.245, P < 0.05) were related to caregivers’ depressive symptoms. Fifty-four percent of the variance in caregivers’ depressive symptoms was explained by these factors. The caregiver depressive symptoms in China were higher than those reported in studies that were conducted in Western countries. Caregiver depressive symptoms can be improved by providing support for new caregivers (with a caregiving duration of less than 1 year), reducing readmissions, easing caregiver burden, and
Hawkins, Misty A. W.; Dolansky, Mary A.; Schaefer, Julie T.; Fulcher, Michael J.; Gunstad, John; Redle, Joseph D.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel W.
Background Patients with heart failure (HF) have high rates of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms have been associated with greater cognitive impairments in HF; however, it is not known whether particular clusters of depressive symptoms are more detrimental to cognition than others. Objective To identify whether somatic and/or nonsomatic depressive symptom clusters were associated with cognitive function in persons with HF. Methods Participants were 326 HF patients (40.5% female, 26.7% race-ethnicity, aged 68.6±9.7 years). Depressive symptoms were measured using a depression questionnaire commonly used in medical populations: the Patient Health Questionnatire-9 (PHQ-9). Somatic and Nonsomatic subscales scores were created using previous factor analytic results. A neuropsychological battery tested attention, executive function, and memory. Composites were created using averages of age-adjusted scaled scores. Regressions adjusting for demographic and clinical factors were conducted. Results Regressions revealed that PHQ-9 Total was associated with Attention (β=−.14, p=.008) and Executive Function (β=−.17, p=.001). When analyzed separately, the Nonsomatic subscale – but not the Somatic symptoms subscale (ps ≥.092) – was associated with Attention scores (β=−.15, p=.004) and Memory (β=−.11, p=.044). Both Nonsomatic (β=−.18, p<.001) and Somatic symptoms (β=−.11, p=.048) were related to Executive Function. When included together, only the Nonsomatic symptom cluster was associated with Attention (β=−.15, p=.020) and Executive Function (β=−.19, p=.003). Conclusions Greater overall depressive symptom severity was associated with poorer performance on multiple cognitive domains, an effect driven primarily by the nonsomatic symptoms of depression. Clinical Implications These findings suggest that screening explicitly for nonsomatic depressive symptoms may be warranted and that the mechanisms underlying the
Jeffers, Amy J; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G
Obese and overweight individuals experience higher risk for depression and emotional distress. One factor that may contribute to depression in obese or overweight individuals is exposure to unrealistic images in the media. Indeed, overall media consumption is associated with body image dissatisfaction in adolescents and young adults. Despite these compelling links, prior work has not examined the mediating effect of media pressures on the link between BMI and depression. In the present study, young adults (N = 743) completed an online survey assessing demographic information, perceived pressure from the media to conform to a certain body standard, and symptoms of depression. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated a direct effect of BMI on media pressure, a direct effect of media pressure on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect of BMI on depressive symptoms mediated by media pressures. Findings indicate that higher BMI levels are associated with greater depressive symptoms when there is greater perceived media pressure on body image. Results suggest the need for clinicians to assess media consumption and perceived pressure to conform to physical appearance standards in individuals who are obese or overweight as well as individuals at risk for eating disorders.
Klier, Claudia M.; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Zeller, Maria; Steinhardt, Kornelia; Bergemann, Niels; Muzik, Maria
Background Persistence of postpartum depression (PPD) carries potential adverse implications for the emerging mother–child relationship and for child development. Methods This study was designed to investigate factors related to the onset and persistence of PPD; in particular, we examined the cumulative effect of a range of psychosocial risk factors in predicting chronic PPD symptoms. One hundred and five women were interviewed at three assessment periods: within the first days after childbirth, at 6 months, and at 18 months postpartum. Results Depressive symptoms at 6 months predicted 18 months depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the contribution of maternal depression at birth. Psychosocial risk had a moderating influence on the stability of depressive symptomatology. Women with two or more risk factors at birth were more likely to have stable depressive symptomatology across the infants’ first 18 months of life. Conclusion To prevent a chronic course of PPD it may be necessary to identify both depressive symptoms and relevant psychosocial risk factors. PMID:18729148
Arnold, S E; Xie, S X; Leung, Y-Y; Wang, L-S; Kling, M A; Han, X; Kim, E J; Wolk, D A; Bennett, D A; Chen-Plotkin, A; Grossman, M; Hu, W; Lee, V M-Y; Mackin, R Scott; Trojanowski, J Q; Wilson, R S; Shaw, L M
The pathophysiology of negative affect states in older adults is complex, and a host of central nervous system and peripheral systemic mechanisms may play primary or contributing roles. We conducted an unbiased analysis of 146 plasma analytes in a multiplex biochemical biomarker study in relation to number of depressive symptoms endorsed by 566 participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) at their baseline and 1-year assessments. Analytes that were most highly associated with depressive symptoms included hepatocyte growth factor, insulin polypeptides, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and vascular endothelial growth factor. Separate regression models assessed contributions of past history of psychiatric illness, antidepressant or other psychotropic medicine, apolipoprotein E genotype, body mass index, serum glucose and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) τ and amyloid levels, and none of these values significantly attenuated the main effects of the candidate analyte levels for depressive symptoms score. Ensemble machine learning with Random Forests found good accuracy (∼80%) in classifying groups with and without depressive symptoms. These data begin to identify biochemical biomarkers of depressive symptoms in older adults that may be useful in investigations of pathophysiological mechanisms of depression in aging and neurodegenerative dementias and as targets of novel treatment approaches. PMID:22832727
Several new studies have documented high rates of sexual identity mobility among young adults, but little work has investigated the links between identity change and mental health. This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,727) and employs multivariate regression and propensity score matching to investigate the impact of identity change on depressive symptoms. The results reveal that only changes in sexual identity toward more same-sex-oriented identities are associated with increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, the negative impacts of identity change are concentrated among individuals who at baseline identified as heterosexual or had not reported same-sex romantic attraction or relationships. No differences in depressive symptoms by sexual orientation identity were found among respondents who reported stable identities. Future research should continue to investigate the factors that contribute to the relationship between identity change and depression, such as stigma surrounding sexual fluidity. PMID:25690912
Padilla Paredes, Patricia; Calvete, Esther
This study tested whether childhood parental emotional abuse and peer emotional bullying serve as antecedents of depression in adolescence and identified the cognitive mechanisms involved in this process. It was hypothesized that the experience of emotional abuse would predict depressive symptoms via development of rumination and negative inferences. A 3-wave longitudinal study was carried out with 998 adolescents (471 girls and 526 boys) between 13 and 17 years of age. Results showed that emotional abuse by parents and peers at Time 1 predicted a worsening of several cognitive vulnerabilities at Time 2. In addition, brooding mediated between the experiences of abuse and the increase of depressive symptoms at Time 3. Thus, findings suggest that the experiences of childhood emotional abuse by parents and peers serve as antecedents to develop a negative cognitive style, vulnerability that, once developed, is a risk factor for the onset of depressive symptoms in adolescence.
Romans, Sarah E; Tyas, Jeanette; Cohen, Marsha M; Silverstone, Trevor
Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2 were used for a gender analysis of individual symptoms and overall rates of depression in the preceding 12 months. Major depressive disorder was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in this national, cross-sectional survey. The female to male ratio of major depressive disorder prevalence was 1.64:1, with n = 1766 having experienced depression (men 668, women 1098). Women reported statistically more depressive symptoms than men (p < 0.001). Depressed women were more likely to report "increased appetite" (15.5% vs. 10.7%), being "often in tears" (82.6% vs. 44.0%), "loss of interest" (86.9% vs. 81.1%), and "thoughts of death" (70.3% vs. 63.4%). No significant gender differences were found for the remaining symptoms. The data are interpreted against women's greater tendency to cry and to restrict food intake when not depressed. The question is raised whether these items preferentially bias assessment of gender differences in depression, particularly in nonclinic samples.
Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.
Adolescent depression is common and has become a major public health concern in China, yet little research has examined the etiology of depression in Chinese adolescents. In the present study, genetic and environmental influences on Chinese adolescent depressive symptoms were investigated in 1181 twin pairs residing in Beijing, China (ages 11 to 19 years). Child- and parent-versions of the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) were used to measure adolescents’ depressive symptoms. For self-reports, genetic factors, shared environmental factors, and non-shared environmental factors accounted for 50%, 5%, and 45% of the variation in depressive symptoms, respectively; for parent-reports, genetic factors, shared environmental factors, and non-shared environmental factors accounted for 51%, 18%, and 31% of the variation, respectively. These estimates are generally consistent with previous findings in Western adolescents, supporting the cross-cultural generalizability of etiological model of adolescent depression. Neither qualitative nor quantitative sex differences were found in the etiological model. Future studies are needed to investigate how genes and environments work together (gene-environment interaction, gene-environment correlation) to influence depression in Chinese adolescents. PMID:24311200
Dietz, Laura J.; Matthews, Karen A.
Purpose To examine the association between depressive symptoms and subclinical markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), specifically arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and carotid artery intima thickening (IMT), in a sample of healthy adolescents, and to explore adolescent hostility as a potential moderator of depression on subclinical markers of CVD. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven (n = 157) black and white adolescents between the ages of 16-21 completed a follow-up study of psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk factors that included measures of PWV and carotid IMT. Psychosocial measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; divided into tertiles), and the Cook-Medley Hostility Inventory subscales. Linear regression models controlled for sociodemographic variables, health behaviors, blood pressure, body mass index, and heart rate. Results Results show that more severe depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of PWV (B = 0.17, R2 = 0.30, ΔR2 = 0.03, CI = 2.2 – 47.0, p = .03) but not with higher IMT. Adolescent depression remained a significant predictor of PWV when controlling for adolescent hostility; hostility did not moderate the relationship between adolescent depression and PWV. Conclusions Depression may be important in the development of arterial stiffness in adolescence. Further research is needed to delineate the relationship in adolescence and young adulthood between depressive symptoms and the pathogenesis of CVD. PMID:21575817
El-Anzi, Freih O
A sample of 358 Kuwaiti volunteer college students responded to the Insomnia Scale, the Somatic Symptoms Inventory, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. The only significant sex difference was in somatic symptoms on which women had a higher mean score than the men. Correlations between scores on the Insomnia Scale and both Depression scales were .51 and .54 and for Somatic Symptoms were .53 and .61 (p < .01) among men and women, respectively. The factor analysis of the intercorrelations yielded a highly loaded general factor for Psychological Disorder in both samples.
Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim
The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001). In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001), lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001) were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9). Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health.
Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena
Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.
Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim
The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001). In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001), lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001) were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9). Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health. PMID:25222474
Background Studies of the associations between diet and depression have primarily focused on single nutrients or foods. Recently, dietary patterns representing a combination of foods have attracted more interest than individual nutrient. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan. Methods We examined the association between dietary patterns and the risk of depression among 791 Japanese community-dwelling individuals. Diet was assessed with a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Dietary patterns from 52 predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d)] were extracted by principal component analysis. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) with a cut-off point of 16 was used to assess the prevalence of depression. Results A total of 97 subjects (12.3%) were classified as having depression. Four dietary patterns were identified: “Healthy”, “Western”, “Bread and confectionery”, and “Alcohol and accompanying” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, the dietary patterns were not related to the risk of depression. Conclusions The present study failed to find associations between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by the lack of certain data, including employment physical activity and longitudinal observations. Potential associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were not completely ruled out. Future research exploring dietary patterns and depressive symptoms is warranted. PMID:23006931
Golden, Sherita Hill; Lazo, Mariana; Carnethon, Mercedes; Bertoni, Alain G.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Lyketsos, Constantine
Context Depressive symptoms are associated with development of type 2 diabetes, but it is unclear whether type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for elevated depressive symptoms. Objective To examine the bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a longitudinal, ethnically diverse cohort study of US men and women aged 45 to 84 years enrolled in 2000-2002 and followed up until 2004-2005. Main Outcome Measures Elevated depressive symptoms defined by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score of 16 or higher, use of antidepressant medications, or both. The CES-D score was also modeled continuously. Participants were categorized as normal fasting glucose (<100 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (100-125 mg/dL), or type 2 diabetes (≥126 mg/dL or receiving treatment). Analysis 1 included 5201 participants without type 2 diabetes at baseline and estimated the relative hazard of incidenttype2diabetesover3.2yearsforthosewithandwithoutdepressivesymptoms.Analysis 2 included 4847 participants without depressive symptoms at baseline and calculated the relative odds of developing depressive symptoms over 3.1 years for those with and without type 2 diabetes. Results In analysis 1, the incidence rate of type 2 diabetes was 22.0 and 16.6 per 1000 person-years for those with and without elevated depressive symptoms, respectively. The risk of incident type 2 diabetes was 1.10 times higher for each 5-unit increment in CES-D score (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.19) after adjustment for demographic factors and body mass index. This association persisted following adjustment for metabolic, inflammatory, socioeconomic, or lifestyle factors, although it was no longer statistically significant following adjustment for the latter (relative hazard, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99-1.19). In analysis 2, the incidence rates of elevated depressive symptoms per 1000-person years were
Mendoza, Natasha S; Trinidad, Jonathan R; Nochajski, Thomas H; Farrell, Mark C
The majority of drug abusing offenders who need substance abuse treatment do not receive it. Although interventions like drug court increase the probability of offender success, little is known about how co-occurring psychological symptoms impact drug court treatment outcomes. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that co-occurring psychological symptoms would have a significant relationship with successful drug court completion. Using a sample of suburban drug court enrollees (n = 122), multivariate logistic regression was conducted with successful drug court completion as the outcome variable. Predictor variables included symptom counts of depression, post-traumatic stress, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, psychosis, generalized anxiety, and social phobia. Results indicated that participants with fewer symptoms of depression were more likely to successfully complete drug court than participants with more symptoms. The present study extends previous research by demonstrating that symptoms of depression are related to poorer outcomes for drug court enrollees. Accordingly, drug courts need to address participants' symptoms of depression to maximize success.
Gonzalez, Patricia; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Dale, Jennifer; Medeiros, Elizabeth A.; Buelna, Christina; Nuñez, Alicia; Espinoza, Rebeca; Talavera, Gregory A.
Purpose Depression is common among patients diagnosed with cancer and may be inversely associated with spiritual well-being. While numerous strategies are employed to manage and cope with illness, spiritual well-being has become increasingly important in cancer survivorship research. This study examined the association between spiritual well-being and depressive symptoms. Methods This cross-sectional study utilized self-report data from 102 diverse cancer survivors recruited from peer-based cancer support groups in San Diego County. Depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8) and spiritual well-being was measured with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy--Spiritual Well-being (FACIT-Sp) comprised of two subscales (Meaning/Peace and Faith). Results Hierarchal regression analysis indicated that Meaning/Peace significantly predicted depressive symptoms after adjusting for socio-demographics, cancer stage, time since diagnosis, and Faith (p < .001). Conclusions Findings suggest that spiritual well-being is a valuable coping mechanism and that Meaning/Peace has a unique advantage over Faith in protecting cancer survivors from the effects of depression symptoms; therefore, turning to Meaning/Peace as source of strength may improve psychological well-being during survivorship. Implications Future programs and healthcare providers should be cognizant of the influential role of spiritual well-being in depression symptoms in an effort to improve psychological well-being among cancer survivors. PMID:24691887
Lopez Molina, Mariane Acosta; Jansen, Karen; Drews, Cláudio; Pinheiro, Ricardo; Silva, Ricardo; Souza, Luciano
This research aimed to compare the prevalence rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to differentiate the presence and severity of depressive symptoms between women and men aged 18-24 years. In this population-based, cross-sectional study (n = 1560), young adults were screened with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for MDD (n = 137). Participants then completed a self-report questionnaire to gather sociodemographic data, and the presence of each symptom of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The proportion of women (12.2%) with MDD was higher than that of men (5.3%). The symptoms of depression found to be significantly more prevalent in women were sadness, crying, difficulty making decisions, and lack of energy, as well as self-criticism, irritability, changes in self-image, work difficulty, and loss of interest in sex. Sadness and self-criticism were significantly more severe in women than in men. The presentation of depressive symptoms in young adults with MDD differed between men and women.
Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Reiss, David
This study used a prospective adoption design to investigate effects of prenatal and postnatal parent depressive symptom exposure on child hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and associated internalizing symptoms. Birth mother prenatal symptoms and adoptive mother/father postnatal (9-month, 27-month) symptoms were assessed with the Beck…
Chen, Ying-Yeh; Subramanian, S V; Acevedo-Garcia, Doloros; Kawachi, Ichiro
The effects of state-level women's status and autonomy on individual-level women's depressive symptoms were examined. We conducted a multi-level analysis of the 1991 longitudinal follow up of the 1988 National Maternal Infant Health Survey (NMIHS), with 7789 women nested within the fifty American states. State-level women's status was assessed by four composite indices measuring women's political participation, economic autonomy, employment & earnings, and reproductive rights. The main outcome measure was symptoms of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D). The participants were a nationally representative stratified random sample of women in the USA aged between 17 and 40 years old who gave birth to live babies in 1988, were successfully contacted again in 1991 and provided complete information on depressive symptoms. Women who were younger, non-white, not currently married, less educated or had lower household income tended to report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Compared with states ranking low on the employment & earnings index, women residing in states that were high on the same index scored 0.85 points lower on the CES-D (p<0.01). Women who lived in states that were high on the economic autonomy index scored 0.83 points lower in depressive symptoms (p<0.01), compared with women who lived in states low on the same index. Finally, women who resided in states with high reproductive rights scored 0.62 points lower on the CES-D (p<0.05) compared with women who lived in states with lower reproductive rights. Gender inequality appears to contribute to depressive symptoms in women.
Background This study examined (1) the factor structure of a depressive symptoms scale (DSS), (2) the sex and longitudinal invariance of the DSS, and (3) the predictive validity of the DSS scale during adolescence in terms of predicting depression and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 1,293 adolescents. Results The analytical sample included 527 participants who provided complete data or had minimal missing data over follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that an intercorrelated three-factor model with somatic, depressive, and anxiety factors provided the best fit. Further, this model was invariant across sex and time. Finally, DSS scores at Time 3 correlated significantly with depressive and anxiety symptoms measured at Time 4. Conclusions Results suggest that the DSS is multidimensional and that it is a suitable instrument to examine sex differences in somatic, depressive, and anxiety symptoms, as well as changes in these symptoms over time in adolescents. In addition, it could be used to identify individuals at-risk of psychopathology during early adulthood. PMID:24679136
Buckner, Julia D; Bernert, Rebecca A; Cromer, Kiara R; Joiner, Thomas E; Schmidt, Norman B
Anxiety is commonly associated with insomnia. Given that social anxiety disorder is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders, socially anxious individuals may be particularly vulnerable to insomnia. However, there is currently very little empirical work on this relationship. This study used bivariate correlations to examine whether social anxiety was related to insomnia in an undergraduate sample (n=176) using the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Insomnia Severity Index. Further, we utilized responses from the Beck Depression Inventory to investigate the role of depressive symptoms in the association between social anxiety and insomnia. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the moderational and mediational role of depressive symptoms in the link between social anxiety and insomnia. To increase generalizability to clinical samples, analyses were repeated on a subset of the sample with clinically significant social anxiety symptoms (n=23) compared to a matched control group (n=23). Consistent with expectation, social anxiety was associated with increased insomnia symptoms. Specifically, social anxiety was correlated with sleep dissatisfaction, sleep-related functional impairment, perception of a sleep problem to others, and distress about sleep problems. Importantly, depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between social anxiety and insomnia, thereby at least partially accounting for insomnia among socially anxious individuals. Our data support the contention that social anxiety is associated with insomnia and suggest that depression may play a vital role in this co-occurrence.
Nyamathi, Adeline; Leake, Barbara; Albarran, Cynthia; Zhang, Sheldon; Hall, Elizabeth; Farabee, David; Marlow, Elizabeth; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Faucette, Mark
This study describes correlates of high levels of depressive symptoms among recently paroled men in Los Angeles who reside in a community substance abuse treatment program and report homelessness. Cross-sectional data were obtained from male residents who were released on parole within the last 30 days (N =157) to assess parental relationship, self-esteem, social support, coping behaviors, drug and alcohol use behaviors, depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic information. Results indicated that 40% of the participants were classified as experiencing high levels of depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10). Results of a logistic regression analysis showed that the following were predictors of depressive symptoms (p <.05): physical abuse in childhood, non-residential alcohol treatment, violent behaviors, low self-esteem, and disengagement coping. Being Mexican-American, Mexican, American Indian, or Asian, and not displaying cognitive problems was inversely related to depressive symptoms in the final model (B =-2.39, p <.05). Findings support proper use of both prison and community assessment services to at-risk individuals eligible for parole to increase self-esteem and coping.
Tomitaka, Shinichiro; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Miyake, Hirotsugu; Furukaw, Toshiaki A.
Background In a previous study, we reported that the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a general population is stable throughout middle adulthood and follows an exponential pattern except for at the lowest end of the symptom score. Furthermore, the individual distributions of 16 negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibit a common mathematical pattern. To confirm the reproducibility of these findings, we investigated the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores and 16 negative symptom items in a sample of Japanese employees. Methods We analyzed 7624 employees aged 20–59 years who had participated in the Northern Japan Occupational Health Promotion Centers Collaboration Study for Mental Health. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D. The CES-D contains 20 items, each of which is scored in four grades: “rarely,” “some,” “much,” and “most of the time.” The descriptive statistics and frequency curves of the distributions were then compared according to age group. Results The distribution of total depressive symptoms scores appeared to be stable from 30–59 years. The right tail of the distribution for ages 30–59 years exhibited a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. The distributions of the 16 individual negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibited a common mathematical pattern which displayed different distributions with a boundary at “some.” The distributions of the 16 negative symptom items from “some” to “most” followed a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. Conclusions The distributions of the total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items in a Japanese occupational setting show the same patterns as those observed in a general population. These results show that the specific mathematical patterns of the distributions of total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items
Sambunaris, Angelo; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam; Robinson, Donald S.
Vilazodone is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. To assess the efficacy of vilazodone across a range of symptoms and severities of depression, data from two phase III, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were pooled for analysis. Overall improvement in depressive symptoms measured using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was statistically significant (P<0.05) for vilazodone treatment compared with placebo as early as Week 1 and continued throughout double-blind treatment. Vilazodone treatment compared with placebo showed significant improvement on all 10 individual MADRS symptom items at end of treatment (P<0.01). Rates of response and remission were significantly greater in the vilazodone group relative to the placebo group, with numbers needed to treat ranging from eight to nine for response and 12–17 for remission. Between-group treatment differences in MADRS and the other outcome measures were similar among all depression subgroups, with no consistent pattern associated with depression severity. These findings support the efficacy of vilazodone across a broad range of depressive symptoms and severities for the treatment of major depressive disorder. PMID:24247740
Khan, Arif; Sambunaris, Angelo; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam; Robinson, Donald S
Vilazodone is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. To assess the efficacy of vilazodone across a range of symptoms and severities of depression, data from two phase III, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were pooled for analysis. Overall improvement in depressive symptoms measured using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was statistically significant (P<0.05) for vilazodone treatment compared with placebo as early as Week 1 and continued throughout double-blind treatment. Vilazodone treatment compared with placebo showed significant improvement on all 10 individual MADRS symptom items at end of treatment (P<0.01). Rates of response and remission were significantly greater in the vilazodone group relative to the placebo group, with numbers needed to treat ranging from eight to nine for response and 12-17 for remission. Between-group treatment differences in MADRS and the other outcome measures were similar among all depression subgroups, with no consistent pattern associated with depression severity. These findings support the efficacy of vilazodone across a broad range of depressive symptoms and severities for the treatment of major depressive disorder.
The financial difficulty of dementia caregivers and its effects on mental health has gained increasing attention from researchers. The present study examines the longitudinal relationship between financial difficulty and the depressive symptoms of dementia caregivers using matching methods to account for potential selection bias. Propensity score matching methods and mixed-effects models were used to determine the effects of financial difficulty on depressive symptoms among caregivers participating in the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) intervention program. Propensity score matching confirmed that caregivers experiencing financial difficulty were more likely to have depressive symptoms. The results suggest that dementia caregivers require support for their financial difficulty. Future research should fully examine the complex relationship between financial difficulty and the mental health of caregivers and how this issue can be addressed through assessment and intervention methods.
Bijlenga, Denise; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Breuk, Minda; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Lie, Maria E. H.; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swaab, Hanna J. T.; Kooij, J. J. Sandra
Objective: The authors explored associations between ADHD symptoms, seasonal depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and health. Method: Adult ADHD patients ("n" = 202) and controls ("n" = 189) completed the ASESA questionnaire involving lifestyle, eating pattern, and physical and psychological health, and validated measures on ADHD…
Rose, Amanda J.; Carlson, Wendy; Luebbe, Aaron M.; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.; Smith, Rhiannon R.; Swenson, Lance P.
Youth's friendships serve important functions in development; however, internalizing symptoms may undermine these relationships. Two studies are presented that examine the association of depressive and anxiety symptoms with friendship adjustment. Study 1 tested concurrent effects and Study 2 tested prospective effects over 6 months. Like past…
Gruhn, Meredith A; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A; Compas, Bruce E
The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15 years old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population.
Gruhn, Meredith A.; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A.; Compas, Bruce E.
The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15-years-old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. PMID:26882467
Crowley, Shannon K.; Wilkinson, Larrell L.; Wigfall, Lisa T.; Reynolds, Alexandria M.; Muraca, Stephanie T.; Glover, Saundra H.; Wooten, Nikki R.; Sui, Xuemei; Beets, Michael W.; Durstine, J. Larry; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.
Introduction Mental health-related problems are a significant cause of attrition during Basic Combat Training (BCT). Evidence in civilian populations suggests that physical fitness is associated with psychological benefits in civilians, but little is known about the association between physical fitness and psychological adjustment during BCT. Methods This study prospectively examined the association between physical fitness and depressive symptoms in 300 BCT soldiers from May to July, 2012 at Fort Jackson, Columbia, SC. Soldiers completed a baseline Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) and survey within one week of arriving at BCT, and an end of cycle survey after eight weeks of BCT. Soldiers were assigned to the “high” fitness category if they had a passing score on the standard APFT of greater than or equal to 180 points out of 300 points. Soldiers scoring less than 180 points on the APFT were assigned to the “ low” fitness category. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results In multivariate analyses, adjusting for baseline demographics, self-reported sleep prior to BCT, BCT confidence, Army identification, and depressive symptoms, the odds of reporting depressive symptoms were 60% lower for soldiers in the high fitness category (odds ratio, OR 0.40; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.19–0.84), compared to soldiers in the low fitness category. Conclusions Analogous to other positive outcomes of soldier fitness, improvement of soldier physical fitness prior to BCT might improve soldiers' psychological health outcomes. PMID:24870581
Neri, G; Serrati, C; Zolo, P; Cataldo, N; Ripellino, C
The assessment of cognition is an important part of major depressive disorder (MDD) evaluation and a crucial issue is the physicians' perception of cognitive dysfunction in MDD that remains nowadays a little known matter. The present study aims at investigating the understanding of neurologists' perception about cognitive dysfunction in MDD. An on-line survey addressed to 85 Italian neurologists in the period between May and June 2015 was performed. The questionnaire comprised three sections: the first section collecting information on neurologists' socio-demographic profile, the second investigating cognitive symptoms relevance in relation with different aspects and the third one explicitly focusing on cognitive symptoms in MDD. Cognitive symptoms are considered most significant among DSM-5 symptoms to define the presence of a Major Depressive Episode in a MDD, to improve antidepressant therapy adherence, patients' functionality and concurrent neurological condition, once resolved. Furthermore, an incongruity came to light from this survey: the neurologists considered cognitive symptoms a not relevant aspect to choose the antidepressant treatment in comparison with the other DSM-5 symptoms on one side, but they declared the opposite in the third part of the questionnaire focused on cognitive symptoms. Cognitive symptoms appeared to be a relevant aspect in MDD and neurologists have a clear understanding of this issue. Nevertheless, the discrepancy between neurologists' perception on cognitive symptoms and the antidepressant treatment highlights the feeling of an unmet need that could be filled increasing the awareness of existing drugs with pro-cognitive effects.
Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Bae, Sanghyuk; Park, Hye Yin
Background: Although the effect of air pollution on various diseases has been extensively investigated, few studies have examined its effect on depression. Objectives: We investigated the effect of air pollution on symptoms of depression in an elderly population. Methods: We enrolled 537 participants in the study who regularly visited a community center for the elderly located in Seoul, Korea. The Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (SGDS-K) was used to evaluate depressive symptomatology during a 3-year follow-up study. We associated ambient air pollutants with SGDS-K results using generalized estimating equations (GEE). We also conducted a factor analysis with items on the SGDS-K to determine which symptoms were associated with air pollution. Results: SGDS-K scores were positively associated with interquartile range (IQR) increases in the 3-day moving average concentration of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) [17.0% increase in SGDS-K score, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.9%, 30.5%], the 0–7 day moving average of nitrogen dioxide [NO2; 32.8% (95% CI: 12.6%, 56.6%)], and the 3-day moving average of ozone [O3; 43.7% (95% CI: 11.5%, 85.2%)]. For these three pollutants, factor analysis showed that air pollution was more strongly associated with emotional symptoms such as feeling happy and satisfied than with somatic or affective symptoms. Conclusions: Our study suggests that increases in PM10, NO2, and O3 may increase depressive symptoms among the elderly. Of the symptoms evaluated, ambient air pollution was most strongly associated with emotional symptoms. PMID:22514209
Dotson, Vonetta M.; Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Kirton, Joshua W.; McLaren, Molly E.; Green, Mackenzie L.; Rohani, Jessica Y.
Objective Depression and anxiety and are associated with cognitive deficits and brain changes, especially in older adults. Despite the frequent co-occurrence of these conditions, cognitive neuroscience studies examining comorbid depression and anxiety are limited. The goal of the present study was to examine the unique and combined effect of depressive and anxiety symptoms on cognitive and brain functioning in young and older adults. Methods Seventy-one healthy, community-dwelling adults between the ages of 18 and 81 were administered a neuropsychological battery and completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the trait form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T). A subset of 25 participants also underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while completing the n-back working memory task. Results Total depressive symptoms, depressed mood symptoms, and somatic symptoms were associated with deficits in speed, working memory and executive functions, especially in older adults. Symptoms of lack of well-being were not associated with any neuropsychological test. Anxiety was associated with better attention and working memory. Moreover, anxiety modified the relationship between depressive symptoms and executive functioning in older adults, as elevated depressive symptoms were associated with worse performance at low levels of anxiety, but not at higher anxiety levels. Similarly, analysis of fMRI data showed that total depressive symptoms and depressed mood symptoms were associated with decreased activity in the superior frontal gyrus at low anxiety levels, but not at high anxiety levels. Conclusion Results confirm previous reports that subthreshold depression and anxiety impact cognitive and brain functioning and suggest that the interaction of depression and anxiety results in distinct cognitive and brain changes. Findings highlight the importance of assessing and controlling for symptoms of depression and
Snyder, James; Bullard, Lisa; Wagener, Alexandra; Leong, Pek Kuan; Snyder, John; Jenkins, Melissa
The development of child anxiety and depressive symptoms from mean ages 5.3 to 9.3 years was examined in a community sample of 133 girls and 134 boys, using parent and teacher ratings. Reliable individual differences in anxiety and depressive symptoms at mean age 5.3 and in their change to mean age 9.3 were observed, with significant correlations…
Blood, Julia D.; Wu, Jia; Chaplin, Tara M.; Hommer, Rebecca; Vazquez, Lauren; Rutherford, Helena J.V.; Mayes, Linda C.; Crowley, Michael J.
Background Work examining the link between lower heart rate variability (HRV) and depression in children and adolescents is lacking, especially in light of the physiological changes that occur during pubertal development. Method We investigated the association between spectral measures of resting HRV and depressive symptoms among 127 children and adolescents, ages 10–17. Using spectral analysis, we evaluated (1) the association between relative high frequency (HF) HRV and depressive symptoms; (2) the predictive power of relative HF HRV for depressive symptoms in the context of relative low frequency (LF) and relative very low frequency (VLF) HRV; and (3) the relationship between relative HF, LF, and VLF band activity, age and pubertal maturation. Results Consistent with previous work, results revealed that relative HF HRV was negatively associated with self-reported depressive symptoms. As well, relative VLF HRV was positively associated with depressive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that relative HF HRV and relative VLF HRV significantly predicted self-report depressive symptoms while controlling for age, sex and pubertal maturation, with relative VLF HRV emerging as the strongest indicator of depressive symptoms. Developmental findings also emerged. Age and pubertal maturation were negatively associated with relative HF HRV and positively correlated with relative VLF HRV. Conclusions Results provide support for the relationship between HRV and depression and suggest that both HF and VLF HRV are relevant to depression symptom severity. Findings also reinforce the importance of considering pubertal development when investigating HRV-depression associations in children and adolescents. Limitations Influences on cardiac control including physical activity levels and exercise patterns could be controlled in future work. Our data speak to a depressive symptom dimension and relative spectral power HRV. Thus, we cannot make strong claims about relative spectral
Objective: In patients with a history of suicidal depression, recurrence of depressive symptoms can easily reactivate suicidal thinking. In this study, we investigated whether training in mindfulness, which is aimed at helping patients “decenter” from negative thinking, could help weaken the link between depressive symptoms and suicidal cognitions. Method: Analyses were based on data from a recent randomized controlled trial, in which previously suicidal patients were allocated to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), an active control treatment, cognitive psychoeducation (CPE), which did not include any meditation practice, or treatment as usual (TAU). After the end of the treatment phase, we compared the associations between depressive symptoms, as assessed through self-reports on the Beck Depression Inventory–II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996), and suicidal thinking, as assessed through the Suicidal Cognitions Scale (Rudd et al., 2001). Results: In patients with minimal to moderate symptoms at the time of assessment, comparisons of the correlations between depressive symptoms and suicidal cognitions showed significant differences between the groups. Although suicidal cognitions were significantly related to levels of symptoms in the 2 control groups, there was no such relation in the MBCT group. Conclusion: The findings suggest that, in patients with a history of suicidal depression, training in mindfulness can help to weaken the association between depressive symptoms and suicidal thinking, and thus reduce an important vulnerability for relapse to suicidal depression. PMID:26302249
Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn; Kozachik, Sharon; Smith, Michael T.; Budhathoki, Chakra; Haywood, Carlton
Background No studies to-date have systematically investigated insomnia symptoms among adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). The purpose of this study was to 1) describe the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and 2) identify bio-psychosocial predictors in community-dwelling adults with Sickle Cell Disease. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 263 African-American adults with SCD (aged 18 years or older). Measures included the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Center for Epidemiologic Studies in Depression scale, Urban Life Stress Scale, Brief Pain Inventory, and a chronic pain item. SCD genotype was extracted from the medical record. Results A slight majority (55%) of the sample reported clinically significant insomnia symptomatology (ISI ≥10), which suggests that insomnia symptoms are prevalent among community-dwelling African-American adults with SCD. While insomnia symptoms were associated with a number of bio-psychosocial characteristics, depressive symptoms and acute pain were the only independent predictors. Conclusion Given the high number of participants reporting clinically significant insomnia symptoms, nurses should screen for insomnia symptoms and to explore interventions to promote better sleep among adults with SCD with an emphasis on recommending treatment for pain and depression. In addition, current pain and depression interventions in this population could add insomnia measures and assess the effect of the intervention on insomnia symptomatology as a secondary outcome. PMID:26673730
Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita
Objective: Links between maternal and offspring depression symptoms could arise from inherited factors, direct environmental exposure, or shared adversity. A novel genetically sensitive design was used to test the extent of environmental links between maternal depression symptoms and child depression/anxiety symptoms, accounting for inherited…
Wang, Yiji; Dix, Theodore
This study examined processes that might account for why negatively emotional children are at high risk for externalizing behavior problems when raised by mothers with depressive symptoms. Because negative emotionality regulates adaptation to stress, we predicted that it would undermine children's adjustment to mothers' depressive symptoms by increasing child emotions likely to elicit reciprocal negativity from depressed mothers, bias negatively children's attributions about others, and activate difficult-to-control oppositional responses. In a large sample (N = 1,082) evaluated from 6 months to second grade, results showed that, when mothers had depressive symptoms early in the child's development, children who were high in negative emotionality-but not those who were low-displayed increased risk for externalizing problems in second grade. This risk reflected tendencies for negatively emotional children, when raised by mothers with depressive symptoms, to develop hostile attributions about others and poor self-regulation of the negativity these attributions promote. The findings suggest that, when mothers with depressive symptoms raise negatively emotional children, children's risk for externalizing behavior problems may reflect tendencies for high negative emotion in children and reciprocal negativity in the dyad to undermine the development of attributional and self-regulatory processes. (PsycINFO Database Record
Silvia, Paul J; Mironovová, Zuzana; McHone, Ashley N; Sperry, Sarah H; Harper, Kelly L; Kwapil, Thomas R; Eddington, Kari M
Research on depression and effort has suggested "depressive blunting"-lower cardiovascular reactivity in response to challenges and stressors. Many studies, however, find null effects or higher reactivity. The present research draws upon motivational intensity theory, a broad model of effort that predicts cases in which depressive symptoms should increase or decrease effort. Because depressive symptoms can influence task-difficulty appraisals-people see tasks as subjectively harder-people high in depressive symptoms should engage higher effort at objectively easier levels of difficulty but also quit sooner. A sample of adults completed a mental effort challenge with four levels of difficulty, from very easy to difficult-but-feasible. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the CESD and DASS; effort-related cardiac activity was assessed via markers of contractility (e.g., the cardiac pre-ejection period [PEP]) obtained with impedance cardiography. The findings supported the theory's predictions. When the task was relatively easier, people high in depressive symptoms showed higher contractility (shorter PEP), consistent with greater effort. When the task was relatively harder, people high in depressive symptoms showed diminished contractility, consistent with quitting. The results suggest that past research has been observing a small part of a larger trajectory of trying and quitting, and they illustrate the value of a theoretically grounded analysis of depressive symptoms and effort-related cardiac activity.
Vermeesch, Amber L.; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Hall, Rosemary; McCabe, Brian E.; Cianelli, Rosina; Peragallo, Nilda P.
U.S. Hispanics, especially women, experience a disproportionate amount of disease burden for depression. This disparity among Hispanic women necessitates examination of factors associated with depression. The objective of this study was to use an adaptation of the Stress Process Model to test whether self-esteem mediated the relationship between Hispanic stress and depressive symptoms. Data for this secondary analysis were from a previous randomized-control HIV prevention trial. Participants were 548 Hispanic women (19–52 years). Data collection measures included the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Hispanic Stress Scale. The bootstrap method in Mplus 6 was used to test mediation. Results indicated that self-esteem was inversely related to depression, and Hispanic stress was found to be positively related to depression. Self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between stress and depression. Strategies to improve/maintain self-esteem should be considered in future interventions for Hispanic women with depression. PMID:23858067
Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.
Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…
Davis, Gwendolyn Y.; Stevenson, Howard C.
Ecological barriers like racism and discrimination can weigh heavily on the shifting emotions of adolescents. We investigated the relationship of racial socialization experiences to the depression symptoms of 160 Black adolescents, including lethargy, low self-esteem, cognitive difficulties, social introversion, irritability, guilt, pessimism, sad…
Kim, Sangmoon; Thibodeau, Ryan; Jorgensen, Randall S.
Recent theoretical and empirical work has facilitated the drawing of sharp conceptual distinctions between shame and guilt. A clear view of these distinctions has permitted development of a research literature aimed at evaluating the differential associations of shame and guilt with depressive symptoms. This study quantitatively summarized the…
Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, Curtis
The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th…
Aneshensel, Carol S.; Botticello, Amanda L.; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko
This study describes depressive symptoms among caregivers following bereavement and connects these trajectories to earlier features of caregiving using life course and stress process theory. Data are from a six-wave longitudinal survey (five years) of spouses and adult children caring for someone with Alzheimer's Disease. The analytic subsample (N…
Chen, Mandy; Johnston, Charlotte; Sheeber, Lisa; Leve, Craig
This study examined whether negative parental attributions for adolescent behaviour mediate the association between parental and adolescent depressive symptoms, and whether this relationship is moderated by adolescent gender. Mothers and fathers and 124 adolescents (76 girls and 48 boys; ages 14 to 18) participated. Adolescents were primarily…
Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita
The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…
Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph
Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among stress, social support, negative interaction, and mental health in a sample of African American men and women between ages 18 and 54 (N = 591) from the National Comorbidity Study. The study findings indicated that social support decreased the number of depressive symptoms,…
Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.
This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…
Fleming, Lila C.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.
Background: The goal of this study was to assess the association between bullying and symptoms of depression among middle school students in Chile. Methods: Secondary data analysis of Chile's 2004 Global School-Based Health Survey. Results: A total of 8131 middle school students participated in the study. Forty-seven percent of students reported…
Black, Maureen M.; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Zaman, K.; McNary, Scot W.; Le, Katherine; El Arifeen, Shams; Hamadani, Jena D.; Parveen, Monowara; Yunus, Md.; Black, Robert E.
Objective: To examine how maternal depressive symptoms are related to infant development among low-income infants in rural Bangladesh and to examine how the relationship is affected by maternal perceptions of infant irritability and observations of caregiving practices. Methods: Development was measured among 221 infants at 6 and 12 months with…
Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.
This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…
Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.; Nepon, Taryn
The present study examined trait perfectionism, automatic perfectionistic thoughts, rumination, worry, and depressive symptoms in early adolescents. A group of 81 elementary school students in Grades 7 and 8 completed 5 questionnaires: the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, the Children's Response Styles…
Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder worldwide. The burden of disease for depression goes beyond functioning and quality of life and extends to somatic health. Depression has been shown to subsequently increase the risk of, for example, cardiovascular, stroke, diabetes and obesity morbidity. These somatic consequences could partly be due to metabolic, immuno-inflammatory, autonomic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis dysregulations which have been suggested to be more often present among depressed patients. Evidence linking depression to metabolic syndrome abnormalities indicates that depression is especially associated with its obesity-related components (for example, abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia). In addition, systemic inflammation and hyperactivity of the HPA-axis have been consistently observed among depressed patients. Slightly less consistent observations are for autonomic dysregulation among depressed patients. The heterogeneity of the depression concept seems to play a differentiating role: metabolic syndrome and inflammation up-regulations appear more specific to the atypical depression subtype, whereas hypercortisolemia appears more specific for melancholic depression. This review finishes with potential treatment implications for the downward spiral in which different depressive symptom profiles and biological dysregulations may impact on each other and interact with somatic health decline. PMID:23672628
Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.
This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…
Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.
Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…
Marchetti, Igor; Van de Putte, Eowyn; Koster, Ernst H. W.
Human minds often engage in thoughts and feelings that are self-generated rather than stimulus-dependent, such as daydreaming. Recent research suggests that under certain circumstances, daydreaming is associated with adverse effects on cognition and affect. Based on recent literature about the influence of resting mind in relation to rumination and depression, this questionnaire study investigated mechanisms linking daydreaming to depressive symptoms. Specifically, an indirect effect model was tested in which daydreaming influences depressive symptoms through enhancing self-focus and ruminative thought. Results were in line with the hypothesis and several alternative pathways were ruled out. The results provide initial supportive evidence that daydreaming can influence depressive symptoms through influences on self-focus and rumination. Further research should use prospective or experimental designs to further validate and strengthen these conclusions. PMID:24672458
Fan, L.-B.; Blumenthal, J. A.; Watkins, L. L.
Background In the evolving work environment of global competition, the associations between work and home stress and psychological well-being are not well understood. Aims To examine the impact of psychosocial stress at work and at home on anxiety and depression. Methods In medically healthy employed men and women (aged 30–60), serial regression analyses were used to determine the independent association of psychosocial stress at work and at home with depression symptoms, measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and anxiety symptoms, measured using the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Psychosocial stress at work was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire to assess job psychological demands, job control, job social support and job insecurity. Psychosocial stress at home was assessed by 12 questions including stress at home, personal problems, family demands and feelings about home life. Results Serial regression analyses in 129 subjects revealed that job insecurity and home stress were most strongly associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. Job insecurity accounted for 9% of the variation both in BDI-II scores and in STAI scores. Home stress accounted for 13 and 17% of the variation in BDI-II scores and STAI scores, respectively. In addition, job social support was significantly and independently associated with STAI scores but not BDI-II scores. Conclusions Work and home stress were associated with anxiety and depression symptoms in both men and women. Both work and home stress should be considered in studies evaluating anxiety and depression in working populations. PMID:25589707
Jeon, Hong Jin; Walker, Rosemary S; Inamori, Aya; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David
Previous epidemiologic studies have revealed that East-Asian populations experience fewer depressive symptoms than American populations do. However, it is unclear whether this difference applies to clinical patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This present study included 1592 Korean and 3744 American outpatients who were 18 years of age or older and met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for single or recurrent episodes of nonpsychotic MDD, and evaluated their symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Korean patients scored significantly lower for guilt and depressed mood items, and higher for hypochondriasis and suicidality items than American patients did, after adjusting for total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Conversely, no significant differences were found in quality and function of daily life between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Korean patients experienced less frequent depressed mood and guilt, including verbal and nonverbal expression of depressed mood [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.23] and feelings of punishment (AOR = 0.036, 95% CI 0.025-0.054) when compared with Americans after adjusting for age and sex. Conversely, Korean patients experienced more frequent suicidality and hypochondriasis, including suicidal ideas or gestures (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.60-2.76) and self-absorption of hypochondriasis (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.70-2.20). In conclusion, decreased expression of depressed mood and guilt may cause underdiagnosis of MDD in Korean patients. Early diagnosis of and intervention for depression and suicide may be delayed because of this specific cross-cultural difference in depression symptoms.
... and exercise shows that the psychological and physical benefits of exercise can also help reduce anxiety and improve mood. ... such as running or bicycling. The mental health benefits of exercise and physical activity may last only if you ...
Grigoriou, Stefania S.; Karatzaferi, Christina; Sakkas, Giorgos K.
Depression is a mental disorder with a high prevalence among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). It is reported that depression afflicts approximately 20-30% of this patient population, being associated, amongst other, with high mortality rate, low adherence to medication and low perceived quality of life. There is a variety of medications known to be effective for the treatment of depression but due to poor adherence to treatment as well as due to the high need for medications addressing other ESRD comorbidities, depression often remains untreated. According to the literature, depression is under-diagnosed and undertreated in the majority of the patients with chronic kidney disease. In the current review the main pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches and research outcomes for the management of depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients are discussed. PMID:26973957
Hilgenberg, P B; Saldanha, A D D; Cunha, C O; Rubo, J H; Conti, P C R
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and otologic symptoms in patients with and without tinnitus. The influence of the level of depression was also addressed. The tinnitus group was comprised of 100 patients with tinnitus, and control group was comprised of 100 individuals without tinnitus. All subjects were evaluated using the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) to determine the presence of TMD and depression level. Chi-square, Spearman Correlation and Mann-Whitney tests were used in statistical analysis, with a 5% significance level. TMD signs and symptoms were detected in 85% of patients with tinnitus and in 55% of controls (P≤0·001). The severity of pain and higher depression levels were positively associated with tinnitus (P≤0·001). It was concluded that tinnitus is associated with TMD and with otalgia, dizziness/vertigo, stuffy sensations, hypoacusis sensation and hyperacusis, as well as with higher depression levels.
Carlson, Joshua M; Gilbert, David G; Riise, Hege; Rabinovich, Norka E; Sugai, Chihiro; Froeliger, Brett
Smokers may use nicotine to self-medicate for situation-specific or person-specific cognitive or affective deficits. Although evidence suggests that nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), relative to placebo, enhances spatial working memory (SWM) in smoking-abstinent smokers with schizophrenia, the extent to which NRT may be helpful in attenuating abstinence-related SWM in other groups with deficits in SWM is unknown. Depressive symptoms are associated with both tobacco smoking and deficits in SWM. Previous studies have found that smoking abstinence increases depressive affect and depression-related hemispheric asymmetries in brain activation. Although the serotonin neurotransmitter system is closely associated with depression and the effects of nicotine, the authors are not aware of any studies that have evaluated the possible role of individual differences in serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype and depressive symptoms as moderators of the effects of NRT on SWM. Thus, the current study assessed the effects of NRT (nicotine patch) on SWM in relation to: (1) depressive traits and (2) 5-HTT genotype. Smoking-deprived habitual smokers (N = 64) completed the dot recall test of SWM during counterbalanced and double-blind nicotine and placebo testing sessions. There was a marginal overall effect of NRT on SWM. More importantly, NRT enhanced SWM in 5-HTT short allele carriers, relative to those with two long alleles, and this enhancement in short-allele carriers was greater for individuals with higher levels of depressive symptoms.
Deng, Yazhuo; Lee, KaYiu; Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Lee, Paul H
This study drew upon an ecological system framework to examine a model focusing on the interrelationship among depressive symptoms, sense of mastery, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), religiosity, and relations with parents and romantic partners among U.S. young adults aged 24 to 34. Cross-sectional data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 4,982), obtained in 2008 and 2009, were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. The associations of MVPA, relations with parents, and relations with romantic partner to depressive symptoms were mediated through mastery. Relations with one's romantic partner were a stronger predictor of depressive symptoms than relations with parents, while the influence of religiosity on relations with romantic partner was largely mediated by relations with parents. The results highlight the sociobehavioral buffers of depressive symptoms that are peculiar to young adulthood. Further intervention research in preventing and treating depressive symptoms should consider incorporating the sociobehavioral factors that are tailored to the specific age group.
Mooney, Christopher J.; Douthit, Kathryn Z.; Lynch, Martin F.
Objective. To extend the empirical evidence regarding the predictors of older adults’ use of information and communications technology (ICT) and to further examine its relationship to depressive symptoms and well-being. Method. This cross-sectional study utilized a sample of community-dwelling older adults from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (N = 6,443). Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the effects of predictor variables on ICT use and the effects of use on depressive symptoms and well-being. Tests of moderation by demographic characteristics and level of ICT use were also performed. Results. Socioeconomic status (SES), age, and cognitive function accounted for approximately 60% of the variance in ICT use. SES was a stronger predictor for Blacks/African Americans, whereas cognitive function was a stronger predictor for Whites. ICT use was unrelated to depressive symptoms or well-being. However, it acted as a moderator, such that limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) was a stronger predictor of depressive symptoms for high ICT users, whereas ill-health was a stronger predictor for non/limited users. Discussion. Findings do not support the claim that ICT use directly enhances mental health or well-being among older adults although it may protect against depressive symptoms for individuals coping with health conditions other than ADL impairments. PMID:24304556
Monteagudo, Patrícia T; Falcão, Adriana A; Verreschi, Ieda T N; Zanella, Maria-Teresa
Obese men may present hypogonadothrofic hypogonadism, mainly related to higher insulinemia and aromatase activity. Our objectives were to evaluate the relationship of sex-hormones profiles and frequency of depressive symptoms in 43 obese men, in a cross-sectional study. They had 19-60 years, and body mass index 30-50 kg/m(2). LH, total and free testosterone (TT and FT), estradiol (E2), sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol/total testosterone ratio (E2/T) were analyzed. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by "beck depression inventory" (BDI), and significant depression was considered if BDI ≥ 16.Thirty-four (80%) presented low TT levels, but only 4 (14%) had low free testosterone and hypogonadism symptoms; 12 of 43 (28%) presented increased E2. Forty five (56%) presented depressive symptoms, but 16 (28% of the 45) had significant depression. BDI correlated positively with E2 (r = 0.407; p = 0.001) and E2/T (r = 0.473; p = 0.001), but not TT or FT. Patients with significant depressive showed higher levels of estradiol (136 ± 48 versus 103 ± 48 pg/ml, p = 0.02) and E2/T (16.0 ± 9.9 versus 9.8 ± 4.6; p = 0.002) (mean ± SD).In conclusion, obese men may present relatively excess of estradiol and deficiency in testosterone, leading to an imbalance between these two hormones. The greater this imbalance, the more depressive symptoms had our patients.
Hansen, Melissa Voigt
Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively
Anand, Vibha; Downs, Stephen M; Bauer, Nerissa S; Carroll, Aaron E.
Background Early TV viewing has been linked with maternal depression and has adverse health effects in children. However it is not known how early TV viewing occurs. We evaluated the prevalence at which parents report television (TV) viewing for their children if asked in the first two years of life and whether TV viewing is associated with maternal depression symptoms. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, we evaluated TV viewing in children 0 – 2 years of age in 4 pediatric clinics in Indianapolis, IN between January 2011 and April 2012. Families were screened for any parental report of depression symptoms (0 – 15 months) and for parental report of TV viewing (before 2 years of age) using a computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS) linked to the patient’s electronic health record (EHR). Results There were 3,254 children in the study. By parent report 50% of children view TV by 2 months of age, 75% by 4 months of age and 90% by 2 years of age. Complete data for both TV viewing and maternal depression symptoms were available for 2,397 (74%) of children. In regression models, the odds of parental report of TV viewing increased by 27% for each additional month of child’s age (OR: 1.27, CI: 1.25 – 1.30, p < 0.001). The odds of TV viewing increased by almost half with parental report of depression symptoms (OR: 1.47, CI: 1.07 – 2.00, p = 0.016). Publicly insured children had three times the odds of TV viewing compared to children with private insurance (OR: 3.00, CI: 1.60 – 5.63, p = 0.001). Black children had almost four times the odds (OR: 3.75, CI: 2.70 – 5.21, p < 0.001) and White children had one and a half times the odds (OR: 1.55, CI: 1.04 – 2.30, p = 0.032) of TV viewing when compared to Latino children. Conclusions By parental report TV viewing occurs at a very young age in infancy, usually between 0 to 3 months and varies by insurance and race/ethnicity. Children whose parents report depression symptoms are especially at risk
Mata, Douglas A.; Ramos, Marco A.; Bansal, Narinder; Khan, Rida; Guille, Constance; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Sen, Srijan
IMPORTANCE Physicians in training are at high risk for depression. However, the estimated prevalence of this disorder varies substantially between studies. OBJECTIVE To provide a summary estimate of depression or depressive symptom prevalence among resident physicians. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION Systematic search of EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO for studies with information on the prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms among resident physicians published between January 1963 and September 2015. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in the peer-reviewed literature and used a validated method to assess for depression or depressive symptoms. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Information on study characteristics and depression or depressive symptom prevalence was extracted independently by 2 trained investigators. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Differences by study-level characteristics were estimated using meta-regression. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Point or period prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms as assessed by structured interview or validated questionnaire. RESULTS Data were extracted from 31 cross-sectional studies (9447 individuals) and 23 longitudinal studies (8113 individuals). Three studies used clinical interviews and 51 used self-report instruments. The overall pooled prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms was 28.8% (4969/17 560 individuals, 95% CI, 25.3%-32.5%), with high between-study heterogeneity (Q = 1247, τ2 = 0.39, I2 = 95.8%, P < .001). Prevalence estimates ranged from 20.9% for the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire with a cutoff of 10 or more (741/3577 individuals, 95% CI, 17.5%-24.7%, Q = 14.4, τ2 = 0.04, I2 = 79.2%) to 43.2% for the 2-item PRIME-MD (1349/2891 individuals, 95% CI, 37.6%-49.0%, Q = 45.6, τ2 = 0.09, I2 = 84.6%). There was an increased prevalence with increasing calendar year (slope = 0.5% increase per year, adjusted for assessment modality
Corona, Rosalie; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Romo, Laura F.
This study examined associations between adolescent behaviors, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-adolescent relationships. Latina mothers and adolescents (111 dyads) completed questionnaires and participated in videotaped discussions. Mothers' depressive symptoms related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors and family…
Meinzer, Michael C; Pettit, Jeremy W; Waxmonsky, James G; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E
Little is known about the development and course of depressive symptoms through emerging adulthood among individuals with a childhood history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to examine if a history of ADHD in childhood significantly predicted depressive symptoms during emerging adulthood (i.e., ages 18-25 years), including the initial level of depressive symptoms, continued levels of depressive symptoms at each age year, and the rate of change in depressive symptoms over time. 394 participants (205 with ADHD and 189 without ADHD; 348 males and 46 females) drawn from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) completed annual self-ratings of depressive symptoms between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Childhood history of ADHD significantly predicted a higher initial level of depressive symptoms at age 18, and higher levels of depressive symptoms at every age year during emerging adulthood. ADHD did not significantly predict the rate of change in depressive symptoms from age 18 to age 25. Childhood history of ADHD remained a significant predictor of initial level of depressive symptoms at age 18 after controlling for comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, but not after controlling for concurrent ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. Participants with childhood histories of ADHD experienced significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than non-ADHD comparison participants by age 18 and continued to experience higher, although not increasing, levels of depressive symptoms through emerging adulthood. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Fava, Maurizio; Gommoll, Carl; Chen, Changzheng; Greenberg, William M.; Ruth, Adam
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) on depression-related fatigue in adults with major depressive disorder. Post-hoc analyses of five phase III trials were carried out, with evaluation of fatigue symptoms based on score changes in four items: Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) item 7 (lassitude), and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) items 7 (work/activities), 8 (retardation), and 13 (somatic symptoms). Symptom remission was analyzed on the basis of score shifts from baseline to end of treatment: MADRS item 7 and HAMD17 item 7 (from ≥2 to ≤1); HAMD17 items 8 and 13 (from ≥1 to 0). The mean change in MADRS total score was analyzed in patients with low and high fatigue (MADRS item 7 baseline score <4 and ≥4, respectively). Patients receiving levomilnacipran ER had significantly greater mean improvements and symptom remission (no/minimal residual fatigue) on all fatigue-related items: lassitude (35 vs. 28%), work/activities (43 vs. 35%), retardation (46 vs. 39%), somatic symptoms (26 vs. 18%; all Ps<0.01 versus placebo). The mean change in MADRS total score was significantly greater with levomilnacipran ER versus placebo in both low (least squares mean difference=−2.8, P=0.0018) and high (least squares mean difference=−3.1, P<0.0001) fatigue subgroups. Levomilnacipran ER treatment was effective in reducing depression-related fatigue in adult patients with major depressive disorder and was associated with remission of fatigue symptoms. PMID:26584326
Freeman, Marlene P; Fava, Maurizio; Gommoll, Carl; Chen, Changzheng; Greenberg, William M; Ruth, Adam
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) on depression-related fatigue in adults with major depressive disorder. Post-hoc analyses of five phase III trials were carried out, with evaluation of fatigue symptoms based on score changes in four items: Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) item 7 (lassitude), and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) items 7 (work/activities), 8 (retardation), and 13 (somatic symptoms). Symptom remission was analyzed on the basis of score shifts from baseline to end of treatment: MADRS item 7 and HAMD17 item 7 (from ≥2 to ≤1); HAMD17 items 8 and 13 (from ≥1 to 0). The mean change in MADRS total score was analyzed in patients with low and high fatigue (MADRS item 7 baseline score <4 and ≥4, respectively). Patients receiving levomilnacipran ER had significantly greater mean improvements and symptom remission (no/minimal residual fatigue) on all fatigue-related items: lassitude (35 vs. 28%), work/activities (43 vs. 35%), retardation (46 vs. 39%), somatic symptoms (26 vs. 18%; all Ps<0.01 versus placebo). The mean change in MADRS total score was significantly greater with levomilnacipran ER versus placebo in both low (least squares mean difference=-2.8, P=0.0018) and high (least squares mean difference=-3.1, P<0.0001) fatigue subgroups. Levomilnacipran ER treatment was effective in reducing depression-related fatigue in adult patients with major depressive disorder and was associated with remission of fatigue symptoms.
Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong
The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…
Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.
We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9-15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed…
Seglem, Karoline B; Oppedal, Brit; Raeder, Sabine
This study investigated the level and predictors of depressive symptoms among unaccompanied refugee minors after resettlement in Norway. Participants (N = 414) were resettled in 26 municipalities from all regions of the country. The average length of resettlement time was 3.4 years. They originated from 33 different countries, mainly Afghanistan (n = 116), Somalia (n = 74), Sri Lanka (n = 41) and Iraq (n = 43). Participants completed a self-report questionnaire administered in groups. Findings show that unaccompanied minors are a high-risk group for mental health problems also after resettlement in a new country. A multilevel model predicting depressive symptoms from individual and contextual demographic factors indicated that, controlling for post-traumatic stress, females had more symptoms than males and Somalis had fewer symptoms than participants from other countries. Variation in symptom levels as a function of gender and ethnic background indicates that some groups may have inherent protective or vulnerability factors that need to be further studied to understand differences in psychosocial adaptation among unaccompanied minors. Further, findings imply that researchers, policy makers and mental health care workers need to expand their attention beyond the first phases of arrival of unaccompanied asylum seeking and refugee minors to the continuing experience of mental health problems after resettlement.
Schmeer, Kammi K.; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.
Diversity in union type is increasing around the world as cohabitation and higher order unions become more prevalent in developing and developed countries. This necessitates a more nuanced understanding of how different union types relate to individual well-being across social settings. In this study, the authors analyze nationally-representative data from Mexico in cross-sectional and change models to evaluate differences in depressive symptoms across union type (marital vs. cohabiting and first vs. higher order unions) among Mexican men and women. The findings suggest that cohabiting unions do not provide the same mental health benefits as marital unions (especially for men). Repartnering is also associated with higher depressive symptoms (especially for women), which indicates possible lasting mental health disadvantages of divorce/separation or entrance into lower quality second unions. These results suggest that the changing family context in Mexico, which includes increasing cohabitation and union instability, may have important consequences for individuals’ psychological well-being. PMID:22822284
Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Field, Tiffany M; Amir-Kiaei, Yalda; Schnerch, Gabriel
The present study examined the acquisition of social referencing skills in infants of mothers with symptoms of depression (n = 44). We aimed to determine if a short discrimination training could facilitate infants' social referencing. Mothers were instructed to pose either joyful or fearful facial expressions to cue infants' approach/avoidance responses toward an ambiguous object. Maternal expressions were correlated with pleasant or unpleasant events occurring after the infant's response. The results showed that after the intervention, infants looked at their mothers more frequently and reached or avoided the ambiguous object based on the preceding maternal expression. The results suggest that discrimination training procedures can establish social referencing in infants of mothers with symptoms of depression.
Gross, Katharina M; Schote, Andrea B; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst
Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress ('Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress': TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants.
Vázquez, Fernando L; Otero, Patricia; Díaz, Olga; Sánchez, Teresa; Pomar, Carmen
The emotional intelligence of a sample of 59 women caregivers (M age = 51.1 yr.) with depressive symptoms was compared with that of a sample of adult women from the general population (M age = 50.7 yr.). No group differences were observed on the Trait Meta-Mood Scale's three dimensions of emotional intelligence across age, socioeconomic status, or education level. Compared with the general population sample, the caregivers group scored significantly lower on Attention to Feelings and Mood Repair.
Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy
Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how "individual" symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal…
Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.; Mills, Richard
The association between Sensory Processing Features (SPF) and depressive symptoms was investigated at two levels in 150 young males (6-18 years) with an ASD. First, a significant correlation was found between SPF and total depressive symptom scores. Second, different aspects of SPF significantly predicted different depressive symptom factors, with…
Anderson, Samantha F; Salk, Rachel H; Hyde, Janet S
It is well known that stressful life events can play a role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms; however, there has been little research on romantic stress specifically. The relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms is particularly salient in adolescence, as adolescence often involves the onset of dating. This and other stressors are often dealt with in the context of the family. The present study examined the relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms both concurrently and prospectively, controlling for preexisting depressive symptoms. We then explored whether support from parents buffers the negative effects of romantic stress on depressive symptoms. In addition, the study sought to determine whether the benefits of support vary by parent and child gender. A community sample of 375 adolescents completed self-report measures of parental support (both maternal and paternal), romantic stress, and depressive symptoms. A behavioral measure of maternal support was also obtained. For boys and girls, romantic stress at age 15 predicted depressive symptoms at ages 15 and 18, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Perceived maternal support buffered the stress-depressive symptom relationship for both genders at age 15, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Higher perceived paternal support was associated with lower adolescent depressive symptoms; however, it did not have a buffering effect. These results have implications for the development of effective family-centered methods to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in adolescents.
Foster, Paul S.; Yung, Raegan C.; Branch, Kaylei K.; Stringer, Kristi; Ferguson, Brad J.; Sullivan, William; Drago, Valeria
The dopaminergic system is implicated in depressive disorders and research has also shown that dopamine constricts lexical/semantic networks by reducing spreading activation. Hence, depression, which is linked to reductions of dopamine, may be associated with increased spreading activation. However, research has generally found no effects of…
Presnell, Katherine; Stice, Eric; Tristan, Jennifer
Prospective studies suggest that dieting increases risk for bulimic symptoms, but experimental trials indicate dieting reduces bulimic symptoms. However, these experiments may be unrepresentative of real-world weight loss dieting. In addition, the fact that most dieters do not develop eating disorders suggests moderating factors may be important. Accordingly, we randomly assigned 157 female intermittent dieters to either diet as they usually do for weight loss or eat as they normally do when not dieting for 4 weeks. Naturalistic dieting halted the weight gain shown by controls, but did not result in significant weight loss. Although there was no main effect of the dieting manipulation on bulimic symptoms, moderation analyses indicated that naturalistic dieting decreased bulimic symptoms among participants with initially low depressive symptoms. Results suggest that self-initiated weight loss dieting is not particularly effective, which appears to explain several discrepancies in the literature. Additionally, depressive symptoms may be an important determinant of bulimic symptoms that eclipses the effects of naturalistic dieting on this outcome.
Three hypotheses are evaluated in this study. The first predicts that feelings of gratitude will offset (i.e., moderate) the deleterious effects of chronic financial strain on depressive symptoms over time. The second hypothesis specifies that people who go to church more often will be more likely to feel grateful. The third hypothesis predicts that individuals with a strong sense of God-mediated control will also feel more grateful. Data from a nationwide longitudinal study of older adults in the United States (N = 818) provide support for all three hypotheses. The data suggest that the effects of ongoing economic difficulty on depressive symptoms are especially pronounced for older people who are less grateful. But in contrast, persistent financial difficulties fail to exert a statistically significant effect on depressive symptoms over time for older individuals who are especially grateful. The results further reveal that more frequent church attendance and stronger God-mediated control beliefs are associated with positive changes in gratitude over time.
Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Colder, Craig R
We investigated the association between adolescent depressive symptoms and components of executive functioning (EF), including planning (Tower of London), set-shifting (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task), and inhibition (Stop Signal Task) in a community sample of 12-14 year olds. Further, EF was tested as a moderator of motivation (as operationalized by revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory) effects on depressive symptoms. Results suggested that planning ability was associated with depressive symptoms. Furthermore, planning ability moderated the relationship between motivation (fight-flight- freeze system; FFFS) and depressive symptoms, such that among adolescents with poor planning ability the FFFS positively predicted depressive symptoms, but among adolescents with strong planning ability the FFFS negatively predicts depressive symptoms. Neither set-shifting nor inhibition was associated with depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to consider multiple components of EF and to integrate motivational and executive dysfunction models to the study of depression.
Krogh, Jesper; Benros, Michael E; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Vesterager, Lone; Elfving, Betina; Nordentoft, Merete
The purpose of this study was to assess the association between IL-6 and CRP with depressive items and cognitive function. We included 112 outpatients with major depression from an exercise trial and 57 healthy controls. IL-6, high sensitive CRP (hsCRP), and cognitive function were assessed in all subjects. After baseline assessment, patients were randomised to either a 3months exercise intervention or an exercise control group. Post-intervention IL-6, hsCRP, depressive symptoms, and cognitive function were reassessed in the patient group. IL-6 and hsCRP were significantly increased in depressed patients compared to healthy controls (p=0.02 and 0.04). These differences were no longer significant after adjustment for lifestyle associated variables. We found no association between immune markers and specific depressive symptoms at baseline or as change over time. Regarding the cognitive tests, IL-6 was positively associated with Serial sevens (p=0.008) and hsCRP was inversely associated with Trail making A (p=0.02) and design fluency (p=0.001) at baseline. At 3months follow-up IL-6 and hsCRP levels did not significantly change from baseline and did not differ between the two patient groups. Depression scores was lower compared to baseline but did not differ between groups. Combining the two groups, a decrease in IL-6 was associated to decreased verbal fluency (p=0.02), and a decrease in hsCRP was associated with improvement in Trail making A (p=0.005). In conclusion, the level of IL-6 and hsCRP was increased in depressed outpatients but was not associated to specific depressive symptoms. In terms of cognitive function, we found that higher hsCRP levels were associated to lower psychomotor speed both at baseline and at follow-up.
Altintas, E; Guerrien, A
This article is focused on motivation and depression in later life. For about 20 years, research on the motivation of elders has underlined the importance of the cognitive evaluation of life contexts, notably in terms of self-determination. This cognitive evaluation determines the motivational orientation for daily activities (notably the levels of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation). The purpose of this research was specifically to study the relationships between the existence of four types of motivation (intrinsic, self-determined extrinsic, nonself-determined extrinsic and amotivation) and the consequences for adaptation and well-being. The study, therefore, focused on the possible links between motivation and geriatric-depression level and explored the nature of this link. Forty persons aged 60 or over (31 women: 80.48+/-9.24; nine men: 80.56+/-9.48) who live in nursing homes (20 elderly) or in their own homes (20 elderly) were enrolled. Elderly persons were assessed with specific and standardized tools: the Elderly Motivation Scale (EMS, in the French version: EMPA) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). For the statistical analyses of the results, correlations and Mann-Whitney test were used. We found that in elderly people, the motivational styles (the four types of motivation) can be reliably measured and are related to geriatric depression. First, significant positive links were noticed between intrinsic motivation and depression scores and between self-determined extrinsic motivation and depression scores. Conversely, significant negative links were noticed between nonself-determined extrinsic motivation and depression scores and between amotivation and depression scores. The most self-determined elders presented low-depression levels, whereas the more nonself-determined elders showed high-depression levels. Moreover, motivational styles significantly differed in the two groups (depressive or not depressive). The most depressive elders showed
Iseki, Chifumi; Furuta, Taiga; Suzuki, Masao; Koyama, Shingo; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kaneko, Akiyo
A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease (PD). The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our department. We treated her with acupuncture based on the Chinese traditional medicine and electroacupuncture five times per week. After the 2-week treatment, the assessment for the symptoms was as follows; visual analogue scale (VAS) score of the leg pain was 16 mm (70 mm, before), Hamilton's rating scales for depression (HAM-D) score was 9 (18, before), timed 3 m Up and Go took 20 steps in 30 sec (24 steps in 38 sec, before), and the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part 1 score was 13 (21, before). Autonomic symptoms, hot flashes and paroxysmal sweating, were also alleviated. Acupuncture may be a good treatment modality for nonmotor symptoms in PD. PMID:25628905
Iseki, Chifumi; Furuta, Taiga; Suzuki, Masao; Koyama, Shingo; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kaneko, Akiyo; Mitsuma, Tadamichi
A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease (PD). The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our department. We treated her with acupuncture based on the Chinese traditional medicine and electroacupuncture five times per week. After the 2-week treatment, the assessment for the symptoms was as follows; visual analogue scale (VAS) score of the leg pain was 16 mm (70 mm, before), Hamilton's rating scales for depression (HAM-D) score was 9 (18, before), timed 3 m Up and Go took 20 steps in 30 sec (24 steps in 38 sec, before), and the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part 1 score was 13 (21, before). Autonomic symptoms, hot flashes and paroxysmal sweating, were also alleviated. Acupuncture may be a good treatment modality for nonmotor symptoms in PD.
Beevers, Christopher G.; Clasen, Peter C.; Enock, Philip M.; Schnyer, David M.
Cognitive theories of depression posit that selective attention for negative information contributes to the maintenance of depression. The current study experimentally tested this idea by randomly assigning adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) to four weeks of computer-based attention bias modification designed to reduce negative attention bias or four weeks of placebo attention training. Findings indicate that compared to placebo training, attention bias modification reduced negative attention bias and increased resting-state connectivity within a neural circuit (i.e., middle frontal gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) that supports control over emotional information. Further, pre- to post-training change in negative attention bias was significantly correlated with depression symptom change only in the active training condition. Exploratory analyses indicated that pre- to post-training changes in resting state connectivity within a circuit associated with sustained attention to visual information (i.e., precuenus and middle frontal gyrus) contributed to symptom improvement in the placebo condition. Importantly, depression symptoms did not change differentially between the training groups—overall, a 40% decrease in symptoms was observed across attention training conditions. Findings suggest that negative attention bias is associated with the maintenance of depression; however, general attentional control may also maintain depression symptoms, as evidenced by resting state connectivity and depression symptom improvement in the placebo training condition. PMID:25894440
Beevers, Christopher G; Clasen, Peter C; Enock, Philip M; Schnyer, David M
Cognitive theories of depression posit that selective attention for negative information contributes to the maintenance of depression. The current study experimentally tested this idea by randomly assigning adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) to 4 weeks of computer-based attention bias modification designed to reduce negative attention bias or 4 weeks of placebo attention training. Findings indicate that compared to placebo training, attention bias modification reduced negative attention bias and increased resting-state connectivity within a neural circuit (i.e., middle frontal gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) that supports control over emotional information. Further, pre- to post-training change in negative attention bias was significantly correlated with depression symptom change only in the active training condition. Exploratory analyses indicated that pre- to post-training changes in resting state connectivity within a circuit associated with sustained attention to visual information (i.e., precuenus and middle frontal gyrus) contributed to symptom improvement in the placebo condition. Importantly, depression symptoms did not change differentially between the training groups-overall, a 40% decrease in symptoms was observed across attention training conditions. Findings suggest that negative attention bias is associated with the maintenance of depression; however, deficits in general attentional control may also maintain depression symptoms, as evidenced by resting state connectivity and depression symptom improvement in the placebo training condition.
Diop, Hafsatou; Declercq, Eugene; Cabral, Howard J.; Fox, Matthew P.; Wise, Lauren A.
Abstract Background: Understanding the influence of perinatal stressors on the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and help-seeking for PDS using surveillance data can inform service provision and improve health outcomes. Methods: We used Massachusetts Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (MA-PRAMS) 2007–2010 data to evaluate associations between selected perinatal stressors and PDS and with subsequent help-seeking behaviors. We categorized 12 stressors into 4 groups: partner, traumatic, financial, and emotional. We defined PDS as reporting “always” or “often” to any depressive symptoms on PRAMS Phase 5, or to a composite score ≥10 on PRAMS Phase 6 depression questions, compared with women reporting “sometimes,” “rarely” or “never” to all depressive symptoms. The median response time to MA-PRAMS survey was 3.2 months (interquartile range, 2.9–4.0 months). We estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using modified Poisson regression models, controlling for socioeconomic status indicators, pregnancy intention and prior mental health visits. Results: Among 5,395 participants, 58% reported ≥1 stressor (partner=26%, traumatic=16%, financial=29% and emotional=30%). Reporting of ≥1 stressor was associated with increased prevalence of PDS (PR=1.68, 95% CI: 1.42–1.98). The strongest association was observed for partner stress (PR=1.90, 95% CI: 1.51–2.38). Thirty-eight percent of mothers with PDS sought help. Mothers with partner-related stressors were less likely to seek help, compared with mothers with other grouped stressors. Conclusions: Women who reported perinatal common stressors—particularly partner-related stressors—had an increased prevalence of PDS. These data suggest that women should be routinely screened during pregnancy for a range of stressors and encouraged to seek help for PDS. PMID:25751609
Mellick, William; Kalpakci, Allison; Sharp, Carla
Prior studies have examined critical expressed emotion (EE-Crit) in mothers in the intergenerational transmission of depression. However, the potential moderating effect of maternal depression diagnostic status in relation to EE-Crit and youth depressive symptoms has yet to be determined. A total of N=121 biological mother/daughter dyads that differed in maternal depression diagnostic status were recruited for the present study: (1) currently depressed mothers (current depression, n=29); (2) formerly depressed mothers (past depression, n=39); and (3) mothers free from any psychiatric history (healthy controls, n=53). Mothers were administered structured clinical interviews and completed self-report measures of EE-Crit and psychopathology, and daughters self-reported depressive symptoms. Results indicated no significant group differences in EE-Crit; however, current maternal depression status moderated EE-Crit such that the magnitude of the relation between EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms was significantly greater in daughters of currently depressed mothers. These findings highlight the importance of considering current maternal depression, rather than a history of maternal depression, in relation to EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms, providing impetus for future investigations.
Herman, Sandra L.; Lester, David
Examined depression among 97 adolescents with and without psychosomatic stress symptoms and explored relationship between psychosomatic stress symptoms and preoccupation with suicide. Found that occurrence of minor physical symptoms of stress, but not major psychosomatic disorders, was associated with depression. Physical symptoms were not…
Choi, Namkee G; Kim, Jinseok; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan
Objective: To examine both cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between older adults' perceptions of social cohesion in their community and depressive symptoms and the potential mediating effect of the frequency of going outside one's home/building. Method: Using two waves (T1 and T2) of the National Health and Aging Trend Study (n = 5,326), gender-stratified structural equation models were estimated to determine direct and indirect effects of perceived social cohesion on depressive symptoms. Results: At T1, both perceived cohesion and frequency of going out were directly associated with depressive symptoms; however, perceived cohesion predicted frequency of going out only for women. At T2, only frequency of going out was directly associated with depressive symptoms, although perceived cohesion predicted frequency of going out for both genders. T1 perceived cohesion did not predict T2 depressive symptoms. T1 depressive symptoms were the strongest predictor of T2 depressive symptoms. Conclusion: The findings underscore the importance of enhancing the social environment in promoting mental health in late life through active aging.
Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and the media. Both girls and boys displaying high levels of depressive symptoms perceived stronger media and peer influences on appearance. Among girls, eating disorder symptoms were directly affected by sociocultural influences, in particular media influences, as well as by depression. However, depression played only a limited role as a moderator of these relationships. Among boys, sociocultural influences and depression revealed fewer direct effects on eating disorder symptoms. However, depression had a greater moderating effect on these relationships. Future research into the role of depression may increase the understanding of gender differences in body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms.
There is a general belief that physical activity and exercise have positive effects on mood and anxiety and a great number of studies describe an association of physical activity and general well-being, mood and anxiety. In line, intervention studies describe an anxiolytic and antidepressive activity of exercise in healthy subjects and patients. However, the majority of published studies have substantial methodological shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to critically review the currently available literature with respect to (1) the association of physical activity, exercise and the prevalence and incidence of depression and anxiety disorders and (2) the potential therapeutic activity of exercise training in patients with depression or anxiety disorders. Although the association of physical activity and the prevalence of mental disorders, including depression and anxiety disorders have been repeatedly described, only few studies examined the association of physical activity and mental disorders prospectively. Reduced incidence rates of depression and (some) anxiety disorders in exercising subjects raise the question whether exercise may be used in the prevention of some mental disorders. Besides case series and small uncontrolled studies, recent well controlled studies suggest that exercise training may be clinically effective, at least in major depression and panic disorder. Although, the evidence for positive effects of exercise and exercise training on depression and anxiety is growing, the clinical use, at least as an adjunct to established treatment approaches like psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy, is still at the beginning. Further studies on the clinical effects of exercise, interaction with standard treatment approaches and details on the optimal type, intensity, frequency and duration may further support the clinical administration in patients. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge on how to best deal with depression and anxiety related symptoms
VanZomeren-Dohm, Adrienne A.; Pitula, Clio E.; Koss, Kalsea J.; Thomas, Kathleen; Gunnar, Megan R.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether FKBP5 rs1360780 moderates relations between different forms of life stress/adversity (early institutional rearing and peer victimization) and depressive symptoms in adolescents. As reported previously, PI youth were at risk for being victimized by peers. Here, victimization was associated with elevated depressive symptoms. While FKBP5 did not moderate the association between early life adversity and depressive symptoms for either sex, it moderated the association between current adversity and depressive symptoms for victimized girls carrying the minor allele. Consistent with a differential susceptibility model, girls with the minor allele exhibited more depressive symptoms at higher levels of victimization, but fewer depressive symptoms at lower levels of victimization. Interestingly, boys with the CC genotype had higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to girls with the CC genotype in the context of heightened victimization. PMID:25462914
Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Vitaro, Frank
This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11-14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived social acceptance were assessed using self ratings. While accounting for initial levels of depressive symptoms, peer rejection, and friendlessness at age 11 years, a high probability of being isolated from cliques from age 11 to 13 years predicted depressive symptoms at age 14 years. The link between clique isolation and depressive symptoms was mediated by loneliness, but not by perceived social acceptance. No sex differences were found in the associations between clique isolation and depressive symptoms. These results suggest that clique isolation is a social risk factor for the escalation of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Implications for research and prevention are discussed.
Frazer, Andrew L; Fite, Paula J
The current study, operating from a stress-process framework, examined the interactive effects of supportive parenting practices (i.e., mothers' use of positive communication, positive parenting, and parental involvement) and maternal psychological control on mother- and child-reported child depressive symptoms in a community-recruited sample of 9-12 year-olds. Discrepancies between reports of depressive symptoms were also examined. Maternal psychological control was uniquely associated with child-, not mother-, reported depressive symptoms. Parental involvement was uniquely associated with mother-, not child-, reported depressive symptoms. Positive parent-child communication was associated with both reports of child depressive symptoms at the bivariate level, but not when unique associations were examined. Positive parenting was unrelated to either report of depressive symptoms. No interaction effects were detected. The current findings highlight the differential importance of parenting practices on child depressive symptoms, and also indicate the necessity of gathering both parent and child reports of symptomatology and family functioning.
Gavin, Amelia R.; Holzman, Claudia; Siefert, Kristine; Tian, Yan
Purpose This study examined associations among maternal depression, measured in several ways, psychiatric medication use in pregnancy, and preterm delivery (PTD). Methods Data were from 3,019 women enrolled in the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study (1998–2004), a prospective study of pregnant women in five Michigan communities. Information on depressive symptoms, history of depression and psychiatric medication use was ascertained through interviews at mid-pregnancy. These variables and other relevant covariates were incorporated into regression models with a binary outcome, i.e., term (≥ 37 weeks’ gestation) as referent and PTD (< 37 weeks’ gestation). A second set of models used a multi-category outcome, i.e., term as referent and PTD further subdivided by gestational weeks and clinical circumstances. Main Findings The odds of overall PTD was increased among women who used psychiatric medication during pregnancy and had either elevated levels of depressive symptoms at mid-pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.0 [95% CI 1.1, 3.6]) or a history of depression prior to pregnancy (AOR= 1.6 [95% CI 1.1, 2.5]). The combination of psychiatric medication use in pregnancy and depression, prior to pregnancy or within pregnancy, was most strongly linked to a medically indicated delivery at < 35 weeks’ gestation (AOR 2.9 and 3.6 respectively). Conclusions There are at least two plausible explanations for these findings. First, psychiatric medication use in pregnancy may pose an excess risk of PTD. Second, medication use may be an indicator of depressive symptom severity, which is a direct or indirect (i.e., alters behavior) contributing factor to PTD. PMID:19733802
Okafor, Ebony; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A
We investigated the relationship between context-specific social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms among adolescents in active duty military families across seven installations (three of which were in Europe) (N = 1036) using a person-centered approach and a stress process theoretical framework. Results of the exploratory latent profile analysis revealed four distinct coping profiles: Disengaged Copers, Troubled Copers, Humor-intensive Copers, and Active Copers. Multinomial logistic regressions found no relationship between military-related stressors (parental separation, frequent relocations, and parental rank) and profile membership. Analysis of variance results revealed significant and meaningful differences between the coping profiles and depressive symptomology, specifically somatic symptoms, depressive affect, positive affect, and interpersonal problems. Post-hoc analyses revealed that Active Copers, the largest profile, reported the fewest depressive symptoms. Accordingly, frequent use of diverse, active coping behaviors was associated with enhanced resilience. Discussion is provided regarding the promotion of adaptive coping behaviors within this developmental period and the context of military family life.
Motl, Robert W; Snook, Erin M; Schapiro, Randall T
We examined overall and specific symptoms as correlates of physical activity in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Participants (N = 133) completed questionnaires that measured overall symptoms; and specific symptoms of depression, pain, and fatigue; difficulty walking; and physical activity. Initial analyses indicated that higher levels of overall symptoms (r = -.50), fatigue (r = -.26), and difficulty walking (r = -.46) were associated with lower levels of physical activity. Path analysis demonstrated that higher levels of overall symptoms were directly and indirectly associated with lower levels of physical activity; the indirect pathway involved difficulty walking (gamma beta = -.17). Such findings indicate that walking difficulty may partially explain the negative relationship between overall symptoms and physical activity behavior in MS.
Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R. H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Philibert, Robert A.
Introduction Social scientists have long recognized the important role that neighborhood crime can play in stress-related disease, but very little is known about potential biosocial mechanisms that may link the experience of living in high-crime neighborhoods with depression. Objective The current study introduces an integrated model that combines neighborhood, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Methods Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 99 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Results Allele variants of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) interact with neighborhood crime to predict depressive symptoms in a manner consonant with the differential susceptibility perspective. Furthermore, this association is mediated by DNA methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. Conclusion The findings provide support for an integrated model in which changes in DNA methylation, resulting from neighborhood crime, can result in an increase or decrease in gene activity which, in turn, influences depressive symptoms. PMID:26513121
Peitl, Marija Vučić; Prološčić, Joško; Blažević-Zelić, Sandra; Skarpa-Usmiani, Ivona; Peitl, Vjekoslav
Akathisia is a syndrome characterized by the unpleasant sensation of "inner" restlessness that manifests itself in the inability of sitting still or not moving. Many types of medicaments can cause akathisia as an adverse event of their use and they include: antipsychotics, antidepressants, antiemetics, antihistamines, and psychoactive substances. We will present the case of a 50 year old patient, treated on two occasions for psychotic depression. During the second hospitalization it is possible that antipsychotic treatment combined with an antidepressant caused akathisia or there were symptoms of agitated depression and akathisia present at the same time, which is very difficult to determine in everyday clinical practice. We can conclude that in this case, as in many others, akathisia as a possible adverse effect of psychopharmacs was very hard to identify. Therefore, it is necessary to have akathisia in mind when using certain medicaments, especially when combining several that use the same enzymatic system and consequently raise levels of at least one of them.
García-Fernández, Gloria; Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio
Despite depressive symptoms being very common among patients seeking treatment for cocaine dependence, few studies have examined the effects of depressive symptoms on cocaine outpatient treatment outcomes, and there is even less research in the context of Contingency Management (CM). The purpose of this study was to assess the main and interactive effects of co-occurring depressive symptoms on CM outcomes. Cocaine-dependent individuals (N = 108) were randomized to Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) or CRA plus CM in two outpatient community clinical settings. Participants were categorized according to depression symptoms, self-reported by means of the BDI at treatment entry. Outcome measures included treatment retention and documented cocaine abstinence over a 6-month treatment period. Depressive symptoms were more commonly found in females and in unemployed participants, and were associated with more drug-related, social, and psychiatric problems at treatment entry. Individuals with baseline depressive symptoms had poorer treatment outcomes than patients without depressive symptoms. The addition of CM to CRA made the program more effective than with CRA alone, regardless of depressive symptoms. CM was associated with better abstinence treatment outcomes, while the interaction between unemployment and depressive symptoms was associated with negative retention treatment outcomes. This study supports the efficacy of CM for cocaine-dependent outpatients with and without depressive symptoms, and highlights its importance for improving treatment for unemployed and depressed cocaine-dependent individuals.
Neblett, Enrique W; Hudson Banks, Kira; Cooper, Shauna M; Smalls-Glover, Ciara
Ethnic-racial socialization has been positively linked with psychological adjustment; however, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. In this study, the authors examined the mediating role of racial identity in the association between racial socialization and depressive symptoms. Participants were 211 African American young adults (62% female; mean age = 20.73, SD = 1.90) recruited from a predominately White southeastern university. Multivariate mediation analyses revealed an indirect effect of racial pride messages on depressive symptoms through private regard such that individuals who reported receiving more frequent racial pride messages were more likely to feel positively about their race, and, in turn, less likely to report depressive symptoms. Individuals who reported that their parents engaged in more socialization activities (e.g., attending cultural events) were also more likely to feel positively about their race and, in turn, report fewer depressive symptoms. These results suggest that positive feelings about one's race are important considerations in our understanding of the relation between ethnic-racial socialization and youth psychological adjustment.
Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K.
older adults was similar to US-age and education matched peers. CFA and SEM found that increased depressive symptomatology had deleterious effects on Working Memory made up of subtest scores sampling simple attention and vigilance for numbers. Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, and Processing Speed were not affected by self-reported Positive Affect, Negative Affect or Depressive symptoms. Conclusion Costa Rican older adults were happy, as evidenced by the high ratio of positive affect to relatively low negative affect. Thus, we were somewhat surprised to find that depressive symptoms were selectively correlated to decrements in working memory and that negative and positive affect contributed negligible amounts of variance to any of the cognitive factors. Because of the methodological rigor of latent variable analysis, these results are very specific. The Working Memory factor is not contaminated with Speed of Processing or other measured cognitive factors. Likewise, the measured Geriatric Depression represents symptoms that are richly cognitive, not overtly affective. PMID:27104091
Olino, Thomas M; McMakin, Dana L; Nicely, Terri A; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Silk, Jennifer S
Although multiple studies find that offspring of depressed mothers are at risk for depressive disorders, there is uncertainty about the specific mechanisms that are at work--particularly with respect to modifiable factors that might be targeted for early intervention. The present work examines that parenting behaviors may operate as mediators, moderators, or independent influences on the development of youth depressive symptoms. One hundred one mothers and their early adolescent children participated in positive and negative interaction tasks. Maternal and youth self-reports of youth depressive symptoms were collected at baseline, 9-month, and 18-month assessments. Maternal history of depression was significantly associated with maternal-reported, but not youth self-reported, depressive symptomatology. Maternal positive and negative interaction behaviors in positive contexts were associated with higher youth self-reported depressive symptoms. Maternal positive interaction behaviors in positive contexts and maternal negative interactive behaviors in conflict contexts were associated with higher youth self-reported depressive symptoms. We found no evidence for maternal interaction behaviors serving as a mediator and little evidence of maternal interaction behaviors serving as a moderator of the relationship between maternal and offspring depression. Low maternal positive engagement tended to be more consistently associated with maternal- and self-reported youth depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that characteristics of mother-child interactions that are associated with youth depressive symptomatology are pertinent to youth with and without a mother with a history of depression.
Gentzler, Amy L.; Santucci, Aimee K.; Kovacs, Maria; Fox, Nathan A.
We examined respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), emotion regulation (ER), and prospective depressive symptoms in children at risk for depression and controls. Of the 65 children (35 boys; 5 – 13 years) in the sample, 39 had a parent with childhood-onset mood disorder and 26 had a parent with no history of major psychiatric disorder. RSA during pre- and post-film baselines and RSA reactivity to sad film clip were measured. Later, children’s ER responses (focusing on sad/distressing affect) were assessed using a parent-reported questionnaire, and depressive symptoms were measured via clinical ratings. Results indicated that, compared to the initial baseline, a greater decrease in RSA (i.e. more vagal withdrawal) in response to the sad film clip predicted more adaptive ER responses and lower levels of clinician-rated depressive symptoms. However, tests for ER as a mediator of the association between RSA reactivity and depressive symptoms were precluded because maladaptive, but not adaptive, ER was associated with depressive symptoms. Overall, results suggest that cardiac vagal withdrawal (a greater decrease in RSA) in response to an emotional stimulus reflects more adaptive parasympathetic activity, which could facilitate children’s ability to effectively manage their sadness and distress and predict lower risk of depressive symptoms over time. PMID:19596044
Harada, Eiji; Satoi, Yoichi; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Koichiro; Alev, Levent; Mimura, Masaru
Objective The patterns of residual painful physical symptoms (PPS) and emotional symptoms among patients with partial remission (PR) or complete remission (CR) of a major depressive disorder (MDD) episode were compared. Methods This is a multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study. Patients who had originally been diagnosed with MDD, were treated with an antidepressant for 12 weeks for that episode, and achieved either PR or CR at study entry were enrolled in the study. Using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17), PR was defined as a score of ≥8 and ≤18 and CR as a score of ≤7. Residual symptoms were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) and the HAM-D17. Results A total of 323 patients (CR =158, PR =165) were included in the study. Patients in the PR group had a higher mean (standard deviation) score in the HAM-D17 than those in the CR group (11.8 [3.1] and 4.4 [2.0], respectively). BPI-SF results showed that “at least moderate PPS” (score ≥3 on BPI-SF question 5) was significantly more prevalent among patients with PR than those with CR (37.0% vs 16.5%, respectively; odds ratio =3.04; P<0.001). Presence of pain (any severity) was also more prevalent among patients with PR than those with CR (54.5% vs 35.4%, respectively). The HAM-D17 results for individual items indicated that impaired work and activities, depressed mood, psychological and somatic anxiety, and general somatic symptoms were observed in at least 75% of patients with PR. Conclusion PR was associated with a higher prevalence of at least moderate PPS. Other residual symptoms commonly observed in patients with PR included typical core emotional symptoms (eg, loss of interest, depressed mood, and psychological anxiety). These results underline the importance of PPS, because PPS is clinically relevant for the patients but difficult to assess with the commonly used depression evaluation scale. PMID:27418827
Perrino, Tatiana; Beardslee, William; Bernal, Guillermo; Brincks, Ahnalee; Cruden, Gracelyn; Howe, George; Murry, Velma; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo; Sandler, Irwin; Brown, C Hendricks
Certain subgroups of youth are at high risk for depression and elevated depressive symptoms, and experience limited access to quality mental health care. Examples are socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and sexual minority youth. Research shows that there are efficacious interventions to prevent youth depression and depressive symptoms. These preventive interventions have the potential to play a key role in addressing these mental health disparities by reducing youth risk factors and enhancing protective factors. However, there are comparatively few preventive interventions directed specifically to these vulnerable subgroups, and sample sizes of diverse subgroups in general prevention trials are often too low to assess whether preventive interventions work equally well for vulnerable youth compared to other youth. In this paper, we describe the importance and need for "scientific equity," or equality and fairness in the amount of scientific knowledge produced to understand the potential solutions to such health disparities. We highlight possible strategies for promoting scientific equity, including the following: increasing the number of prevention research participants from vulnerable subgroups, conducting more data synthesis analyses and implementation science research, disseminating preventive interventions that are efficacious for vulnerable youth, and increasing the diversity of the prevention science research workforce. These strategies can increase the availability of research evidence to determine the degree to which preventive interventions can help address mental health disparities. Although this paper utilizes the prevention of youth depression as an illustrative case example, the concepts are applicable to other health outcomes for which there are disparities, such as substance use and obesity.
Eller, L S; Rivero-Mendez, M; Voss, J; Chen, W-T; Chaiphibalsarisdi, P; Iipinge, S; Johnson, M O; Portillo, C J; Corless, I B; Sullivan, K; Tyer-Viola, L; Kemppainen, J; Rose, C Dawson; Sefcik, E; Nokes, K; Phillips, J C; Kirksey, K; Nicholas, P K; Wantland, D; Holzemer, W L; Webel, A R; Brion, J M
The aims of this study were to examine differences in self-schemas between persons living with HIV/AIDS with and without depressive symptoms, and the degree to which these self-schemas predict depressive symptoms in this population. Self-schemas are beliefs about oneself and include self-esteem, HIV symptom management self-efficacy, and self-compassion. Beck's cognitive theory of depression guided the analysis of data from a sample of 1766 PLHIV from the USA and Puerto Rico. Sixty-five percent of the sample reported depressive symptoms. These symptoms were significantly (p ≤ 0.05), negatively correlated with age (r = -0.154), education (r = -0.106), work status (r = -0.132), income adequacy (r = -0.204, self-esteem (r = -0.617), HIV symptom self-efficacy (r = - 0.408), and self-kindness (r = - 0.284); they were significantly, positively correlated with gender (female/transgender) (r = 0.061), white or Hispanic race/ethnicity (r = 0.047) and self-judgment (r = 0.600). Fifty-one percent of the variance (F = 177.530 (df = 1524); p < 0.001) in depressive symptoms was predicted by the combination of age, education, work status, income adequacy, self-esteem, HIV symptom self-efficacy, and self-judgment. The strongest predictor of depressive symptoms was self-judgment. Results lend support to Beck's theory that those with negative self-schemas are more vulnerable to depression and suggest that clinicians should evaluate PLHIV for negative self-schemas. Tailored interventions for the treatment of depressive symptoms in PLHIV should be tested and future studies should evaluate whether alterations in negative self-schemas are the mechanism of action of these interventions and establish causality in the treatment of depressive symptoms in PLHIV.
Wang, Jing; Chai, Anping; Zhou, Qixin; Lv, Longbao; Wang, Liping; Yang, Yuexiong; Xu, Lin
Chronic stress is the major cause of clinical depression. The behavioral signs of depression, including anhedonia, learning and memory deficits, and sleep disruption, result from the damaging effects of stress hormones on specific neural pathways. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an aggressive non-human primate with a hierarchical social structure that has become a well-established model of the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological changes associated with stress-induced depression. The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine treats many of the core symptoms of depression in humans. To further test the validity of the tree shrew model of depression, we examined the effects of clomipramine on depression-like behaviors and physiological stress responses induced by social defeat in subordinate tree shrews. Social defeat led to weight loss, anhedonia (as measured by sucrose preference), unstable fluctuations in locomotor activity, sustained urinary cortisol elevation, irregular cortisol rhythms, and deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Clomipramine ameliorated anhedonia and irregular locomotor activity, and partially rescued the irregular cortisol rhythm. In contrast, weight loss increased, cortisol levels were even higher, and in vitro LTP was still impaired in the clomipramine treatment group. These results demonstrate the unique advantage of the tree shrew social defeat model of depression. PMID:24312510
Wang, Jing; Chai, Anping; Zhou, Qixin; Lv, Longbao; Wang, Liping; Yang, Yuexiong; Xu, Lin
Chronic stress is the major cause of clinical depression. The behavioral signs of depression, including anhedonia, learning and memory deficits, and sleep disruption, result from the damaging effects of stress hormones on specific neural pathways. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an aggressive non-human primate with a hierarchical social structure that has become a well-established model of the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological changes associated with stress-induced depression. The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine treats many of the core symptoms of depression in humans. To further test the validity of the tree shrew model of depression, we examined the effects of clomipramine on depression-like behaviors and physiological stress responses induced by social defeat in subordinate tree shrews. Social defeat led to weight loss, anhedonia (as measured by sucrose preference), unstable fluctuations in locomotor activity, sustained urinary cortisol elevation, irregular cortisol rhythms, and deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Clomipramine ameliorated anhedonia and irregular locomotor activity, and partially rescued the irregular cortisol rhythm. In contrast, weight loss increased, cortisol levels were even higher, and in vitro LTP was still impaired in the clomipramine treatment group. These results demonstrate the unique advantage of the tree shrew social defeat model of depression.
Friedmann, Jordan S; Lumley, Margaret N; Lerman, Bethany
Given that depression risk intensifies in adolescence, examining associates of depressive symptoms during the shift from childhood to adolescence is important for expanding knowledge about the etiology of depression symptoms and disorder. A longitudinal youth report was employed to examine the trajectory of both the content and structure of positive and negative schemas in adolescence and also whether these schemas could prospectively predict depressive symptoms and youth-reported resilience. One hundred and ninety-eight participants (aged 9 to 14) were recruited from four schools to complete measures of youth depressive symptoms, resilience, and schema content and structure. Those who consented to a follow-up study completed the same measures online (50 participants completed). Negative and positive schema content and structure were related over time. After controlling depressive symptoms/resilience at Time 1, negative schema content was the only significant predictor (trend level) of depressive symptoms and resilience at Time 2. Implications for cognitive theories and clinical practice are discussed.
Ferro, Mark A; Boyle, Michael H
The present study extends earlier research identifying an increased risk of anxiety among children with chronic physical illness (CwCPI) by examining a more complete model that explains how physical illness leads to increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. We tested a stress-generation model linking chronic physical illness to symptoms of anxiety and depression in a population-based sample of children aged 10 to 15 years. We hypothesized that having a chronic physical illness would be associated with more symptoms of anxiety and depression, increased levels of maternal depressive symptoms, more family dysfunction, and lower self-esteem; and, that maternal depressive symptoms, family dysfunction, and child self-esteem would mediate the influence of chronic physical illness on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 10,646). Mediating processes were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Childhood chronic physical illness was associated with increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression, β = 0.20, p < 0.001. Mediating effects were also observed such that chronic physical illness resulted in increases in symptoms of maternal depression and family dysfunction, leading to declines in child self-esteem, and in turn, increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression. CwCPI are at-risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression. Some of this elevated risk appears to work through family processes and child self-esteem. This study supports the use of family-centered care approaches among CwCPI to minimize burden on families and promote healthy psychological development for children.
Cassie, Kimberly M.; Cassie, William E.
Purpose: To examine the effect of organizational culture and climate on depressive symptoms among nursing home residents. Design and Methods: Using a pooled cross-sectional design, this study examines a sample of 23 nursing homes, 1,114 employees, and 5,497 residents. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Minimum Data Set, Depression Rating…
Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol
Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…
Balkin, Richard S.; Tietjen-Smith, Tara; Caldwell, Charmaine; Shen, Yu-Pei
Depression is a prevalent issue for women on college campuses. Undergraduate women participated in (a) an aerobic exercise class, (b) a weight-lifting class, or (c) a control group to determine the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms. Participants in the aerobic exercise group exhibited a significant decrease in depressive symptoms.…
Chabrol, Henri; Rodgers, Rachel; Rousseau, Amelie
The aim of the study was to evaluate the link between the different dimensions of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adolescents. A sample of 1057 adolescents completed the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) and three additional items measuring suicidal ideation. The four dimensions of depressive symptoms on the…
Chan, Siu Mui; Oi Poon, Scarlet Fung
This study examined child cognitive-behavioural factors and parenting factors related to childhood depressive symptoms. Results indicate that positive and negative attributional styles were protective and vulnerable factors of depression symptoms, respectively, and the attribution-depression link was mediated by self-esteem and coping responses.…
Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina
This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…
Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Seaton, Eleanor K.; Townsend, Tiffany G.
This study examines underlying mechanisms in the relationship between an Africentric worldview and depressive symptoms. Participants were 112 African American young adults. An Africentric worldview buffered the association between perceived stress and depressive symptoms. The relationship between an Africentric worldview and depressive symptoms…
Byrne, Kaileigh A.; Norris, Dominique D.; Worthy, Darrell A.
Depressive symptomatology has been associated with alterations in decision-making, although conclusions have been mixed with depressed individuals showing impairments in some contexts, but advantages in others. The dopaminergic system may link depressive symptoms with decision-making performance. We assessed the role of striatal dopamine D2 receptor density, using spontaneous eyeblink rate, in moderating the relationship between depressive symptoms and decision-making performance in a large undergraduate sample that had not been screened for mental illness (N=104). Regression results revealed that eyeblink rate moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and advantageous decisions on the IGT in which individuals with more depressive symptomatology and high blink rates (higher striatal dopamine D2 receptor density) performed better on the task. Computational modeling results demonstrated that depressive symptoms alone were associated with enhanced loss aversive behavior, while individuals with high blink rates and elevated depressive symptoms tended to persevere in selecting options that led to net gains (avoiding options with net losses). These findings suggest that variation in striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability in individuals with depressive symptoms may contribute to differences in decision-making behavior. PMID:26383904
Sidebottom, Abbey C; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Hennrikus, Deborah
We characterized depressive symptoms in the prenatal and/or postpartum periods and examined associated risk factors among 594 women who received care at community health care centers. Women were screened with comprehensive risk assessments, which included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression screen, during pregnancy and at least 4 weeks after delivery. Fifteen percent had depressive symptoms in the prenatal period only; 6 % in the postpartum period only, and 8 % had depressive symptoms in both periods. Risk markers varied for women who reported depressive symptoms at one period only compared with those who reported persistent depressive symptoms. Age (25 years versus younger), having experienced abuse, not living with the infant's father, and cigarette smoking were associated with depressive symptoms at both periods; being US-born, lacking social support, and experiencing food insecurity were associated with reporting symptoms only in the prenatal period, and lack of phone access was associated with risk only in the postpartum period. Our findings confirm the importance of repeated screenings for depressive symptoms during the perinatal period. The variability in risk markers associated with periods of reported depressive symptoms may reflect their varying associations with persistence, new onset, or recovery from depressive symptoms.
Lawson, Elizabeth A.; Holsen, Laura M.; Santin, McKale; DeSanti, Rebecca; Meenaghan, Erinne; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Herzog, David B.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Klibanski, Anne
Objective Anorexia nervosa, a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation, is associated with endocrine dysfunction and comorbid anxiety and depression. Animal data suggest that oxytocin may have anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. We have reported increased postprandial oxytocin levels in women with active anorexia nervosa (AN), and decreased levels in weight-recovered women with anorexia nervosa (ANWR) compared to healthy controls (HC). A meal may represent a significant source of stress in patients with disordered eating. We therefore investigated the association between post-prandial oxytocin secretion and symptoms of anxiety and depression in anorexia nervosa. Method We performed a cross-sectional study of 35 women (13 AN, 9 ANWR and 13 HC). Serum oxytocin and cortisol and plasma leptin levels were measured fasting and 30, 60, and 120min after a standardized mixed meal. The area under the curve (AUC), and for oxytocin, postprandial nadir and peak levels were determined. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). Results In women with anorexia nervosa, oxytocin AUC and post-prandial nadir and peak levels were positively associated with STAI scores. Oxytocin AUC and nadir levels were positively associated with BDI-II scores. After controlling for cortisol AUC, most relationships remained significant. After controlling for leptin AUC, all of the relationships remained significant. Oxytocin secretion explained up to 51% of the variance in STAI trait and 24% of BDI-II scores. Conclusions Abnormal post-prandial oxytocin secretion in women with anorexia nervosa is associated with increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. This may represent an adaptive response of oxytocin secretion to food-related symptoms of anxiety and depression. PMID:23759466
Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric
We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. PMID:26480199
Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M; Stice, Eric
We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention.
Demartini, Benedetta; Ranieri, Rebecca; Masu, Annamaria; Selle, Valerio; Scarone, Silvio; Gambini, Orsola
The relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and depression is still controversial. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder in a population of patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism and a control group without thyroid disease. The authors enrolled 123 consecutive outpatients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism undergoing follow-up at the endocrinology department of San Paolo Hospital in Milan and 123 controls without thyroid disease under the charge of general physicians.All patients and controls underwent an evaluation by means of a psychiatric interview; Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D); Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); and serum thyroid stimulating hormone, free T4, and free T3 levels. Patients were also screened for thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroglobulin antibodies. Patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism had a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 63.4% at HAM-D and 64.2% at MADRS; 22 patients (17.9%) had a diagnosis of depressive episode (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria). The control group had a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 27.6% at HAM-D and 29.3% at MADRS, and only seven controls had a diagnosis of depressive episode. The prevalence of depressive symptoms between these two groups was statistically different. This study underlines a strong association between subclinical hypothyroidism and depressive symptoms, which could have some important diagnostic and therapeutic implications in the clinical practice.
Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Ma, Yunsheng; Waring, Molly E; DeBiasse, Michele A; Busch, Andrew M; Oleski, Jessica L; Merriam, Philip A; Olendzki, Barbara C; Crawford, Sybil L; Ockene, Ira S; Lemon, Stephenie C; Pagoto, Sherry L
An elevation in symptoms of depression has previously been associated with greater accuracy of reported dietary intake, however this association has not been investigated among individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate reporting accuracy of dietary intake among a group of women with major depressive disorder in order to determine if reporting accuracy is similarly associated with depressive symptoms among depressed women. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake was calculated based on three 24-hour phone-delivered dietary recalls from the baseline phase of a randomized trial of weight loss treatment for 161 obese women with major depressive disorder. Regression models indicated that higher severity of depressive symptoms was associated with greater reporting accuracy, even when controlling for other factors traditionally associated with reporting accuracy (coefficient = 0.01 95% CI = 0.01 - 0.02). Seventeen percent of the sample was classified as low energy reporters. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake increases along with depressive symptoms, even among individuals with major depressive disorder. These results suggest that any study investigating associations between diet quality and depression should also include an index of reporting accuracy of dietary intake as accuracy varies with the severity of depressive symptoms.
Beydoun, M. A.; Shroff, M. R.; Beydoun, H. A.; Zonderman, A. B.
Background Several nutritional and physiological factors have been linked to depression in adults including low folate and vitamin B-12 and elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) levels. Methods Nationally representative data on US adults (aged 20–85 years, n=2,524) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the period 2005–06 were used. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and elevated symptoms were defined as PHQ total score≥10. Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and tHcy were mainly expressed as tertiles. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, poverty income ratio, marital status, smoking status, physical activity, body mass index and selected nutrient intakes (average of two 24-hr recalls) were considered as potential confounders. Multiple ordinary least square (OLS), logistic and zero-inflated Poisson regression models were conducted in the main analysis. Results Overall, mean PHQ score was significantly higher among women compared to men. Elevated depressive symptoms (PHQ≥10) were inversely associated with folate status particularly among women [Fully adjusted odds ratio (Tertiles T3 vs. T1)=0.37 (95% CI = 0.17–0.86)], but not significantly related to tHcy or vitamin B-12. No interaction was noted between the three exposures in affecting depressive symptoms. In older adults (≥50 years) and both sexes combined, total homocysteine was positively associated with elevated depressive symptoms [Fully adjusted odds ratio (Tertiles T2 vs. T1)=3.01 (95% CI = 1.01–9.03)], though no significant dose-response relationship was found. Conclusions Future interventions aiming at improving mental health outcomes among US adults should take into account dietary and other factors that would increase levels of serum folate. PMID:20841559
Roose, S P; Seidman, S N
There is a well-documented association between depression, ischemic heart disease, and cardiovascular mortality. This association has a number of dimensions including: (1) depressed patients have a higher than expected rate of sudden cardiovascular death; (2) over the course of a lifetime, patients with depression develop symptomatic and fatal ischemic heart disease at a higher rate compared with a nondepressed group; and (3) depression after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with increased cardiac mortality. Depression is also associated with sexual dysfunction, particularly erectile dysfunction. If depression is the primary illness, then erectile dysfunction can be considered a symptom of the depressive illness. However, if the erectile dysfunction is primary, men may develop a depressive syndrome in reaction to the loss of sexual function. Regardless of whether erectile dysfunction is a symptom of depression or depression is a consequence of erectile dysfunction, these conditions are frequently comorbid. Thus, the patient with ischemic heart disease who is depressed is more likely to have erectile difficulties. An attempt by this patient to engage in sexual activity is therefore more likely to be unsuccessful and, given the increase in cardiac mortality associated with depression, it may result in a serious cardiac event.
Telzer, Eva H.; Fuligni, Andrew J.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Galván, Adriana
The pursuit of happiness and reward is an impetus for everyday human behavior and the basis of well-being. Although optimal well-being may be achieved through eudaimonic activities (e.g., meaning and purpose), individuals tend to orient toward hedonic activities (e.g., pleasure seeking), potentially placing them at risk for ill-being. We implemented a longitudinal study and followed adolescents over 1 y to examine whether neural sensitivity to eudaimonic (e.g., prosocial decisions) and hedonic (e.g., selfish rewards and risky decisions) rewards differentially predicts longitudinal changes in depressive symptoms. Ventral striatum activation during eudaimonic decisions predicted longitudinal declines in depressive symptoms, whereas ventral striatum activation to hedonic decisions related to longitudinal increases in depressive symptoms. These findings underscore how the motivational context underlying neural sensitivity to rewards can differentially predict changes in well-being over time. Importantly, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show that striatal activation within an individual can be both a source of risk and protection. PMID:24753574
Garcia, Danilo; Kerekes, Nóra; Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine; Archer, Trevor
Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA). The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy) between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (N = 304) were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA), “high affective” (high PA, high NA), “low affective” (low PA, low NA), and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA). Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness). “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development. PMID:22844588
Abrantes, Ana M; Friedman, Joseph H; Brown, Richard A; Strong, David R; Desaulniers, Julie; Ing, Eileen; Saritelli, Jennifer; Riebe, Deborah
Neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) such as fatigue, depression, and apathy are common and detract from quality of life. There is little published on the impact of physical activity on the neuropsychiatric symptoms of PD. A convenience sample of 45 patients with PD (mean age = 66.1 years; 33% female) completed questionnaires on physical activity, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and specific exercise preferences. Covarying for age and gender, higher levels of physical activity were associated with significantly less fatigue, as well as a trend for less apathy and depression and greater positive affect. Exercise preferences included moderate intensity (73%), at home (56%), in the morning (73%), scheduled (69%), options for varied activities (73%), and preference for both structured/supervised (50%), and unsupervised/self-paced (50%) programs. Preferred activities included the use of aerobic exercise equipment, resistance training, and yoga. Developing and tailoring exercise programs that incorporate specific preferences may result in more effective interventions for patients with PD.
Myles-Worsley, Marina; Weaver, Starla; Blailes, Francisca
Aim Depressive symptoms are common in the early prodromal phase of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. The objectives of the present study were to retrospectively examine the severity of depressive symptoms and their relationship to positive symptoms over the developmental course of adolescent-onset psychosis (AO-PSY). Methods The subjects were 62 unmedicated adolescents with DSM-IV psychosis and 104 normal controls from a Pacific island isolate with an elevated prevalence of schizophrenia. We used a modified K-SADS-PL to assess adolescents for a full range of Axis I psychopathology and quantified severity of depressive and positive symptoms over the adolescent’s lifespan. Results Among AO-PSY subjects, 84% reported abnormal levels of depressive symptoms with mean onset 1.3 years prior to transition to psychosis. In 60% of the AO-PSY subjects with depressive symptoms, positive symptoms began first. A continuous linear increase in depressive symptom severity over the developmental course of illness mirrored the steady rise in positive symptom severity as psychosis emerged. Conclusions We found that it is typically a combination of positive symptoms and depressive symptoms building in parallel that leads from the prodrome to frank psychosis. These results suggest that depressive symptoms represent more of an integral component of disease progression than an independent risk factor that predicts transition to early onset psychosis. PMID:19079763
Crisson, James; And Others
Presents two studies designed to examine the self-report of depressive symptoms in low back pain patients (N=134). Both studies found that patients were more likely to report somatic than cognitive symptoms of depression. Patients with multiple physical findings were not more likely to report somatic symptoms than patients with few physical…
Mezulis, Amy; Vander Stoep, Ann; Stone, Andrea L.; McCauley, Elizabeth
Both depressive and externalizing symptoms are common in adolescence and often co-occur. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents' patterns of depressive and externalizing symptoms can be differentiated into discrete classes and whether these classes are best distinguished by the number or type of symptoms. We examined whether…
Palinkas, L A; Russell, J; Downs, M A; Petterson, J S
This study assessed levels of depressive symptomatology in a household probability sample of Alaskan Native (N = 188) and Euro-American (N = 371) residents of 13 communities in Alaska. Our objective was to examine ethnic differences in both the association between depressive symptomatology and exposure to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup efforts, and in the role of family support as a moderator of exposure to this technological disaster. Level of exposure was significantly associated with mean Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale scores in both Natives (p less than .05) and Euro-Americans (p less than .01). Both ethnic groups also reported significant declines in traditional relations with increasing levels of exposure (p less than .001). However, Natives had a significantly higher mean Exposure Index score than Euro-Americans and were more likely to report working on cleanup activities, damage to commercial fisheries, and effects of the spill on subsistence activities. Depressive symptomatology was associated with reported participation in cleanup activities and other forms of contact with the oil in Natives, and reported damage to commercial fisheries, use of affected areas, and residence in a community in geographic proximity to the spill in Euro-Americans. Perceived family support was not directly associated with depressive symptoms in either ethnic group, but did serve to buffer the effects of exposure on depressive symptoms in Euro-Americans. The results suggest that cultural differences play an important role in determining the psychosocial impacts of a technological disaster, particularly with respect to exposure, appraisal of an event as stressful, perceived family support as a moderator of stress, and expression of depressive symptomatology.
Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Marsac, Meghan L.; Cirilli, Carla
Objective: To examine the factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in children and adolescents who have experienced an acute single-incident trauma, associations between PTSD symptom clusters and functional impairment, and the specificity of PTSD symptoms in relation to depression and general distress. Method: Examined…
Edwards, Renee C; Thullen, Matthew J; Isarowong, Nucha; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Henson, Linda; Hans, Sydney L
The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine changes in young mothers' depressive symptoms from pregnancy through the first two postpartum years and how supportive relationships with key individuals were related to mothers' depressive symptoms over time. Data were collected from young, low-income African American mothers (N = 248) during pregnancy and at 4, 12, and 24 months postpartum. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that depressive symptoms were highest during pregnancy and declined through 24 months postpartum. Supportive relationships with the father of the baby and the mother's parent figure were related to lower levels of depressive symptoms. Although the association between father support and the mother's depressive symptoms remained consistent over time, support from the parent figure became increasingly more important during the young mother's transition to parenting. Further analyses also revealed that the association between support and depressive symptoms depended on other aspects of these relationships. Greater support from the baby's father was only related to fewer depressive symptoms for mothers who were partnered with the father of the baby. Greater support from the parent figure was only related to fewer depressive symptoms for mothers who were coresiding with the parent. Finally, having a repeat pregnancy during the early postpartum years was related to higher levels of depressive symptoms during the subsequent pregnancy. These findings suggest that screening and interventions for depression in young mothers should begin during pregnancy and include a focus on her proximal social relationships.
Lin, I-Mei; Ko, Jiun-Min; Fan, Sheng-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Objective Low heart rate variability (HRV) has been confirmed in heroin users, but the effects of heart-rate-variability–biofeedback in heroin users remain unknown. This study examined (1) correlations between depression and HRV indices; (2) group differences in HRV indices among a heroin-user group, a group with major depressive disorder but no heroin use, and healthy controls; and (3) the effects of heart-rate-variability–biofeedback on depressive symptoms, HRV indices, and respiratory rates within the heroin group. Methods All participants completed a depression questionnaire and underwent electrocardiogram measurements, and group differences in baseline HRV indices were examined. The heroin group underwent electrocardiogram and respiration rate measurements at baseline, during a depressive condition, and during a happiness condition, before and after which they took part in the heart-rate-variability–biofeedback program. The effects of heart-rate-variability–biofeedback on depressive symptoms, HRV indices, and respiration rates were examined. Results There was a negative correlation between depression and high frequency of HRV, and a positive correlation between depression and low frequency to high frequency ratio of HRV. The heroin group had a lower overall and high frequency of HRV, and a higher low frequency/high frequency ratio than healthy controls. The heart-rate-variability–biofeedback intervention increased HRV indices and decreased respiratory rates from pre-intervention to post-intervention. Conclusion Reduced parasympathetic and increased sympathetic activations were found in heroin users. Heart-rate-variability–biofeedback was an effective non-pharmacological intervention to restore autonomic balance. PMID:27121428
González, Patricia; González, Gerardo M
The mental health of individuals of Mexican origin may vary as a function of native status (i.e., Mexican born or U.S.A. born). Some have reported that Mexican Americans tend to display more depressive symptoms than Mexican immigrants. The present goal was to estimate the associations among acculturation and native status, and explore relative deprivation in the prevalence of depression. Participants included 153 individuals of Mexican origin who completed the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Revised Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale, and relative deprivation questions. Analyses indicated women and those scoring low on acculturation were significantly more likely to report depressive symptoms. Participants who felt they had relatively better family happiness than Euro-Americans reported lower depressive symptoms. So participants' sex, acculturation, and relative lack of depressive symptoms allow better understanding of depressive symptoms among these Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrants.
Lara, María Asunción; Navarrete, Laura; Nieto, Lourdes
Prospective studies on the predictors of postpartum depression (PPD) in Latin America are scarce, which is a matter of importance, since the significance of PPD risk factors may vary according to the level of development of a country, the types of measurement and the time periods assessed. This study identifies the prenatal predictors for PPD (diagnostic interview) and postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDS) (self-report scale) in Mexican mothers at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Two hundred and ten women were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and various risk factor scales. Univariate logistic regressions showed that social support, marital satisfaction, life events, a history of psychopathology, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, the traditional female role, previous miscarriages/termination of pregnancy and unplanned/unwanted pregnancy were significant predictors for both PPD and PPDS at both assessment times in the postpartum. Education, age, marital status, income, occupation, parity, C-section and resilience were significant for only one of the measurements and/or at just one assessment time. General findings replicate a high- and low-income country observed psychosocial risk profile and confirm a sociodemographic and obstetric profile of vulnerability that is more prevalent in resource-constrained countries. PPD constitutes a high burden for new mothers, particularly for those living in low-middle-income countries who face social disadvantages (such as low educational attainment and income).
Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Javdani, Shabnam
Adolescents' interpersonal skills are associated with fewer teen depressive symptoms and more positive parenting, but little is known about how teens' externalizing problems moderate these relationships. This study examines links among teens' interpersonal skills, parenting, and withdrawn-depressed symptoms in adolescents seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment with elevated or non-elevated externalizing problems. Adolescents (N = 346; 42 % female; 61 % African-American) ages 12-19 years old (M = 14.9; SD = 1.8) and parents completed assessments at baseline and 6 months. At baseline parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed and externalizing symptoms, and were observed interacting to assess teen interpersonal skills. At 6 months adolescents reported on parenting, and parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed symptoms. Structural equation modeling tested two models (one with teen reported symptoms and one with parent reported symptoms). Model fit was better for youth with elevated externalizing problems regardless of reporter. For youth with elevated externalizing problems, baseline teen positive interpersonal skills were not directly associated with 6-month withdrawn-depressed symptoms, but more positive parenting was associated with fewer withdrawn-depressed symptoms. In the teen report model, more positive teen interpersonal skills were associated with more positive parenting, and there was a trend for parenting to indirectly account for the relationship between interpersonal skills and withdrawn-depressed symptoms. The findings extend research on the role of externalizing problems in teens' depression risk. Interventions for depression that target interpersonal skills may be particularly effective in youth with elevated externalizing problems.
Background As online social media have become prominent, much effort has been spent on identifying users with depressive symptoms in order to aim at early diagnosis, treatment, and even prevention by using various online social media. In this paper, we focused on Facebook to discern any correlations between the platform’s features and users’ depressive symptoms. This work may be helpful in trying to reach and detect large numbers of depressed individuals more easily. Objective Our goal was to develop a Web application and identify depressive symptom–related features from users of Facebook, a popular social networking platform. Methods 55 Facebook users (male=40, female=15, mean age 24.43, SD 3.90) were recruited through advertisement fliers distributed to students in a large university in Korea. Using EmotionDiary, the Facebook application we developed, we evaluated depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. We also provided tips and facts about depression to participants and measured their responses using EmotionDiary. To identify the Facebook features related to depression, correlation analyses were performed between CES-D and participants’ responses to tips and facts or Facebook social features. Last, we interviewed depressed participants (CES-D≥25) to assess their depressive symptoms by a psychiatrist. Results Facebook activities had predictive power in distinguishing depressed and nondepressed individuals. Participants’ response to tips and facts, which can be explained by the number of app tips viewed and app points, had a positive correlation (P=.04 for both cases), whereas the number of friends and location tags had a negative correlation with the CES-D scale (P=.08 and P=.045 respectively). Furthermore, in finding group differences in Facebook social activities, app tips viewed and app points resulted in significant differences (P=.01 and P=.03 respectively) between probably depressed and
Kamp Dush, Claire M.
The consequences of divorce are pronounced for parents of young children, and cohabitation dissolution is increasing in this population and has important implications. The mental health consequences of union dissolution were examined, by union type and parental gender, using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1,998 for mothers and 1,764 for fathers). Overall, cohabitation and marital dissolution were both associated with increased maternal and paternal depressive symptoms, though for married mothers, depressive symptoms returned to predissolution levels with time. Difference-in-difference estimates indicated no differences in the magnitude of the increase in depressive symptoms by type of dissolution, though pooled difference models suggested that married fathers increased in depressive symptoms more than cohabiting fathers. Potential time-variant mediators did not account for these associations, though greater family chaos was associated with increased maternal depressive symptoms, and decreased social support and father – child contact were associated with increased paternal depressive symptoms. PMID:23671351
Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong
In a sample of 368 Chinese high school students, the present study examined the different effects of Chinese high school students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms and the moderating effects of gender and students' perceptions of school climate on the relationships between their academic stress and depressive symptoms. Regression mixture model identified two different kinds of subgroups in the effects of students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms. One subgroup contained 90% of the students. In this subgroup, the students' perceptions of academic stress from lack of achievement positively predicted their depressive symptoms. For the other 10% of the students, academic stress did not significantly predict their depressive symptoms. Next, multinomial regression analysis revealed that girls or students who had high levels of achievement orientation were more likely to be in the first subgroup. The findings suggested that gender and students' perceptions of school climate could moderate the relationships between Chinese high school students' academic stress and their depressive symptoms.
Calvete, Esther; Camara, Maria; Estevez, Ana; Villardón, Lourdes
This study examined the role of coping with social stressors in the development of depressive symptoms, as well as gender differences in this process. Participants included 978 adolescents (aged 14-18 years), who completed measures of social stressors, coping responses, and depressive symptoms at the beginning of the study and measures of depressive symptoms at a six-month follow-up. High levels of disengagement and low levels of secondary control coping predicted a residual increase in depressive symptoms at follow-up. Interactive effects were weak and moderated by gender: among female adolescents, the use of disengagement coping exacerbated the impact of social stressors on depressive symptoms, whereas the use of secondary control reduced these effects. Female adolescents scored higher than male adolescents on perceived social stress, disengagement, and primary control coping. Moreover, differences in perceived social stress and disengagement coping contributed to explain the female adolescents' higher scores on depressive symptoms. These findings have important implications for interventions.
Schweingruber, H A; Kalil, A
This study investigated correlates of depressive symptoms among 56 (30 Black and 26 White) low-income, coresiding teenage mothers and their mothers (referred to as grandmothers). Racial differences in teenage mothers' and grandmothers' reports of decision making and depressive symptoms and in the association of decision making with depressive symptoms were explored. Racial differences in levels of depressive symptoms emerged for grandmothers but not for teens. There were no significant differences in levels of decision making; however, the relation of decision making to depressive symptoms differed by racial group. Among White families, greater teen participation in decision making was negatively associated with teenage mothers' depressive symptoms. Among Black families, the opposite was found. A similar pattern of effects was observed for grandmothers.
Rodin, Gary; Walsh, Andrew; Zimmermann, Camilla; Gagliese, Lucia; Jones, Jennifer; Shepherd, Frances A; Moore, Malcolm; Braun, Michal; Donner, Allan; Mikulincer, Mario
The present study examines the association between disease-related factors, perceived social support, attachment security (i.e. attachment anxiety and avoidance), and the occurrence of depressive symptoms in a sample of patients with metastatic gastrointestinal or lung cancer. Results from a sample of 326 cancer outpatients with advanced disease indicate that disease-related factors are significantly associated with the occurrence of depressive symptoms, and the latter are inversely related to the degree of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and perceived social support. Attachment security (on the dimension of anxious attachment) significantly buffered the effect of disease-related factors on depressive symptoms, and perceived social support mediated the relationship between attachment security and depressive symptoms. The buffering effect of attachment security on depressive symptoms and its partial mediation through social support suggest that the interaction of individual, social, and disease-related factors contribute to the emergence of depressive symptoms in patients with metastatic cancer.
Guo, Zhongwei; Liu, Xiaozheng; Jia, Xize; Hou, Hongtao; Cao, Yulin; Wei, Fuquan; Li, Jiapeng; Chen, Xingli; Zhang, Yingchun; Shen, Yuedi; Wei, Lili; Xu, Luoyi; Chen, Wei
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline along with neuropsychiatric symptoms including depression and psychosis. Depression is a common psychiatric disorder occurring in people across the lifespan. Accumulating evidence indicates that depression may be a prodrome and/or a "risk factor" for AD. However, whether AD and depression share a common pathophysiological pathway is still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify regional alterations in brain function associated with depressive symptoms in mild AD patients. Thirty-two mild AD patients were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and were divided into two groups: 15 AD patients with depressive symptoms (D-AD) and 17 non-depressed AD (nD-AD) patients. Using the approach of regional homogeneity (ReHo), we characterized resting-state regional brain activity in D-AD and nD-AD patients. Compared with nD-AD patients, D-AD patients showed decreased ReHo in the right precentral gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and right inferior frontal cortex. Our findings show regional brain activity alterations in D-AD patients. Thus, D-AD pathogenesis may be attributed to abnormal neural activity in multiple brain regions.
Background The quality and quantity of social relationships are associated with depression but there is less evidence regarding which aspects of social relationships are most predictive. We evaluated the relative magnitude and independence of the association of four social relationship domains with major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms. Methods We analyzed a cross-sectional telephone interview and postal survey of a probability sample of adults living in Switzerland (N = 12,286). Twelve-month major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The postal survey assessed depressive symptoms as well as variables representing emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and loneliness. Results Each individual social relationship domain was associated with both outcome measures, but in multivariate models being lonely and perceiving unmet emotional support had the largest and most consistent associations across depression outcomes (incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.55-9.97 for loneliness and from 1.23-1.40 for unmet support, p’s < 0.05). All social relationship domains except marital status were independently associated with depressive symptoms whereas only loneliness and unmet support were associated with depressive disorder. Conclusions Perceived quality and frequency of social relationships are associated with clinical depression and depressive symptoms across a wide adult age spectrum. This study extends prior work linking loneliness to depression by showing that a broad range of social relationship domains are associated with psychological well-being. PMID:24656048
Hamilton, Jessica L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Heimberg, Richard G; Alloy, Lauren B
Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1-3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety.
Misaki, Masaya; Suzuki, Hideo; Savitz, Jonathan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Bodurka, Jerzy
Abnormal reward-related responses in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) have been reported for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. However, variability exists in the reported results, which could be due to heterogeneity in neuropathology of depression. To parse the heterogeneity of MDD we investigated variation of NAcc responses to gain and loss anticipations using fMRI. We found NAcc responses to monetary gain and loss were significantly variable across subjects in both MDD and healthy control (HC) groups. The variations were seen as a hyperactive response subtype that showed elevated activation to the anticipation of both gain and loss, an intermediate response with greater activation to gain than loss, and a suppressed-activity with reduced activation to both gain and loss compared to a non-monetary condition. While these response variability were seen in both MDD and HC subjects, specific symptoms were significantly associated with the right NAcc variation in MDD. Both the hyper- and suppressed-activity subtypes of MDD patients had severe suicidal ideation and anhedonia symptoms. The intermediate subjects had less severity in these symptoms. These results suggest that differing propensities in reward responsiveness in the NAcc may affect the development of specific symptoms in MDD. PMID:26880358
Misaki, Masaya; Suzuki, Hideo; Savitz, Jonathan; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy
Abnormal reward-related responses in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) have been reported for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. However, variability exists in the reported results, which could be due to heterogeneity in neuropathology of depression. To parse the heterogeneity of MDD we investigated variation of NAcc responses to gain and loss anticipations using fMRI. We found NAcc responses to monetary gain and loss were significantly variable across subjects in both MDD and healthy control (HC) groups. The variations were seen as a hyperactive response subtype that showed elevated activation to the anticipation of both gain and loss, an intermediate response with greater activation to gain than loss, and a suppressed-activity with reduced activation to both gain and loss compared to a non-monetary condition. While these response variability were seen in both MDD and HC subjects, specific symptoms were significantly associated with the right NAcc variation in MDD. Both the hyper- and suppressed-activity subtypes of MDD patients had severe suicidal ideation and anhedonia symptoms. The intermediate subjects had less severity in these symptoms. These results suggest that differing propensities in reward responsiveness in the NAcc may affect the development of specific symptoms in MDD.
Masai, Mieko; Pu, Shenghong; Yokoyama, Katsutoshi; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Yamanashi, Takehiko; Itakura, Masashi; Sugie, Takuya; Miura, Akihiko; Nagata, Izumi; Iwata, Masaaki; Kaneko, Koichi
Background The desirable goals of the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) are considered both to achieve symptom remission and to help the patients be restored to their premorbid levels of functioning. Remission has often been defined clinically as a threshold using standardized scales. Such a definition, however, allows several residual symptoms to be present in the remitted state. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the levels of residual symptoms and social functioning and also the relationship between residual symptoms and brain function. Methods The subjects were 21 patients with MDD in remission, defined operationally using clinician-rated 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale. Depressive symptoms and social functioning were self-assessed with the Japanese versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale (SASS), respectively. Brain function was measured by the changes in concentration of oxy-hemoglobin ([oxy-Hb]) in the prefrontal and temporal cortices during verbal fluency task using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Results The mean CES-D total score was 18.0, s = 13.2, indicating that they have on average mild depression. Scores of CES-D total and those of its four factors showed a significantly negative correlation with the SASS total score. Among the four factors, “Interpersonal problems” factor showed the strongest correlation with it. CES-D total score and those of its three factors, “Depressed affect”, “Somatic and retarded activity” and “Positive affect”, showed significantly negative correlations with the mean [oxy-Hb] changes mainly in the left hemisphere, whereas “Interpersonal problems” factor showed a significantly positive correlation with the size of NIRS activation predominantly in right prefrontal regions. Conclusion Our results indicate that remitted patients with MDD possibly have residual symptoms which are most
Beydoun, Hind A; Beydoun, May A; Kaufman, Jay S; Lo, Bruce; Zonderman, Alan B
To date, few systematic reviews of observational studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate the co-morbidity of intimate partner violence (IPV) and specific depression outcomes in women. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we summarize the extant literature and estimate the magnitude of the association between IPV and key depressive outcomes (elevated depressive symptoms, diagnosed major depressive disorder and postpartum depression). PubMed (January 1, 1980-December 31, 2010) searches of English-language observational studies were conducted. Most of the selected 37 studies had cross-sectional population-based designs, focused on elevated depressive symptoms and were conducted in the United States. Most studies suggested moderate or strong positive associations between IPV and depression. Our meta-analysis suggested two to three-fold increased risk of major depressive disorder and 1.5-2-fold increased risk of elevated depressive symptoms and postpartum depression among women exposed to intimate partner violence relative to non-exposed women. A sizable proportion (9%-28%) of major depressive disorder, elevated depressive symptoms, and postpartum depression can be attributed to lifetime exposure to IPV. In an effort to reduce the burden of depression, continued research is recommended for evaluating IPV preventive strategies.
Brown, H M; Lester, K J; Jassi, A; Heyman, I; Krebs, G
Depression frequently co-occurs with paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet the clinical correlates and impact of depression on CBT outcomes remain unclear. The prevalence and clinical correlates of depression were examined in a paediatric specialist OCD-clinic sample (N = 295; Mean = 15 [7 - 18] years, 42 % female), using both dimensional (Beck Depression Inventory-youth; n = 261) and diagnostic (Development and Wellbeing Assessment; n = 127) measures of depression. The impact of depressive symptoms and suspected disorders on post-treatment OCD severity was examined in a sub-sample who received CBT, with or without SSRI medication (N = 100). Fifty-one per-cent of patients reported moderately or extremely elevated depressive symptoms and 26 % (95 % CI: 18 - 34) met criteria for a suspected depressive disorder. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders were associated with worse OCD symptom severity and global functioning prior to CBT. Individuals with depression were more likely to be female, have had a psychiatric inpatient admission and less likely to be attending school (ps < 0.01). OCD and depressive symptom severity significantly decreased after CBT. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders predicted worse post-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.19 and 0.26, ps < 0.05) but became non-significant when controlling for pre-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.05 and 0.13, ns). Depression is common in paediatric OCD and is associated with more severe OCD and poorer functioning. However, depression severity decreases over the course of CBT for OCD and is not independently associated with worse outcomes, supporting the recommendation for treatment as usual in the presence of depressive symptoms.
Vromans, Lynette P; Schweitzer, Robert D
This study investigated depressive symptom and interpersonal relatedness outcomes from eight sessions of manualized narrative therapy for 47 adults with major depressive disorder. Post-therapy, depressive symptom improvement (d=1.36) and proportions of clients achieving reliable improvement (74%), movement to the functional population (61%), and clinically significant improvement (53%) were comparable to benchmark research outcomes. Post-therapy interpersonal relatedness improvement (d=.62) was less substantial than for symptoms. Three-month follow-up found maintenance of symptom, but not interpersonal gains. Benchmarking and clinical significance analyses mitigated repeated measure design limitations, providing empirical evidence to support narrative therapy for adults with major depressive disorder.
Khoury, Jennifer E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie
Three basic findings have emerged from research on maternal depressive symptoms and offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning: (a) Mothers' depressive symptoms are positively associated with their offsprings' cortisol stress response, (b) numerous individual and interpersonal maternal characteristics moderate this association, and (c) maternal and infant cortisol levels are highly correlated. In combination, these findings have suggested that maternal cortisol levels may moderate the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol responsivity; the current study assessed this hypothesis. Participants were 297 mother-infant dyads who were recruited from the community. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report. Dyads participated in two differentially stressful infant challenges when infants were 16 and 17 months old. Mother and infant salivary cortisol was collected before and after challenges. Results indicate that maternal cortisol levels moderated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol levels across both challenges. Infants showed higher cortisol levels if their mothers had both higher depressive symptoms and higher cortisol levels, as compared to infants of mothers with higher depressive symptoms and lower cortisol, and to infants of mothers with lower depressive symptoms and either higher or lower cortisol levels. We discuss findings in relation to environmental and biological factors that may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms.
Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M
Mothers caring for technology-dependent children at home often suffer clinically significant and unrecognized depressive symptoms. The study aim was to determine factors related to elevated depressive symptoms and provide information to target interventions that assists mothers in self-management of their mental health. Secondary data analysis from a descriptive, correlational study of 75 mothers was performed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis results indicate that younger, unpartnered mothers with lower normalization efforts and personal resourcefulness, and less care hours, had increased depressive symptoms. The importance of personal resourcefulness and the potential for a resourcefulness training intervention to reduce depressive symptoms are discussed.
Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Copp, Jennifer E.
Examining longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 927), we assessed associations between physical victimization by an intimate partner, indicators of poor relationship quality, and depressive symptoms among young adult men and women in casually dating, exclusively dating, cohabiting, and marital relationships. In zero-order models, we found that physical victimization increased depressive symptoms. In multivariate models, victimization was a risk factor for depressive symptoms with the inclusion of prior depressive symptoms, family factors reflecting the intergenerational transmission of violence, sociodemographic background, and relationship characteristics including union status. Yet with the additional inclusion of indicators of poor relational quality, victimization was not a significant predictor of depressive symptoms. Arguing and poor communication influenced victimization and depressive symptoms. The associations between victimization and depressive symptoms did not differ by gender, nor were the effects of poor relationship quality on depressive symptoms conditional on gender. Thus, depressive symptoms are similarly responsive to intimate partner victimization, and for both women and men these associations were not significant with the inclusion of indicators of poor relationship quality. Findings underscored that victimization often occurs within relationship contexts characterized by a range of negative dynamics; thus multifaceted relationship-centered prevention and intervention efforts are likely to be more useful than those focusing only on negative messages about the use of aggression with an intimate partner. PMID:25131276
Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E
Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior.
Evans, Lindsay D.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia; Garber, Judy
Objective The present short-term longitudinal study examined the concurrent and prospective relations among executive functioning (i.e., working memory and cognitive flexibility), coping (primary and secondary control coping), and depressive symptoms in children. Method Participants were 192 children between 9 and 15 years old (mean age = 12.36 years, SD = 1.77) recruited from the community. Youth were individually administered neuropsychological measures of executive functioning and intelligence, and completed self-report measures of executive dysfunction, coping, and depressive symptoms in small groups; the latter two measures were completed again four months later (Time 2). Linear regression analyses were used to examine direct associations among executive functions, coping, and depressive symptoms, and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test indirect effects of executive functioning on depressive symptoms through coping. Results Significant prospective relations were found between working memory measured at Time 1 (T1) and both primary and secondary control coping measured at Time 2 (T2), controlling for T1 coping. T1 cognitive flexibility significantly predicted T2 secondary control coping, controlling for T1 coping. Working memory deficits significantly predicted increases in depressive symptoms four months later, controlling for T1 depressive symptoms. Bootstrap analyses revealed that primary and secondary control coping each partially mediated the relation between working memory and depressive symptoms; secondary control coping partially mediated the relation between cognitive flexibility and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Coping may be one pathway through which deficits in executive functioning contribute to children's symptoms of depression. PMID:25651455
Foster, Dawn W; Young, Chelsie M; Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C; Bryan, Jennifer L; Neighbors, Clayton
This study evaluates associations between coping drinking motives (CDM; drinking to regulate negative affect), depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior and extends the literature by also taking into account gender differences. Two hundred forty-three college students (Mean age = 22.93, SD = 6.29, 82% female) participated. Based on previous research, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, particularly among those higher in depressive symptoms, as individuals experiencing higher levels of negative affect (i.e. depressive symptoms) and who drink to cope are likely to drink more and experience more alcohol-related problems. Lastly, based on established gender differences, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, especially among females higher in depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, findings suggested that CDMs were positively related to peak drinking, especially among those lower in depressive symptoms. Results further revealed a significant three-way interaction between CDM, depressive symptoms, and gender when predicting alcohol-related problems and drinking frequency. Specifically, we found that CDM were more strongly associated with problems among women who were lower in depressive symptoms; whereas CDM were more strongly associated with problems among men who were higher in depressive symptoms. These findings offer a more comprehensive depiction of the relationship between depressive symptoms, CDM, and drinking behavior by taking into account the importance of gender differences. These results provide additional support for considering gender when designing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies.
Foster, Dawn W.; Young, Chelsie M.; Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C.; Bryan, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton
This study evaluates associations between coping drinking motives (CDM; drinking to regulate negative affect), depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior and extends the literature by also taking into account gender differences. Two hundred forty-three college students (Mean age = 22.93, SD = 6.29, 82% female) participated. Based on previous research, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, particularly among those higher in depressive symptoms, as individuals experiencing higher levels of negative affect (i.e. depressive symptoms) and who drink to cope are likely to drink more and experience more alcohol-related problems. Lastly, based on established gender differences, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, especially among females higher in depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, findings suggested that CDMs were positively related to peak drinking, especially among those lower in depressive symptoms. Results further revealed a significant three-way interaction between CDM, depressive symptoms, and gender when predicting alcohol-related problems and drinking frequency. Specifically, we found that CDM were more strongly associated with problems among women who were lower in depressive symptoms; whereas CDM were more strongly associated with problems among men who were higher in depressive symptoms. These findings offer a more comprehensive depiction of the relationship between depressive symptoms, CDM, and drinking behavior by taking into account the importance of gender differences. These results provide additional support for considering gender when designing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies. PMID:25525419
Ross, Anthony G; Shochet, Ian M; Bellair, Rachael
In the current study, we tested whether school connectedness mediates more distal deficits in social skills in influencing depressive symptoms in a sample of 127 sixth- and seventh-grade students. Results demonstrated that school connectedness and social skills accounted for 44% and 26% of variance in depressive symptoms respectively and 49% in a combined model. Although the full mediation model hypothesis was not supported, follow-up analyses revealed that school connectedness partially mediated the link between social skills and preadolescent depressive symptoms. Thus, school connectedness appears to play as strong a role in depressive symptoms in this younger preadolescent age group.
Dinger, Ulrike; Ehrenthal, Johannes C; Nikendei, Christoph; Schauenburg, Henning
Reduced self-esteem is a core symptom of depression, but few studies have investigated within-treatment change of self-esteem as a predictor of long-term outcome in depression. This study investigated change in self-esteem during 8 weeks of multimodal, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy for 40 depressed patients and tested whether it would predict outcome 6 months after termination. Data was drawn from a randomized clinical pilot trial on day-clinic versus inpatient psychotherapy for depression. Findings supported the association between change in self-esteem and follow-up depression severity, even when controlling for within-treatment symptom change. Change in self-esteem was not related to overall symptoms and interpersonal problems at follow-up. Thus, change in self-esteem may be an important variable in preventing relapse for depression.
Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Cui, Yufei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Shota; Ren, Zhongyu; Niu, Kaijun; Nagatomi, Ryoichi
Background Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Results The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376). Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–3.14, p = 0.049), whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044). Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06–2.77, p = 0.028). Conclusions This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms. PMID:28135197
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith D.
Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers
Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate
OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use. PMID:27594786
Baldassin, Sergio; Alves, Tânia Correa de Toledo Ferraz; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Nogueira Martins, Luiz Antonio
Background Medical education and training can contribute to the development of depressive symptoms that might lead to possible academic and professional consequences. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of depressive symptoms among 481 medical students (79.8% of the total who matriculated). Methods The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and cluster analyses were used in order to better describe the characteristics of depressive symptoms. Medical education and training in Brazil is divided into basic (1st and 2nd years), intermediate (3rd and 4th years), and internship (5th and 6th years) periods. The study organized each item from the BDI into the following three clusters: affective, cognitive, and somatic. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Tukey corrected for multiple comparisons. Results There were 184 (38.2%) students with depressive symptoms (BDI > 9). The internship period resulted in the highest BDI scores in comparison to both the basic (p < .001) and intermediate (p < .001) periods. Affective, cognitive, and somatic clusters were significantly higher in the internship period. An exploratory analysis of possible risk factors showed that females (p = .020) not having a parent who practiced medicine (p = .016), and the internship period (p = .001) were factors for the development of depressive symptoms. Conclusion There is a high prevalence towards depressive symptoms among medical students, particularly females, in the internship level, mainly involving the somatic and affective clusters, and not having a parent who practiced medicine. The active assessment of these students in evaluating their depressive symptoms is important in order to prevent the development of co-morbidities and suicide risk. PMID:19077227
Cernvall, Martin; Skogseid, Ellen; Carlbring, Per; Ljungman, Lisa; Ljungman, Gustaf; von Essen, Louise
We conducted a cross-sectional survey study to investigate whether there is a relationship between experiential avoidance (EA), rumination, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and symptoms of depression, in parents of children on cancer treatment. Data from 79 parents (55 mothers) of 79 children with a median of three months since their cancer diagnosis were included in cross-sectional analyses. EA and rumination were positively correlated with PTSS and symptoms of depression. EA and rumination did not provide incremental explained variance in PTSS over and above that explained by symptoms of depression, while controlling for symptoms of anxiety and demographic characteristics. However, EA and rumination provided incremental explained variance in symptoms of depression over and above that explained by PTSS, while controlling for symptoms of anxiety and demographic characteristics. Rumination and EA are important constructs in the understanding of PTSS and symptoms of depression in parents of children on cancer treatment. Future research should delineate the temporal relationships between these constructs.
Frost, Allison; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Chung, Alissa Levy; Adam, Emma K
Depression is a prevalent and debilitating illness facing many adolescents, especially adolescent girls, whose risk for this disorder is approximately twice that of boys. Many studies have identified mechanisms that place girls at higher risk for depression during adolescence. Few, however, have examined differences in the everyday emotional experiences of boys and girls with varying levels of depressive symptoms. Using the Experience Sampling Method, this study investigated the roles of gender and depressive symptomatology in the emotional experiences of a community sample of youth (11-18 year-olds) from the Sloan 500 Family Study. Females with higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely than females with fewer depressive symptoms and all males to experience strong negative emotions and to attribute the cause of these emotions to other people. These results suggest that emotional reactivity in interpersonal contexts is especially important to understand gender differences in the daily experience of depressive symptoms.
Seymour, Karen E; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Stupica, Brandi; Owens, Kristian; Sacks, Talia
A significant literature suggests that youth diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for later depression relative to youth without ADHD. Youth with co-occurring ADHD and depression experience more serious impairments and worse developmental outcomes than those with either disorder alone, including increased rates of suicidal ideation and suicide completion. Despite these very serious outcomes, few studies have examined the mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and depression in youth. The present study examined emotion regulation (ER) as a mediator of the relationship between ADHD and depressive symptoms in 69 youth between the ages of 10 and 14, with (n = 37) and without (n = 32) ADHD. Parent and youth ratings of depressive symptoms and ER were collected. Youth with ADHD reported significantly more depressive symptoms and poorer ER ability relative to youth without ADHD. ER fully mediated the relationship between ADHD and depressive symptoms. Limitations and clinical implications are discussed.
Houston, E; Sandfort, T; Dolezal, C; Carballo-Diéguez, A
Much research has examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and unprotected sex among men who have sex with men (MSM), but little is known about how depression is related to the sexual behavior of men who intentionally engage in unprotected anal intercourse, or bareback sex. In this study, we explored the extent to which depressive symptoms were associated with rates of unprotected sex among barebackers, and whether this relationship was dependent upon HIV serostatus. Using a sample of 120 MSM who engage in intentional condomless sex, we found that for HIV-negative participants, depressive symptoms were associated with the overall frequency of unprotected anal intercourse as well as unprotected anal intercourse with a serodiscordant partner. For HIV-positive participants, depressive symptoms were not associated unprotected intercourse. Additional research is needed to better understand depression among men who bareback and how interventions could be designed to address depression and reduce sexual risk behaviors.
Bracke, Piet; Pattyn, Elise; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf
In general, well-educated people enjoy better mental health than those with less education. As a result, some wonder whether there are limits to the mental health benefits of education. Inspired by the literature on the expansion of tertiary education, this article explores marginal mental health returns to education and studies the mental health status of overeducated people. To enhance the validity of the findings we use two indicators of educational attainment - years of education and ISCED97 categories - and two objective indicators of overeducation (the realised matches method and the job analyst method) in a sample of the working population of 25 European countries (unweighted sample N = 19,089). Depression is measured using an eight-item version of the CES-D scale. We find diminishing mental health returns to education. In addition, overeducated people report more depression symptoms. Both findings hold irrespective of the indicators used. The results must be interpreted in the light of the enduring expansion of education, as our findings show that the discussion of the relevance of the human capital perspective, and the diploma disease view on the relationship between education and modern society, is not obsolete.
Lim, Hyo Jin; Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa
Little attention has been paid to the individual, family, friends, and school profiles of depressed children during the transition from childhood to adolescence. This study aimed to describe the evolution of factors associated with depressive symptoms among elementary, middle, and high school students. This was a secondary analytic study using three datasets of a cohort of Korean children or adolescents. Children or adolescents with depressed symptoms reported lower self-esteem, peer attachment, academic performance, and adaptability in school. Other risk factors for depressive symptoms that included gender, obesity, family conflict, and with whom they discussed personal issues showed different patterns from the elementary school years to high school years. A sex difference (female>male) of depressive symptoms was evident only among high school students. Influences including individuals, family, friends, and school factors for adolescents varied depending upon school years. Understanding the correlates/risk factors could guide the screening and management of depressive symptoms.
Han, Kihwan; Chapman, Sandra B.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions in individuals with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). Though depression has detrimental effects in TBI and network dysfunction is a “hallmark” of TBI and depression, there have not been any prior investigations of connectivity-based neuroimaging biomarkers for comorbid depression in TBI. We utilized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify altered amygdala connectivity in individuals with chronic TBI (8 years post-injury on average) exhibiting comorbid depressive symptoms (N = 31), relative to chronic TBI individuals having minimal depressive symptoms (N = 23). Connectivity analysis of these participant sub-groups revealed that the TBI-plus-depressive symptoms group showed relative increases in amygdala connectivity primarily in the regions that are part of the salience, somatomotor, dorsal attention, and visual networks (pvoxel < 0.01, pcluster < 0.025). Relative increases in amygdala connectivity in the TBI-plus-depressive symptoms group were also observed within areas of the limbic–cortical mood-regulating circuit (the left dorsomedial and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and thalamus) and the brainstem. Further analysis revealed that spatially dissociable patterns of correlation between amygdala connectivity and symptom severity according to subtypes (Cognitive and Affective) of depressive symptoms (pvoxel < 0.01, pcluster < 0.025). Taken together, these results suggest that amygdala connectivity may be a potentially effective neuroimaging biomarker for comorbid depressive symptoms in chronic TBI. PMID:26581959
Avis, Nancy E; Levine, Beverly; Naughton, Michelle J; Case, L Douglas; Naftalis, Elizabeth; Van Zee, Kimberly J
Younger women being treated for breast cancer consistently show greater depression shortly after diagnosis than older women. In this longitudinal study, we examine whether these age differences persist over the first 26 months following diagnosis and identify factors related to change in depressive symptoms. A total of 653 women within 8 months of a first time breast cancer diagnosis completed questionnaires at baseline and three additional timepoints (6, 12, and 18 months after baseline) on contextual/patient characteristics, symptoms, and psychosocial variables. Chart reviews provided cancer and treatment-related data. The primary outcome was depressive symptomatology assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory. Among women younger than age 65, depressive symptoms were highest soon after diagnosis and significantly decreased over time. Depressive symptoms remained stable and low for women aged 65 and older. Age was no longer significantly related to depressive symptoms in multivariable analyses controlling for a wide range of covariates. The primary factors related to levels of and declines in depressive symptomatology were the ability to pay for basics; completing chemotherapy with doxorubicin; and decreases in pain, vasomotor symptoms, illness intrusiveness, and passive coping. Increased sense of meaning/peace and social support were related to decreased depression. Interventions to reduce symptoms and illness intrusiveness, improve a sense of meaning and peace, and increase social support, may help reduce depression and such interventions may be especially relevant for younger women.
Steer, Robert A
To ascertain whether self-reported inability to cry would be associated with symptoms of anhedonic depression, the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory-II was administered to 1,050 outpatients diagnosed with a DSM-IV-TR major depressive disorder. 219 (21%) patients reported on the BDI-II Crying item that they were unable to cry, and 831 (79%) patients reported they were able to cry. Only BDI-II Loss of Interest was significantly associated with the inability to cry after the other BDI-II symptoms were controlled for using a multiple logistic-regression analysis. The inability to cry was discussed as an indicator of anhedonic depression.
Soe, Ni Ni; Wen, Daniel J.; Poh, Joann S.; Li, Yue; Broekman, Birit F. P.; Chen, Helen; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D.; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Qiu, Anqi
This study investigated the relationships between pre- and early post-natal maternal depression and their changes with frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month olds, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month olds (n = 258). Neither prenatal nor postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted neither the frontal EEG activity nor functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month infants. However, increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted greater right frontal activity and relative right frontal asymmetry amongst 6-month infants but these finding were not observed amongst 18-month infants after adjusted for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. Subsequently increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted lower right frontal connectivity within 18-month infants but not among 6-month infants after controlling for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. These findings were observed in the full sample and the female sample but not in the male sample. Moreover, both prenatal and early postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 24 months of age. This suggests that the altered frontal functional connectivity in infants born to mothers whose depressive symptomatology increases in the early postnatal period compared to that during pregnancy may reflect a neural basis for the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with mood disorders, particularly in girls. PMID:27073881
Soe, Ni Ni; Wen, Daniel J; Poh, Joann S; Li, Yue; Broekman, Birit F P; Chen, Helen; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Meaney, Michael J; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Qiu, Anqi
This study investigated the relationships between pre- and early post-natal maternal depression and their changes with frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month olds, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month olds (n = 258). Neither prenatal nor postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted neither the frontal EEG activity nor functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month infants. However, increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted greater right frontal activity and relative right frontal asymmetry amongst 6-month infants but these finding were not observed amongst 18-month infants after adjusted for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. Subsequently increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted lower right frontal connectivity within 18-month infants but not among 6-month infants after controlling for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. These findings were observed in the full sample and the female sample but not in the male sample. Moreover, both prenatal and early postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 24 months of age. This suggests that the altered frontal functional connectivity in infants born to mothers whose depressive symptomatology increases in the early postnatal period compared to that during pregnancy may reflect a neural basis for the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with mood disorders, particularly in girls.
Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Byrne, Michelle L; Simmons, Julian G; Wood, Stephen J; Pantelis, Christos; Allen, Nicholas B
Early timing of puberty (i.e., advanced pubertal maturation relative to peers) has been linked to the onset of depressive symptoms during the early adolescent phase. However, the precise neurobiological mechanisms linking early pubertal timing to adolescent depressive symptoms are not clear. We investigated whether the volume of the pituitary gland, a key component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, mediated the relationship between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms in 155 adolescents (72 females) both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. At baseline (M age 12.7, SD 0.5 years), early pubertal timing predicted larger pituitary gland volume and higher depressive symptoms (especially for girls), but there was no mediation effect. Longitudinally, however, larger pituitary gland volume at baseline was found to mediate the relationship between early pubertal timing and increased depressive symptoms over time (M follow-up period=2.57 years, SD=0.26) for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that neurobiological mechanisms are partly responsible for the link between early pubertal timing and depressive symptoms in adolescents. We speculate that an enlarged pituitary gland in adolescents with early pubertal timing might be associated with hyperactivation of the hormonal stress response, leading to increased susceptibility to environmental stressors, and subsequent development of depressive symptoms. Given the well-established relationship between increasing depressive symptoms in adolescence and later disorder, these findings have implications for targeted prevention and early intervention strategies for depressive disorders in adolescence.
Wilkinson, Paul O; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Haworth, Claire M A; Eley, Thalia C
Depression is known to be associated with a wide array of environmental factors. Such associations are due at least in part to genetic influences on both. This issue has been little explored with preadolescent children. Measures of family chaos and parenting style at age 9 and child depressive symptoms at age 12 were completed by 3,258 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study and their parents. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to explore common and unique genetic and environmental influences on both family environment and later depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms at age 12 were significantly heritable. Moderate genetic effects influenced parenting style and family chaos at the age of 9, indicating gene-environment correlation. There were significant genetic correlations between family environment and depressive symptoms. There was some evidence of a Gene × Environment interaction, with stronger genetic effects on depressive symptoms for children with more suboptimal family environment. There was an Environment × Environment interaction, with effects of nonshared environment on depressive symptoms stronger for twins with more adverse parenting experiences. There is some evidence for gene-environment correlation between aspects of family environment in middle childhood and subsequent depressive symptoms. This suggests that one of the mechanisms by which genes lead to depressive symptoms may be by themselves influencing depressogenic environments.
Vinci, Christine; Spears, Claire A; Peltier, MacKenzie R; Copeland, Amy L
The relationship between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms is well-established. Dispositional mindfulness has been associated with lower depressive symptoms, lower smoking dependence, and higher odds of smoking cessation. Given that mindfulness is multi-faceted, the current study examined which facets of mindfulness might mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking behavior. Participants (n = 72) completed the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD), and Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS; subscales-Observe, Describe, Acting with Awareness, Accepting without Judgment), and indicated number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Simple mediation models (followed by multiple mediation when more than one facet was significant) tested whether mindfulness facets mediated the relationship between CESD and smoking behavior (CPD and SCQ subscales). Results indicated that 1) lower depressive symptoms were associated with higher Accepting without Judgment, which was related to lower Negative Reinforcement expectancies, 2) lower depressive symptoms were associated with increased Describe, which was associated with greater perceived Negative Consequences, 3) lower depressive symptoms were associated with higher Accepting without Judgment, which was associated with lower Negative Consequences expectancies, and 4) higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher scores on Observe, which related to both greater Positive Reinforcement and Negative Consequences expectancies. Greater Accepting without Judgment and Describe aspects of mindfulness may serve as protective factors in the relationship of depressive symptoms and smoking.
Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Opacka-Juffry, Jolanta
The links between plasma oxytocin and depression are controversial, ranging from negative to positive associations. The present study was conducted to reconcile those conflicting findings; amongst the features of depression, we considered rumination and hypothesised that rumination would function as moderator between depressive symptoms and oxytocin. Seventy five clinically normal adult male volunteers were assessed for depressive characteristics by means of the Ruminative Responses Scale and Beck's Depression Inventory-II; plasma oxytocin was measured by means of competitive enzyme immunoassay. The results demonstrate that high depressive symptoms were negatively associated with oxytocin concentrations at high rumination levels while such an association did not exist at low levels of rumination. The present findings suggest there are complex associations between oxytocin and brooding rumination, the latter being an important feature among depressive symptoms observed in clinically normal individuals. This complexity can underlie the current lack of consensus on the role of oxytocin in depression.
Bernstein, Kunsook Song; Park, So-Youn; Shin, Jinah; Cho, Sunhee; Park, Yeddi
Immigrant mental health issues, especially depression in relation to discrimination and acculturation, are reported to be serious problems in the United States. The current study examines the prevalence of depressive symptoms among Korean immigrants in New York City (NYC) and its relation to self-reported discrimination and acculturation. A sample of 304 Korean immigrants residing in NYC completed a survey utilizing the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Korean version, Discrimination Scale, and Acculturation Stress Scale. Results indicated that 13.2% of the sample population demonstrated some symptoms of depression and that variable such as living alone, marital status, education, years in US and income impact high depression scores. Results also indicate that higher self-reported exposure to discrimination and lower self-reported language proficiency were related to higher depressive symptoms. In a regression analysis, discrimination and English language proficiency were significant predictors of depression, but acculturation stress was not significantly related to depression.
Chung, Jun Ku; Plitman, Eric; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Caravaggio, Fernando; Gerretsen, Philip; Iwata, Yusuke; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel
Depressive symptoms are frequently seen in patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Evidence suggests that there may be a link between current depressive symptoms and Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated pathological changes, such as an increase in cortical amyloid-β (Aβ). However, limited in vivo studies have explored the relationship between current depressive symptoms and cortical Aβ in patients with MCI and AD. Our study, using a large sample of 455 patients with MCI and 153 patients with AD from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiatives, investigated whether current depressive symptoms are related to cortical Aβ deposition. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-depression/dysphoria. Cortical Aβ was quantified using positron emission tomography with the Aβ probe(18)F-florbetapir (AV-45).(18)F-florbetapir standardized uptake value ratio (AV-45 SUVR) from the frontal, cingulate, parietal, and temporal regions was estimated. A global AV-45 SUVR, defined as the average of frontal, cingulate, precuneus, and parietal cortex, was also used. We observed that current depressive symptoms were not related to cortical Aβ, after controlling for potential confounds, including history of major depression. We also observed that there was no difference in cortical Aβ between matched participants with high and low depressive symptoms, as well as no difference between matched participants with the presence and absence of depressive symptoms. The association between depression and cortical Aβ deposition does not exist, but the relationship is highly influenced by stressful events in the past, such as previous depressive episodes, and complex interactions of different pathways underlying both depression and dementia.
Wenze, Susan J; Gunthert, Kathleen C; German, Ramaris E
The authors used experience sampling to investigate biases in affective forecasting and recall in individuals with varying levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants who were higher in depression symptoms demonstrated stronger (more pessimistic) negative mood prediction biases, marginally stronger negative mood recall biases, and weaker (less optimistic) positive mood prediction and recall biases. Participants who were higher in anxiety symptoms demonstrated stronger negative mood prediction biases, but positive mood prediction biases that were on par with those who were lower in anxiety. Anxiety symptoms were not associated with mood recall biases. Neither depression symptoms nor anxiety symptoms were associated with bias in event prediction. Their findings fit well with the tripartite model of depression and anxiety. Results are also consistent with the conceptualization of anxiety as a "forward-looking" disorder, and with theories that emphasize the importance of pessimism and general negative information processing in depressive functioning.
Linares, Leticia; Jauregui, Paula; Herrero-Fernández, David; Estévez, Ana
Attachment styles and dysfunctional symptoms have been associated. This relationship could be affected by metacognitive capacity. The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between depressive symptoms, attachment styles, and metacognitive capacity. In addition, the mediating role of metacognition between attachment and depressive symptoms has been studied. A total of 505 participants recruited from the general population of the province of Bizkaia (Spain) completed questionnaires regarding depression, anxiety, mindfulness, decentering, and attachment. Results showed positive and significant relations between (a) dysfunctional symptoms and insecure attachment styles and (b) metacognitive capacity and secure attachment style. Additionally, the mediating role of metacognition between attachment and depressive symptoms was confirmed. Intervention in metacognitive abilities such as mindfulness could be a useful therapeutic tool for depressive symptoms.
Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric
Objective Although research has found an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents, few studies have examined this relation prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical activity. Method Data from a longitudinal study involving annual assessments of 496 adolescent girls (M age = 13, SD 0.7) followed over a 6-year period were analyzed to address these questions. Results Physical activity significantly reduced risk for future increases in depressive symptoms and risk for onset of major/minor depression and depressive symptoms and major/minor depression significantly reduced future physical activity, controlling for several covariates, though predictive effects were modest. Conclusions Results support a bidirectional relation between exercise and depression and imply that interventions that increase physical activity may reduce risk for depression among this high-risk population. PMID:20350037
SUNG, Vivian W.; WEST, Delia S.; HERNANDEZ, Alexandra L.; WHEELER, Thomas L.; MYERS, Deborah L.; SUBAK, Leslee L.
OBJECTIVE Determine the association between urinary incontinence (UI) and depressive symptoms. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study of 338 incontinent and overweight women at baseline in the Program to Reduce Incontinence by Diet and Exercise trial. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Beck Depression Inventory score ≥ 10. UI frequency was determined by 7-day voiding diary. Symptom bother and quality of life were determined using the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI) and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ). Multivariable regression was used to estimate the association between UI and depressive symptoms. RESULTS Women with depressive symptoms (N=101) reported a higher mean number of UI episodes per week (28 vs. 23, P=.005) and higher (worse) mean scores on the UDI (176 vs. 162, P=.02) and IIQ (136 vs. 97, P<.001) compared to women without depressive symptoms. The risk of having depressive symptoms increased with each 7-episode increase in UI per week (AOR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01–1.21), each 50-point increase in UDI (AOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01–1.60) and each 50-point increase in IIQ (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.22–1.71). CONCLUSIONS Urinary incontinence frequency, symptom bother, and quality of life are independently associated with depressive symptoms in overweight and obese women. PMID:19236869
Gress-Smith, Jenna L; Roubinov, Danielle S; Andreotti, Charissa; Compas, Bruce E; Luecken, Linda J
Although the college years represent a high-risk period for depressive symptoms and insomnia, little research has explored their prevalence, comorbidities and risk factors within this developmental period. Two studies were conducted; the first evaluated the prevalence and comorbidity of depressive symptoms and insomnia in 1338 students (ages 18-23 years) from a large Southwestern University. Mild depressive symptoms were endorsed by 19% of students and 14.5% reported moderate to severe symptoms. Forty-seven percent of students reported mild insomnia and 22.5% endorsed moderate to severe insomnia severity. A second study investigated perceived stress as a potential mediator of the relation between self-reported childhood adversity and concurrent depressive symptoms and insomnia. Undergraduates (N = 447) from a Southwestern and Southeastern University reported prior childhood adversity, current perceived stress, insomnia and depressive symptoms. Self-reported childhood adversity predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms and insomnia severity, partially mediated by perceived stress. Results support the high prevalence of depressive symptoms and insomnia among undergraduates. The risk for depressive and insomnia symptoms may be increased among students who experienced greater levels of childhood adversity.
van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Gibson, Jenny L.; St Clair, Michelle C.; Owens, Matt; Brodbeck, Jeannette; Dunn, Valerie; Lewis, Gemma; Croudace, Tim; Jones, Peter B.; Kievit, Rogier A.; Goodyer, Ian M.
Background Early life stress (ELS) consists of child family adversities (CFA: negative experiences that happened within the family environment) and/or peer bullying. ELS plays an important role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms and clinical disorders. Identifying factors that may reduce depressive symptoms in adolescents with ELS may have important public mental health implications. Methods We used structural equation modelling and examined the impact of adolescent friendships and/or family support at age 14 on depressive symptoms at age 17 in adolescents exposed to ELS before age 11. To this end, we used structural equation modelling in a community sample of 771 adolescents (322 boys and 477 girls) from a 3 year longitudinal study. Significant paths in the model were followed-up to test whether social support mediated or moderated the association between ELS and depressive symptoms at age 17. Results We found that adolescent social support in adolescence is negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in boys and girls exposed to ELS. Specifically, we found evidence for two mediational pathways: In the first pathway family support mediated the link between CFA and depressive symptoms at age 17. Specifically, CFA was negatively associated with adolescent family support at age 14, which in turn was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In the second pathway we found that adolescent friendships mediated the path between peer bullying and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational bullying was negatively associated with adolescent friendships at age 14, which in turn were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In contrast, we did not find a moderating effect of friendships and family support on the association between CFA and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Friendships and/or family support in adolescence mediate the relationship between ELS and late adolescent depressive symptoms in boys and
Reinke, Wendy M; Eddy, J Mark; Dishion, Thomas J; Reid, John B
The joint, longitudinal trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and of depression were examined in a community sample drawn from neighborhoods with elevated rates of delinquency. Growth mixture modeling was applied to a 6 year transition period from childhood to adolescence, age 10 to 16 years, to identify latent classes of trajectories for each symptom type. Several classes emerged for the two types of symptoms, namely a group of youth with high levels of disruptive behavior, a group with increasing levels, and a group with low levels, as well as a group with increasing levels of depression, a group with high levels, a group with decreasing levels, and a group with low levels. Within each symptom type, membership in either the high or in the increasing classes was related to a variety of problematic outcomes during emerging adulthood. The co-occurrence of the disruptive behavior and depression classes was then evaluated using parallel process analysis. Youth exhibiting high depressive symptoms were at increased risk for disruptive behavior problems, and youth with increasing disruptive behavior problems were at risk for depressive symptoms. However, only a very small number of youth had both a high depression trajectory and a high disruptive behavior trajectory. Implications of the findings for the design of prevention and treatment programs are discussed.
Our study aimed to establish the relationship between the number of depressive symptoms and the clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD). This would enable us to predict the clinical significance of the number of depressive symptoms in MDD patients. Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea, 853 patients with DSM-IV MDD were recruited. The baseline and clinical characteristics of groups with different numbers of depressive symptoms were compared using the χ2 test for discrete variables and covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous variables. In addition, the scores of these groups on the measurement tools were compared by ANCOVA after adjusting the potential effects of confounding variables. After adjusting the effects of monthly income and history of depression, a larger number of depressive symptoms indicated higher overall severity of depression (F [4, 756] = 21.458, P < 0.001) and higher levels of depressive symptoms (F [4, 767] = 19.145, P < 0.001), anxiety symptoms (F [4, 765] = 12.890, P < 0.001) and suicidal ideation (F [4, 653] = 6.970, P < 0.001). It also indicated lower levels of social function (F [4, 760] = 13.343, P < 0.001), and quality of life (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in alcohol consumption (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). The number of depressive symptoms can be used as an index of greater illness burden in clinical psychiatry. PMID:27051248
Park, Seon-Cheol; Sakong, Jeongkyu; Koo, Bon Hoon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon
Our study aimed to establish the relationship between the number of depressive symptoms and the clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD). This would enable us to predict the clinical significance of the number of depressive symptoms in MDD patients. Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea, 853 patients with DSM-IV MDD were recruited. The baseline and clinical characteristics of groups with different numbers of depressive symptoms were compared using the χ(2) test for discrete variables and covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous variables. In addition, the scores of these groups on the measurement tools were compared by ANCOVA after adjusting the potential effects of confounding variables. After adjusting the effects of monthly income and history of depression, a larger number of depressive symptoms indicated higher overall severity of depression (F [4, 756] = 21.458, P < 0.001) and higher levels of depressive symptoms (F [4, 767] = 19.145, P < 0.001), anxiety symptoms (F [4, 765] = 12.890, P < 0.001) and suicidal ideation (F [4, 653] = 6.970, P < 0.001). It also indicated lower levels of social function (F [4, 760] = 13.343, P < 0.001), and quality of life (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in alcohol consumption (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). The number of depressive symptoms can be used as an index of greater illness burden in clinical psychiatry.
Heckman, Timothy G; Heckman, Bernadette D; Anderson, Timothy; Lovejoy, Travis I; Markowitz, John C; Shen, Ye; Sutton, Mark
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive rural individuals carry a 1.3-times greater risk of a depressive diagnosis than their urban counterparts. This randomized clinical trial tested whether telephone-administered interpersonal psychotherapy (tele-IPT) acutely relieved depressive symptoms in 132 HIV-infected rural persons from 28 states diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), partially remitted MDD, or dysthymic disorder. Patients were randomized to either 9 sessions of one-on-one tele-IPT (n = 70) or standard care (SC; n = 62). A series of intent-to-treat (ITT), therapy completer, and sensitivity analyses assessed changes in depressive symptoms, interpersonal problems, and social support from pre- to postintervention. Across all analyses, tele-IPT patients reported significantly lower depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems than SC controls; 22% of tele-IPT patients were categorized as a priori "responders" who reported 50% or higher reductions in depressive symptoms compared to only 4% of SC controls in ITT analyses. Brief tele-IPT acutely decreased depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems in depressed rural people living with HIV.
Schäfer, Johanna Özlem; Naumann, Eva; Holmes, Emily Alexandra; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Samson, Andrea Christiane
The role of emotion regulation in subclinical symptoms of mental disorders in adolescence is not yet well understood. This meta-analytic review examines the relationship between the habitual use of prominent adaptive emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, problem solving, and acceptance) and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (avoidance, suppression, and rumination) with depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescence. Analyzing 68 effect sizes from 35 studies, we calculated overall outcomes across depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as psychopathology-specific outcomes. Age was examined as a continuous moderator via meta-regression models. The results from random effects analyses revealed that the habitual use of all emotion regulation strategies was significantly related to depressive and anxiety symptoms overall, with the adaptive emotion regulation strategies showing negative associations (i.e., less symptoms) with depressive and anxiety symptoms whereas the maladaptive emotion regulation strategies showed positive associations (i.e., more symptoms). A less frequent use of adaptive and a more frequent use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms comparably in the respective directions. Regarding the psychopathology-specific outcomes, depressive and anxiety symptoms displayed similar patterns across emotion regulation strategies showing the strongest negative associations with acceptance, and strongest positive associations with avoidance and rumination. The findings underscore the relevance of adaptive and also maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in depressive and anxiety symptoms in youth, and highlight the need to further investigate the patterns of emotion regulation as a potential transdiagnostic factor.
Wosu, Adaeze C.; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.
Purpose The objective of this review is to summarize the literature (and to the extent possible, report the magnitude and direction of the association) concerning history of CSA and depression or depressive symptoms among pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Publications were identified through literature searches of seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PyscINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, BIOSIS, and Science Direct) using keywords including “child abuse,” “depression,” “pregnancy,” “prenatal,” “pregnancy,” and “postpartum”. Results The literature search yielded seven eligible studies on the prenatal period and another seven studies on the postpartum period. All, but one prenatal study observed statistically significant positive associations of CSA with depression or depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Findings on the association of CSA with postpartum depression or depressive symptoms were inconsistent; pooled unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were 1.82 (95% CI 0.92, 3.60) and 1.20 (95% CI 0.81, 1.76). Conclusions In sum, findings suggest a positive association of history of CSA with depression and depressive symptoms in the prenatal period. Findings on the postpartum period were inconsistent. Clinical and public health implications of evidence from the available literature are discussed, as are desirable study design characteristics of future research. PMID:25956589
Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Morris, Matthew C.; Garber, Judy
The current longitudinal study examined which individual symptoms of depression uniquely predicted a subsequent Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in adolescents, and whether these relations differed by sex. Adolescents (N=240) were first interviewed in grade 6 (M=11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female; 81.5% Caucasian) and then annually through grade 12 regarding their individual symptoms of depression as well as the occurrence of MDEs. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and depressive episodes were assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results showed that within-person changes in sleep problems and low self-esteem/excessive guilt positively predicted an increased likelihood of an MDE for both boys and girls. Significant sex differences also were found. Within-person changes in anhedonia predicted an increased likelihood of a subsequent MDE among boys, whereas irritability predicted a decreased likelihood of a future MDE among boys, and concentration difficulties predicted a decreased likelihood of an MDE in girls. These results identified individual depressive symptoms that predicted subsequent depressive episodes in male and female adolescents, and may be used to guide the early detection, treatment, and prevention of depressive disorders in youth. PMID:26105209
Liu, Yansong; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Jun; Na, Aiguo; Sun, Yujun; Zhao, Xudong
Previous studies have shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a characteristic of depression. However, there are no studies to explore the association between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression (FE). This study investigated whether baseline OGM predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. We recruited 125 patients with FE. The participants were divided into remitted group and non-remitted group according to the severity of their depression at 12 months follow-up. The measures consisted of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted. The results showed that non-remitted patients had more OGM at baseline. Baseline OGM predicted depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. Rumination mediated the relationship between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our findings highlight OGM as a vulnerability factor involved in the maintenance of depression in patients with FE.
Wosu, Adaeze C; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A
The objective of this review is to summarize the literature (and to the extent possible, report the magnitude and direction of the association) concerning history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and depression or depressive symptoms among pregnant and postpartum women. Publications were identified through literature searches of seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PyscINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, BIOSIS, and Science Direct) using keywords including "child abuse," "depression," "pregnancy," "prenatal," "pregnancy," and "postpartum." The literature search yielded seven eligible studies on the prenatal period and another seven studies on the postpartum period. All but one prenatal study observed statistically significant positive associations of CSA with depression or depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Findings on the association of CSA with postpartum depression or depressive symptoms were inconsistent; pooled unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were 1.82 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.92, 3.60) and 1.20 (95 % CI 0.81, 1.76). In sum, findings suggest a positive association of history of CSA with depression and depressive symptoms in the prenatal period. Findings on the postpartum period were inconsistent. Clinical and public health implications of evidence from the available literature are discussed, as are desirable study design characteristics of future research.
Pan, Wen-Harn; Chang, Yi-Ping; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Guei, Yu-Shu; Lin, Bi-Fong; Wei, Ien-Lan; Yang, Feili Lo; Liaw, Yung-Po; Chen, Kuan-Ju; Chen, Wei J
Although nutrient deficiencies are thought to play roles in the development of depression, observational studies have yielded inconsistent results. This study aimed to investigate whether multiple marginal nutrient deficiencies are associated with symptoms of depression in community-dwelling older Taiwanese. Data from 1371 elderly adults recruited from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan was used in this study. Depressive symptom scores on depressed mood and emotions affecting daily life were derived from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). Hemoglobin, serum ferritin, plasma vitamins B(6), B(12), and folate concentration, and erythrocyte transketolase and glutathione reductase activation coefficients were measured. After adjusting for age, gender, cognitive function, physical activity, disease history, and medication in the multivariate analysis, anemia, and marginal B(6) deficiency were significantly associated with the presence of depression symptoms, respectively. In addition, co-occurrence of vitamin B(6) with low folate level and co-occurrence of anemia either with low vitamin B(6) or with folate level were all associated with the depressive mood and with depressive emotions defined by SF-36 (odds ratios [OR] in the range of 2.32-7.13, all P values ≤.05). The magnitude of the ORs is larger when the number of deficiencies increased. Elderly people with coexisting marginal deficiencies of nutrients involved in the S-adenosylmethionine and hemoglobin production were more likely to experience depressed mood and emotion that affect daily activity. Examining status of these nutrients is worthy of consideration for older adults with depressed symptoms.
Hilliard, Marisa E.; Eakin, Michelle N.; Borrelli, Belinda; Green, Angela; Riekert, Kristin A.
Objective Depression is a known barrier to regimen adherence for chronic conditions. Despite elevated depression rates and complex regimens for people with cystic fibrosis (CF), little is known about associations between depressive symptoms and CF adherence. One possibility is that depressive symptoms distort beliefs about medications, which may influence adherence. Method Adolescents and adults (N = 128; mean age = 29 ± 11 years, range = 16–63, 93% Caucasian) with CF reported on depressive symptoms and medication beliefs (self-efficacy, motivation, perceived importance, and outcome expectancies related to taking medications). Medication adherence was assessed objectively through pharmacy refill data. Cross-sectional structural equation models evaluated medication beliefs as a mediator between depressive symptoms and medication adherence. Results Twenty-three percent of participants exceeded clinical cutoffs for depressive symptoms. Participants took less than half of prescribed pulmonary medications (mean adherence rate = 44.4 ± 26.7%). Depressive symptoms were correlated with adherence (r = −.22, p < .05), and medication beliefs (b = −0.13, 95% CI [−0.24, −0.03]) significantly mediated this relation. Higher depressive symptoms were associated with less positive medication beliefs (b = −0.27, p < .01), which were associated with lower medication adherence (b = 0.49, p < .01). Conclusions Depressive symptoms are related to beliefs about and adherence to CF medications. Monitoring depressive symptoms and medication beliefs in routine CF care may help identify risks for nonadherence and facilitate interventions to reduce depression, adaptive medication beliefs, and ultimately improve adherence and CF management. PMID:25110847
Wang, Xu; Shen, Biyu; Wang, Xueqin
Aim. To assess the depressive symptoms status of chronic kidney diseases in Nantong, China, with type 2 diabetes and to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms. Methods. In this cross-sectional analytic study, 210 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD-D). The quality of life was measured with the RAND 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36). And the independent risk factors of depressive symptoms were assessed by using a stepwise forward model of logistic regression analysis. Results. The mean age of the study subjects was 57.66 years (SD: 11.68). Approximately 21.4% of subjects reported depressive symptoms (n = 45). Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (P = 0.010), hypertension (P = 0.022), Stage IV (P = 0.003), and Stage V (P < 0.001) were significant risk factors for depressive symptoms. The quality of life of individuals with HAD-D score <11 was significantly better compared with individuals with HAD-D score ≥ 11. Conclusions. These results indicate that clinicians should be aware that female patients with chronic kidney diseases with T2DM in their late stage with hypertension are at a marked increased risk of depressive symptoms. Providing optimal care for the psychological health of this population is vital. PMID:28261621
Aupperle, Robin L.; Morris, Amanda S.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Criss, Michael M.; Judah, Matt R.; Eagleton, Sally G.; Kirlic, Namik; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Phillips, Raquel; Alvarez, Ruben P.
Background The parent-child relationship may be an important factor in the development of adolescent depressive and anxious symptoms. In adults, depressive symptoms relate to increased amygdala and attenuated prefrontal activation to maternal criticism. The current pilot study examined how depressive and anxiety symptoms in a high-risk adolescent population relate to neural responses to maternal feedback. Given previous research relating oxytocin to maternal behavior, we conducted exploratory analyses using oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genotype. Methods Eighteen females (ages 12–16) listened to maternal praise, neutral, and critical statements during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants completed the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. The OXTR single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, was genotyped. Linear mixed models were used to identify symptom or allele (GG, AA/AG) by condition (critical, neutral, praise) interaction effects on brain activation. Results Greater symptoms related to greater right amygdala activation for criticism and reduced activation to praise. For left amygdala, greater symptoms related to reduced activation to both conditions. Anxiety symptoms related to differences in superior medial PFC activation patterns. Parental OXTR AA/AG allele related to reduced activation to criticism and greater activation to praise within the right amygdala. Conclusions Results support a relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and prefrontal-amygdala responses to maternal feedback. The lateralization of amygdala findings suggests separate neural targets for interventions reducing reactivity to negative feedback or increasing salience of positive feedback. Exploratory analyses suggest that parents' OXTR genetic profile influences parent-child interactions and related adolescent brain responses. PMID:27158587
Assogna, Francesca; Fagioli, Sabrina; Cravello, Luca; Meco, Giuseppe; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Stefani, Alessandro; Imperiale, Francesca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Pontieri, Francesco E; Spalletta, Gianfranco
Background Patients with neurological and non-neurological medical illnesses very often complain of depressive symptoms that are associated with cognitive and functional impairments. We compared the profile of depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with that of control subjects (CS) suffering from non-neurological medical illnesses. Methods One-hundred PD patients and 100 CS were submitted to a structured clinical interview for identification of major depressive disorder (MDD) and minor depressive disorder (MIND), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR), criteria. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were also administered to measure depression severity. Results When considering the whole groups, there were no differences in depressive symptom frequency between PD and CS apart from worthlessness/guilt, and changes in appetite reduced rates in PD. Further, total scores and psychic and somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI did not differ between PD and CS. After we separated PD and CS in those with MDD, MIND, and no depression (NODEP), comparing total scores and psychic/somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI, we found increased total depression severity in NODEP PD and reduced severity of the psychic symptoms of depression in MDD PD, with no differences in MIND. However, the severity of individual symptom frequency of depression was not different between PD and CS in MDD, MIND, and NODEP groups. Conclusion Although MDD and MIND phenomenology in PD may be very similar to that of CS with non-neurological medical illnesses, neurological symptoms of PD may worsen (or confound) depression severity in patients with no formal/structured DSM-IV-TR, diagnosis of depressive mood disorders. Thus, a thorough assessment of depression in PD should take into consideration the different impacts of neurological manifestations on MDD, MIND, and NODEP. PMID
Fandrem, Hildegunn; Sam, David L.; Roland, Erling
The study investigates depressive symptoms among 3,431 adolescents aged 13-15 years. The sample comprises both native Norwegian and immigrant adolescents living in Norway. The main finding of the study is that the level of depressive symptoms is significantly higher among the immigrant adolescents than their Norwegian counterparts. When analysed…
Vaughan, Christine A.; Halpern, Carolyn T.
A theoretical model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence was evaluated using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The theoretical model under examination was primarily informed by the gender-additive model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence…
Kim, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante
This study used latent growth modeling to investigate longitudinal relationships between self-system processes and depressive symptoms among maltreated (n=142) and nonmaltreated children (n=109) aged 6--11 years. On average, self-esteem and self-agency increased and depressive symptoms decreased over time. Multivariate growth modeling indicated…
Lansford, Jennifer E.; Capanna, Cristina; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Pastorelli, Concetta
This study examined the role of low social preference in relation to subsequent depressive symptoms, with particular attention to prior depressive symptoms, prior and concurrent aggression, mutual friendships, and peer victimization. Italian children (N = 288) were followed from grade 6 through grade 8, and American children (N = 585) were…
Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill
The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…
Dix, Theodore; Meunier, Leah N.
Mechanisms that lead depressive symptoms to undermine parenting are poorly understood. This review examines cognitive, affective, and motivational processes thought to be responsible for the impact of depressive symptoms on parenting. We present a five-step, action-control model and review 152 studies relevant to 13 regulatory processes. Evidence…
Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.
Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…
Olson, Jonathan R.; Goddard, H. Wallace
The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of depressive symptoms among adolescents using concepts drawn from two theoretical models that underlie popular youth-focused programs. Specifically, we assessed the degree to which family-level risk factors increase the likelihood of depressive symptoms, and the degree to which community and/or…
Machmutow, Katja; Perren, Sonja; Sticca, Fabio; Alsaker, Francoise D.
This longitudinal study investigated whether cybervictimisation is an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms over and beyond traditional victimisation in adolescents. Furthermore, it explored whether certain coping strategies moderate the impact of cybervictimisation on depressive symptoms. A total of 765 Swiss seventh graders (mean age at…
Bilican, F. Isil; Yapici, Asim; Kutlu, M. Oguz
This study aimed to examine which values predicted depressive symptoms and hopelessness in Turkey. While it was hypothesized that values emphasizing universalism, benevolence, conformity, security, tradition, spirituality, self-direction, and achievement would predict lower levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness, those values emphasizing…
Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.
School connectedness and classroom environment have both been strongly linked to depressive symptoms, but their interrelation is unclear. We tested whether school connectedness mediated the link between classroom environment and depressive symptoms. A sample of 504 Australian seventh-and eighth-grade students completed the Classroom Environment…
Tran, Cong V.; Cole, David A.; Weiss, Bahr
A 2-wave longitudinal study of young adolescents was used to test whether peer victimization predicts depressive symptoms, depressive symptoms predict peer victimization, or the 2 constructs show reciprocal relations. Participants were 598 youths in Grades 3 through 6, ages 8 to 14 (M = 10.9, SD = 1.2) at Wave 1. The sample was 50.7% female and…
Meltzer, Lisa J.
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have higher rates of depressive symptoms than parents of typically developing (TD) children or parents of children with other developmental disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent sleep as factors associated with depressive symptoms in parents of children with…
Andover, Margaret S.; Pepper, Carolyn M.; Ryabchenko, Karen A.; Orrico, Elizabeth G.; Gibb, Brandon E.
The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between self-mutilation and symptoms of depression and anxiety in a nonclinical population. Self-mutilators reported significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety than did the control group. When the group of self-mutilators was divided into individuals who cut themselves and…
Laurence, Brian; Williams, Carla; Eiland, Derrick
Objective: The authors measured the prevalence of depressive symptoms among dental students at a historically black college in the United States to determine how depressive symptoms, stress, and social support influence each other within this student population. Participants: Dental students (n = 143) completed a self-administered survey to assess…
Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mermelstein, Robin J.
The current study examined whether negative interactions with parents and peers would mediate the longitudinal association between perceived social competence and depressive symptoms and whether a negative cognitive style would moderate the longitudinal association between negative interactions with parents and increases in depressive symptoms.…
Dekker, Marielle C.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; van Lang, Natasja D. J.; Bongers, Ilja L.; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.
Background: Limited information is available on gender differences and young-adult poor outcome in children and adolescents following distinct developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms. Methods: Parent information on depressive symptoms of 4- to 18-year-olds from an ongoing Dutch community-based longitudinal multiple-cohort study (N =…
Brunwasser, Steven M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Kim, Eric S.
The purpose of this review was to evaluate whether the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), a group cognitive-behavioral intervention, is effective in targeting depressive symptoms in youths. We identified 17 controlled evaluations of PRP (N = 2,498) in which depressive symptoms had been measured via an online search of PsycInfo, Medline, ERIC, and…
Jacobsen, Juliet C.; Zhang, Baohui; Block, Susan D.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Prigerson, Holly G.
Several studies have shown that the symptoms of grief are different from symptoms of depression among bereaved family members. This study is an attempt to replicate this finding among advanced cancer patients and examine clinical correlates of patient grief and depression. Analyses were conducted on data from interviews with 123 advanced cancer…
Murray, Aja L.; McKenzie, Karen; Murray, Kara R.; Richelieu, Marc
Depressive symptoms, a lack of close supportive relationships and suicidal ideation are important risk factors for suicidal acts. Previous studies have primarily focused on the additive effects of close relationships and depressive symptoms on suicide risk. Here we explored whether, in addition, close relationships moderated the impact of…
Leung, Debbie W.; Slep, Amy M. Smith
Relations among 'parents' psychological difficulties (i.e., depressive symptoms, overt anger), dysfunctional attributions for child misbehavior, and inept discipline were investigated in a representative community sample of 451 mothers and 449 fathers. Depressive symptoms and anger were hypothesized to relate to discipline via their link with…
Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.; Vitaro, Frank
This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11-14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived…
Stone, Andrea L.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth
This study investigates whether co-occurring depressive and conduct symptoms in early adolescence are associated with an elevated occurrence of early onset substance. Five hundred twenty-one sixth graders were assessed for depressive symptoms and conduct problems and underwent five substance use assessments during middle school. Logistic…
Diaz, Naelys; Horton, E. Gail; Green, Diane; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Mullaney, Donald
This study aims to examine the relationship between spirituality and believing in God's presence and depressive symptoms among 160 inpatient individuals who abuse substances. Findings indicated that both spirituality and believing in God's presence were significant predictors of depressive symptoms, whereby spirituality was inversely related to…
Teti, Douglas M.; Crosby, Brian
Mechanisms were examined to clarify relations between maternal depressive symptoms, dysfunctional cognitions, and infant night waking among 45 infants (1-24 months) and their mothers. A mother-driven mediational model was tested in which maternal depressive symptoms and dysfunctional cognitions about infant sleep predicted infant night waking via…
Sugimura, Niwako; Rudolph, Karen D; Agoston, Anna M
The way in which children cope with peer aggression may determine their subsequent adjustment, but different forms of coping may be more or less effective for particular children. This research examined whether the contribution of children's coping to subsequent depressive symptoms was contingent on children's temperament (i.e., level of negative emotionality; NE) and gender. Children (N = 235, 102 boys, 133 girls, M = 7.94 years, SD = 0.33) reported on exposure to peer victimization. Parents rated children's NE and depressive symptoms, and teachers rated children's coping. For girls with high NE, problem solving protected against depressive symptoms whereas seeking retaliation heightened risk for depressive symptoms. Advice seeking protected children with low NE against depressive symptoms whereas ignoring protected children with high NE against depressive symptoms. Humor predicted fewer depressive symptoms in boys with high NE but more depressive symptoms in boys with low NE. This research helps to elucidate individual differences in the effects of coping on adjustment, and has implications for interventions aimed at reducing risk resulting from exposure to peer aggression.
McLean, Leigh; Connor, Carol McDonald
This study investigated associations among third-grade teachers' (N = 27) symptoms of depression, quality of the classroom-learning environment (CLE), and students' (N = 523, M[subscript age] = 8.6 years) math and literacy performance. teachers' depressive symptoms in the winter negatively predicted students' spring mathematics achievement. This…
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…
Garrison, Angela M.; Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Sauer, Eric M.; Florczak, Michael A.
Individuals with high levels of depression symptoms and individuals with insecure attachment orientations have been shown to limit their use of emotional disclosure as a means of emotion regulation. However, little is known about how depression symptoms and insecure attachment orientations might jointly predict whether individuals engage in…
Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Becker, Suzanna; Schmidt, Louis A.; Nicol, Jeffrey; Muir, Cameron; MacMillan, Harriet
The predictive relations of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and salivary cortisol on memory in 168 children aged 12 at Time 1 (T1) were examined using a longitudinal design in which data were collected on four occasions over a 2-year period. Results indicated that: (1) peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and evening cortisol were…
Webb, Marcia; Heisler, Dawn; Call, Steve; Chickering, Sarah A.; Colburn, Trina A.
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to provide preliminary data extending earlier research on shame and guilt, examining their relationships both to symptoms of depression and to psychological maltreatment. Symptoms of depression were expected to correlate positively with shame, but not with guilt. Psychological maltreatment was also…
Davis, Kelly A.; Epkins, Catherine C.
We extended past research that focused on the relation between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 160 11- to 12-year-olds, we examined whether private religious practices moderated the relations between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. Although preadolescents'…
Roben, Caroline K P; Moore, Ginger A; Cole, Pamela M; Molenaar, Peter; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M
Transactional models of analysis can examine both moment-to-moment interactions within a dyad and dyadic patterns of influence across time. This study used data from a prospective adoption study to test a transactional model of parental depressive symptoms and mutual negativity between mother and child over time, utilizing contingency analysis of second-by-second behavioral data. To consider both genetic and environmental influences on mutual negativity, depressive symptoms were examined in both adoptive and birth mothers. Adoptive mother depressive symptoms at 9 months increased the likelihood that, at 18 months, children reacted negatively to their mothers' negative behavior, which in turn predicted higher levels of adoptive mother depressive symptoms at 27 months, suggesting that over time, mothers' depressive symptoms influence and are influenced by moment-to-moment mutual negativity with their toddlers. Birth mother depressive symptoms moderated the association between mutual negativity at 18 months and adoptive mother depressive symptoms at 27 months, suggesting a child-driven contribution to maternal depressive symptoms that can be measured by a genetic sensitivity.
Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Duesenberg, David; Emslie, Graham J.; Quintana, Humberto; Sarkis, Elias H.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Gao, Haitao; Michelson, David; Biederman, Joseph
Objective: Symptoms of depression and anxiety are commonly comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors assessed the safety and effectiveness of atomoxetine monotherapy compared with combined atomoxetine/fluoxetine therapy in a population of children and adolescents with ADHD and concurrent symptoms of depression or…
Mudric, Mary Beth
Depressive symptoms among college students have major implications for higher education institutions across the country. First-year college students are particularly susceptible to the various impacts that the college experience may produce during the transitional first year of college. The effects of depressive symptoms among college students in…
Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt; Young, Marion
Relations between night waking in infants and depressive symptoms in their mothers at 6 months postpartum were examined using the data from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Although more depressive symptoms were only weakly correlated with a higher frequency of infant waking, longer wake…
Watson, David; O'Hara, Michael W.; Simms, Leonard J.; Kotov, Roman; Chmielewski, Michael; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth A.; Gamez, Wakiza; Stuart, Scott
The authors describe a new self-report instrument, the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS), which was designed to assess specific symptom dimensions of major depression and related anxiety disorders. They created the IDAS by conducting principal factor analyses in 3 large samples (college students, psychiatric patients, community…
Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena
The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which middle and late adolescents' depressive symptoms predict their later school burnout and, in turn, the extent to which school burnout predicts depressive symptoms. Drawing on data gathered at ages 15-19 in two-three-wave longitudinal studies, we investigated cross-lagged paths…
Ross, Anthony G.; Shochet, Ian M.; Bellair, Rachael
In the current study, we tested whether school connectedness mediates more distal deficits in social skills in influencing depressive symptoms in a sample of 127 sixth- and seventh-grade students. Results demonstrated that school connectedness and social skills accounted for 44% and 26% of variance in depressive symptoms respectively and 49% in a…
Kochel, Karen P.; Ladd, Gary W.; Rudolph, Karen D.
A longitudinal investigation was conducted to explicate the network of associations between depressive symptoms and peer difficulties among 486 fourth through sixth graders (M = 9.93 years). Parent and teacher reports of depressive symptoms; peer, self, and teacher reports of victimization; and peer reports of peer acceptance were obtained. A…
Effrig, Jessica C.; Maloch, Janelle K.; McAleavey, Andrew; Locke, Benjamin D.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.
Changes in students' depressive symptoms during the course of treatment at college counseling centers were examined by sexual orientation. In Study 1, results showed that depressive symptoms decreased similarly across sexual orientation groups during the course of treatment. In Study 2, family support did not moderate the relationship between…
Moritz Rudasill, Kathleen; Pössel, Patrick; Winkeljohn Black, Stephanie; Niehaus, Kate
The combination of changes occurring at the transition to middle school may be a catalyst for the onset of depressive symptoms, yet teacher support at this transition is protective. Research points to certain temperamental traits as risk factors for developing depressive symptoms. This study examines student reports of teacher support and teacher…
Vasilenko, Sara A.
Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally…
Mehr, Kristin E.; Adams, Aimee C.
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among maladaptive perfectionism, self-compassion, and depressive symptoms in college students. It was hypothesized that self-compassion would mediate the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and depressive symptoms, with maladaptive perfectionism related to lower levels of…
Tracy, Melissa; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Galea, Sandro; McCauley, Elizabeth; Stoep, Ann Vander
The relation between low socioeconomic status (SES) and depression has been well documented in adult populations. A number of studies suggest that family SES may be associated with depression among children and adolescents as well, although the evidence is mixed. We assessed the relation between family income and depressive symptoms among 457 children aged 11-13 years and examined pathways that may explain this relation. In-person interviews of children and their caregivers were conducted, including assessment of family income and administration of the Computer-based Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (C-DISC). Family income was significantly associated with depressive symptoms, with children in the lowest income group (<$35,000) reporting a mean of 8.12 symptoms compared to 6.27 symptoms in the middle income group ($35,000-$74,999) and 5.13 symptoms in the highest income group (> or = $75,000; p<0.001). Controlling for the number of stressful life events experienced in the past 6 months attenuated the effect of low family income on depressive symptoms by 28%. Indicators of the family environment explained 45% and neighborhood median household income and aggravated assault rate explained 12% of the relation. The family environment, including parental divorce or separation and perceived parental support, appears to explain most of the relation between low family income and childhood depressive symptoms. Further exploration of the pathways between family SES and depression may suggest potential interventions to reduce the occurrence and persistence of depressive symptoms in children.
Banks, Kira Hudson; Singleton, Jennifer L.; Kohn-Wood, Laura P.
This study investigated how hope influences the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms. Results from participants' (N = 318) responses suggest that increased levels of hope were directly related to decreased levels of depressive symptoms. However, increased levels of hope were also related to a stronger relationship between…
Dong, XinQi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Simon, Melissa
Purpose of the Study: Recent demographic growth of the U.S. Chinese aging population calls for comprehensive understanding of their unique health needs. The objective of this study is to examine the perceptions, social determinants of depressive symptoms as well as their impact on health and well-being in a community-dwelling U.S. Chinese aging population in Chicago. Design and Methods: A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chicago Chinatown population in a geographically defined community. Data were collected from questionnaires and semistructured focus group interviews with 78 community-dwelling Chinese older adults. Results: Our findings suggest that the depressive symptoms were common among older adults. It was frequently identified through feelings of helplessness, feelings of dissatisfaction with life, feelings of getting bored, loss of interests in activities, suicidal ideation, and feelings of worthlessness. Societal conflicts, family conflicts, financial constraints, personality, and worsening physical health may be associated with greater depressive symptoms. In addition, depressive symptoms may be detrimental to the overall health and well-being of Chinese older adults. Implications: This study has wide implications for health care professionals, social services agencies, and policy makers. Our results call for improved public health education and awareness programs to highlight the health impact of depressive symptoms on Chinese older adults. Future prospective studies are needed to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. Longitudinal research is needed to quantify the risk and protective factors of depressive symptoms. PMID:22156734
Silberg, Judy L.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective: We investigated the role of genetic and environmental factors in the developmental association among symptoms of eating disorders, depression, and anxiety syndromes in 8-13-year-old and 14-17-year-old twin girls. Methods: Multivariate genetic models were fitted to child-reported longitudinal symptom data gathered from clinical interview…
Beaudreau, Sherry A.; O’Hara, Ruth
We examined the association of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence on cognitive processes in 102 community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed anxiety and depression questionnaires, and measures of episodic and semantic memory, word fluency, processing speed/shifting attention, and inhibition. Participants with only increased anxiety had poorer processing speed/shifting attention, and inhibition, but depressive symptoms alone were not associated with any cognitive deficits. Although co-existing anxiety and depressive symptoms was associated with deficits in 3 cognitive domains, reductions in inhibition were solely attributed to anxiety. Findings suggest an excess cognitive load on inhibitory ability in normal older adults reporting mild anxiety. PMID:19485667
O'Hara, Kate; Forsyth, Katrina; Webb, Roger; Senior, Jane; Hayes, Adrian Jonathan; Challis, David; Fazel, Seena; Shaw, Jenny
Background: absolute numbers of older prisoners and their proportion of the total prison population are increasing. They have multiple health and social care needs that are prominent on entry into prison. No previous studies have identified older prisoners' health and social care needs at this crucial point. Objective: to examine unmet health and social care needs among older men entering prison and their links with depressive symptoms. Methods: a cross-sectional survey across nine prisons in the North of England was completed. One hundred male prisoners aged between 60 and 81 were interviewed, using the Camberwell Assessment of Need—Forensic short version (CANFOR-S) and Geriatric Depression Scale—Short Form (GDS-15). Descriptive statistics were generated and χ2 tests performed. Results: participants reported high levels of unmet needs as measured with the CANFOR-S, notably in the domains of knowledge about their condition and treatment (38%); psychological distress (34%); daytime activities (29%); benefits (28%); food (22%) and physical health (21%). The mean total number of unmet needs was 2.74, with a median of 2.0. More than half the sample (56%, 95% CI 45–66%) exhibited clinical signs of depression. A significant association between depressive symptomology and an unmet physical health need, as measured by the CANFOR-S, was detected (χ2 = 6.76, df = 1, P < 0.01). Conclusions: high levels of depressive symptoms were experienced by older prisoners on entry into prison. Personalised health and social care needs assessment and discrete depression screening are required on prison entry to facilitate effective management of unmet needs. PMID:26764402
Hoth, Karin F; Christensen, Alan J; Ehlers, Shawna L; Raichle, Katherine A; Lawton, William J
Research examining the role of social support in patient adjustment to chronic illness has been inconsistent suggesting that patient individual differences play a moderating role. This study examined the hypothesis that the relationship between social support and depressive symptoms would differ as a function of individual differences in trait Agreeableness. Fifty-nine patients with chronic kidney disease were assessed using the Social Provisions Scale, Beck Depression Inventory and NEO-Five-Factor Inventory and were followed-up a year and a half later. After controlling for baseline depressive symptoms and clinical characteristics, regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between social support and Agreeableness predicting change in depressive symptoms. Greater social support among individuals high in Agreeableness was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms over time, while support had little effect on depression change for individuals low in Agreeableness. These findings underscore the importance of individual difference variables in understanding adjustment to chronic illness.
Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Elovainio, Marko; Määttänen, Ilmari; Swan, Heikki; Hintsanen, Mirka; Toivonen, Lauri; Kontula, Kimmo; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa
We examined whether long QT syndrome status moderates the association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms. Participants were 562 (n= 246 symptomatic) long QT syndrome mutation carriers. Depressive symptoms were measured with a modified version of the Beck's Depression Inventory. There was an interaction between long QT syndrome status and stressful life events on depressive symptoms. In the symptomatic long QT syndrome patients, stressful life events were associated with depressive symptoms (B= 0.24, p< 0.001). In the asymptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers, this association was 62.5 percent weaker (B= 0.09, p= 0.057). Compared to asymptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers, symptomatic long QT syndrome patients are more sensitive to the depressive effects of stressful life events.
Jessee, Allison; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Shigeto, Aya; Wong, Maria S.
Parental depressive symptomatology has consistently been linked to child maladjustment, but these effects are not universal. This investigation examined the role of child temperament as a moderator of the effects of parental depression on behavior problems in five-year-old children. Parents reported on their own depressive symptoms, and both…
Karmen, Christian; Hsiung, Robert C; Wetter, Thomas
Depression is a disease that can dramatically lower quality of life. Symptoms of depression can range from temporary sadness to suicide. Embarrassment, shyness, and the stigma of depression are some of the factors preventing people from getting help for their problems. Contemporary social media technologies like Internet forums or micro-blogs give people the opportunity to talk about their feelings in a confidential anonymous environment. However, many participants in such networks may not recognize the severity of their depression and their need for professional help. Our approach is to develop a method that detects symptoms of depression in free text, such as posts in Internet forums, chat rooms and the like. This could help people appreciate the significance of their depression and realize they need to seek help. In this work Natural Language Processing methods are used to break the textual information into its grammatical units. Further analysis involves detection of depression symptoms and their frequency with the help of words known as indicators of depression and their synonyms. Finally, similar to common paper-based depression scales, e.g., the CES-D, that information is incorporated into a single depression score. In this evaluation study, our depressive mood detection system, DepreSD (Depression Symptom Detection), had an average precision of 0.84 (range 0.72-1.0 depending on the specific measure) and an average F measure of 0.79 (range 0.72-0.9).
Jacobson, Colleen M.; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.
Depression and suicidal thoughts and behaviors are prevalent among youth today. The current study sought to further our understanding of the correlates of depression and suicidality by assessing the relationship between restrictive emotionality (difficulty understanding and expressing emotions) and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and…
Foster, Cynthia J. Ewell; Garber, Judy; Durlak, Joseph A.
Relations among past maternal depressive disorder, current depressive symptoms, current maternal interaction behaviors, and children's adjustment were examined in a sample of 204 women and their young adolescent offspring (mean age = 11.86, SD = 0.55). Mothers either had (n = 157) or had not (n = 57) experienced at least one depressive disorder…
Alloy, Lauren B.; Black, Shimrit K.; Young, Mathew E.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Boccia, Angelo S.; Matt, Lindsey M.; Boland, Elaine M.; Moore, Lauren C.; Abramson, Lyn Y.
We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in hopelessness theory, Beck's theory, and response styles theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and…
Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R.; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John
Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range…
Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.
Statistically, women, particularly pregnant women and new mothers, are at heightened risk for depression. The present review describes the current state of the research linking maternal depressed mood and children's cognitive and language development. Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, whether during the prenatal period, postpartum period,…
Larsen, Junilla K.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Geenen, Rinie; van Middendorp, Henriet; English, Tammy; Gross, James J.; Ha, Thao; Evers, Catharine; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between expressive suppression and depressive symptoms. These results have been interpreted as reflecting the impact of emotion regulation efforts on depression. However, it is also possible that depression may alter emotion regulation tendencies. The goal of the present study was to…
Nicklas, Jacinda M; Miller, Laura J; Zera, Chloe A; Davis, Roger B; Levkoff, Sue E; Seely, Ellen W
Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a substantial risk of subsequently developing type 2 diabetes. This risk may be mitigated by engaging in healthy eating, physical activity, and weight loss when indicated. Since postpartum depressive symptoms may impair a woman's ability to engage in lifestyle changes, we sought to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms in the early postpartum period among women with recent GDM. The participants are part of the baseline cohort of the TEAM GDM (Taking Early Action for Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus) study, a one-year randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention program for women with a recent history of GDM, conducted in Boston, Massachusetts between June 2010 and September 2012. We administered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 4-15 weeks postpartum to women whose most recent pregnancy was complicated by GDM (confirmed by laboratory data or medical record review). An EPDS score ≥9 indicated depressive symptoms. We measured height and thyroid stimulating hormone, and administered a questionnaire