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Sample records for activity dietary intake

  1. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  2. Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Nondiabetic Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draheim, Christopher C.; Williams, Daniel P.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    A study identified 145 adults with mild mental retardation and hyperinsulinemia, borderline high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, and abdominal obesity. Those who participated in more frequent bouts of physical activity or who consumed lower dietary fat intakes were one-third as likely to have hyperinsulinemia…

  3. Self-Control Constructs Related to Measures of Dietary Intake and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Mendoza, Don; Ainette, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To test self-regulation concepts in relation to dietary intake and physical activity patterns in adolescence, which we predicted to be influenced by components of a self-control model. Methods A survey was conducted with a multiethnic sample of 9th grade public school students in a metropolitan area (N = 539). Confirmatory analysis tested the measurement structure of self-control. Structural equation modeling tested the association of self-control constructs with measures of fruit and vegetable intake, saturated-fat intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Results Confirmatory analysis of 14 indicators of self-control showed best fit for a two-factor structure, with latent constructs of good self-control (planfulness) and poor self-control (impulsiveness). Good self-control was related to more fruit and vegetable intake, more participation in sports, and less sedentary behavior. Poor self-control was related to more saturated-fat intake and less vigorous exercise. These effects were independent of gender, ethnicity, and parental education, which themselves had relations to diet and exercise measures. Multiple-group modeling indicated that effects of self-control were comparable across gender and ethnicity subgroups. Conclusions Self-control concepts are relevant for patterns of dietary intake and physical activity among adolescents. Attention to self-control processes may be warranted for prevention programs to improve health behaviors in childhood and adolescence. PMID:18023783

  4. Dietary Reference Intakes for the macronutrients and energy: considerations for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Zello, Gordon A

    2006-02-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are the North American reference standards for nutrients in the diets of healthy individuals. The macronutrient DRI report includes the standards for energy, fat and fatty acids, carbohydrate and fiber, and protein and amino acids. Equations used to identify the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) were also developed based on individual characteristics including levels of physical activity. The DRIs for the macronutrients are presented as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) or Adequate Intakes (AIs), as well as Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs), and were arrived at by considering both nutrient inadequacies and excesses. In addition, recommendations are made that would reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as setting intake limits for added sugar; reducing cholesterol, saturated, and trans fatty acids consumption; and increasing levels of physical activity. As healthy individuals include those engaged in various levels of physical activity, the DRIs should apply to the athlete and address their macronutrient and energy needs. This paper summarizes the macronutrient DRI report as applied to the adult, with discussion of the dietary needs of those engaged in various levels of physical activity, including the athlete.

  5. Chapter 11: Dietary reference intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are a set of recommendations intended to provide guidance in evaluating nutrient intakes and planning meals on the basis of nutrient adequacy. In contrast to their predecessor, Recommended Dietary Allowances last published in 1989, the DRIs differ in two ways: th...

  6. The associations between family history of coronary heart disease, physical activity, dietary intake and body size.

    PubMed

    Slattery, M L; Schumacher, M C; Hunt, S C; Williams, R R

    1993-02-01

    Physical activity has been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) as well as several CHD risk factors. In this study, we examine the association of a positive family history of CHD and physical activity on dietary intake and body size indicators among 891 healthy young adults (18 to 39 years of age) and 471 older adults (40 to 83) observed between 1980 and 1986. Participants reported the number of times per week they walked and/or jogged one mile, biked three miles, participated in sports, or performed other intense activities. Older men with a family history of CHD reported more physical activity than men without a family history of CHD (60% compared to 28.6%; p = 0.002). Younger women without a family history of CHD reported more physical activity than women with a family history of CHD (30.2% compared to 15.9%; p = 0.004). Fruit and vegetable intake increased with increasing levels of physical activity in younger adults. The only dietary association with family history was higher levels of fatty foods reported among older women with a family history versus those without a family history (p = 0.03). Young women with a family history of CHD were more likely to have higher BMI levels at all levels of physical activity and a higher percent of their ideal body weight per unit of physical activity (p = 0.01). For instance, young women who were most active with a family history of CHD were at 115% of their ideal body weight, while those without a family history were at 110.2% of their ideal body weight. There were no significant interactions between physical activity and CHD family history in this population. These findings suggest that family history of CHD alone may not be adequate to stimulate one to adopt a more healthy lifestyle.

  7. Geography Influences Dietary Intake, Physical Activity and Weight Status of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Shauna M.; Fraser, Shawn N.; Storey, Kate E.; Forbes, Laura E.; Spence, John C.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Raine, Kim D.; Hanning, Rhona M.; McCargar, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in the dietary intakes, physical activity levels and weight status of a large sample of Canadian youth in both 2005 and 2008. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study of rural and urban adolescents (n = 10, 023) in Alberta was conducted in both 2005 and 2008 using a web-based survey. Results. There was an overall positive change in nutrient intakes between 2005 and 2008; however, rural residents generally had a poorer nutrient profile than urban residents (P < .001). They consumed less fibre and a greater percent energy from saturated fat. The mean physical activity scores increased among rural youth between 2005 and 2008 (P < .001), while remaining unchanged among urban youth. Residence was significantly related to weight status in 2005 (P = .017), but not in 2008. Conclusion. Although there were small improvements in nutrient intakes from 2005 to 2008, several differences in the lifestyle behaviours of adolescents living in rural and urban areas were found. The results of this study emphasize the importance of making policy and program recommendations to support healthy lifestyle behaviours within the context of the environments in which adolescents live. PMID:22685637

  8. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  9. Depressive symptoms are associated with dietary intake but not physical activity among overweight and obese women from disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Sharpe, Patricia A; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that depressive symptoms are associated with poorer dietary intake and inadequate physical activity; however, this association has not been examined in lower-income overweight and obese African American women. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and diet and physical activity in 196 women (87% African American; age, 25-51 years). Higher depressive symptoms were hypothesized to predict poorer diet quality, greater emotional eating, lower physical activity levels, and greater sedentary time. Depressive symptoms were measured using the validated short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Dietary intake and quality were assessed using three 24-hour dietary recalls. Emotional eating was evaluated using 4 items from the emotional eating subscale of the Eating Behavior Patterns Questionnaire. Physical activity and sedentary time were objectively measured using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Linear regression models tested the associations between depressive symptoms and each dietary and physical activity outcome variable. Symptoms of depression were positively associated with total daily caloric intake from saturated fat and total sugars, as well as emotional eating scores (P < .05). Although not statistically significant, depressive symptoms were positively associated with sweetened beverage consumption (P = .06) and added sugars (P = .07). Depressive symptoms were not associated with total fat, sodium, fruit and vegetables, fast food consumption, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, or sedentary time. Future studies should explore the mechanisms linking the identified associations between depressive symptoms and dietary intake, such as the role of emotional eating.

  10. Depressive symptoms are associated with dietary intake but not physical activity among overweight and obese women from disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Sharpe, Patricia A; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that depressive symptoms are associated with poorer dietary intake and inadequate physical activity; however, this association has not been examined in lower-income overweight and obese African American women. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and diet and physical activity in 196 women (87% African American; age, 25-51 years). Higher depressive symptoms were hypothesized to predict poorer diet quality, greater emotional eating, lower physical activity levels, and greater sedentary time. Depressive symptoms were measured using the validated short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Dietary intake and quality were assessed using three 24-hour dietary recalls. Emotional eating was evaluated using 4 items from the emotional eating subscale of the Eating Behavior Patterns Questionnaire. Physical activity and sedentary time were objectively measured using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Linear regression models tested the associations between depressive symptoms and each dietary and physical activity outcome variable. Symptoms of depression were positively associated with total daily caloric intake from saturated fat and total sugars, as well as emotional eating scores (P < .05). Although not statistically significant, depressive symptoms were positively associated with sweetened beverage consumption (P = .06) and added sugars (P = .07). Depressive symptoms were not associated with total fat, sodium, fruit and vegetables, fast food consumption, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, or sedentary time. Future studies should explore the mechanisms linking the identified associations between depressive symptoms and dietary intake, such as the role of emotional eating. PMID:24774065

  11. Activation of hypothalamic serotonin receptors reduced intake of dietary fat and protein but not carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Smith, B K; York, D A; Bray, G A

    1999-09-01

    Systemic treatment with dexfenfluramine (dF), fluoxetine, or serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) recently was shown to suppress fat and occasionally protein but not carbohydrate intake in rats when a macronutrient selection paradigm was employed. These reports contrast with the prevailing literature, which for the past decade has described a role for serotonin neurotransmission in the modification of dietary carbohydrate consumption. To test the hypothesis that the suppression of fat selection and/or consumption by systemic serotonin agonists involves stimulation of central 5-HT receptors, a series of experiments was performed in nondeprived rats. In experiment 1, third cerebroventricular (3V) infusion of the nonselective 5-HT antagonist metergoline prevented the reduction in fat but not carbohydrate feeding caused by systemic dF. Furthermore, 3V metergoline alone increased fat intake. In experiments 2 and 3, 3V infusion of 5-HT(1B/2C) receptor agonists D-norfenfluramine (DNF) or quipazine inhibited fat intake exclusively. Next, the infusion of DNF or 5-HT into the region of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) reduced both fat and protein intake (experiments 4 and 5). Finally, in experiment 6, when rats were grouped by baseline diet preference, 5-HT infused into the PVN led to a dose-related decrease in fat intake in both carbohydrate- and fat-preferring rats. In contrast, there were no dose effects of 5-HT on carbohydrate or protein intake in either preference group. However, in fat-preferring rats, the highest dose of 5-HT reduced intake of all three macronutrient diets. These results demonstrate a selective effect of exogenous serotonergic drugs in the hypothalamus to reduce fat rather than carbohydrate intake and suggest that higher baseline fat intake enhances responsivity to serotonergic drugs.

  12. Relation of dietary restraint scores to activation of reward-related brain regions in response to food intake, anticipated intake, and food pictures.

    PubMed

    Burger, Kyle S; Stice, Eric

    2011-03-01

    Prospective studies indicate that individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores are at increased risk for future bulimic symptom onset, suggesting that these individuals may show hyper-responsivity of reward regions to food and food cues. Thus, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the relation of dietary restraint scores to activation of reward-related brain regions in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and exposure to pictures of appetizing foods in 39 female adolescents (mean age=15.5 ± 0.94). Dietary restraint scores were positively correlated with activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in response to milkshake receipt. However, dietary restraint scores did not correlate with activation in response to anticipated milkshake receipt or exposure to food pictures. Results indicate that individuals who report high dietary restraint have a hyper-responsivity in reward-related brain regions when food intake is occurring, which may increase risk for overeating and binge eating.

  13. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    PubMed

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  14. Influence of dietary intake and physical activity on annual rhythm of human blood cholesterol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Blüher, M; Hentschel, B; Rassoul, F; Richter, V

    2001-05-01

    Seasonal variation in the plasma total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been repeatedly reported, with contradictory results regarding the pattern of seasonal variation of these parameters. Furthermore, it is still not well established whether the variation is due to changes in the nutrition or changes in physical activity depending on the season. The aim of this study was therefore to determine plasma TC and HDL-C in different groups of healthy participants: 19 vegetarians with a constant diet independent of the season, 14 athletes with almost constant physical activity over the year, and 114 controls in the age groups 20-26 years (mean age 24 + 1.5 years) and 40-48 years (mean age 44.3 + 2.1 years). Over 2 years, blood samples were collected every 2-3 months and were analyzed for plasma TC and HDL-C. At all visits, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated, and nutrition and physical activity profiles were obtained. The seasonal model was calculated using object-oriented software for the analysis of longitudinal data in S (OSWALD); multiple regression analysis was used to determine the influence of age, gender, diet, and physical activity on seasonal changes of the lipid parameters. In all groups, we found an annual rhythm of the plasma TC and HDL-C concentrations, which can be mathematically described by a sine curve with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. This rhythm was independent of the age, gender, BMI, diet, or physical activity. The observed seasonal differences between the maximum and the minimum were about 5%-10% for TC and about 5%-8% for HDL-C concentration. These differences were greater than the determined circadian (TC 3.5%, HDL-C 4%) and day-to-day changes for TC and HDL-C (coefficient of variation <5% for both). In conclusion, annual rhythm of TC and HDL-C is not primarily induced by seasonal differences in dietary intake or physical activity. Therefore, the annual rhythm in

  15. Does personality affect dietary intake?

    PubMed

    Lunn, Trevor E; Nowson, Caryl A; Worsley, Anthony; Torres, Susan J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence for an association between the Big Five dimensions of personality, dietary intake, and compliance to dietary recommendations. Poor diet is a known risk factor for overweight and obesity and associated chronic lifestyle diseases and it has been proposed that personality may be linked to dietary choices. Findings from cross-sectional surveys from different countries and cultures show a positive association between Openness and consumption of fruits and vegetables and between Conscientiousness and healthy eating. Although no evidence has been found that personality dimensions are associated with adherence to dietary recommendations over time, Conscientiousness is associated with a number of prosocial and health-promoting behaviors that include avoiding alcohol-related harm, binge-drinking, and smoking, and adherence to medication regimens. With emerging evidence of an association between higher Conscientiousness and lower obesity risk, the hypothesis that higher Conscientiousness may predict adoption of healthy dietary and other lifestyle recommendations appears to be supported.

  16. The Association between Dietary Intake of Folate and Physical Activity with Psychological Dimensions of Depressive Symptoms among Students from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yary, Teymoor

    2013-01-01

    Depression in students is a major public health problem. Although several risk factors associated with depression have been identified, the cause of depression is still not clear. Several studies have demonstrated that physical activity and nutrient intake, such as increased levels of B vitamins in serum, decrease symptoms of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity and dietary intake of vitamins B6, B9, and B12 and symptoms of depression among postgraduate students. The results of this study suggest that intake of vitamin B9 may modulate the total score of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and two subscales of the CES-D including depressive affect and interpersonal difficulties. This study also showed that moderate/high levels of physical activity were inversely and significantly associated with symptoms of depression (total scores) and three subscales of the CES-D including depressive affect, positive affect, and somatic complaints. PMID:24324965

  17. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

  18. Differences in Overweight and Obesity among Children from Migrant and Native Origin: The Role of Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and Sleep Duration.

    PubMed

    Labree, Wim; van de Mheen, Dike; Rutten, Frans; Rodenburg, Gerda; Koopmans, Gerrit; Foets, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to examine to what degree differences in overweight and obesity between native Dutch and migrant primary school children could be explained by differences in physical activity, dietary intake, and sleep duration among these children. Subjects (n=1943) were primary school children around the age of 8-9 years old and their primary caregivers: native Dutch children (n=1546), Turkish children (n=93), Moroccan children (n=66), other non-western children (n=105), and other western children (n=133). Multivariate regressions and logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between migrant status, child's behavior, and BMI or prevalence of overweight, including obesity (logistic). Main explanatory variables were physical activity, dietary intake, and sleep duration. We controlled for age, sex, parental educational level, and parental BMI. Although sleep duration, dietary intake of fruit, and dietary intake of energy-dense snacks were associated with BMI, ethnic differences in sleep duration and dietary intake did not have a large impact on ethnic differences in overweight and obesity among children from migrant and native origin. It is suggested that future preventive strategies to reduce overweight and obesity, in general, consider the role of sleep duration. Also, cross-cultural variation in preparation of food among specific migrant groups, focusing on fat, sugar, and salt, deserves more attention. In order to examine which other variables may clarify ethnic differences in overweight and obesity, future research is needed.

  19. Dietary intake of nutrients with adequate intake values in the dietary reference intakes for Japanese.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Takizawa, Asuka; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Kondo, Akiko; Yoshida, Kazue; Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2013-01-01

    The Adequate Intake (AI) values in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (DRIs-J) 2010 were mainly determined based on the median intakes from 2 y of pooled data (2005-2006) from the National Health and Nutrition Survey-Japan (NHNS-J). However, it remains unclear whether 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J are appropriate for evaluating the intake of the population. To clarify the differences in nutrient intakes determined from 2 and 7 y of pooled data, we analyzed selected nutrient intake levels by sex and age groups using NHNS-J data. Intake data were obtained from 64,624 individuals (age: ≥1 y; 47.4% men) who completed a semi-weighed 1-d household dietary record that was part of the NHNS-J conducted annually in Japan from 2003 to 2009. There were no large differences between the median intakes calculated from 2 or 7 y of pooled data for n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D, pantothenic acid, potassium, or phosphorus. When the AI values and median intakes were compared, there was no large difference in the values for n-6 or n-3 PUFAs, pantothenic acid, or phosphorus. Conversely, the AI values for vitamin D and potassium differed from the median intakes of these nutrients for specific sex and age groups, because values were not based on NHNS-J data. Our results indicate that 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J adequately reflect the population's intake, and that the current system for determination of AI values will be applicable for future revisions.

  20. Children at familial risk for obesity: an examination of dietary intake, physical activity and weight status.

    PubMed

    Eck, L H; Klesges, R C; Hanson, C L; Slawson, D

    1992-02-01

    A large cohort of children was divided into two groups based on their parents' weight status. The high risk group had one or two overweight parent(s) (n = 92, 4.4 +/- 0.5 years), while the low risk group had no parent overweight (n = 95, 4.5 +/- 0.5 years). Weight of the two groups was similar at the start of the study but the high risk group gained marginally more weight over a one year period (P = 0.05). Although total energy intake was similar, the high risk group was consuming a larger percentage of energy from fat (P = 0.0004) and a smaller percentage from carbohydrate (P = 0.0002). Observed physical activity as similar for most levels but marginally higher for the stationary level and marginally lower in total activity in the high risk group. These results suggest a pattern that may lead to increased weight gain in a high risk group as they grow older.

  1. Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Spronk, Inge; Kullen, Charina; Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen

    2014-05-28

    The present systematic review examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake in adults (mean age ≥ 18 years). Relevant databases were searched from the earliest record until November 2012. Search terms included: nutrition; diet or food knowledge and energy intake; feeding behaviour; diet; eating; nutrient or food intake or consumption. Included studies were original research articles that used instruments providing quantitative assessment of both nutrition knowledge and dietary intake and their statistical association. The initial search netted 1,193,393 potentially relevant articles, of which twenty-nine were eligible for inclusion. Most of them were conducted in community populations (n 22) with fewer (n 7) in athletic populations. Due to the heterogeneity of methods used to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, a meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of the studies (65·5%: community 63·6%; athletic 71·4%) reported significant, positive, but weak (r< 0·5) associations between higher nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, most often a higher intake of fruit and vegetables. However, study quality ranged widely and participant representation from lower socio-economic status was limited, with most participants being tertiary educated and female. Well-designed studies using validated methodologies are needed to clarify the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Diet quality scores or indices that aim to evaluate compliance to dietary guidelines may be particularly valuable for assessing the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge is an integral component of health literacy and as low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes, contemporary, high-quality research is needed to inform community nutrition education and public health policy. PMID:24621991

  2. Applications of Dietary Reference Intakes in dietary assessment and planning.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I

    2006-02-01

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are used for assessing and planning diets of individuals and groups. Assessing individual intakes is complicated by the fact that neither the individual's usual nutrient intake nor their individual requirement is known. However, the degree of confidence that intakes are adequate or excessive can be estimated. Assessing diets of groups requires information on the group's usual nutrient intake distribution, which can be obtained by statistically adjusting 1 d intake distributions to remove within-person variability. For most nutrients with an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the group prevalence of inadequate intakes can be approximated by the percent whose usual intakes are less than the EAR. However, the prevalence of inadequacy cannot be determined for nutrients with an Adequate Intake (AI). The goals of planning are a low risk (for individuals) or low prevalence (for groups) of inadequate or excessive nutrient intakes. For individuals, these goals are met by planning intakes that meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or AI, are below the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), and fall within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs). For groups, planning involves estimating a "target" usual intake distribution with an acceptably low prevalence less than the EAR and greater than the UL, planning menus to achieve the target distribution, and assessing the results.

  3. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is a major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants, and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product o...

  4. Substrate Utilization is Influenced by Acute Dietary Carbohydrate Intake in Active, Healthy Females

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Sara; Wood, Richard; Matthews, Tracey; VanLangen, Deborah; Sawyer, Jason; Headley, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the metabolic responses between a single low-carbohydrate (LC) and low-fat (LF) meal followed by an aerobic exercise bout in females. Subjects included 8 active, premenopausal females. Subjects completed a LC and LF testing session. Respiratory gas exchange (RER) measurements were taken for 20 min fasted, for 55 min postprandial (PP), and during 30 min of exercise. Blood was collected for assessment of glucose (G), insulin (IN), triglycerides (TG), and free fatty acids (FFA) during the final 10 min of each time period. The LF meal provided 396 kcal (78% carbohydrate, 7% fat, and 15% protein). The LC meal provided 392 kcal (15% carbohydrate, 68% fat, and 18% protein). No significant differences existed between test meals for fasting blood measurements. PP IN (μU·mL-1) levels were significantly lower following LC compared to LF [10.7 (6.1) vs. 26.0 (21.0)]. Postexercise (PE) FFA (mEq·L-1) levels were significantly greater following LC [1.1 (0.3) vs. 0.5 (0.3)]. PE TG (mg·dL-1) levels were significantly greater following LC [152.0 (53.1) vs. 114.4 (40.9)]. RER was significantly lower at all time points following LC compared to LF. In moderately active adult females, ingestion of a single LC meal resulted in greater lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise as compared to a single LF meal. Although macronutrient distribution appears to have dictated substrate utilization in the present study, more research is needed regarding the long-term effects of macronutrient redistribution with and without exercise on substrate utilization. Key points The relative carbohydrate content of a single meal has a significant impact on postprandial metabolism and substrate utilization in healthy, active females. A single bout of aerobic exercise performed within an hour of meal ingestion has the potential to modify the postprandial response. Interventions aimed at improving body composition and preventing chronic disease should focus on dietary

  5. Are dietary bioactives ready for recommended intakes?

    PubMed

    Gaine, P Courtney; Balentine, Douglas A; Erdman, John W; Dwyer, Johanna T; Ellwood, Kathleen C; Hu, Frank B; Russell, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Research has shown that numerous dietary bioactive components that are not considered essential may still be beneficial to health. The dietary reference intake (DRI) process has been applied to nonessential nutrients, such as fiber, yet the majority of bioactive components await a recommended intake. Despite a plethora of new research over the past several years on the health effects of bioactives, it is possible that the field may never reach a point where the current DRI framework is suitable for these food components. If bioactives are to move toward dietary guidance, they will likely require an alternative path to get there.

  6. Dietary protein intake and human health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao

    2016-03-01

    A protein consists of amino acids (AA) linked by peptide bonds. Dietary protein is hydrolyzed by proteases and peptidases to generate AA, dipeptides, and tripeptides in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. These digestion products are utilized by bacteria in the small intestine or absorbed into enterocytes. AA that are not degraded by the small intestine enter the portal vein for protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues. AA are also used for cell-specific production of low-molecular-weight metabolites with enormous physiological importance. Thus, protein undernutrition results in stunting, anemia, physical weakness, edema, vascular dysfunction, and impaired immunity. Based on short-term nitrogen balance studies, the Recommended Dietary Allowance of protein for a healthy adult with minimal physical activity is currently 0.8 g protein per kg body weight (BW) per day. To meet the functional needs such as promoting skeletal-muscle protein accretion and physical strength, dietary intake of 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 g protein per kg BW per day is recommended for individuals with minimal, moderate, and intense physical activity, respectively. Long-term consumption of protein at 2 g per kg BW per day is safe for healthy adults, and the tolerable upper limit is 3.5 g per kg BW per day for well-adapted subjects. Chronic high protein intake (>2 g per kg BW per day for adults) may result in digestive, renal, and vascular abnormalities and should be avoided. The quantity and quality of protein are the determinants of its nutritional values. Therefore, adequate consumption of high-quality proteins from animal products (e.g., lean meat and milk) is essential for optimal growth, development, and health of humans. PMID:26797090

  7. Dietary intake data: usefulness and limitations.

    PubMed

    Roberge, A G; Sevigny, J; Seoane, N; Richard, L

    1984-01-01

    In past decades, the main objectives of nutrition surveys were to define nutritional status at the time of the study, to cross-sectionally describe dietary patterns of consumption and food preparation practices, and to identify areas for improvement. Nowadays, the need for ongoing evaluation of nutritional status of individuals and of population is gaining recognition. The present paper, in discussing usefulness and limitations of dietary intake data, will focus on the importance of considering nutrition as a component of overall quality of life as well as a discipline that gains to be integrated to other disciplinary fields such as medicine, biochemistry, immunology, anthropometry and agribusiness. In this respect, the present paper will discuss the methodology of dietary data collection, the various uses of dietary data collected at the individual, community and general population levels and finally will try to define new vistas in regard to emphasis and tools for future dietary intake studies.

  8. Investigating Within-day and Longitudinal Effects of Maternal Stress on Children's Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition: Protocol for the MATCH Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunton, Genevieve F.; Liao, Yue; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam; Huh, Jimi; Gruenewald, Tara; Margolin, Gayla; Koprowski, Carol; Tate, Eleanor; Intille, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Parental stress is an understudied factor that may compromise parenting practices related to children's dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity. However, studies examining these associations have been subject to methodological limitations, including cross-sectional designs, retrospective measures, a lack of stress biomarkers, and the tendency to overlook momentary etiologic processes occurring within each day. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the MATCH (Mothers And Their Children's Health) study, a longitudinal investigation using novel real-time data capture strategies to examine within-day associations of maternal stress with children's physical activity and dietary intake, and how these effects contribute to children's obesity risk. In the MATCH study, 200 mothers and their 8 to 12 year-old children are participating in 6 semi-annual assessment waves across 3 years. At each wave, measures for mother-child dyads include: (a) real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported daily psychosocial stressors (e.g., work at a job, family demands), feeling stressed, perceived stress, parenting practices, dietary intake, and physical activity with time and location stamps; (b) diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, accelerometer-monitored physical activity, and 24-hour dietary recalls; (c) retrospective questionnaires of sociodemographic, cultural, family, and neighborhood covariates; and (d) height, weight, and waist circumference. Putative within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's dietary intake, physical activity, and body composition will be tested through multilevel modeling and latent growth curve models, respectively. The results will inform interventions that help mothers reduce the negative effects of stress on weight-related parenting practices and children's obesity risk. PMID:25987483

  9. Misreporting of dietary intake affects estimated nutrient intakes in low-income Spanish-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue.

  10. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan C.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  11. Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Grieger, Jessica A; Etherton, Terry D

    2009-01-01

    Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering. Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians/vegans. A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of The National Academies. This amount is based on an intake that supports normal growth and neural development and results in no nutrient deficiency. Although there is no DRI for EPA and DHA, the National Academies have recommended that approximately 10% of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for ALA can be consumed as EPA and/or DHA. This recommendation represents current mean intake for EPA and DHA in the United States ( approximately 100mg/day), which is much lower than what many groups worldwide are currently recommending. Global recommendations for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids underscore the pressing need to establish DRIs for DHA and EPA because DRIs are recognized as the "official" standard by which federal agencies issue dietary guidance or policy directives for the health and well-being of individuals in the United States and Canada. Because of the many health benefits of DHA and EPA, it is important and timely that the National Academies establish DRIs for the individual long-chain (20 carbons or greater) omega-3 fatty acids.

  12. Dietary sodium intake and arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Dumler, Francis

    2009-01-01

    We sought to summarize major recent studies in the field of dietary sodium intake and arterial blood pressure, and discuss the following trials. INTERSALT: Sodium intake correlates with the rise in blood pressure with age, but not with the prevalence of hypertension. The population study identified a minimal impact of sodium intake on blood pressure (0.9 mm Hg/10 mmol difference in salt intake). DASH: This diet induced significant reductions in blood pressure compared with the control diet. Further decreases were observed with DASH and a 50 mmol/day sodium intake. VANGUARD: Blood pressure was inversely related to urinary potassium, calcium and magnesium but not to sodium excretion. TONE: Cardiovascular events were highest in the usual care group (83%) and lowest in the sodium reduction-plus-weight loss group (56%). META-ANALYSIS: A systematic review of 11 long-term controlled randomized trials reported a small decrease (1.1 mm Hg) in median systolic but not diastolic blood pressure with a reduced dietary sodium intake. In conclusion, (1) sodium restriction in hypertensive patients reduces blood pressure, and (2) the long-term impact of reduced salt intake on blood pressure, mortality, and morbidity remains to be defined.

  13. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  14. Epidemics of overweight and obesity among growing childhood in China between 1997 and 2009: Impact of Family Income, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, You-Fa; Jia, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Hong; Wang, Hui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a major health problem among children and adolescents worldwide. This study aimed to examine the trends of overweight and obesity among childhood in China and assess their associations with family income, dietary intake, and physical activity (PA) between 1997 and 2009. Methods: Two waves of cross-sectional data of Chinese children and adolescents aged 7–17 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used. Weight and height were measured following standardized procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 consecutive 24-h recalls. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using the International Obesity Task Force-recommended body mass index cut-offs. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations of family income with diet intakes and PA. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations of overweight and obesity with family income, dietary intake, and PA. Results: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 12.6% in 1997 to 22.1% in 2009, particularly in the medium- and high-family income groups, which increased by 102.7% and 90.3%, respectively. Higher fat intake (% energy), and moderate and vigorous PA were significantly associated with overweight and obesity in final model (odds ratio [OR] = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00–1.02, P = 0.004; and OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98–1.00, P = 0.036, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents has increased between 1997 and 2009. Reducing fat intake and increasing PA may help obesity prevention. PMID:26168826

  15. A validation study concerning the effects of interview content, retention interval, and grade on children’s recall accuracy for dietary intake and/or physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne D.; Hitchcock, David B.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Vaadi, Kate K.; Puryear, Megan P.; Royer, Julie A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Wilson, Dawn K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Practitioners and researchers are interested in assessing children’s dietary intake and physical activity together to maximize resources and minimize subject burden. Objective To investigate differences in dietary and/or physical-activity recall accuracy by content (diet-only; physical-activity-only; diet-&-physical-activity), retention interval (same-day-recalls-in-the-afternoon; previous-day-recalls-in-the-morning), and grade (third; fifth). Design Children (n=144; 66% African American, 13% White, 12% Hispanic, 9% Other; 50% girls) from four schools were randomly selected for interviews about one of three contents. Each content group was equally divided by retention interval, each equally divided by grade, each equally divided by sex. Information concerning diet and physical activity at school was validated with school-provided breakfast and lunch observations, and accelerometry, respectively. Dietary accuracy measures were food-item omission and intrusion rates, and kilocalorie correspondence rate and inflation ratio. Physical activity accuracy measures were absolute and arithmetic differences for moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity minutes. Statistical analyses performed For each accuracy measure, linear models determined effects of content, retention interval, grade, and their two-way and three-way interactions; ethnicity and sex were control variables. Results Content was significant within four interactions: intrusion rate (content-×-retention-interval-×-grade; p=.0004), correspondence rate (content-×-grade; p=.0004), inflation ratio (content-×-grade; p=.0104), and arithmetic difference (content-×-retention-interval-×-grade; p=.0070). Retention interval was significant for correspondence rate (p=.0004), inflation ratio (p=.0014), and three interactions: omission rate (retention-interval-×-grade; p=.0095), intrusion rate, and arithmetic difference (both already mentioned). Grade was significant for absolute difference (p=.0233) and five

  16. Dietary intake of advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T D; Bowman, K B; Jackson, G P

    1983-02-01

    A state registered dietitian assessed the voluntary dietary intake of 13 advanced cancer inpatients on one ward of St. Christopher's Hospice for five consecutive days. There were 11 females, two males; median age 74 years (range 56 to 83). Two patients died on the fourth day of the study. A partially individualised weighed technique was used. Standard sized scoops and spoons were used to serve the food in small, medium or large standard portions (depending on appetite) and were weighed as served. Individual plate waste (by weight) was subtracted to give estimated individual intake. Foods provided by visitors was not included. The median and range of individual mean daily intakes (estimated) were: energy 5760 (938-8945) kJ, 1376 (224-2137) kcal; protein 44 (11-86) g; fat 52 (9-93) g; carbohydrate 169 (21-194) g; calcium 748 (268-1457) mg; iron 4.8 (0.5-21.0) mg; dietary fibre 5.0 (0.5-21.0) g. Compared to recommended amounts, energy, iron and dietary fibre intakes were low; calcium intake was high. Nutritional status may affect prognosis and/or subjective well-being in advanced cancer. The value of nutritional supplementation and the role of appetite stimulants in improving nutritional status needs investigation.

  17. Dietary intake of advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T D; Bowman, K B; Jackson, G P

    1983-02-01

    A state registered dietitian assessed the voluntary dietary intake of 13 advanced cancer inpatients on one ward of St. Christopher's Hospice for five consecutive days. There were 11 females, two males; median age 74 years (range 56 to 83). Two patients died on the fourth day of the study. A partially individualised weighed technique was used. Standard sized scoops and spoons were used to serve the food in small, medium or large standard portions (depending on appetite) and were weighed as served. Individual plate waste (by weight) was subtracted to give estimated individual intake. Foods provided by visitors was not included. The median and range of individual mean daily intakes (estimated) were: energy 5760 (938-8945) kJ, 1376 (224-2137) kcal; protein 44 (11-86) g; fat 52 (9-93) g; carbohydrate 169 (21-194) g; calcium 748 (268-1457) mg; iron 4.8 (0.5-21.0) mg; dietary fibre 5.0 (0.5-21.0) g. Compared to recommended amounts, energy, iron and dietary fibre intakes were low; calcium intake was high. Nutritional status may affect prognosis and/or subjective well-being in advanced cancer. The value of nutritional supplementation and the role of appetite stimulants in improving nutritional status needs investigation. PMID:6841131

  18. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  19. Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs).

    PubMed

    Paik, Hee Young

    2008-01-01

    For more than 40 years, Recommended Dietary Allowances for Koreans (KRDA) were used as references for nutrient intake. In 2002, the Korean Nutrition Society organized a committee to revise the KRDA, which were transformed into the new Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs) in 2005. KDRIs include Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Recommended Intake (RI), Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for protein, essential amino acids and micronutrients, Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for energy and Acceptable Macronutrients Distribution Ranges (AMDR) for macronutrients. Evidence-based methods were used to determine the reference value (s) and the levels of nutrient intake for each nutrient. The KDRIs expanded significantly the number of nutrients and the basic concepts of nutrient recommendations compared to the previously used KRDA. In addition, a new food guide, depicted as Food Tower for Koreans, was developed and appended to the KDRIs publication. Continued efforts are needed to facilitate the application of KDRIs as well as to improve the understanding of the concepts. Additional modifications will be made as more scientific data become available.

  20. Epidemiology of dietary nutrient intake in ESRD.

    PubMed

    Kovesdy, Csaba P; Shinaberger, Christian S; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2010-01-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is one of the strongest risk factors of adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease including those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who undergo maintenance dialysis treatment. One important determinant of PEW in this patient population is an inadequate amount of protein and energy intake. Compounding the problem are the many qualitative nutritional deficiencies that arise because of the altered dietary habits of dialysis patients. Many of these alterations are iatrogenically induced, and albeit well intentioned, they could induce unintended harmful effects. In order to determine the best possible diet in ESRD patients, one must first understand the complex interplay between the quantity and quality of nutrient intake in these patients, and their impact on relevant clinical outcomes. We review available studies examining the association of nutritional intake with clinical outcomes in ESRD, stressing the complicated and often difficult-to-study inter-relationship between quantitative and qualitative aspects of nutrient intake in nutritional epidemiology. The currently recommended higher protein intake of 1.2 g/kg/day may be associated with a higher phosphorus and potassium burden and with worsening hyperphosphatemia and hyperkalemia, whereas dietary control of phosphorus and potassium by restricting protein intake may increase the risk of PEW. We assess the relevance of associative studies by examining the biologic plausibility of underlying mechanisms of action and emphasize areas in need of further research.

  1. Pesticides on Household Surfaces May Influence Dietary Intake of Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical and chemical environment influences children’s exposures to pesticides in and around the home. Children’s activities, which increase their potential for exposure especially during eating, have been captured in the Children’s Dietary Intake Model (CDIM). In addition t...

  2. Pesticides on household surfaces may influence dietary intake of children.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Lisa Jo; Byron, Margie Z; Brown, G Gordon; Clayton, C Andrew; Michael, Larry C

    2011-05-15

    The physical and chemical environment influences children's exposures to pesticides in and around the home. Children's activities, which increase their potential for exposure especially during eating, have been captured in the Children's Dietary Intake Model (CDIM). In addition to the chemical exposure associated with the food itself, this model incorporates excess dietary exposures due to handling of food during consumption. To stochastically evaluate CDIM, distributions of measured, and in some cases estimated, model factors were determined from measurements of permethrin, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon derived from assembled databases and laboratory experiments. Using the distributions of these factors, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to obtain distributions of total dietary intake of pesticides. To target the sources of pesticide contamination that were influencing total dietary intake, each factor was evaluated. We found pesticide surface concentration to be highly influential. By excluding surface concentration, we were also able to determine the influence of the other factors based on the F-statistic. Transfer efficiencies, followed by pesticide residue in consumed foods and amount of food consumed, were the next most influential factors within the model. With these distributions for model inputs, CDIM has the potential to more accurately predict total dietary intake of a contaminant by a child.

  3. Comparison of children's dietary intake patterns with US dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Brady, L M; Lindquist, C H; Herd, S L; Goran, M I

    2000-09-01

    Monitoring dietary intake patterns among children is important in order to explore and prevent the onset of adult health problems. The aim of the present study was to compare children's dietary intakes with national recommendations and to determine whether sex or ethnic differences were evident. This was done using a methodology that allows assessment of intake from the major components of the Food Guide Pyramid developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA: US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services (1992)). The sample studied included 110 African-American and Caucasian males and females (mean age 9.9 years, BMI 20.1 kg/m2) from Birmingham, AL, USA, who were participating in a study investigating the development of obesity. Dietary data were based on three 24 h recalls and food group intake was determined using the USDA Pyramid Servicing Database. The results indicated that a high percentage of subjects failed to meet the recommended number of servings from each of the food groups. For example, only 5 % and 9 % met fruit and dietary group recommendations respectively. Consumption of foods from the Pyramid 'tip' (including discretionary fat and added sugar) contributed almost 50 % of the diet. African-Americans were more likely to meet requirements for the meat group, with a higher proportion of Caucasians meeting dietary recommendations. Males were more likely to meet the vegetable group guidelines although females consumed more energy per day from discretionary fat. In conclusion, these results suggest that implementation of nutrition education programmes may be important for promoting healthy nutrition among American children. PMID:10967615

  4. Association between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Hyperuricemia

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Li, Hui; Deng, Zhen-han; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Yi; Ding, Xiang; Xie, Dong-xing; Yang, Tu-bao; Lei, Guang-hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary magnesium (Mg) intake and hyperuricemia (HU). Methods 5168 subjects were included in this study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Hyperuricemia (HU) was defined as uric acid ≥ 416 μmol/L for male population and ≥ 360 μmol/L for female. A multivariable logistic analysis model was applied to test the associations after adjusting a number of potential confounding factors. Results The relative odds of the overall prevalence of HU were decreased by 0.57 times in the fourth quintile of Mg intake (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.35–0.94) and 0.55 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.30–1.01) comparing with the lowest quintile, and P for trend was 0.091. The results of multivariable linear regression also suggested a significant inverse association between serum uric acid and Mg intake (β = -0.028, P = 0.022). For male, the relative odds of HU were decreased by 0.62 times in the third quintile of Mg intake (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40–0.97), 0.40 times in the fourth quintile (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.23–0.72) and 0.35 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17–0.71) comparing with the lowest quintile, and P for trend was 0.006. Multivariable adjusted inverse association was also existed between serum uric acid and Mg intake in male population (β = -0.061, P = 0.002). However, no significant association was observed between dietary Mg intake and HU for female. Conclusions The findings of this cross-sectional study indicated that dietary Mg intake is inversely associated with HU, independent of some major confounding factors. In addition, this association remains valid for the male subgroup, but not for the female subgroup. Level of Evidence LevelIII, cross-sectional study. PMID:26536119

  5. Can self-reported dieting and dietary restraint identify underreporters of energy intake in dietary surveys?

    PubMed

    Rennie, Kirsten L; Siervo, Mario; Jebb, Susan A

    2006-10-01

    Underreporting is endemic in most dietary studies and ways to reliably identify individuals who may underreport energy intake are needed. Whether questions on self-reported dieting and dietary restraint, in addition to weight status, would identify individuals who may underreport energy intakes was examined in a United Kingdom representative survey. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from the 7-day dietary record of 668 men and 826 women. Reported physical activity was used to assign each subject's activity level and to calculate estimated energy requirements from published equations. Underreporting was calculated as estimated energy requirements minus energy intake with adjustment for daily variation. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire assessed dietary restraint. Underreporting was higher in men and women reporting current dieting than nondieters (P<0.001) and higher in high-restrained (P<0.001) than low-restrained. When stratified by body mass index category, in men these associations were only significant in the overweight (P<0.001). Dieting was associated with greater underreporting in both lean (P<0.01) and overweight women (P<0.001). Underreporting was higher in lean high-restrained women than low-restrained (P=0.02), but similar in overweight women regardless of restraint score. Questions to assess dietary restraint and current dieting may be useful tools to identify and evaluate underreporting at an individual level in dietary surveys.

  6. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Following the comprehensive systematic review of domestic and overseas scientific evidence, the "Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese, 2005 (DRI-J)" was published in April, 2005. The DRIs-J were prepared for health individuals and groups and designed to present a reference for intake values of energy and 34 nutrients to maintain and promote health and to prevent lifestyle-related diseases and illness due to excessive consumption of either energy or nutrients. The DRI-J also includes a special chapter for basic knowledge of DRIs. The energy recommendation is provided as an estimated energy requirement (EER), while five indices were used for nutrients: Estimated average requirement (EAR), recommended dietary allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI), tolerable upper intake level (UL), and tentative dietary goal for preventing lifestyle-related [chronic non-communicable] diseases (DG). Whilst the first four indices are same as the ones used in other countries, DG is unique index in Japan, which was set as a reference value for preventing non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular (including hypertension), major types of cancer and osteoporosis. This report (DRI-J) is the first dietary guidance in Japan, which applied evidence-based approach utilizing a systematic review process. Only a few articles from within Japan and other Asian countries could be used for its establishment. The project to establish the DRI-J revealed a severe lack of researchers and publications focused upon establishing DRIs for Japanese. Further review is therefore required in preparation for the next revision scheduled in 2010.

  7. Dietary Fiber Intake is Associated with Increased Colonic Mucosal GPR43+ Polymorphonuclear Infiltration in Active Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingli; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zuo, Lugen; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Jing; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-07-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 43/free fatty acid receptor 2 (GPR43/FFAR2) is essential for polymorphonuclear (PMN) recruitment. We investigated the expression of GPR43/FFAR2 in the colon from Crohn's disease patients and whether dietary fiber in enteral nutrition increases GPR43+ polymorphonuclear infiltration in mucosa. Segments of ascending colon and white blood cells from peripheral blood were obtained from 46 Crohn's disease patients and 10 colon cancer patients. The Crohn's disease patients were grouped by the activity of disease (active or remission) and enteral nutrition with or without dietary fiber. Histological feature, expression and location of GPR43/FFAR2 and level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase were assessed. The results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the infiltration of immune cells, including GPR43+ PMN, was more severe in active Crohn's disease patients who consumed normal food or enteral nutrition with dietary fiber than in remission patients and colon cancer patients. This finding was supported by the results of GPR43 and myeloperoxidase expression. Active Crohn's disease (CD) patients who consumed enteral nutrition without dietary fiber exhibited severe immune cell infiltration similar to the other active CD patients, but GPR43+ PMNs were rarely observed. The level of TNF-α mRNA in active Crohn's disease patients was higher than those of the other patients. In conclusion, the use of dietary fiber in enteral nutrition by active Crohn's disease patients might increase GPR43+ PMNs infiltration in colon mucosa. This effect was not observed in Crohn's disease patients in remission.

  8. Dietary sources of fiber intake in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Aline Nascimento; Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the household availability of fibers in Brazil and to identify the dietary sources of this nutrient. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey were used to estimate national household availability and density of fibers and also according to stratifications defined by income level, five regions and area (rural or urban). The contribution of the different food groups, classified by the nature, extent and purpose of processing, to total fibers available in Brazilian households was also determined. The mean density of per capita fibers was 7.6 g/1000 kcal. Higher availability and density of fibers was observed in households situated in rural areas and among low-income families. The main dietary sources of fiber were beans, bread, rice, fruit, vegetables and manioc flour. Fiber intake was found to be insufficient. Therefore, actions promoting a healthy diet are needed to improve the dietary quality of the Brazilian population.

  9. Dietary intake in clients with chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Agnieszka; Atkins, Marlis; Mager, Diana R

    2011-01-01

    To assess relationships among food intake, anthropometrics, and wound severity, we studied 31 home care clients with pressure ulcers (PUs) or venous stasis ulcers (VSUs). Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference [WC]) were measured according to standard methodologies. Risk for PU development was assessed using the Braden Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment score and wound severity according to the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Three-day food records were analyzed to assess dietary adequacy. Adults with VSUs (65.8 ± 18.4 years) had a higher body mass index (48.1 vs. 25.9), WC (146.6 vs. 98.4 cm), and Braden score (20.2 vs. 17.5) than did those with PUs (67.8 ± 17.9 years) (p <0.05). Energy, protein, and zinc intake by diet alone did not meet estimated requirements in 41%, 32%, and 54.5% of clients, respectively. Intake by diet alone met the Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, folate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Nutrient supplementation resolved this for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin K, and potassium. In multivariate analysis, increasing wound severity was associated with decreased intakes of vitamin A, vitamin K, magnesium, and protein (r2=0.90, p<0.001). Optimizing nutrient intake may be an important strategy to promote wound healing and decrease wound severity in home care clients with chronic wounds.

  10. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Khodarahmi, Mahdieh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case–control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations. PMID:27195249

  11. Dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Falcó, G; Bocio, A; Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L; Casas, C; Teixidó, A

    2004-04-25

    To assess the dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by the population of Catalonia, Spain, a total-diet study was carried out. Concentrations of HCB were determined in food samples randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia between June and August 2000. A total of 11 food groups were included in the study. HCB levels were determined by HRGC/HRMS. Estimates of average daily food consumption were obtained from recent studies. HCB intake was estimated for five population groups: children (aged 4 to 9 years), adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years), male and female adults (aged 20 to 65 years), and seniors (aged >65 years). In general, HCB residues in foods were rather low excepting dairy products with a mean concentration of 0.869 ng/g wet weight. Total dietary intakes of HCB (microgram per kilogram body weight/day) were the following: children (0.0064), adolescents (0.0031), female adults (0.0025), male adults (0.0024) and seniors (0.0019). All these values are considerably lower than the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI), which is 0.17 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for non-cancer effects and 0.16 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for neoplastic effects in humans.

  12. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Khodarahmi, Mahdieh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case-control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations. PMID:27195249

  13. Review of evaluation tools used to assess the impact of nutrition education on dietary intake and quality, weight management practices, and physical activity of low-income audiences.

    PubMed

    McClelland, J W; Keenan, D P; Lewis, J; Foerster, S; Sugerman, S; Mara, P; Wu, S; Lee, S; Keller, K; Hersey, J; Lindquist, C

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition education programs and social marketing campaigns frequently focus on low-income audiences with the goal of improving dietary intake and quality, weight management practices, and physical activity. The impact of nutrition education can be assessed by measuring change in relation to any or all of these broad variables. Unfortunately, little information is available concerning the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of measures used to assess these constructs with low-income audiences of adults and adolescents. This article reviews the literature and discusses the types of available measures that have been used and evaluated for the above audiences. It describes specific measures used to assess total diet, consumption of food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid, and behaviors related to weight management and physical activity. Overall, this review suggests that there is a critical need for additional development and evaluation of dietary quality measurement tools for low-income and minority audiences. PMID:12857543

  14. In vivo stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase enhanced tubuloglomerular feedback but reduced tubular sodium transport during high dietary NaCl intake.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dan Yang; Gao, Huanhuan; Boini, Krishna M; Osswald, Hartmut; Nürnberg, Bernd; Lang, Florian

    2010-06-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is expressed in the apical membrane of cortical thick ascending limb, distal, and collecting tubules as well as macula densa cells of the kidneys. AMPK is an active modulator of epithelial Na(+) channels, Na(+)-2Cl(-)-K(+) cotransporter, and the ATP-dependent potassium channel. The present experiments explored whether AMPK participates in the regulation of tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and renal tubular sodium handling. To this end, renal clearance and micropuncture experiments were performed in anesthetized rats. Under normal NaCl diet, neither TGF response nor renal fluid and sodium excretion were altered by pharmacological activation of AMPK in vivo. However, under high NaCl diet, the TGF response was significantly enhanced after intravenous or intratubular application of the AMPK activator AICAR. Moreover, AICAR application significantly increased fractional delivery of fluid and sodium to the end of the proximal tubule. High dietary NaCl intake increased the renal transcript levels encoding the AMPK-alpha1 subunit, while it decreased the expression of AMPK-beta1 and AMPK-gamma2 subunits. Immunoblots revealed that high dietary NaCl intake reduced renal expression of activated AMPK by about three times compared to normal NaCl diet whereas additional AICAR application increased AMPK activity. Our results suggest that AMPK regulates tubuloglomerular balance as well as tubular transport upon change of renal work load.

  15. Fitness, dietary intake, and body mass index in urban Native American youth.

    PubMed

    Gray, Amy; Smith, Chery

    2003-09-01

    This study investigated correlations among physical fitness, dietary intakes, activity levels, and body mass index (BMI) for 155 urban Native American youth, ages 5 to 18 years. Heights, weights, skinfold measurements, activity level, balance times, and dietary intakes were assessed. Presidential Physical Fitness (PPF) testing was completed with 82 youth. Age groups were examined for differences in energy and macronutrient intake, sedentary activities, activity level, and PPF achievement. Pearson and Spearman rho correlations were examined among dietary intakes, fitness, balance, and activity levels. The majority of youth (63%) were at risk for overweight or already overweight, and 59% were sedentary. BMI was correlated with age and PPF achievement for all youth, and with physical activity and frequency of television viewing for youth ages 9 to 18 years. No correlation was found between dietary intake and activity level. Culturally appropriate interventions for obesity should start early, focusing on decreasing sedentary activity and increasing opportunities for fitness. PMID:12963950

  16. Dietary intake and stress fractures among elite male combat recruits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Appropriate and sufficient dietary intake is one of the main requirements for maintaining fitness and health. Inadequate energy intake may have a negative impact on physical performance which may result in injuries among physically active populations. The purpose of this research was to evaluate a possible relationship between dietary intake and stress fracture occurrence among combat recruits during basic training (BT). Methods Data was collected from 74 combat recruits (18.2 ± 0.6 yrs) in the Israeli Defense Forces. Data analyses included changes in anthropometric measures, dietary intake, blood iron and calcium levels. Measurements were taken on entry to 4-month BT and at the end of BT. The occurrence of stress reaction injury was followed prospectively during the entire 6-month training period. Results Twelve recruits were diagnosed with stress fracture in the tibia or femur (SF group). Sixty two recruits completed BT without stress fractures (NSF). Calcium and vitamin D intakes reported on induction day were lower in the SF group compared to the NSF group-38.9% for calcium (589 ± 92 and 964 ± 373 mg·d-1, respectively, p < 0.001), and-25.1% for vitamin D (117.9 ± 34.3 and 157.4 ± 93.3 IU·d-1, respectively, p < 0.001). During BT calcium and vitamin D intake continued to be at the same low values for the SF group but decreased for the NSF group and no significant differences were found between these two groups. Conclusions The development of stress fractures in young recruits during combat BT was associated with dietary deficiency before induction and during BT of mainly vitamin D and calcium. For the purpose of intervention, the fact that the main deficiency is before induction will need special consideration. PMID:22413851

  17. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Shahidi, Mariam; Du, Jianling; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%–27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile. PMID:26742059

  18. Dairy intake, dietary adequacy, and lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Robert P

    2013-03-01

    Despite repeated emphasis in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the importance of calcium in the adult American diet and the recommendation to consume 3 dairy servings a day, dairy intake remains well below recommendations. Insufficient health professional awareness of the benefits of calcium and concern for lactose intolerance are among several possible reasons, This mini-review highlights both the role of calcium (and of dairy, its principal source in modern diets) in health maintenance and reviews the means for overcoming lactose intolerance (real or perceived).

  19. Protein supplements: do they alter dietary intakes?

    PubMed

    Mallard, Alistair R; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Rehrer, Nancy J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of protein versus mixed macronutrient supplementation on total energy intake (TEI) and protein intake during an ad libitum diet were examined. Trained males undertook two, 2-week dietary interventions which were randomized, double blinded, and separated by 2 weeks. These were high-protein supplementation (HP: 1034.5 kJ energy, 29.6 g protein, 8.7 g fat and 12.3 g CHO) and standard meal supplementation (SM: 1039 kJ energy, 9.9 g protein, 9.5 g fat, and 29.4 g CHO) consumed daily following a week of baseline measures. Eighteen participants finished both interventions and one only completed HP. TEI (mean ± SD) was not different between baseline (11148 ± 3347 kJ) and HP (10705 ± 3143 kJ) nor between baseline and SM (12381 ± 3877 kJ), however, TEI was greater with SM than HP (923 ± 4015 kJ p = .043). Protein intake (%TEI) was greater with HP (22.4 ± 6.2%) than baseline (19.4 ± 5.4%; p = .008) but not SM (20.0 ± 5.0%). No differences in absolute daily protein intake were found. Absolute CHO intake was greater with SM than HP (52.0 ± 89.5 g, p = .006). No differences in fat intake were found. Body mass did not change between baseline (82.7 ± 11.2 kg) and either HP (83.1 ± 11.7 kg) or SM (82.9 ± 11.0 kg). Protein supplementation increases the relative proportion of protein in the diet, but doesn't increase the absolute amount of total protein or energy consumed. Thus some compensation by a reduction in other foods occurs. This is in contrast to a mixed nutrient supplement, which does not alter the proportion of protein consumed but does increase TEI.

  20. Polyamine intake, dietary pattern, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Soda, Kuniyasu

    2010-09-01

    In addition to general lifestyle, a number of foods and dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), are associated with lower incidences of chronic, age-related diseases, and mortality. We have shown that increased polyamine intake decreases age-associated pathology and increases longevity in mice. Several foods in the MD, such as fruits and legumes, are foods containing high amount of polyamines. Among age-associated conditions, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and individuals who adhere to a MD have a lower incidence of CVD. The possible contribution of increased polyamine intake to CVD prevention is discussed in this manuscript. Polyamines from food are distributed to all organs and tissues, and long-term intake increases polyamine concentration in blood. Because most polyamines are associated with red and white blood cells, they act to suppress synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1. Foods with anti-inflammatory properties such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to help prevent CVD. Additionally, suppression of de novo polyamine synthesis results from increased polyamines intake, normally synthesized from arginine. This in turn increases availability of arginine for synthesis of nitric oxide, which plays an important role in preserving normal vascular physiology.

  1. Elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts demonstrate energy and dietary intake deficiencies during periods of intense training.

    PubMed

    Michopoulou, Eleni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Kambas, Antonios; Leontsini, Diamanda; Michalopoulou, Maria; Tournis, Symeon; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2011-11-01

    This study determined dietary intake and energy balance of elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts during their preseason training. Forty rhythmic gymnasts and 40 sedentary age-matched females (10-12 yrs) participated in the study. Anthropometric profile and skeletal ages were determined. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed to estimate daily energy intake, daily energy expenditure, and resting metabolic rate. Groups demonstrated comparable height, bone age, pubertal development, resting metabolic rate. Gymnasts had lower body mass, BMI, body fat than age-matched controls. Although groups demonstrated comparable daily energy intake, gymnasts exhibited a higher daily energy expenditure resulting in a daily energy deficit. Gymnasts also had higher carbohydrate intake but lower fat and calcium intake. Both groups were below the recommended dietary allowances for fiber, water, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin intake. Gymnasts may need to raise their daily energy intake to avoid the energy deficit during periods of intense training. PMID:22109784

  2. Dietary intake of zinc was inversely associated with depression.

    PubMed

    Yary, Teymoor; Aazami, Sanaz

    2012-03-01

    Depression is an important cause of morbidity, and World Health Organization has predicted that it will be the second leading contributor to the global burden of disease by 2020. Postgraduate students are at high risk for depression caused by the stress of examinations, the academic environment, and relationship problems with peers, lecturers, and family members. Physical inactivity, advancing age, unmarried status, and many other factors contribute to the development of depression in humans. Associations between symptoms of depression and the intake of nutrients such as magnesium have been investigated; however, the relationship between zinc intake and depression has not received as much attention. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between dietary intake of zinc and depression in postgraduate students. This study was conducted on 402 participants with a mean age of 32.54 ± 6.22 years, including 173 (43%) women and 229 (57%) men. In this study, we found an inverse relationship between dietary intake of zinc and depression. The results persisted even after we controlled for several potential confounding variables related to depression symptoms, including age, sex, years of education, smoking status (current and past), and physical activity. The results of this study show that long-term intake of zinc may modulate symptoms of depression.

  3. Anthropometry, dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of Malaysian estate workers.

    PubMed

    Chee, S; Zawiah, H; Ismail, M; Ng, K

    1996-09-01

    Studies were carried out in two estates in Kedah and Johor to characterize the anthropometry and dietary patterns of 334 (169 females, 165 males) Malaysian estate workers. Subjects were Malay and Indian adults (aged 18 to 60 years) engaged in various work activities including rubber tappers, palm fruit harvesters, field supervisors and workers in the estate factories. Anthropometric results showed that the prevalence of overweight (26% in men, 25% in women) and obesity (5% in men, 11% in women) were higher compared to prevalence of underweight (11% in men, 9% in women) in these workers despite being engaged in moderate to heavy activities. The dietary intake pattern revealed that the main sources of calories in the diet were rice, cooking oil and sugar. Major sources of protein in the Malay diet were anchovies and fish whilst in the Indian diet protein was provided by salted fish, anchovies, eggs, fish, and pulses. The consumption of poultry, meat and dairy products were low for both ethnic groups. The dietary intakes of a subsampel of 108 normal weight subjects (56 females, 52 males) were recorded for 3 days. The results showed that the mean energy intake was 8.44 ± 2.12 MJ in males and 6.48 ± 1.29 MJ in females. The contribution of calories from protein, fat and carbohydrate were 13%, 22% and 60% in males and 12%, 23% and 65% in females, respectively. Alcohol intake was found to contribute five percent of energy in the diet of the Indian male subjects. Calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin intake were below 66% of the Malaysian RDA, particularly amongst the women. Income appeared to have a significant correlation with energy and iron intakes of the female workers as well as thiamin, niacin and riboflavin intakes of the male workers. There is a need for improving the quality of the dietary intakes of these workers as well as nutrition education on the prevention of obesity and its consequences. PMID:22692134

  4. Strategies to Reduce Dietary Sodium Intake

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Laura K; Appel, Lawrence J; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Opinion Excess sodium intake has an important, if not predominant, role in the pathogenesis of elevated blood pressure, one of the most important modifiable determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the United States, almost 80% of sodium in the diet comes from packaged and restaurant foods. Given the current food environment, educational efforts such as clinician counseling are useful, but a comprehensive public health approach is necessary to achieve meaningful reductions in sodium intake. A successful approach includes several key strategies, which together will both promote positive decisions by individuals and change the context in which they make those decisions. The strategies include: (1) public education, (2) individual dietary counseling, (3) food labeling, (4) coordinated, voluntary industry sodium reduction, (5) government and private sector food procurement policies, and (6) FDA regulations, as recommended by the Institute of Medicine, to modify sodium’s generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status. Population-wide reduction in sodium intake has the potential to substantially reduce the public burden of preventable CVD and reduce health care costs. PMID:22580974

  5. Dietary intake of magnesium may modulate depression.

    PubMed

    Yary, Teymoor; Aazami, Sanaz; Soleimannejad, Kourosh

    2013-03-01

    Depressive symptoms are frequent in students and may lead to countless problems. Several hypotheses associate magnesium with depression because of the presence of this mineral in several enzymes, hormones, and neurotransmitters, which may play a key role in the pathological pathways of depression. The aim of this study was to assess whether magnesium intake could modulate depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample of 402 Iranian postgraduate students studying in Malaysia to assess the relationship between magnesium intake and depressive symptoms. The mean age of the participants was 32.54 ± 6.22 years. The results of the study demonstrated an inverse relationship between magnesium intake and depressive symptoms, which persisted even after adjustments for sex, age, body mass index, monthly expenses, close friends, living on campus, smoking (current and former), education, physical activity, and marital status.

  6. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Habits of Women Endurance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Juliet

    Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…

  7. Validity of Energy Intake Reports in Relation to Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shaneshin, Mahboubeh; Jessri, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    The role of under- and overreporting of energy intake in determining the dietary patterns is yet unclear, especially in the Middle Eastern countries. This study identifies the prevalence of misreporting among Tehranian women aged 18-45 years and to compare the dietary intake patterns of plausible and all energy reporters. Dietary intakes and anthropometric data were collected. FitMate™ metabolic analyzer and Goldberg equation were used in determining the under/overreporting of energy intake. Underreporters were more likely to be overweight and older compared to plausible reporters. Three dietary patterns emerged for all reporters, and two were identified for plausible reporters. Using only plausible reporters to determine dietary patterns was not similar to using all reporters. The proportion of underreporters was 59.3% in the mixture cluster, 30.4% in the unhealthy cluster, and 35.3% in the healthy cluster (p<0.05). Underreporting of energy intake is not uniformly distributed among dietary pattern clusters and tends to be less severe among subjects in the unhealthy cluster. Our data suggested that misreporting of energy intake might affect the dietary pattern analysis. PMID:24847591

  8. Dietary intakes of pesticides based on community duplicate diet samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The calculation of dietary intake of selected pesticides was accomplished using food samples collected from individual representatives of a defined demographic community using a community duplicate diet approach. A community of nine participants was identified in Apopka, FL from...

  9. Dietary Intake Research in Asian Children: Significance and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-01-01

    Food intake studies have a long history. However, until a few decades ago, there was limited quantitative data on feeding patterns and food intake in infants and children living in South Asia. The recent SEANUT study and MING study have provided several new insights into the dietary patterns of children living in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. The complexity and variety of Asian diets makes the collation of dietary information a challenge. The double burden of under-nutrition and over-nutrition is prevalent in many Asian countries. Compared to obesity, stunting is widespread in South East Asia. Our future challenge is to develop food intake assessment techniques which can be refined and made available as a common dietary assessment tool across this region. Successful nutritional intervention can only be achieved if we know what Asian children eat. Dietary intake research will be a key factor in realizing our goal to eradicate malnutrition in this region. PMID:26598852

  10. A review of family meal influence on adolescents' dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M

    2008-01-01

    Recent concerns about adolescent nutrition and unhealthy weights have prompted an examination of the myriad influences on dietary intake during adolescence. Included here are a summary of the literature on family influence on dietary intake, specifically during adolescence and within the family context, a summary of family meal patterns, and a systematic review of the known influences of family meals on dietary intake. Because of the complexity of families in today's society, models were developed to depict the broad context of familial influences on adolescent nutritional behaviours and attitudes and to describe what is known and not known about family meal influences on adolescent dietary intake and quality. A systematic review of the literature revealed seven articles specifically related to adolescents, family meals, and dietary intake, which were analyzed for strength of evidence and plausibility. In spite of data collection methods relying on self-report, results suggested that family meals were associated with improved dietary intakes. Families in today's societies are complex. Nevertheless, parents have the potential to influence positively, through family meals, what food is provided, where it is provided (e.g., home, restaurant), and within what type of atmosphere it is provided. PMID:18334049

  11. USDA develops a database for flavonoids to assess dietary intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beneficial health effects of dietary flavonoids continue to interest the scientific community in associating the flavonoid intakes and certain chronic diseases. Scientists at the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) and the Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG), USDA planned a study of the intakes of fl...

  12. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  13. Prospective Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. Objective The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). Design 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HRQuartile4vs.Quartile1 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66–2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). Conclusion This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data. PMID:24244548

  14. Intake and sources of dietary fatty acids in Europe: Are current population intakes of fats aligned with dietary recommendations?

    PubMed Central

    Eilander, Ans; Harika, Rajwinder K.

    2015-01-01

    1 The development of food‐based dietary guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular diseases requires knowledge of the contribution of common foods to SFA and PUFA intake. We systematically reviewed available data from European countries on population intakes and dietary sources of total fat, SFA, and PUFA. Data from national dietary surveys or population studies published >1995 were searched through Medline, Web of Science, and websites of national public health institutes. Mean population intakes were compared with FAO/WHO dietary recommendations, and contributions of major food groups to overall intakes of fat and fatty acids were calculated. Fatty acid intake data from 24 European countries were included. Reported mean intakes ranged from 28.5 to 46.2% of total energy (%E) for total fat, from 8.9 to 15.5%E for SFA, from 3.9 to 11.3%E for PUFA. The mean intakes met the recommendation for total fat (20–35%E) in 15 countries, and for SFA (<10%E) in two countries, and for PUFA (6–11%E) in 15 of the 24 countries. The main three dietary sources of total fat and SFA were dairy, added fats and oils, and meat and meat products. The majority of PUFA in the diet was provided by added fats and oils, followed by cereals and cereal products, and meat and meat products. Practical applications: While many European countries meet the recommended intake levels for total fat and PUFA, a large majority of European population exceeds the widely recommended maximum 10%E for SFA. In particular animal based products, such as dairy, animal fats, and fatty meat contribute to SFA intake. Adhering to food‐based dietary guidelines for prevention of CHD and other chronic diseases in Europe, including eating less fatty meats, low‐fat instead of full‐fat dairy, and more vegetable fats and oils will help to reduce SFA intake and at the same time increase PUFA intake. In European countries, SFA intakes are generally higher than the recommended <10%E and PUFA intakes lower than the

  15. Dietary Intakes of Urban, High Body Mass Index, African American Children: Family and Child Dietary Attributes Predict Child Intakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…

  16. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Papandreou, Dimitrios; Makedou, Kali; Zormpa, Areti; Karampola, Maria; Ioannou, Anastasia; Hitoglou-Makedou, Areti

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425) children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day) was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3%) of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031) times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity. PMID:27335587

  17. Ventilatory Function in Young Adults and Dietary Antioxidant Intake

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Bakolis, Ioannis; Rona, Roberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants may protect against poor ventilatory function. We assessed the relation between ventilatory function and antioxidant components of diet in young Chileans. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and the ratio FEV1/FVC were measured in 1232 adults aged 22–28 years, using a Vitalograph device. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed for this study, from which nutrient and flavonoid intakes were estimated. Dietary patterns were derived with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). After controlling for potential confounders, dietary intake of total catechins was positively associated with FVC (Regression coefficient (RC) of highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; p per trend 0.006). Total fruit intake was related to FVC (RC of highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.003 to 0.15; p per trend 0.02). Intake of omega 3 fatty acids was associated with a higher FEV1 (RC for highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15 L; p per trend 0.02) and with FVC 0.08 (RC in highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.08, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.16; p per trend 0.04). Our results show that fresh fruits, flavonoids, and omega 3 fatty acids may contribute to maintain ventilatory function. PMID:25884660

  18. Ventilatory function in young adults and dietary antioxidant intake.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Bakolis, Ioannis; Rona, Roberto J

    2015-04-15

    Dietary antioxidants may protect against poor ventilatory function. We assessed the relation between ventilatory function and antioxidant components of diet in young Chileans. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and the ratio FEV1/FVC were measured in 1232 adults aged 22-28 years, using a Vitalograph device. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed for this study, from which nutrient and flavonoid intakes were estimated. Dietary patterns were derived with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). After controlling for potential confounders, dietary intake of total catechins was positively associated with FVC (Regression coefficient (RC) of highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; p per trend 0.006). Total fruit intake was related to FVC (RC of highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.003 to 0.15; p per trend 0.02). Intake of omega 3 fatty acids was associated with a higher FEV1 (RC for highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15 L; p per trend 0.02) and with FVC 0.08 (RC in highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.08, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.16; p per trend 0.04). Our results show that fresh fruits, flavonoids, and omega 3 fatty acids may contribute to maintain ventilatory function.

  19. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Fitting Multivariate Measurement Error Models & Estimating Multivariate Usual Intake Distributions

    Cancer.gov

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a multivariate usual intake distribution for multiple dietary components that are consumed nearly every day or episodically. A SAS macro for performing balanced repeated replication (BRR) variance estimation is also included.

  20. Dietary nutrient intake and antioxidant status in preeclamptic women

    PubMed Central

    Sheykhi, Mahdiye; Paknahad, Zamzam; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is the most common cause of maternal death in the world. Some studies showed that inadequate intake of foods rich in antioxidant leads to increase oxidative stress and adverting obstetrical outcomes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between antioxidant status and dietary nutrient intake in pregnant women with PE. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 55 pregnant women with PE admitted in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were interviewed about demographic data and dietary intakes by using a 168-items semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of this serum was measured by using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Nonparametric correlation statistics were used to meet assumptions of normality and equal variances. Results: Total antioxidant status was significantly higher in comparison with healthy pregnant women (which measured as pilot). Intake of vitamin E was below the dietary reference intakes, and was positively associated with serum TAC (r = 0.367, P = 0.003), but this correlation was significantly negative about dietary selenium. There wasn’t any significant correlation between intake of vitamin C, β-carotene, riboflavin, copper and serum TAC. Conclusion: Our findings showed that intake of vitamin E was positively associated with serum TAC. Little support was found on a relationship between dietary intakes of other micronutrients and serum TAC. Further research is required to explore the relationships between maternal nutrient intake and antioxidant status in women with PE. PMID:26605222

  1. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Spagner, Camilla; Christensen, Tue; Gille, Maj-Britt; Bügel, Susanne; Banke Rasmussen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design A cross-sectional representative national study of the intake of vitamins and minerals from the diet and from dietary supplements. Method The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity, 2000–2004. Participants (n=4,479; 53% females) aged 18–75 years gave information about the use of dietary supplements in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age and gender groups. Among females in the age group 18–49 years, the micronutrient intake from the diet was significantly higher compared with the non-users of dietary supplements. The use of dietary supplements increased with age and with ‘intention to eat healthy.’ Conclusion Intake of micronutrients from the diet alone was considered adequate for both users and non-users of dietary supplements. Younger females who were supplement users had a more micronutrient-dense diet compared to non-users. PMID:21909288

  2. Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheol-Min; Kwon, Hyuk-Tae; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Ahn, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of dietary fat intake on the risk of cardiovascular disease remains unclear. We investigated the association between dietary fat and specific types of fat intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods The study population included 1,662 healthy adults who were 50.2 years of age and had no known hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or metabolic syndrome at the initial visit. Dietary intake was obtained from a 1-day food record. During 20.7 months of follow-up, we documented 147 cases of metabolic syndrome confirmed by self-report, anthropometric data, and blood test results. The intakes of total fat, vegetable fat, animal fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and cholesterol level divided by quintile. Multivariate analyses included age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, total calorie, and protein intake. Results Vegetable fat intake was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome risk (odds ratio for the highest vs. the lowest quintile, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.76). Total fat, animal fat, SFA, PUFA, MUFA, and cholesterol intakes showed no association with metabolic syndrome. Vegetable fat intake was inversely associated with the risk of hypertriglyceridemia among the components of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion These data support an inverse association between vegetable fat and the risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26435816

  3. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps. PMID:25988761

  4. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-05-15

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011-2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1-3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  5. Dietary intake in adolescents with asthma--potential for improvement.

    PubMed

    Bueso, Anne Kørner; Berntsen, Sveinung; Mowinckel, Petter; Andersen, Lene Frost; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2011-02-01

    Associations between an unhealthy diet and overweight and the presence of asthma are reported. The aims of this study were to assess whether the intake of nutrients and food items in adolescents with asthma differs from that of healthy adolescents, whether the intake was in accordance with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) or whether possible relationships were confounded by body composition. A four-day-validated 18-page pre-coded food diary was completed by 169 13- to 14-year-old adolescents, 93 with asthma and 76 healthy control subjects, in addition to clinical assessment, anthropometric measurements, lung function and skin prick tests. Neither intake of added sugar, snacks nor saturated fat was associated with asthma. All groups had an intake of saturated fat and added sugars exceeding the NNR, while the intake of fruits and vegetables, fibre and vitamin D was lower than recommended. The intake of folate, calcium, magnesium and iron was lower than recommended for girls with asthma and healthy girls. The intake of vitamin C was satisfactory for all groups. Body composition did not influence eating habits, and the prevalence of overweight was similar in the two groups. The dietary intake among Norwegian adolescents in general had a potential for improvement. As girls have a lower energy intake than boys, they have a larger demand of quality of the diet. Additional dietary research in adolescents with asthma is recommended.

  6. A review of the dietary intakes of chemical contaminants*

    PubMed Central

    Gorchev, H. Galal; Jelinek, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Data on the dietary intakes of certain contaminants have been received from eleven collaborating centres participating in the Joint FAO/WHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme. The data cover the period from 1971 to 1983 and include information on the intakes of a series of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, cadmium, lead, and aflatoxins. When compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) or provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of the pesticides/contaminants in question, the data indicate that, in some countries, the exposure to certain organochlorine pesticides may constitute a significant portion ofthe ADI. Because of the concentration of these compounds in the fatty portions of food, a high animal fat intake will increase the dietary exposure to organochlorine compounds Dietary intakes of cadmium and lead constitute an appreciable percentage oft he PTWI for these two contaminants. As the intakes of cadmium and lead per kilogram of body weight are highest for infants and children, every effort should be made to reduce the levels of these two contaminants in the food supply. PMID:3879207

  7. Dietary Intake, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Alcohol: Are College Women Following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Suminski, Richard R.; Boss, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed the diet, exercise, and health habits of female college students, calculating body mass index, assessing physical activity, and estimating food and nutrient intake. Overall, no participants had adopted all of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Diets were nutritionally adequate but exceeded national recommendations for fat, sugar, and…

  8. Relevance of integrating agricultural practices in pesticide dietary intake indicator.

    PubMed

    Menard, Céline; Heraud, Fanny; Nougadere, Alexandre; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a new indicator of pesticide dietary intake to screen pesticides to include in monitoring programs. This new indicator called the adjusted TMDI (TMDI_Ad), taking account actual pesticide agricultural uses in France, is more precise than the theoretical maximum dietary intake (TMDI), based on maximum residue levels (MRLs) that is usually used. This new modeling of dietary intake is refined according to actual agricultural pesticide uses on 44 raw agricultural commodities (RAC), among the most consumed in France, and the rate of food importation of these RAC. The TMDI_Ad was below the TMDI for 322 pesticides (79%). The TMDI was above the ADI, for 46 substances. Although 43 of them had a TMDI_Ad below the TMDI, still 36 had a TMDI_Ad above the ADI, which corresponded to substances with the lowest ADIs. Overall, these results indicate that the TMDI_Ad is a useful tool to plan monitoring programs and to refine dietary exposure, according to actual pesticide uses. However, for very toxic substances, having a very low ADI, such as unauthorized substances, other studies have to be conducted in order to better estimate consumer dietary intakes.

  9. Dietary bioactives: establishing a scientific framework for recommended intakes.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Taylor C; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Shao, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, dietary reference intakes describe the relations between nutrient intakes and indicators of adequacy, prevention of disease, and avoidance of excessive intakes among healthy populations for essential nutrients but not dietary bioactive components (DBCs), whose absence from the diet is presumably not deleterious to health (i.e., does not cause a deficiency syndrome). An appropriate framework is needed for establishing recommended intakes for which public health messages and food labeling for DBCs can be derived, because their putative health benefits may not be readily defined in the context of nutritional essentiality. In addition, a myriad of factors make determining their intake and status and investigating their discrete contributions to health particularly challenging. Therefore, the ASN Dietary Bioactive Components Research Interest Section felt it worthwhile to convene a special "hot topic" session at the 2014 Experimental Biology meeting to discuss this issue and serve as a call for future scientific dialogue on establishing a framework for recommended intakes of DBCs. This session summary captures the discussions and presentations that transpired during this session.

  10. Dietary phosphorus intake and mortality in moderate chronic kidney disease: NHANES III

    PubMed Central

    Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Filipowicz, Rebecca; Baird, Bradley C.; Wei, Guo; Greene, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Background. Dietary phosphorus intake is usually restricted in dialysis patients but the associations of dietary phosphorus intake with mortality in moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) are unknown. Therefore, we examined these associations in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Methods. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated from 24-h dietary recalls administered by trained personnel. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Time to mortality was examined by Cox regression models taking into account the complex survey design. Results. 1105 adults with CKD were studied. Phosphorus intake was 1033 ± 482 mg/day (mean ± SD), eGFR was 49.3 ± 9.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 and serum phosphorus was 3.5 ± 0.5 mg/dL. Compared to those in the lowest tertile of phosphorus intake (mean 532 ± 161 mg/day), those in the highest third (1478 ± 378 mg/day) had similar serum phosphorus levels (3.6 ± 0.5 versus 3.5 ± 0.6 mg/dL, P = 0.113) and modestly higher eGFR (50.0 ± 8.1 versus 47.5 ± 12.0 mL/min/1.73 m2, P = 0.014). After adjustment for demographics, comorbidity, eGFR, physical activity, energy intake and nutritional variables, phosphorus intake was not associated with mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.98 per 100 mg/dL increase, 0.93–1.03]. Conclusions. High dietary phosphorus intake is not associated with increased mortality in moderate CKD, presumably because serum phosphorus levels are maintained in the normal range at this level of GFR. Interventional trials are needed to define optimal phosphorus intake in moderate CKD. PMID:21810769

  11. Shift related dietary intake in day and shift workers.

    PubMed

    Lennernäs, M; Hambraeus, L; Akerstedt, T

    1995-12-01

    To study the impact of work hours on eating habits the dietary intake of 96 male industrial workers on day work and two- and three-shift work was investigated using repeated 24 h recall. The intake of energy, 14 nutrients, and coffee and tea was computed, using a nutrient data base, for 8 h work and shifts (day, morning, afternoon, night) and for the 24-h periods including these work shifts. No changes in intake of energy, nutrients and coffee/tea were observed between 8 h morning and afternoon shifts, but there was a reduction in intake during 8 h night shifts. Night shift work caused a redistribution of food and coffee intake, but not an overall 24 h reduction. On the whole, the energy-intake and the quality of food intake (percentages of energy from macronutrients and density of micronutrients) were not affected by shift work, although the intake of carbohydrates was lower in day- and three-shift workers during days off. The intake of alcohol was higher during days off in all groups. In summary, two- and three-shift work in this study affected the circadian distribution of food intakes and coffee consumption, but not the overall 24-h consumption.

  12. Dietary reference intakes: cases of appropriate and inappropriate uses.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Paula R; Barr, Susan I; Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A

    2013-10-01

    The dietary reference intakes (DRIs) are a set of reference intake levels for nutrients that can be used for planning diets and assessing nutrient inadequacies of individuals and groups. Since the publication of the DRI reports 1997-2004, the reference intake levels have been used for various purposes. While DRIs have been used appropriately for planning and assessing diets for many different situations, there have been instances in which specific DRI categories have not been applied as intended. In this review, cases are described in which DRIs were applied correctly, as well as cases from the growing number of examples in which the wrong DRI was used or DRIs were used incorrectly.

  13. Assessment of dietary lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene intakes and sources in the Spanish survey of dietary intake (2009-2010).

    PubMed

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the intake and major dietary sources of lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene (non-provitamin A carotenoids) in Spain using food consumption data from the Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (2009-2010). Three-day diaries and one 24-h recall were used to collect dietary data and a software application that includes HPLC data was used. Average intake of those carotenoids was 4290.8 μg/d (67.1% total carotenoid intake), mainly from vegetables (3414.0 μg/d), followed by fruits (393.5 μg/d), oils/fats (204.0 μg/d) and eggs/egg products (170.0 μg/d). Main sources of lutein and zeaxanthin were vegetables (62.9% total diet, 1235.2 μg/person/d). Lycopene intake was 3055.6 μg/d (71.2% of non-provitamin A carotenoids), mainly from tomato and by-products (86.3%) and watermelon. Red- and orange-colored fruits and vegetables were the major contributors of non-provitamin carotenoids (3219.0 μg/person/d). Balanced diets should favor fruits and vegetables over other dietary sources (oils, eggs, processed foods) that contain components to be consumed with moderation. PMID:26903293

  14. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the establishment of dietary treatment. Design: Women, aged 19 to 30 years, with both restricting and binge purge types of AN, participating in an ecological momentary assessment study, completed three nonc...

  15. Dietary intake assessment using integrated sensors and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Junqing; Pepin, Eric; Johnson, Eric; Hazel, David; Teredesai, Ankur; Kristal, Alan; Mamishev, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The area of dietary assessment is becoming increasingly important as obesity rates soar, but valid measurement of the food intake in free-living persons is extraordinarily challenging. Traditional paper-based dietary assessment methods have limitations due to bias, user burden and cost, and therefore improved methods are needed to address important hypotheses related to diet and health. In this paper, we will describe the progress of our mobile Diet Data Recorder System (DDRS), where an electronic device is used for objective measurement on dietary intake in real time and at moderate cost. The DDRS consists of (1) a mobile device that integrates a smartphone and an integrated laser package, (2) software on the smartphone for data collection and laser control, (3) an algorithm to process acquired data for food volume estimation, which is the largest source of error in calculating dietary intake, and (4) database and interface for data storage and management. The estimated food volume, together with direct entries of food questionnaires and voice recordings, could provide dietitians and nutritional epidemiologists with more complete food description and more accurate food portion sizes. In this paper, we will describe the system design of DDRS and initial results of dietary assessment.

  16. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean body mass in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Geirsdottir, Olof G; Arnarson, Atli; Ramel, Alfons; Jonsson, Palmi V; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-08-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is important to maintain physical function during aging. We hypothesized that dietary protein intake and leisure-time physical activity are associated with LBM in community-dwelling older adults. To test the hypothesis, participants (n = 237; age, 65-92 years) did 3-day weighed food records and reported physical activity. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Protein intake was 0.98 ± 0.28 and 0.95 ± 0.29 g/kg body weight in male and female participants, respectively. Protein intake (in grams per kilogram of body weight) was associated with LBM (in kilograms); that is, the differences in LBM were 2.3 kg (P < .05) and 2.0 kg (P = .054) between the fourth vs the first and the fourth vs the second quartiles of protein intake, respectively. Only a minor part of this association was explained by increased energy intake, which follows an increased protein intake. Our study shows that dietary protein intake was positively associated with LBM in older adults with a mean protein intake higher than the current recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg per day. Leisure-time physical activity, predominantly consisting of endurance type exercises, was not related to LBM in this group.

  17. Dietary intake patterns of low-income urban African-American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Improper dietary intake pattern is a risk factor for chronic disease. Few studies have examined the multifaceted aspects of dietary intake of low-income, urban African American adolescents. Objective: This study aimed to describe dietary intake patterns including energy, nutrient, food g...

  18. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Yongbo; Randell, Edward; Pedram, Pardis; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans. Objective To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study. Design A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics) study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses. Result Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF), percent trunk fat (%TF), percent android fat (%AF), percent gynoid fat (%GF) and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all). Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001). Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes. Conclusion Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are

  19. Critical evaluation of lowering the recommended dietary intake of folate.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Rima; Koletzko, Berthold; Pietrzik, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the recommendation of the Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies for Nutrition of lowering dietary folate intake from 400 to 300 μg dietary folate equivalents/d. A dose-response relation exists between folate intake or plasma level and disease risk within the normal range. Improving folate status can prevent between 30% and 75% of neural tube defects. A prepregnancy plasma folate of >18.0 nmol/L (mean 26.1 nmol/L) is associated with low total homocysteine (tHcy) (<10.0 μmol/L) and optimal prevention of birth defects. Because the closure of the neural tube occurs in the first 8 weeks after conception, women with low prepregnancy folate intake cannot achieve maximal risk reduction. The Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies for Nutrition recommend that young women should additionally supplement with 400 μg folic acid at least 4 weeks before conception. This short time window is not sufficient to achieve optimal plasma folate and tHcy levels in the majority of women. Factors affecting the relation between folate intake and blood biomarkers are total folate intake, baseline plasma folate, time available for supplement use, dose and form (folic acid or methyl folate), genetic polymorphisms, physiological and lifestyle factors. Lowering the recommended dietary folate intake may have important public health consequences. Elderly people and young women are at risk for diseases related to folate shortage. Reducing birth defects through supplementation of folic acid remains a poor option, as <20% of young women (i.e., in Germany) supplement with the vitamin. Recommending adequate food folate intake is crucial for reaching the target protective plasma folate levels in the population.

  20. Dietary intake and the metabolic syndrome in overweight Latino children.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Emily E; Davis, Jaimie N; Alexander, Katharine E; Shaibi, Gabriel Q; Lee, Won; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M; Lane, Christianne J; Kelly, Louise A; Weigensberg, Marc J; Goran, Michael I

    2008-08-01

    Little is known about the relationship between diet and metabolic health in Latino children, a population at increased risk for diabetes. The present study evaluates diet composition and the metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional sample of 109 overweight Latino children aged 10 to 17 years with a family history of type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-hour recalls. Associations between nutrients and features of the metabolic syndrome were examined using multiple linear regression and analysis of covariance. Log cholesterol intake was positively associated with log systolic blood pressure (beta=0.034, P=0.017) and log soluble dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with log waist circumference (beta=-0.069, P=0.036). Log soluble fiber intake was significantly higher in participants with 0 features compared to those with 3+ features of the metabolic syndrome (P=0.046), which translates to 5.2 g vs 4.1 g soluble fiber daily. No other significant associations were found between dietary variables and either the individual features of the metabolic syndrome or the clustering of metabolic syndrome components. Increases in soluble fiber through the daily consumption of fruits, vegetables, and beans may improve metabolic health in Latino children.

  1. Dietary sodium intake, airway responsiveness, and cellular sodium transport.

    PubMed

    Tribe, R M; Barton, J R; Poston, L; Burney, P G

    1994-06-01

    Both epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggest that a high dietary sodium intake may increase airway responsiveness, but no adequate explanation exists of how changes in sodium intake might lead to increased responsiveness. This investigation was carried out to study dietary sodium intake and airway response to methacholine in relation to cellular sodium transport in 52 young men. Airway response to methacholine was associated with urinary sodium excretion when subjects were on normal sodium intake. Airway responsiveness in patients with mild asthma correlated with the furosemide-insensitive influx of sodium into peripheral leukocytes stimulated by autologous serum, but there was no relation between this influx and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. In a separate investigation, serum from subjects with increased airway responsiveness caused an increase in the sodium influx and sodium content of leukocytes from nonatopic subjects. The magnitude of the furosemide-insensitive, serum stimulated influx was related to the degree of airway responsiveness of the serum donor, as was the increase in intracellular sodium content. Neither was related to the 24-h urinary sodium excretion of the donor. Patients with airway hyperresponsiveness have an increased sodium influx into cells stimulated by a serum-borne factor. This is independent of the effect of added dietary sodium on airway responsiveness.

  2. Dietary intake and anthropometric reference values in population studies.

    PubMed

    Arija, Victoria; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Martínez de Vitoria, Emilio; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Luis; Ribas, Lourdes; Aranceta, Javier

    2015-02-26

    In nutritional epidemiology it is essential to have reference values for nutrition and anthropometry in order to compare individual and population data. With respect to reference nutritional intake, the new concept of Dietary Reference Intakes is generated based more on the prevention of chronic diseases than on covering nutritional deficiencies, as would occur in the early Recommendations. As such, the more relevant international organizations incorporated new concepts in their tables, such as the Adequate Intake levels or the Tolerable Upper Intake levels. Currently, the EURRECA recommendations (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned) are generating reference values for Europe in a transparent, systematic and scientific manner. Using the DRI, health-care authorities formulated nutritional objectives for countries or territories and Dietary Guides to disseminate the dietary advice to the population. Anthropometric assessment continues to be one of the most-used methods for evaluating and monitoring health status, nutritional state and growth in children, not only individuals but also communities. Different organizations have established anthropometric reference patterns of body mass index (BMI) with cut-off points to define overweight and obesity. In children, growth curves have been revised and adapted to the characteristics of healthy children in order to obtain anthropometric reference standards that better reflect optimum growth in children. The Growth Standards for children below 5 years of age of the WHO are a response to these principles, and are widely accepted and used worldwide.

  3. Revision of dietary reference intakes for energy in preschool-age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for energy aim to balance energy expenditure at a level of physical activity consistent with health and support adequate growth in children. DRIs were derived from total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; however, the dat...

  4. Relationship between dietary intake and dental caries in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chin-En; Huang, Yi-Chia; Hu, Suh-Woan

    2010-06-01

    This study assessed the relationship between intake of nutrients and dental caries in preschool children. One hundred and eighty-two children aged three to six years were recruited from nine day care centers in central Taiwan. These children had an oral health examination, and their parents or guardians answered a questionnaire. Each child's intake of nutrients was estimated using the 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire data. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the associations between dental caries and intake of each nutrient or food group, with adjustment for potential confounders. The prevalence of dental caries was 73 % and increased with age. Not being a first-born and having more between-meal snacks were associated with increased caries risk. After controlling for other important factors, vitamin A intake was significantly associated with fewer dental caries (deft, decayed, indicated for extraction, and filled primary teeth: ≥ 4 vs. < 4), with an odds ratio of 0.97 (95 % confidence interval: 0.94 - 0.99) for an 100-μg increase in vitamin A intake. There was no significant association between dental caries and energy, macronutrient intake, and Ca/P ratio, respectively. Vegetable intake was also significantly associated with lower dental caries score.

  5. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the U.S. population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  6. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Estimating Ratios of Two Dietary Components that are Consumed Nearly Every Day

    Cancer.gov

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a bivariate distribution of usual intake of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day and to calculate percentiles of the population distribution of the ratio of usual intakes.

  7. Equilibrium energy intake estimated by dietary energy intake and body weight changes in young Japanese females.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kayoko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Kodama, Naoko; Yoshitake, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    To determine the energy intake (EI) required to maintain body weight (equilibrium energy intake: EEI), we investigated the relationship between calculated energy intake and body weight changes in female subjects participating in 14 human balance studies (n=149) conducted at the National Institute of Health and Nutrition (Tokyo). In four and a half studies (n=43), sweat was collected from the arm to estimate loss of minerals through sweating during exercise on a bicycle ergometer; these subjects were classified in the exercise group (Ex G). In nine and a half experiments (n=106) subjects did not exercise, and were classified in the sedentary group (Sed G). The relationship between dietary energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW) changes (ΔBW) was analyzed and divided by four variables: body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM), standard body weight (SBW), and body surface area (BSA). Equilibrium energy intake (EEI) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for EEI in Ex G were 34.3 and 32.8-35.9 kcal/kg BW/d, 32.0 and 30.8-33.1 kcal/kg SBW/d, 46.3 and 44.2-48.5 kcal/kg LBW/d, and 1,200 and 1,170-1,240 kcal/m(2) BSA/d, respectively. EEI and 95% CI for EEI in Sed G were 34.5 and 33.9-35.1 kcal/kg BW/d, 31.4 and 30.9-32.0 kcal/kg SBW/d, 44.9 and 44.1-45.8 kcal/kg LBM/d, and 1,200 and 1,180-1,210 kcal/m2 BSA/d, respectively. EEIs obtained in this study are 3 to 5% higher than estimated energy requirement (EER) for Japanese. In five out of six analyses, EER in a population (female, 18-29 y, physical activity level: 1.50) was under 95% CI of EEI obtained in this study.

  8. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of stomach and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Jeongseon

    2013-02-21

    Stomach and colorectal cancers are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths. Because the alimentary tract can interact directly with dietary components, stomach and colorectal cancer may be closely related to dietary intake. We systematically searched published literature written in English via PubMed by searching for terms related to stomach and colorectal cancer risk and dietary flavonoids up to June 30, 2012. Twenty-three studies out of 209 identified articles were finally selected for the analysis. Log point effect estimates and the corresponding standard errors were calculated using covariate-adjusted point effect estimates and 95%CIs from the selected studies. Total dietary flavonoid intake was not associated with a reduced risk of colorectal or stomach cancer [odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) = 1.00 (0.90-1.11) and 1.07 (0.70-1.61), respectively]. Among flavonoid subclasses, the intake of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, and proanthocyanidins showed a significant inverse association with colorectal cancer risk [OR (95%CI) = 0.71 (0.63-0.81), 0.88 (0.79-0.97), 0.68 (0.56-0.82), and 0.72 (0.61-0.85), respectively]. A significant association was found only between flavonols and stomach cancer risk based on a limited number of selected studies [OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.46-0.99)]. In the summary estimates from case-control studies, all flavonoid subclasses except flavones and flavanones were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, whereas neither total flavonoids nor any subclasses of flavonoids were associated with colorectal cancer risk in the summary estimates based on the cohort studies. The significant association between flavonoid subclasses and cancer risk might be closely related to bias derived from the case-control design. There was no clear evidence that dietary flavonoids are associated with reduced risk of stomach and colorectal cancer.

  9. Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population.

    PubMed

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sweeteners. Even consumers with high intakes were not exposed to excessive levels, as relative intakes at the 95th percentile (p95) were 31% for acesulfame-K, 13% for aspartame, 30% for cyclamate, 17% for saccharin, and 16% for sucralose of the respective ADIs. Assessment of intake using a Tier 3 approach was preceded by optimisation and validation of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of sweeteners in various food matrices and table-top sweeteners were determined and mean positive concentration values were included in the Tier 3 approach, leading to relative intakes at p95 of 17% for acesulfame-K, 5% for aspartame, 25% for cyclamate, 11% for saccharin, and 7% for sucralose of the corresponding ADIs. The contribution of table-top sweeteners to the total usual intake (<1% of ADI) was negligible. A comparison of observed intake for the total population with intake for diabetics (acesulfame-K: 3.55 versus 3.75; aspartame: 6.77 versus 6.53; cyclamate: 1.97 versus 2.06; saccharine: 1.14 versus 0.97; sucralose: 3.08 versus 3.03, expressed as mg kg(-1) bodyweight day(-1) at p95) showed that the latter group was not exposed to higher levels. It was concluded that the Belgian population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for sweeteners.

  10. Towards establishing dietary reference intakes for eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Lefevre, Michael; Toner, Cheryl D; Colombo, John; Cunnane, Stephen C; Holden, Joanne M; Klurfeld, David M; Morris, Martha Clare; Whelan, Jay

    2009-04-01

    There is considerable interest in the impact of (n-3) long-chain PUFA in mitigating the morbidity and mortality caused by chronic diseases. In 2002, the Institute of Medicine concluded that insufficient data were available to define Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), noting only that EPA and DHA could contribute up to 10% toward meeting the Adequate Intake for alpha-linolenic acid. Since then, substantial new evidence has emerged supporting the need to reassess this recommendation. Therefore, the Technical Committee on Dietary Lipids of the International Life Sciences Institute North America sponsored a workshop on 4-5 June 2008 to consider whether the body of evidence specific to the major chronic diseases in the United States--coronary heart disease (CHD), cancer, and cognitive decline--had evolved sufficiently to justify reconsideration of DRI for EPA+DHA. The workshop participants arrived at these conclusions: 1) consistent evidence from multiple research paradigms demonstrates a clear, inverse relation between EPA+DHA intake and risk of fatal (and possibly nonfatal) CHD, providing evidence that supports a nutritionally achievable DRI for EPA+DHA between 250 and 500 mg/d; 2) because of the demonstrated low conversion from dietary ALA, protective tissue levels of EPA+DHA can be achieved only through direct consumption of these fatty acids; 3) evidence of beneficial effects of EPA+DHA on cognitive decline are emerging but are not yet sufficient to support an intake level different from that needed to achieve CHD risk reduction; 4) EPA+DHA do not appear to reduce risk for cancer; and 5) there is no evidence that intakes of EPA+DHA in these recommended ranges are harmful.

  11. Dietary intake of sulphites by children in the Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Sinková, Terézia; Janeková, Katarína

    2006-03-01

    The mean dietary intake of sulphites by Slovak children aged 7 to 10 years was estimated. Calculations were based on a food model of a specific boarding-school in January, May, July and October while respecting the scientifically recommended dietary allowances. It was assumed that sulphites were used in the widest possible range of foods and at maximum permitted levels. Due to this fact and since sulphites are partially lost during food processing and storage, the results are over-estimated. However the mean daily exposure of consumers with the lowest (21 kg) and the mean (26.5 kg) body weight to sulphites ranged from 44 to 55% and from 36 to 43% of the acceptable daily intake value (ADI) respectively. Due to availability of various foods the dietary models were not affected seasonally and thus no differences among intakes of sulphites in individual months were obvious. The results indicated that the above mentioned group of children is sufficiently protected from the hazard of sulphites in food.

  12. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake.

  13. Dietary fat intake and risk for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jing; Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Park, YikYung; Huang, Xuemei; Blair, Aaron; Kamel, Freya; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previous epidemiological studies have generated inconsistent results regarding the associations between dietary fat intakes and risk for Parkinson’s disease (PD). We therefore prospectively examined these associations in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. METHODS A 124-item food frequency questionnaire was administered at baseline in 1995–1996, and PD diagnosis was self-reported at the follow-up survey in 2004–2006. A total of 1,087 cases with a PD diagnosis between 2000 and 2006 and 299,617 controls were included in the analyses. RESULTS Overall, intakes of fats and other macronutrients were not associated with PD risk. However, we found a weak positive association between n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the risk for PD. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) between extreme quintiles of n-6 PUFA intake was 1.23 (95% CI=1.02–1.49, P for trend=0.02). A similar association was observed for the intake of linoleic acid. Results were similar among men and among women. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that fat intake in general is not related to the risk for PD. The weak positive association between intake of n-6 PUFA and PD risk needs further investigation. PMID:25186946

  14. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined. PMID:27038174

  15. Dietary intake and nutritional status in Italian elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Inelmen, E M; Gimenez, G F; Gatto, M R; Miotto, F; Sergi, G; Marccari, T; Gonzalez, A M; Maggi, S; Peruzza, S; Pisent, C; Enzi, G

    2000-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status was assessed in a random sample of 190 Italians (70-75 years of age) participating in the Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly (EURONUT-SENECA). The daily energy intake as assessed by a Modified Dietary History, was 2208+/-562 Kcalories in men and 1742+/-527 Kcalories in women. The alcohol intake was significantly higher in men than in women (35. 9+/-32.5 g/day vs 14.7+/-15.4 g/day; p<0.0001). As for calcium, there was a high percentage of men (77%) and women (86%) with a lower intake than the recommended values. The subjects underweight (BMI<20) were only 4.1% men and 9.7% women, while the great part was normal (BMI= 20-24.9) and overweight (BMI=25-29.9). The body composition parameters showed a significant difference between two genders. Men had a Total Body Water (56.5+/-4.5% vs 51.3+/-5.4%; p<0. 001) and Fat-Free Mass (80.4+/-5.2% vs 70.9+/-6.8%; p<0.001) higher than women. Few subjects were at high risk of deficiency with regard to plasma levels of vitamins, haemoglobin and albumin. If we analyse the composition of the diet consumed, we can remark the characteristics of a typical Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the general nutritional status of our sample was fairly good.

  16. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  17. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B.; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W.; Gilhooly, Cheryl H.; Kelly, Michael J.; Parsons, lkSusan K.; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE ×100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:25883059

  18. Dietary reference intakes for zinc may require adjustment for phytate intake based upon model predictions.

    PubMed

    Hambidge, K Michael; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie E; Krebs, Nancy F

    2008-12-01

    The quantity of total dietary zinc (Zn) and phytate are the principal determinants of the quantity of absorbed Zn. Recent estimates of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for Zn by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) were based on data from low-phytate or phytate-free diets. The objective of this project was to estimate the effects of increasing quantities of dietary phytate on these DRI. We used a trivariate model of the quantity of Zn absorbed as a function of dietary Zn and phytate with updated parameters to estimate the phytate effect on the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Daily Allowance for Zn for both men and women. The EAR predicted from the model at 0 phytate was very close to the EAR of the IOM. The addition of 1000 mg phytate doubled the EAR and adding 2000 mg phytate tripled the EAR. The model also predicted that the EAR for men and women could not be attained with phytate:Zn molar ratios > 11:1 and 15:1, respectively. The phytate effect on upper limits (UL) was predicted by first estimating the quantity of absorbed Zn corresponding to the UL of 40 mg for phytate-free diets, which is 6.4 mg Zn/d. Extrapolation of the model suggested, for example, that with 900 mg/d phytate, 100 mg dietary Zn is required to attain 6.4 mg absorbed Zn/d. Experimental studies with higher Zn intakes are required to test these predictions.

  19. Dietary intake and ghrelin and leptin changes after sleeve gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zavadilová, Vladislava; Holéczy, Pavol; Švagera, Zdeněk; Švorc, Pavol; Foltys, Aleš; Zonča, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Surgical intervention in obesity is today the most effective treatment method in high level obesity management. Bariatric interventions not only ensure body weight reduction, but may influence dietary habits. Aim To assess changes in adipose hormones and dietary habits in obese patients after sleeve gastrectomy. Material and methods The study set comprised 37 subjects (29 females and 8 males) 24 to 68 years old with body mass index 43.0 ±4.9 kg/m2. Pre-operative examination included baseline measurements of body composition. Dietary habits and intake frequency were monitored by a questionnaire method. Follow-up examinations were carried out in a scope identical to the pre-operative examination, 6 and 12 months after surgery, respectively. Results The average patient weight loss 12 months after surgery was 31.7 kg. Excess weight loss was 55.2 ±20.6%. Patients reported reduced appetite (p < 0.001), increasingly regular food intake (p < 0.001), intake of more meal portions per day (p = 0.003) and a decrease in consuming the largest portions during the afternoon and evening (p = 0.030). Plasma levels of fasting glucose, leptin and ghrelin significantly decreased (p = 0.006; p = 0.0.043); in contrast, the level of adiponectin significantly increased (p < 0.001). Conclusions Sleeve gastrectomy and follow-up nutritional therapy resulted in a significant body weight reduction within 1 year after surgery. An improvement of certain dietary habits in patients was registered. At 12 months after surgery, there were no statistically significant differences in decreases in ghrelin and leptin concentrations between patients without changed appetite and those reporting decreased appetite. PMID:25561993

  20. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  1. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  2. Dietary fibre intakes of individuals with different eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Davies, G J; Crowder, M; Dickerson, J W

    1985-04-01

    This study was undertaken to provide evidence of the variation in the diet necessary to incorporate a high fibre content. Food intakes were measured for seven days by 51 subjects who were either omnivores, vegetarians or vegans. Omnivores consumed the least fibre (23 g), vegetarians significantly more (37 g) and vegans the most (47 g). Men had higher intakes (44 g) than women (30.5 g). Vegans ate the most cereal fibre, but high intake of fibre by both vegetarian groups were due to their preference for unrefined foods, particularly bread. Higher intakes of vegetable fibre by both vegetarian groups were due to high consumption of pulses. Total dietary fibre was significantly related to cereal fibre. As the percentage of fibre increased, the percentage of energy derived from protein decreased. Fat contributed less energy (34 per cent) to the vegan than to the omnivore diet (41 per cent). This study showed that high fibre intake can be achieved on an omnivorous diet and the observation that high fibre diets are possible when the energy content is low, is of relevance to slimming regimes.

  3. Predictors of dietary heterocyclic amine intake in three prospective cohorts.

    PubMed

    Byrne, C; Sinha, R; Platz, E A; Giovannucci, E; Colditz, G A; Hunter, D J; Speizer, F E; Willett, W C

    1998-06-01

    Cooking meat creates heterocyclic amines (HCAs) through pyrolysis of amino acids and creatinine. Although recognized as mutagenic, the etiological role of HCA in human cancer is unclear, due to the lack of information on the effect of typical food cooking methods on HCA concentrations and on variation in HCA exposure in populations. We estimated overall daily dietary HCA intake and variation in intake between individuals, using recent data on HCA concentrations in various meats prepared by cooking methods, temperatures, and times common in United States in the 1990s. Random samples of 250 participants from each of three large prospective cohorts were mailed a questionnaire to assess frequency of consumption, cooking method, and typical outside appearance of pan-fried, broiled, and grilled or barbecued chicken, fish, hamburger, and steak; fried, microwaved, and broiled bacon; fried sausage; roast beef; and homemade gravy. The 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5,f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) concentrations, measured in composite samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography, were assigned to each food, cooking method, and doneness level. The dietary reports showed approximately 30-fold relative variation in 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline intake, 20-fold for 2-amino- -methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, and over 110-fold for 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5,f]quinoxaline, when the 10th and 90th percentiles of HCA intake were compared (90th/10th percentile value). These reported variations in HCA exposure among participants in these three large cohorts indicates that estimation of HCA intake and determination of association with disease risk are feasible, if additional information on meat cooking methods is obtained.

  4. Dietary intake in adults at risk for Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Marder, K; Zhao, H; Eberly, S; Tanner, C M.; Oakes, D; Shoulson, I

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine caloric intake, dietary composition, and body mass index (BMI) in participants in the Prospective Huntington At Risk Observational Study (PHAROS). Methods: Caloric intake and macronutrient composition were measured using the National Cancer Institute Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) in 652 participants at risk for Huntington disease (HD) who did not meet clinical criteria for HD. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between macronutrients, BMI, caloric intake, and genetic status (CAG <37 vs CAG ≥37), adjusting for age, gender, and education. Linear regression was used to determine the relationship between caloric intake, BMI, and CAG repeat length. Results: A total of 435 participants with CAG <37 and 217 with CAG ≥37 completed the FFQ. Individuals in the CAG ≥37 group had a twofold odds of being represented in the second, third, or fourth quartile of caloric intake compared to the lowest quartile adjusted for age, gender, education, and BMI. This relationship was attenuated in the highest quartile when additionally adjusted for total motor score. In subjects with CAG ≥37, higher caloric intake, but not BMI, was associated with both higher CAG repeat length (adjusted regression coefficient = 0.26, p = 0.032) and 5-year probability of onset of HD (adjusted regression coefficient = 0.024; p = 0.013). Adjusted analyses showed no differences in macronutrient composition between groups. Conclusions: Increased caloric intake may be necessary to maintain body mass index in clinically unaffected individuals with CAG repeat length ≥37. This may be related to increased energy expenditure due to subtle motor impairment or a hypermetabolic state. GLOSSARY BEE = basal energy expenditure; BMI = body mass index; FFQ = Food Frequency Questionnaire; HD = Huntington disease; OR = odds ratio; PD = Parkinson disease; PHAROS = Prospective Huntington At Risk Observational Study; TEE = total energy expenditure; UHDRS = Unified

  5. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  6. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged.

  7. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  8. Differential regulation of renal cyclooxygenase mRNA by dietary salt intake.

    PubMed

    Jensen, B L; Kurtz, A

    1997-11-01

    Experiments were done to investigate the influence of dietary salt intake on renal cyclooxygenase (COX) I and II mRNA levels. To this end rats were fed either a low NaCl diet (LS; 0.02% NaCl wt/wt) or a high NaCl diet (HS diet; 4% NaCl wt/wt) for 5, 10 and 20 days. After 10 days Na excretion differed 760-fold, plasma renin activity and renin mRNA were increased eight- and threefold in LS compared to HS animals. Total renal COX I mRNA decreased 50% following the LS diet and did not change after the HS diet. Conversely, COX II mRNA declined after HS intake and transiently increased after salt depletion. COX I and II mRNAs were unevenly distributed along the cortical-medullary axis with ratios of the cortex:outer medulla:papilla of 1:3:23 and 1:1:2, respectively. Cortical COX mRNAs were inversely regulated by salt intake with eightfold changes in COX II. Conversely, in medullary zones, COX I mRNA correlated directly with salt intake. We conclude that dietary salt intake influences renal cyclooxygenase mRNAs zone-specifically with opposite responses between cortex and medulla. Cortical COX II-mediated prostaglandin formation is probably important in low salt states whereas medullary COX I-produced prostaglandins seem to be more important for renal adaptation to a high salt intake.

  9. Dietary fat intake and quality of life: the SUN project

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have related nutritional factors with quality of life in healthy populations. The purpose of the study was to assess whether dietary fat intake is associated to mental and physical quality of life. Methods This analysis included 8,430 participants from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project. The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was assessed through a 136-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Quality of life was measured with the SF-36 Health Survey after 4 years of follow-up. Generalized Linear Models were fitted to assess the regression coefficients (b) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the 8 domains of the SF-36 according to successive quintiles of each kind of fatty acids intake. Results The multivariate-adjusted models revealed a significant inverse association for SFA intake (in quintiles) and two of the physical domains (physical functioning and general health). E.g. for general health domain: (highest quintile of intake (Q5) vs. lowest quintile (Q1), b = -1.6; 95% CI = -3.1, -0.1. General health also showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend < 0.05). For TFA intake (in quintiles), a significant inverse association was found for most of the mental domains (vitality, social functioning and role emotional). E.g. for vitality domain (Q5) vs. (Q1), b = -2.0, 95% CI = -3.4 to -0.6. We also found an inverse association between TFA intake and the bodily pain domain: (Q5 vs. Q1), b = -2.6; 95% CI = -4.4 to -0.8, with a statistically significant dose-response relationship (p for trend < 0.05). Except for TFA intake and the mental domains, the rest of the associations were attenuated when we repeated the analysis adjusting for adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Conclusions A detrimental relationship between TFA intake at baseline and most of the SF-36 mental domains measured 4 years

  10. The Effect of Dietary Intake on Inflammation and Inflammatory Biomarkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cailliau, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Within the Human Health and Performance Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center, it is the responsibility of the Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory to determine nutrient requirements and research the role of nutrition as a potential countermeasure to the negative effects of spaceflight on human physiology. As a part of the lab, the goal of my project was to determine if and how diet affects inflammation and immune system function during spaceflight. This project involved analysis of both dietary and biochemical data from 20 participants in a prior bed rest study as well as from 17 subjects' flight data. Specifically, I evaluated how the dietary inflammatory index (DII), a calculated estimate, compared to a set of immune and inflammatory blood and urine biomarkers. Comparing DII score and biomarkers helps to determine how intake of certain diet patterns influences inflammation in the body. My project will evaluate the effectiveness of this tool for use in the spaceflight analog bed rest.

  11. Dietary intake, food composition and nutrient intake in wild and captive populations of Daubentonia madagascariensis.

    PubMed

    Sterling, E J; Dierenfeld, E S; Ashbourne, C J; Feistner, A T

    1994-01-01

    Data are presented on dietary and nutrient intake in a wild population of aye-ayes. Study animals ate 4 main food types: seeds, nectar, fungus and insect larvae. Calculated calorie intake was slightly lower during the cold season than during the hot, wet and the hot, dry seasons. Total intakes almost doubled to compensate for the lower energy content of the diet during the cold season. Comparison of natural and captive diets suggests that maintenance and even growth requirements of aye-ayes can be met by relatively low-fat, low-protein diets. Daily energy requirements were estimated to average about 280 kcal metabolizable energy/day. Animals in the wild were estimated to eat between 260 and 342 kcal, while captive animals consumed 260 kcal/day. PMID:7721197

  12. Recommended dietary reference intakes, nutritional goals and dietary guidelines for fat and fatty acids: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aranceta, Javier; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Dietary fat and its effects on health and disease has attracted interest for research and Public Health. Since the 1980s many bodies and organizations have published recommendations regarding fat intake. In this paper different sets of recommendations are analyzed following a systematic review process to examine dietary reference intakes, nutritional goals and dietary guidelines for fat and fatty acids. A literature search was conducted in relevant literature databases along a search for suitable grey literature reports. Documents were included if they reported information on either recommended intake levels or dietary reference values or nutritional objectives or dietary guidelines regarding fat and/or fatty acids and/or cholesterol intake or if reported background information on the process followed to produce the recommendations. There is no standard approach for deriving nutrient recommendations. Recommendations vary between countries regarding the levels of intake advised, the process followed to set the recommendations. Recommendations on fat intake share similar figures regarding total fat intake, saturated fats and trans fats. Many sets do not include a recommendation about cholesterol intake. Most recent documents provide advice regarding specific n-3 fatty acids. Despite efforts to develop evidence based nutrient recommendations and dietary guidelines that may contribute to enhance health, there are still many gaps in research. It would be desirable that all bodies concerned remain transparent about the development of dietary recommendations. In order to achieve this, the type of evidence selected to base the recommendations should be specified and ranked. Regular updates of such recommendations should be planned.

  13. Dietary flavonoid intake and incidence of erectile dysfunction1

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Aedín; Franz, Mary; Rimm, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    Background: The predominant etiology for erectile dysfunction (ED) is vascular, but limited data are available on the role of diet. A higher intake of several flavonoids reduces diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk, but no studies have examined associations between flavonoids and erectile function. Objective: This study examined the relation between habitual flavonoid subclass intakes and incidence of ED. Design: We conducted a prospective study among 25,096 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Total flavonoid and subclass intakes were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires collected every 4 y. Participants rated their erectile function in 2000 (with historical reporting from 1986) and again in 2004 and 2008. Results: During 10 y of follow-up, 35.6% reported incident ED. After multivariate adjustment, including classic cardiovascular disease risk factors, several subclasses were associated with reduced ED incidence, specifically flavones (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.97; P-trend = 0.006), flavanones (RR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.95; P-trend = 0.0009), and anthocyanins (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.98; P-trend = 0.002) comparing extreme intakes. The results remained statistically significant after additional adjustment for a composite dietary intake score. In analyses stratified by age, a higher intake of flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavones was significantly associated with a reduction in risk of ED only in men <70 y old and not older men (11–16% reduction in risk; P-interaction = 0.002, 0.03, and 0.007 for flavones, flavanones, and anthocyanins, respectively). In food-based analysis, higher total intake of fruit, a major source of anthocyanins and flavanones, was associated with a 14% reduction in risk of ED (RR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.92; P = 0.002). Conclusions: These data suggest that a higher habitual intake of specific flavonoid-rich foods is associated with reduced ED incidence. Intervention trials are needed to further examine the

  14. Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual’s dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual’s total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes. PMID:27626442

  15. Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual's dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual's total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes.

  16. Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual's dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual's total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes. PMID:27626442

  17. Assessment of daily food and nutrient intake in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients using dietary reference intakes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2013-06-26

    Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40-79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.

  18. Higher Dietary Acidity is Associated with Lower Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Iranian Women, Independent of Dietary Calcium Intake.

    PubMed

    Shariati-Bafghi, Seyedeh-Elaheh; Nosrat-Mirshekarlou, Elaheh; Karamati, Mohsen; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Findings of studies on the link between dietary acid-base balance and bone mass are relatively mixed. We examined the association between dietary acid-base balance and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of Iranian women, hypothesizing that a higher dietary acidity would be inversely associated with BMD, even when dietary calcium intake is adequate. In this cross-sectional study, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs of 151 postmenopausal women aged 50-85 years were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Renal net acid excretion (RNAE), an estimate of acid-base balance, was then calculated indirectly from the diet using the formulae of Remer (based on dietary intakes of protein, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium; RNAERemer) and Frassetto (based on dietary intakes of protein and potassium; RNAEFrassetto), and was energy adjusted by the residual method. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable adjusted means of the lumbar spine BMD of women in the highest tertiles of RNAERemer and RNAEFrassetto were significantly lower than those in the lowest tertiles (for RNAERemer: mean difference -0.084 g/cm2; P=0.007 and for RNAEFrassetto: mean difference -0.088 g/cm2; P=0.004). Similar results were observed in a subgroup analysis of subjects with dietary calcium intake of >800 mg/day. In conclusion, a higher RNAE (i. e. more dietary acidity), which is associated with greater intake of acid-generating foods and lower intake of alkali-generating foods, may be involved in deteriorating the bone health of postmenopausal Iranian women, even in the context of adequate dietary calcium intake.

  19. Positive association between dietary iron intake and iron status in HIV-infected children in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Herculina S; Balk, Lisanne J; Viljoen, Michelle; Meyers, Tammy M

    2013-01-01

    Anemia is a common complication of pediatric HIV infection and is associated with suboptimal cognitive performance and growth failure. Routine iron supplementation is not provided to South African HIV-infected children. We hypothesized that dietary iron intake without supplementation is sufficient to protect against iron deficiency (ID) in HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. In this prospective study, the difference between dietary intakes of iron-deficient children (soluble transferrin receptor >9.4 mg/L) and iron-sufficient children after 18 months on highly active antiretroviral therapy was examined. The association between iron intake and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was also assessed. Longitudinal data collected for 18 months from 58 HIV-infected African children were assessed by generalized estimation equations, with adjustment for demographic information, dietary intakes, growth parameters, and CD4%. After adjustment for covariates, the longitudinal association between dietary iron intake and Hb concentration remained significant. This association shows that for every 1-mg increase in iron intake per day, Hb increases by 1.1 g/L (P < .001). Mean Hb increased significantly after 18 months of follow-up (106 ± 14 to 129 ± 14 g/L, P < .01), but soluble transferrin receptor also increased (7.7 ± 2.7 to 8.9 ± 3.0 mg/L, P < .01). The incidence of ID increased from 15.2% at baseline to 37.2% after 18 months. Children with animal protein intakes greater than >20 g/d had significantly lower odds for ID at 18 months than did children with lower intakes (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.77). Dietary iron intake was insufficient to protect against ID, pointing to a need for low-dose iron supplementation for iron-deficient HIV-infected children and interventions to increase the consumption of animal protein.

  20. Assessment of Pre-Pregnancy Dietary Intake with a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Alberta Women

    PubMed Central

    Ramage, Stephanie M.; McCargar, Linda J.; Berglund, Casey; Harber, Vicki; Bell, Rhonda C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Pre-pregnancy is an under-examined and potentially important time to optimize dietary intake to support fetal growth and development as well as maternal health. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which dietary intake reported by non-pregnant women is similar to pre-pregnancy dietary intake reported by pregnant women using the same assessment tool. Methods: The self-administered, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was adapted from the Canadian version of the Diet History Questionnaire, originally developed by the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Pregnant women (n = 98) completed the FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the year prior to pregnancy. Non-pregnant women (n = 103) completed the same FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the previous year. Energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients: long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D and iron were examined. Results: Dietary intake between groups; reported with the FFQ; was similar except for saturated fat; trans fat; calcium; and alcohol. Pregnant women reported significantly higher intakes of saturated fat; trans fat; and calcium and lower intake of alcohol in the year prior to pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women who reported intake in the previous year. Conclusions: Despite limitations; a FFQ may be used to assist with retrospective assessment of pre-pregnancy dietary intake. PMID:26225996

  1. Dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular mortality: controversy resolved?

    PubMed

    Alderman, Michael H; Cohen, Hillel W

    2012-07-01

    Universal reduction in sodium intake has long been recommended, largely because of its proven ability to lower blood pressure for some. However, multiple randomized trials have also demonstrated that similar reductions in sodium increase plasma renin activity and aldosterone secretion, insulin resistance, sympathetic nerve activity, serum cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Thus, the health consequences of reducing sodium cannot be predicted by its impact on any single physiologic characteristic but will reflect the net of conflicting effects. Some 23 observational studies (>360,000 subjects and >26,000 end points) linking sodium intake to cardiovascular outcomes have yielded conflicting results. In subjects with average sodium intakes of less than 4.5 g/day, most have found an inverse association of intake with outcome; in subjects with average intakes greater than 4.5 g/day, most reported direct associations. Finally, in two, a "J-shaped" relation was detected. In addition, three randomized trials have found that heart failure subjects allocated to 1.8 g of sodium have significantly increased morbidity and mortality compared with those at 2.8 g. At the same time, a randomized study in retired Taiwanese men found that allocation to an average intake of 3.8 g improved survival compared with 5.3 g. Taken together, these data provide strong support for a "J-shaped" relation of sodium to cardiovascular outcomes. Sodium intakes above and below the range of 2.5-6.0 g/day are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This robust body of evidence does not support universal reduction of sodium intake.

  2. Race-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US children.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Vijay; Hampl, Jeffrey S; Betts, Nancy M

    2003-11-01

    Race-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of 1- to 10-year-old US children were evaluated. Three-day, dietary intakes from the US Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals were evaluated. Data from 1895 children (967 males, 928 females; 1,540 Whites, 355 Blacks) who resided in the 48 conterminous states were analyzed. Micronutrient intakes, intakes as percent of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and percent of children who consumed < or =67% of the RDA were computed. Black males compared with White males, Black females compared with White females and White females compared with White males had significantly lower dietary intakes for several micronutrients. More Black males than White males had intakes < or =67% of the RDA for vitamin E, calcium and zinc. Blacks and female children were at a greater risk for vitamin A, vitamin E, calcium, iron and zinc deficiency. PMID:14522694

  3. Cadmium dietary intake in the Canary Islands, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, C.; Revert, C.; Gonzalez-Iglesias, T.

    2006-01-15

    Cadmium (Cd) in the human diet constitutes a potential chronic hazard to health. In the nonsmoking general population, diet is the major source of cadmium exposure; therefore, it is important to monitor the dietary intake of this heavy metal to quantify and improve the understanding of Cd accumulation in the human body. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of Cd in a range of food and drink commonly consumed in the Canary Islands. Food samples (420) were analyzed for Cd by atomic absorption spectrometry. The most recent nutritional survey conducted for the Canarian population was used to define the food and drink groups analyzed. The measured Cd concentrations combined with the food consumption data resulted in a total Cd intake in the Canary Islands of 0.16 {mu}g/kg of body weight/day, which is well below the respective provisional tolerable weekly intake of Cd of 1 {mu}g/kg of body weight per day determined by the FAO/WHO. The results are also compared with values reported for other national and international communities.

  4. Associations of Built Food Environment with Dietary Intake among Youth with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Puett, Robin; Bottai, Matteo; Porter, Dwayne E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the associations of supermarket and fast-food outlet accessibility and availability with dietary intake among youth with diabetes. Design: Subjects' residential location and dietary intake was obtained from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlet data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and…

  5. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  6. Dietary intake and thiamin, iron, and zinc status in elite Nordic skiers during different training periods.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, M; Rehunen, S; Gref, C G; Laakso, J T; Lehto, J; Ruokonen, I; Himberg, J J

    1992-12-01

    This study evaluated how different training periods affect dietary intake and biochemical indices of thiamin, iron, and zinc status in elite Nordic skiers. Subjects were 17 skiers and 39 controls, ages 18-38 yrs. Dietary data were collected by 7-day food records at 3-month intervals. Coefficient of variation (CV) was used to indicate magnitude of seasonal changes. Energy intake for the year (28 food record days) was 3,802 kcal/day (CV 19.1%) in male skiers, 2,754 kcal/day (CV 3.7%) in male controls, 2,812 kcal/day (CV 9.1%) in female skiers, and 2,013 kcal/day (CV 5.9%) in female controls. CVs for thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc intake were 14.1-23.9% (male skiers), 2.9-15.0% (male controls), 4.8-24.5% (female skiers), and 4.3-11.5% (female controls). Seasonal changes in energy, carbohydrate, and micronutrient intakes reflected energy expenditure in male endurance athletes particularly. Erythrocyte transketolase activation coefficients and serum ferritin and zinc concentrations did not differ between skiers and controls. Seasonal variations in these biochemical indices of nutritional status were of the same magnitude in skiers and controls, despite large changes in skiers' physical activity.

  7. A statistical approach for estimating the distribution of usual dietary intake to assess nutritionally at-risk populations based on the new Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).

    PubMed

    Ishiwaki, Asako; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Fujii, Hiroko; Saito, Kyoko; Nozue, Miho; Yoshita, Katsushi; Yoshiike, Nobuo

    2007-08-01

    The health of individuals is not markedly affected by the nutrients ingested in a single day; rather it is influenced by dietary habits over a long period of time. However, it is impossible to survey usual intake directly because recording diet over a long period of time is burdensome for the subjects, so usual dietary intake is rarely measured directly. Instead, we estimated the distribution of selected nutrients in subjects' usual dietary intake using a statistical method (Best-Power method) described previously. And we assessed the proportion of nutritionally at-risk subjects in individual groups based on the new Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), or the tentative dietary goal for preventing life-style related diseases (DG) as cut-points. We collected the survey data from 208 men and 251 women, aged 50 to 69 y in 2004 and 2005. The survey was carried out on three non-consecutive days four times each year: in spring, summer, autumn, and winter. The distribution of nutrients in the usual intake was estimated from a dietary survey of 3 d using one-way analyses of variance. We found that the proportion of the population at risk for nutrient deficiency was overestimated in the 1-d intake distribution. On the other hand, the fraction that was nutritionally at-risk in terms of salt intake, according to DG as the cut-point, was underestimated in the 1-d intake distribution: 74.0% of men and 82.5% of women in the 1-d intake, and 90.5% and 93.2%, respectively, for the estimated usual intake adjusted for seasonal variation.

  8. Dietary sources and sodium intake in a sample of Australian preschool children

    PubMed Central

    O'Halloran, Siobhan A; Grimes, Carley A; Lacy, Kathleen E; Nowson, Caryl A; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess dietary sodium intake and the food sources of sodium in a sample of Australian preschool children. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Mothers were followed up when children were approximately 3.5 years of age after participating in a cluster randomised controlled trial: the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program. Participants 251 Australian children aged 3.5±0.19 (SD) years. Primary and secondary outcome measures The average daily sodium intake was determined using three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The contributions of food groups, core, discretionary and processed foods to daily sodium intake were assessed. Results The average sodium intake was 1508±495 (SD) mg/day, (salt equivalent 3.9±1.3 (SD) g/day) and 87% of children exceeded the Australian Upper Level of Intake (UL) for sodium of 1000 mg/day (salt equivalent 2.6 g/day). Main food sources of sodium were cereal/cereal products (25%), milk products (19%), meat, poultry/game (17%) and cereal-based products (15%). Core foods contributed 65%, and discretionary foods 35% of total daily sodium intake, and within the total diet, minimally processed, processed, processed culinary ingredient and ultraprocessed foods contributed 16%, 35%, 1% and 48% of sodium, respectively. Conclusions Within this sample, most children exceeded the recommended UL for sodium. Core and ultraprocessed foods were key sources of sodium which suggests that reductions in the sodium content of these foods are required to reduce sodium intake in young children. These data also provide further support for public health campaigns that seek to reduce consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. PMID:26846894

  9. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases.

  10. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases. PMID:20237069

  11. Interrelationship between bone turnover markers and dietary calcium intake in pregnant women: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zeni, Susana N; Ortela Soler, Carlos R; Lazzari, Araceli; López, Laura; Suarez, Marisa; Di Gregorio, Silvana; Somoza, Julia I; de Portela, Maria L

    2003-10-01

    This longitudinal study evaluated bone turnover and the interrelationship between changes in bone biomarkers and habitual dietary calcium intake during pregnancy in a group of women ranging widely with regard to dietary calcium intake. Thirty-nine healthy pregnant and 30 nonpregnant women were studied. Calcium, phosphorus, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25diHOD), bone alkaline phosphatase (bALP), carboxyterminal propeptides of type I procollagen (PICP) and carboxyterminal telopeptides of type I collagen (betaCTX and ICTP) were measured in serum and calcium, and creatinine and aminoterminal telopeptide (NTX) were determined in urine. Serum calcium and phosphorus did not change but the urinary Ca/Creat ratio and 1,25diHOD increased throughout pregnancy (P < 0.001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Serum b-ALP and PICP increased during the last two trimesters (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively). All studied bone resorption markers increased compared to nonpregnant values throughout pregnancy. The highest increment was observed in the third trimester. The level of significance decreased as follows: betaCTX > NTX >ICTP. Serum 1,25 diHOD versus calcium intake showed a positive and significant correlation (r = 0.51, P < 0.02). A negative correlation between the absolute change in betaCTX, NTX, and b-ALP between the third and second trimester and calcium intake at the end of pregnancy was observed in pregnant women who did not cover adequately calcium intake requirements (r = -0.47, P < 0.03; r = -0.41, P < 0.05; and r = -0.43, P < 0.05, respectively). These results suggest that skeletal response to pregnancy may not be entirely independent of maternal calcium intake, especially in women with usually low calcium intake. In summary, not only hormonal changes in calcium metabolism that occur during pregnancy but also other considerations, such as low dietary calcium intake, may lead to an increment in the biological activity of the skeleton. Additional studies must be

  12. Dietary self-selection by broilers at normal and high temperature changes feed intake behavior, nutrient intake, and performance.

    PubMed

    Syafwan, S; Wermink, G J D; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A

    2012-03-01

    Self-selection assumes that at high ambient temperature, birds are able to select a diet from different sources to minimize the heat load associated with the ingested nutrient metabolism. The objective was to test the hypothesis that young chickens are able to compose an adequate ration by adjusting dietary nutrient intake from 3 different diets that vary in energy and in protein contents from a cafeteria system at high temperature (HT; 31-32°C) and at normal temperature (NT; 31-21°C). Night temperature was set at 25°C at HT and at 18°C at NT and 12 h dark:12 h light. Control birds were fed a standard control diet (CP: 215 g/kg; ME: 2,895 kcal/kg) for broiler chickens. The choice-fed birds could choose between the control diet, a high-protein diet (CP: 299 g/kg; ME: 2,780 kcal/kg), and a high-energy diet (CP: 150.7 g/kg; ME: 3,241 kcal/kg). The diets had similar pellet size and color. Birds had access to each diet in a separate feeding trough from 1 to 42 d of age. Results showed that broilers spent 3.3% more time eating at NT than at HT and showed 42% more panting behavior at HT than at NT. High temperature decreased feed intake, protein intake, energy intake, and BW gain. Choice-fed birds had similar feed intake and BW gain, 14% lower protein intake, and 6.4% higher energy intake than control-fed birds. Body temperature and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were higher at HT than at NT. Water intake was 8% higher in control-fed birds than in choice-fed birds but similar at both temperature regimens. It can be concluded that broilers can compose a diet by selecting less protein but higher energy density from different diets compared with the control. Choice-fed birds had similar feed efficiency as control-fed birds at HT, indicating similar body composition for both groups. Extra energy intake of choice-fed birds at HT was used for panting activity.

  13. Dietary intake and the risk of malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Muscat, J E; Huncharek, M

    1996-05-01

    A high consumption of fruit and vegetables reduces the risk of several types of cancer. There is little information on the association between dietary intake and mesothelioma. A hospital-based case-control study of 94 men and women with malignant mesothelioma and 64 control patients without cancer was conducted to determine the odds associated with consumption of carotenoid-containing fruits and vegetables. After statistical adjustment for occupational asbestos exposure, the odds ratio was 0.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1-0.8] for carrot consumption and 0.5 (95% CI 0.2-1.4) for tomato consumption. However, the frequency of consuming other foods that have a high vitamin A or carotenoid content was not associated with a decreased risk of cancer. These results provide some justification for the hypothesis that provitamin A or beta-carotene may decrease the risk of mesothelioma. The body mass index was unrelated to the risk of mesothelioma.

  14. Assessment of dietary intake in rural communities in Africa: experiences in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kigutha, H N

    1997-04-01

    Dissemination of state-of-the-art dietary assessment methods is especially critical in both developed and developing countries with rising rates of various chronic diseases. Such activity provides opportunities to address dietary issues related to specific cultures, especially non-Western cultures, and in groups with different styles of serving and eating food. Special considerations are necessary when planning and performing dietary intake studies in less literate rural communities in developing countries. In this study, dietary intake data collected from preschool children and elderly subjects in a rural area of Kenya with use of repeated 24-h recalls were compared with data obtained by means of 3-d weighed-food records. The two methods yielded similar results but the 24-h recall was quicker and less expensive. If 24-h recall studies are carefully planned and carried out and include consideration of local household measures and eating habits, they can provide reliable information, especially about communities in which people have simple and monotonous diets.

  15. Dietary flavonol intake is associated with age of puberty in a longitudinal cohort of girls

    PubMed Central

    Mervish, Nancy A.; Gardiner, Eliza W.; Galvez, Maida P.; Kushi, Larry H.; Windham, Gayle C.; Biro, Frank M.; Pinney, Susan M.; Rybak, Michael; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2013-01-01

    Lignans and flavonols are dietary phytoestrogens found at high concentrations in the Western Diet. They have potential to influence the timing of puberty. We hypothesized that greater consumption of these two phytoestrogens would be related to later age at pubertal onset among girls. Pubertal assessment and 24-hour diet recall data were available for 1178 girls, ages 6-8 yr (mean 7.3 yr) in the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Project Puberty Study. Lignan and flavonol intakes were mainly derived from fruit and vegetable consumption. Average consumption was 6.5 mg/day for flavonols and 0.6 mg/day for lignans. Highest flavonol consumption (>5mg/day) was associated with later breast development (adjusted Hazards Ratio (HR): 0.74, 95% CI: [0.61-0.91]) compared to 2-5mg/day (adjusted HR: 0.84, 95% CI: [0.70-1.0]) and <2 mg/day (referent group; p-trend=0.006). Flavonol intake was not associated with pubic hair development. Lignan intake was not associated with either breast or pubic hair development. Dietary intake was only weakly correlated with urinary enterolactone, a biomarker for lignans (RS=0.13). Consistent with biologic properties of phytoestrogens that indicate hormonal activity, their consumption may be associated with reproductive endpoints, even in childhood. PMID:23827127

  16. Relationship between Dietary Fat Intake, Its Major Food Sources and Assisted Reproduction Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Background High dietary fat consumption may alter oocyte development and embryonic development. This prospective study was conducted to determine the relation between dietary fat consumption level, its food sources and the assisted reproduction parameters. Methods A prospective study was conducted on 240 infertile women. In assisted reproduction treatment cycle, fat consumption and major food sources over the previous three months were identified. The number of retrieved oocytes, metaphase ΙΙ stage oocytes numbers, fertilization rate, embryo quality and clinical pregnancy rate were also determined. The data were analyzed using multiple regression, binary logistic regression, chi-square and t-test. The p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results Total fat intake adjusted for age, body mass index, physical activity and etiology of infertility was positively associated with the number of retrieved oocytes and inversely associated with the high embryo quality rate. An inverse association was observed between sausage and turkey ham intake and the number of retrieved oocytes. Also, oil intake level had an inverse association with good cleavage rate. Conclusion The results revealed that higher levels of fat consumption tend to increase the number of retrieved oocytes and were adversely related to embryonic development. Among food sources of fat, vegetable oil, sausage and turkey ham intake may adversely affect assisted reproduction parameters. PMID:25473630

  17. Dietary sodium intake and asthma: an epidemiological and clinical review.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, T D; Fogarty, A

    2006-12-01

    The changes in diet associated with the development of a more affluent lifestyle have been considered one of the environmental factors that may have contributed to the rise in the prevalence of asthma over the past few decades, and dietary sodium has been considered to be a dietary constituent which may be implicated in this phenomenon. The data presented in this review demonstrate that adoption of a low sodium diet for a period of 2-5 weeks may improve lung function and decrease bronchial reactivity in adults with asthma, while sodium loading appears to have a detrimental effect. Similarly, a low sodium diet maintained for 1-2 weeks decreases bronchoconstriction in response to exercise in individuals with asthma. There is no data as to the longer-term effect of a low sodium diet on either the prevalence or severity of asthma or on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. As a low sodium diet has other beneficial health effects, it can be considered as a therapeutic option for adults with asthma, although it should be considered as an adjunctive intervention to supplement optimal pharmacological management of asthma and not as an alternative. If the relationship between higher sodium intake and increased prevalence and severity of asthma is causal, then there are potential population benefits for asthma as well as cardiovascular disease to be derived from public health measures to reduce sodium consumption. PMID:17109669

  18. Dietary flavonoid intakes and cardiovascular disease incidence in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examines the relationship between long-term intake of six flavonoid classes and incidence of CVD and CHD, using a comprehensive flavonoid database and repeated measures of intake, while accounting for possible confounding by components of a healthy dietary pattern. Flavonoid intakes were ...

  19. A Mobile Phone App for Dietary Intake Assessment in Adolescents: An Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a great need for dietary assessment methods that suit the adolescent lifestyle and give valid intake data. Objective To develop a mobile phone app and evaluate its ability to assess energy intake (EI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) compared with objectively measured TEE. Furthermore, to investigate the impact of factors on reporting accuracy of EI, and to compare dietary intake with a Web-based method. Methods Participants 14 to 16 years of age were recruited from year nine in schools in Gothenburg, Sweden. In total, 81 adolescents used the mobile phone app over 1 to 6 days. TEE was measured with the SenseWear Armband (SWA) during the same or proximate days. Individual factors were assessed with a questionnaire. A total of 15 participants also recorded dietary intake using a Web-based method. Results The mobile phone app underestimated EI by 29% on a group level (P<.001) compared to TEE measured with the SWA, and there was no significant correlation between EI and TEE. Accuracy of EI relative to TEE increased with a weekend day in the record (P=.007) and lower BMI z-score (P=.001). TEE assessed with the mobile phone app was 1.19 times the value of TEE measured by the SWA on a group level (P<.001), and the correlation between the methods was .75 (P<.001). Analysis of physical activity levels (PAL) from the mobile phone app stratified by gender showed that accuracy of the mobile phone app was higher among boys. EI, nutrients, and food groups assessed with the mobile phone app and Web-based method among 15 participants were not significantly different and several were significantly correlated, but strong conclusions cannot be drawn due to the low number of participants. Conclusions By using a mobile phone dietary assessment app, on average 71% of adolescents’ EI was captured. The accuracy of reported dietary intake was higher with lower BMI z-score and if a weekend day was included in the record. The daily question in the mobile phone app

  20. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiologic evidence, mechanisms, and health implications.

    PubMed

    Dashti, Hassan S; Scheer, Frank Ajl; Jacques, Paul F; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Ordovás, José M

    2015-11-01

    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review provides an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relations between habitual short sleep duration and dietary intake in adults from 16 cross-sectional studies. The studies have observed consistent associations between short sleep duration and higher total energy intake and higher total fat intake, and limited evidence for lower fruit intake, and lower quality diets. Evidence also suggests that short sleepers may have irregular eating behavior deviating from the traditional 3 meals/d to fewer main meals and more frequent, smaller, energy-dense, and highly palatable snacks at night. Although the impact of short sleep duration on dietary intake tends to be small, if chronic, it may contribute to an increased risk of obesity and related chronic disease. Mechanisms mediating the associations between sleep duration and dietary intake are likely to be multifactorial and include differences in the appetite-related hormones leptin and ghrelin, hedonic pathways, extended hours for intake, and altered time of intake. Taking into account these epidemiologic relations and the evidence for causal relations between sleep loss and metabolism and cardiovascular function, health promotion strategies should emphasize improved sleep as an additional factor in health and weight management. Moreover, future sleep interventions in controlled studies and sleep extension trials in chronic short sleepers are imperative for establishing whether there is a causal relation between short sleep duration and changes in dietary intake.

  1. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiologic evidence, mechanisms, and health implications.

    PubMed

    Dashti, Hassan S; Scheer, Frank Ajl; Jacques, Paul F; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Ordovás, José M

    2015-11-01

    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review provides an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relations between habitual short sleep duration and dietary intake in adults from 16 cross-sectional studies. The studies have observed consistent associations between short sleep duration and higher total energy intake and higher total fat intake, and limited evidence for lower fruit intake, and lower quality diets. Evidence also suggests that short sleepers may have irregular eating behavior deviating from the traditional 3 meals/d to fewer main meals and more frequent, smaller, energy-dense, and highly palatable snacks at night. Although the impact of short sleep duration on dietary intake tends to be small, if chronic, it may contribute to an increased risk of obesity and related chronic disease. Mechanisms mediating the associations between sleep duration and dietary intake are likely to be multifactorial and include differences in the appetite-related hormones leptin and ghrelin, hedonic pathways, extended hours for intake, and altered time of intake. Taking into account these epidemiologic relations and the evidence for causal relations between sleep loss and metabolism and cardiovascular function, health promotion strategies should emphasize improved sleep as an additional factor in health and weight management. Moreover, future sleep interventions in controlled studies and sleep extension trials in chronic short sleepers are imperative for establishing whether there is a causal relation between short sleep duration and changes in dietary intake. PMID:26567190

  2. Dietary Cadmium Intake and Risk of Breast, Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer in Danish Postmenopausal Women: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Mette; Meliker, Jaymie R.; McElroy, Jane A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cadmium is a human lung carcinogen and possesses estrogen-like activity. This combination of carcinogenic and estrogenic activity makes cadmium a contaminant of high concern for hormone-related cancers. Diet and smoking are the main sources of cadmium exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary cadmium intake and risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer in Danish postmenopausal woman. Methods We estimated dietary cadmium intake in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort at enrolment 1993-97. The estimates were based on food frequency questionnaires and cadmium contents in all foods. Among 23,815 postmenopausal women we identified 1390 breast, 192 endometrial, and 146 ovarian cancer cases from enrolment through December 31, 2010 using the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox regression was used to analyse the association between dietary cadmium intake and cancer risk. Results Mean dietary cadmium intake was 14 µg/day. Cadmium was not associated with breast cancer, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87–1.13 per 10 µg higher dietary cadmium intake/day; endometrial cancer, IRR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.76–1.53; or ovarian cancer, IRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.78–1.70. We found a positive association between cadmium and endometrial cancer for the women with BMI<25 (IRR = 1.50, 95% CI: 0.94–2.39), whereas an inverse association was seen for the women with BMI≥25 (IRR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.42–1.12); p value for interaction  = 0.02. Conclusions Our study does not indicate that our estimated dietary cadmium intake is associated with hormone-related cancers in women. PMID:24963789

  3. Inadequate Dietary Calcium and Vitamin D Intake in Patients with Osteoporotic Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dong Sik; Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background Inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake is a possible risk factor of osteoporosis. Our purposes were to estimate calcium and vitamin D intake in women with osteoporotic fractures, to determine associated factors for low calcium and vitamin D intake, and to evaluate the effects of calcium and vitamin D intake on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This is a multicenter, hospital-based, and cross-sectional study involving 277 women with osteoporotic fractures. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intake were evaluated using the Korean Calcium Assessment Tool (KCAT) self-reported questionnaire. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Results Average daily calcium and vitamin D intake was 503.7±274.7 mg and 7.5±12.6 µg, respectively. Patients with low calcium intake had less family history of osteoporosis and were older. There was a negative correlation between age and calcium intake (r=-0.14; P=0.019). In multivariate analysis, calcium intake showed a positive correlation with BMD of femoral neck (β=0.0005, P=0.021). Conclusions About 80% of patients with osteoporotic fracture had calcium and vitamin D intake below the recommended dietary intake. Low calcium intake was associated with no family history of osteoporosis and older age. Dietary calcium intake showed positive effect on BMD. PMID:27294077

  4. Estimating under-reporting of energy intake in dietary surveys using an individualised method.

    PubMed

    Rennie, Kirsten L; Coward, Andy; Jebb, Susan A

    2007-06-01

    Under-reporting (UR) of energy intake (EI) by self-reported dietary methods is well-documented but the methods used to estimate UR in population-based studies commonly assume a sedentary lifestyle. We compared estimated UR using individualised estimates of energy requirements with a population cut-off based on minimum energy needs. UR was estimated for 1551 adults aged 19-64 years enrolled in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Physical activity diaries and 7 d weighed dietary records were completed concurrently. Mean daily EI (kJ/d) was calculated from the dietary records. Reported physical activity was used to assign each subject's activity level, and then to calculate estimated energy requirements (EER) from published equations. UR was calculated both as EER - EI with an adjustment for daily EER and EI variation, and also by a population method. By the individual method UR was approximately 27 % of energy needs in men and 29 % in women, with 75 % of men and 77 % of women classified as under-reporters; by the population method 80 and 88 % were classified as under-reporters respectively. When subjects who reported their eating being affected by dieting or illness during dietary recording were excluded, UR was 25 % of energy needs in both sexes. UR was higher in overweight and obese men and women compared with their lean counterparts (P < 0.001). UR of EI must be considered in dietary surveys. The EER method allows UR to be quantified and takes into account an individual's activity level. Measures of physical activity and questions to identify under-eating during dietary recording may help to evaluate secular trends in UR. PMID:17433123

  5. Dietary protein intake in sarcopenic obese older women

    PubMed Central

    Muscariello, Espedita; Nasti, Gilda; Siervo, Mario; Di Maro, Martina; Lapi, Dominga; D’Addio, Gianni; Colantuoni, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in a population of obese older women and to assess the effect of a diet moderately rich in proteins on lean mass in sarcopenic obese older women. Materials and methods A total of 1,030 females, >65 years old, body mass index >30 kg/m2, were investigated about their nutritional status. Muscle mass (MM) was estimated according to the Janssen equation (MM =0.401× height2/resistance measured at 50 kHz +3.825× sex −0.071× age +5.102). Sarcopenia was defined according to the MM index, MM/height2 (kg/m2), as two standard deviations lower than the obesity-derived cutoff score (7.3 kg/m2). A food-frequency questionnaire was used to measure participants’ usual food intake during the previous 3 months. Moreover, a group of sarcopenic obese older women (n=104) was divided in two subgroups: the first (normal protein intake [NPI], n=50) administered with a hypocaloric diet (0.8 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins), and the second treated with a hypocaloric diet containing 1.2 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins (high protein intake [HPI], n=54), for 3 months. Dietary ingestion was estimated according to a daily food diary, self-administered, and three reports of nonconsecutive 24-hour recall every month during the follow-up. Results The 104 women were classified as sarcopenic. After dieting, significant reductions in body mass index were detected (NPI 30.7±1.3 vs 32.0±2.3 kg/m2, HPI 30.26±0.90 vs 31.05±2.90 kg/m2; P<0.01 vs baseline). The MM index presented significant variations in the NPI as well as in the HPI sarcopenic group (NPI 6.98±0.1 vs 7.10±0.2 kg/m2, HPI 7.13±0.4 vs 6.96±0.1 kg/m2; P<0.01 vs baseline). Conclusion A diet moderately rich in proteins was able to preserve MM in sarcopenic women. Therefore, adequate protein intake could contribute to the prevention of lean-mass loss associated with weight reduction in obese older people. PMID:26917955

  6. Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium and the Relationship to Dietary Sodium in a Sample of Australian Pre-School Children.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Siobhan A; Grimes, Carley A; Lacy, Kathleen E; Campbell, Karen J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K) ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial). The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male), mean age 3.5 (0.19) (SD) years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267) mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5) and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI) of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%), fruit (19%), and vegetable (14%) products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8), white bread/rolls (6.0), and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4). Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75) serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72) dairy, and 0.52 (0.32) serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits. PMID:27529278

  7. Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium and the Relationship to Dietary Sodium in a Sample of Australian Pre-School Children.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Siobhan A; Grimes, Carley A; Lacy, Kathleen E; Campbell, Karen J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2016-08-13

    The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K) ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial). The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male), mean age 3.5 (0.19) (SD) years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267) mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5) and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI) of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%), fruit (19%), and vegetable (14%) products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8), white bread/rolls (6.0), and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4). Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75) serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72) dairy, and 0.52 (0.32) serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits.

  8. Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium and the Relationship to Dietary Sodium in a Sample of Australian Pre-School Children

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, Siobhan A.; Grimes, Carley A.; Lacy, Kathleen E.; Campbell, Karen J.; Nowson, Caryl A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K) ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial). The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male), mean age 3.5 (0.19) (SD) years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267) mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5) and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI) of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%), fruit (19%), and vegetable (14%) products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8), white bread/rolls (6.0), and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4). Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75) serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72) dairy, and 0.52 (0.32) serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits. PMID:27529278

  9. Enterostatin inhibition of dietary fat intake is modulated through the melanocortin system.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ling; Park, MieJung; York, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Enterostatin injected into the amygdala selectively reduces dietary fat intake by an action that involves a serotonergic component in the paraventricular nucleus. We have investigated the role of melanocortin signaling in the response to enterostatin by studies in melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) knockout mice and by the use of the MC4R and MC3R antagonist SHU9119, and by neurochemical phenotyping of enterostatin activated cells. We also determined the effect of enterostatin in vivo on the expression of AgRP in the hypothalamus and amygdala of rats and in culture on a GT1-7 neuronal cell line. Enterostatin had no effect on food intake in MC4R knock out mice. SHU9119 icv blocked the feeding response to amygdala enterostatin in rats. Amygdala enterostatin induced fos activation in α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Enterostatin also reduced the expression of AgRP in the hypothalamus and amygdala and in GT1-7 cells. These data suggest enterostatin inhibits dietary fat intake through a melanocortin signaling pathway. PMID:17113194

  10. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for the NCI Method

    Cancer.gov

    SAS macros are currently available to facilitate modeling of a single dietary component, whether consumed daily or episodically; ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day; multiple dietary components, whether consumed daily or episodically.

  11. Dietary energy density is associated with increased intake in free-living humans.

    PubMed

    de Castro, John M

    2004-02-01

    Dietary energy density markedly influences the daily dietary intake of humans. The present study examined the relation of energy density to dietary intake and body size in 371 male and 581 female adults. The subjects were free-living and provided a detailed record of their everyday food and drink intake in 7-d food diaries. The reported diets were analyzed for the relation of energy density to body size and to per-meal, daily, and weekly dietary intake. High energy density was associated with greater (P < 0.001) total intake, especially of fat, when intake was correlated with energy density (r = 0.26, P < 0.001) and when the daily intake of individual participants was correlated with their daily dietary density (r = 0.66, P < 0.001). These results occurred regardless of sex, low reporting, or the inclusion of drinks in the energy density calculations. High energy density was also associated with a high rate of intake (r = 0.46, P < 0.001) and large meal sizes (r = 0.61, P < 0.001). However, energy density was not correlated with body size, height, weight, or body mass index. High energy density appears to be related to greater overall intake in the short-term, but there may be compensation over the long term, with no net effect on body size. PMID:14747669

  12. Performance of short food questions to assess aspects of the dietary intake of Australian children.

    PubMed

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Riley, Malcolm D

    2013-12-01

    Single dietary questions are used as a rapid method of monitoring diet. The aim of this investigation was to assess the performance of questions to measure population group intake compared to the mean of two 24-h recalls. Data from the Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2007 was used (n = 4487). Children reported their intake on three questions relating to usual serves of fruit, vegetables and type of milk. Age, gender and body weight status were assessed as modifiers of the relationship between methods. There was a stepwise increase in fruit and vegetable intake (p < 0.001) measured by recall when grouped by response category of the short question. By recall, fruit consumption decreased with age (F = 12.92, p < 0.001) but this trend was not detectable from the short question (F = 2.31, p = 0.075). The difference in fruit intake between methods was greatest for obese children. Almost 85% of children who consumed whole milk by short question consumed mainly whole fat milk by recall, but agreement was lower for other milk types. Saturated fat and volume of milk was highest in whole milk consumers. Ease of administration suggests that short questions, at least for some aspects of diet, are a useful method to monitor population intakes for children.

  13. Does the importance of dietary costs for fruit and vegetable intake vary by socioeconomic position?

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Brage, Soren; Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-11-14

    Evidence suggests that diets meeting recommendations for fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake are more costly. Dietary costs may be a greater constraint on the diet quality of people of lower socioeconomic position (SEP). The aim of this study was to examine whether dietary costs are more strongly associated with F&V intake in lower-SEP groups than in higher-SEP groups. Data on individual participants' education and income were available from a population-based, cross-sectional study of 10 020 British adults. F&V intake and dietary costs (GBP/d) were derived from a semi-quantitative FFQ. Dietary cost estimates were based on UK food prices. General linear models were used to assess associations between SEP, quartiles of dietary costs and F&V intake. Effect modification of SEP gradients by dietary costs was examined with interaction terms. Analysis demonstrated that individuals with lowest quartile dietary costs, low income and low education consumed less F&V than individuals with higher dietary costs, high income and high education. Significant interaction between SEP and dietary costs indicated that the association between dietary costs and F&V intake was stronger for less-educated and lower-income groups. That is, socioeconomic differences in F&V intake were magnified among individuals who consumed lowest-cost diets. Such amplification of socioeconomic inequalities in diet among those consuming low-cost diets indicates the need to address food costs in strategies to promote healthy diets. In addition, the absence of socioeconomic inequalities for individuals with high dietary costs suggests that high dietary costs can compensate for lack of other material, or psychosocial resources.

  14. Dietary intake and biochemical, hematologic, and immune status of vegans compared with nonvegetarians.

    PubMed

    Haddad, E H; Berk, L S; Kettering, J D; Hubbard, R W; Peters, W R

    1999-09-01

    Dietary and nutritional status of individuals habitually consuming a vegan diet was evaluated by biochemical, hematologic, and immunologic measures in comparison with a nonvegetarian group. On the basis of 4-d dietary records, the intake of female and male vegans tended to be lower in fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and cholesterol and higher in dietary fiber than that of vegetarians. With computed food and supplement intakes, vegan diets provided significantly higher amounts of ascorbate, folate, magnesium, copper, and manganese in both female and male participants. The body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of the vegans was significantly lower than that of the nonvegetarians and 9 of the 25 vegans had a BMI <19. Serum ferritin concentrations were significantly lower in vegan men but iron and zinc status did not differ between the sexes. Mean serum vitamin B-12 and methylmalonic acid concentrations did not differ; however, 10 of the 25 vegans showed a vitamin B-12 deficit manifested by macrocytosis, circulating vitamin B-12 concentrations <150 pmol/L, or serum methylmalonic acid >376 nmol/L. Vegans had significantly lower leukocyte, lymphocyte, and platelet counts and lower concentrations of complement factor 3 and blood urea nitrogen but higher serum albumin concentrations. Vegans did not differ from nonvegetarians in functional immunocompetence assessed as mitogen stimulation or natural killer cell cytotoxic activity.

  15. Dietary sodium intake and its impact factors in adults of Shandong province.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Hong; Xu, Ai Qiang; Lu, Zi Long; Yan, Liu Xia; Guo, Xiao Lei; Wang, Hui Cheng; Ma, Ji Xiang; Zhang, Ji Yu; Dong, Jing; Wang, Lin Hong

    2014-07-01

    Dietary sodium intake and its impact factors in 2 140 adults aged 18-69 years were analyzed. The mean daily sodium intake was 5745.0 (5427.6-6062.5) mg per day, which was higher in males than in females (P<0.01). After having been adjusted for gender, age and urban/city areas, the mean daily sodium intake was significantly higher in participants with a lower education level, drinkers and smokers than in those with a higher education level, nondrinkers and nonsmokers (P<0.01). The dietary sodium intake in adults of Shandong Province is higher than the recommended standards.

  16. Brief report: effect of dietary restraint on fruit and vegetable intake following implementation intentions.

    PubMed

    Troop, Nicholas A

    2013-07-01

    This study explored whether the effects of implementation intentions on increasing fruit and vegetable intake were moderated by dietary restraint. In total, 208 participants were randomly allocated to control or implementation intention conditions where they were asked to write down when, where and how they would increase their fruit and vegetable intake. Implementation intentions increased fruit and vegetable intake but only in participants scoring low (not high) on rigid dietary restraint. Motives underlying fruit and vegetable consumption may be different for restrained and unrestrained eaters. Efforts to increase their intake may need to be tailored, for example, through motivational rather than situational cues.

  17. Longitudinal association of dentition status with dietary intake in Japanese adults aged 75 to 80 years.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, M; Yoshihara, A; Ogawa, H; Sato, M; Muramatsu, K; Watanabe, R; Ansai, T; Miyazaki, H

    2016-10-01

    Limited information is available on the temporal association between dentition status and dietary intake. The aim of this 5-year prospective cohort study was to investigate whether impaired dentition was associated with subsequent decline in dietary intake in older Japanese adults. Two hundred and eighty-six community-dwelling Japanese individuals, all aged 75 years at baseline, were included in the study. Functional tooth units (FTUs), defined as a pair of opposing natural or prosthetic teeth excluding third molars (range: 0-14), were counted on the basis of baseline dental examinations. Individuals with ≤5 FTUs were defined as having impaired dentition. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and 5 years later, using a validated dietary questionnaire. Robust regression analyses were used to evaluate the differences in change in dietary intake between participants with and without impaired functional dentition, after adjustment for potential confounders. Sixty-one study participants (21·3 %) were defined as having impaired dentition. Overall, mean values for all estimated dietary variables (energy, nutrients and food groups) declined over time. Notably, individuals with impaired dentition demonstrated a significantly (P < 0·05) greater degree of decline in the intake of multiple nutrients (protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin E and dietary fibre) and food groups (vegetable and meat) than those without impaired dentition, after adjusting for potential confounders. The results of this study describe the temporal association of impaired dentition with the decline in selected nutrient and food group intake among older Japanese adults.

  18. Longitudinal association of dentition status with dietary intake in Japanese adults aged 75 to 80 years.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, M; Yoshihara, A; Ogawa, H; Sato, M; Muramatsu, K; Watanabe, R; Ansai, T; Miyazaki, H

    2016-10-01

    Limited information is available on the temporal association between dentition status and dietary intake. The aim of this 5-year prospective cohort study was to investigate whether impaired dentition was associated with subsequent decline in dietary intake in older Japanese adults. Two hundred and eighty-six community-dwelling Japanese individuals, all aged 75 years at baseline, were included in the study. Functional tooth units (FTUs), defined as a pair of opposing natural or prosthetic teeth excluding third molars (range: 0-14), were counted on the basis of baseline dental examinations. Individuals with ≤5 FTUs were defined as having impaired dentition. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and 5 years later, using a validated dietary questionnaire. Robust regression analyses were used to evaluate the differences in change in dietary intake between participants with and without impaired functional dentition, after adjustment for potential confounders. Sixty-one study participants (21·3 %) were defined as having impaired dentition. Overall, mean values for all estimated dietary variables (energy, nutrients and food groups) declined over time. Notably, individuals with impaired dentition demonstrated a significantly (P < 0·05) greater degree of decline in the intake of multiple nutrients (protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin E and dietary fibre) and food groups (vegetable and meat) than those without impaired dentition, after adjusting for potential confounders. The results of this study describe the temporal association of impaired dentition with the decline in selected nutrient and food group intake among older Japanese adults. PMID:27545519

  19. Use of accelerometer data in prediction equations for capturing implausible dietary intakes in adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Sabrina E; Mattocks, Calum; Emmett, Pauline; Riddoch, Chris J; Ness, Andrew R; Newby, PK

    2010-01-01

    Background: Reporting errors have been quantified in epidemiologic studies by comparing reported intakes with predicted energy requirements (pERs). Several studies lacking measures of physical activity level (PAL) assigned low-active levels to obtain pERs. Objective: We applied objective physical activity measures to current methods to quantify dietary reporting errors and compared associations with anthropometric and dietary variables among plausible and implausible reporters. Design: This study included 2868 adolescents with an average age of 13 y. Three-day dietary records, accelerometers, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were used to assess diet, activity, and body composition, respectively. Three variations of physical activity coefficients were used: 1) assigning low physical activity coefficients (PAlow), 2) calculating PAL values (PAPAL), and 3) applying minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PAMVPA). Results: Of the total participants, 51.5%, 51.8%, and 37.1% of the PAlow, PAPAL, and PAMVPA groups, respectively, were classified as underreporters, and 40.8%, 37.9%, and 42.4% of the respective groups were classified as plausible reporters. Underreporters had a higher body mass index, body fat, and waist circumference than did plausible reporters (P < 0.001 for all). Overreporters had a lower weight and body fat than did plausible reporters (P < 0.001 for all). Underreporters reported lower dairy and calcium intakes than did plausible reporters; the results were attenuated with adjustment for total energy. Conclusion: Accounting for objective physical activity measures to quantify reporting errors resulted in different and potentially more reasonable proportions of implausible reporters. PMID:20881064

  20. Excess dietary salt intake alters the excitability of central sympathetic networks.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Sean D; Madden, Christopher J; Sved, Alan F

    2010-07-14

    The ingestion of excess dietary salt (defined as NaCl) is strongly correlated with cardiovascular disease, morbidity, mortality, and is regarded as a major contributing factor to the pathogenesis of hypertension. Although several mechanisms contribute to the adverse consequences of dietary salt intake, accumulating evidence suggests that dietary salt loading produces neurogenically-mediated increases in total peripheral resistance to raise arterial blood pressure (ABP). Evidence from clinical studies and experimental models clearly establishes a hypertensive effect of dietary salt loading in a subset of individuals who are deemed "salt-sensitive". However, we will discuss and present evidence to develop a novel hypothesis to suggest that while chronic increases in dietary salt intake do not elevate mean ABP in "non-salt-sensitive" animals, dietary salt intake does enhance several sympathetic reflexes thereby predisposing these animals and/or individuals to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Additional evidence raises an intriguing hypothesis that these enhanced sympathetic reflexes are largely attributed to the ability of excess dietary salt intake to selectively enhance the excitability of sympathetic-regulatory neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Insight into the cellular mechanisms by which dietary salt intake alters the responsiveness of RVLM circuits will likely provide a foundation for developing new therapeutic approaches to treat salt-sensitive hypertension. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009. PMID:20434471

  1. Dietary Intakes and Nutritional Issues in Neurologically Impaired Children

    PubMed Central

    Penagini, Francesca; Mameli, Chiara; Fabiano, Valentina; Brunetti, Domenica; Dilillo, Dario; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Neurologically impaired (NI) children are at increased risk of malnutrition due to several nutritional and non-nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, insufficient dietary intake as a consequence of feeding difficulties is one of the main issues. Feeding problems are frequently secondary to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which usually correlates with the severity of motor impairment and presents in around 90% of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) during the first year of life. Other nutritional factors are represented by excessive nutrient losses, often subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux and altered energy metabolism. Among the non-nutritional factors, the type and severity of neurological impairment, ambulatory status, the degree of cognitive impairment, and use of entiepileptic medication altogether concur to determination of nutritional status. With the present review, the current literature is discussed and a practical approach for nutritional assessment in NI children is proposed. Early identification and intervention of nutritional issues of NI children with a multidisciplinary approach is crucial to improve the overall health and quality of life of these complex children. PMID:26580646

  2. Dietary magnesium intake improves insulin resistance among non-diabetic individuals with metabolic syndrome participating in a dietary trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinsong; Persuitte, Gioia; Olendzki, Barbara C; Wedick, Nicole M; Zhang, Zhiying; Merriam, Philip A; Fang, Hua; Carmody, James; Olendzki, Gin-Fei; Ma, Yunsheng

    2013-09-27

    Many cross-sectional studies show an inverse association between dietary magnesium and insulin resistance, but few longitudinal studies examine the ability to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for magnesium intake through food and its effect on insulin resistance among participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The dietary intervention study examined this question in 234 individuals with MetS. Magnesium intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Fasting glucose and insulin levels were collected at each time point; and insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The relation between magnesium intake and HOMA-IR was assessed using linear mixed models adjusted for covariates. Baseline magnesium intake was 287 ± 93 mg/day (mean ± standard deviation), and HOMA-IR, fasting glucose and fasting insulin were 3.7 ± 3.5, 99 ± 13 mg/dL, and 15 ± 13 μU/mL, respectively. At baseline, 6-, and 12-months, 23.5%, 30.4%, and 27.7% met the RDA for magnesium. After multivariate adjustment, magnesium intake was inversely associated with metabolic biomarkers of insulin resistance (P < 0.01). Further, the likelihood of elevated HOMA-IR (>3.6) over time was 71% lower [odds ratio (OR): 0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12, 0.72] in participants in the highest quartile of magnesium intake than those in the lowest quartile. For individuals meeting the RDA for magnesium, the multivariate-adjusted OR for high HOMA-IR over time was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.77). These findings indicate that dietary magnesium intake is inadequate among non-diabetic individuals with MetS and suggest that increasing dietary magnesium to meet the RDA has a protective effect on insulin resistance.

  3. [Dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and problems in clinical fields].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshifumi

    2016-07-01

    In the dietary reference intakes, EAR(estimated average requirement), RDA(recommended dietary allowance), AL(adequate intake), DG(tentative dietary goal for preventing life style related diseases) and UL(tolerable upper intake level) of eight types of trace elements (iron: Fe, zinc: Zn, copper: Cu, manganese: Mn, iodine: I, selenium: Se, chromium: Cr, molybdenum: Mo) have been set. However, in the meals of hospitals, only iron of which has been taken into account. The content of these trace elements in the enteral nutrient released after 2000 was determined by considering the content of dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and considered so not fall into deficiency. However, enteral nutrient must be used considering the content of Zn, Cu and the Zn/Cu ratio, the selenium content, and the route of administration, in order to avoid falling into deficiency.

  4. Evaluation of nutritional knowledge of second grade school children and assessment of their dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Kherkheulidze, M; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E; Manjavidze, T

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of the general nutrition knowledge and physical activity rate among the first grade school age children and evaluation of their diet and nutritional skills based on the parental interviews. Cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected schools of Tbilisi. In each school was selected one group of the second grade children and their parents by cluster selection method. A population of 290 children aged 6-8 years and their parents were interviewed. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 17. Questionnaires, except those with incomplete answers (n=30), were used for the analytical data. The study shows that in general, the level of knowledge related to rich sources of nutrients was poor. The most of the children can't identify the role of calcium (72,6%), proteins (68,1%) and iron (84,6 %). Children prefer to eat and select foods which they like (71,8%), such as sweets and cakes, hamburgers, chips and etc. The study showed that the most of the children (83,3%) have normal weight for age, underweight was revealed in 3,1% of children, more frequent was overweight (12,3%) and obesity (1,4%). There wasn't significant difference of overweight and underweight distribution in boys and girls. The assessment of child dietary intake show, that intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and milk products is quite low, while intake of bread and pastry, and sweets and cakes are quite high. Daily consumption of sweets and snacks was significantly higher in girls (64.2%) than in boys (47.5%) (p<0.01). The study revealed that only 62 % of children eat the breakfast, in frequent cases children eat very fast (26,1%), 47,8 % of children need to remind to wash hands before eating, most children 60,4% view TV during the meal time or play computer games. The most of the children play the active games approximately 30-60 minutes, quite often children play active games only 20-30 minutes that is much less then WHO

  5. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study

    PubMed Central

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = −0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = −0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults. PMID:26274973

  6. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study.

    PubMed

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-08-12

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = -0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = -0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults.

  7. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-08-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

  8. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-08-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods.

  9. Dietary sodium intake in young Korean adults and its relationship with eating frequency and taste preference.

    PubMed

    Shim, Eugene; Ryu, Ha-Jung; Hwang, Jinah; Kim, Soo Yeon; Chung, Eun-Jung

    2013-06-01

    Dietary sodium intake is considered one of the major causal factors for hypertension. Thus, to control the increase of blood pressure and reduce the risk of hypertension-related clinical complications, a reduction in sodium intake is recommended. The present study aimed at determining the association of dietary sodium intake with meal and snack frequency, snacking time, and taste preference in Korean young adults aged 20-26 years, using a 125-item dish-frequency questionnaire. The mean dietary sodium intakes of men and women were 270.6 mmol/day and 213.1 mmol/day, which were approximately 310% and 245% of the daily sodium intake goal for Korean men and women, respectively. Dietary sodium intake was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure in the total group, and BMI in the total and men-only groups. In the total and men-only groups, those who consumed meals more times per day consumed more dietary sodium, but the number of times they consumed snacks was negatively correlated with dietary sodium intake in the total, men-only, and women-only groups. In addition, those who consumed snacks in the evening consumed more sodium than those who did so in the morning in the men-only group. The sodium intake was also positively associated with preference for salty and sweet taste in the total and women-only groups. Such a high intake of sodium in these young subjects shows that a reduction in sodium intake is important for the prevention of hypertension and related diseases in the future.

  10. Association between dietary fiber intake and the folate status of a group of female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Houghton, L A; Green, T J; Donovan, U M; Gibson, R S; Stephen, A M; O'Connor, D L

    1997-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the association between dietary fiber intake and the folate status of Canadian female adolescents. We also assessed dietary folate intakes and evaluated the prevalence of biochemical folate deficiency in these subjects. Female adolescents aged 14-19 y (n = 224) were recruited and fasting blood samples were collected. Dietary intakes (3-d food record) were recorded and participants were classified as lactoovovegetarians, semivegetarians, or omnivores on the basis of food-consumption patterns assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Fourteen percent, 17%, and 26% of lactoovovegetarians, semivegetarians, and omnivores, respectively, had dietary folate intakes below their predicted requirements; 1%, 4%, and 23%, respectively, had serum folate concentrations indicative of deficiency. Despite low dietary folate intakes and serum folate concentrations, few subjects had homocysteine concentrations indicative of deficiency, suggesting that the degree of folate depletion had not yet produced functional consequences. Most important, results suggest that the consumption of nonstarch polysaccharide is significantly associated with serum folate concentrations (P < 0.001). For each 1-g increase in nonstarch polysaccharide intake, a 1.8% increase in serum folate concentration is expected. In summary, we propose that an increase in nonstarch polysaccharide intake may promote the intestinal biosynthesis of folate, providing a complementary strategy to enhance the folate nutriture of humans.

  11. Construction of an N-nitroso database for assessing dietary intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary N-nitroso compounds are carcinogens synthesized during food processing from two main classes of precursors, oxides of nitrogen and amines or amides. Quantification of the dietary intake of N-nitroso compounds is significant to human cancers, including those of the stomach and upper gastro-in...

  12. Breast cancer risk, dietary intake, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Alshatwi, Ali A

    2010-07-01

    Diet plays an important role in DNA methylation, synthesis, and repair; intake has been associated with breast cancer. The folate-metabolizing enzyme, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is polymorphic at nucleotides 677 (C-->T), resulting in allozymes with altered activity and is thus believed to cause interindividual differences in cancer risk susceptibility. I evaluated this polymorphism and its effect on the food intake and breast cancer risk association in a population-based case-control study of 100 breast cancer cases and 100 controls using a real-time PCR based assay. All subjects completed in-person interviews, which included a food-frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Cases and controls were similar in the distribution ofMTHFRpolymorphisms at codon 677 (41.4% cases and 41.8% controls carried theTallele). An inverse association of breast cancer risk with food intake was observed in all genotype groups, particularly among subjects with the677TTgenotype. Compared with those with the677CCgenotype and high food intake frequency, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) associated with low food intake were 1.94 (1.15-3.26), 2.17 (1.34-3.51), and 2.51 (1.37-4.60) for subjects who hadCC,CT, andTTgenotypes (Pfor interaction, 0.05). Results of this study suggest that theMTHFR C677T polymorphism may modify the association between dietary intake and breast cancer risk. PMID:20417243

  13. Setting dietary reference intakes with the use of bioavailability data: Calcium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The determination of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for calcium, especially in children, has relied in significant part on the evaluation of the relation between calcium intake and calcium absorption and retention. At present, most of these studies are conducted with the use of dual-tracer stable ...

  14. Inadequate dietary protein intake: When does it occur and what are the consequences?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work with country-level data has shown associations between inadequate protein supply and stunting rates. Inadequate protein intake is known to be deleterious in animals. Low dietary protein intake in children is associated with growth faltering. According to World Health Organization (WHO)...

  15. Sleep Symptoms Associated with Intake of Specific Dietary Nutrients

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A.; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R.; Knutson, Kristen L.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep symptoms are associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic disease. The potential role of diet has been largely unexplored. Data from the 2007–2008 NHANES were used (N=4,552) to determine which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms in a nationally-representative sample. Survey items assessed difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, non-restorative sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Analyses were adjusted for energy intake, other dietary factors, exercise, BMI and sociodemographics. Population-weighted, logistic regression, with backwards-stepwise selection, examined which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the difference in odds of sleep symptoms associated with a doubling in nutrient. Nutrients that were independently associated with difficulty falling asleep included (in order): Alpha-Carotene (OR=0.96), Selenium (OR=0.80), Dodecanoic Acid (OR=0.91), Calcium (OR=0.83), and Hexadecanoic Acid (OR=1.10). Nutrients that were independently associated with sleep maintenance difficulties included: Salt (OR=1.19), Butanoic Acid (0,81), Carbohydrate (OR=0.71), Dodecanoic Acid (OR=0.90), Vitamin D (OR=0.84),, Lycopene (OR=0.98), Hexanoic Acid (OR= 1.25), and Moisture (OR=1.27). Nutrients that were independently associated with non-restorative sleep included Butanoic Acid (OR=1.09), Calcium (OR=0.81), Vitamin C (OR=0.92), Water (OR=0.98), Moisture (OR= 1.41), and Cholesterol (OR= 1.10). Nutrients that were independently associated with sleepiness included: Moisture (OR=1.20), Theobromine (OR=1.04), Potassium (OR= 0.70), Water (OR=0.97). These results suggest novel associations between sleep symptoms and diet/metabolism, potentially explaining associations between sleep and cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:23992533

  16. Dietary total and insoluble fiber intakes are inversely associated with prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-04-01

    Although experimental data suggest a potentially protective involvement of dietary fiber in prostate carcinogenesis, very few prospective studies have investigated the relation between dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk, and those have had inconsistent results. Our objective was to study the association between dietary fiber intake (overall, insoluble, soluble, and from different sources, such as cereals, vegetables, fruits, and legumes) and prostate cancer risk. Stratifications by excess weight status, insulin-like growth factors, and amount of alcohol intake were also considered. This prospective analysis included 3313 men from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort who completed at least 3 24-h dietary records. One hundred thirty-nine incident prostate cancers were diagnosed between 1994 and 2007 (median follow-up of 12.6 y). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk were characterized by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Prostate cancer risk was inversely associated with total dietary fiber intake (HR of quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; P = 0.001), insoluble (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.78; P = 0.001), and legume (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.95; P = 0.04) fiber intakes. In contrast, we found no association between prostate cancer risk and soluble (P = 0.1), cereal (P = 0.7), vegetable (P = 0.9), and fruit (P = 0.4) fiber intakes. In conclusion, dietary fiber intake (total, insoluble, and from legumes but not soluble or from cereals, vegetables, and fruits) was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, consistent with mechanistic data. PMID:24553693

  17. Antidepressants may lead to a decrease in niacin and NAD in patients with poor dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, Margaretha; Swanepoel, Annie; Bipath, Priyesh

    2015-03-01

    The term niacin is the generic name for the two compounds nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, the major dietary precursors for two important coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphorylated form, NADP. Niacin is important for the maintenance of cellular integrity and energy production and is involved in more than 500 intracellular reactions. Deficiencies of niacin may contribute to neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Patients who develop nutritional deficiencies as a result of poor dietary intake, especially inadequate intake of proteins and vitamins, could potentially suffer from niacin deficiency and NAD depletion. However, de novo synthesis of niacin and NAD in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism may compensate for impaired dietary intake. The rate of synthesis of NAD and niacin from tryptophan oxidation depends on the induction of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma. Niacin synthesis is not limited by a decrease in tryptophan and excessive IDO activity may therefore lead to a decline in tryptophan levels. Antidepressants have an anti-inflammatory effect, including reduction of interferon-gamma and therefore inhibition of IDO, the rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway. In theory, this could account for increased serotonin as more tryptophan becomes available for serotonin synthesis. However, the downside may be that less NAD and niacin are synthesised downstream, which could exacerbate common psychiatric problems. It is our hypothesis that patients with poor dietary intake, who are treated with antidepressants, are at risk of developing niacin/NAD deficiency with possible development of associated neuropsychiatric symptoms. We therefore propose that niacin supplementation be considered in patients with inadequate diets who are treated with antidepressants. We believe that if this does not happen, a subclinical niacin deficiency may result

  18. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2016-05-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results. PMID:26979049

  19. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): relative validity of a mobile phone application to measure intake of food groups.

    PubMed

    Rangan, Anna M; Tieleman, Laurissa; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Tang, Lie Ming; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19-24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69-0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65-75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54-0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA-recall) were small (range: -13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: -4 g, LOA: -159 to 151 g). The Bland-Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals' food group intake. PMID:27121045

  20. Dietary fiber intake of the U.S. population, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this report is to present data on the dietary fiber intake of the U.S. population and the food categories that contribute to total intake. The dietary intake data were from a twenty-four hour recall provided by 9,042 individuals ages two and older, except breast-fed children, who par...

  1. Fatty acid intakes of children and adolescents are not in line with the dietary intake recommendations for future cardiovascular health: a systematic review of dietary intake data from thirty countries.

    PubMed

    Harika, Rajwinder K; Cosgrove, Maeve C; Osendarp, Saskia J M; Verhoef, Petra; Zock, Peter L

    2011-08-01

    Fatty acid composition of the diet may influence cardiovascular risk from early childhood onwards. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of dietary fat and fatty acid intakes in children and adolescents from different countries around the world and compare these with the population nutrient intake goals for prevention of chronic diseases as defined by the WHO (2003). Data on fat and fatty acid intake were mainly collected from national dietary surveys and from population studies all published during or after 1995. These were identified by searching PubMed, and through nutritionists at local Unilever offices in different countries. Fatty acid intake data from thirty countries mainly from developed countries were included. In twenty-eight of the thirty countries, mean SFA intakes were higher than the recommended maximum of 10 % energy, whereas in twenty-one out of thirty countries mean PUFA intakes were below recommended (6-10 % energy). More and better intake data are needed, in particular for developing regions of the world, and future research should determine the extent to which improvement of dietary fatty acid intake in childhood translates into lower CHD risk in later life. Despite these limitations, the available data clearly indicate that in the majority of the countries providing data on fatty acid intake, less than half of the children and adolescents meet the SFA and PUFA intake goals that are recommended for the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:21554818

  2. Type D personality and dietary intake: The mediating effects of coping style.

    PubMed

    Booth, Lorna; Williams, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between Type D and dietary intake and to determine whether this relationship is mediated by coping. In a cross-sectional study, 187 healthy participants completed a self-report questionnaire measuring Type D personality, dietary intake and coping. Results showed that Type D was associated with maladaptive coping and significantly less healthy food intake, including more consumption of fat and sugar, and significantly less consumption of fruit and vegetables. Regression analyses showed that this relationship was partially mediated by coping. The results suggest that Type D personality may represent a risk factor for unhealthy eating.

  3. Usual coffee intake in Brazil: results from the National Dietary Survey 2008-9.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alessandra Gaspar; da Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo

    2015-05-28

    Coffee is central to the economy of many developing countries, as well as to the world economy. However, despite the widespread consumption of coffee, there are very few available data showing the usual intake of this beverage. Surveying usual coffee intake is a way of monitoring one aspect of a population's usual dietary intake. Thus, the present study aimed to characterise the usual daily coffee intake in the Brazilian population. We used data from the National Dietary Survey collected in 2008-9 from a probabilistic sample of 34,003 Brazilians aged 10 years and older. The National Cancer Institute method was applied to obtain the usual intake based on two nonconsecutive food diaries, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed by age and sex for Brazil and its regions. The estimated average usual daily coffee intake of the Brazilian population was 163 (SE 2.8) ml. The comparison by sex showed that males had a 12% greater usual coffee intake than females. In addition, the highest intake was recorded among older males. Among the five regions surveyed, the North-East had the highest usual coffee intake (175 ml). The most common method of brewing coffee was filtered/instant coffee (71%), and the main method of sweetening beverages was with sugar (87%). In Brazil, the mean usual coffee intake corresponds to 163 ml, or 1.5 cups/d. Differences in usual coffee intake according to sex and age differed among the five Brazilian regions.

  4. Usual coffee intake in Brazil: results from the National Dietary Survey 2008-9.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alessandra Gaspar; da Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo

    2015-05-28

    Coffee is central to the economy of many developing countries, as well as to the world economy. However, despite the widespread consumption of coffee, there are very few available data showing the usual intake of this beverage. Surveying usual coffee intake is a way of monitoring one aspect of a population's usual dietary intake. Thus, the present study aimed to characterise the usual daily coffee intake in the Brazilian population. We used data from the National Dietary Survey collected in 2008-9 from a probabilistic sample of 34,003 Brazilians aged 10 years and older. The National Cancer Institute method was applied to obtain the usual intake based on two nonconsecutive food diaries, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed by age and sex for Brazil and its regions. The estimated average usual daily coffee intake of the Brazilian population was 163 (SE 2.8) ml. The comparison by sex showed that males had a 12% greater usual coffee intake than females. In addition, the highest intake was recorded among older males. Among the five regions surveyed, the North-East had the highest usual coffee intake (175 ml). The most common method of brewing coffee was filtered/instant coffee (71%), and the main method of sweetening beverages was with sugar (87%). In Brazil, the mean usual coffee intake corresponds to 163 ml, or 1.5 cups/d. Differences in usual coffee intake according to sex and age differed among the five Brazilian regions. PMID:25851731

  5. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  6. Dietary Calcium Intake, Serum Calcium Level, and their Association with Preeclampsia in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anant; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Rai, Sanjay K.; Misra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with low serum calcium level. Though the evidence is abundant, it is equivocal. Objectives: The study aimed to estimate the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status among pregnant women, and to document the association of the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status with incidence of preeclampsia in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. All pregnant women between 28 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were interviewed. A semi-structured interview schedule and a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire were administered to assess the dietary calcium intake. AutoAnalyser (Biolis 24i) was used for measuring serum calcium. Results: We enrolled 217 pregnant women. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] dietary calcium intake was 858 (377) mg/day. The mean (SD) serum calcium level was 9.6 mg/dL (0.56). Incidence of preeclampsia was 13.4%. Preeclampsia was not associated with hypocalcemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.27-3.98]. Conclusion: The majority of pregnant women had inadequate dietary calcium intake. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was low. Low serum calcium level was not associated with preeclampsia. Calcium supplementation may not reduce preeclampsia in this population. PMID:27385877

  7. Dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in Korea: a pooled study of 2,599 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary sugar intake, particularly added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, has received worldwide attention recently. Investigation of dietary behaviors may facilitate understanding of dietary sugar intakes of children and adolescents. However, the relationship between dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in the Korean population has not been investigated. Thus, this study aimed to estimate dietary sugar intake and food sources according to sex as well as examine the relationship of dietary sugar intake with frequent snacking and dietary patterns among Korean children and adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS We pooled data from five studies involving Korean children and adolescents conducted from 2002 to 2011. A total of 2,599 subjects aged 9-14 years were included in this study. Each subject completed more than 3 days of dietary records. RESULTS Mean daily total sugar intake was 46.6 g for boys and 54.3 g for girls. Compared with boys, girls showed higher sugar intakes from fruits (7.5 g for boys and 8.8 g for girls; P = 0.0081) and processed foods (27.9 g for boys and 34.9 g for girls; P < 0.0001). On average, 95.4% of boys and 98.8% of girls consumed snacks during the study period, and total sugar intake showed a significantly increasing trend with increasing energy intake from snacks (P < 0.0001 for both sexes). Two dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis: Traditional and Westernized patterns. Total sugar intake was higher in the Westernized pattern (56.2 g for boys and 57.2 g for girls) than in the Traditional pattern (46.5 g for boys and 46.3 g for girls). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that multilateral and practical development of a nutrition education and intervention program that considers dietary behaviors as well as absolute sugar intake is required to prevent excessive sugar intake in Korean children and adolescents. PMID:27698962

  8. Dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in Korea: a pooled study of 2,599 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary sugar intake, particularly added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, has received worldwide attention recently. Investigation of dietary behaviors may facilitate understanding of dietary sugar intakes of children and adolescents. However, the relationship between dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in the Korean population has not been investigated. Thus, this study aimed to estimate dietary sugar intake and food sources according to sex as well as examine the relationship of dietary sugar intake with frequent snacking and dietary patterns among Korean children and adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS We pooled data from five studies involving Korean children and adolescents conducted from 2002 to 2011. A total of 2,599 subjects aged 9-14 years were included in this study. Each subject completed more than 3 days of dietary records. RESULTS Mean daily total sugar intake was 46.6 g for boys and 54.3 g for girls. Compared with boys, girls showed higher sugar intakes from fruits (7.5 g for boys and 8.8 g for girls; P = 0.0081) and processed foods (27.9 g for boys and 34.9 g for girls; P < 0.0001). On average, 95.4% of boys and 98.8% of girls consumed snacks during the study period, and total sugar intake showed a significantly increasing trend with increasing energy intake from snacks (P < 0.0001 for both sexes). Two dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis: Traditional and Westernized patterns. Total sugar intake was higher in the Westernized pattern (56.2 g for boys and 57.2 g for girls) than in the Traditional pattern (46.5 g for boys and 46.3 g for girls). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that multilateral and practical development of a nutrition education and intervention program that considers dietary behaviors as well as absolute sugar intake is required to prevent excessive sugar intake in Korean children and adolescents.

  9. [Calcium pros and cons significance and risk of phosphorus supplementation. The risk of dietary phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Ohi, Akiko; Nomura, Kengo; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus (Pi) is an important determinant of Pi balance in patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a reduced GFR. High dietary Pi burden may promote vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Recently, Ohnishi and Razzaque suggest that phosphate toxicity accelerates the mammalian aging process and that reducing the phosphate burden can delay the aging (FASEB J 24, 3562, 2010) . Dietary Pi is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives. Accurate information on the Pi content of foods is needed to achieve a low Pi intake and effectively manage CKD and the aging. In this review, we discuss the risk of dietary Pi intake in CKD and the aging.

  10. Proposed nomenclature for salt intake and for reductions in dietary salt.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm R C; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Webster, Jacqui; Lackland, Daniel T; Neal, Bruce; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-04-01

    There is considerable confusion about what ranges of dietary salt(a) could be considered low, normal, or high and also what ranges of reduction in dietary salt are small or large. The World Hypertension League with other organizations involved in dietary salt reduction have proposed a standardized nomenclature based on normal ancestral levels of salt intake and also on ranges of reduction in salt intake in clinical and population interventions. Low daily salt (sodium) intake where harm due to deficiency would be expected to occur is recommended to remain undefined because of inadequate research but likely <0.25 g (100 mg), normal (physiological) intake <2.5 g (1000 mg), recommended intake <5.0 g (2000 mg), high ≥5.0 g (2000 mg), very high >10 to 15 g (4000-6000 mg), and extremely high >15 g (6000 mg). Reductions in daily salt (sodium) intake are recommended to be called small if <2.5 g (1000 mg), moderate if 2.5 to 5.0 g (1000-2000 mg) and large if >5.0 g (2000 mg). Use of this nomenclature is likely to result in less confusion about salt intake and interventions to reduce dietary sodium.

  11. Dietary fat intakes in Irish adults in 2011: how much has changed in 10 years?

    PubMed

    Li, Kaifeng; McNulty, Breige A; Tiernery, Ann M; Devlin, Niamh F C; Joyce, Triona; Leite, Joao C; Flynn, Albert; Walton, Janette; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Michael J; Nugent, Anne P

    2016-05-28

    Imbalances in dietary fat intakes are linked to several chronic diseases. This study describes dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in 1051 Irish adults (aged 18-90 years), using data from the 2011 national food consumption survey, the National Adult Nutrition Survey. It also compares current intakes for 18-64-year-olds with those reported in the last such survey in 2001, the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey. Dietary fat intakes were estimated using data from 4-d semi-weighed (2011) and 7-d estimated (2001) food diaries. In 2011, intakes for 18-64-year-olds were as follows: total fat, 34·1 (sd 6·1) % total energy (%TE); SFA, 13·3 (sd 3·3) %TE; MUFA, 12·5 (sd 2·6) %TE; PUFA, 6·1 (sd 2·2) %TE; and trans-fat, 0·511 (sd 0·282) %TE. Apart from MUFA, intakes decreased (P65 years had the highest intakes of SFA; however, intakes were typically higher than UK-recommended values for all groups. In contrast, intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids were lowest in younger age groups. Intakes of trans-fat were well within UK-recommended levels. Although there have been some improvements in the profile of intakes since 2001, imbalances persist in the quantity and quality of dietary fat consumed by Irish adults, most notably for total and SFA and for younger age groups for long-chain n-3 fatty acids.

  12. Dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and the risk of type 2 diabetes: the Shanghai Women's Health Study123

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Raquel; Gao, Yu-Tang; Dai, Qi; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2009-01-01

    Background: Diet plays a key role in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but little is known about the contributions of specific nutrients in populations in which dietary patterns differ from Western populations. Objective: We examined associations between calcium and magnesium intakes and the risk of T2D in a Chinese population. Design: We used data from a population-based, prospective study of 64,191 women who were free of T2D or other chronic diseases at study recruitment and were living in urban Shanghai, China. Dietary intake, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements were assessed through in-person interviews. A Cox regression model was used to evaluate the association of the exposures under study with the risk of T2D. Results: An inverse association between calcium and magnesium intakes and T2D risk was observed. The relative risks for the lowest to the highest quintiles of calcium intake were 1.00, 0.82, 0.73, 0.67, and 0.74 (P for trend < 0.001), and for magnesium they were 1.00, 0.84, 0.84, 0.79, and 0.86 (P for trend < 0.001). Milk intake was also inversely associated with the risk of T2D. Conclusion: Our data suggest that calcium and magnesium intakes may protect against the development of T2D in this population. PMID:19225116

  13. Zinc: dietary intake and impact of supplementation on immune function in elderly.

    PubMed

    Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Romeo, Javier; Malavolta, Marco; Costarelli, Laura; Giacconi, Robertina; Diaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Marcos, Ascension

    2013-06-01

    The diet in the elderly does not provide a sufficient level of nutrients needed to maintain an adequate healthy status leading to micronutrient deficiencies and impaired immune response with subsequent development of degenerative diseases. Nutrient "zinc" is a relevant micronutrient involved in maintaining a good integrity of many body homeostatic mechanisms, including immune efficiency, owing to its requirement for the biological activity of many enzymes, proteins and for cellular proliferation and genomic stability. Old people aged 60-65 years and older have zinc intakes below 50% of the recommended daily allowance on a given day. Many causes can be involved: among them, altered intestinal absorption, inadequate mastication, psychosocial factors, drugs interactions, altered subcellular processes (zinc transporters (Zip and ZnT family), metallothioneins, divalent metal transporter-1). Zinc supplementation may remodel the immune alterations in elderly leading to healthy ageing. Several zinc trials have been carried out with contradictory data, perhaps due to incorrect choice of an effective zinc supplementation in old subjects showing subsequent zinc toxic effects on immunity. Old subjects with specific IL-6 polymorphism (GG allele carriers; named C-) are more prone for zinc supplementation than the entire old population, in whom correct dietary habits with foods containing zinc (Mediterranean diet) may be sufficient in restoring zinc deficiency and impaired immune response. We summarise the main causes of low zinc dietary intake in elderly reporting an update on the impact of zinc supplementation upon the immune response also on the basis of individual IL-6 polymorphism. PMID:22222917

  14. Disclosure of Genetic Information and Change in Dietary Intake: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Daiva E.; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background Proponents of consumer genetic tests claim that the information can positively impact health behaviors and aid in chronic disease prevention. However, the effects of disclosing genetic information on dietary intake behavior are not clear. Methods A double-blinded, parallel group, 2∶1 online randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the short- and long-term effects of disclosing nutrition-related genetic information for personalized nutrition on dietary intakes of caffeine, vitamin C, added sugars, and sodium. Participants were healthy men and women aged 20–35 years (n = 138). The intervention group (n = 92) received personalized DNA-based dietary advice for 12-months and the control group (n = 46) received general dietary recommendations with no genetic information for 12-months. Food frequency questionnaires were collected at baseline and 3- and 12-months after the intervention to assess dietary intakes. General linear models were used to compare changes in intakes between those receiving general dietary advice and those receiving DNA-based dietary advice. Results Compared to the control group, no significant changes to dietary intakes of the nutrients were observed at 3-months. At 12-months, participants in the intervention group who possessed a risk version of the ACE gene, and were advised to limit their sodium intake, significantly reduced their sodium intake (mg/day) compared to the control group (−287.3±114.1 vs. 129.8±118.2, p = 0.008). Those who had the non-risk version of ACE did not significantly change their sodium intake compared to the control group (12-months: −244.2±150.2, p = 0.11). Among those with the risk version of the ACE gene, the proportion who met the targeted recommendation of 1500 mg/day increased from 19% at baseline to 34% after 12 months (p = 0.06). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that disclosing genetic information for personalized nutrition results in greater changes

  15. Evaluating the relationship between plasma and skin carotenoids and reported dietary intake in elementary school children to assess fruit and vegetable intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate assessment of dietary intake of children can be challenging due to the limited reliability of current dietary assessment methods in children. While plasma carotenoid concentrations has been used to assess fruit and vegetable intake, this testing is rarely conducted in school settings in chi...

  16. Can dietary intake influence perception of and measured appearance? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pezdirc, Kristine; Hutchesson, Melinda; Whitehead, Ross; Ozakinci, Gozde; Perrett, David; Collins, Clare E

    2015-03-01

    Appearance-based interventions have had some success in reducing smoking and sun exposure. Appearance may also motivate dietary behavior change if it was established that dietary improvement had a positive impact on appearance. The aims of this review are to evaluate the current evidence examining the relationship between dietary intake and appearance and to determine the effectiveness of dietary interventions on perceived or actual appearance. An electronic search of English-language studies up to August 2012 was conducted using Cochrane, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and PsycINFO databases. Studies that included participants aged at least 18 years, that observed or altered dietary intake from actual food or dietary supplement use, and assessed appearance-related outcomes were considered eligible. Data from 27 studies were extracted and assessed for quality using standardized tools. Nineteen studies were assessed as being of "positive" and 4 of "neutral" quality. All observational studies (n = 4741 participants) indicated that there was a significant association between various aspects of dietary intake and skin coloration and skin aging. The majority (16 studies, 769 participants) evaluated the effect of dietary supplements on skin appearance among women. Only 1 study examined the effect of actual food intake on appearance. Significant improvements in at least 1 actual or perceived appearance-related outcome (facial wrinkling, skin elasticity, roughness, and skin color) following dietary intervention were shown as a result of supplementation. Further studies are needed in representative populations that examine actual food intake on appearance, using validated tools in well-designed high-quality randomized control trials. PMID:25600848

  17. Can dietary intake influence perception of and measured appearance? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pezdirc, Kristine; Hutchesson, Melinda; Whitehead, Ross; Ozakinci, Gozde; Perrett, David; Collins, Clare E

    2015-03-01

    Appearance-based interventions have had some success in reducing smoking and sun exposure. Appearance may also motivate dietary behavior change if it was established that dietary improvement had a positive impact on appearance. The aims of this review are to evaluate the current evidence examining the relationship between dietary intake and appearance and to determine the effectiveness of dietary interventions on perceived or actual appearance. An electronic search of English-language studies up to August 2012 was conducted using Cochrane, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and PsycINFO databases. Studies that included participants aged at least 18 years, that observed or altered dietary intake from actual food or dietary supplement use, and assessed appearance-related outcomes were considered eligible. Data from 27 studies were extracted and assessed for quality using standardized tools. Nineteen studies were assessed as being of "positive" and 4 of "neutral" quality. All observational studies (n = 4741 participants) indicated that there was a significant association between various aspects of dietary intake and skin coloration and skin aging. The majority (16 studies, 769 participants) evaluated the effect of dietary supplements on skin appearance among women. Only 1 study examined the effect of actual food intake on appearance. Significant improvements in at least 1 actual or perceived appearance-related outcome (facial wrinkling, skin elasticity, roughness, and skin color) following dietary intervention were shown as a result of supplementation. Further studies are needed in representative populations that examine actual food intake on appearance, using validated tools in well-designed high-quality randomized control trials.

  18. Who Underreports Dietary Intake in a Dietary Recall? Evidence from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klesges, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Identifies the presence and degree of apparent underreporting of dietary intake in the participants in the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results indicated that up to 31% of the adults in this sample may have underreported and that those at greatest risk for underreporting were less well educated and heavier. (JPS)

  19. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-12-09

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols' health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183-4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake.

  20. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-12-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols' health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183-4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. PMID:26690212

  1. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. PMID:26690212

  2. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin D based on the revised 2010 dietary guidelines are not being met by children in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Willows, Noreen; Yuan, Yan; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-11-01

    Canadian children have been shown to be not meeting the revised (2010) dietary recommended intake (DRI) for vitamin D through diet alone. However, no study has evaluated whether diet and supplementation together are supporting Canadian children in meeting the DRIs for vitamin D intake. This study assessed the adequacy of vitamin D intake through diet and supplements among Albertan children and the determinants of meeting dietary guidelines. 2686 grade 5 students aged 10 to 11 years in Alberta, Canada were surveyed. We hypothesized that less than 50% of children would meet the DRI. Vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The adequacy of vitamin D intake was estimated using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 400 IU (International Units) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 600 IU. Random effect multiple logistic regression was used to identify correlates of meeting DRIs. Forty five percent of children met the EAR and 22% met the RDA for vitamin D. When vitamin D intake from diet alone was considered, only 16% and 2% met the EAR and RDA, respectively. Parental education, household income and physical activity were positively correlated with meeting DRIs, and students attending metropolitan area schools were more likely to meet the EAR than students attending rural area schools (OR = 1.28; P = .043). The majority of children did not meet the DRI for vitamin D. Health promotion strategies aiming to improve the vitamin D status of Albertan children are necessary given the importance of vitamin D for children's health and development.

  3. Estimated dietary intakes of flavonols, flavanones and flavones in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24 hour dietary recall cohort.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Ericson, Ulrica; Amiano, Pilar; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Naska, Androniki; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Cassidy, Aedin; Overvad, Kim; Peeters, Petra H M; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Quirós, J Ramón; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Johansson, Gerd; Johansson, Ingegerd; Drake, Isabel; Crowe, Francesca L; Barricarte, Aurelio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Norat, Teresa; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touillaud, Marina; Salvini, Simonetta; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2011-12-01

    Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeå and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.

  4. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): Comparison of a Mobile Phone Digital Entry App for Dietary Data Collection With 24-Hour Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Sarah; Giannelli, Valentina; Yap, Megan LH; Tang, Lie Ming; Roy, Rajshri; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Hebden, Lana; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background The electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA), a digital entry food record mobile phone app, was developed to measure energy and nutrient intake prospectively. This can be used in monitoring population intakes or intervention studies in young adults. Objective The objective was to assess the relative validity of e-DIA as a dietary assessment tool for energy and nutrient intakes using the 24-hour dietary recall as a reference method. Methods University students aged 19 to 24 years recorded their food and drink intake on the e-DIA for five days consecutively and completed 24-hour dietary recalls on three random days during this 5-day study period. Mean differences in energy, macro-, and micronutrient intakes were evaluated between the methods using paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and correlation coefficients were calculated on unadjusted, energy-adjusted, and deattenuated values. Bland-Altman plots and cross-classification into quartiles were used to assess agreement between the two methods. Results Eighty participants completed the study (38% male). No significant differences were found between the two methods for mean intakes of energy or nutrients. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.79 (mean 0.68). Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement between the methods but without obvious bias. Cross-classification into same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 75% to 93% (mean 85%). Conclusions The e-DIA shows potential as a dietary intake assessment tool at a group level with good ranking agreement for energy and all nutrients. PMID:26508282

  5. Sleep symptoms associated with intake of specific dietary nutrients.

    PubMed

    Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R; Knutson, Kristen L

    2014-02-01

    Sleep symptoms are associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic disease. The potential role of diet has been largely unexplored. Data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (n = 4552) to determine which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms in a nationally representative sample. Survey items assessed difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, non-restorative sleep and daytime sleepiness. Analyses were adjusted for energy intake, other dietary factors, exercise, body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographics. Population-weighted, logistic regression, with backwards-stepwise selection, examined which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the difference in odds of sleep symptoms associated with a doubling in nutrient. Nutrients that were associated independently with difficulty falling asleep included (in order): alpha-carotene (OR = 0.96), selenium (OR = 0.80), dodecanoic acid (OR = 0.91), calcium (OR = 0.83) and hexadecanoic acid (OR = 1.10). Nutrients that were associated independently with sleep maintenance difficulties included: salt (OR = 1.19), butanoic acid (0.81), carbohydrate (OR = 0.71), dodecanoic acid (OR = 0.90), vitamin D (OR = 0.84), lycopene (OR = 0.98), hexanoic acid (OR = 1.25) and moisture (OR = 1.27). Nutrients that were associated independently with non-restorative sleep included butanoic acid (OR = 1.09), calcium (OR = 0.81), vitamin C (OR = 0.92), water (OR = 0.98), moisture (OR = 1.41) and cholesterol (OR = 1.10). Nutrients that were associated independently with sleepiness included: moisture (OR = 1.20), theobromine (OR = 1.04), potassium (OR = 0.70) and water (OR = 0.97). These results suggest novel associations between sleep symptoms and diet/metabolism, potentially explaining associations between sleep and cardiometabolic diseases.

  6. Reporting accuracy of population dietary sodium intake using duplicate 24 h dietary recalls and a salt questionnaire.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Dofková, Marcela; Lillegaard, Inger Therese L; De Maeyer, Mieke; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ruprich, Jirí; Řehůřková, Irena; Geelen, Anouk; van 't Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; de Boer, Evelien; Ocké, Marga; Slimani, Nadia; Huybrechts, Inge

    2015-02-14

    High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR). Participants from a subsample of the European Food Consumption Validation study (n 365; countries: Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic), aged 45-65 years, completed two 24 h urine collections and two 24-HDR. Reporting accuracy was calculated as the ratio of reported Na intake to that estimated from the urinary biomarker. A questionnaire on salt use was completed in order to assess the discretionary use of table and cooking salt. The reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was assessed using two scenarios: (1) a salt adjustment procedure using data from the salt questionnaire; (2) without salt adjustment. Overall, reporting accuracy improved when data from the salt questionnaire were included. The mean reporting accuracy was 0·67 (95 % CI 0·62, 0·72), 0·73 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·79) and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·85) for Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic, respectively. Reporting accuracy decreased with increasing BMI among male subjects in all the three countries. For women from Belgium and Norway, reporting accuracy was highest among those classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2: 0·73, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·81 and 0·81, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·86, respectively). The findings from the present study showed considerable underestimation of dietary Na intake assessed using two 24-HDR. The questionnaire-based salt adjustment procedure improved reporting accuracy by 7-13 %. Further development of both the questionnaire and EPIC-Soft databases (e.g. inclusion of a facet to describe salt content) is necessary to estimate population dietary Na intakes accurately.

  7. Dietary Micronutrient Intake in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Relationship with Nutrition and Inflammation Status

    PubMed Central

    Martín-del-Campo, Fabiola; Batis–Ruvalcaba, Carolina; González–Espinoza, Liliana; Rojas–Campos, Enrique; Ángel, Juan R.; Ruiz, Norma; González, Juana; Pazarín, Leonardo; Cueto–Manzano, Alfonso M.

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Objective: To compare dietary intake of micronutrients by peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients according to their nutrition and inflammatory statuses. ♦ Design: This cross-sectional study evaluated 73 patients using subjective global assessment, 24-hour dietary recall, and markers of inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 6]. ♦ Results: Half the patients had an inadequate micronutrient intake. Compared with dietary reference intakes, malnourished patients had lower intakes of iron (11 mg) and of vitamins C (45 mg) and B6 (0.8 mg). Malnourished and well-nourished patients both had lower intakes of sodium (366 mg, 524 mg respectively), potassium (1555 mg, 1963 mg), zinc (5 mg, 7 mg), calcium (645 mg, 710 mg), magnesium (161 mg, 172 mg), niacin (8 mg, 9 mg), folic acid (0.14 mg, 0.19 mg), and vitamin A (365 μg, 404 μg). Markers of inflammation were higher in malnourished than in well-nourished subjects. Compared with patients in lower quartiles, patients in the highest CRP quartile had lower intakes (p < 0.05) of sodium (241 mg vs 404 mg), calcium (453 mg vs 702 mg), vitamin B2 (0.88 mg vs 1.20 mg), and particularly vitamin A (207 μg vs 522 μg). ♦ Conclusions: Among PD patients, half had inadequate dietary intakes of iron, zinc, calcium and vitamins A, B6, C, niacin, and folic acid. Lower micronutrient intakes were associated with malnutrition and inflammation. Patients with inflammation had lower intakes of sodium, calcium, and vitamins A and B2. Micronutrient intake must be investigated in various populations so as to tailor adequate supplementation. PMID:21804135

  8. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate intake of dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Several observational studies have investigated the relation of dietary phylloquinone and menaquinone intake with occurrence of chronic diseases. Most of these studies relied on food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to estimate the intake of phylloquinone and menaquinones. However, none of...

  9. Changes in Dietary Fat Intake and Projections for Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in Sweden: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Björck, Lena; Rosengren, Annika; Winkvist, Anna; Capewell, Simon; Adiels, Martin; Bandosz, Piotr; Critchley, Julia; Boman, Kurt; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; O’Flaherty, Martin; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Sweden, previous favourable trends in blood cholesterol levels have recently levelled off or even increased in some age groups since 2003, potentially reflecting changing fashions and attitudes towards dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA). We aimed to examine the potential effect of different SFA intake on future coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in 2025. Methods We compared the effect on future CHD mortality of two different scenarios for fat intake a) daily SFA intake decreasing to 10 energy percent (E%), and b) daily SFA intake rising to 20 E%. We assumed that there would be moderate improvements in smoking (5%), salt intake (1g/day) and physical inactivity (5% decrease) to continue recent, positive trends. Results In the baseline scenario which assumed that recent mortality declines continue, approximately 5,975 CHD deaths might occur in year 2025. Anticipated improvements in smoking, dietary salt intake and physical activity, would result in some 380 (-6.4%) fewer deaths (235 in men and 145 in women). In combination with a mean SFA daily intake of 10 E%, a total of 810 (-14%) fewer deaths would occur in 2025 (535 in men and 275 in women). If the overall consumption of SFA rose to 20 E%, the expected mortality decline would be wiped out and approximately 20 (0.3%) additional deaths might occur. Conclusion CHD mortality may increase as a result of unfavourable trends in diets rich in saturated fats resulting in increases in blood cholesterol levels. These could cancel out the favourable trends in salt intake, smoking and physical activity. PMID:27490257

  10. Serum ceruloplasmin protein expression and activity increases in iron-deficient rats and is further enhanced by higher dietary copper intake

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Perungavur N.; Lu, Yan; Jiang, Lingli; Kim, Changae

    2011-01-01

    Increases in serum and liver copper content are noted during iron deficiency in mammals, suggesting that copper-dependent processes participate during iron deprivation. One point of intersection between the 2 metals is the liver-derived, multicopper ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp) that is important for iron release from certain tissues. The current study sought to explore Cp expression and activity during physiologic states in which hepatic copper loading occurs (eg, iron deficiency). Weanling rats were fed control or low iron diets containing low, normal, or high copper for ∼ 5 weeks, and parameters of iron homeostasis were measured. Liver copper increased in control and iron-deficient rats fed extra copper. Hepatic Cp mRNA levels did not change; however, serum Cp protein was higher during iron deprivation and with higher copper consumption. In-gel and spectrophotometric ferroxidase and amine oxidase assays demonstrated that Cp activity was enhanced when hepatic copper loading occurred. Interestingly, liver copper levels strongly correlated with Cp protein expression and activity. These observations support the possibility that liver copper loading increases metallation of the Cp protein, leading to increased production of the holo enzyme. Moreover, this phenomenon may play an important role in the compensatory response to maintain iron homeostasis during iron deficiency. PMID:21768302

  11. Reversal of the deleterious effects of chronic dietary HFCS-55 intake by PPAR-δ agonism correlates with impaired NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Collino, Massimo; Benetti, Elisa; Rogazzo, Mara; Mastrocola, Raffaella; Yaqoob, Muhammed M; Aragno, Manuela; Thiemermann, Christoph; Fantozzi, Roberto

    2013-01-15

    Although high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) is the major sweetener in foods and soft-drinks, its potential role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and obesity ("diabesity") remains unclear. Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-δ agonists have never been tested in models of sugar-induced metabolic abnormalities. This study was designed to evaluate (i) the metabolic and renal consequences of HFCS-55 administration (15% wt/vol in drinking water) for 30 weeks on male C57Bl6/J mice and (ii) the effects of the selective PPAR-δ agonist GW0742 (1 mg/kg/day for 16 weeks) in this condition. HFCS-55 caused (i) hyperlipidemia, (ii) insulin resistance, and (iii) renal injury/inflammation. In the liver, HFCS-55 enhanced the expression of fructokinase resulting in hyperuricemia and caused abnormalities in known insulin-driven signaling events. In the kidney, HFCS-55 enhanced the expression of the NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich-repeat-protein 3) inflammasome complex, resulting in caspase-1 activation and interleukin-1β production. All of the above effects of HFCS-55 were attenuated by the specific PPAR-δ agonist GW0742. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that the specific PPAR-δ agonist GW0742 attenuates the metabolic abnormalities and the renal dysfunction/inflammation caused by chronic HFCS-55 exposure by preventing upregulation of fructokinase (liver) and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome (kidney). PMID:23103566

  12. The quality of dietary intake methodology and reporting in child and adolescent obesity intervention trials: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Burrows, T; Golley, R K; Khambalia, A; McNaughton, S A; Magarey, A; Rosenkranz, R R; Alllman-Farinelli, M; Rangan, A M; Truby, H; Collins, C

    2012-12-01

    Assessing dietary intake is important in evaluating childhood obesity intervention effectiveness. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the dietary intake methods and reporting in intervention studies that included a dietary component to treat overweight or obese children. A systematic review of studies published in the English language, between 1985 and August 2010 in health databases. The search identified 2,295 papers, of which 335 were retrieved and 31 met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-three studies reported energy intake as an outcome measure, 20 reported macronutrient intakes and 10 studies reported food intake outcomes. The most common dietary method employed was the food diary (n = 13), followed by 24-h recall (n = 5), food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (n = 4) and dietary questionnaire (n = 4). The quality of the dietary intake methods reporting was rated as 'poor' in 15 studies (52%) and only 3 were rated as 'excellent'. The reporting quality of FFQs tended to be higher than food diaries/recalls. Deficiencies in the quality of dietary intake methods reporting in child obesity studies were identified. Use of a dietary intake methods reporting checklist is recommended. This will enable the quality of dietary intake results to be evaluated, and an increased ability to replicate study methodology by other researchers.

  13. The quality of dietary intake methodology and reporting in child and adolescent obesity intervention trials: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Burrows, T; Golley, R K; Khambalia, A; McNaughton, S A; Magarey, A; Rosenkranz, R R; Alllman-Farinelli, M; Rangan, A M; Truby, H; Collins, C

    2012-12-01

    Assessing dietary intake is important in evaluating childhood obesity intervention effectiveness. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the dietary intake methods and reporting in intervention studies that included a dietary component to treat overweight or obese children. A systematic review of studies published in the English language, between 1985 and August 2010 in health databases. The search identified 2,295 papers, of which 335 were retrieved and 31 met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-three studies reported energy intake as an outcome measure, 20 reported macronutrient intakes and 10 studies reported food intake outcomes. The most common dietary method employed was the food diary (n = 13), followed by 24-h recall (n = 5), food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (n = 4) and dietary questionnaire (n = 4). The quality of the dietary intake methods reporting was rated as 'poor' in 15 studies (52%) and only 3 were rated as 'excellent'. The reporting quality of FFQs tended to be higher than food diaries/recalls. Deficiencies in the quality of dietary intake methods reporting in child obesity studies were identified. Use of a dietary intake methods reporting checklist is recommended. This will enable the quality of dietary intake results to be evaluated, and an increased ability to replicate study methodology by other researchers. PMID:22891692

  14. Dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiao; Fang, Yu-Jing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Lu, Min-Shan; Zheng, Mei-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Chinese adults to investigate the effect of fiber intake on colorectal cancer risk. The present study aimed to examine the associations of dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes with colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults. A total of 613 cases with colorectal cancer were consecutively recruited between July 2010 and October 2012 and frequency matched to 613 controls by age (5-yr interval) and gender. Dietary information was collected through a validated food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for potential confounders. Total dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes were found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest quartile were 0.38 (0.27-0.55) for total dietary fiber, 0.45 (0.32-0.64) for vegetable fiber, and 0.41 (0.28-0.58) for fruit fiber, respectively. In addition, no significant association was found between soy fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk. This study showed that a high intake of dietary fiber, particularly derived from vegetables and fruit, was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults.

  15. [Bone and joint diseases in children. Adequate calcium intake and dietary habit especially breakfast in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Kodama, Momoko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-06-01

    Childhood and adolescence are important periods for body growth. Calcium is one of the critical dietary factors especially for bone growth. Although recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of calcium has been determined higher in Dietary reference intakes for Japanese, 2010, calcium intake of Japanese children and adolescent are not necessarily adequate. Furthermore, breakfast skippers in this period tend to increase. So, it is very important to acquire an adequate dietary habit from childhood and adolescent. PMID:20513944

  16. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Järvi, A; Karlström, B; Vessby, B; Becker, W

    2016-05-28

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m2) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which ≥500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2α) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum α- and β-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term.

  17. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Järvi, A; Karlström, B; Vessby, B; Becker, W

    2016-05-28

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m2) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which ≥500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2α) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum α- and β-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term. PMID:26996228

  18. Dietary intake of total and inorganic arsenic by adults in arsenic-contaminated area of Ron Phibun district, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ruangwises, Suthep; Saipan, Piyawat

    2010-03-01

    Ron Phibun District, approximately 800 km south of Bangkok, is the site of tin mines operated almost 100 years ago. As a result of mining activities, arsenic contaminated the soil and groundwater of the district. The specific aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intakes of total and inorganic arsenic in 20 adults (10 males and 10 females) residing in Ron Phibun District by a duplicate food approach for 7-consecutive days. The weekly intake rates of inorganic arsenic ranged from 5.54 to 13.3 microg/kg BW for males and 6.11-12.1 microg/kg BW for females.

  19. Simulation model accurately estimates total dietary iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; van 't Veer, Pieter; Ocké, Marga C

    2009-07-01

    One problem with estimating iodine intake is the lack of detailed data about the discretionary use of iodized kitchen salt and iodization of industrially processed foods. To be able to take into account these uncertainties in estimating iodine intake, a simulation model combining deterministic and probabilistic techniques was developed. Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (1997-1998) and an update of the Food Composition database were used to simulate 3 different scenarios: Dutch iodine legislation until July 2008, Dutch iodine legislation after July 2008, and a potential future situation. Results from studies measuring iodine excretion during the former legislation are comparable with the iodine intakes estimated with our model. For both former and current legislation, iodine intake was adequate for a large part of the Dutch population, but some young children (<5%) were at risk of intakes that were too low. In the scenario of a potential future situation using lower salt iodine levels, the percentage of the Dutch population with intakes that were too low increased (almost 10% of young children). To keep iodine intakes adequate, salt iodine levels should not be decreased, unless many more foods will contain iodized salt. Our model should be useful in predicting the effects of food reformulation or fortification on habitual nutrient intakes.

  20. Dietary fatty acid intake, its food sources and determinants in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    PubMed

    Vyncke, Krishna E; Libuda, Lars; De Vriendt, Tineke; Moreno, Luis A; Van Winckel, Myriam; Manios, Yannis; Gottrand, Frederic; Molnar, Denes; Vanaelst, Barbara; Sjöström, Michael; González-Gross, Marcela; Censi, Laura; Widhalm, Kurt; Michels, Nathalie; Gilbert, Chantal C; Xatzis, Christos; Cuenca García, Magdalena; de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2012-12-28

    Dietary fatty acids (FA) play a role in several (patho)physiological processes at any age, and different FA have different effects on lipid status and health outcome. The present study aims to describe the FA intake and its main food sources in a population of healthy European adolescents and to assess the variation in intake as a function of non-dietary factors. FA intake was assessed with 24 h recall interviews in 1804 adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years. Usual intakes were calculated using the multiple source method. Multilevel analyses, adjusting for study centre, were used to investigate the influence of non-dietary factors. The mean total fat intake was 33·3 (sd 1·2) % of total energy intake (%E). The mean SFA intake was 13·8 (sd 1·2) %E, with 99·8 % of the population exceeding the recommendations. SFA was mainly delivered by meat and cake, pies and biscuits. In most adolescents, the PUFA intake was too low, and 35·5 % of the population did not achieve the minimum recommended intake for α-linolenic acid (ALA). The main determinants of FA intake in the present study population were age and sex, as well as physical activity in the male subgroup. No contributions of body composition, socio-economic status or sexual maturation to the variance in FA intake were observed. In conclusion, the most important public health concerns regarding FA intake in this adolescent population were the low intake of ALA and the high intake of SFA, mainly seen in the younger-aged boys. In this group the major contributor to SFA was meat.

  1. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Vega-López, Sonia; Pignotti, Giselle A. P.; Todd, Michael; Keller, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI) = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2) Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years) and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls) and non-consumers (n = 57). Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal) or 14%; p = 0.033), protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031), total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039), monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020), and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004), and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070) and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082). Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern. PMID:26445060

  2. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Vega-López, Sonia; Pignotti, Giselle A P; Todd, Michael; Keller, Colleen

    2015-10-02

    Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI) = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m²) Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years) and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls) and non-consumers (n = 57). Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal) or 14%; p = 0.033), protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031), total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039), monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020), and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004), and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070) and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082). Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern.

  3. Dietary intake and tissue concentration of fatty acids in omnivore, vegetarian and diabetic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lakin, V; Haggarty, P; Abramovich, D R; Ashton, J; Moffat, C F; McNeill, G; Danielian, P J; Grubb, D

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fatty acid intake and insulin dependent diabetes on the fatty acid composition of maternal erythrocytes, the placenta and cord. Fatty acid intake (from food frequency questionnaire) and the fatty acid composition of maternal erythrocytes, the placenta and cord from pregnant vegetarians (n = 4) and insulin dependent diabetics (n = 5) was compared with pregnant omnivores (n = 10). There was a significantly lower intake of n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) (-75% P < 0.01) and n-3 LCPUFA (-92% P < 0.01) and increased ratio of n-6/n-3 LCPUFA in the vegetarians (103%; P < 0.001). The concentrations of 22:4 n-6 (+28%; P < 0.05) and 22:5 n-3 (+40%; P < 0.05) were higher in vegetarian erythrocytes. Placental 18:2 n-6 (+26.9%; P < 0.05) 18:3 n-3 (+139%; P < 0.05) and 22:5 n-3 (+24%; P < 0.05) were increased while 20:5 n-3 (-36%; P < 0.05), 22:6 n-3 (-16%; P = 0.059), and the ratios of 20:4 n-6/18:2 n-6 (P < 0.01) and 22:6 n-3/18:3 n-3 were reduced. 22:6 n-6 (-49%; P < 0.05) and total n-3 LCPUFA (-11%; P < 0.01) were reduced in vegetarian cord. For the diabetic mothers, all of the n-6 LCPUFA and n-3 LCPUFA were reduced in the maternal erythrocytes; 22:4 n-6 (-42%; P < 0.05), 22:5 n-6 (-46%; P < 0.05) and 22:6 n-3 (-41%; P < 0.05). For the diabetic placenta and cord the general pattern of n-3 LCPUFA was the same as that in the vegetarians. In the vegetarian mothers, the PUFA profiles in the maternal erythrocytes, placenta and cord are consistent with an elevation in the rate of LCPUFA synthesis in order to make up the relative deficit in LCPUFA intake. However, it may be that the higher level of desaturase activity is not able to overcome the dietary deficit of 22-6 n-3 and 22:6 n-6. Despite the fact that the dietary LCPUFA intake in the pregnant diabetic was comparable with that in the pregnant 'normal' omnivore mothers, the pattern of PUFA in the tissues resembled that of the vegetarian mothers.

  4. Interaction Between Dietary Vitamin K Intake and Anticoagulation by Vitamin K Antagonists: Is It Really True?

    PubMed Central

    Violi, Francesco; Lip, Gregory YH; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Pastori, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Educational advice is often given to patients starting treatment with vitamin K Antagonists (VKAs). A great emphasis is made on nutritional information. Common belief is that dietary vitamin K intake could counteract the anticoagulant effect by VKAs and for many years, patients have been discouraged to consume vitamin-K-rich foods, such as green leafy vegetables. The objective of this study is to summarize the current evidence supporting the putative interaction between dietary vitamin K intake and changes in INR with the VKAs. Data sources are MEDLINE via PubMed and Cochrane database. All clinical studies investigating the relationship between dietary vitamin K and measures of anticoagulation were included. We excluded all studies of supplementation of vitamin K alone. We performed a systematic review of the literature up to October 2015, searching for a combination of “food,” “diet,” “vitamin K,” “phylloquinone,” “warfarin,” “INR,” “coagulation,” and “anticoagulant.” Two dietary interventional trials and 9 observational studies were included. We found conflicting evidence on the effect of dietary intake of vitamin K on coagulation response. Some studies found a negative correlation between vitamin K intake and INR changes, while others suggested that a minimum amount of vitamin K is required to maintain an adequate anticoagulation. Median dietary intake of vitamin K1 ranged from 76 to 217 μg/day among studies, and an effect on coagulation may be detected only for high amount of vitamin intake (>150 μg/day). Most studies included patients with various indications for VKAs therapy, such as atrial fibrillation, prosthetic heart valves, and venous thromboembolism. Thus, INR target was dishomogeneous and no subanalyses for specific populations or different anticoagulants were conducted. Measures used to evaluate anticoagulation stability were variable. The available evidence does not support current advice to modify

  5. The relationship between household income and dietary intakes of 1-10 year old urban Malaysian

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Lee, Huang Soo; Siew, Chin Yit; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mun, Chan Yoke; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status. SUBJECTS/METHODS Children's dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Diet adequacy was assessed based on recommended intakes of energy and nutrients and food group servings. RESULTS For toddlers, all nutrients except dietary fiber (5.5 g) exceeded recommended intakes. Among older children (preschoolers and school children), calcium (548 mg, 435 mg) and dietary fiber (7.4 g, 9.4 g) did not meet recommendations while percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fats exceeded 30% and 10%, respectively. The mean sodium intakes of preschoolers (1,684 mg) and school children (2,000 mg) were relatively high. Toddlers in all income groups had similar energy and nutrient intakes and percentages meeting the recommended intakes. However, low income older children had lowest intakes of energy (P < 0.05) and most nutrients (P < 0.05) and highest proportions that did not meet recommended energy and nutrient intakes. For all food groups, except milk and dairy products, all age groups had mean intakes below the recommended servings. Compared to middle and high income groups, low income preschoolers had the lowest mean intake of fruits (0.07 serving), meat/poultry (0.78 serving) and milk/dairy products (1.14 serving) while low income toddlers and school children had the least mean intake of fruits (0.09 serving) and milk/dairy products (0.54 serving), respectively. CONCLUSION Low socioeconomic status, as indicated by low household income, could limit access to adequate diets, particularly for older children. Parents and caregivers may need dietary guidance to ensure adequate quantity and quality of home

  6. Practice paper of the American Dietetic Association: using the Dietary Reference Intakes.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Barr, Susan I

    2011-05-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes, a set of nutrient reference standards developed for the United States and Canada by the Institute of Medicine, provide tools for dietary assessment and planning for individuals and groups. Because a distribution of requirements is provided for most nutrients, it is possible to estimate a probability of nutrient inadequacy for an individual's usual intake, and the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy among the intakes of a group of people. The availability of a Tolerable Upper Intake Level for many nutrients also allows an evaluation of the risk of excessive intakes. However, some of these new applications are complex, and their implementation would be facilitated by better training aids and improved computer software. These new tools would help registered dietitians become more familiar with the appropriate applications of the Dietary Reference Intakes in the Nutrition Care Process, and better recognize both the benefits and challenges associated with their use. Ultimately, use of more comprehensive methods of assessing and planning nutrient intakes has the potential to further enhance recognition of registered dietitians' essential roles in nutrition care.

  7. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Szamosujvári, Pál; Dombai, Péter; Csóré, Katalin; Mikófalvi, Kinga; Steindl, Tímea; Streicher, Ildikó; Tarsoly, Júlia; Zajzon, Gergely; Somogyi, Péter; Szamosújvári, Pál; Lakatos, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years) (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665 ± 7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.045), whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P = 0.041), but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558 ± 6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r = 0.024, P = 0.049), but not with femur BMD (r = 0.021, P = 0.107). The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients. PMID:23737777

  8. Fat intake: implications of changes in distribution for setting dietary goals in the UK.

    PubMed Central

    Pryer, J; Brunner, E; Marmot, M

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine (a) changes in the shape of the distribution of dietary fat intake as the mean dietary fat intake of the population shifts and (b) implications for setting national dietary goals. DESIGN--Data on the percentage of energy from total fat, saturates, monounsaturates, polyunsaturates, and the P:S ratio were analysed for two dietary intervention trials and six cross sectional dietary surveys. The nutrient distributions from each study were described in terms of the mean, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), and skewness statistic. For the intervention trials statistical parameters were compared for groups who received and did not receive dietary advice. For the cross sectional studies, statistical parameters were compared across groups with different levels of mean fat intake. The implications of the results for setting dietary goals were considered using statistical models. MAIN RESULTS--For most fat fractions there was a positive association between the mean and the SD, and an inverse association between the mean and the CV, indicating that as the mean shifts upwards the SD increases but not in proportion to the mean. This is intermediate between a constant SD and a constant CV model. For a population nutrient goal of a maximum of 15% saturates, the estimated population mean for British women would be 8.4% using the constant SD model and 10.8% using the constant CV model. For saturates and the P:S ratio, a lower mean intake was associated with a greater positive skew in the distribution of reported intakes. For saturates, this is consistent with a group of high fat consumers who fail to reduce their intake as the population mean shifts downwards: a "rearguard effect". Findings for the P:S ratio are consistent with a group of consumers who produced a strong positive skew at low mean intakes, which reduced in size as the mean population intake increases: a "vanguard effect". CONCLUSIONS--These findings provide evidence that

  9. FTO genetic variants, dietary intake and body mass index: insights from 177,330 individuals.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qibin; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Downer, Mary K; Tanaka, Toshiko; Smith, Caren E; Sluijs, Ivonne; Sonestedt, Emily; Chu, Audrey Y; Renström, Frida; Lin, Xiaochen; Ängquist, Lars H; Huang, Jinyan; Liu, Zhonghua; Li, Yanping; Asif Ali, Muhammad; Xu, Min; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Boer, Jolanda M A; Chen, Peng; Daimon, Makoto; Eriksson, Johan; Perola, Markus; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gao, Yu-Tang; Heppe, Denise H M; Holloway, John W; Houston, Denise K; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kim, Yu-Mi; Laaksonen, Maarit A; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Lee, Nanette R; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Lu, Wei; Luben, Robert N; Manichaikul, Ani; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Monda, Keri L; Ngwa, Julius S; Perusse, Louis; van Rooij, Frank J A; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wen, Wanqing; Wojczynski, Mary K; Zhu, Jingwen; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bouchard, Claude; Cai, Qiuyin; Cooper, Cyrus; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forouhi, Nita G; Hansen, Torben; Christiansen, Lene; Hofman, Albert; Johansson, Ingegerd; Jørgensen, Torben; Karasawa, Shigeru; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kristiansson, Kati; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt K; Long, Jirong; Mikkilä, Vera; Mozaffarian, Dariush; North, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf; Raitakari, Olli; Rissanen, Harri; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Uitterlinden, André G; Zillikens, M Carola; Franco, Oscar H; Shyong Tai, E; Ou Shu, Xiao; Siscovick, David S; Toft, Ulla; Verschuren, W M Monique; Vollenweider, Peter; Wareham, Nicholas J; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Zheng, Wei; Ridker, Paul M; Kang, Jae H; Liang, Liming; Jensen, Majken K; Curhan, Gary C; Pasquale, Louis R; Hunter, David J; Mohlke, Karen L; Uusitupa, Matti; Cupples, L Adrienne; Rankinen, Tuomo; Orho-Melander, Marju; Wang, Tao; Chasman, Daniel I; Franks, Paul W; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Hu, Frank B; Loos, Ruth J F; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Qi, Lu

    2014-12-20

    FTO is the strongest known genetic susceptibility locus for obesity. Experimental studies in animals suggest the potential roles of FTO in regulating food intake. The interactive relation among FTO variants, dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is complex and results from previous often small-scale studies in humans are highly inconsistent. We performed large-scale analyses based on data from 177,330 adults (154 439 Whites, 5776 African Americans and 17 115 Asians) from 40 studies to examine: (i) the association between the FTO-rs9939609 variant (or a proxy single-nucleotide polymorphism) and total energy and macronutrient intake and (ii) the interaction between the FTO variant and dietary intake on BMI. The minor allele (A-allele) of the FTO-rs9939609 variant was associated with higher BMI in Whites (effect per allele = 0.34 [0.31, 0.37] kg/m(2), P = 1.9 × 10(-105)), and all participants (0.30 [0.30, 0.35] kg/m(2), P = 3.6 × 10(-107)). The BMI-increasing allele of the FTO variant showed a significant association with higher dietary protein intake (effect per allele = 0.08 [0.06, 0.10] %, P = 2.4 × 10(-16)), and relative weak associations with lower total energy intake (-6.4 [-10.1, -2.6] kcal/day, P = 0.001) and lower dietary carbohydrate intake (-0.07 [-0.11, -0.02] %, P = 0.004). The associations with protein (P = 7.5 × 10(-9)) and total energy (P = 0.002) were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for BMI. We did not find significant interactions between the FTO variant and dietary intake of total energy, protein, carbohydrate or fat on BMI. Our findings suggest a positive association between the BMI-increasing allele of FTO variant and higher dietary protein intake and offer insight into potential link between FTO, dietary protein intake and adiposity. PMID:25104851

  10. FTO genetic variants, dietary intake and body mass index: insights from 177,330 individuals.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qibin; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Downer, Mary K; Tanaka, Toshiko; Smith, Caren E; Sluijs, Ivonne; Sonestedt, Emily; Chu, Audrey Y; Renström, Frida; Lin, Xiaochen; Ängquist, Lars H; Huang, Jinyan; Liu, Zhonghua; Li, Yanping; Asif Ali, Muhammad; Xu, Min; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Boer, Jolanda M A; Chen, Peng; Daimon, Makoto; Eriksson, Johan; Perola, Markus; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gao, Yu-Tang; Heppe, Denise H M; Holloway, John W; Houston, Denise K; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kim, Yu-Mi; Laaksonen, Maarit A; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Lee, Nanette R; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Lu, Wei; Luben, Robert N; Manichaikul, Ani; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Monda, Keri L; Ngwa, Julius S; Perusse, Louis; van Rooij, Frank J A; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wen, Wanqing; Wojczynski, Mary K; Zhu, Jingwen; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bouchard, Claude; Cai, Qiuyin; Cooper, Cyrus; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forouhi, Nita G; Hansen, Torben; Christiansen, Lene; Hofman, Albert; Johansson, Ingegerd; Jørgensen, Torben; Karasawa, Shigeru; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kristiansson, Kati; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt K; Long, Jirong; Mikkilä, Vera; Mozaffarian, Dariush; North, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf; Raitakari, Olli; Rissanen, Harri; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Uitterlinden, André G; Zillikens, M Carola; Franco, Oscar H; Shyong Tai, E; Ou Shu, Xiao; Siscovick, David S; Toft, Ulla; Verschuren, W M Monique; Vollenweider, Peter; Wareham, Nicholas J; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Zheng, Wei; Ridker, Paul M; Kang, Jae H; Liang, Liming; Jensen, Majken K; Curhan, Gary C; Pasquale, Louis R; Hunter, David J; Mohlke, Karen L; Uusitupa, Matti; Cupples, L Adrienne; Rankinen, Tuomo; Orho-Melander, Marju; Wang, Tao; Chasman, Daniel I; Franks, Paul W; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Hu, Frank B; Loos, Ruth J F; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Qi, Lu

    2014-12-20

    FTO is the strongest known genetic susceptibility locus for obesity. Experimental studies in animals suggest the potential roles of FTO in regulating food intake. The interactive relation among FTO variants, dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is complex and results from previous often small-scale studies in humans are highly inconsistent. We performed large-scale analyses based on data from 177,330 adults (154 439 Whites, 5776 African Americans and 17 115 Asians) from 40 studies to examine: (i) the association between the FTO-rs9939609 variant (or a proxy single-nucleotide polymorphism) and total energy and macronutrient intake and (ii) the interaction between the FTO variant and dietary intake on BMI. The minor allele (A-allele) of the FTO-rs9939609 variant was associated with higher BMI in Whites (effect per allele = 0.34 [0.31, 0.37] kg/m(2), P = 1.9 × 10(-105)), and all participants (0.30 [0.30, 0.35] kg/m(2), P = 3.6 × 10(-107)). The BMI-increasing allele of the FTO variant showed a significant association with higher dietary protein intake (effect per allele = 0.08 [0.06, 0.10] %, P = 2.4 × 10(-16)), and relative weak associations with lower total energy intake (-6.4 [-10.1, -2.6] kcal/day, P = 0.001) and lower dietary carbohydrate intake (-0.07 [-0.11, -0.02] %, P = 0.004). The associations with protein (P = 7.5 × 10(-9)) and total energy (P = 0.002) were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for BMI. We did not find significant interactions between the FTO variant and dietary intake of total energy, protein, carbohydrate or fat on BMI. Our findings suggest a positive association between the BMI-increasing allele of FTO variant and higher dietary protein intake and offer insight into potential link between FTO, dietary protein intake and adiposity.

  11. FTO genetic variants, dietary intake and body mass index: insights from 177 330 individuals

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qibin; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Downer, Mary K.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Smith, Caren E.; Sluijs, Ivonne; Sonestedt, Emily; Chu, Audrey Y.; Renström, Frida; Lin, Xiaochen; Ängquist, Lars H.; Huang, Jinyan; Liu, Zhonghua; Li, Yanping; Asif Ali, Muhammad; Xu, Min; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Boer, Jolanda M.A.; Chen, Peng; Daimon, Makoto; Eriksson, Johan; Perola, Markus; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gao, Yu-Tang; Heppe, Denise H.M.; Holloway, John W.; Houston, Denise K.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kim, Yu-Mi; Laaksonen, Maarit A.; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Lee, Nanette R.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Lu, Wei; Luben, Robert N.; Manichaikul, Ani; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Monda, Keri L.; Ngwa, Julius S.; Perusse, Louis; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wen, Wanqing; Wojczynski, Mary K; Zhu, Jingwen; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bouchard, Claude; Cai, Qiuyin; Cooper, Cyrus; Dedoussis, George V.; Deloukas, Panos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forouhi, Nita G.; Hansen, Torben; Christiansen, Lene; Hofman, Albert; Johansson, Ingegerd; Jørgensen, Torben; Karasawa, Shigeru; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kristiansson, Kati; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt K.; Long, Jirong; Mikkilä, Vera; Mozaffarian, Dariush; North, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf; Raitakari, Olli; Rissanen, Harri; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Franco, Oscar H.; Shyong Tai, E.; Ou Shu, Xiao; Siscovick, David S.; Toft, Ulla; Verschuren, W.M. Monique; Vollenweider, Peter; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Zheng, Wei; Ridker, Paul M.; Kang, Jae H.; Liang, Liming; Jensen, Majken K.; Curhan, Gary C.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Hunter, David J.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Uusitupa, Matti; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Rankinen, Tuomo; Orho-Melander, Marju; Wang, Tao; Chasman, Daniel I.; Franks, Paul W.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Hu, Frank B.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Qi, Lu

    2014-01-01

    FTO is the strongest known genetic susceptibility locus for obesity. Experimental studies in animals suggest the potential roles of FTO in regulating food intake. The interactive relation among FTO variants, dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is complex and results from previous often small-scale studies in humans are highly inconsistent. We performed large-scale analyses based on data from 177 330 adults (154 439 Whites, 5776 African Americans and 17 115 Asians) from 40 studies to examine: (i) the association between the FTO-rs9939609 variant (or a proxy single-nucleotide polymorphism) and total energy and macronutrient intake and (ii) the interaction between the FTO variant and dietary intake on BMI. The minor allele (A-allele) of the FTO-rs9939609 variant was associated with higher BMI in Whites (effect per allele = 0.34 [0.31, 0.37] kg/m2, P = 1.9 × 10−105), and all participants (0.30 [0.30, 0.35] kg/m2, P = 3.6 × 10−107). The BMI-increasing allele of the FTO variant showed a significant association with higher dietary protein intake (effect per allele = 0.08 [0.06, 0.10] %, P = 2.4 × 10−16), and relative weak associations with lower total energy intake (−6.4 [−10.1, −2.6] kcal/day, P = 0.001) and lower dietary carbohydrate intake (−0.07 [−0.11, −0.02] %, P = 0.004). The associations with protein (P = 7.5 × 10−9) and total energy (P = 0.002) were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for BMI. We did not find significant interactions between the FTO variant and dietary intake of total energy, protein, carbohydrate or fat on BMI. Our findings suggest a positive association between the BMI-increasing allele of FTO variant and higher dietary protein intake and offer insight into potential link between FTO, dietary protein intake and adiposity. PMID:25104851

  12. Dietary intake and food sources of choline in European populations.

    PubMed

    Vennemann, Francy B C; Ioannidou, Sofia; Valsta, Liisa M; Dumas, Céline; Ocké, Marga C; Mensink, Gert B M; Lindtner, Oliver; Virtanen, Suvi M; Tlustos, Christina; D'Addezio, Laura; Mattison, Irene; Dubuisson, Carine; Siksna, Inese; Héraud, Fanny

    2015-12-28

    Choline is an important nutrient for humans. Choline intake of the European population was assessed considering the European Food Safety Authority European Comprehensive Food Consumption Database and the United States Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database. Average choline intake ranges were 151-210 mg/d among toddlers (1 to ≤3 years old), 177-304 mg/d among other children (3 to ≤10 years old), 244-373 mg/d among adolescents (10 to ≤18 years old), 291-468 mg/d among adults (18 to ≤65 years old), 284-450 mg/d among elderly people (65 to ≤75 years old) and 269-444 mg/d among very elderly people (≥75 years old). The intakes were higher among males compared with females, mainly due to larger quantities of food consumed per day. In most of the population groups considered, the average choline intake was below the adequate intake (AI) set by the Institute of Medicine in the USA. The main food groups contributing to choline intake were meat, milk, grain, egg and their derived products, composite dishes and fish. The main limitations of this study are related to the absence of choline composition data of foods consumed by the European population and the subsequent assumption made to assess their intake levels. Given the definition of AI, no conclusion on the adequacy of choline intake can be drawn for most European population groups. Such results improve the knowledge on choline intake in Europe that could be further refined by the collection of choline composition data for foods as consumed in Europe. PMID:26423357

  13. Dietary intake and food sources of choline in European populations.

    PubMed

    Vennemann, Francy B C; Ioannidou, Sofia; Valsta, Liisa M; Dumas, Céline; Ocké, Marga C; Mensink, Gert B M; Lindtner, Oliver; Virtanen, Suvi M; Tlustos, Christina; D'Addezio, Laura; Mattison, Irene; Dubuisson, Carine; Siksna, Inese; Héraud, Fanny

    2015-12-28

    Choline is an important nutrient for humans. Choline intake of the European population was assessed considering the European Food Safety Authority European Comprehensive Food Consumption Database and the United States Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database. Average choline intake ranges were 151-210 mg/d among toddlers (1 to ≤3 years old), 177-304 mg/d among other children (3 to ≤10 years old), 244-373 mg/d among adolescents (10 to ≤18 years old), 291-468 mg/d among adults (18 to ≤65 years old), 284-450 mg/d among elderly people (65 to ≤75 years old) and 269-444 mg/d among very elderly people (≥75 years old). The intakes were higher among males compared with females, mainly due to larger quantities of food consumed per day. In most of the population groups considered, the average choline intake was below the adequate intake (AI) set by the Institute of Medicine in the USA. The main food groups contributing to choline intake were meat, milk, grain, egg and their derived products, composite dishes and fish. The main limitations of this study are related to the absence of choline composition data of foods consumed by the European population and the subsequent assumption made to assess their intake levels. Given the definition of AI, no conclusion on the adequacy of choline intake can be drawn for most European population groups. Such results improve the knowledge on choline intake in Europe that could be further refined by the collection of choline composition data for foods as consumed in Europe.

  14. Psychological distress is associated with inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Sun Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Kim, Wha Young

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that the nutritional status of Vietnamese female marriage immigrants in Korea is inadequate. And the mediation of acculturation stress can contribute to problems in their eating practices and dietary intakes. This study examines an association between psychological distress and inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea. A cross-sectional study analyzed baseline data (n=570) from the Cohort of Intermarried Women in Korea. Daily nutrient intakes were compared according to the quartiles of distress scores assessed by the Psychological Well-Being Index-Short Form. One-way analysis of variance and chi(2) tests were used to compare eating practices and nutrient intake across quartiles of psychological distress. Subjects in the highest stress scores were more likely to skip breakfast and to change their dietary habits after living in Korea than those in groups with low stress scores. Analyses of the subjects' Mini Dietary Assessments revealed that those with the highest stress scores were less likely to consume milk or dairy products, eat regular meals, or have balanced diets than those with the lowest stress scores. Nutrient intakes were found to be inadequate in the subjects, and those with the highest stress scores showed lower consumptions of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, and folate compared to those with the lowest scores. The prevalence of underweight (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] <18.5) increased from the lowest to highest quartiles of psychological distress scores. Psychological distress in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea was negatively associated with dietary intake. These findings can assist dietetics practitioners working with minority immigrants because such information is important in designing appropriate strategies for dietary counseling. A follow-up study should address the underlying mechanisms of the observed

  15. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with excessive calorie intake rather than a distinctive dietary pattern.

    PubMed

    Wehmeyer, Malte H; Zyriax, Birgit-Christiane; Jagemann, Bettina; Roth, Ewgenia; Windler, Eberhard; Schulze Zur Wiesch, Julian; Lohse, Ansgar W; Kluwe, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to assess the dietary patterns associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the efficacy of dietary interventions in a real-life setting at a tertiary medical center in Northern Germany.Clinical and laboratory data as well as data obtained by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire of 55 consecutive patients diagnosed with NAFLD were compared to an age and gender-matched cohort of 88 healthy individuals by univariate analysis. The efficacy of the dietary intervention was assessed in a subgroup of 24 NAFLD patients 6 months after receiving dietary advice. Macronutritional components of the diet were normalized for absolute daily energy intake.NAFLD patients consumed more calories per day as compared with healthy controls (P <0.001). The absolute amounts of most nutritional components ingested by NAFLD patients were higher than those of the controls. However, there were no significant differences with regards to the relative consumption of carbohydrates (P = 0.359), fat (P = 0.416), and fructose (P = 0.353) per 1000 kcal energy intake. NAFLD patients displayed a higher intake of glucose/1000 kcal (P = 0.041) and protein/1000 kcal (P = 0.009) but a lower intake of fibers/1000 kcal (P < 0.001) and mineral nutrients/1000 kcal (P = 0.001) than healthy controls. In the longitudinal analysis patients significantly reduced their caloric intake and their ALT levels improved 6 months after the dietary counselling (P < 0.001).Our data from a German real-life cohort demonstrate that dietary patterns of patients with NAFLD display great variability and little disease specificity, while the most distinctive feature compared with healthy controls was higher energy intake in NAFLD patients. PMID:27281105

  16. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with excessive calorie intake rather than a distinctive dietary pattern

    PubMed Central

    Wehmeyer, Malte H.; Zyriax, Birgit-Christiane; Jagemann, Bettina; Roth, Ewgenia; Windler, Eberhard; Schulze zur Wiesch, Julian; Lohse, Ansgar W.; Kluwe, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to assess the dietary patterns associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the efficacy of dietary interventions in a real-life setting at a tertiary medical center in Northern Germany. Clinical and laboratory data as well as data obtained by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire of 55 consecutive patients diagnosed with NAFLD were compared to an age and gender-matched cohort of 88 healthy individuals by univariate analysis. The efficacy of the dietary intervention was assessed in a subgroup of 24 NAFLD patients 6 months after receiving dietary advice. Macronutritional components of the diet were normalized for absolute daily energy intake. NAFLD patients consumed more calories per day as compared with healthy controls (P <0.001). The absolute amounts of most nutritional components ingested by NAFLD patients were higher than those of the controls. However, there were no significant differences with regards to the relative consumption of carbohydrates (P = 0.359), fat (P = 0.416), and fructose (P = 0.353) per 1000 kcal energy intake. NAFLD patients displayed a higher intake of glucose/1000 kcal (P = 0.041) and protein/1000 kcal (P = 0.009) but a lower intake of fibers/1000 kcal (P < 0.001) and mineral nutrients/1000 kcal (P = 0.001) than healthy controls. In the longitudinal analysis patients significantly reduced their caloric intake and their ALT levels improved 6 months after the dietary counselling (P < 0.001). Our data from a German real-life cohort demonstrate that dietary patterns of patients with NAFLD display great variability and little disease specificity, while the most distinctive feature compared with healthy controls was higher energy intake in NAFLD patients. PMID:27281105

  17. Comparison of the dietary cobalt intake in three different Australian diets.

    PubMed

    Hokin, Bevan; Adams, Michelle; Ashton, John; Louie, Honway

    2004-01-01

    Differences in the dietary intake of cobalt were assessed for vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian Australians using food intake logs, and daily or average trend recall over three months. A significant decrease in cobalt intake was observed for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian population compared with the intake in vegans and omnivores. There is no RDI for cobalt, however, the cobalt intake of Australians was similar to that reported in other countries. Microflora above the terminal ileum have been shown to produce significant amounts of biologically available vitamin B12. This study was unable to demonstrate a correlation between elemental cobalt intake and serum vitamin B12 concentrations in humans, as has been shown in vitro.

  18. Dietary intake, nutrition, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Hamrick, Kari J; Corbin, Karen D; Hasken, Julie M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H Eugene; Gossage, J Phillip

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-h recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50% of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population.

  19. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China. PMID:26727195

  20. Total dietary antioxidant capacity, individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Pantavos, Athanasios; Ruiter, Rikje; Feskens, Edith F; de Keyser, Catherine E; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-05-01

    Some studies suggest a favorable role of antioxidants on breast cancer risk but this is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether overall dietary antioxidant capacity, as assessed by dietary ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and individual dietary antioxidant intake were associated with breast cancer risk. Data was used from women participating in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N = 3,209). FRAP scores and antioxidant intake (i.e., vitamin A, C, E, selenium, flavonoids and carotenoids) was assessed at baseline by a food frequency questionnaire. Incident cases of breast cancer were confirmed through medical reports. During a median follow-up of 17 years, 199 cases with breast cancer were identified. High dietary FRAP score was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer [hazard ratio (HR): 0.68; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.49, 0.96]. No overall association between individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk was found. However, low intake of alpha carotene and beta carotene was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among smokers (HR: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.21, 5.12 and HR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.12, 4.76 for alpha and beta carotene, respectively) and low intake of flavonoids was associated with breast cancer risk in women over the age of 70 (HR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.99). These results suggest that high overall dietary antioxidant capacity is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. Individual effects of dietary carotenoids and dietary flavonoids may be restricted to subgroups such as smokers and elderly.

  1. Dietary Carbohydrate Intake Does Not Impact Insulin Resistance or Androgens in Healthy, Eumenorrheic Women

    PubMed Central

    Schisterman, Enrique F.; Schliep, Karen C.; Plowden, Torie; Zarek, Shvetha M.; Yeung, Edwina; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mumford, Sunni L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Diet is proposed to contribute to androgen-related reproductive dysfunction. Objective: This study evaluated the association between dietary macronutrient intake, carbohydrate fraction intake, and overall diet quality on androgens and related hormones, including anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and insulin, in healthy, regularly menstruating women. Design: This was a prospective cohort study from 2005 and 2007. Setting: The study was conducted at the University at Buffalo, western New York State, USA. Participants: Participants were 259 eumenorrheic women without a self-reported history of infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), or other endocrine disorder. Main Outcome Measures: A 24-hour dietary recall was administered 4 times per menstrual cycle, and hormones were measured 5 to 8 times per cycle for 1 (n = 9) or 2 (n = 250) cycles per woman (n = 509 cycles). Associations between the dietary intake of carbohydrates (starch, sugar, sucrose, and fiber), macronutrients, overall diet quality and hormones (insulin, AMH, and total and free testosterone), as well as the relationship of dietary intake with occurrences of high total testosterone combined with high AMH (fourth quartile of each), ie, the “PCOS-like phenotype,” were assessed. Results: No significant relationships were identified between dietary intake of carbohydrates, percent calories from any macronutrient or overall diet quality (ie, Mediterranean diet score) and relevant hormones (insulin, AMH, and total and free testosterone). Likewise, no significant relationships were identified between dietary factors and the occurrence of a subclinical PCOS-like phenotype. Conclusions: Despite evidence of a subclinical continuum of a PCOS-related phenotype of elevated androgens and AMH related to sporadic anovulation identified in previous studies, dietary carbohydrate and diet quality do not appear to relate to these subclinical endocrine characteristics in women without overt PCOS. PMID:26066675

  2. Dietary Mineral Intake and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment: The PATH through Life Project

    PubMed Central

    Cherbuin, Nicolas; Kumar, Rajeev; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Higher dietary intake of potassium, calcium, and magnesium is protective against ischemic strokes while also being associated with a decreased risk of all-cause dementia. The effect of dietary iron intake on cerebral function is less clear but iron is also implicated in Alzheimer neuropathology. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary intake of these minerals was also associated with increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, amnestic) and other mild cognitive disorders (MCD). Methods: Associations between dietary mineral intake and risk of MCI/MCD were assessed in cognitively healthy individuals (n = 1406, 52% female, mean age 62.5 years) living in the community, who were followed up over 8 years. Relative risk was assessed with Cox hazard ratios (HRs) after controlling for health and socio-demographic covariates. Results: Higher magnesium intake was associated with a reduced risk of developing MCI/MCD (MCI: HR 0.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01–0.56, p = 0.013; MCD: HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.22–0.99, p = 0.046) in multivariate analyses. Higher intake of potassium (MCI: HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01–1.17, p = 0.028; MCD: HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.99–1.10, p = 0.107) and iron (MCI: HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.03–2.29, p = 0.034) was associated with an increased risk of developing MCI/MCD. Conclusion: These findings suggest that dietary intake of minerals known to be implicated in biological processes associated with vascular and Alzheimer’s pathology may contribute to disease progression earlier in the disease process and require further attention. PMID:24550825

  3. Dietary intake and nutritional status of HIV-1-infected children and adolescents in Florianopolis, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hillesheim, Elaine; Lima, Luiz R A; Silva, Rosane C R; Trindade, Erasmo B S M

    2014-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the nutritional status and dietary intake of HIV-infected children and adolescents and the relationship between nutritional status and dietary intake and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The sample was composed of 49 subjects aged 7-17 years and living in Florianópolis, Brazil. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age and body mass index-for-age. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Spearman correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between energy, nutrient intake and body mass index-for-age and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The mean body mass index-for-age and height-for-age values were -0.26 ± 0.86 and -0.56 ± 0.92, respectively. The energy intake was 50.8% above the estimated energy requirement and inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, fibre, calcium and vitamin C was present in 100%, 57.1%, 40.8%, 61.2% and 26.5% of the sample, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that energy intake was correlated with CD4+ T-cell count (r = 0.33; p = 0.028) and viral load (r = -0.35; p = 0.019). These data showed low body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores, high energy intake and inadequate intake of important nutrients for immune function, growth and control of chronic diseases. A lower energy intake was correlated with viral suppression and immune preservation.

  4. Could a specific dietary intake be a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma?

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Clarissa B; Bonamigo, Renan R; Segatto, Majoriê M; Costa, Manuela M; Mastroeni, Simona; Fortes, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has increased in the last decade. Some risk factors are well known, but there are other possible risk factors being studied, such as those involving nutrition. The objective of this case-control study was to assess the association between diet and CM. Classical risk factors, dietary intake, and body mass index were assessed. Binary logistic regression was used to study the association between dietary intake and the risk for CM. Classical risk factors associated with CM were confirmed. The findings suggest that some foods rich in vitamins A and D and phytochemicals may be related to CM. PMID:27416086

  5. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients.

  6. Dietary fluoride intake by children receiving different sources of systemic fluoride.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M H C; Leite, A L; Arana, A; Villena, R S; Forte, F D S; Sampaio, F C; Buzalaf, M A R

    2009-02-01

    There has been no comparison of fluoride (F) intake by pre-school children receiving more traditional sources of systemic F. The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary F intake by children receiving F from artificially fluoridated water (AFW-Brazil, 0.6-0.8 mg F/L), naturally fluoridated water (NFW-Brazil, 0.6-0.9 mg F/L), fluoridated salt (FS-Peru, 180-200 mg F/Kg), and fluoridated milk (FM-Peru, 0.25 mg F). Children (n=21-26) aged 4-6 yrs old participated in each community. A non-fluoridated community (NoF) was evaluated as the control population. Dietary F intake was monitored by the "duplicate plate" method, with different constituents (water, other beverages, and solids). F was analyzed with an ion-selective electrode. Data were tested by Kruskall-Wallis and Dunn's tests (p<0.05). Mean (+/- SD) F intake (mg/Kg b.w./day) was 0.04+/-0.01(b), 0.06+/-0.02(a,b), 0.05+/-0.02(a,b), 0.06+/-0.01(a), and 0.01+/-0.00(c) for AFW/NFW/FS/FM/NoF, respectively. The main dietary contributors for AFW/NFW and FS/FM/NoF were water and solids, respectively. The results indicate that the dietary F intake must be considered before a systemic method of fluoridation is implemented.

  7. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients. PMID:25678749

  8. Population based strategy for dietary salt intake reduction: Italian initiatives in the European framework.

    PubMed

    Strazzullo, P; Cairella, G; Campanozzi, A; Carcea, M; Galeone, D; Galletti, F; Giampaoli, S; Iacoviello, L; Scalfi, L

    2012-03-01

    Excess dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake is etiologically related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moderate reduction of salt intake reduces blood pressure (BP) and is expected to contribute to reduce the risk of CVD. Previous community-based trials to reduce BP by means of salt reduction were very successful. The initial positive results of national strategies of dietary salt intake reduction in several European countries, driven by the initiative of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and non-governmental organisations such as the World Action of Salt and Health (WASH), have paved the way for action in other European Union (EU) member states. In Italy, several initiatives aiming at reduction of salt intake at the population level have been recently undertaken. These initiatives include i) the evaluation of current dietary habits promoted by the Working Group for Dietary Salt Reduction in Italy (GIRCSI); ii) the chemical analysis of the bread salt content, a major source of sodium intake in Italy, and the agreement between the bakers' associations and the Ministry of Health for a gradual reduction of the bread salt content; iii) the implementation of educational campaigns to increase population awareness, iv) the involvement of the food catering system. In the immediate future, food reformulation must be extended to other food categories in collaboration with industry, foods' salt targets ought to be defined, the food labelling system must be improved and population salt awareness must be further increased through educational campaigns. The GIRCSI Working Group is committed to pursue these objectives.

  9. What do we know about dietary fiber intake in children and health? The effects of fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Slavin, Joanne L; Miller, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber intake on chronic diseases has been explored in adults but is largely unknown in children. This paper summarizes the currently existing evidence on the implications of dietary fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children. Current intake studies suggest that all efforts to increase children's dietary fiber consumption should be encouraged. Available data, predominantly from adult studies, indicate significantly lower risks for obesity, diabetes, and constipation could be expected with higher dietary fiber consumption. However, there is a lack of data from clinical studies in children of various ages consuming different levels of dietary fiber to support such assumptions. The existing fiber recommendations for children are conflicting, a surprising situation, because the health benefits associated with higher dietary fiber intake are well established in adults. Data providing conclusive evidence to either support or refute some, if not all, of the current pediatric fiber intake recommendations are lacking. The opportunity to improve children's health should be a priority, because it also relates to their health later in life. The known health benefits of dietary fiber intake, as summarized in this paper, call for increased awareness of the need to examine the potential benefits to children's health through increased dietary fiber.

  10. Diabetes-related nutrition knowledge and dietary intake among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Breen, Cathy; Ryan, Miriam; Gibney, Michael J; O'Shea, Donal

    2015-08-14

    Nutrition knowledge and skills enable individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) to make food choices that optimise metabolic self-management and quality of life. The present study examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and skills, and nutrient intake in T2DM. A cross-sectional analysis of diabetes-related nutrition knowledge and nutrient intake was conducted in 124 T2DM individuals managed in usual care (64% male, age 57.4 (sd 5.6) years, BMI 32.5 (sd 5.8) kg/m2), using the Audit of Diabetes Knowledge (ADKnowl) questionnaire and a 4 d food diary. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, food label use and weight management were also collected. The average ADKnowl dietary subscale score was 59.2 (sd 16.4) %. Knowledge deficits relating to the impact of macronutrients/foods on blood glucose and lipids were identified. Lower diabetes-related nutrition knowledge was associated with lower intakes of sugar (10.8 (sd 4.7) v. 13.7 (sd 4.6) % for lower dietary knowledge score v. higher dietary knowledge score, P< 0.001), non-milk sugar (9.1 (sd 4.8) v. 12.1 (sd 4.7) % for lower dietary knowledge score v. higher dietary knowledge score, P< 0.001) and fruit/vegetables (230.8 (sd 175.1) v. 322.8 (sd 179.7) g for lower dietary knowledge score v. higher dietary knowledge score, P< 0.001), and higher dietary glycaemic index (GI) (61.4 (sd 4.5) v. 58.4 (sd 4.6) for lower dietary knowledge score v. higher dietary knowledge score, P< 0.002). The majority of the participants were dissatisfied with their weight. Sugar was the most frequently checked nutrient on food labels (59%), with only 12.1% checking foods for their energy content. Significant knowledge and skill deficits, associated with the impact of macronutrients/foods on metabolic parameters and food label use, were found. Lower diabetes-related nutrition knowledge was associated with lower sugar and fruit/vegetable intake and higher dietary GI. Dietary education, integrated throughout the lifespan of T2DM, may

  11. Diabetes-related nutrition knowledge and dietary intake among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Breen, Cathy; Ryan, Miriam; Gibney, Michael J; O'Shea, Donal

    2015-08-14

    Nutrition knowledge and skills enable individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) to make food choices that optimise metabolic self-management and quality of life. The present study examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and skills, and nutrient intake in T2DM. A cross-sectional analysis of diabetes-related nutrition knowledge and nutrient intake was conducted in 124 T2DM individuals managed in usual care (64% male, age 57.4 (sd 5.6) years, BMI 32.5 (sd 5.8) kg/m2), using the Audit of Diabetes Knowledge (ADKnowl) questionnaire and a 4 d food diary. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, food label use and weight management were also collected. The average ADKnowl dietary subscale score was 59.2 (sd 16.4) %. Knowledge deficits relating to the impact of macronutrients/foods on blood glucose and lipids were identified. Lower diabetes-related nutrition knowledge was associated with lower intakes of sugar (10.8 (sd 4.7) v. 13.7 (sd 4.6) % for lower dietary knowledge score v. higher dietary knowledge score, P< 0.001), non-milk sugar (9.1 (sd 4.8) v. 12.1 (sd 4.7) % for lower dietary knowledge score v. higher dietary knowledge score, P< 0.001) and fruit/vegetables (230.8 (sd 175.1) v. 322.8 (sd 179.7) g for lower dietary knowledge score v. higher dietary knowledge score, P< 0.001), and higher dietary glycaemic index (GI) (61.4 (sd 4.5) v. 58.4 (sd 4.6) for lower dietary knowledge score v. higher dietary knowledge score, P< 0.002). The majority of the participants were dissatisfied with their weight. Sugar was the most frequently checked nutrient on food labels (59%), with only 12.1% checking foods for their energy content. Significant knowledge and skill deficits, associated with the impact of macronutrients/foods on metabolic parameters and food label use, were found. Lower diabetes-related nutrition knowledge was associated with lower sugar and fruit/vegetable intake and higher dietary GI. Dietary education, integrated throughout the lifespan of T2DM, may

  12. Is phosphorus intake that exceeds dietary requirements a risk factor in bone health?

    PubMed

    Calvo, Mona S; Tucker, Katherine L

    2013-10-01

    Phosphorus intake in excess of the nutrient needs of healthy adults is thought to disrupt hormonal regulation of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and vitamin D, contributing to impaired peak bone mass, bone resorption, and greater risk of fracture. Elevation of extracellular phosphorus due to excessive intake is thought to be the main stimulus disrupting phosphorus homeostasis in healthy individuals, as it is in renal disease even when intake is modest. If high serum phosphorus is the critical link to the effect of high phosphorus intake on bone health, the issue could be addressed through epidemiologic or dietary studies. However, several confounding factors, including problems estimating accurate phosphorus intake, the influence of a low dietary Ca:P ratio, the acidic nature of phosphorus, the rapid rate of absorption and greater phosphorus bioavailability from processed food such as cola drinks, and circadian fluctuation in serum phosphorus, make this question difficult to address using conventional study designs. These confounding factors are considered in this review, exploring whether phosphorus intake exceeding nutrient needs in healthy individuals disrupts phosphorus regulation and negatively affects bone accretion or loss. Specific attention is given to phosphorus intake from processed foods rich in phosphorus additives, which significantly contribute to phosphorus intake.

  13. Dietary Intake and Serum Level of Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Asbaghi, Somayeh; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh; Khosravi, Adnan; Azargashb, Eznollah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake and serum levels of some selected carotenoids of lung cancer patients with healthy subjects. Thirty-five lung cancer patients and 33 healthy people were enrolled into this case-control study. Daily intake of nutrients was estimated using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day 24-h food recall questionnaire. The concentration of serum beta-carotene and lycopene were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography method. Case and control groups did not differ by the means of age, gender, smoking habits, weight, body mass index, mean daily energy intake, mean daily fat intake, and the percentage of daily energy provided by fat to total daily energy intake. The beta-carotene and lycopene intake of the case subjects was 96% and 195% greater than that of the control subjects. Daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the cancer group was higher than the control group. However, the serum concentration of 118% beta-carotene and 60% lycopene were higher in the control group. Despite a higher daily dietary intake of beta-carotene and lycopene by lung cancer patients, serum beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations were significantly lower than the group without cancer.

  14. Dietary Intake and Serum Level of Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Asbaghi, Somayeh; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh; Khosravi, Adnan; Azargashb, Eznollah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake and serum levels of some selected carotenoids of lung cancer patients with healthy subjects. Thirty-five lung cancer patients and 33 healthy people were enrolled into this case-control study. Daily intake of nutrients was estimated using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day 24-h food recall questionnaire. The concentration of serum beta-carotene and lycopene were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography method. Case and control groups did not differ by the means of age, gender, smoking habits, weight, body mass index, mean daily energy intake, mean daily fat intake, and the percentage of daily energy provided by fat to total daily energy intake. The beta-carotene and lycopene intake of the case subjects was 96% and 195% greater than that of the control subjects. Daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the cancer group was higher than the control group. However, the serum concentration of 118% beta-carotene and 60% lycopene were higher in the control group. Despite a higher daily dietary intake of beta-carotene and lycopene by lung cancer patients, serum beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations were significantly lower than the group without cancer. PMID:26168284

  15. Dietary intake and the prevalence of gallbladder disease in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Diehl, A K; Haffner, S M; Knapp, J A; Hazuda, H P; Stern, M P

    1989-12-01

    Mexican Americans have a high prevalence of gallbladder disease. We examined the contribution of ethnic preferences in food intake to the risk of gallbladder disease in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Participants in a population-based health survey were questioned about any history of gallbladder disease, and were interviewed to determine their dietary intake. After adjusting for age, body mass index, and ethnic group, we found that women with the highest intake of total fat and linoleic acid had reduced risks of gallbladder disease, although an opposite trend was observed in men. High levels of sucrose intake and low levels of cholesterol intake were associated with an increased risk for both sexes, but the odds ratios were not statistically significant. Although Mexican Americans and non-Hispanics differed in their intake of several nutrients, the elevated risk of gallbladder disease in Mexican American women was unchanged after ethnic differences in food intake were taken into account. Although the dietary preferences of Mexican Americans as reflected in 24-h diet recall interviews do not appear to explain their high prevalence of gallbladder disease, this finding should be interpreted with caution because of methodologic limitations in measuring habitual food intake.

  16. Dietary intake of manganese and the risk of the metabolic syndrome in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Biao; Su, Xuefen; Su, Danting; Zeng, Fangfang; Wang, Maggie Haitian; Huang, Lichun; Huang, Enshan; Zhu, Yibo; Zhao, Dong; He, Denghua; Zhu, Xuhui; Yeoh, Engkiong; Zhang, Ronghua; Ding, Gangqiang

    2016-09-01

    Animal studies have suggested that Mn might be associated with some components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A few epidemiological studies have assessed dietary Mn intake and its association with the risk of the MetS and its components among Chinese adults. In this study, we assessed daily dietary Mn intake and its relationship with MetS risk among Chinese adults in Zhejiang Province using data from the 5th Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey (2010-2012). A total of 2111 adults were included. Dietary Mn intake was assessed using 3-d 24-h dietary recalls; health-related data were obtained by questionnaire surveys, physical examinations and laboratory assessments. The mean intake of Mn was 6·07 (sd 2·94) mg/d for men (n 998) and 5·13 (sd 2·65) mg/d for women (n 1113). Rice (>42 %) was the main food source of Mn. The prevalence of the MetS was 28·0 % (590/2111). Higher Mn intake was associated with a decreased risk of the MetS in men (Q4 v. Q1 OR 0·62; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·92; P trend=0·043) but an increased risk in women (Q4 v. Q1 OR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·02, 2·45; P trend=0·078). In addition, Mn intake was inversely associated with abdominal obesity (P trend=0·016) and hypertriacylglycerolaemia (P trend=0·029) in men, but positively associated with low HDL-cholesterol in both men (P trend=0·003) and women (P trend<0·001). Our results suggest that higher Mn intakes may be protective against the MetS in men. The inverse association between Mn intake and the MetS in women might be due to the increased risk for low HDL-cholesterol. PMID:27385039

  17. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

    PubMed Central

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Larson, Nicole I; Nelson, Melissa C; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort) and 1366 high school students (older cohort) who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999) and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively). Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (<2 hours/daily), moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily), and heavy television viewers (≥5 hours/daily). Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television) five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating habits in young

  18. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized

  19. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hae Jin; Youn, Chang Ho; Kim, Hyo Min; Cho, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Geon Ho; Lee, Won Kee

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary magnesium and the risk of overall cancer using a meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Review through November 2012. All the articles searched were independently reviewed by 3 authors based on predetermined selection criterion. A total of 13 epidemiologic studies, 6 case-control studies, and 7 prospective cohort studies involving 1,236,004 participants were included in the final analysis. When all studies were pooled, the relative risk (RR) of overall cancer for the highest level of dietary magnesium intake was 0.801 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.664-0.966) compared with the lowest level of dietary magnesium intake. In subgroup meta-analyses by study design, there was a significant inverse association between dietary magnesium and the risk of cancer in case-control studies (RR = 0.663, 95% CI: 0.475-0.925), whereas there was no significant association in prospective cohort studies (RR = 0.888, 95% CI: 0.745-1.060). Furthermore, there was a significant preventive effect of dietary magnesium for colorectal cancer (RR = 0.775, 95% CI: 0.655-0.919), but not for other cancer. Our meta-analysis showed that higher dietary magnesium intake seems to have a protective effect for cancer, especially colorectal cancer and in females.

  20. A Study on the Dietary Intake and the Nutritional Status among the Pancreatic Cancer Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sup; Kim, Woo Jeong; Chung, Hae-yun

    2016-01-01

    The adequate dietary intake is important to maintain the nutritional status of the patients after pancreatic cancer surgery. This prospective study was designed to investigate the dietary intake and the nutritional status of the patients who had pancreatic cancer surgery. Thirty-one patients (15 men, 16 women) were enrolled and measured body weight, body mass index (BMI), nutritional risk index (NRI), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Actual oral intake with nutritional impact symptoms recorded on the clinical research foam at every meal and medical information were collected from electronic medical charts. The rates of malnutrition at admission were 45.1% (14/31) and 28.9% (9/31) by NRI and MUST method, respectively, but those were increased to 87% (27/31) and 86.6% (26/31) after operation on discharge. The median values of daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat, and protein were 588.1 kcal, 96.0 g, 11.8 g, and 27.0 g, respectively. Most patients (n = 20, 64.5%) experienced two or more symptoms such as anorexia, abdominal bloating and early satiety. There were negative correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the intake of total energy, protein, fat, and zinc. The rates of malnutrition were increased sharply after surgery and the dietary intake also influenced the inflammatory indicators. The results suggested that need of considering special therapeutic diets for the patients who received pancreatic surgery. PMID:27812517

  1. Vitamin B6 status assessment in relation to dietary intake in high school students aged 16-18 years.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sue-Joan; Hsiao, Li-Ju; Lee, Yi-Chun; Hsuen, Shou-Ying

    2007-04-01

    The vitamin B6 status of high school students and its relationship with dietary intake were investigated in this cross-sectional study by face-to-face interview. A total of 157 healthy students aged 16-18 years (eighty-three boys and seventy-four girls) were randomly recruited from two out of nineteen senior high schools in Tainan, Taiwan. Vitamin B6 intakes were calculated from three 24-h dietary records. Direct and indirect vitamin B6 status indicators were measured in plasma, erythrocytes and urine. The anthropometric data, being similar to those of the first Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1993-1996), showed the normal growth and development of these students. All students except one girl (28.7 nmol/l) had plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) levels >35 nmol/l, indicating an adequate vitamin B6 status. The mean dietary vitamin B6 intakes of boys and girls were 1.04 (sd 0.29) and 0.96 (sd 0.27) mg/d, respectively. Vitamin B6 status indicators, including plasma PLP, erythrocyte alanine aminotransferase activity coefficient (EALT-AC), aspartate aminotransferase activity coefficient (EAST-AC) and urinary 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA), were correlated with vitamin B6 intake. Students with adequate values of plasma PLP (>35 nmol/l), EALT-AC ( < 1.25), EAST-AC ( < 1.8) and urinary 4-PA (>3.0 micromol/d) had median intakes of 1.08 and 1.01 mg/d, respectively, for boys and girls. This study suggests that vitamin B6 requirements for boys and girls aged 16-18 years were approximately 1.1 and 1.0 mg/d, respectively.

  2. Dietary Acrylamide Intake and Risk of Premenopausal Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mucci, Lorelei A.; Cho, Eunyoung; Hunter, David J.; Chen, Wendy Y.; Willett, Walter C.

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during high-temperature cooking of many commonly consumed foods. It is widespread; approximately 30% of calories consumed in the United States are from foods containing acrylamide. In animal studies, acrylamide causes mammary tumors, but it is unknown whether the level of acrylamide in foods affects human breast cancer risk. The authors studied the association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk among 90,628 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. They calculated acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1991, 1995, 1999, and 2003. From 1991 through 2005, they documented 1,179 cases of invasive breast cancer. They used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide and breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of premenopausal breast cancer was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.11) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (Ptrend = 0.61). Results were similar regardless of smoking status or estrogen and progesterone receptor status of the tumors. The authors found no associations between intakes of foods high in acrylamide, including French fries, coffee, cereal, potato chips, potatoes, and baked goods, and breast cancer risk. They found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of US diets, is associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. PMID:19224978

  3. The Relation Between Nutrition Knowledge and the Dietary Intake of Selected Women: A Basis for Adult Education Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Reba Jones

    To investigate the relationship between the estimated quality of dietary intake and (1) knowledge of nutrition concepts, (2) attitude toward nutrition, (3) food preferences, and (4) perception of personal control of dietary intake, information was gathered from two 24-hour food recalls and other instruments administered to 102 women representing…

  4. A Comparison of Dietary Intakes between Male and Female Korean American College Students: A Two Generation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Chick F.; Lew, PoLong; Schwartz, Miriam; Poon, George; An, JaeYoon; Lee, Jina; Chan, Katie; Li, Kenneth; Cheung, Yuen Ting; Luong, Duyen; Davis, Rebecca; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook; Kim, Samuel Saychang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the differences in dietary intakes between two generations, male and female Korean American college students with their respective parents, living in the Los Angeles Areas. This study compared dietary nutrient intakes between old Koreans (KO) (n=28, average age: 53.4[plus or minus]6.4 years, with 13 males…

  5. Mate and Tea Intake, Dietary Antioxidants and Risk of Breast Cancer: a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stefani, Eduardo De; Mendoza, Beatriz; Vazquez, Alvaro; Abbona, Estela; Sanchez, Gustavo; Rosa, Alejandro De

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported an inverse association between high 'mate' intake (infusion of Ilex paraguariensis herb, a staple beverage in temperate South America) and breast cancer (BC) risk. Stronger inverse associations were found in high strata of tea, vegetable, fruit and energy intakes, and in overweight/obese women, suggesting possible roles for 'mate' mainly from its antioxidant contribution. The present study attempted to thoroughly explore possible associations among 'mate' and tea intake, dietary antioxidants and BC risk. Combining two databases of previous studies, 572 BC incident cases and 889 controls were interviewed with a specific questionnaire featuring socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, and a food frequency questionnaire (64 items), focusing on 'mate' intake (consumer status, daily intake, age at start, age at quit, duration of habit). Food-derived nutrients were calculated from available databases. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders. The highest 'mate' intake was significantly inversely associated with BC risk for both low and high carotenoids (OR=0.40 vs. 0.41), vitamin C (OR=0.33 vs. 0.50), vitamin E (OR=0.37 vs. 0.45), flavonols (OR=0.38 vs. 0.48) and reduced glutathione (OR=0.48 vs. 0.46) strata. High tea intake showed significant inverse risk associations only with high carotenoids (OR=0.41), vitamin E (OR=0.48) and reduced glutathione (OR=0.43) strata. In conclusion, a strong and inverse association for 'mate' intake and BC was found, independent of dietary antioxidant levels. Also strong inverse associations with tea intake were more evident only at high levels of certain dietary antioxidants. PMID:27356713

  6. Dietary fat and antioxidant vitamin intake in patients of neurodegenerative disease in a rural region of Jalisco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Meza, Mónica; Gabriel-Ortiz, Genaro; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Cruz-Ramos, José A.; López-Espinoza, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the intake of lipids and (A, E, and C) vitamins in patients with and without possible neurodegenerative diseases. Methods Twenty adults with possible Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease and 41 control subjects (50–89 years old) from a rural region were studied. Dietary intake was evaluated with the analysis of macronutrients and micronutrients conducted by a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hours dietary record. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and energy intake. Through interrogation and use of medical record form of health secretary we obtained information about the sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analysis of variance to allow for covariated adjustment was used. Results Patients had a lower energy intake, vitamin C (P = 0.016), fruits (P < 0.001), vegetables (P = 0.037), and oils and fat (P = 0.002), than the controls. Interestingly, the C vitamin intake in patients was still higher than the recommended. Patients had a higher consumption of cereals (P = 0.017), high-animal fat diet (P = 0.024), and whole milk (P < 0.001); 2.4% of the controls smoke and 5% are alcohol consumers. Eighty-five percent of patients and 78% of the controls do not have physical activity. Family history of subjects in this study indicated chronic diseases. Conclusion The subjects included in this study had a high intake of C vitamin, this is due to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, patients with possible Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease had a lower intake of fruits and vegetables, which could be due to type of food to which they have access. PMID:24257159

  7. Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Icelanders Following Voluntarily a Low Carbohydrate Diet

    PubMed Central

    Elidottir, Anita S.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Ramel, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Most studies regarding low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been intervention studies. The aim of the current study was to investigate dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors among individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted (N = 54, 20–66yrs) in Reykjavik, Iceland. Participants recorded food intake for three days. Blood samples were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors. Results Nearly half of the participants were obese and around 60% had been on a LCD for ≥ 6 months. Fifty percent claimed they had lost weight during the past month. The median intake of carbohydrate, protein and fat were 8%, 22% and 68% E (hereof 25% saturated fatty acids), respectively. The consumption of bread and wholegrain cereals was very low (<5g/day), including the intake of dietary fiber (11g/day). Median fruit intake was 12 g/day. Intake of red meat and meat products was double that of the general population or ~900 g/week. Median intake of vitamins and minerals were mostly higher than the estimated average requirements. Cardiovascular risk factors were mostly within normal range. Mean blood lipids were slightly elevated although the high density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio was normal. Conclusion Despite poor diet quality and high prevalence of obesity, individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD have cardiovascular risk factors mostly within reference range. These individuals consume very low amounts of carbohydrates and high amounts of fat and saturated fat acids. Intake of red meat and processed meat exceeds recommended intake. Very low intake of whole grain cereals and fruits results in low intake of fiber. Long term health implications need to be examined further in longitudinal studies. PMID:27560647

  8. Dietary fiber intake and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K; Forman, John P; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Participants 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer at enrollment, survived a first MI during follow-up, were free of stroke at the time of initial onset of MI, and provided food frequency questionnaires pre-MI and at least one post-MI. Main outcome measures Associations of dietary fiber post-MI and changes from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for drug use, medical history, and lifestyle factors. Results Higher post-MI fiber intake was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (comparing extreme fifths, pooled hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.97). Greater intake of cereal fiber was more strongly associated with all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.73, 0.58 to 0.91) than were other sources of dietary fiber. Increased fiber intake from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.69, 0.55 to 0.87). Conclusions In this prospective study of patients who survived MI, a greater intake of dietary fiber after MI, especially cereal fiber, was inversely associated with all cause mortality. In addition, increasing consumption of fiber from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:24782515

  9. Dietary intake of vitamin K is inversely associated with mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Juanola-Falgarona, Martí; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emili; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Fernández-Ballart, Joan; Bulló, Mònica

    2014-05-01

    Vitamin K has been related to cardiovascular disease and cancer risk. However, data on total mortality are scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the dietary intake of different types of vitamin K and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. A prospective cohort analysis was conducted in 7216 participants from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study (median follow-up of 4.8 y). Energy and nutrient intakes were evaluated using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Dietary vitamin K intake was calculated annually using the USDA food composition database and other published sources. Deaths were ascertained by an end-point adjudication committee unaware of the dietary habits of participants after they had reviewed medical records and linked up to the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to assess the RR of mortality. Energy-adjusted baseline dietary phylloquinone intake was inversely associated with a significantly reduced risk of cancer and all-cause mortality after controlling for potential confounders (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.96; and HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.90, respectively). In longitudinal assessments, individuals who increased their intake of phylloquinone or menaquinone during follow-up had a lower risk of cancer (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95; and HR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.64, respectively) and all-cause mortality (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.73; and HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.73, respectively) than individuals who decreased or did not change their intake. Also, individuals who increased their intake of dietary phylloquinone had a lower risk of cardiovascular mortality risk (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.86). However, no association between changes in menaquinone intake and cardiovascular mortality was observed (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.29). An increase in dietary intake of vitamin K is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular

  10. Conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin in Japanese women fed a purified diet conforming to the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes.

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Ohta, Mari; Kimtjra, Naoko; Sasaki, Ryuzo; Shibata, Katsumi

    2004-12-01

    In order to establish the human requirements of niacin, it is first important to know how much tryptophan is converted to niacin in the human body. In a general, 60 mg of tryptophan is equivalent to 1 mg of niacin, whereas the conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin is yet to be confirmed. The aim of this study was to know the conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin in Japanese females fed a purified diet, which followed the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Ten young Japanese females were housed in the same facility and given the same daily living activity schedule for 7 d. The composition of their purified diet was conformed to the Dietary Reference Intakes in Japan. The diet was niacin free. In order to investigate the conversion ratio, daily urinary outputs were collected. Tryptophan-niacin metabolites in the urine were measured and the conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin calculated. The conversion ratio was calculated by comparing the dietary intake of tryptophan and the sum of the niacin catabolites such as N1-methylnicotinamide, N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide, and N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide, which were derived only from the dietary intake of tryptophan. The ratio was calculated as 1.5 +/- 0.1 (mean +/-SE for 10 women; in molar basis) on the last day of the experiment. It was calculated that if the excretory percentage of niacin metabolites in the urine were 60%, of the tryptophan ingested, the conversion factor would be a value of 67, meaning that is 67 mg of tryptophan is equal to 1 mg of niacin.

  11. Estimation of dietary iron bioavailability from food iron intake and iron status.

    PubMed

    Dainty, Jack R; Berry, Rachel; Lynch, Sean R; Harvey, Linda J; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Currently there are no satisfactory methods for estimating dietary iron absorption (bioavailability) at a population level, but this is essential for deriving dietary reference values using the factorial approach. The aim of this work was to develop a novel approach for estimating dietary iron absorption using a population sample from a sub-section of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). Data were analyzed in 873 subjects from the 2000-2001 adult cohort of the NDNS, for whom both dietary intake data and hematological measures (hemoglobin and serum ferritin (SF) concentrations) were available. There were 495 men aged 19-64 y (mean age 42.7±12.1 y) and 378 pre-menopausal women (mean age 35.7±8.2 y). Individual dietary iron requirements were estimated using the Institute of Medicine calculations. A full probability approach was then applied to estimate the prevalence of dietary intakes that were insufficient to meet the needs of the men and women separately, based on their estimated daily iron intake and a series of absorption values ranging from 1-40%. The prevalence of SF concentrations below selected cut-off values (indicating that absorption was not high enough to maintain iron stores) was derived from individual SF concentrations. An estimate of dietary iron absorption required to maintain specified SF values was then calculated by matching the observed prevalence of insufficiency with the prevalence predicted for the series of absorption estimates. Mean daily dietary iron intakes were 13.5 mg for men and 9.8 mg for women. Mean calculated dietary absorption was 8% in men (50th percentile for SF 85 µg/L) and 17% in women (50th percentile for SF 38 µg/L). At a ferritin level of 45 µg/L estimated absorption was similar in men (14%) and women (13%). This new method can be used to calculate dietary iron absorption at a population level using data describing total iron intake and SF concentration. PMID:25356629

  12. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  13. Iodine and pregnancy - a UK cross-sectional survey of dietary intake, knowledge and awareness.

    PubMed

    Combet, E; Bouga, M; Pan, B; Lean, M E J; Christopher, C O

    2015-07-14

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones, which are critical for healthy growth, development and metabolism. The UK population is now classified as mildly iodine-insufficient. Adequate levels of iodine during pregnancy are essential for fetal neurodevelopment, and mild iodine deficiency is linked to developmental impairments. In the absence of prophylaxis in the UK, awareness of nutritional recommendations during pregnancy would empower mothers to make the right dietary choices leading to adequate iodine intake. The present study aimed to: estimate mothers' dietary iodine intake in pregnancy (using a FFQ); assess awareness of the importance of iodine in pregnancy with an understanding of existing pregnancy dietary and lifestyle recommendations with relevance for iodine; examine the level of confidence in meeting adequate iodine intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and questionnaires were distributed between August 2011 and February 2012 on local (Glasgow) and national levels (online electronic questionnaire); 1026 women, UK-resident and pregnant or mother to a child aged up to 36 months participated in the study. While self-reported awareness about general nutritional recommendations during pregnancy was high (96 %), awareness of iodine-specific recommendations was very low (12 %), as well as the level of confidence of how to achieve adequate iodine intake (28 %). Median pregnancy iodine intake, without supplements, calculated from the FFQ, was 190 μg/d (interquartile range 144-256μg/d), which was lower than that of the WHO's recommended intake for pregnant women (250 μg/d). Current dietary recommendations in pregnancy, and their dissemination, are found not to equip women to meet the requirements for iodine intake.

  14. Dietary fibre intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Threapleton, Diane E; Greenwood, Darren C; Evans, Charlotte E L; Cleghorn, Christine L; Nykjaer, Camilla; Woodhead, Charlotte; Cade, Janet E; Gale, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate dietary fibre intake and any potential dose-response association with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease. Design Systematic review of available literature and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies using random effects models. Data sources The Cochrane Library, Medline, Medline in-process, Embase, CAB Abstracts, ISI Web of Science, BIOSIS, and hand searching. Eligibility criteria for studies Prospective studies reporting associations between fibre intake and coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease, with a minimum follow-up of three years and published in English between 1 January 1990 and 6 August 2013. Results 22 cohort study publications met inclusion criteria and reported total dietary fibre intake, fibre subtypes, or fibre from food sources and primary events of cardiovascular disease or coronary heart disease. Total dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (risk ratio 0.91 per 7 g/day (95% confidence intervals 0.88 to 0.94)) and coronary heart disease (0.91 (0.87 to 0.94)). There was evidence of some heterogeneity between pooled studies for cardiovascular disease (I2=45% (0% to 74%)) and coronary heart disease (I2=33% (0% to 66%)). Insoluble fibre and fibre from cereal and vegetable sources were inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease. Fruit fibre intake was inversely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Greater dietary fibre intake is associated with a lower risk of both cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. Findings are aligned with general recommendations to increase fibre intake. The differing strengths of association by fibre type or source highlight the need for a better understanding of the mode of action of fibre components. PMID:24355537

  15. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  16. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Jill A.; Wiens, Kristin P.; Erdman, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437) in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483) in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5); 2.4 (1.6–3.4) in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9); 2.0 (1.4–2.6) in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4); 2.0 (1.5–2.4) in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2); 1.7 (1.3–2.0) in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112), folate 89% (61–114) and calcium 84% (48–106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  17. High dietary calcium intake does not counteract disuse-induced bone loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baecker, N.; Boese, A.; Smith, S. M.; Heer, M.

    =0.06). While HDBR did not affect bAP in both EA and EB, bAP decreased significantly over time in both groups of EB (p<0.001). UCaV significantly increased during HDBR in EA (p=0.002) and EB (p=0.004) compared to the ambulatory controls. UCTX significantly increased on the second day of HDBR by 18% (p<0.001) in EA and by 27% (p=0.03) in EB. We conclude from these results that doubling dietary calcium intake from the recommended level of 1000 mg/d to 2000 mg/d does not prevent the decrease in bone formation activity and the increase of bone resorption activity in disuse-induced bone loss.

  18. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study reported here was to assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, who were surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS...

  19. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2007-10

    Cancer.gov

    We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the NHANES to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

  20. Nutrient content of some Cameroonian traditional dishes and their potential contribution to dietary reference intakes.

    PubMed

    Ponka, Roger; Fokou, Elie; Beaucher, Eric; Piot, Michel; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Malnutrition is a serious public health problem in Cameroon. The research study was conducted to determine nutrient content of some Cameroonian traditional dishes and their potential contribution to dietary reference intakes. These dishes were Ekomba, prepared from maize flour with roasted peanuts paste; Ekwang, prepared from crushed cocoyam tubers and cocoyam leaves; Tenue militaire, prepared from dried maize flour and cocoyam leaves and Koki, prepared from dried crushed cowpea seeds. The samples were subjected to proximate, minerals, carotenoids, and amino acids analyses. Results showed that the protein content ranged between 1.4 and 5.4 g/100 g edible portion. The mineral content expressed in mg/100 g edible portion ranged between 13.4 and 38.9 (calcium), 12.9-30.7 (magnesium), 336.2-567.9 (sodium), 63.3-182.7 (potassium), 0.5-1.5 (iron), 0.3-1.1 (zinc), 0.1-0.2 (copper), and 0.3-0.4 (manganese). Vitamin A activity content ranged between 0.1 and 0.4 mg Retinol Activity Equivalents/100 g edible portion. Consumption of each dish (100 g) (Ekwang, Tenue militaire, and Koki) by children aged 1-2 years would meet more than 100% of their daily recommended intake for vitamin A. Except in Ekomba, essential amino acids in all dishes represented up to 33% of total amino acids, indicating a good equilibrium between amino acids. This up-to-date appropriate information will contribute for the calculation of accurate energy and nutrient intakes, and can be used to encourage the consumption of these dishes. PMID:27625773

  1. Nutrient content of some Cameroonian traditional dishes and their potential contribution to dietary reference intakes.

    PubMed

    Ponka, Roger; Fokou, Elie; Beaucher, Eric; Piot, Michel; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Malnutrition is a serious public health problem in Cameroon. The research study was conducted to determine nutrient content of some Cameroonian traditional dishes and their potential contribution to dietary reference intakes. These dishes were Ekomba, prepared from maize flour with roasted peanuts paste; Ekwang, prepared from crushed cocoyam tubers and cocoyam leaves; Tenue militaire, prepared from dried maize flour and cocoyam leaves and Koki, prepared from dried crushed cowpea seeds. The samples were subjected to proximate, minerals, carotenoids, and amino acids analyses. Results showed that the protein content ranged between 1.4 and 5.4 g/100 g edible portion. The mineral content expressed in mg/100 g edible portion ranged between 13.4 and 38.9 (calcium), 12.9-30.7 (magnesium), 336.2-567.9 (sodium), 63.3-182.7 (potassium), 0.5-1.5 (iron), 0.3-1.1 (zinc), 0.1-0.2 (copper), and 0.3-0.4 (manganese). Vitamin A activity content ranged between 0.1 and 0.4 mg Retinol Activity Equivalents/100 g edible portion. Consumption of each dish (100 g) (Ekwang, Tenue militaire, and Koki) by children aged 1-2 years would meet more than 100% of their daily recommended intake for vitamin A. Except in Ekomba, essential amino acids in all dishes represented up to 33% of total amino acids, indicating a good equilibrium between amino acids. This up-to-date appropriate information will contribute for the calculation of accurate energy and nutrient intakes, and can be used to encourage the consumption of these dishes.

  2. Dietary fat, fiber, and carbohydrate intake and endogenous hormone levels in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaohui; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2010-10-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of fat, fiber, and carbohydrate intake with endogenous estrogen, androgen, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels among 595 premenopausal women. Overall, no significant associations were found between dietary intake of these macronutrients and plasma sex steroid hormone levels. Dietary fat intake was inversely associated with IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels. When substituting 5% of energy from total fat for the equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrate or protein intake, the plasma levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 5.3) and 1.6% (95% CI 0.4, 2.8) lower, respectively. Animal fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat intakes also were inversely associated with IGFBP-3 levels (P<0.05). Carbohydrates were positively associated with plasma IGF-I level. When substituting 5% of energy from carbohydrates for the equivalent amount of energy from fat or protein intake, the plasma IGF-I level was 2.0% (95% CI 0.1, 3.9%) higher. No independent associations between fiber intake and hormone levels were observed. The results suggest that a low-fat/high-fiber or carbohydrate diet is not associated with endogenous levels of sex steroid hormones, but it may modestly increase IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels among premenopausal women.

  3. Dietary Intake among U.S. Adults with Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Ruopeng; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Physical, mental, and financial barriers among individuals with disability may limit their access to fruit and vegetable. In this study, we examined the relationship between disability status and vegetable, fruit, and fruit juice intake among U.S. adults aged 18 years and older using a large nationally representative sample. Methods:…

  4. The Link between Dietary Protein Intake, Skeletal Muscle Function and Health in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Jamie I.; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass and function are progressively lost with age, a condition referred to as sarcopenia. By the age of 60, many older adults begin to be affected by muscle loss. There is a link between decreased muscle mass and strength and adverse health outcomes such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Data suggest that increasing dietary protein intake at meals may counterbalance muscle loss in older individuals due to the increased availability of amino acids, which stimulate muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1). Increased muscle protein synthesis can lead to increased muscle mass, strength and function over time. This review aims to address the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein and whether or not this value meets the needs for older adults based upon current scientific evidence. The current RDA for protein is 0.8 g/kg body weight/day. However, literature suggests that consuming protein in amounts greater than the RDA can improve muscle mass, strength and function in older adults. PMID:27417778

  5. Increasing dietary leucine intake reduces diet-induced obesity and improves glucose and cholesterol metabolism in mice via multimechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiying; Guo, Kaiying; LeBlanc, Robert E; Loh, Daniella; Schwartz, Gary J; Yu, Yi-Hao

    2007-06-01

    Leucine, as an essential amino acid and activator of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), promotes protein synthesis and suppresses protein catabolism. However, the effect of leucine on overall glucose and energy metabolism remains unclear, and whether leucine has beneficial effects as a long-term dietary supplement has not been examined. In the present study, we doubled dietary leucine intake via leucine-containing drinking water in mice with free excess to either a rodent chow or a high-fat diet (HFD). While it produced no major metabolic effects in chow-fed mice, increasing leucine intake resulted in up to 32% reduction of weight gain (P < 0.05) and a 25% decrease in adiposity (P < 0.01) in HFD-fed mice. The reduction of adiposity resulted from increased resting energy expenditure associated with increased expression of uncoupling protein 3 in brown and white adipose tissues and in skeletal muscle, while food intake was not decreased. Increasing leucine intake also prevented HFD-induced hyperglycemia, which was associated with improved insulin sensitivity, decreased plasma concentrations of glucagon and glucogenic amino acids, and downregulation of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase. Additionally, plasma levels of total and LDL cholesterol were decreased by 27% (P < 0.001) and 53% (P < 0.001), respectively, in leucine supplemented HFD-fed mice compared with the control mice fed the same diet. The reduction in cholesterol levels was largely independent of leucine-induced changes in adiposity. In conclusion, increases in dietary leucine intake substantially decrease diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, and hypercholesterolemia in mice with ad libitum consumption of HFD likely via multiple mechanisms.

  6. The 2011 dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D: what dietetics practitioners need to know

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Institute of Medicine Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D, comprehensively reviewed the evidence for both skeletal and nonskeletal health outcomes and concluded, that a causal role of calcium and vitamin D in skeletal health provided the necessary basis for th...

  7. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiological evidence, mechanisms, and health implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mechanistically mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review aims to provide an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relationships between habitual short sleep durat...

  8. Food Sources, Dietary Behavior, and the Saturated Fat Intake of Latino Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Studies dietary patterns that distinguish children with higher and lower mean daily percentages of calories from saturated fat using data from mothers of 205 Latino children aged 4-7 years in New York City. Substituting low-fat for whole milk appears a key strategy for lowering saturated fat intake. (SLD)

  9. Acculturation and sociocultural influences on dietary intake and health status among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about...

  10. School-Based Screening of the Dietary Intakes of Third Graders in Rural Appalachian Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovland, Jana A.; McLeod, Sara M.; Duffrin, Melani W.; Johanson, George; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children in Appalachia are experiencing high levels of obesity, in large measure because of inferior diets. This study screened the dietary intake of third graders residing in 3 rural Appalachian counties in Ohio and determined whether the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource Initiative (FoodMASTER) curriculum improved…

  11. Associations between Parental Concern for Adolescent Weight and the Home Food Environment and Dietary Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, Abbie; Crawford, David; Worsley, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine associations between parental concern about adolescent weight and adolescent perceptions of their dietary intake, home food availability, family mealtime environment, and parents' feeding practices. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Adolescents, aged 12-15 years from 37 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, and their…

  12. Can limiting dietary variety assist with reducing energy intake and weight loss?☆

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity, developing strategies to improve weight loss and weight loss maintenance is imperative. One dietary environmental variable that has received little attention in being targeted in an intervention to assist with obesity treatment is dietary variety. Experimental research has consistently shown that greater dietary variety increases consumption, with the effect of variety on consumption hypothesized to be a consequence of the differential experience of the more varied sensory properties of food under those conditions with greater dietary variety. As reduced energy intake is required for weight loss, limiting variety, particularly in food groups that are high in energy-density and low in nutrient-density, may assist with reducing energy intake and improving weight loss. A series of investigations, both observational and experimental, were conducted to examine if limiting variety in an energydense, non-nutrient-dense food group, snack foods (i.e., cookies, chips), assisted with reducing energy intake of the food group and improving weight loss. Results of the investigations suggest that a prescription for limiting variety in a food group can be implemented during obesity treatment, limiting variety is associated with the occurrence of monotony, and that reducing food group variety is related to decreased consumption of that food group. Future research is needed to ascertain the long-term effect of prescriptions targeting dietary variety on weight loss and weight loss maintenance. PMID:22450259

  13. Dietary assessment methods for micronutrient intake in pregnant women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Andrellucchi, Adriana; Doreste-Alonso, Jorge; Henríquez-Sánchez, Patricia; Cetin, Irene; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2009-12-01

    The EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence needs clear guidelines for assessing the validity of reported micronutrient intakes among vulnerable population groups. A systematic literature search identified studies validating the methodology used for measuring usual dietary intake during pregnancy. The quality of each validation study selected was assessed using a EURRECA-developed scoring system. The validation studies were categorised according to whether the study used a reference method that reflected short-term intake ( < 7 d) long-term intake ( > or = 7 d) or used biomarkers (BM). A correlation coefficient for each micronutrient was calculated from the mean of the correlation coefficients from each study weighted by the quality of the study. Seventeen papers were selected, which included the validation of fifteen FFQ, two dietary records (DR), one diet history and a Fe intake checklist. Estimates of twenty-six micronutrients by six FFQ were validated against 24-h recalls indicating good correlation for six micronutrients. Estimates of twenty-four micronutrients by two FFQ were validated against estimated DR and all had good or acceptable correlations. Estimates of fourteen micronutrients by three FFQ were validated against weighed DR indicating good correlations for five. Six FFQ were validated against BM, presenting good correlations only for folic acid. FFQ appear to be most reliable for measuring short-term intakes of vitamins E and B6 and long-term intakes of thiamin. Apart from folic acid, BM do not add any more certainty in terms of intake method reliability. When frequency methods are used, the inclusion of dietary supplements improves their reliability for most micronutrients.

  14. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods.

  15. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods. PMID:24614217

  16. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): < 90 cm, n = 141), obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p < 0.01), the exception being the intake of plant lipid and of animal calcium. In the obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p < 0.05). There were positive correlations between dietary taurine intake, weight and hip circumference (p < 0.05) in the normal group. However, there was no significant correlation between dietary taurine intake and anthropometric and body composition data in the obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity.

  17. Caffeine levels in beverages from Argentina's market: application to caffeine dietary intake assessment.

    PubMed

    Olmos, V; Bardoni, N; Ridolfi, A S; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2009-03-01

    The caffeine content of different beverages from Argentina's market was measured. Several brands of coffees, teas, mates, chocolate milks, soft and energy drinks were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. The highest concentration level was found in short coffee (1.38 mg ml(-1)) and the highest amount per serving was found in instant coffee (95 mg per serving). A consumption study was also carried out among 471 people from 2 to 93 years of age to evaluate caffeine total dietary intake by age and to identify the sources of caffeine intake. The mean caffeine intake among adults was 288 mg day(-1) and mate was the main contributor to that intake. The mean caffeine intake among children of 10 years of age and under was 35 mg day(-1) and soft drinks were the major contributors to that intake. Children between 11 and 15 years old and teenagers (between 16 and 20 years) had caffeine mean intakes of 120 and 240 mg day(-1), respectively, and mate was the major contributor to those intakes. Drinking mate is a deep-rooted habit among Argentine people and it might be the reason for their elevated caffeine mean daily intake.

  18. Vitamin D Dietary Intake Questionnaire Validation Conducted among Young Polish Women

    PubMed Central

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Sidor, Patrycja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Due to inadequate intake of Vitamin D, identification of individuals characterised by the highest risk of deficiencies is one of the more crucial tasks for public health. The aim of the presented study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed Vitamin D dietary intake questionnaire based on food frequency assessment—VIDEO-FFQ (VItamin D Estimation Only—Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of Polish women aged 20–30 years. Seventy-five participants kept a three-day dietary record and filled out the VIDEO-FFQ twice (immediately after the three-day dietary record and after six weeks). The assessment of validity and reproducibility was conducted by verifying standard errors of estimation, median differences, and percentages of individuals classified into tertiles, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. The Vitamin D intake for the majority of the surveyed women was inadequate as over 85% of them were characterised by values of intake lower than 5.0 μg per day. The results allowed concluding that a high accuracy of the VIDEO-FFQ was achieved. The required Bland-Altman index values lower than 5.0% were obtained, confirming satisfactory validity and reproducibility. The VIDEO-FFQ may be deemed a convenient practical tool for the estimation of Vitamin D intake in young women. PMID:26742070

  19. Relationship between dietary copper intake and indices of copper status in men, premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, P.; Reiser, S.; Canary, J. )

    1989-02-09

    Dietary copper (Cu) intake, red blood cell superoxide dismutase (SOD), ceruloplasmin (Cp) and plasma Cu were determined in 18 men, 18 premenopausal (PRE) and 18 postmenopausal (POST) women. Follicle stimulating hormone and leutinizing hormone were measured to verify menopausal status in women. SOD levels were significantly different in men, PRE and POST women and were used to divide subjects into adequate (350-700 U/mI) and inadequate (<350 U/ml) Cu status. Dietary Cu intake including supplements was highest for men (2.53 mg/day) as compared to PRE (1.35 mg/day) and POST (1.86 mg/day) women. There was an inverse correlation between dietary Cu intake and SOD levels. Plasma Cu levels were significantly higher in women (102.8 {mu}g/dl PRE, 108.95 POST {mu}g/dl) compared to men (88.34 {mu}g/dl). Cp levels showed a positive correlation with plasma Cu but did not show a sex effect. The present Cu intake levels were calculated from diet records using a food Cu data base. These results are in the process of being verified by direct analysis of Cu level in a 3 day food composite. The results indicate that Cu intake alone is not a good predictor of Cu status as determine by SOD levels.

  20. Dietary fiber intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tian-bao; Ding, Pei-pei; Chen, Jian-feng; Yan, Yang; Zhang, Long; Liu, Huan; Liu, Peng-cheng; Che, Jian-ping; Zheng, Jun-hua; Yao, Xu-dong

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationships between dietary fiber intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched to find eligible studies. Random-effects relative risk (RR) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used. Besides, random-effects dose-response analyses were also performed to clarify the dose-response relations. Finally, publication bias was assessed by Egger's test and Begg's test. All p values were two tailed. Seven studies, including two cohort studies and five case-control studies, were eligible and included in this meta-analysis. Overall analysis in highest versus lowest level revealed that total dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced RCC risk (RR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.74-0.96). In addition, pooled estimated data showed that risk of RCC was significantly associated with vegetable and legume fiber intake (RR 0.70, RR 0.80, respectively), but not with fruit and cereal fiber intake (RR 0.92, RR 1.04, respectively). However, in dose-response analysis, no significant association was reported. Finally, no publication bias was detected by Egger's or Begg's test. The dietary fiber intake, especially vegetable and legume fiber, may be associated with reduced RCC risk. Considering the limitations of the included studies, more well-designed prospective studies will be needed to confirm our findings.

  1. Dietary behaviour, food and nutrient intake of pregnant women in a rural community in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Huybregts, Lieven Fernand; Roberfroid, Dominique Albert; Kolsteren, Patrick Wilfried; Van Camp, John Hendrik

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in dietary habits during pregnancy in a rural community in Houndé district, Burkina Faso. In-depth interviews were performed on a random sample of 37 pregnant women in order to analyse specific perceptions and attitudes regarding food consumption during pregnancy. In addition to this, an interactive 24-h recall survey was used to compare the food intake of 218 pregnant and 176 non-pregnant women. The majority of interviewees reported dietary restrictions during pregnancy but no consistent pattern of avoided food types was found. Most of the mentioned 'forbidden' foods were in related to physical discomfort during gestation. Interviewees also admitted to ignoring culturally determined food prohibitions/prescriptions. No differences were observed in food intake, food choice and nutrient intake between the group of pregnant and non-pregnant women. During the third trimester of gestation women did not show any major differences in food and nutrient intake compared with women from the first/second trimester. The mean nutrient intakes were found to be insufficient compared with the recommended daily allowances, especially for pregnant women. In conclusion, pregnant women in this rural area of Burkina Faso do not seem to restrict their diet significantly during pregnancy. The additional nutritional requirements of pregnancy are not accounted for in their dietary practises.

  2. Vitamin D Dietary Intake Questionnaire Validation Conducted among Young Polish Women.

    PubMed

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Sidor, Patrycja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2016-01-05

    Due to inadequate intake of Vitamin D, identification of individuals characterised by the highest risk of deficiencies is one of the more crucial tasks for public health. The aim of the presented study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed Vitamin D dietary intake questionnaire based on food frequency assessment--VIDEO-FFQ (VItamin D Estimation Only--Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of Polish women aged 20-30 years. Seventy-five participants kept a three-day dietary record and filled out the VIDEO-FFQ twice (immediately after the three-day dietary record and after six weeks). The assessment of validity and reproducibility was conducted by verifying standard errors of estimation, median differences, and percentages of individuals classified into tertiles, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. The Vitamin D intake for the majority of the surveyed women was inadequate as over 85% of them were characterised by values of intake lower than 5.0 μg per day. The results allowed concluding that a high accuracy of the VIDEO-FFQ was achieved. The required Bland-Altman index values lower than 5.0% were obtained, confirming satisfactory validity and reproducibility. The VIDEO-FFQ may be deemed a convenient practical tool for the estimation of Vitamin D intake in young women.

  3. Dietary behaviour, food and nutrient intake of pregnant women in a rural community in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Huybregts, Lieven Fernand; Roberfroid, Dominique Albert; Kolsteren, Patrick Wilfried; Van Camp, John Hendrik

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in dietary habits during pregnancy in a rural community in Houndé district, Burkina Faso. In-depth interviews were performed on a random sample of 37 pregnant women in order to analyse specific perceptions and attitudes regarding food consumption during pregnancy. In addition to this, an interactive 24-h recall survey was used to compare the food intake of 218 pregnant and 176 non-pregnant women. The majority of interviewees reported dietary restrictions during pregnancy but no consistent pattern of avoided food types was found. Most of the mentioned 'forbidden' foods were in related to physical discomfort during gestation. Interviewees also admitted to ignoring culturally determined food prohibitions/prescriptions. No differences were observed in food intake, food choice and nutrient intake between the group of pregnant and non-pregnant women. During the third trimester of gestation women did not show any major differences in food and nutrient intake compared with women from the first/second trimester. The mean nutrient intakes were found to be insufficient compared with the recommended daily allowances, especially for pregnant women. In conclusion, pregnant women in this rural area of Burkina Faso do not seem to restrict their diet significantly during pregnancy. The additional nutritional requirements of pregnancy are not accounted for in their dietary practises. PMID:20572925

  4. [Dietary intake and dyslipidemia arising from combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luara Bellinghausen; Giudici, Kelly Virecoulon; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2009-07-01

    To review and synthesize the available scientific evidence on the relationship between dietary intake and dyslipidemias in HIV-infected patients in combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). A systematic review of literature was carried out. Original and published studies were investigated and two categories of dietary exposure were considered: energy and nutrient intake, and consumption of a test diet. A narrative review of included studies was conducted. The findings were summarized according to category of metabolic outcomes (effect on total cholesterol and LDL-c, effect on HDL-c and effect on triglycerides). Twenty original studies were included in this review, being 13 clinical trials and 7 observational studies. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation led to a significant decrease in triglycerides. There was very little evidence on the effectiveness of dietary interventions for the prevention and control of dyslipidemias in HIV-infected patients receiving ART.

  5. Perceptions and dietary intake of self-described healthy and unhealthy eaters with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Carson, Nancy E; Blake, Christine E; Saunders, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine how community-dwelling adults with severe mental illness describe themselves as eaters and how these eating identities relate to dietary intake. Twenty participants completed one in-depth qualitative interview and three 24-h dietary recalls. Two distinct groups were identified; self-described healthy eaters (n = 10) and self-described unhealthy eaters (n = 10). Healthy eaters emphasized fruits and vegetables, limiting sweets, three meals a day, overcoming cost concerns, and benefits of healthy eating. Unhealthy eaters emphasized junk foods, fried foods, few fruits and vegetables, cost and household barriers to healthy eating, and concerns about consequences of unhealthy eating. Self-described healthy eaters consumed significantly more vegetables and less kilocalories, carbohydrates, fat, and saturated fat than self-described unhealthy eaters. Understanding how eating identities relate to dietary intake provides important insights for development of more effective approaches to promote healthy eating in this high risk population.

  6. Statistical method to assess usual dietary intakes in the European population.

    PubMed

    Vilone, Giulia; Comiskey, Damien; Heraud, Fanny; O'Mahony, Cian

    2014-01-01

    Food consumption data are a key element of EFSA's risk assessment activities, forming the basis of dietary exposure assessment at the European level. In 2011, EFSA released the Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database, gathering consumption data from 34 national surveys representing 66,492 individuals from 22 European Union member states. Due to the different methodologies used, national survey data cannot be combined to generate European estimates of dietary exposure. This study was executed to assess how existing consumption data and the representativeness of dietary exposure and risk estimates at the European Union level can be improved by developing a 'Compiled European Food Consumption Database'. To create the database, the usual intake distributions of 589 food items representing the total diet were estimated for 36 clusters composed of subjects belonging to the same age class, gender and having a similar diet. An adapted form of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method was used for this, with a number of important modifications. Season, body weight and whether or not the food was consumed at the weekend were used to predict the probability of consumption. A gamma distribution was found to be more suitable for modelling the distribution of food amounts in the different food groups instead of a normal distribution. These distributions were combined with food correlation matrices according to the Iman-Conover method in order to simulate 28 days of consumption for 40,000 simulated individuals. The simulated data were validated by comparing the consumption statistics of the simulated individuals and food groups with the same statistics estimated from the Comprehensive Database. The opportunities and limitations of using the simulated database for exposure assessments are described.

  7. Statistical method to assess usual dietary intakes in the European population.

    PubMed

    Vilone, Giulia; Comiskey, Damien; Heraud, Fanny; O'Mahony, Cian

    2014-01-01

    Food consumption data are a key element of EFSA's risk assessment activities, forming the basis of dietary exposure assessment at the European level. In 2011, EFSA released the Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database, gathering consumption data from 34 national surveys representing 66,492 individuals from 22 European Union member states. Due to the different methodologies used, national survey data cannot be combined to generate European estimates of dietary exposure. This study was executed to assess how existing consumption data and the representativeness of dietary exposure and risk estimates at the European Union level can be improved by developing a 'Compiled European Food Consumption Database'. To create the database, the usual intake distributions of 589 food items representing the total diet were estimated for 36 clusters composed of subjects belonging to the same age class, gender and having a similar diet. An adapted form of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method was used for this, with a number of important modifications. Season, body weight and whether or not the food was consumed at the weekend were used to predict the probability of consumption. A gamma distribution was found to be more suitable for modelling the distribution of food amounts in the different food groups instead of a normal distribution. These distributions were combined with food correlation matrices according to the Iman-Conover method in order to simulate 28 days of consumption for 40,000 simulated individuals. The simulated data were validated by comparing the consumption statistics of the simulated individuals and food groups with the same statistics estimated from the Comprehensive Database. The opportunities and limitations of using the simulated database for exposure assessments are described. PMID:25205439

  8. Defining the process of Dietary Reference Intakes: framework for the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Stephanie A

    2011-08-01

    The pioneering project of the harmonization of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for the United States and Canada resulted in the production of 13 reports from 1997 to 2006 that included 6 reports on specific nutrient groups, 3 reports in preparation for setting recommendations for fiber and antioxidants, 2 reports on applications of DRIs, a report of the synthesis of identified research gaps, and a summary report, Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. This bicountry collaborative effort to harmonize values of reference nutrient intakes has continued through meetings to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the first harmonized DRI process in North America and to refine the framework for future revisions of DRIs.

  9. Effect of WIC Food Package Changes on Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Morshed, Alexandra B.; Davis, Sally M.; Greig, Elizabeth A.; Myers, Orrin B.; Cruz, Theresa H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined WIC policy change effects on dietary intake of preschool children from WIC-participating households in rural New Mexico communities. Methods Dietary intake of children enrolled in Head Start in 8 communities was compared before and after 2009 WIC food package changes. Results Following the policy change, participants reported significantly increased consumption of lower-fat milk, reduced consumption of saturated fat (grams), and decreased consumption of vegetables without potatoes. No significant differences in fruit, fruit juice, vegetables including potatoes, whole-grains and saturated fat (percent-energy) consumption were observed. Conclusions WIC policy changes have the potential to improve children’s saturated fat intake. More research with robust designs is necessary to examine long-term effects of WIC policy changes.

  10. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  11. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  12. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (Kcarb) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this stu...

  13. Hypercholesterolemia screening. Does knowledge of blood cholesterol level affect dietary fat intake?

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, M.; Godin, G.; Vézina, L.; Maziade, J.; Desharnais, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether knowing blood cholesterol test results influences people's intention to lower their dietary fat intake and to assess changes in diet after 3 months. DESIGN: Randomized clinical study. SETTING: Two hospital-based family medicine centres. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 526 patients aged 18 to 65, without prior knowledge of their blood cholesterol levels, were recruited. Seventy did not appear for their appointments, and 37 did not meet study criteria, leaving 419 participants. From that group, 391 completed the study. INTERVENTIONS: Patients submitted to cholesterol screening were randomly assigned to one of two groups, completing the study questionnaires either before (control group) or after (experimental group) being informed of their screening test results. All participants were called 3 months after transmission of test results to assess their dietary fat intake at that time. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences in intention to adopt a low-fat diet reported between the experimental and control groups and differences in dietary fat intake modification after 3 months between patients with normal and abnormal blood cholesterol test results. RESULTS: Knowledge of test results influenced patients' intentions to adopt low-fat diets (F1,417 = 5.4, P = .02). Patients reported lower mean dietary fat intake after 3 months than at baseline (P < .0001). The reduction was greater in patients with abnormal screening results (F2,388 = 3.6, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Being informed of personal blood cholesterol levels effects an immediate change in eating habits that translates into reduced dietary fat intake. PMID:9640523

  14. The correlation between dietary fat intake and blood pressure among people with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Sabour, Hadis; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Soltani, Zahra; Mousavifar, Seyede Azemat; Latifi, Sahar; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan; Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated the effect of different dietary fats on blood pressure (BP) in general population. However, these associations have not yet been described in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Referred patients to Brain and SCI Research Center between 2011 and 2014 have been invited to participate. Only paraplegic individuals were recruited and patients with injury at cervical or higher thoracic sections were excluded to omit the bias effect of autonomic dysreflexia. Dietary intakes were assessed by recording consumed foods by 24-hour dietary recall interviews using Nutritionist IV 3.5.3 modified for Iranian foods. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured 3 times and the mean values entered analysis. Results: Higher intakes of cholesterol were related to higher BP (P = 0.010 and 0.011 for SBP and DBP, respectively). Similarly, intake of saturated fat was positively correlated to both SBP (P = 0.016, r = 0.21) and DBP (P = 0.011, r = 0.22). The effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on BP was insignificant (P = 0.760 and 0.720 for SBP and DBP, respectively). However, intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was related to lower BP among people with SCI. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that higher intakes of cholesterol and saturated fat are associated with increased BP, whereas DHA is an antihypertensive agent. Dietary modifications with reduction of cholesterol and saturated fat along with intake of additional DHA supplements may help to reduce BP in spinal cord injured-individuals with hypertension. PMID:27648172

  15. Under-reporting of dietary energy intake in five populations of the African diaspora.

    PubMed

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Dugas, Lara R; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A

    2015-02-14

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic under-reporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialised countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among the individuals of African ancestry (n 324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index (HDI) scale, a UN statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24 h dietary recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labelled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values ((self-report - expenditure/expenditure) × 100) to identify under-reporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the USA. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all the five countries. The South African cohort exhibited the highest mean under-reporting ( - 52·1% of energy) compared with the cohorts of Ghana ( - 22·5%), Jamaica ( - 17·9%), Seychelles ( - 25·0%) and the USA ( - 18·5%). BMI was the most consistent predictor of under-reporting compared with other predictors. In conclusion, there is substantial under-reporting of dietary energy intake in populations across the whole range of the HDI, and this systematic reporting error increases according to the BMI of an individual.

  16. The correlation between dietary fat intake and blood pressure among people with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Sabour, Hadis; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Soltani, Zahra; Mousavifar, Seyede Azemat; Latifi, Sahar; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan; Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated the effect of different dietary fats on blood pressure (BP) in general population. However, these associations have not yet been described in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Referred patients to Brain and SCI Research Center between 2011 and 2014 have been invited to participate. Only paraplegic individuals were recruited and patients with injury at cervical or higher thoracic sections were excluded to omit the bias effect of autonomic dysreflexia. Dietary intakes were assessed by recording consumed foods by 24-hour dietary recall interviews using Nutritionist IV 3.5.3 modified for Iranian foods. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured 3 times and the mean values entered analysis. Results: Higher intakes of cholesterol were related to higher BP (P = 0.010 and 0.011 for SBP and DBP, respectively). Similarly, intake of saturated fat was positively correlated to both SBP (P = 0.016, r = 0.21) and DBP (P = 0.011, r = 0.22). The effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on BP was insignificant (P = 0.760 and 0.720 for SBP and DBP, respectively). However, intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was related to lower BP among people with SCI. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that higher intakes of cholesterol and saturated fat are associated with increased BP, whereas DHA is an antihypertensive agent. Dietary modifications with reduction of cholesterol and saturated fat along with intake of additional DHA supplements may help to reduce BP in spinal cord injured-individuals with hypertension.

  17. Dietary B vitamin and methionine intakes and lung cancer risk among female never smokers in China

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Yumie; Cai, Qiuyin; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Li, Honglan; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2012-01-01

    Purpose B vitamins and methionine have been postulated to have potential effects on carcinogenesis; however, findings from previous epidemiologic studies on B vitamins, methionine, and lung cancer risk are inconsistent. We investigated associations of dietary intakes of B vitamins (i.e., riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, and vitamin B12) and methionine with lung cancer risk among female never smokers. Methods The Shanghai Women’s Health Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study, included 74,941 women. During a median follow-up of 11.2 years, 428 incident lung cancer cases accrued among 71,267 women with no history of smoking or cancer at baseline. Baseline dietary intakes were derived from a validated, interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cancer incidence and vital status were ascertained through annual linkage to the Shanghai Cancer Registry and Shanghai Vital Statistics Registry databases and through biennial in-person follow-ups with participants. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox regression. Results Dietary riboflavin intake was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (HR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.43–0.89; P-trend = 0.03 for the highest quartile compared with the lowest). A higher than median intake of methionine was associated with lower risk of lung cancer (HR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.60–0.99), however, there was no dose-response relation. Intakes of other B vitamins were not associated with lung cancer risk. Conclusions Our study suggests that dietary riboflavin intake may be inversely associated with lung cancer risk among female never smokers, which warrants further investigation. PMID:23065072

  18. Net protein oxidation is adapted to dietary protein intake in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    PubMed

    Russell, Kim; Murgatroyd, Peter R; Batt, Roger M

    2002-03-01

    Cats have a requirement for dietary protein two to three times that of omnivores and herbivores. This was reported to be due to the hepatic catabolic enzymes of this species being set to a permanently high level and, therefore, showing little adaptation to low dietary protein. A major mechanism for adapting to dietary protein in other species is amino acid oxidation (hereafter referred to as protein oxidation), and the objective of this study was to determine whether protein oxidation in cats was correlated with protein intake. Net protein and net fat oxidation in six adult cats were studied directly from gas exchanges using indirect calorimetry, after feeding moderate protein (MP; 35% energy) and high protein (HP; 52% energy) diets. Protein oxidation was significantly higher (P < 0.05) when cats were fed the HP diet (28.4 plus minus 0.7 mg/min) rather than the MP diet (20.4 plus minus 0.8 mg/min). Fat oxidation was significantly higher (P < 0.05) when cats consumed the MP diet (9.0 plus minus 0.7 mg/min) rather than the HP diet (4.7 plus minus 0.5 mg/min). Protein oxidation was significantly correlated (linear regression, R(2) = 46.0, P < 0.05) with protein intake such that the mean ratio of 18-h oxidation: 18-h intake was 1.2 on both diets. Fat oxidation was significantly correlated (linear regression, R(2) = 18.9, P < 0.05) with fat intake such that the mean ratio of 18-h fat oxidation: 18-h fat intake was 1.1 (MP) and 0.9 (HP). This study demonstrated that cats adapt net protein oxidation at these levels of protein intake, and the reason for the high dietary protein requirement of this species is, therefore, unclear.

  19. Health risks of dietary intake of environmental pollutants by elite sportsmen and sportswomen.

    PubMed

    Falcó, G; Bocio, A; Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L

    2005-12-01

    The dietary intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) by elite sportsmen and sportswomen of Catalonia, Spain, was assessed. In 2000, food samples were randomly acquired in various cities of Catalonia. Analysis of the above pollutants were determined according to the appropriate analytical techniques (ICP-MS, HRGC/HRMS, HPLC). In general terms, elite sportsmen and sportswomen showed a higher intake of Cd, Hg, Pb, HCB, PCNs, PCDD/Fs and PAHs than the general population, while it was lower for PCDEs (both sexes), and PCBs and PBDEs (women). According to the FAO/WHO provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for metals, the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI) for HCB, and the US EPA's reference dose (RfD) for PAHs, the dietary intakes of environmental pollutants should not mean a potential toxic hazard. However, the WHO-TDI for PCDD/Fs and "dioxin-like" PCBs is exceeded in sportsmen. The current results indicate that the consumption of those food groups showing the highest contribution to the intake of these pollutants should be diminished. In relation to this, the reduction of the consumption of dairy products and cereals would be important.

  20. Three-day dietary intake of incarcerated and nonincarcerated adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Gans, D A; Norwell, N J; Harper, A E

    1992-02-01

    We collected 3-day dietary intake information from both incarcerated (n = 137) and nonincarcerated (n = 42) adolescent males to provide an objective assessment of diets of residents of a juvenile correctional facility. Average daily intake of energy, protein, 13 indicator micronutrients and of macronutrients as percent of energy were calculated. Average intakes of the total group of adolescents (n = 179) were greater than 90% of the 1980 recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for energy, protein, and 10 micronutrients. There were no statistically significant differences between black (n = 63) and white (n = 63) incarcerated subgroups and white (n = 41) nonincarcerated subjects on average measures of energy, protein, macronutrients as percent of energy, and seven micronutrients. Cumulative intakes (as a proportion of the 1980 RDA) of nonincarcerated subjects and at least one group of incarcerated subjects were significantly different for vitamin B6, folate, vitamin C, iron, sodium, and thiamin. However, average intakes of vitamin C, sodium, and iron by all groups exceeded the RDA. Overall, the total group of adolescents did not appear to be at significant nutritional risk. Folate, copper, and magnesium intakes were consistently below RDA in all groups. We suggest that these findings are not indicative of nutritional inadequacy but are, rather, cues that some RDAs may be inappropriately high.

  1. Dietary intake of lutein and diabetic retinopathy in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Sahli, Michelle W.; Mares, Julie A.; Meyers, Kristin J.; Klein, Ronald; Brady, William E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Donahue, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that dietary intake of lutein is inversely associated with prevalence of diabetic retinopathy due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and its location within the retina. Methods We used logistic regression to examine the association between prevalent DR and energy-adjusted lutein intake [by quartile (Q)] using data collected from 1,430 ARIC study participants with diabetes (n=994 White and n=508 Black). DR was assessed using a 45-degree nonmydriatic retinal photograph from one randomly chosen eye taken at visit 3 (1993–95). Dietary lutein intake was estimated using a 66-item food frequency questionnaire at visit 1(1987–89). Results The median estimated daily lutein intake was 1,370 μg/1000 kcals and the prevalence of DR was ~21%. We found a crude association between lutein and DR [OR (95% CI) for Q4 (high intake) vs. Q1 (low intake) =2.11 (1.45–3.09); p for trend<0.0001] which was attenuated after adjustment for race, duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, field center and energy intake [1.41 (0.87–2.28); p for trend=0.01]. In analyses limited to persons with a short duration of diabetes (<6 years), the association no longer persisted [0.94 (0.31–2.16); p for trend=0.72] as compared to the association in those with a longer duration of diabetes (≥6 year) [1.58 (0.91–2.75); p for trend=0.01]. Conclusion Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the odds of higher lutein intake were greater among those with DR than those without DR. However, after adjusting for confounders, intake of lutein was not associated with DR. PMID:26949989

  2. Dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chin-En; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Men-Chung; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Chia

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body mass index and weight-for-height index (WHI) were calculated. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to estimate hematologic and vitamin status parameters. Height, weight, body mass index, WHI, and triceps skinfold thickness value differences between omnivores and vegetarians in both parent and child groups were not found. Both omnivorous parents and their children had significantly higher fat and lower fiber intakes than vegetarian parents and children. Omnivorous children had significantly higher protein and lower vitamin C intakes than vegetarian children, whereas omnivorous parents had significantly lower vitamin A and iron intakes than vegetarian parents. Vegetarians and omnivores in both parent and child groups had mean calcium consumption less than 75% of the Taiwan dietary intakes. All mean hematologic and biochemical nutrient status indices were within the reference range in any groups. However, both vegetarian parents and children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol and serum ferritin concentrations than those of omnivorous parents and children. Our vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children had normal growth and adequate nutritional status. However, both parents and children had inadequate calcium intakes, which may potentially affect bone health, especially for preschool children in the growing stage.

  3. Nutritional intake and dietary patterns in pregnancy: a longitudinal study of women with lifetime eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Micali, Nadia; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Naumann, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet L

    2012-12-14

    There is limited knowledge about dietary patterns and nutrient/food intake during pregnancy in women with lifetime eating disorders (ED). The objective of the present study was to determine patterns of food and nutrient intake in women with lifetime ED as part of an existing longitudinal population-based cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Women with singleton pregnancies and no lifetime psychiatric disorders other than ED (n 9723) were compared with women who reported lifetime (ever) ED: (anorexia nervosa (AN, n 151), bulimia nervosa (BN, n 186) or both (AN+BN, n 77)). Women reported usual food consumption using a FFQ at 32 weeks of gestation. Nutrient intakes, frequency of consumption of food groups and overall dietary patterns were examined. Women with lifetime ED were compared with control women using linear regression and logistic regression (as appropriate) after adjustment for relevant covariates, and for multiple comparisons. Women with lifetime ED scored higher on the 'vegetarian' dietary pattern; they had a lower intake of meat, which was compensated by a higher consumption of soya products and pulses compared with the controls. Lifetime AN increased the risk for a high ( ≥ 2500 g/week) caffeine consumption in pregnancy. No deficiencies in mineral and vitamin intake were evident across the groups, although small differences were observed in macronutrient intakes. In conclusion, despite some differences in food group consumption, women with lifetime ED had similar patterns of nutrient intake to healthy controls. Important differences in relation to meat eating and vegetarianism were highlighted, as well as high caffeine consumption. These differences might have an important impact on fetal development.

  4. High dietary niacin intake is associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Yong, Lee C; Petersen, Martin R

    2011-02-01

    Experimental studies suggest that B vitamins such as niacin, folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 may protect against DNA damage induced by ionising radiation (IR). However, to date, data from IR-exposed human populations are not available. We examined the intakes of these B vitamins and their food sources in relation to the frequency of chromosome translocations as a biomarker of cumulative DNA damage, in eighty-two male airline pilots. Dietary intakes were estimated by using a self-administered semi-quantitative FFQ. Translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were scored by using fluorescence in situ hybridisation whole-chromosome painting. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios and 95 % CI, adjusted for age and occupational and lifestyle factors. We observed a significant inverse association between translocation frequency and dietary intake of niacin (P = 0·02): adjusted rate ratio for subjects in the highest tertile compared with the lowest tertile was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·83). Translocation frequency was not associated with total niacin intake from food and supplements as well as dietary or total intake of folate, riboflavin or vitamin B6 or B12. However, the adjusted rate ratios were significant for subjects with ≥ median compared with < median intake of whole grains (P = 0·03) and red and processed meat (P = 0·01): 0·69 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·96) and 1·56 (95 % CI 1·13, 2·16), respectively. Our data suggest that a high intake of niacin from food or a diet high in whole grains but low in red and processed meat may protect against cumulative DNA damage in IR-exposed persons.

  5. Comparison of polyphenol intakes according to distinct dietary patterns and food sources in the Adventist Health Study-2 cohort.

    PubMed

    Burkholder-Cooley, Nasira; Rajaram, Sujatha; Haddad, Ella; Fraser, Gary E; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Evidence suggests a relationship between polyphenol intake and health benefits. Polyphenol intake among a large US cohort with diverse dietary practices ranging from meatless to omnivorous diets has not been previously evaluated. The primary aim of this study was to compare polyphenol intakes of several vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary patterns and to assess phenolic intake by food source. To characterise dietary intake, a FFQ was administered to 77 441 participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. Dietary patterns were defined based on the absence of animal food consumption as vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Polyphenol intakes were calculated based on chromatography-derived polyphenol content data of foods from Phenol-Explorer, US Department of Agriculture databases and relevant literature. Results revealed a mean unadjusted total polyphenol intake of 801 (sd 356) mg/d, and the main foods contributing to polyphenol intakes were coffee, fruits and fruit juices. Total polyphenol intake differed significantly between dietary patterns, with phenolic acids from coffee contributing the greatest variation. The dominant classes and sources of dietary polyphenols differed between vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Flavonoid intake was the highest among pesco-vegetarians, and phenolic acid intake was the highest among non-vegetarians. In addition, coffee consumers appeared to have a different dietary profile than non-coffee consumers, including greatly reduced contribution of fruits, vegetables and legumes to total phenolic intake. Coffee drinkers were more likely to be non-vegetarians, which explained several of these observations. Further evaluating these differences may be important in identifying relationships between plant-based diets and health outcomes. PMID:27080936

  6. Caloric Intake, Dietary Lifestyles, Macronutrient Composition, and Alzheimer' Disease Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pasinetti, Giulio Maria; Wang, Jun; Porter, Shanee; Ho, Lap

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition currently affecting over 5 million elderly individuals in the United States. There is much evidence suggesting that certain dietary lifestyles can help to prevent and possibly treat Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we discuss how certain cardiovascular and diabetic conditions can induce an increased susceptibility for Alzheimer's disease and the mechanisms through which this occurs. We further discuss how the consumption of certain foods or food components can help to reduce one's risk for Alzheimer's disease and may possibly be developed as a therapeutic agent. PMID:21808725

  7. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns and Their Correlates among University Students in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, Pascale; Jomaa, Lamis; Issa, Carine; Farhat, Ghada; Salamé, Joseph; Zeidan, Nina; Baldi, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unhealthy dietary habits are major risk factors for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early years of adulthood. Limited studies have explored the food consumption patterns among young adults in Lebanon. Our study aimed to examine common dietary patterns and their correlates among a large sample of university student population in Lebanon, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake of university students. Factor analysis of food items and groups, cluster analysis of dietary patterns, and multivariate regressions were carried out. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely a vegetarian/low calorie dietary pattern (characterized mainly by consumption of plant-based food while avoiding “western” food, composite dishes, and bread); a mixed dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of plant-based food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food); and finally, a westernized dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes). We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa = 1.69; p < 0.001), while males were more likely to adopt a westernized diet (ORa = 1.51; p < 0.001), seemingly in private universities (p = 0.053). Students with high income and obese students (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were more likely to consume vegetarian/low calorie diets (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Male university students reported a higher

  8. Dietary intake of polyphenols, nitrate and nitrite and gastric cancer risk in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U.; Galván-Portillo, Marcia V.; Ward, Mary H.; Agudo, Antonio; González, Carlos A.; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F.; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Palma-Coca, Oswaldo; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2009-01-01

    N-Nitroso compounds (NOC) are potent animal carcinogens and potential human carcinogens. The primary source of exposure for most individuals may be endogenous formation, a process that can be inhibited by dietary polyphenols. To estimate the risk of gastric cancer (GC) in relation to the individual and combined consumption of polyphenols and NOC precursors (nitrate and nitrite), a population-based case–control study was carried out in Mexico City from 2004 to 2005 including 257 histologically confirmed GC cases and 478 controls. Intake of polyphenols, nitrate and nitrite were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. High intakes of cinnamic acids, secoisolariciresinol and coumestrol were associated with an ~50% reduction in GC risk. A high intake of total nitrite as well as nitrate and nitrite from animal sources doubled the GC risk. Odds ratios around 2-fold were observed among individuals with both low intake of cinnamic acids, secoisolariciresinol or coumestrol and high intake of animal-derived nitrate or nitrite, compared to high intake of the polyphenols and low animal nitrate or nitrite intake, respectively. Results were similar for both the intestinal and diffuse types of GC. Our results show, for the first time, a protective effect for GC because of higher intake of cinnamic acids, secoisolariciresinol and coumestrol, and suggest that these polyphenols reduce GC risk through inhibition of endogenous nitrosation. The main sources of these polyphenols were pears, mangos and beans for cinnamic acids; beans, carrots and squash for secoisolariciresinol and legumes for coumestrol. PMID:19449378

  9. Estimation of dietary intake of ochratoxin A from liquorice confectionery.

    PubMed

    Herrera, M; Herrera, A; Ariño, A

    2009-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) was analyzed from 44 liquorice confectionery samples using immunoaffinity cleanup and liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. The presence of OTA was confirmed by methyl-ester derivatization. Liquorice confectionery samples were purchased from different retail outlets and supermarkets in Spain during 2007-2008, 16 of hard candies and 28 of soft candies. The incidence of OTA varied between 75% and 39% and mean ranged from 2.96 to 0.34 microg/kg for hard and soft candies, respectively. Assuming a total mean value of 1.29 microg OTA/kg sweet and a consumption of about 1.2g liquorice sweets per day, an OTA weekly uptake of 11 ng was obtained, or, based on a total body weight of 30 kg for a child consuming these sweets regularly, a weekly intake of 0.37 ng/kg body weight. This corresponds to 0.31% of the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) established by the European Food Safety Authority based of toxicological studies. Risk assessment in a worst case scenario (children high consumers and maximum content of OTA) represented 8.94% TWI by liquorice confectionery alone.

  10. Setting Dietary Reference Intakes with the use of bioavailability data: calcium.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Steven A

    2010-05-01

    The determination of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for calcium, especially in children, has relied in significant part on the evaluation of the relation between calcium intake and calcium absorption and retention. At present, most of these studies are conducted with the use of dual-tracer stable isotope, although mass balance or other isotope methods are still used occasionally. Studies carried out to evaluate DRI values need to be conducted under the most controlled conditions possible. However, the achievement of such conditions can be difficult, especially in studies in small children, because strict, long-term dietary monitoring and sample collections are not well tolerated. Other dietary factors, which include vitamin D status and the presence of enhancers and inhibitors of calcium absorption, may have to be considered. However, for most healthy populations who do not have very low calcium intakes or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, other dietary factors will not be major determinants of the net calcium absorption or retention that will be used for the establishment of DRI values. Ultimately, DRI values must be chosen based on an attempt to achieve some targeted value for calcium absorption/retention or to maximize, within constraints, the overall calcium absorbed and retained. In children, it is important to use data obtained at the age and pubertal status being evaluated rather than to interpolate from data performed in other age groups.

  11. Dietary intake of PBDEs of residents at two major electronic waste recycling sites in China.

    PubMed

    Chan, J K Y; Man, Y B; Wu, S C; Wong, M H

    2013-10-01

    The dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) of local residents from 2 major electronic waste (e-waste) processing sites (Guiyu, Guangdong Province and Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) in China was investigated. Seventy-four food items were collected from these sites, divided into 9 food groups (freshwater fish, marine fish, shellfish, pork, poultry, chicken offal, egg, vegetables and cereals), and examined for residual PBDE concentrations. Out of all food items examined, the freshwater bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) contained extremely high (11,400±254 ng/g wet wt.) concentrations of PBDE, the highest concentrations amongst published data concerning PBDE detected in freshwater fish. Food consumption data obtained through semi-quantitative food intake questionnaires showed that Guiyu residents had a PBDE dietary intake of 931±772 ng/kg bw/day, of which BDE-47 (584 ng/kg bw/day) exceeded the US EPA's reference dose (100 ng/kg/day). Taizhou (44.7±26.3 ng/kg bw/day) and Lin'an (1.94±0.86 ng/kg bw/day) residents exhibited lower readings. The main dietary source of PBDEs in Guiyu and Taizhou residents was seafood (88-98%) and pork (41%) in Lin'an. The present results indicated that health risks arising from PBDE dietary exposure are of significance in terms of public health and food safety to local residents of e-waste processing sites.

  12. Dietary intake of PBDEs of residents at two major electronic waste recycling sites in China.

    PubMed

    Chan, J K Y; Man, Y B; Wu, S C; Wong, M H

    2013-10-01

    The dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) of local residents from 2 major electronic waste (e-waste) processing sites (Guiyu, Guangdong Province and Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) in China was investigated. Seventy-four food items were collected from these sites, divided into 9 food groups (freshwater fish, marine fish, shellfish, pork, poultry, chicken offal, egg, vegetables and cereals), and examined for residual PBDE concentrations. Out of all food items examined, the freshwater bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) contained extremely high (11,400±254 ng/g wet wt.) concentrations of PBDE, the highest concentrations amongst published data concerning PBDE detected in freshwater fish. Food consumption data obtained through semi-quantitative food intake questionnaires showed that Guiyu residents had a PBDE dietary intake of 931±772 ng/kg bw/day, of which BDE-47 (584 ng/kg bw/day) exceeded the US EPA's reference dose (100 ng/kg/day). Taizhou (44.7±26.3 ng/kg bw/day) and Lin'an (1.94±0.86 ng/kg bw/day) residents exhibited lower readings. The main dietary source of PBDEs in Guiyu and Taizhou residents was seafood (88-98%) and pork (41%) in Lin'an. The present results indicated that health risks arising from PBDE dietary exposure are of significance in terms of public health and food safety to local residents of e-waste processing sites. PMID:22819225

  13. Relationship between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury level in Korea.

    PubMed

    You, Chang-Hun; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Sang-Ah; Kim, Rock-Bum; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary factors for mercury exposure by comparing with blood mercury concentration. Study population consisted of 1,866 adults (839 men and 1,027 women) in randomly-selected 30 districts in southeast Korea. Dietary mercury intake was calculated from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on seafood items and 24 hr recall record. Blood mercury concentration was measured with atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean age of the subjects was 43.5 ± 14.6 yr. The FFQ showed that mercury-laden fish (tuna, shark) and frequently-eating fish (squid, belt fish, mackerel) were important in mercury intake from fish species. The recall record suggested that fish and shellfish was a highest group (63.1%) of mercury intake and had a wide distribution in the food groups. In comparison with the blood mercury concentration, age group, sex, household income, education, drinking status and coastal area were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, coefficient from the FFQ (β = 0.003) had greater effect on the blood mercury than the recall record (β = 0.002), but the effect was restricted (adjusted R(2) = 0.234). Further studies with more precise estimation of dietary mercury intake were required to evaluate the risk for mercury exposure by foods and assure risk communication with heavily-exposed group. PMID:24550642

  14. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults.

    PubMed

    Low, Julia Y Q; Lacy, Kathleen E; McBride, Robert; Keast, Russell S J

    2016-01-01

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants' (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23-0.40). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01). Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption. PMID:27120614

  15. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer among Finnish male smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hirvonen, T; Kontto, J; Jestoi, M; Valsta, L; Peltonen, K; Pietinen, P; Virtanen, SM; Sinkko, H; Kronberg-Kippilä, C; Albanes, D; Virtamo, J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer among male smokers. Methods The study consisted of 27,111 male smokers, aged 50–69 years, without history of cancer. They were participants of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study in Finland. The men completed a validated dietary questionnaire and a questionnaire on general background characteristics (including smoking habits) at baseline. Incident cases of cancer were identified through the national Finnish Cancer Registry. Results During an average 10.2 year follow-up 1703 lung cancers, 799 prostate cancers, 365 urothelial cancers, 316 colorectal cancers, 224 stomach cancers, 192 pancreatic cancers, 184 renal cell cancers, and 175 lymphomas were diagnosed. Dietary acrylamide intake was positively associated with the risk of lung cancer; relative risk (RR) in the highest vs. the lowest quintile in the multivariate-adjusted model was 1.18 ((95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.38, p for trend 0.11). Other cancers were not associated with acrylamide intake. Conclusions High acrylamide intake is associated with increased risk of lung cancer but not with other cancers in male smokers. PMID:20859673

  16. Assessing bisphenol A (BPA) exposure risk from long-term dietary intakes in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Shen, Yi-Pei; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is the major bisphenol A (BPA) exposure route in humans, and is a cause of BPA-related adverse effects. The large-scale exposure risk of humans to BPA through dietary sources in Taiwan is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the average daily dose (ADD) and hazardous quotient (HQ) of BPA exposure risk from long-term dietary intake of BPA, as well as BPA concentrations in different age-sex groups in Taiwan. We reanalyzed the BPA concentrations of regular daily food sources (rice, poultry, livestock, seafood, protein, fruits, and vegetables) and used a national dietary survey to estimate the contribution of variance to ADDs and potential human health effect for different age-sex groups. This study found that the daily consumption of chicken, pork/beef, and seafood were estimated to be 33.77 (Male)/22.65 (Female), 91.70 (M)/66.35 (F), and 54.15 (M)/40.78 (F) g/day, respectively. The highest BPA ADD was found in the 6-9 years age group (95% CI=0.0006-0.0027 mg/kg-bw/day), whereas the lowest BPA ADD was in the ≥65 years age group (0.0002-0.0020 mg/kg-bw/day). Based on the latest EFSA guidelines (0.004 mg/kg-bw/day), the 97.5 percentile HQ of BPA intake in different age-sex groups in Taiwan posed no risks through dietary intake. However, a combination of multiple exposure routes and long-term exposure in specific populations may be of concern in the future. PMID:26580736

  17. Assessing bisphenol A (BPA) exposure risk from long-term dietary intakes in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Shen, Yi-Pei; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is the major bisphenol A (BPA) exposure route in humans, and is a cause of BPA-related adverse effects. The large-scale exposure risk of humans to BPA through dietary sources in Taiwan is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the average daily dose (ADD) and hazardous quotient (HQ) of BPA exposure risk from long-term dietary intake of BPA, as well as BPA concentrations in different age-sex groups in Taiwan. We reanalyzed the BPA concentrations of regular daily food sources (rice, poultry, livestock, seafood, protein, fruits, and vegetables) and used a national dietary survey to estimate the contribution of variance to ADDs and potential human health effect for different age-sex groups. This study found that the daily consumption of chicken, pork/beef, and seafood were estimated to be 33.77 (Male)/22.65 (Female), 91.70 (M)/66.35 (F), and 54.15 (M)/40.78 (F) g/day, respectively. The highest BPA ADD was found in the 6-9 years age group (95% CI=0.0006-0.0027 mg/kg-bw/day), whereas the lowest BPA ADD was in the ≥65 years age group (0.0002-0.0020 mg/kg-bw/day). Based on the latest EFSA guidelines (0.004 mg/kg-bw/day), the 97.5 percentile HQ of BPA intake in different age-sex groups in Taiwan posed no risks through dietary intake. However, a combination of multiple exposure routes and long-term exposure in specific populations may be of concern in the future.

  18. Assessment of antioxidant nutrient intake of a population of southern US African-American and Caucasian women of various ages when compared to dietary reference intakes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S M; Mayhugh, M A; Freni, S C; Thorn, B; Cardoso, S; Buffington, C; Jairaj, K; Feuers, R J

    2003-01-01

    Antioxidant nutrient intervention strategies to ameliorate negative health factors are of notable research interest. Central to the thesis that antioxidant nutrients improve biological defense systems and provide health benefits is an accurate indication of daily antioxidant nutrient intake. Little information is available concerning these nutrient intakes among non-affluent women of the southern U.S. This study examines the 24-h intake of vitamins: A, E, C, -carotene, a-tocopherol, riboflavin, and minerals: zinc, selenium, copper, manganese, iron, and molybdenum among 259 Caucasian (CA) and African-American (AA) women from small urban communities. Women were non-pregnant females, 19-93 y of age. Statistical comparisons of nutrient intake were made by least squares means within age groups. Intakes were compared to various Dietary Reference Intakes including Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) and Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) values as established by the U.S. National Research Council. Numerous dietary deficiencies in important antioxidant nutrients associated with metabolic antioxidant systems were identified. Few race-related differences were detected. Intake of vitamin A was generally within recommended levels while vitamin E intake was below the EAR. The vitamin precursors, -carotene and a-tocopherol, were significantly (P<0.05) below customary intakes at all ages. More than 60% of this population reported dietary copper, zinc, and selenium intakes below recommended levels. A lack of race differences for most nutrient intakes suggests similar socioeconomic or endogeneous regional factors. All women in this population reported dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins and minerals below recommended values, conditions that could contribute to subsequent health risks unless nutrient-dense food choices and antioxidant supplementation are considered in their overall nutritional support. PMID:12679833

  19. Dietary assessment methods for intakes of iron, calcium, selenium, zinc and iodine.

    PubMed

    Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pfrimer, Karina; Doreste-Alonso, Jorge; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortiz-Andrellucchi, Adriana; Henríquez-Sánchez, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    The EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence is working towards developing aligned micronutrient recommendations across Europe. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a review of methods used in validation studies carried out in adults assessing dietary intake of EURRECA priority minerals. A search strategy and inclusion criteria were defined and a scoring system was developed to rate the quality of each validation study that produced a quality index with possible scores obtained ranging from 0.5 to 7. A MEDLINE and EMBASE literature review was conducted. Articles/validation studies meeting the inclusion criteria included: 79/88 for Fe; 95/104 for Ca; 13/15 for Se; 29/30 for Zn; 7/9 for iodine. The most frequently used method to ascertain dietary intake was the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), whereas dietary records (DR) and 24 h recalls were the most used reference methods. The correlation coefficients (CC) between study mineral intakes estimated by FFQ and the reference method were weighted according to the study's quality index and obtained acceptable to good ratings, ranging from 0.36 to 0.60 when the reference method was DR and from 0.41 to 0.58 when the reference was 24 h recalls. A minority of studies (n 9) used biomarkers for validation and among these, five included iodine obtaining a CC of 0.47. The FFQ was seen as a valid method for assessing mineral intake, particularly for Ca and, to a lower extent, for iodine and Zn. Se and Fe showed only acceptable correlations. The present review provides new insights regarding the characteristics that assessment methods for dietary mineral intakes should fulfil.

  20. Dietary intake of fish and PUFA, and clinical depressive and anxiety disorders in women.

    PubMed

    Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A; Williams, Lana J; Meyer, Barbara J; Digger, Rebecca; Berk, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Fish and PUFA consumption are thought to play a role in mental health; however, many studies do not take into account multiple sources of PUFA. The present study analysed data from a sample of 935 randomly selected, population-based women aged 20–93 years. A validated and comprehensive dietary questionnaire ascertained the consumption of n-3 and n-6 PUFA. Another assessed fish and energy intake and provided data for a dietary quality score. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) measured psychological symptoms and a clinical interview (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Research Version, Non-patient edition) assessed depressive and anxiety disorders. Median dietary intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids (310 mg/d) were below suggested dietary target levels. The only PUFA related to categorical depressive and anxiety disorders was DHA. There was a non-linear relationship between DHA intake and depression; those in the second tertile of DHA intake were nearly 70% less likely to report a current depressive disorder compared to those in the first tertile. The relationship of DHA to anxiety disorders was linear; for those in the highest tertile of DHA intake, the odds for anxiety disorders were reduced by nearly 50% after adjustments, including adjustment for diet quality scores, compared to the lowest tertile. Those who ate fish less than once per week had higher GHQ-12 scores, and this relationship was particularly obvious in smokers. These are the first observational data to indicate a role for DHA in anxiety disorders, but suggest that the relationship between DHA and depressive disorders may be non-linear.

  1. Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ros, Emilio; Covas, Maribel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Babio, Nancy; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The relation between dietary magnesium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mortality was evaluated in several prospective studies, but few of them have assessed the risk of all-cause mortality, which has never been evaluated in Mediterranean adults at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the association between magnesium intake and CVD and mortality risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk with high average magnesium intake. The present study included 7216 men and women aged 55-80 y from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized clinical trial. Participants were assigned to 1 of 2 Mediterranean diets (supplemented with nuts or olive oil) or to a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the National Death Index and medical records. We fitted multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions to assess associations between baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of magnesium intake and relative risk of CVD and mortality. Multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations between yearly repeated measurements of magnesium intake and mortality. After a median follow-up of 4.8 y, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths, 130 cancer deaths, and 277 cardiovascular events occurred. Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Compared with lower consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P < 0.01). Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean individuals at high risk of CVD. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639. PMID:24259558

  2. Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ros, Emilio; Covas, Maribel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Babio, Nancy; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The relation between dietary magnesium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mortality was evaluated in several prospective studies, but few of them have assessed the risk of all-cause mortality, which has never been evaluated in Mediterranean adults at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the association between magnesium intake and CVD and mortality risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk with high average magnesium intake. The present study included 7216 men and women aged 55-80 y from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized clinical trial. Participants were assigned to 1 of 2 Mediterranean diets (supplemented with nuts or olive oil) or to a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the National Death Index and medical records. We fitted multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions to assess associations between baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of magnesium intake and relative risk of CVD and mortality. Multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations between yearly repeated measurements of magnesium intake and mortality. After a median follow-up of 4.8 y, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths, 130 cancer deaths, and 277 cardiovascular events occurred. Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Compared with lower consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P < 0.01). Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean individuals at high risk of CVD. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.

  3. Nutrition and pregnancy: the link between dietary intake and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Lois

    2004-08-01

    Pregnancy is a time when serial metabolic changes in the mother are carefully regulated to provide optimum substrate to both mother and fetus. Subtle perturbations in maternal metabolism can have implications not only for the index pregnancy, but also for future generations. The literature provides evidence that maternal nutrition plays a major role in the destiny of the offspring. Both maternal malnutrition and overnutrition are associated with subsequent diabetes in the offspring. Pregnancy represents a window of opportunity for health care providers to change dietary patterns toward habits that will be healthier for the individual now, as well as impacting on the future. The challenge for clinicians is to provide nutritional information based on scientific evidence that facilitates the normalization of fetal nutrition, and thus minimize the risk that the child will develop diabetes.

  4. The Insufficiency Intake of Dietary Micronutrients Associated with Malnutrition-Inflammation Score in Hemodialysis Population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Long; Yuan, Zhimin; Chen, Jianping; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The relations between dietary micronutrient, nutritional status and inflammation in hemodialysis patients are still unclear. A cross-sectional study was performed in hemodialysis population. 75 hemodialysis patients from South China participated in the dietary and nutritional assessment. Clinical and dietary data were collected. Nutritional status was assessed by Malnutrition-Inflammation Score (MIS) in addition to related anthropometric measurements. And according to the MIS score, the whole hemodialysis patients were divided into normal nutrition group and malnutrition group. The results showed that mid arm circumference (MAC) negatively correlated with MIS (r = −0.425; P = 0.002). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for MAC was 0.737 (0.614–0.859). Comparing with the normal nutritional group, lower dietary selenium (Se), copper (Cu), iodine (I) and manganese (Mn) intake were observed among patients with malnutrition (P<0.05). While no significant differences of diverse vitamins were found. In conclusion, MAC was effective indicator for assessing nutritional and inflammatory status (P<0.05). The reduction of dietary Se, Cu, I and Mn intake level may be alarming markers for malnutrition and inflammatory status in hemodialysis patients. PMID:23825573

  5. Correlation between dietary zinc intakes and its serum levels with depression scales in young female students.

    PubMed

    Amani, Reza; Saeidi, Somaye; Nazari, Zahra; Nematpour, Sorour

    2010-11-01

    It has been suggested that mood disorders and depressive status may be accompanied by lowered zinc status in the body, and adequate consumption of zinc increases a general perceived well-being. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc concentrations and dietary zinc intakes with depression scores in university female students. In the first phase, Beck's depression questionnaire was applied in a random sampling of 308 selected 20-25-year-old female students (one third of total students in Ahvaz Jondi-Shapour University of Medical Sciences Golestan dormitories) to assess the major depressive disorder (MDD) scales. Then, in the second phase, 23 students who identified as having moderate and severe depression were selected as the case group, and 23 healthy age matched were chosen as the controls. Each of them completed a 12-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire containing the main food sources of zinc in the usual dietary patterns and also a 24-h food recall questionnaire to assure the daily zinc intakes. Daily zinc intakes were obtained by multiplying each portion size by its zinc content using food tables. A 5-ml blood sample was taken for further serum zinc status using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. Pearson's r was used to show the correlation between quantitative variables. Both daily zinc intake and serum zinc concentrations of MDD group were about two thirds of healthy index (p < 0.01). Depressed individuals used to eat lower servings of red meats and chicken as the main food sources of zinc in students' usual diets (p < 0.001). Consumption of other foods as the sources of zinc was not significantly different in two groups. A linear significant correlation between dietary zinc intakes and its serum levels was seen in samples (r = 0.62; p < 0.001) and MDD students (r = 0.55; p < 0.001). There was a linear inverse correlation between Beck questionnaire scores and serum zinc concentrations

  6. Associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between biochemical iron and zinc status in women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen; Booth, Alison; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Gibson, Rosalind S; Bailey, Karl B; Irving, David; Nowson, Caryl; Riddell, Lynn

    2015-04-20

    Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1) describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2) investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3) investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18-50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379). Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection), and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326). Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD) iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5) mg/day and 9.3 (3.8) mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range) serum ferritin was 22 (12-38) μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD) were 12.6 (1.7) μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0) μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L) were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340). Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort.

  7. Body composition and dietary intake in neoplasic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Gartenhaus, W.; Vartsky, D.; Sawitsky, A.; Zanzi, I.; Vaswani, A. Yasummure, S.; Rai, K.; Cartes, E.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-10-01

    Changes in body composition in 37 cancer patients were studied over a period of 6 months. Initially, the patients were divided into two groups: those who lost body weight (over 10%) and those who maintained or gained body weight before the study. Analysis of body composition indicated that patients who lost body weight has caloric and protein intakes markedly below ''normal'' levels at the beginning of the study. There also appears to be a direct relationship between the protein intake and the total body potassium/total body water ratio in the cancer patients. At the end of the 6-month study, the patients were again placed into two groups on the basis of weight loss or gain (and maintenance). Changes in body composition over the period were analyzed in terms of lean body mass, its protein constituent, water, and fat. Weight loss was found to reflect primarily the loss of fat, water, lean body mass (potassium), and only to a minor extent the protein component of lean body mass (nitrogen). Further, on the basis of the values of the ratios of total body nitrogen/total body potassium/total body water, it was possible to ascertain the relative normalcy of the body tissue gained or lost in the 6-month period. The results of the study suggest that the ratio total body nitrogen/total body potassium may serve as the best indicator of recent or ongoing catabolism or anabolism of the neoplastic process. By means of the application of the techniques used for the determination of body composition, it should be possible to assess regimes of hyperalimentation of cancer patients who lose body weight. (JMT)

  8. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-06-12

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES ("Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain") study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9-75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13-17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9-12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18-64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65-75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  9. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  10. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet. PMID:26076230

  11. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  12. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a “canned fraction” parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  13. Association between Dietary Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Postmenopausal Women: The Yokogoshi Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Harumi; Kitamura, Kaori; Saito, Toshiko; Kobayashi, Ryosaku; Iwasaki, Masanori; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Watanabe, Yumi; Oshiki, Rieko; Nishiwaki, Tomoko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Diet and food intake play an important role in the development of osteoporosis. However, apart from calcium and vitamin D, how nutrients affect bone status is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between dietary intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in Japanese postmenopausal women. This 5-year cohort study included 600 community-dwelling women aged 55-74 years at baseline in 2005. Information on demographics, nutrition, and lifestyle was obtained through interviews, and nutritional and dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. BMD measurements were performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. In 2010, 498 women underwent follow-up BMD examinations. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine associations of predictor variables with BMD, adjusting for confounders. In cross-sectional analyses, coffee or black tea consumption was positively associated with lumbar spine (P = 0.004) and total hip (P = 0.003) BMD, and alcohol intake was positively associated with femoral neck (P = 0.005) and total hip (P = 0.001) BMD. In longitudinal analyses, vitamin K (P = 0.028) and natto (fermented soybeans) (P = 0.023) were positively associated with lumbar spine BMD, and meat or meat product consumption was inversely associated with total hip (P = 0.047) BMD. In conclusion, dietary factors other than calcium and vitamin D intake are predictors of bone mass and bone loss in Japanese postmenopausal women. In particular, natto intake is recommended for preventing postmenopausal bone loss on the basis of current evidence.

  14. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion and dietary intake: a cross-sectional analysis in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Padrão, Patrícia; Pinho, Olívia; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the leading cause for heart disease and stroke, for mortality and morbidity worldwide, and a high sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is considered a stronger risk factor for hypertension than sodium alone. Objective This study aims to evaluate sodium and potassium urinary excretion, and assess the food sources of these nutrients in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Design A cross-sectional study with a sample of 250 Portuguese adolescents. Sodium and potassium excretion were measured by one 24-h urinary collection, and the coefficient of creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. Dietary sources of sodium and potassium were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Results Valid urine collections were provided by 200 adolescents (118 girls) with a median age of 14.0 in both sexes (p=0.295). Regarding sodium, the mean urinary excretion was 3,725 mg/day in boys and 3,062 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 9.8% of boys and 22% of girls met the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for sodium intake. Concerning potassium, the mean urinary excretion was 2,237 mg/day in boys and 1,904 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 6.1% of boys and 1.7% of girls met the WHO recommendations for potassium intake. Major dietary sources for sodium intake were cereal and cereal products (41%), meat products (16%), and milk and milk products (11%); and for potassium intake, main sources were milk and milk products (21%), meat products (17%), and vegetables (15%). Conclusions Adolescents had a high-sodium and low-potassium diet, well above the WHO recommendations. Health promotion interventions are needed in order to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake. PMID:27072344

  15. Dietary Intake of Athletes Seeking Nutrition Advice at a Major International Competition

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Sarah J.; Pelly, Fiona E.

    2016-01-01

    International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete’s competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk. Analysis of dietary intake was conducted with FoodWorks (Xyris Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Australia). Overall, athletes reported consuming a median total daily energy intake of 8674 kJ (range 2384–18,009 kJ), with carbohydrate within the range of 1.0–9.0 g per kg of bodyweight (g/kg) (median = 3.8) and contributing to 50% total energy (TE) (range 14%–79%). Protein and fat intake ranged from 0.3–4.0 g/kg (median = 1.7) to 10–138 g (median = 67 g), and contributed to 21% TE (range 8%–48%) and 24% TE (range 8%–44%), respectively. Athletes reported consuming between 4 and 29 different food items (median = 15) in the previous 24 h period, with predominately discretionary, grains/cereals, meats, poultry, fish, eggs, and meat alternative items. This suggests that dairy, fruit, and vegetable intake may be suboptimal and intake of the micronutrients iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins A and C may be of concern for a number of athletes. PMID:27754418

  16. Female dietary antioxidant intake and time to pregnancy among couples treated for unexplained infertility

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Reindollar, Richard H.; Goldman, Marlene B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether increased antioxidant intake in women is associated with shorter time to pregnancy (TTP) among a cohort of couples being treated for unexplained infertility. Design Secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Setting Academic medical center associated with a private infertility center. Patients Females with unexplained infertility. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure(s) The time it took to establish a pregnancy that led to a live birth. Results Mean nutrient intake exceeded the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins C and E. No differences in mean intake of any of the antioxidants were noted between women who delivered a live-born infant during the study period versus those who did not. In multivariable models, intake of ß-carotene from dietary supplements was associated with shorter TTP among women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (HR= 1.29, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.53) and women < 35 y (HR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.41). Intake of vitamin C from dietary supplements was associated with shorter TTP among women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 (HR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.15) and women < 35 y (HR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.18). Intake of vitamin E from dietary supplements among women ≥ 35 y was also associated with shorter TTP (HR=1.07, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.13). Conclusions Shorter TTP was observed among women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 with increasing vitamin C, women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 with increasing β-carotene, women < 35 y with increasing β-carotene and vitamin C, and women ≥ 35y with increasing vitamin E. PMID:24355050

  17. Association between Dietary Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Postmenopausal Women: The Yokogoshi Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Harumi; Kitamura, Kaori; Saito, Toshiko; Kobayashi, Ryosaku; Iwasaki, Masanori; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Watanabe, Yumi; Oshiki, Rieko; Nishiwaki, Tomoko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Diet and food intake play an important role in the development of osteoporosis. However, apart from calcium and vitamin D, how nutrients affect bone status is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between dietary intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in Japanese postmenopausal women. This 5-year cohort study included 600 community-dwelling women aged 55-74 years at baseline in 2005. Information on demographics, nutrition, and lifestyle was obtained through interviews, and nutritional and dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. BMD measurements were performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. In 2010, 498 women underwent follow-up BMD examinations. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine associations of predictor variables with BMD, adjusting for confounders. In cross-sectional analyses, coffee or black tea consumption was positively associated with lumbar spine (P = 0.004) and total hip (P = 0.003) BMD, and alcohol intake was positively associated with femoral neck (P = 0.005) and total hip (P = 0.001) BMD. In longitudinal analyses, vitamin K (P = 0.028) and natto (fermented soybeans) (P = 0.023) were positively associated with lumbar spine BMD, and meat or meat product consumption was inversely associated with total hip (P = 0.047) BMD. In conclusion, dietary factors other than calcium and vitamin D intake are predictors of bone mass and bone loss in Japanese postmenopausal women. In particular, natto intake is recommended for preventing postmenopausal bone loss on the basis of current evidence. PMID:27238552

  18. Self-reported dietary intake of youth with recent onset of type 2 diabetes: results from the TODAY study.

    PubMed

    Delahanty, Linda; Kriska, Andrea; Edelstein, Sharon; Amodei, Nancy; Chadwick, Jennifer; Copeland, Kenneth; Galvin, Bryan; El Ghormli, Laure; Haymond, Morey; Kelsey, Megan M; Lassiter, Chad; Milaszewski, Kerry; Syme, Amy; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Despite the widely recognized importance of diet in managing diabetes, few studies have documented usual dietary intake in young people with type 2 diabetes. The objectives of our study were to assess dietary intake among a large, ethnically diverse cohort of young people with type 2 diabetes and compare intake to current recommendations. The Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study is a multicenter randomized clinical trial of 699 youth aged 10 to 17 years. At baseline, following a run-in period that included standard diabetes education, diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire between 2004 and 2009. Analysis of variance and nonparametric tests were used to compare mean and median nutrient intakes; logistic regression was used to compare the odds of meeting predefined dietary intake recommendation cutpoints between subgroups of age, sex, and race-ethnicity. Percent of energy from saturated fat was consistently 13% to 14% across all subgroups-substantially exceeding national recommendations. Overall, only 12% of youth met Healthy People 2010 guidelines for intake of <10% of energy from saturated fat and only 1% of youth met American Diabetes Association recommendations for intake of <7% of energy from saturated fat. Dietary intake fell substantially below other Healthy People 2010 targets; only 3% met calcium intake goals, 11% met fruit consumption goals, 5% met vegetable consumption goals, and 67% met grain intake goals. Overall, dietary intake in this large cohort of young people with type 2 diabetes fell substantially short of recommendations, in ways that were consistent by sex, age, and race-ethnicity. The data suggest a critical need for better approaches to improve dietary intake of these young people.

  19. Self-reported dietary intake of youth with recent onset of type 2 diabetes: results from the TODAY study.

    PubMed

    Delahanty, Linda; Kriska, Andrea; Edelstein, Sharon; Amodei, Nancy; Chadwick, Jennifer; Copeland, Kenneth; Galvin, Bryan; El Ghormli, Laure; Haymond, Morey; Kelsey, Megan M; Lassiter, Chad; Milaszewski, Kerry; Syme, Amy; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Despite the widely recognized importance of diet in managing diabetes, few studies have documented usual dietary intake in young people with type 2 diabetes. The objectives of our study were to assess dietary intake among a large, ethnically diverse cohort of young people with type 2 diabetes and compare intake to current recommendations. The Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study is a multicenter randomized clinical trial of 699 youth aged 10 to 17 years. At baseline, following a run-in period that included standard diabetes education, diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire between 2004 and 2009. Analysis of variance and nonparametric tests were used to compare mean and median nutrient intakes; logistic regression was used to compare the odds of meeting predefined dietary intake recommendation cutpoints between subgroups of age, sex, and race-ethnicity. Percent of energy from saturated fat was consistently 13% to 14% across all subgroups-substantially exceeding national recommendations. Overall, only 12% of youth met Healthy People 2010 guidelines for intake of <10% of energy from saturated fat and only 1% of youth met American Diabetes Association recommendations for intake of <7% of energy from saturated fat. Dietary intake fell substantially below other Healthy People 2010 targets; only 3% met calcium intake goals, 11% met fruit consumption goals, 5% met vegetable consumption goals, and 67% met grain intake goals. Overall, dietary intake in this large cohort of young people with type 2 diabetes fell substantially short of recommendations, in ways that were consistent by sex, age, and race-ethnicity. The data suggest a critical need for better approaches to improve dietary intake of these young people. PMID:23438494

  20. Dietary intake of barium, bismuth, chromium, lithium, and strontium in a Spanish population (Canary Islands, Spain).

    PubMed

    González-Weller, Dailos; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Ángel José; González, Gara Luis; Caballero Mesa, José María; Revert Gironés, Consuelo; Burgos Ojeda, Antonio; Hardisson, Arturo

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze barium, bismuth, chromium, lithium, and strontium contents in food and beverages consumed by the population of the Canary Islands (Spain) as well as determine dietary intake of these metals in the archipelago as a whole and in its individual islands. To this end, 440 samples were analyzed by ICP-OES and GFAAS. Barium concentrations ranged from 5.210 ± 2.117 mg/kg in nuts to 0.035 ± 0.043 mg/L in water. Viscera exhibited the highest levels of bismuth (38.07 ± 36.80 mg/kg). The cold meat and sausages group stood out for its high chromium concentrations (0.494 ± 0.257 mg/kg). The highest concentration of lithium and strontium came out in nuts (8.761 ± 5.368 mg/kg and 9.759 ± 5.181 mg/kg, respectively). The total intakes of barium, bismuth, chromium, lithium, and strontium were 0.685, 1.274, 0.087, 3.674, and 1.923 mg/day, respectively. Cereals turned out to contribute most to the dietary intake of barium, bismuth, chromium, and lithium in the Canary Islands, while fruit contributes most to the strontium intake. We also performed a metal intake study by age and sex of the population and compared the outcome with data from other regions, both national and international.

  1. Effect of Ramadan fasting on metabolic markers, dietary intake and abdominal fat distribution in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gur, EB; Turan, GA; Ince, O; Karadeniz, M; Tatar, S; Kasap, E; Sahin, N; Guclu, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on metabolic markers, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and abdominal visceral fat thickness (VFT) in pregnancy. Methods: Seventy-eight healthy pregnant subjects who had fasted for at least 15 days during the month of Ramadan in 2012 and 2013 and 78 controls were included in this study. Metabolic markers, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and ultrasonographic VFT were calculated for each subject before and after Ramadan fasting. Results: When before and after Ramadan values in the fasting group were compared, we found that daily protein intake was increased (p <0.001), but fat and carbohydrate intake remained unchanged. A significant reduction was observed in liquid consumption while the frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria was increased. High-density lipoprotein significantly increased, and glycated hemoglobin, insulin, and homeostasis model index significantly decreased (p =0.005, p =0.01, p <0.001, and p =0.03, respectively). A significant increase in ferritin was found (p =0.02). No change was observed in subcutaneous fat thickness, while VFT significantly decreased (p =0.08, p =0.005). However, in the control group, only ferritin level increased. Conclusion: A combined change in the number and timing of meals and the portioning of the entire daily intake into only two meals per day may have beneficial metabolic effects and reduction in VFT during pregnancy. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 298-303. PMID:27688692

  2. Importance of a canteen lunch on the dietary intake of acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Mestdagh, Frédéric; Lachat, Carl; Baert, Katleen; Moons, Emmanuelle; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2007-05-01

    A food and drink intake survey was carried out among university students and staff members. Consumption data were collected on days when the participants took hot lunch in a university canteen. The dietary acrylamide exposure was calculated through a probabilistic approach and revealed a median intake of 0.40 microg/kg bw/day [90% confidence interval: 0.36-0.44], which is in accordance with previous exposure calculations. Biscuits (35.4%), French fries (29.9%), bread (23.5%), and chocolate (11.2%) were identified to be the main sources of dietary acrylamide. Foodstuffs consumed in between the three main meals of the day (so called snack type foods) contributed the most to the intake (42.2%). The exposure was lower in an intervention group which received free portions of fruit and vegetables, indicating that a nutritionally balanced diet may contribute to a decreased acrylamide intake. French fries had a significant impact on the acrylamide intake, due to the frequent consumption in the canteen. This demonstrates the important responsibility of caterers and canteen kitchens in the mitigation of acrylamide exposure through reduction of acrylamide in their prepared products, in particular in French fries. PMID:17440997

  3. Dietary intakes and nutrient status of vegetarian preschool children from a British national survey.

    PubMed

    Thane, C.W.; Bates, C.J.

    2000-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary intakes and nutrient status were compared in meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of children aged 1.5-4.5 years. METHODS: Children (n = 1351) were categorized as 'omnivores' or 'vegetarians', according to whether they consumed meat or meat products during a 4-day dietary record. Blood samples were also obtained for analysis of haematological and biochemical nutrient status. RESULTS: Three per cent of children were 'vegetarian'. They consumed higher proportions of milk and milk products, although this was significant only in older children (P = 0.007), owing to high consumption by the high proportion of Asian children. In vegetarians, energy intakes tended to be lower in both age groups. Percentage energy from protein and fat were lower, while that from carbohydrate was higher compared with omnivores. Cholesterol intakes were lower, significantly so for younger children (P < 0.001). Intakes of micronutrients were either higher (vitamins C and E, potassium) or lower (niacin and sodium) in younger vegetarians compared with omnivores. Energy-adjusted intakes of iron and zinc did not differ significantly from those of omnivores, although both intakes were low in many children (6-20% < LRNI), particularly in the younger group. Haematological and biochemical nutrient status indices showed few differences. Serum ferritin was lower in vegetarians, significantly so in younger children (P = 0.002). Antioxidant vitamin (A, C and E) status tended to be higher in vegetarians, while vitamin B12 intakes and status were more than adequate. Apart from poorer vitamin D intake and status in older Asian vegetarians, very few ethnic differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrient intakes and status were generally adequate in preschool children who did not eat meat. Although serum ferritin levels were inferior (particularly in vegetarians under 3 years old), the lower intakes of fat, cholesterol and sodium, and higher

  4. Dietary nutrient intake and major food sources: the Nutrition and Health Survey of Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shin-Jiuan; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate nutrient intake and their dietary sources in Taiwanese children ages 6-12 years by analyzing the 24-hour recall data of 2386 participants from a nationally representative sample. Results showed that children in Taiwan were slightly lower in mean proportion of energy intake from carbohydrates (53.5% of energy intake) and higher in those from fats (30.8%) and protein (15.8%) as based on the recommendations of Department of Health in Taiwan. The mean intake of vitamins and of minerals by children was equivalent to or exceeded Daily Reference Intake of Taiwan (DRI) or other recommended standards with the exception of a seriously insufficient calcium intake and extremely high sodium intake. A substantial proportion of children in different age/gender/location strata had lower mean vitamin and mineral intake by DRI and other recommended standards. These nutrient profiles were mainly related to dietary patterns with relatively low intake of fruits, vegetables, cereals/grains, and dairy products, but high intake of the protein-rich foods, salt/sauces, and fats/oils. According to the suboptimal dietary nutrient profiles of Taiwanese children, particularly in the underprivileged areas, recommendations are made in this article for policy makers and health practitioners to consider in order to improve dietary quality of elementary school children. PMID:17723992

  5. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    PubMed

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-14

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of <10%EFS. The mean AS intake of the participants was 60·3 (SD 52·6) g/d. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for the greatest proportion of the AS intake of the Australian population (21·4 (sd 30·1)%), followed by sugar and sweet spreads (16·3 (SD 24·5)%) and cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4)%). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90% of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods.

  6. Dietary flavonoid intakes and CVD incidence in the Framingham Offspring Cohort.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Paul F; Cassidy, Aedin; Rogers, Gail; Peterson, Julia J; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2015-11-14

    This study examines the relationship between long-term intake of six flavonoid classes and incidence of CVD and CHD, using a comprehensive flavonoid database and repeated measures of intake, while accounting for possible confounding by components of a healthy dietary pattern. Flavonoid intakes were assessed using a FFQ among the Framingham Offspring Cohort at baseline and three times during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to characterise prospective associations between the natural logarithms of flavonoid intakes and CVD incidence using a time-dependent approach, in which intake data were updated at each examination to represent average intakes from previous examinations. Mean baseline age was 54 years, and 45 % of the population was male. Over an average 14·9 years of follow-up among 2880 participants, there were 518 CVD events and 261 CHD events. After multivariable adjustment, only flavonol intake was significantly associated with lower risk of CVD incidence (hazard ratios (HR) per 2·5-fold flavonol increase=0·86, P trend=0·05). Additional adjustment for total fruit and vegetable intake and overall diet quality attenuated this observation (HR=0·89, P trend=0·20 and HR=0·92, P trend=0·33, respectively). There were no significant associations between flavonoids and CHD incidence after multivariable adjustment. Our findings suggest that the observed association between flavonol intake and CVD risk may be a consequence of better overall diet. However, the strength of this non-significant association was also consistent with relative risks observed in previous meta-analyses, and therefore a modest benefit of flavonol intake on CVD risk cannot be ruled out.

  7. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    PubMed

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-14

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of <10%EFS. The mean AS intake of the participants was 60·3 (SD 52·6) g/d. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for the greatest proportion of the AS intake of the Australian population (21·4 (sd 30·1)%), followed by sugar and sweet spreads (16·3 (SD 24·5)%) and cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4)%). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90% of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. PMID:26794833

  8. The Oslo Health Study: a Dietary Index estimating high intake of soft drinks and low intake of fruits and vegetables was positively associated with components of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn

    2010-12-01

    A previous finding that soft drink intake is associated with increased serum triglycerides and decreased high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, both components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), raises the question of whether other aspects of an unhealthy diet might be associated with MetS. Main MetS requirements are central obesity and 2 of the following: increased triglycerides, low HDL, increased systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and elevated fasting blood glucose. Of the 18 770 participants in the Oslo Health Study, there were 13 170 respondents (5997 men and 7173 women) with data on MetS factors (except fasting glucose) and on the components used to determine the Dietary Index score (calculated as the intake estimate of soft drinks divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables). MetSRisk was calculated as the sum of arbitrarily weighted factors positively associated with MetS divided by HDL cholesterol. Using regression analyses, the association of the Dietary Index with MetSRisk, with the number of MetS requirements present, and with the complete MetS was studied. In young, middle-aged, and senior men and women, there was, in general, a positive association (p < 0.001) between the Dietary Index and the MetS estimates, which persisted in regression models adjusted for sex, age, time since the last meal, intake of cheese, intake of fatty fish, intake of coffee, intake of alcohol, smoking, physical activity, education, and birthplace. Thus, an index reflecting a high intake of soft drinks and a low intake of fruit and vegetables was positively and independently associated with aspects of MetS.

  9. The effect of dietary intake changes on nutritional status in acute leukaemia patients after first induction chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Malihi, Z; Kandiah, M; Chan, Y M; Esfandbod, M; Vakili, M; Hosseinzadeh, M; Zarif Yeganeh, M

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate how changes in dietary intake among acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukaemia (ALL and AML) patients affect nutritional status after the first induction chemotherapy. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h recall and a 136-item food frequency questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by Patients Subjective Global Assessment questionnaire before starting induction therapy and again after 1 month. All newly diagnosed acute leukaemia patients aged 15 years old and older who attended three referral hospitals for initiation of their induction chemotherapy were included in the sample selection provided that they gave informed consent. A total of 30 AML and 33 ALL patients participated in the study. Dietary intake and nutritional status worsened after the chemotherapy treatment. Dietary intake in terms of macronutrients, micronutrients, food variety and diet diversity score changed significantly after the induction chemotherapy. No significant relationship was found between the changes in dietary indices and nutritional status. Chemotherapy-related side effects as an additional factor to cancer itself could affect dietary intake of leukaemia patients. The effectiveness of an early assessment of nutritional status and dietary intake should be further investigated in order to deter further deterioration.

  10. Is the relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic health in adolescents independent of dietary intake? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, E; Leech, R; McNaughton, S A; Dunstan, D W; Lacy, K E; Salmon, J

    2015-09-01

    Screen time, but not overall sedentary behaviour, is consistently related to cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Because of the associations screen time has with dietary intake, diet may be an important factor in the screen time and health relationship; however, evidence has not previously been synthesized. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore whether the associations between various sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk markers are independent of dietary intake in adolescents. Online databases and personal libraries were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published in English before March 2014. Included studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic markers in 12- to 18-year-olds and adjusted for dietary intake. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. From the 21 studies examining sedentary behaviour and adiposity, the majority found significant positive associations between television viewing, screen time and self-reported overall sedentary behaviour with markers of adiposity, independent of dietary intake. No significant associations between screen time with blood pressure and cholesterol were reported. Sedentary behaviour appears to be associated with adiposity in adolescents, irrespective of dietary intake. However, the variability of dietary variables between studies suggests further work is needed to understand the role of dietary intake when examining these associations in youth.

  11. Is the relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic health in adolescents independent of dietary intake? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, E; Leech, R; McNaughton, S A; Dunstan, D W; Lacy, K E; Salmon, J

    2015-09-01

    Screen time, but not overall sedentary behaviour, is consistently related to cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Because of the associations screen time has with dietary intake, diet may be an important factor in the screen time and health relationship; however, evidence has not previously been synthesized. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore whether the associations between various sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk markers are independent of dietary intake in adolescents. Online databases and personal libraries were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published in English before March 2014. Included studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic markers in 12- to 18-year-olds and adjusted for dietary intake. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. From the 21 studies examining sedentary behaviour and adiposity, the majority found significant positive associations between television viewing, screen time and self-reported overall sedentary behaviour with markers of adiposity, independent of dietary intake. No significant associations between screen time with blood pressure and cholesterol were reported. Sedentary behaviour appears to be associated with adiposity in adolescents, irrespective of dietary intake. However, the variability of dietary variables between studies suggests further work is needed to understand the role of dietary intake when examining these associations in youth. PMID:26098509

  12. Is the relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic health in adolescents independent of dietary intake? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, E; Leech, R; McNaughton, S A; Dunstan, D W; Lacy, K E; Salmon, J

    2015-01-01

    Screen time, but not overall sedentary behaviour, is consistently related to cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Because of the associations screen time has with dietary intake, diet may be an important factor in the screen time and health relationship; however, evidence has not previously been synthesized. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore whether the associations between various sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk markers are independent of dietary intake in adolescents. Online databases and personal libraries were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published in English before March 2014. Included studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic markers in 12- to 18-year-olds and adjusted for dietary intake. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. From the 21 studies examining sedentary behaviour and adiposity, the majority found significant positive associations between television viewing, screen time and self-reported overall sedentary behaviour with markers of adiposity, independent of dietary intake. No significant associations between screen time with blood pressure and cholesterol were reported. Sedentary behaviour appears to be associated with adiposity in adolescents, irrespective of dietary intake. However, the variability of dietary variables between studies suggests further work is needed to understand the role of dietary intake when examining these associations in youth. PMID:26098509

  13. Role of dietary salt and potassium intake in cardiovascular health and disease: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Aaron, Kristal J; Sanders, Paul W

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this review was to provide a synthesis of the evidence on the effect of dietary salt and potassium intake on population blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Dietary guidelines and recommendations are outlined, current controversies regarding the evidence are discussed, and recommendations are made on the basis of the evidence. Designed search strategies were used to search various databases for available studies. Randomized trials of the effect of dietary salt intake reduction or increased potassium intake on blood pressure, target organ damage, cardiovascular disease, and mortality were included. Fifty-two publications from January 1, 1990, to January 31, 2013, were identified for inclusion. Consideration was given to variations in the search terms used and the spelling of terms so that studies were not overlooked, and search terms took the following general form: (dietary salt or dietary sodium or [synonyms]) and (dietary potassium or [synonyms]) and (blood pressure or hypertension or vascular disease or heart disease or chronic kidney disease or stroke or mortality or [synonyms]). Evidence from these studies demonstrates that high salt intake not only increases blood pressure but also plays a role in endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular structure and function, albuminuria and kidney disease progression, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. Conversely, dietary potassium intake attenuates these effects, showing a linkage to reduction in stroke rates and cardiovascular disease risk. Various subpopulations, such as overweight and obese individuals and aging adults, exhibit greater sensitivity to the effects of reduced salt intake and may gain the most benefits. A diet that includes modest salt restriction while increasing potassium intake serves as a strategy to prevent or control hypertension and decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus, the body of evidence supports population

  14. Relative Validity of Three Food Frequency Questionnaires for Assessing Dietary Intakes of Guatemalan Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Marcinkevage, Jessica; Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Zuleta, Clara; DiGirolamo, Ann M.; Stein, Aryeh D.; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relative validity of three food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) compared with results from 24-hour dietary recalls for measuring dietary intakes in Guatemalan schoolchildren. Design A cross-sectional study of primary caregivers (mothers or grandmothers) of 6–11 year-old children. Caregivers completed one of three constructed FFQs to measure the child’s dietary consumption in the last week: FFQ1 did not incorporate portion sizes; FFQ2 provided portion sizes; and FFQ3 incorporated pictures of median portion sizes. During the same week, each caregiver also completed three 24-hour dietary recalls. Results from the FFQ were compared with corresponding results from the 24-hour dietary recalls. Setting Santa Catarina Pinula, peri-urban Guatemala City. Subjects Caregivers (n = 145) of 6–11 year-old children: 46 completed FFQ1, 49 completed FFQ2, and 50 completed FFQ3. Results The mean values for all nutrients obtained from the 24-hour dietary recall were lower than for those obtained from the FFQs, excluding folic acid in FFQ3, cholesterol and zinc in FFQ2, and cholesterol, folic acid, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and zinc in FFQ1. Energy-adjusted Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.07 (protein) to 0.54 (cholesterol) for FFQ1 and from 0.05 to 0.74 for FFQ2 and FFQ3. Agreement by both methods (FFQ and 24-hour dietary recalls) of classifying children into the same or adjacent quartiles of energy-adjusted nutrient consumption ranged from 62.0% for cholesterol to 95.9% for vitamin B12 across all three FFQs. Conclusions Our FFQs had moderate to good relative validity in measuring energy and nutrient intakes for 6–11 year-old Guatemalan children. More evidence is needed to evaluate their reproducibility and applicability in similar populations. PMID:26465769

  15. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  16. Association of dietary sodium intake with atherogenesis in experimental diabetes and with cardiovascular disease in patients with Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tikellis, Chris; Pickering, Raelene J; Tsorotes, Despina; Harjutsalo, Valma; Thorn, Lena; Ahola, Aila; Wadén, Johan; Tolonen, Nina; Saraheimo, Markku; Gordin, Daniel; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Cooper, Mark E; Moran, John; Thomas, Merlin C

    2013-05-01

    It is recommended that individuals with diabetes restrict their dietary sodium intake. However, although salt intake is correlated with BP (blood pressure), it also partly determines the activation state of the RAAS (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), a key mediator of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. apoE KO (apolipoprotein E knockout) mice were allocated for the induction of diabetes with streptozotocin or citrate buffer (controls) and further randomized to isocaloric diets containing 0.05%, 0.3% or 3.1% sodium with or without the ACEi [ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor] perindopril. After 6 weeks of study, plaque accumulation was quantified and markers of atherogenesis were assessed using RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) and ELISA. The association of sodium intake and adverse cardiovascular and mortality outcomes were explored in 2648 adults with Type 1 diabetes without prior CVD (cardiovascular disease) from the FinnDiane study. A 0.05% sodium diet was associated with increased plaque accumulation in diabetic apoE KO mice, associated with activation of the RAAS. By contrast, a diet containing 3.1% sodium suppressed atherogenesis associated with suppression of the RAAS, with an efficacy comparable with ACE inhibition. In adults with Type 1 diabetes, low sodium intake was also associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and new-onset cardiovascular events. However, high sodium intake was also associated with adverse outcomes, leading to a J-shaped relationship overall. Although BP lowering is an important goal for the management of diabetes, off-target actions to activate the RAAS may contribute to an observed lack of protection from cardiovascular complications in patients with Type 1 diabetes with low sodium intake.

  17. Challenges with using chronic disease endpoints in setting dietary reference intakes.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2008-08-01

    Since 1941, the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) in the United States have been based on the goal of maintaining health in the country's population. There has been a growing body of evidence to support the role of diet in reducing the risk of chronic diseases. For this reason, there has been recent emphasis on considering data on chronic disease endpoints for setting dietary reference intakes (DRIs). Despite this emphasis, none of the RDAs set during the DRI review were based on chronic disease risk. However, chronic disease risk was considered for determining adequate intakes and even some acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. This article discusses the application of and challenges associated with using chronic disease endpoints in setting DRIs.

  18. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids: time to establish a dietary reference intake.

    PubMed

    Flock, Michael R; Harris, William S; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2013-10-01

    The beneficial effects of consuming omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on cardiovascular health have been studied extensively. To date, there is no dietary reference intake (DRI) for EPA and DHA, although many international authorities and expert groups have issued dietary recommendations for them. Given the substantial new evidence published since the last Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on energy and macronutrients, released in 2002, there is a pressing need to establish a DRI for EPA and DHA. In order to set a DRI, however, more information is needed to define the intakes of EPA and DHA required to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Information about potential gender- or race-based differences in requirements is also needed. Given the many health benefits of EPA and DHA that have been described since the 2002 IOM report, there is now a strong justification for establishing a DRI for these fatty acids.

  19. Intestinal absorption of dietary cadmium in women depends on body iron stores and fiber intake.

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, M; Akesson, A; Nermell, B; Vahter, M

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of intake and uptake of cadmium in relation to diet composition were carried out in 57 nonsmoking women, 20-50 years of age. A vegetarian/high-fiber diet and a mixed-diet group were constructed based on results from a food frequency questionnaire. Duplicate diets and the corresponding feces were collected during 4 consecutive days in parallel with dietary recording of type and amount of food ingested for determination of the dietary intake of cadmium and various nutrients. Blood and 24-hr urine samples were collected for determination of cadmium, hemoglobin, ferritin, and zinc. There were no differences in the intake of nutrients between the mixed-diet and the high-fiber diet groups, except for a significantly higher intake of fiber (p < 0.001) and cadmium (p < 0.002) in the high-fiber group. Fecal cadmium corresponded to 98% in the mixed-diet group and 100% in the high-fiber diet group. No differences in blood cadmium (BCd) or urinary cadmium (UCd) between groups could be detected. There was a tendency toward higher BCd and UCd concentrations with increasing fiber intake; however, the concentrations were not statistically significant at the 5% level, indicating an inhibitory effect of fiber on the gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium. Sixty-seven percent of the women had serum ferritin < 30 micrograms/l, indicating reduced body iron stores, which were highly associated with higher BCd (irrespective of fiber intake). BCd was mainly correlated with UCd, serum ferritin, age, anf fibre intake. UCd and serum ferritin explained almost 60% of the variation in BCd.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:7713018

  20. Dietary intake of phytonutrients in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Cho, Yang-Hee; Park, Juyeon; Shin, Hye-Rim; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide baseline data for health policy creation by estimating phytonutrient intake and identifying major food sources of phytonutrients. Dietary recall data collected in the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and phytonutrient database of the Korea National Academy of Agricultural Science were used in this study. The proportions of the population satisfying recommended dietary guidelines for fruits and vegetables were estimated, and phytonutrient intake was compared between populations who consumed the recommended intake and those who did not. The study found that 5.3% of subjects satisfied the recommended fruit and vegetable intake. In particular, the proportions of adolescents (13 to 18 years of age) and young adults (19 to 39 years of age) meeting the recommended fruit and vegetable intake were lower than other age groups (P<0.001). Intakes of major carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene), flavonoids (anthocyanidins, hesperitin, quercetin, catechin, and isoflavones), and one phenolic compound (gallic acid) were significantly higher (P<0.001) among subjects who met the recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption compared with those who did not. Carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, tomatoes, and watermelons were found to be major sources of carotenoids. Flavonoids were mainly obtained from persimmons, mandarins, apples, grapes, onions, soybeans, and chestnuts. However, one or two food items contributed to nearly all intake of each phytonutrient, suggesting a lack of variety. In conclusion, the Korean population needs to consume a larger quantity and variety of fruits and vegetables. PMID:23830325

  1. Obesity, bone status and dietary intake of Palauan elderly congregating in a Senior Citizen's Center.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Yuko; Muto, Shimako; Fujikura, Junko; Sakuma, Mituru; Kaneko, Yoshinori; Otto, Caleb T O; Nakamura, Lillian

    2005-03-01

    A health survey of obesity and bone density measured by an Achilles Ultrasound bone densitometer (Lunar, USA) and nutritional intake was carried out for 15 male and 30 female Palauan elderly persons congregating in a Senior Citizens' Center. The subjects had high obesity values with mean BMI of 27.0 in males and 28.9 in females, and with mean body fat % of 22.3 in males and 39.8 in females (p < 0.01). The females showed a great decline in bone density from 60 to 70 years of age, with mean Stiffness index of 65.0 compared with that of 80.0 for males of the same age group. The subjects have all undergone a certain acculturation in their dietary habits, influenced by traditional Palauan, East-Asian, and Western food and dietary patterns. While all subjects had high carbohydrate intakes, and males had significantly greater intakes of energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin B1 and niacin than females. To determine the association of nutritional intake with obesity and Stiffness index, principal component analysis was carried out for amounts of intake of each food group. Correlation analysis between the scores of each principal food component and the body fat %, the BMI and the stiffness index was done. The score of the fourth principal component named "greater variety of food intake" was found to have significant positive correlation with body fat %. However, between the nutritional intake and body fat %, only a relationship could be identified. The findings indicate a need develop appropriate nutrition education and, particularly to address the problem of obesity.

  2. RGS6 variants are associated with dietary fat intake in Hispanics: the IRAS Family Study.

    PubMed

    Sibbel, Scott P; Talbert, Matthew E; Bowden, Donald W; Haffner, Steve M; Taylor, Kent D; Chen, Yii-Der I; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Langefeld, Carl D; Norris, Jill M

    2011-07-01

    Recently, a genome-wide association scan was completed in the IRAS (Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study) Family Study (IRASFS) Hispanic-American cohort. Multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) gene were found to be associated with adiposity phenotypes. RGS6 has shown downstream antagonistic interplay with opioid receptors, targets of fatty/sugary food agonists. The possibility that RGS6 promotes tolerance and tachyphylaxis among the opioid receptor is a plausible pathway for overconsuming fat/sugar-laden food. Therefore, we hypothesized that RGS6 variants are associated with intake of fatty/sugary foods. In 932 Hispanics from San Antonio and San Luis Valley, CO, the following dietary intake variables were assessed using the Block Brief 2000 food frequency questionnaire: total calories, total fat, % calories from fat, % calories from saturated fat, protein, % calories from protein, carbohydrates, % calories from carbohydrates, and daily frequency of servings of fats/oils/sweets. We tested for association between 23 SNPs in RGS6 and dietary intake using a variance components measured genotype approach. All models were adjusted for gender, recruitment site, admixture, BMI, and age. Using an additive genetic model, rs1402064 was associated with higher intake of fats/oils/sweets, total calories, total fat and saturated fat (P = 0.0007, 0.026, 0.023, and 0.024). SNPs rs847330 and rs847354 were associated with higher intake of fats/oils/sweets (P = 0.002 and 0.018), total fat (P = 0.040 and 0.048) and saturated fat (P = 0.044 and 0.041). Finally, rs769148 was associated with higher intake of fats/oils/sweets (P = 0.002). RGS6 is a new candidate gene for adiposity traits that may be associated with a behavioral tendency toward fat-laden food intake.

  3. Dietary intake of phytonutrients in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Cho, Yang-Hee; Park, Juyeon; Shin, Hye-Rim; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide baseline data for health policy creation by estimating phytonutrient intake and identifying major food sources of phytonutrients. Dietary recall data collected in the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and phytonutrient database of the Korea National Academy of Agricultural Science were used in this study. The proportions of the population satisfying recommended dietary guidelines for fruits and vegetables were estimated, and phytonutrient intake was compared between populations who consumed the recommended intake and those who did not. The study found that 5.3% of subjects satisfied the recommended fruit and vegetable intake. In particular, the proportions of adolescents (13 to 18 years of age) and young adults (19 to 39 years of age) meeting the recommended fruit and vegetable intake were lower than other age groups (P<0.001). Intakes of major carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene), flavonoids (anthocyanidins, hesperitin, quercetin, catechin, and isoflavones), and one phenolic compound (gallic acid) were significantly higher (P<0.001) among subjects who met the recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption compared with those who did not. Carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, tomatoes, and watermelons were found to be major sources of carotenoids. Flavonoids were mainly obtained from persimmons, mandarins, apples, grapes, onions, soybeans, and chestnuts. However, one or two food items contributed to nearly all intake of each phytonutrient, suggesting a lack of variety. In conclusion, the Korean population needs to consume a larger quantity and variety of fruits and vegetables.

  4. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

  5. Trends in nutrient and dietary intake among adults and the elderly: from NAHSIT 1993-1996 to 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shin-Jiuan; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate trends in nutrients and sources of dietary intake for Taiwanese people from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 1993-1996 to 2005-2008. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data were obtained from the 2005-2008 NAHSIT. The results showed that intake of cereals and grains, and dietary fiber has decreased, whereas intake of carbohydrate rich convenience foods has increased. As a result, 10-20 g of dietary fat is now obtained from carbohydrate rich foods. A greater proportion of Taiwanese are choosing low-fat meat products, however, excessive intake of meat by men and women aged 19 to 64 years is resulting in excessive intakes of protein, cholesterol and saturated fat. Men and women aged 19 to 30 years had insufficient intakes of fruit and vegetables. Consumption of fruit, dairy/products, and nuts was low in all age groups. We recommend strengthening public nutrition education and changing diet related environment to improve dietary quality and food group distributions. Issues of concern include excessive intakes of energy and the soybean/fish/meat/eggs food group in all subjects, high amount of processed foods and refined-carbohydrate rich foods in men aged 19 to 64 years and women aged 19-30 years, as well as intakes below the DRI for a variety of nutrients in elderly persons. PMID:21669594

  6. Differential effects of dietary sodium intake on blood pressure and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Wu, Congqing; Howatt, Deborah A; Balakrishnan, Anju; Charnigo, Richard J; Cassis, Lisa A; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The amount of dietary sodium intake regulates the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and blood pressure, both of which play critical roles in atherosclerosis. However, there are conflicting findings regarding the effects of dietary sodium intake on atherosclerosis. This study applied a broad range of dietary sodium concentrations to determine the concomitant effects of dietary sodium intake on the RAS, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis in mice. Eight-week-old male low-density lipoprotein receptor -/- mice were fed a saturated fat-enriched diet containing selected sodium concentrations (Na 0.01%, 0.1%, or 2% w/w) for 12 weeks. Mice in these three groups were all hypercholesterolemic, although mice fed Na 0.01% and Na 0.1% had higher plasma cholesterol concentrations than mice fed Na 2%. Mice fed Na 0.01% had greater abundances of renal renin mRNA than those fed Na 0.1% and 2%. Plasma renin concentrations were higher in mice fed Na 0.01% (14.2 ± 1.7 ng/ml/30 min) than those fed Na 0.1% or 2% (6.2 ± 0.6 and 5.8 ± 1.6 ng/ml per 30 min, respectively). However, systolic blood pressure at 12 weeks was higher in mice fed Na 2% (138 ± 3 mm Hg) than those fed Na 0.01% and 0.1% (129 ± 3 and 128 ± 4 mmHg, respectively). In contrast, mice fed Na 0.01% (0.17 ± 0.02 mm(2)) had larger atherosclerotic lesion areas in aortic roots than those fed Na 2% (0.09 ± 0.01 mm(2)), whereas lesion areas in mice fed Na 0.1% (0.12 ± 0.02 mm(2)) were intermediate between and not significantly different from those in Na 0.01% and Na 2% groups. In conclusion, while high dietary sodium intake led to higher systolic blood pressure, low dietary sodium intake augmented atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice.

  7. Dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk: dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Luo; Hou, Rui; Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have provided controversial evidence of the association between dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk. To address this inconsistency, we conducted this dose-response meta-analysis by total dietary fat intake, based on epidemiological studies published up to the end of June 2015 identified from PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. Two authors (RH and Q-JW) independently performed the eligibility evaluation and data extraction. All differences were resolved by discussion with the third investigator (LJ). Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 16 studies (6 cohort and 10 case-control studies) that involved a total of 7556 EC cases and 563,781 non-cases. The summary RR for EC for each 30 g/day increment intake was 0.98 (95%CI = 0.95-1.001; I(2) = 0%; n = 11) for total dietary fat. Non-significant results were observed in plant-based fat (summary RR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.94-1.18; I(2) = 0%; n = 5) and animal-based fat (summary RR = 1.17, 95%CI = 0.92-1.36; I(2) = 85.0%; n = 6). Additionally, the null associations were observed in almost all the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, findings of the present meta-analysis suggested a lack of association between total dietary fat intake and EC risk. Further studies, especially prospective designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  8. Dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk: dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luo; Hou, Rui; Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have provided controversial evidence of the association between dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk. To address this inconsistency, we conducted this dose-response meta-analysis by total dietary fat intake, based on epidemiological studies published up to the end of June 2015 identified from PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. Two authors (RH and Q-JW) independently performed the eligibility evaluation and data extraction. All differences were resolved by discussion with the third investigator (LJ). Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 16 studies (6 cohort and 10 case-control studies) that involved a total of 7556 EC cases and 563,781 non-cases. The summary RR for EC for each 30g/day increment intake was 0.98 (95%CI = 0.95–1.001; I2 = 0%; n = 11) for total dietary fat. Non-significant results were observed in plant-based fat (summary RR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.94–1.18; I2 = 0%; n = 5) and animal-based fat (summary RR = 1.17, 95%CI = 0.92–1.36; I2 = 85.0%; n = 6). Additionally, the null associations were observed in almost all the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, findings of the present meta-analysis suggested a lack of association between total dietary fat intake and EC risk. Further studies, especially prospective designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:26568366

  9. [Evaluation of dietary intake of indigenous and alien populations in Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District].

    PubMed

    Martinchik, A N; Asaulenko, V I; Baturin, A K; Peskova, E V; Baĭgarin, E K

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the investigation of the actual food consumption in 102 adult residents of both sexes in settlements Harp, Aksarka and Beloyarsk in Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District - YNAD. The dietary intake of individuals were studied by 24-hour recall methodology adopted for Russian features in the Institute of Nutrition of RAMS. An assessment of differences of the actual consumption of energy and nutrients for newcomers and indigenous populations were performed.

  10. Dietary Phytoestrogen Intakes and Cognitive Function During the Menopause Transition: Results from the SWAN Phytoestrogen Study

    PubMed Central

    Greendale, Gail A.; Huang, Mei-Hua; Leung, Katherine; Crawford, Sybil L.; Gold, Ellen B.; Wight, Richard; Waetjen, Elaine; Karlamangla, Arun S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Phytoestrogens, which consist mainly of isoflavones, lignans and coumestans have estrogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Prior research suggests that higher dietary or supplemental intakes of isoflavones and lignans are related to better cognitive performance in middle aged and older women. Methods We conducted longitudinal analysis of dietary phytoestrogens and cognitive performance in a cohort of African-American, white, Chinese and Japanese women undergoing the menopause transition (MT). Tests were: Symbol Digit Modalities, East Boston Memory and Digits Span Backward. Phytoestrogens were assessed by Food Frequency Questionnaire. We modeled each cognitive score as a function of concurrent value of the primary predictors (highest tertile of isoflavones, lignans or coumestrol) and covariates including MT stage. Results Coumestrol and isoflavone intakes were 10 and 25 times greater, respectively, in Asian versus non-Asian participants. During late perimenopause and postmenopause, Asian women with high isoflavone intakes did better on processing speed, but during early perimenopause and postmenopause, high isoflavone Asian consumers performed worse on verbal memory. The highest isoflavone consumers among non-Asians likewise posted lower verbal memory scores during early perimenopause. A verbal memory benefit of higher dietary lignan consumption was apparent only during late perimenopause, when women from all ethnic/racial groups who were in the highest tertile of intake demonstrated a small advantage. Coumestrol was unrelated to cognitive performance. Conclusions Cognitive effects of dietary phytoestrogens are small, appear to be class-specific, vary by menopause stage and cognitive domain and differ among ethic/racial groups (but whether this is related to dose or to host factors cannot be discerned). PMID:22415567

  11. Intake of Dietary Supplements and Malnutrition in Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Mehnoosh; Zeinali, Fahime; Habibi, Nahal; Ghotbodin-Mohammadi, Shirin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is prevalent among patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and causes various complications. Dietary supplementation to provide appropriate nutritional support may reduce the malnutrition and complications through improvement in nutritional status. This study was carried out to assess the association between dietary supplementation and malnutrition among patients in ICUs. Methods: A case–control study was conducted on 180 male patients aged 20–60 years in the ICUs of the hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran in 2013. Data of two groups including 83 patients (cases) who had consumed regular hospital meals and dietary supplements and 97 patients (controls) who had received regular hospital meals were compared. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory values, and dietary intakes were extracted from medical records, and Maastricht index (MI) was calculated. Data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 21. T-test and paired-sample t-test were used to determine the difference between groups. Results: Taking supplements increased daily energy intake, carbohydrate, and protein in case group (n = 83) significantly (P < 0.05). MI changed to 3.1 ± 3.8 and 4.3 ± 4.2 in case (n = 83) and control (n = 97) groups, respectively. Although the MI fell in both groups, it showed a greater reduction in case group (from 6.3 ± 5.3 to 3.1 ± 3.8). Conclusions: Since consuming dietary supplements besides the regular hospital meals increased intake of energy and macronutrients and reduced the MI significantly, it was concluded that it helped supply nutritional requirements more effectively and improved the malnutrition in ICU. PMID:27512556

  12. Household food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women participating in federal food assistance programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study explored the association between food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women after controlling for sociocultural and economic factors including participation in federal food assistance programs. A cross-sectional design was used. Demographics, anthropometrics, accultur...

  13. Can adherence to dietary guidelines address excess caloric intake? An empirical assessment for the UK.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, C S

    2013-12-01

    The facilitation of healthier dietary choices by consumers is a key element of government strategies to combat the rising incidence of obesity in developed and developing countries. Public health campaigns to promote healthier eating often target compliance with recommended dietary guidelines for consumption of individual nutrients such as fats and added sugars. This paper examines the association between improved compliance with dietary guidelines for individual nutrients and excess calorie intake, the most proximate determinant of obesity risk. We apply quantile regressions and counterfactual decompositions to cross-sectional data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000-01) to assess how excess calorie consumption patterns in the UK are likely to change with improved compliance with dietary guidelines. We find that the effects of compliance vary significantly across different quantiles of calorie consumption. Our results show that compliance with dietary guidelines for individual nutrients, even if successfully achieved, is likely to be associated with only modest shifts in excess calorie consumption patterns. Consequently, public health campaigns that target compliance with dietary guidelines for specific nutrients in isolation are unlikely to have a significant effect on the obesity risk faced by the population.

  14. Adolescent dietary fiber, vegetable fat, vegetable protein, and nut intakes and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Colditz, Graham A; Cotterchio, Michelle; Boucher, Beatrice A; Kreiger, Nancy

    2014-06-01

    The importance of early-life exposures in breast cancer development is increasingly recognized. However, limited research has evaluated the relationship between adolescent diet and subsequent risk of breast cancer and reported inconsistent results. This population-based case-control study investigated the associations of dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts consumed during adolescence with adult breast cancer risk. Women, ages 25-74 years, who were diagnosed with first primary breast cancer between 2002 and 2003, were identified using the Ontario Cancer Registry. Controls were identified through random-digit dialing and age-frequency matched to cases. Diet at ages 10-15 was assessed with a 55-item food frequency questionnaire among 2,865 cases and 3,299 controls. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Inverse associations were found between intakes of dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts during adolescence and breast cancer risk, which persisted after controlling for adult intakes. The ORs (95 % CI) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake were 0.66 (0.55-0.78; P trend < 0.0001) for fiber, 0.80 (0.68-0.95; P trend = 0.01) for vegetable protein, 0.74 (0.63-0.87; P trend = 0.002) for vegetable fat, and 0.76 (0.61-0.95 for ≥1 serving/day vs. <1 serving/month intake; P trend = 0.04) for nuts. The reduced risk for adolescent intakes of fiber, vegetable protein, and nuts was largely limited to postmenopausal women (P interaction ≤ 0.05). Dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts consumed during adolescence were associated with reduced breast cancer risk.

  15. Dietary Calcium Intake, Vitamin D Status, and Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women in Rural Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ellahi, Basma; Bano, Qudsia; Bangash, Sonia Ali; Mitra, Soma R.; Zaman, Mukhtiar

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of osteoporosis in Pakistan is of public-health concern. However, there is a paucity of information regarding nutrition and bone density in rural communities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dietary and lifestyle factors that impact bone health in Nahaqi. Data were collected from 140 postmenopausal women using an interviewer-administered 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire. Bone mineral density was estimated using the quantitative ultrasound index (QUI). Serum 25(OH)D was measured in fasting blood samples. The QUI scores revealed that 42% and 29% of the women had T-scores, indicative of osteopaenia and osteoporosis respectively. The mean calcium intake was 346 mg/d, which is less than 50% of the recommended daily intake. The QUI correlated with 25(OH)D after controlling for age (p=0.021, r=0.41, r2=0.168). Vitamin D deficiency and low intake of dietary calcium are two key factors contributing to poor bone health in this population. PMID:22106752

  16. Dietary Fat Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Meng, Qingyang; Xi, Qiulei; Zhuang, Qiulin; Han, Yusong; Gao, Ying; Ding, Qiurong; Wu, Guohao

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Consumption of dietary fat has been reported to be associated with gastric cancer risk, but the results of epidemiologic studies remain inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence regarding the association between dietary fat intake and gastric cancer risk. Methods A comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify observational studies providing quantitative estimates between dietary fat and gastric cancer risk. Random effects model was used to calculate the summary relative risk(SRR) in the highest versus lowest analysis. Categorical dose-response analysis was conducted to quantify the association between dietary fat intake and gastric cancer risk. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using I2 and tau2(between study variance)statistics. Subgroup analysis and publication bias analysis were also performed. Results Twenty-two articles were included in the meta-analysis. The SRR for gastric cancer was 1.18 for individuals with highest intake versus lowest intake of total fat (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.999–1.39; n = 28; P< 0.001; tau2 = 0.12; I2 = 69.5%, 95% CI: 55%-79%) and 1.08 with a daily increase in total fat intake (20 g/d) (95%CI: 1.02–1.14; n = 6; P = 0.09; tau2 = 0.002; I2 = 46.8%, 95% CI: 0%-79%). Positive association between saturated fat intake (SRR = 1.31; 95%CI: 1.09–1.58;n = 18;P<0.001; tau2 = 0.08; I2 = 60.6%, 95% CI: 34%-76%), inverse association between polyunsaturated fat intake (SRR = 0.77; 95%CI: 0.65–0.92; n = 16; P = 0.003; tau2 = 0.06; I2 = 56.2%, 95% CI: 23%-75%) and vegetable fat intake (SRR = 0.55; 95%CI: 0.41–0.74; n = 4;P = 0.12; tau2 = 0.04; I2 = 48.6%, 95% CI: 0%-83%), and no association between monounsaturated fat intake (SRR = 1.00; 95%CI: 0.79–1.25; n = 14; P< 0.001; tau2 = 0.10; I2 = 63.0%, 95% CI: 34%-79%) and animal fat intake (SRR = 1.10; 95%CI: 0.90–1.33; n = 6; P = 0.13;tau2 = 0.02; I2 = 42.0%, 95% CI: 0%-70%) and gastric cancer risk

  17. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    PubMed Central

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. Design In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Results Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (p<0.001), and 62% of the participants were grouped into the same tertile of intake according to the two methods. The estimates of mean dietary intake of first and second FFQ were very similar (22.2±4.0 and 23.3±4.1 g/day, respectively, p=0.42) and showed a correlation of r=0.95 (95% CI 0.83–0.99). Conclusion The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest. PMID:25490961

  18. Variations in the WNK1 gene modulates the effect of dietary intake of sodium and potassium on blood pressure determination.

    PubMed

    Osada, Yuko; Miyauchi, Rie; Goda, Toshinao; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Horiike, Hiromi; Iida, Mariko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Kimiko

    2009-08-01

    WNK lysine-deficient protein kinase 1 (WNK1) is a member of the WNK family of serine/threonine kinases with no lysine (K), and these kinases have been implicated as important modulators of salt homeostasis in the kidney. It is well known that high dietary sodium and low dietary potassium have been implicated in the etiology of increased blood pressure. However, the blood pressure response to dietary sodium and potassium intake varies considerably among individuals. In this study, we have detected that the haplotypes of the WNK1 gene are associated with blood pressure variations in the general Japanese population. In addition, we investigated the interactions between the haplotypes of the WNK1 gene and dietary sodium and potassium intake for determining inter-individual variations in blood pressure. Our data support the hypothesis that part of the variation in blood pressure response to dietary sodium and potassium intake among individuals can be explained by variations in the WNK1 gene.

  19. Association between dietary phylloquinone intake and peripheral metabolic risk markers related to insulin resistance and diabetes in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin K has been related to glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and diabetes. Because inflammation underlies all these metabolic conditions, it is plausible that the potential role of vitamin K in glucose metabolism occurs through the modulation of cytokines and related molecules. The purpose of the study was to assess the associations between dietary intake of vitamin K and peripheral adipokines and other metabolic risk markers related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments of these associations in 510 elderly participants recruited in the PREDIMED centers of Reus and Barcelona (Spain). We determined 1-year changes in dietary phylloquinone intake estimated by food frequency questionnaires, serum inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic risk markers. Results In the cross-sectional analysis at baseline no significant associations were found between dietary phylloquinone intake and the rest of metabolic risk markers evaluated, with exception of a negative association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. After 1-year of follow-up, subjects in the upper tertile of changes in dietary phylloquinone intake showed a greater reduction in ghrelin (−15.0%), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (−12.9%), glucagon-like peptide-1 (−17.6%), IL-6 (−27.9%), leptin (−10.3%), TNF (−26.9%) and visfatin (−24.9%) plasma concentrations than those in the lowest tertile (all p<0.05). Conclusion These results show that dietary phylloquinone intake is associated with an improvement of cytokines and other markers related to insulin resistance and diabetes, thus extending the potential protection by dietary phylloquinone on chronic inflammatory diseases. Trial registration http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639 PMID:23298335

  20. Comparison of Various Databases for Estimation of Dietary Polyphenol Intake in the Population of Polish Adults.

    PubMed

    Witkowska, Anna M; Zujko, Małgorzata E; Waśkiewicz, Anna; Terlikowska, Katarzyna M; Piotrowski, Walerian

    2015-11-11

    The primary aim of the study was to estimate the consumption of polyphenols in a population of 6661 subjects aged between 20 and 74 years representing a cross-section of the Polish society, and the second objective was to compare the intakes of flavonoids calculated on the basis of the two commonly used databases. Daily food consumption data were collected in 2003-2005 using a single 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of total polyphenols was estimated using an online Phenol-Explorer database, and flavonoid intake was determined using following data sources: the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database combined of flavonoid and isoflavone databases, and the Phenol-Explorer database. Total polyphenol intake, which was calculated with the Phenol-Explorer database, was 989 mg/day with the major contributions of phenolic acids 556 mg/day and flavonoids 403.5 mg/day. The flavonoid intake calculated on the basis of the USDA databases was 525 mg/day. This study found that tea is the primary source of polyphenols and flavonoids for the studied population, including mainly flavanols, while coffee is the most important contributor of phenolic acids, mostly hydroxycinnamic acids. Our study also demonstrated that flavonoid intakes estimated according to various databases may substantially differ. Further work should be undertaken to expand polyphenol databases to better reflect their food contents.

  1. Dietary intake of non-nutritive sweeteners in type 1 diabetes mellitus children.

    PubMed

    Dewinter, Louise; Casteels, Kristina; Corthouts, Karen; Van de Kerckhove, Kristel; Van der Vaerent, Katrien; Vanmeerbeeck, Kelly; Matthys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current cross-sectional study were (1) to assess the intake of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-k, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, sucralose, saccharin, steviol glycosides and neotame among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); (2) to compare the obtained intakes with the respective acceptable daily intake (ADI) values; and (3) to conduct a scenario analysis to obtain practical guidelines for a safe consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) among children with T1D. T1D patients of the Paediatrics Department of the University Hospitals Leuven were invited to complete a food frequency questionnaire designed to assess NNS intake using a tier 2 and tier 3 exposure assessment approach. A scenario analysis was conducted by reducing the P95 consumption of the most contributing food categories in order to reach a total sweetener intake lower than or equal to the ADI. Estimated total intakes higher than ADIs were only found for the P95 consumers only of acesulfame-k, cyclamate and steviol glycosides (tier 2 and tier 3 approach). Scenario analysis created dietary guidelines for each age category for diet soda, bread spreads and dairy drinks. There is little chance for T1D children to exceed the ADI of the different NNS, however diabetes educators and dieticians need to pay attention regarding the use of NNS. PMID:26523968

  2. Dietary intake of non-nutritive sweeteners in type 1 diabetes mellitus children.

    PubMed

    Dewinter, Louise; Casteels, Kristina; Corthouts, Karen; Van de Kerckhove, Kristel; Van der Vaerent, Katrien; Vanmeerbeeck, Kelly; Matthys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current cross-sectional study were (1) to assess the intake of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-k, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, sucralose, saccharin, steviol glycosides and neotame among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); (2) to compare the obtained intakes with the respective acceptable daily intake (ADI) values; and (3) to conduct a scenario analysis to obtain practical guidelines for a safe consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) among children with T1D. T1D patients of the Paediatrics Department of the University Hospitals Leuven were invited to complete a food frequency questionnaire designed to assess NNS intake using a tier 2 and tier 3 exposure assessment approach. A scenario analysis was conducted by reducing the P95 consumption of the most contributing food categories in order to reach a total sweetener intake lower than or equal to the ADI. Estimated total intakes higher than ADIs were only found for the P95 consumers only of acesulfame-k, cyclamate and steviol glycosides (tier 2 and tier 3 approach). Scenario analysis created dietary guidelines for each age category for diet soda, bread spreads and dairy drinks. There is little chance for T1D children to exceed the ADI of the different NNS, however diabetes educators and dieticians need to pay attention regarding the use of NNS.

  3. Comparison of Various Databases for Estimation of Dietary Polyphenol Intake in the Population of Polish Adults

    PubMed Central

    Witkowska, Anna M.; Zujko, Małgorzata E.; Waśkiewicz, Anna; Terlikowska, Katarzyna M.; Piotrowski, Walerian

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to estimate the consumption of polyphenols in a population of 6661 subjects aged between 20 and 74 years representing a cross-section of the Polish society, and the second objective was to compare the intakes of flavonoids calculated on the basis of the two commonly used databases. Daily food consumption data were collected in 2003–2005 using a single 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of total polyphenols was estimated using an online Phenol-Explorer database, and flavonoid intake was determined using following data sources: the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database combined of flavonoid and isoflavone databases, and the Phenol-Explorer database. Total polyphenol intake, which was calculated with the Phenol-Explorer database, was 989 mg/day with the major contributions of phenolic acids 556 mg/day and flavonoids 403.5 mg/day. The flavonoid intake calculated on the basis of the USDA databases was 525 mg/day. This study found that tea is the primary source of polyphenols and flavonoids for the studied population, including mainly flavanols, while coffee is the most important contributor of phenolic acids, mostly hydroxycinnamic acids. Our study also demonstrated that flavonoid intakes estimated according to various databases may substantially differ. Further work should be undertaken to expand polyphenol databases to better reflect their food contents. PMID:26569297

  4. Dietary intake of fruits and vegetables and overall survival in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ollberding, Nicholas J; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Caces, Donne Bennett D; Smith, Sonali M; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Chiu, Brian C-H

    2013-12-01

    In a cohort of 301 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), we examined whether the pre-diagnostic consumption of fruits and vegetables, or of nutrients concentrated in fruits and vegetables, was associated with overall survival (OS). Proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality. A total of 91 deaths occurred in the patient cohort over a median follow-up period of 8.2 years. No association with OS was detected for a dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of fruits, vegetables and starch; fruit intake; vegetable intake; or nutrient intake in patients diagnosed with overall NHL, follicular lymphoma or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Higher intakes of carotene-rich vegetables (HR = 0.4 [0.2-1.0]; p trend = 0.05) and α-carotene (HRT3 vs. T1 = 0.4 [0.2-0.9]; p trend = 0.03) were associated with better OS among ever smokers. Overall, our data suggest that the intake of fruits and vegetables prior to diagnosis is not associated with OS in patients with NHL.

  5. Comparison of the dietary intakes of new parents, second-time parents, and nonparents: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nasuti, Gabriella; Blanchard, Chris; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Warburton, Darren E R; Benoit, Cecilia; Symons Downs, Danielle; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the dietary intake profiles of first-time parents, second-time parents, and couples without children; once during pregnancy, then at 6- and 12-months postpartum. This was an observational, longitudinal, cohort study. Participants were a community-based sample of 153 couples aged 25 to 40 years. Data were collected between 2007 and 2011. Dietary intake was recorded using 3-day dietary recall. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to compare the dietary intakes of groups (ie, parent, sex, and couple days) over time. Percentage of participants per group meeting recommended daily dietary guidelines was also analyzed, as were variables that influenced meeting overall recommended guidelines using a multivariate analysis of variance. First-time mothers had higher overall energy, fat, sugar, fruit, and milk intake compared with women without children, and longitudinally first-time mothers decreased their fruit intake. Second-time mothers had higher overall energy, fat, sugar, and fruit intake compared with nonparent women, and longitudinally second-time mothers increased their meat intake. First-time fathers had overall higher bread intake compared with second-time fathers and men without children, and first-time fathers consumed less sugar than second-time fathers. Longitudinally, first-time fathers increased their fiber intake. At any stage of data collection, from pregnancy to 12-months postpartum, only 2% to 16% of all mothers met recommended overall daily dietary guidelines. The only variable investigated that influenced meeting overall daily dietary guidelines at baseline was parent status.

  6. Association of dietary calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium intake with caries status among schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han-Shan; Lin, Jia-Rong; Hu, Suh-Woan; Kuo, Hsiao-Ching; Yang, Yi-Hsin

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between caries experience and daily intake of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), and Ca/P ratio. A total of 2248 schoolchildren were recruited based on a population-based survey. Each participant received a dental examination and questionnaire interviews about the 24-hour dietary recalls and food frequency. The daily intake of Ca, P, Mg, and Ca/P ratio were inversely associated with primary caries index, but only the Ca/P ratio remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. According to the Taiwanese Dietary Reference Intakes, the Ca/P ratio was related to both caries in primary teeth (odds ratio = 0.52, p = 0.02) and in permanent teeth (odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.02). The daily intakes of Ca/P ratio remained an important factor for caries after considering potential confounding factors.

  7. Dietary intakes and food use of groups of elite Australian male athletes.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Gollan, R A; Read, R S

    1991-12-01

    The present study conducted dietary surveys of four groups of Australian male athletes: triathletes, marathon runners, Australian Rules football players, and Olympic weightlifters. Their training diets were assessed via a 7-day food record from which mean daily intakes of energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients were estimated. The data were compared between groups as well as to recommendations in the literature for athlete nutrition. Results showed major differences between groups. The contribution of carbohydrate to total energy intake was greater for triathletes and marathon runners than for the other two groups. There was no difference between all four groups in the total amount of fat consumed, yet its contribution to total energy intake was significantly lower for triathletes and marathon runners. The football players and weightlifters consumed a similar fat:energy ratio as the typical Australian diet. Furthermore, the micronutrient density of the football players' diets was significantly lower than that of the other groups. PMID:1844570

  8. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Bolca, Selin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. PMID:21673925

  9. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Suriawati, A. A.; Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Mohamed, Mohd Nahar Azmi; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs). Methods: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. Results: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females) were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (−2.00 or higher) with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. Conclusions: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC. PMID:27783041

  10. Micronutrient intakes in a group of UK vegans and the contribution of self-selected dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Lightowler, H J; Davies, G J

    2000-06-01

    Micronutrient intakes and the contribution of self-selected dietary supplements were investigated in 26 vegans, comprising 17 non-supplement users (NSU) and nine supplement users (SU), consuming their habitual diet. Micronutrient intakes were estimated using a four-day weighed record and the contribution of self-selected dietary supplements was assessed according to the manufacturers' declarations on the packaging. Mean daily intakes from food sources were similar in NSU and SU. Dietary supplements significantly increased intakes of riboflavin (p < 0.05), niacin (p < 0.05), folate (p < 0.01), vitamin A (p < 0.05) and vitamin D (p < 0.05). The mean daily contribution of dietary supplements ranged from 7-1640% of the reference nutrient intake (RNI). Intakes of vitamin B12 and selenium (Se) were below the appropriate lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI) in 80% and 65% of NSU respectively. After supplements, 33% of SU remained below the LRNI for vitamin B12 and 33% below the LRNI for Se. Some vegans who took supplements were not taking certain micronutrients in amounts sufficient to meet the RNIs but were taking a mix of micronutrients, some of which they needed and others which they did not need. Some vegans who did not take supplements had a potential need for the addition of supplements to their diets. Advice on the appropriate usage of dietary supplements for those on a vegan diet is needed.

  11. Dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome in the adult population: dose-response meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    PubMed

    Ju, Sang-Yhun; Choi, Whan-Seok; Ock, Sun-Myeong; Kim, Chul-Min; Kim, Do-Hoon

    2014-12-22

    ncreasing evidence has suggested an association between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome. However, previous research examining dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome has produced mixed results. Our objective was to determine the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome in the adult population using a dose-response meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library databases from August, 1965, to May, 2014. Observational studies reporting risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for metabolic syndrome in ≥ 3 categories of dietary magnesium intake levels were selected. The data extraction was performed independently by two authors, and the quality of the studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies (RoBANS). Based on eight cross-sectional studies and two prospective cohort studies, the pooled relative risks of metabolic syndrome per 150 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.93; I(2) = 36.3%). The meta-regression model showed a generally linear, inverse relationship between magnesium intake (mg/day) and metabolic syndrome. This dose-response meta-analysis indicates that dietary magnesium intake is significantly and inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, randomized clinical trials will be necessary to address the issue of causality and to determine whether magnesium supplementation is effective for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

  12. Obesity coexists with malnutrition? Adequacy of food consumption by severely obese patients to dietary reference intake recommendations.

    PubMed

    Correia Horvath, Jaqueline Driemeyer; Dias de Castro, Mariana Laitano; Kops, Natália; Kruger Malinoski, Natasha; Friedman, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    To assess the adequacy of food intake in severely obese patients and describe their main nutritional deficiencies on the basis of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Patients on a waiting list for bariatric surgery were sequentially recruited from March 2010 to November 2011. All subjects underwent nutritional status assessment (anthropometry, dietary recall and semi-structured interview), socioeconomic evaluation (Brazilian Association of Research Companies criteria) and laboratory testing (glucose/hormone/lipid panel). A total of 77 patients were assessed, 50 of whom (76.6%) were female. Mean age was 44.48 ± 12.55 years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (72.4%), binge eating disorder (47.4%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (32.9%), sleep apnea (30.3%) and dyslipidemia (18.4%). Macronutrient intake was largely adequate, in view of the high calorie intake. However, some micronutrient deficiencies were present. Only 19.5% of patients had an adequate intake of potassium, 26.0% of calcium, and 66.2% of iron. All subjects consumed more than the minimum recommended intake of sodium, with 98.7% reaching the upper limit. Bcomplex vitamin intake was satisfactory (adequate in >80% of subjects), but lipid-soluble vitamin (A, D, E) intake often fell short of the RDI. The diet of severely obese patients is unbalanced, with high calorie intake paralleled by insufficient micronutrient intake. When these patients are assessed and managed, qualitative dietary changes should be considered in addition to routine caloric restriction. PMID:24528344

  13. Obesity coexists with malnutrition? Adequacy of food consumption by severely obese patients to dietary reference intake recommendations.

    PubMed

    Correia Horvath, Jaqueline Driemeyer; Dias de Castro, Mariana Laitano; Kops, Natália; Kruger Malinoski, Natasha; Friedman, Rogério

    2014-02-01

    To assess the adequacy of food intake in severely obese patients and describe their main nutritional deficiencies on the basis of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Patients on a waiting list for bariatric surgery were sequentially recruited from March 2010 to November 2011. All subjects underwent nutritional status assessment (anthropometry, dietary recall and semi-structured interview), socioeconomic evaluation (Brazilian Association of Research Companies criteria) and laboratory testing (glucose/hormone/lipid panel). A total of 77 patients were assessed, 50 of whom (76.6%) were female. Mean age was 44.48 ± 12.55 years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (72.4%), binge eating disorder (47.4%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (32.9%), sleep apnea (30.3%) and dyslipidemia (18.4%). Macronutrient intake was largely adequate, in view of the high calorie intake. However, some micronutrient deficiencies were present. Only 19.5% of patients had an adequate intake of potassium, 26.0% of calcium, and 66.2% of iron. All subjects consumed more than the minimum recommended intake of sodium, with 98.7% reaching the upper limit. Bcomplex vitamin intake was satisfactory (adequate in >80% of subjects), but lipid-soluble vitamin (A, D, E) intake often fell short of the RDI. The diet of severely obese patients is unbalanced, with high calorie intake paralleled by insufficient micronutrient intake. When these patients are assessed and managed, qualitative dietary changes should be considered in addition to routine caloric restriction.

  14. Online Dietary Intake Estimation: The Food4Me Food Frequency Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Gallagher, Caroline; O’Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Walsh, Marianne C; Macready, Anna L; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Michael J; Brennan, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary assessment methods are important tools for nutrition research. Online dietary assessment tools have the potential to become invaluable methods of assessing dietary intake because, compared with traditional methods, they have many advantages including the automatic storage of input data and the immediate generation of nutritional outputs. Objective The aim of this study was to develop an online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary data collection in the “Food4Me” study and to compare this with the validated European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk printed FFQ. Methods The Food4Me FFQ used in this analysis was developed to consist of 157 food items. Standardized color photographs were incorporated in the development of the Food4Me FFQ to facilitate accurate quantification of the portion size of each food item. Participants were recruited in two centers (Dublin, Ireland and Reading, United Kingdom) and each received the online Food4Me FFQ and the printed EPIC-Norfolk FFQ in random order. Participants completed the Food4Me FFQ online and, for most food items, participants were requested to choose their usual serving size among seven possibilities from a range of portion size pictures. The level of agreement between the two methods was evaluated for both nutrient and food group intakes using the Bland and Altman method and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Correlations were calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. Results A total of 113 participants were recruited with a mean age of 30 (SD 10) years (40.7% male, 46/113; 59.3%, 67/113 female). Cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quartiles ranged from 77% to 97% at the nutrient level and 77% to 99% at the food group level. Agreement at the nutrient level was highest for alcohol (97%) and lowest for percent energy from polyunsaturated fatty acids (77%). Crude unadjusted correlations for nutrients ranged between .43 and .86. Agreement at the

  15. Quality and Adequacy of Dietary Intake in a Southern Urban Heart Failure Population

    PubMed Central

    Frediani, Jennifer K.; Reilly, Carolyn M.; Higgins, Melinda; Clark, Patricia C.; Gary, Rebecca A.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the quality and adequacy of dietary intake in patients attempting to limit sodium. Objective The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the dietary intake of persons with heart failure (HF) in the Southern United States who have been advised to