Science.gov

Sample records for activity eating habits

  1. Smoking, Physical Activity, and Eating Habits Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bokim; Yi, Yunjeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity and eating habits of adolescent smokers with those of adolescent non-smokers in South Korea. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from the 2012 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The sample included 72,229 adolescents aged 12 to 18. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between smoking status and physical activity and between smoking status and eating habits, while controlling for other factors. Boys and girls were analyzed separately for all analyses. The proportion of self-reporting smokers was 11%. Surprisingly, girl smokers exercised significantly more frequently than non-smokers. Adolescent smokers were significantly less likely to consume fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy products, and they ate significantly more fast-food than non-smokers. Health care professionals who plan smoking cessation programs should pay attention to South Korean adolescents' specific characteristics and cultural values in terms of health behavior. PMID:25082709

  2. Eating habits, physical activity, consumption of substances and eating disorders in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Quiles-Marcos, Yolanda; Balaguer-Solá, Isabel; Pamies-Aubalat, Lidia; Quiles-Sebastián, María José; Marzo-Campos, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between adolescents with a high or low risk of developing an eating disorder (ED) in different health behaviors (eating habits, physical activity and the consumption of substances) per gender. The EAT-40 and the Inventory of Behavioral Health in Scholars were applied to 2142 middle school students from Alicante (Spain), of whom 52.8% were girls and 47.2% were boys, with an average age of 13.92 years old (Sd = 1.34). Results indicated that girls with a high risk of developing an ED consumed fewer meals, ate fewer unhealthy foods, followed more diets and paid more attention to nutritional components. Furthermore, they also performed more physical activity with the objective of losing weight, and consumed more tobacco, alcohol and medicines. Boys at high risk of developing an ED followed more diets and paid more attention to nutritional components. For boys, no more differences were found. These results suggest that any program directed at the prevention of ED should not only include nutritional education, but should also seek to promote regular physical activity with objectives other than weight loss or the burning of calories. PMID:22059317

  3. Environmental influences on children's physical activity and eating habits in a rural Oregon County.

    PubMed

    Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Jerofke, Linda J; Brogoitti, Victoria W

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To identify environmental barriers and facilitators of children's physical activity and healthy eating in a rural county. DESIGN. Community-based participatory research using mixed methods, primarily qualitative. SETTING. A rural Oregon county. SUBJECTS. Ninety-five adults, 6 high school students, and 41 fifth-grade students. MEASURES. In-depth interviews, focus groups, Photovoice, and structured observations using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment, System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity, Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit, and School Food and Beverage Marketing Assessment Tool. ANALYSIS. Qualitative data were coded by investigators; observational data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were triangulated to produce a composite of environmental barriers and assets. RESULTS. Limited recreational resources, street-related hazards, fear of strangers, inadequate physical education, and denial of recess hindered physical activity, whereas popularity of youth sports and proximity to natural areas promoted physical activity. Limited availability and high cost of healthy food, busy lifestyles, convenience stores near schools, few healthy meal choices at school, children's being permitted to bring snacks to school, candy used as incentives, and teachers' modeling unhealthy eating habits hindered healthy eating, whereas the agricultural setting and popularity of gardening promoted healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides data on a neglected area of research, namely environmental determinants of rural childhood obesity, and points to the need for multifaceted and multilevel environmental change interventions. PMID:22040399

  4. Eating habits and behaviors

    MedlinePlus

    ... down what you eat, how much, and what times of the day you are eating. Include notes about what else you were doing ... meals: Know what you will eat ahead of time so you can avoid ... buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. Plan your dinners at ...

  5. [Comparison of eating habits among students according to sex and level of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Łagowska, Karolina; Woźniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional habits of high school students, depending on their sex and physical activity. The investigated population included 147 students in age of 17.5 +/- 1.5 y (girls DZ = 98, boys CH = 49) with different level of physical activity (athletes SPO, moderate physical activity UAF, low physical activity NAF). Nutritional data were obtained by FFQ and calculated for selected food-groups and generally as young healthy eating index YHEI. International IPAQ was used to determine the level of physical activity and anthropometric measured were conducted to estimated BMI and body fat status. It was indicated the YHEI in athletes was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to rest of students. Moreover, a significant difference (p < 0.05) in YHEI in DZ compared to CH was also found. The significant differences (p < 0.05) in the frequency of consumption of red meat, vegetable oil and sweetned drinks was revealed between DZ and CH adolescents. The frequency of consumption of vegetable oil, fast - foods, sweets, alcoholic drinks, energy drinks and isotonic drinks varied with the level of physical activity. Frequency of consumption of sweets negatively correlated with skinfold thickness in DZ, whereas positive correlation between consumption frequency of energy drinks, BMI and skinfold thickness was found in CH. The results show, that nutritional habits of the athletes was most approached to nutritional guidelines. CH, nutritional habits may predicted to overweight and obesity in CH group more distinctly than in DZ group. PMID:22171526

  6. Eating habits and behaviors

    MedlinePlus

    ... events where food is served You stop at fast-food restaurants for breakfast and choose high fat, high ... buying unhealthy foods (impulse buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. Plan your dinners at the beginning of ...

  7. A Cluster-Analytical Approach towards Physical Activity and Eating Habits among 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbe, Dieter; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Legiest, E.; Maes, L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate whether clusters--based on physical activity (PA) and eating habits--can be found among children, and to explore subgroups' characteristics. A total of 1725 10-year olds completed a self-administered questionnaire. K-means cluster analysis was based on the weekly quantity of vigorous and moderate PA, the excess index…

  8. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

  9. Assessment of Eating Habits and Physical Activity among Spanish Adolescents. The "Cooking and Active Leisure" TAS Program.

    PubMed

    Roura, Elena; Milà-Villarroel, Raimon; Lucía Pareja, Sara; Adot Caballero, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide obesity has more than doubled in the last forty years. Even more worrying is the fact that the number of overweight and obese children and adolescents has considerably increased. Socioeconomic development, as well as educational, agricultural and marketing policies have significantly changed dietary and physical activity habits among the youngest, who are thus susceptible to develop chronic and disabling diseases such as diabetes, some cancers and cardiovascular disorders. Adolescence is a critical age, in which the adoption of healthy habits may have dramatic effects on the health state in adulthood. For this reason, prompt interventions are urgently required to prevent the onset of obesity in this time of life. In this regard, the CAL-TAS program from Alicia Foundation was born to combat obesity and promote healthy lifestyles in Spanish adolescents. A total of 2519 students, aged 13-14 years, from 79 schools distributed all over the 17 autonomous communities in Spain were asked to report through the CAL-TAS platform their food intake and physical activity over one week. The body mass index, the consumption of food and beverages, the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients, and the values obtained from the PAQ-A questionnaire, which evaluated physical activity, were analyzed. Twenty percent of the participants were overweight or obese. In general, adolescents did not or poorly respected the recommendations provided by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition. For example, in more than half of the subjects, the ingestion of fruits and beverages was less than recommended, whereas the consumption of meat, baked goods and fried foods was excessive. Moreover, adolescents with higher body mass index also presented worse eating habits and more inactivity. In conclusion, Spanish adolescents present low adherence to recommendations provided by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC) and by the World Health Organization. In order to prevent obesity

  10. Assessment of Eating Habits and Physical Activity among Spanish Adolescents. The "Cooking and Active Leisure" TAS Program

    PubMed Central

    Roura, Elena; Milà-Villarroel, Raimon; Lucía Pareja, Sara; Adot Caballero, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide obesity has more than doubled in the last forty years. Even more worrying is the fact that the number of overweight and obese children and adolescents has considerably increased. Socioeconomic development, as well as educational, agricultural and marketing policies have significantly changed dietary and physical activity habits among the youngest, who are thus susceptible to develop chronic and disabling diseases such as diabetes, some cancers and cardiovascular disorders. Adolescence is a critical age, in which the adoption of healthy habits may have dramatic effects on the health state in adulthood. For this reason, prompt interventions are urgently required to prevent the onset of obesity in this time of life. In this regard, the CAL-TAS program from Alicia Foundation was born to combat obesity and promote healthy lifestyles in Spanish adolescents. A total of 2519 students, aged 13–14 years, from 79 schools distributed all over the 17 autonomous communities in Spain were asked to report through the CAL-TAS platform their food intake and physical activity over one week. The body mass index, the consumption of food and beverages, the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients, and the values obtained from the PAQ-A questionnaire, which evaluated physical activity, were analyzed. Twenty percent of the participants were overweight or obese. In general, adolescents did not or poorly respected the recommendations provided by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition. For example, in more than half of the subjects, the ingestion of fruits and beverages was less than recommended, whereas the consumption of meat, baked goods and fried foods was excessive. Moreover, adolescents with higher body mass index also presented worse eating habits and more inactivity. In conclusion, Spanish adolescents present low adherence to recommendations provided by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC) and by the World Health Organization. In order to prevent

  11. Assessment of a school-based intervention in eating habits and physical activity in school children: the AVall study

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Rosa; Recasens, Assumpta; Nadal, Ana; Vila, Maria; Pérez, Maria José; Manresa, Josep Maria; Recasens, Isabel; Salvador, Gemma; Serra, Jaume; Roure, Eulàlia; Castells, Conxa

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a global public health problem, which also affects children. It has been proposed that the educational interventions during childhood could be a key strategy in the prevention of obesity. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of an intervention on food habits and physical activity in school children. Methods A 2-year cluster-randomised prospective study with two parallel arms was used to evaluate an intervention programme in children in their first year of primary schooling (5–6 years of age) in schools in the city of Granollers. The intervention consisted of the promotion of healthy eating habits and physical activity by means of the educational methodology Investigation, Vision, Action and Change (IVAC). At the beginning and at the end of the study (2006 and 2008) the weight and height of each child was measured in situ, while the families were given a self-report physical activity questionnaire and the Krece Plus quick test. Results Two years after the beginning of the study, the body mass index of the children in the control group was 0.89 kg/m2 higher than that of the intervention schools. The intervention reduced by 62% the prevalence of overweight children. Similarly, the proportion of children that ate a second piece of fruit and took part in an after-school physical activity increased in the intervention group. In the control group, the weekly consumption of fish was reduced. Conclusions The educational intervention in healthy eating habits and physical activity in the school could contribute to lessen the current increase in child obesity. PMID:21398682

  12. Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > For ...

  13. Wearable Eating Habit Sensing System Using Internal Body Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuzo, Masaki; Komori, Shintaro; Takashima, Tomoko; Lopez, Guillaume; Tatsuta, Seiji; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Warisawa, Shin'ichi; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Continuous monitoring of eating habits could be useful in preventing lifestyle diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Conventional methods consist of self-reporting and calculating mastication frequency based on the myoelectric potential of the masseter muscle. Both these methods are significant burdens for the user. We developed a non-invasive, wearable sensing system that can record eating habits over a long period of time in daily life. Our sensing system is composed of two bone conduction microphones placed in the ears that send internal body sound data to a portable IC recorder. Applying frequency spectrum analysis on the collected sound data, we could not only count the number of mastications during eating, but also accurately differentiate between eating, drinking, and speaking activities. This information can be used to evaluate the regularity of meals. Moreover, we were able to analyze sound features to classify the types of foods eaten by food texture.

  14. Healthy eating habits protect against temptations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Wood, Wendy; Monterosso, John

    2016-08-01

    Can healthy food-choice habits protect people against temptations of consuming large portion sizes and unhealthy foods? In two studies, we show that the answer is yes, good habits serve this protective role, at least in contexts in which people are not deliberating and thus fall back on habitual responses. In the first study, participants trained with unhealthy habits to approach eating chocolate, but not those trained with healthy habits, succumbed to temptation and ate more chocolates when their self-control resources were depleted. Study 2 extended and clarified these findings by demonstrating the role of environmental cues in eliciting healthy habits when self-control resources are depleted. Participants who had been trained to choose carrots habitually to a pictorial stimulus (i.e., habit cue) subsequently resisted choosing M&Ms as long as the cue was present. This effect of habit cues on healthy food choices suggests the usefulness of manipulating such cues as a means of meeting self-regulatory goals such as portion control. PMID:26585633

  15. Determining the eating habits of UAPB students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The UAPB Delta Obesity Research Project is focused on nutritional adherence to the dietary guidelines, prevention of excessive weight, promotion of healthy eating, and maintenance of healthy weight during college years. Adjusting to college life can lead to poor eating and no physical activity for c...

  16. [Anthropometric indexes of the state of nutrition and eating habits, and recreational physical activity of working physically men aged 20-60 of urban population].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this studies was the comparison of somatic indexes and eating habits of working physically men who prefer different ways (active vs. passive) of spending their free time. The studies has been carried out on a group of 1271 people who work in HTS (steelworks) in Nowa Huta (one of Cracow's districts), including 523 men aged 20-40 (181 active and 342 non-active) and 748 men aged 40-60 (194 active and 554 non-active). Men referred to as active declared active spending of their free time and taking up recreational physical activity at lest twice a week. The presented research has not revealed statistically important differentiation of somatic parameters depending on preferred way of spending free time, or a connection between the physical activity level during free time and some eating habits indicating more rational choices, connected with the control of energy value of the diet, larger consumption of vegetables and fruit and smaller consumption of sweet products, and less frequently appearance of 'canine appetite' in the case of active men. PMID:22171524

  17. School feeding programs' role in forming eating habits

    PubMed Central

    Cervato-Mancuso, Ana Maria; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Araki, Erica Lie; Bógus, Claudia Maria

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify teaching managers' perceptions regarding the relationship of school feeding and the promotion of healthy eating habits among students. METHODS A descriptive study with a qualitative approach was developed in the city of Guarulhos (Southeast Brazil). Key informants from municipal public schools were interviewed. Public schools were selected (n=13) and classified as to the level of social exclusion, size and economic activity of the region where the school was located. Pedagogic coordinators and school principals were individually interviewed with semi-structured questions. RESULTS From school principals and pedagogical coordinators' perceptions, three categories were identified: Food in the school context; School feeding program's role and the Concept of food and nutrition security, which indicate that they considered meals as part of school routine in order to attain physiological needs of energy and nutrients. Their answers also indicated that they did not consider school meals as a pedagogical action related to their specific responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The relationship between the school feeding and the formation of eating habits is not a topic usually discussed between the different professionals involved with health and education. The implementation of health promoting policies will only be possible after a debate about how schools and their pedagogical team adopt the program guidelines and how the professionals decode these strategies in daily activities. PMID:24142314

  18. Lifestyle and eating habits in a business community.

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, L; Francini, L; Petri, C; Mascherini, G; Scacciati, I; Maffulli, N; Galanti, G

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The present study verified, using a validated questionnaire, the presence of unhealthy aspects of lifestyle and chronic degenerative conditions in a working community. METHODS: A cohort from a working community in Italy was investigated using of the INRAN (Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e Nutrizione) questionnaire dedicated to the eating habits and Physical Activity Stages of Change. RESULTS: Most of the 93 subjects (56 females and 37 males, aged 42.0±0.7) recruited reported low levels of physical activity (70 subjects). Slightly more than 50% of the subjects undertook physical activity more than once a week, while 13% did it only once. Food intolerances were reported by 7 subjects (8%), with a high consumption of fruits, cereals and dairy products, low consumption of fish and alcohol, and meat consumption in the normal range. There was a high satisfaction in general quality of life. CONCLUSION: Questionnaire investigations play a role to identify the presence of degenerative chronic conditions in working communities. The self-reported perception of quality of life does not necessarily agree with the lifestyle habits found. Awareness of this aspect could be helpful to plan lifestyle interventions and promote healthy living habits. PMID:25147766

  19. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits. PMID:26910548

  20. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits. PMID:26910548

  1. When Teens' Eating Habits Become Unhealthy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Alexander R.

    1984-01-01

    Eating disorders than may beset teenagers and seriously affect their health are discussed. Facts about causes, symptoms, and treatments for anorexia nervosa and bulimia, a disorder which involves overeating, followed by self-induced vomiting or purging, are presented. (PP)

  2. Nutritional assessment and eating habits analysis in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara; Borzecki, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    Good eating habit is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle. It helps prevent civilisation diseases. The BMI and eating plan analysis are useful in individual's nutritional assessment. The aim of the study was to assess nutritional status and eating habits in young adults. An average BMI was 23.63 kg/ m2 in the interviewed men, and 20.6 kg/m2 in women. Caloric value of the daily eating plans was average: in men 2943 kcal, in women 2272 kcal. Four people were on diets, but none of BMI over 25 kg/m2. There were no people suffering from food allergies nor gastrointestinal diseases. Only one male did sports (weight-lifting) regularly. The majority of the students ate at lunchtime at the university cafeteria or prepared meals themselves. The eating plans varied very much: the majority was based on the Eating Guide Pyramid and consisted of three balanced meals during the day-time; there were also single cases where students stuck to eating high-calorie meals at night-time mostly. PMID:16146124

  3. Fresh Food Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's "Fresh…

  4. An Analysis of Television Family Nutrition and Eating Habits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Mary S.

    To describe the eating habits of the children and adults on several popular prime time television series, this study examined the latent content of television messages concerned with health care and nutrition. A sample of nine episodes of "The Cosby Show,""Growing Pains" and "Family Ties," during the 1986-87 season was studied. Each program was…

  5. Nurturing Healthy Eating Habits from the Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Daniel B. Kessler, MD, a developmental and behavioral pediatrician, provides guidance on establishing healthy eating patterns in the early years. He emphasizes the importance of the feeding relationship as an important part of a child's social and emotional development. How parents approach feeding and mealtime is about so much more than physical…

  6. Sedentary lifestyle and poor eating habits in childhood:a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Gisele Ferreira; Kaufmann, Cristina Correa; Pretto, Alessandra Doumid Borges; Albernaz, Elaine Pinto

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide, about 22 million children under five years old are overweight. Environmental factors are the main trigger for this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the eating and physical activity habits in a cohort of eight-year-old children in Pelotas, Brazil. Eating habits were assessed based on the Ten Steps to Healthy Eating proposed by the Ministry of Health. To assess the level of physical activity, the physical activity questionnaire for children and adolescents (PAQ-C) was used. Of the 616 interviewed children at 8 years, it was observed that 50.3% were male; 70.3% were white and just over half belonged to economic class C. None of the children were classified as very active and none acceded to a daily consumption of six servings of the cereals, tubers, and roots. The steps that had higher adhesion were 8 (do not add salt to ready foods); 4 (consumption of beans, at least 5 times per week) and 1 (have 3 meals and 2 snacks per day), respectively. The high prevalence of physical inactivity and low level of healthy eating habits confirm the importance of strategies to support and encourage the practice of physical activity and healthy eating among youth. PMID:27076004

  7. Assessment of Adherence to Eating Habit and Exercise Components in a Behavioral Weight Control Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zegman, Marilyn A.

    Although the augmental value of exercise to behavioral weight control programs has been suggested, demonstration of this value is dependent upon an assessment of adherence to change in eating habits and activity patterns. Self-report measures of adherence were obtained from overweight college women undergoing treatment that involved either dietary…

  8. An Examination of Sex Differences in Relation to the Eating Habits and Nutrient Intakes of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kin-Kit; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Ebbeck, Vicki; Woekel, Erica; Readdy, R. Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine sex differences in eating habits and nutrient intakes and explore whether eating habits mediate the effects of sex on nutrient intakes and whether sex moderates the effects of eating habits on nutrient intakes. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of eating habits and food-intake frequency in a convenience sample of college…

  9. Childhood obesity: food, nutrient, and eating-habit trends and influences.

    PubMed

    Roblin, Lynn

    2007-08-01

    The need has never been greater to support healthy eating and physical activity in children and youth; the numbers of overweight and obese children have doubled and tripled, respectively, over the past 3 decades. Poor eating habits, including inadequate intake of vegetables, fruit, and milk, and eating too many high-calorie snacks, play a role in childhood obesity. Grain products provide the highest percentage (31%) of daily calories, followed by "other foods," which have limited nutritional value (22% of daily calories). Snacks account for 27% of total daily calories, which is more than the calories consumed at breakfast (18%) and lunch (24%), but not dinner (31%). For Canadians older than 4 years of age, more than 41% of daily snack calories come from other foods, such as chips, chocolate bars, soft drinks, fruit drinks, sugars, syrup, preserves, fats, and oils. Habits that protect against childhood obesity include eating more vegetables and fruit, eating meals with family, and being physically active. Children's food habits and choices are influenced by family, caregivers, friends, schools, marketing, and the media. Successful interventions for preventing childhood obesity combine family- and school-based programs, nutrition education, dietary change, physical activity, family participation, and counseling. PMID:17622277

  10. Monitoring eating habits using a piezoelectric sensor-based necklace.

    PubMed

    Kalantarian, Haik; Alshurafa, Nabil; Le, Tuan; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-03-01

    Maintaining appropriate levels of food intake and developing regularity in eating habits is crucial to weight loss and the preservation of a healthy lifestyle. Moreover, awareness of eating habits is an important step towards portion control and weight loss. In this paper, we introduce a novel food-intake monitoring system based around a wearable wireless-enabled necklace. The proposed necklace includes an embedded piezoelectric sensor, small Arduino-compatible microcontroller, Bluetooth LE transceiver, and Lithium-Polymer battery. Motion in the throat is captured and transmitted to a mobile application for processing and user guidance. Results from data collected from 30 subjects indicate that it is possible to detect solid and liquid foods, with an F-measure of 0.837 and 0.864, respectively, using a naive Bayes classifier. Furthermore, identification of extraneous motions such as head turns and walking are shown to significantly reduce the false positive rate of swallow detection. PMID:25616023

  11. Eating habits of east Asian people and transmission of taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Soh, C T; Kosman, M L

    1992-04-01

    In order to understand the role of raw meat and viscera eating habits in the transmission of taeniasis in Asian countries, 1502 infected aborigines in ten mountainous districts/towns of six counties in Taiwan, 58 infected persons in two villages on Cheju Island, Korea, and 97 cases in Ambarita District on Samosir Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia were studied during the field surveys. All infected Taiwan aborigines had the habit of eating raw meat and viscera of wild and/or domestic animals. Among these aborigines, 73% ate wild boar, 66% flying squirrel, 65% wild goat, 56% muntjac, 49% wild rats, 46% monkey, 38% hare, 20% civet-cats, 18% weasel, 17% pheasant, 14% squirrel, 4% grouse, 1% deer, 1% snake, less than 1% bamboo partridge, less than 1% frog, less than 1% bear, less than 1% dog, and less than 1% fox. Of the 58 infected persons with Taenia on Cheju Island, Korea, 72% ate raw meat and/or viscera of pig and cattle, 19% raw pork only, and 9% raw beef only. Among 12 infected persons infected with T. saginata-like tapeworms, 7 had eaten raw pork, 2 raw beef and pork and 3 raw pork. Almost all of the 97 cases of taeniasis on Samosir Island of North Sumatra, Indonesia, had eaten only undercooked pork. Eleven of 15 cases were found to be infected with T. saginata-like tapeworms. Eating habits observed suggest an unusual way of transmission of Taenia in East Asia. PMID:1356301

  12. Bad eating habits as the main cause of obesity among children.

    PubMed

    Kuźbicka, Karolina; Rachoń, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is undoubtedly one of the biggest medical problems of the 21st century. Regrettably, the problem affects more and more children and adolescents. 10% of world's school-aged children have an excess body weight and a quarter of these children are obese. In Europe every fifth school-aged child suffers from an excess body weight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Polish adolescents is about 14%. An excess body weight can be the consequence of genetic factors, endocrine disorders or certain drugs. However, "simple obesity" is the most common, consequence of providing too much energy from food products in comparison to energy expenditure (caloric excess). Today's lifestyle promotes the development of obesity. The lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and energy-rich diet are the main causes of an excess body fat accumulation. Because of improper eating behaviours children consume an excess amount of energy; and their diet is deficient in elements necessary for proper development. The examples of such bad eating habits are: snacking highly processed and calorie-rich foods between meals eating in front of the TV screen, skipping breakfasts, drinking sugar-sweetened beverages, "eating out" frequently and "emotional eating". Bad eating behaviours are crucial factors for the development of obesity. Eating habits are usually formed in early childhood and parents play a very important role in their development. PMID:25577898

  13. Habit formation in children: Evidence from incentives for healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, George; Price, Joseph; Volpp, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We present findings from a field experiment conducted at 40 elementary schools involving 8000 children and 400,000 child-day observations, which tested whether providing short-run incentives can create habit formation in children. Over a 3- or 5-week period, students received an incentive for eating a serving of fruits or vegetables during lunch. Relative to an average baseline rate of 39%, providing small incentives doubled the fraction of children eating at least one serving of fruits or vegetables. Two months after the end of the intervention, the consumption rate at schools remained 21% above baseline for the 3-week treatment and 44% above baseline for the 5-week treatment. These findings indicate that short-run incentives can produce changes in behavior that persist after incentives are removed. PMID:26717440

  14. Obesity and the Unbalanced Energy Equation: Exercise versus Eating Habit Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Dahlkoetter, JoAnn

    1979-01-01

    Compared relative effectiveness of exercise and eating habit change individually and in combination for weight loss and physical conditioning. Results indicated significant improvement for all treatment groups. Groups who exercised showed most improvement in physical fitness. Combining exercise and eating habit change yielded best results in…

  15. Eating habits and eating behaviors by family dinner frequency in the lower-grade elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seo Yeon; Ha, Seong Ah; Seo, Jung Sook; Sohn, Cheong Min; Park, Hae Ryun

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recently, there has been an increased interest in the importance of family meals on children's health and nutrition. This study aims to examine if the eating habits and eating behaviors of children are different according to the frequency of family dinners. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were third-grade students from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. The survey questionnaire was composed of items that examined the general characteristics, family meals, eating habits, eating behaviors, and environmental influence on children's eating. The subjects responded to a self-reported questionnaire. Excluding the incomplete responses, the data (n = 3,435) were analyzed using χ2-test or t-test. RESULTS The group that had more frequent family dinners (≥ 5 days/week, 63.4%), compared to those that had less (≤ 4 days/week, 36.6%), showed better eating habits, such as eating meals regularly, performing desirable behaviors during meals, having breakfast frequently, having breakfast with family members (P < 0.001), and not eating only what he or she likes (P < 0.05). Those who had more frequent family dinners also consumed healthy foods with more frequency, including protein foods, dairy products, grains, vegetables, seaweeds (P < 0.001), and fruits (P < 0.01). However, unhealthy eating behaviors (e.g., eating fatty foods, salty foods, sweets, etc.) were not significantly different by the frequency of family dinners. CONCLUSIONS Having dinner frequently with family members was associated with more desirable eating habits and with healthy eating behaviors in young children. Thus nutrition education might be planned to promote family dinners, by emphasizing the benefits of having family meals on children's health and nutrition and making more opportunities for family meals. PMID:25489408

  16. Environmental influences on youth eating habits: insights from parents and teachers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lawrence, Robert; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Youth obesity has increased over the past two decades in South Korea. Researchers employed in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions with parents and teachers from 26 schools in metropolitan South Korea, to examine environmental factors affecting youth eating habits. Home environment and exposure to healthy foods were the most important factors influencing healthy eating habits. Families with working mothers eat out more than do families with stay-at-home mothers. Poor nutrition education is associated with low vegetable intake in elementary school lunches. A cultural emphasis on academic achievement adversely affects children's eating practices. Findings can guide future studies and inform program development. PMID:24884552

  17. [Eating habits of a group of professional volleyball players].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was an analysis of the eating habits of professional volleyball players according to their sex and age. The research has been carried out on a group of 210 men players and women players at the age of 13-25, representatives of sports clubs in Ostrołeka, Myślenice, Bydgoszcz and Warszawa. The research has revealed a limited realisation of rational diets by both men and women players. The most common mistakes made by them include a smaller number of meals during the day than recommended (especially among men), taking up training on empty stomach and insufficient frequency of consumption of dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruit. The research has also revealed excessive consumption of sweets, sweet sparkling drinks and fast food (mainly among men). The examined players to some extent only apply regular strategies of rehydration of their organisms. A high percentage of them do not pay attention to supplementation of liquids after an effort or they drink a lot of liquids at one time. The most frequently chosen drinks were mineral water and isotonic drinks. Supplementation was applied by a small percentage of the players, mainly men, who most often chose vitamins, Izostar, creatine, L-carnitine and HMB. PMID:21735984

  18. Eating in response to exercise cues: Role of self-control fatigue, exercise habits, and eating restraint.

    PubMed

    Stein, Aliza T; Greathouse, Lee J; Otto, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Identifying moderators of compensatory eating is important for understanding the failure of many people to lose weight in response to increased exercise levels. A previous study demonstrated that individuals shown action words (e.g., "active" or "go") were primed by these words to increase energy intake. Further studies have demonstrated that individual differences (e.g. differences in body mass) affect susceptibility to relevant priming cues. Based on these findings, this study examined individual differences, including exercise habits, tendencies toward compensatory eating, dietary restraint, and body mass that may serve as moderators of compensatory eating in the context of conceptual priming. A 2 × 2 design was utilized to analyze the effects of both priming and a self-control task on energy intake. Participants were presented with several snack foods under the guise of a taste test, with energy intake (kcal) during this taste test as the primary outcome variable. Results of this study indicate that, among those with higher baseline levels of exercise, lower energy intake was found for those exposed to exercise cues relative to those who did not receive these cues. In addition, the influence of the self-control fatigue condition was dependent on body mass index. PMID:26363420

  19. The eating habits of Patients with Type 2 diabetes in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Laissaoui, Aicha; Allem, Rachida

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the eating habits and the practice of physical-activity of patients with Tyhpe-2 diabetes. (DT2). Methods: A total of 1523 patients DT2 with average age 58±9.9 were recruited. A questionnaire about their eating habits, physical activity was conducted. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical. Results: Most of the patients were obese (64%), with irregular and weak practice of the physical-activity. The patients based their consumption on food rich with nutrients of high glycaemic index. Their food was mainly characterized by high amounts of fats, the green salads and the desserts (fruits) represent only a secondary amount. Statistically, Overweight + obese patients with diabetes had significantly higher level of consumption of the bread. However, the normal weight patients with diabetes had significantly higher level of the consumption of fruit and vegetables (p=0.006 and p=0 respectively). On the other hand, there was no significant difference in level of the consumption of the greasy substances, milk and dairy products, meat-fish-egg two groups (p=0.53, p=0.06 and P > 0.05). Conclusion: This study showed the need for an improvement in the nutritional care of DT2 patients in the area of Ain Defla (Algeria), also, the practice of the physical-activity, in order to plan an adequate therapeutic care. PMID:27182225

  20. Eating Habits and Lifestyles among a Sample of Obese Working Egyptian Women

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; Wahba, Saneya A.; El-Masry, Sahar A.; Elhamid, Enas R. Abd; Boseila, Samia A.W.; Ahmed, Nihad H.; Ibrahim, Tarek S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The fundamental cause of obesity and overweight is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. AIM: To figure out food habits and different lifestyle pattern among a sample of Egyptian females working at the National Research Centre. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive study, including 138 overweight and obese Egyptian females (BMI ≥ 25 Kg/m2); working at the National Research Centre; was done. A specific questionnaire was used to gather information regarding lifestyle including dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight among the studied subjects was 27%, while that of obesity was 38%. Missing and or infrequent intake of breakfast at home, frequent consumption of snacks, low serving per day of fruits and vegetables with frequent consumption of sweets, fried food, eating while watching TV and sedentary behaviour were all predictors of obesity and overweight among the current sample. CONCLUSION: The present study identified several lifestyle factors and improper dietary habits associated with overweight and obesity among Egyptian females. There is a great need to change these habits to avoid the increasing risk of obesity. A national plan of action to overcome obesity is urgently needed to reduce its economic and health burden.

  1. Football Fans in Training: the development and optimization of an intervention delivered through professional sports clubs to help men lose weight, become more active and adopt healthier eating habits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity in men is rising, but they are less likely than women to engage in existing weight management programmes. The potential of professional sports club settings to engage men in health promotion activities is being increasingly recognised. This paper describes the development and optimization of the Football Fans in Training (FFIT) programme, which aims to help overweight men (many of them football supporters) lose weight through becoming more active and adopting healthier eating habits. Methods The MRC Framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide programme development in two phases. In Phase 1, a multidisciplinary working group developed the pilot programme (p-FFIT) and used a scoping review to summarize previous research and identify the target population. Phase 2 involved a process evaluation of p-FFIT in 11 Scottish Premier League (SPL) clubs. Participant and coach feedback, focus group discussions and interviews explored the utility/acceptability of programme components and suggestions for changes. Programme session observations identified examples of good practice and problems/issues with delivery. Together, these findings informed redevelopment of the optimized programme (FFIT), whose components were mapped onto specific behaviour change techniques using an evidence-based taxonomy. Results p-FFIT comprised 12, weekly, gender-sensitised, group-based weight management classroom and ‘pitch-side’ physical activity sessions. These in-stadia sessions were complemented by an incremental, pedometer-based walking programme. p-FFIT was targeted at men aged 35-65 years with body mass index ≥ 27 kg/m2. Phase 2 demonstrated that participants in p-FFIT were enthusiastic about both the classroom and physical activity components, and valued the camaraderie and peer-support offered by the programme. Coaches appreciated the simplicity of the key healthy eating and physical activity messages

  2. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    PubMed

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age. PMID:27307424

  3. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks’ Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the ‘knowledge’ variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia. PMID:25995724

  4. Exploring Healthy Eating: Activities for Parents and Children Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    This collection of learning units introduces parents to the role of nutrition in their young child's cognitive development. Designed to be easy to read and useful for families with limited resources, the materials help parents teach their young children good eating habits by offering information, feeding tips, creative activities for parents and…

  5. Adolescents' Response to Parental Efforts to Influence Eating Habits: When Parental Warmth Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard, Jared; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng

    2010-01-01

    Previous findings have shown both beneficial and adverse effects of parents' attempts to influence adolescents' eating habits. The current study examined the differential effect of parents' persuasion (e.g., encouragement, giving information) and pressure tactics (e.g., guilt induction, ridicule) and the moderating influence of parental warmth on…

  6. Diet quality and the nighttime eating habits of breakfast skippers: Does stress play a role?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Previous studies suggest that eating breakfast is associated with better diet quality, but reasons underlying this relationship are not clear. Objective. Our objective was to assess diet quality of women with established breakfast habits and determine if stress or cognitive function cont...

  7. The Breakfast-Eating Habits of Inner City High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Nancy M.; Horishita, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    This cross-sectional, descriptive correlational research study describes the breakfast-eating habits of 846 inner-city high school students. Fifty-seven percent of students reported skipping breakfast on the day of the survey, despite the free hot-breakfast program at their high school. Significantly more girls than boys skipped breakfast, and…

  8. Effects of Nutrition Health Intervention on Pupils' Nutrition Knowledge and Eating Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of nutrition health intervention on pupils' nutrition knowledge and eating habits from grade seven to grade nine. The study was part of the ENHPS (since 2008, Schools for Health in Europe (SHE)) program in Finland, and more specifically its sub-project titled "From Puijo to the World…

  9. Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice.

    PubMed

    García-Rovés, Pablo M; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-07-01

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player's career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

  10. Eating habits and attitudes of mothers of children with non-organic failure to thrive.

    PubMed Central

    McCann, J B; Stein, A; Fairburn, C G; Dunger, D B

    1994-01-01

    The eating habits and attitudes concerning body shape and weight among 26 mothers of children with non-organic failure to thrive (the index group) were studied using the eating disorder examination. They were compared with equivalent data on 26 individually matched women who participated in a large community survey. The index mothers' views of their child's weight and shape were also studied. The principal findings were, firstly, that when compared with the comparison group, mothers of children with non-organic failure to thrive had higher levels of dietary restraint. Secondly, despite their child's low weight, 50% of the index mothers were restricting their child's intake of 'sweet' foods, and a further 30% were restricting foods they considered 'fattening' or 'unhealthy'. These results raise the question of whether maternal eating habits and attitudes have a causal role in the genesis of non-organic failure to thrive. They suggest that careful inquiry about the mothers' eating habits and attitudes is needed when assessing children with non-organic failure to thrive. PMID:8135570

  11. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    PubMed Central

    García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

  12. [Promotion of healthy eating habits by schools: a methodological proposal for training courses for educators and school cafeteria owners].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Bethsáida de Abreu Soares; Recine, Elisabetta; Cardoso, Gabriela Tavares; da Silva, Juliana Rezende Melo; Amorim, Nina Flávia de Almeida; Bernardon, Renata; Rodrigues, Maria de Lourdes Carlos Ferreirinha

    2008-01-01

    The project entitled Promotion of Health Eating Habits by Schools, operating in the Federal District of Brazil since 2001, encourages good eating habits in the school community within the context of promoting healthy lifestyles and preventing chronic non-communicable diseases. The current article presents and analyzes a methodology to train preschool and elementary educators and school cafeteria owners. The workshops included theoretical classes, practical activities, and educational games and were evaluated on the basis of expansion and applicability of knowledge, in addition to implementation of the 10 steps to a healthy school cafeteria. The proposed pedagogical activities were verified by an analysis of the teachers' workshop folders. The overall evaluation was positive, with expansion of knowledge (p < 0.05) among participants for the three workshop modules. The objectives laid out in the workshop folders were reached by 44% of the teachers. In the implementation of the healthy cafeteria, positive results were observed when comparing the pre and post-training periods. The methodology helped expand knowledge for both teachers and cafeteria owners, highlighting the school community as a prime space for promoting healthy eating. PMID:18670711

  13. Interventions to promote healthy eating habits: evaluation and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Traill, W B; Shankar, B; Brambila-Macias, J; Bech-Larsen, T; Aschemann-Witzel, J; Strand, M; Mazzocchi, M; Capacci, S; Verbeke, W; Perez-Cueto, F J A; D'Addesa, D; Saba, A; Turrini, A; Niedźwiedzka, B; Kozioł-Kozakowska, A; Kijowska, V; Piórecka, B; Infantes, M; Wills, J; Smillie, L; Chalot, F; Lyle, D

    2010-12-01

    Although in several EU Member States many public interventions have been running for the prevention and/or management of obesity and other nutrition-related health conditions, few have yet been formally evaluated. The multidisciplinary team of the EATWELL project will gather benchmark data on healthy eating interventions in EU Member States and review existing information on the effectiveness of interventions using a three-stage procedure (i) Assessment of the intervention's impact on consumer attitudes, consumer behaviour and diets; (ii) The impact of the change in diets on obesity and health and (iii) The value attached by society to these changes, measured in life years gained, cost savings and quality-adjusted life years. Where evaluations have been inadequate, EATWELL will gather secondary data and analyse them with a multidisciplinary approach incorporating models from the psychology and economics disciplines. Particular attention will be paid to lessons that can be learned from private sector that are transferable to the healthy eating campaigns in the public sector. Through consumer surveys and workshops with other stakeholders, EATWELL will assess the acceptability of the range of potential interventions. Armed with scientific quantitative evaluations of policy interventions and their acceptability to stakeholders, EATWELL expects to recommend more appropriate interventions for Member States and the EU, providing a one-stop guide to methods and measures in interventions evaluation, and outline data collection priorities for the future. PMID:20202134

  14. Eating habits of university students living at, or away from home in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Hondros, George; A Scott, Jane; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of living away from, or in, the family home on the dietary habits of a group of Greek undergraduate University students. Eighty-four undergraduates at Athens Agricultural University, aged 20-24, completed a single, self-administered food habits questionnaire that asked about their current food practices and their food practices before they started University. Students living at home did not show major changes in their eating habits since starting University. Although students living away from the family home had made some positive changes, they decreased their weekly consumption of fresh fruit, cooked and raw vegetables, oily fish, seafood, pulses and olive oil, and increased their sugar, wine, alcohol and fast food intake. Between group comparisons of dietary changes showed that since starting University, students living away from home had developed more unfavourable eating habits than students living at the family home. These findings suggest that moving away from the family home and assuming responsibility for food preparation and purchasing for the first time affect dietary habits in this sample of Greek University students. Nutrition interventions in this young population should be encouraged to promote healthier diets and lifestyles, as well as adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet. PMID:17368642

  15. Food as Risk: How Eating Habits and Food Knowledge Affect Reactivity to Pictures of Junk and Healthy Foods.

    PubMed

    Yegiyan, Narine S; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how people respond to images of junk versus healthy food as a function of their eating habits and food knowledge. The experiment reported here proposed and tested the idea that those with unhealthy eating habits but highly knowledgeable about healthy eating would feel more positive and also more negative toward junk food images compared to images of healthy food because they may perceive them as risky--desirable but potentially harmful. The psychophysiological data collected from participants during their exposure to pictures of junk versus healthy food supported this idea. In addition, unhealthy eaters compared to healthy eaters with the same degree of food knowledge responded more positively to all food items. The findings are critical from a health communication perspective. Because unhealthy eaters produce stronger emotional responses to images of junk food, they are more likely to process information associated with junk food with more cognitive effort and scrutiny. Thus, when targeting this group and using images of junk food, it is important to combine these images with strong message claims and relevant arguments; otherwise, if the arguments are perceived as irrelevant or weak, the motivational activation associated with junk food itself may transfer into an increased desire to consume the unhealthy product. PMID:26503541

  16. [Eating habits in the first year of life: social representations of young mothers].

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Paula Esmeraldo; Javorski, Marly; Amorim, Rosemary de Jesus Machado; de Oliveira, Sheyla Costa; de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena

    2014-01-01

    This is qualitative research that investigates the social representations of adolescent mothers on child eating habits in the first year of life. Its subjects were 10 adolescent mothers, whose children were aged seven to twelve months. Data were collected through semi-structured interview, besides the use of visual material. The analysis followed the technique of content analysis, relying on the framework of Social Representations Theory. That analysis revealed four themes: the conflict of breastfeeding versus consecration of porridge; establishing complementary feeding of the child; crystallized speech: "yogurt is better than a little steak"; the (un)definition of maternal eating habits: implications for infant feeding. The representations that drive maternal practices in selecting, preparing and offering food follow a particular logic, where adolescents reinterpret technical speeches in terms of their culture. PMID:25590888

  17. A study of dietary habits and eating-out behavior of college students in Cheongju area.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Eun; Yoon, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    To find out the effects of the general characteristic on dietary habits and eating out behavior of college students in Cheongju area. The ratios of major were 50.3% (80/159) for food and nutrition and 49.7% (79/159) for the others. The most of respondents missed breakfast and the most reason for skipping meal was no time. Older and younger group were different significantly in skipping meal, reason of meal skip, place of lunch, cost of lunch, and preferred lunch menu (P< 0.05, P< 0.01). Continuous instructions should be made on the problems of dietary habits or eating-out behaviors in the results of this study through education, and by seeking for alternatives from different angles such as various nutrition education and nutrition improvement programs. PMID:24763199

  18. Novel methods to help develop healthier eating habits for eating and weight disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Turton, Robert; Bruidegom, Kiki; Cardi, Valentina; Hirsch, Colette R; Treasure, Janet

    2016-02-01

    This paper systematically reviews novel interventions developed and tested in healthy controls that may be able to change the over or under controlled eating behaviours in eating and weight disorders. Electronic databases were searched for interventions targeting habits related to eating behaviours (implementation intentions; food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification). These were assessed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In healthy controls the implementation intention approach produces a small increase in healthy food intake and reduction in unhealthy food intake post-intervention. The size of these effects decreases over time and no change in weight was found. Unhealthy food intake was moderately reduced by food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification post-intervention. This work may have important implications for the treatment of populations with eating and weight disorders. However, these findings are preliminary as there is a moderate to high level of heterogeneity in implementation intention studies and to date there are few food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification studies. PMID:26695383

  19. Eating habits, obesity related behaviors, and effects of Danhak exercise in elderly Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Jong Hyun; Shin, Dong Joo; Choi, Dal Woong; Park, Soo Jin; Kang, Nam-E

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate obesity-related dietary behaviors and to determine long-term exercise effects on obesity and blood lipid profiles in elderly Korean subjects. A total of 120 subjects, aged 60-75 yr, were recruited, and obesity-related dietary behaviors were determined. An exercise intervention was conducted with 35 qualified elderly females for 6 months, and body composition and blood lipids were measured 6 times at 4 week intervals. At baseline, mean BMI (kg/m2) was 24.8 for males and 23.1 for females. The females had better eating habits than the males and were more concerned with reading nutrition labels on food products (P < 0.001); they also preferred convenience foods less than the male subjects (P < 0.05). Obese individuals were more likely than overweight or normal weight individuals to misperceive their weight (P < 0.001). Those with a high BMI responded feeling more depressed (P < 0.01), lacking self-confidence (P < 0.01), and feeling isolated (P < 0.01), as well as having more difficulty doing outdoor activities (P < 0.01). After exercise, body fat (%) and WHR were significantly reduced (P < 0.05), while body weight and BMI were also decreased without statistical significance. Total cholesterol and blood HDL were significantly improved (207.1 mg/dl vs. 182.6 mg/dl, HDL: 45.6 mg/dl vs. 50.6 mg/dl, P < 0.05). Other benefits obtained from exercise were improvements in self-confidence (26.4%), movement (22.6%), stress-relief (18.9%), and depression (13.2%). In conclusion, elderly females had better eating habits and were more concerned with nutrition information and healthy diets compared to elderly males. However, misperceptions of weight and obesity-related stress tended to be very high in females who were overweight and obese, which can be a barrier to maintain normal weight. Long-term Danhak practice, a traditional Korean exercise, was effective at reducing body fat (%) and abdominal obesity, and improved lipid profiles, self

  20. Parental feeding styles and adolescents' healthy eating habits. Structure and correlates of a Costa Rican questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sánchez-López, Marta; Chinnock, Anne

    2010-10-01

    This study designed and validated a questionnaire aimed at examining parental feeding styles to encourage healthy eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Adolescents (n=133; mean age 15.4 years), and their parents, participated in the study. The parents completed a parental feeding style questionnaire, and the adolescents completed 3-day food records. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest four distinct parental feeding styles, (a) verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors; (b) use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food; (c) direct control of access to and intake of food; and (d) use of food to regulate emotions and behavior. There were no correlations between dietary intake and the verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors, but there were significant negative correlations between (1) "the use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food", and the consumption of fruit and vegetable, of calcium, iron, vitamin B6 and folic acid intake, and (2) between the "direct control of access to and intake of food" and fast food consumption and total carbohydrates intake. The use of food to regulate emotions and behavior was positively correlated with high energy-dense food consumption. Stratification of the data shows significant differences by gender in the correlations between parental feeding style and dietary intake. Understanding parental feeding styles in a Latin American context is a first step in helping researchers develops culturally-appropriate parenting intervention/prevention strategies to encourage healthy eating behaviors during adolescence. PMID:20600415

  1. Measurement of, and some reasons for, differences in eating habits between night and day workers.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, J; Buckley, P; Edwards, B; Reilly, T

    2003-11-01

    A questionnaire was designed to assess the following: why working people chose to eat or not to eat at a particular time of day; the factors that influenced the type of food eaten; and subjective responses to the meal (hunger before, enjoyment during, satiety afterward). Self-assessments were done every 3 h during a typical week containing work and rest days, by one group of 50 day workers and another group of 43 night workers. During the night work hours compared to rest days, night workers evidenced a significantly altered food intake, with a greater frequency of cold rather than hot food (p < 0.001). The type and frequency of meals were influenced significantly more (p < 0.05) by habit and time availability and less by appetite. This pattern continued into the hours immediately after the night shift had ended. In day workers food intake during work hours, compared to rest days, was also influenced significantly more often (p < 0.05) by time availability than hunger, but less so than with night workers. Moreover, day workers were less dependent than night workers upon snacks (p = 0.01), and any significant differences from rest days did not continue beyond work hours. Not only did night workers change their eating habits during work days more than did day workers but also they looked forward to their meals significantly less (p < 0.001) and felt more bloated after consuming them (p < 0.05), such effects being present to some extent during their rest days also. These findings have clear implications for measures designed to ease eating problems that are commonly problematic in night workers. PMID:14680144

  2. "BodyWorks": A Parent-Focused Program to Promote Healthful Eating and Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Valerie Melino; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Blake, Susan M.; Marr, Amanda; Rowe, Jonelle; Wasserman, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The "BodyWorks" program was designed to help parents improve family eating and activity behaviors. "BodyWorks" was associated with significant gains in parents' knowledge about nutrition and activity, and greater self-efficacy to set family nutrition goals, plan physical activities, and change eating habits. (Contains 1 table.)

  3. An association between the internalization of body image, depressive symptoms and restrictive eating habits among young males.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Meireles, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Dias, Fernanda Coelho; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the relationship between the internalization of body image and depressive symptoms with restrictive eating habits among young males. Three hundred and eighty-three male adolescents, aged between twelve and seventeen, took part in this survey. The "Overall Internalization" and "Athletic Internalization" sub-scales taken from the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) were used to evaluate the internalization of body images. The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms. The "Diet" sub-scale from the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to evaluate restrictive eating habits. The logistic regression findings indicated 2.01 times greater chances of youngsters with a high level of overall internalization adopting restrictive eating habits (Wald = 6.16; p = 0.01) when compared with those with low levels. On the other hand, the regression model found no significant association between "Athletic Internalization" (Wald = 1.16; p = 0.23) and depressive symptoms (Wald = 0.81; p = 0.35) with eating restrictions. The findings made it possible to conclude that only overall internalization was related to eating restrictions among young males. PMID:26602723

  4. Development of healthy eating habits early in life. Review of recent evidence and selected guidelines.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Camille; Scholtens, Petra A M J; Lalanne, Amandine; Weenen, Hugo; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Encouraging healthy eating habit development early in life is a way to prevent the onset of diet-related diseases. This review focuses on the period ranging from the beginning of complementary feeding until the age of 3 years. Its first objective was to review relevant themes in the most recent literature on the development of healthy eating habits in this period. Its second objective was to evaluate to what extent international and national feeding guidelines cover these themes. Analysed guidelines included WHO, European Network for Public Health Nutrition, US and two European national guidelines (UK and France). They were evaluated using a 4-pt scale and compared. Well-covered themes in current literature include the influence of exposure on later acceptance, the role of variety and parental styles. Themes that occur more rarely include the role of texture, the development of autonomy, the optimization of variety, acceptable consumption levels of sweet and salty foods, and the way to cope with food refusal. Guidelines in general cover most of the themes, but some of the national guidelines are incomplete. Finally, guidelines should give more practical tips to parents, especially to help them establish a responsive feeding behaviour. PMID:21651929

  5. Relationship between Eating Behaviors and Physical Activity among Primary and Secondary School Students: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Pascale; Turcotte, Sylvain; Perreault, Gino

    2013-01-01

    Background: With a view toward developing concerted efforts in fostering healthy eating habits and a physically active lifestyle among young people, a study was carried out to explore associations between eating behavior and physical activity (PA). Methods: In the school district, questionnaires were completed at home by parents of primary school…

  6. What are the television viewing and eating habits of children in Peru?

    PubMed

    Busse, Peter; Díaz, Ramón

    2016-03-01

    While there is already consensus in the scientific community about the deleterious effects of TV exposure, especially through TV advertisements, on children's beliefs, preferences, and food intake, the link between TV and children's eating behaviors is under-studied in Peru, a country experiencing a steady economic growth in recent years and currently with a status of upper-middle-income country. Following research about the effects of media exposure on childhood obesity, we report on a qualitative study of TV viewing and the eating habits of children attending elementary schools in Lima, the capital. Data from eight focus groups with 38 boys and girls between 6 and 11 years old, eight focus groups with 36 female caretakers, and in-depth interviews with two fathers provided consistent information about children's eating habits and media viewing patterns. After dual coding the entire corpus of qualitative data, we found that children watch a great deal of TV during the school season: children watch as early as when they wake up in the morning, then during lunchtime (after returning from school), and then again after completing their homework from 5 pm to 9 pm or 10 pm. Survey data from the parents showed that, on average, children watch about 5 hours of TV on weekdays and more during a weekend-day. This large amount of exposure is concerning, especially because the focus groups revealed that children (1) recall a number of TV advertisements involving food items, (2) request food items seen on TV, and (3) are able to buy food for themselves, which usually involves chocolate, candy, or potato chips. Boys and girls reported different favorite TV shows, suggesting differences in exposure to TV content related to food. In addition, some families reported drinking sodas frequently, underlining a behavior that should be discouraged by public health officials. PMID:25316673

  7. Changing Your Habits: Steps to Better Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... your eating and physical activity habits and outlines four stages people may experience when changing a health ... your habits. The stages of change diagram describes four stages that people may go through when changing ...

  8. Comparative Study of Lifestyle: Eating Habits, Sedentary Lifestyle and Anthropometric Development in Spanish 5- To 15-yr-Olds

    PubMed Central

    MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA, María; RUSO JULVE, Candelaria; LLOPIS GONZÁLEZ, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Background: The infant-juvenile period is one of high vulnerability during the lifestyles chosen become determining factors for future health status. This study aimed to evaluate lifestyle, specifically eating habits and physical activity, in 5–15-year-olds in Spain and their health status (anthropometry). Methods: This cross-sectional population study with two time points (2006 and 2013) was conducted by compiling data from the Spanish National Health Survey. We used the minor survey, specifically the data from the Health Determinants module, which included 5–15-year-olds. Compiled information was obtained from parents or guardians. Results: The overall overweight and obesity prevalence in Spain (2013) in 5- to 15-year-olds is 24.3%. A drop of 8.2% in meat consumption was found, while overall intake was high. Daily intake of plant-based food (fruit, vegetables, pulses) was low, especially vegetables (32.9%). Increased sedentary lifestyle was observed, probably because the use of communication technologies has increased in recent years (P<0.001). Moreover, watching TV rose to 19.3% for 1 hour/day watching TV on weekdays and to 23.5% at weekends. Conclusion: When comparing the two time points (2006 and 2013), we observed that lifestyle, eating habits and physical activity strongly associated with the Spanish infant-juvenile population’s anthropometry. Mediterranean diet patterns seem to be abandoned and physical activity is practiced less, which will have a negative impact on future quality of life. PMID:26056667

  9. Eating habits and opinions of teen-agers on nutrition and obesity.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, N A; Poznanski, R; Guggenheim, K

    1975-03-01

    Opinions about good nutrition, causes of obesity and its prevention, as well as certain eating habits, were studied in 482 Israeli children (251 boys and 231 girls), thirteen to fourteen years old. Height, weight, and triceps skinfolds were measured. Mean relative weight and relative logarithmic skinfold thickness were close to standard, although 8 per cent of the boys and 9 per cent of the girls weighed more than 120 per cent of standard weight for their age and sex. Weight was closely associated with skinfold thickness. Over two-thirds of both boys and girls believed that daily consumption of milk, bread, fruits, eggs, cheese, meat, and tomatoes is desirable, and about two-thirds stated that overeating is a cause of obesity. More overweight than thin and normal-weight children indicated that, to prevent obesity, all kinds of food are permissible, but only in limited amounts. Most children believed in the fattening value of cakes, sweets, fried and fatty food, potatoes, bread, and nuts. The belief in the fattening value of potatoes, bread, and nuts was shared by a higher percentage of overweight than of under- and normal-weight children. Overweight children, particularly girls, reported eating less bread, cake, and cream, adding less sugar to beverages, and eating sweets and ice cream less frequently than thin and normal-weight children. A higher percentage of the obese group reported skipping one meal and eating no snack at school. Overweight teen-agers appear to be more conscious of their food intake than under- and normal-weight children. PMID:1123503

  10. Tempting food words activate eating simulations

    PubMed Central

    Papies, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food. PMID:24298263

  11. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  12. Are eating habits effective screening indicators for anemia in elderly Japanese people? The Kyushu-Asakura Project (KAP)

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore whether the presence of unhealthy eating habits is an effective indicator of anemia among older people or not. Methods: We used data from a prospective observational cohort study of all users who underwent an annual health checkup at a public clinic in a rural area. The subjects of the present study were 150 users aged 75 years and older who underwent the checkup between January and September 2010. The subjects were first divided by gender and further separated into anemic and non-anemic subgroups according to their estimated anemia prevalences: Hb < 130 g/L for males and Hb < 120 g/L for females. For each category, we compared the subjects’ lifestyles including eating habits between the anemic and non-anemic groups. Results: Both among the women and the men aged 75 and over, there were no significant differences in any items including eating habits between the two anemic subgroups. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the presence of unhealthy eating habits is not an effective indicator of anemia among older people. PMID:26380591

  13. Acculturation, weight status, and eating habits among Chinese-American preschool children and their primary caregivers: A pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated acculturation, eating habits, and weight status among 53 Chinese-American children and their primary caregivers. Caregivers’ mean acculturation score was 2.1, indicating low acculturation. Caregivers’ mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.3; 21% were overweight (BMI is greater ...

  14. Weight loss methods and changes in eating habits among successful weight losers.

    PubMed

    Soini, Sirpa; Mustajoki, Pertti; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-02-01

    Background Changes in several lifestyle related factors are required for successful long-term weight loss. Identification of these factors is of major importance from a public health point of view. Methods/subjects This study was based upon findings from the Finnish Weight Control Registry (FWCR), a web-based registry. In total, 316 people were recruited and 184 met the study inclusion criteria. The aims of this study were to assess means and typical changes in eating habits associated with successful long-term weight loss. Results Half of the participants (48%) reported that they lost weight slowly primarily with dietary changes. Self-weighing frequency was high, 92% was weighing themselves at least once a week during the weight loss phase, and 75% during the maintenance phase. Dietary aspects associated with successful weight loss and weight maintenance included an increase in intake of vegetables, a reduction in frequency of eating candies and fast food, regular meal frequency and application of the Plate model. Conclusions Both slow and fast weight loss may lead to successful long-term results and weight maintenance. A decrease in energy intake was achieved by reducing intake of energy-dense food, applying the Plate model and by regular meal frequency. Key messages Successful long-term weight loss is associated with a reduction in intake of energy-dense food. A more regular meal frequency and a high frequency of self-weighing seem to be helpful. PMID:26820173

  15. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p < 0.05). Female students in urban areas ate dairy products (p < 0.01) and fruits (p < 0.001) more frequently than female students in suburban areas. Students had the high preferences for boiled rice and noodles with black bean sauce, beef rib soup, steamed beef rib, steamed egg, beef boiled in soy sauce, egg roll, bulgogi, pork cutlet, deep-fried pork covered with sweet and sour starchy sauce, and honeyed juice mixed with fruit as a punch. All students preferred kimchi, although students in the suburban areas preferred kimchi-fried rice (p < 0.05), and those in the urban areas preferred bean-paste soup (p < 0.01). Students in suburban areas showed a greater preference for seasoned bean sprouts and Altari kimchi. All of the students preferred fruits, rice cake made with glutinous rice, and pizza among other foods. Overall, there were distinct differences in the eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence. PMID:26251838

  16. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p < 0.05). Female students in urban areas ate dairy products (p < 0.01) and fruits (p < 0.001) more frequently than female students in suburban areas. Students had the high preferences for boiled rice and noodles with black bean sauce, beef rib soup, steamed beef rib, steamed egg, beef boiled in soy sauce, egg roll, bulgogi, pork cutlet, deep-fried pork covered with sweet and sour starchy sauce, and honeyed juice mixed with fruit as a punch. All students preferred kimchi, although students in the suburban areas preferred kimchi-fried rice (p < 0.05), and those in the urban areas preferred bean-paste soup (p < 0.01). Students in suburban areas showed a greater preference for seasoned bean sprouts and Altari kimchi. All of the students preferred fruits, rice cake made with glutinous rice, and pizza among other foods. Overall, there were distinct differences in the eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence. PMID:26251838

  17. Eating habits and subjective well-being. A typology of students in Chilean state universities.

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán; Orellana, Ligia; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Etchebarne, Soledad; Mora, Marcos; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish and characterize university student typologies according to their life satisfaction and satisfaction with their food-related life. An online survey was applied between June and August 2013 in five state universities in Chile, to 369 university students (mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals in the place of residence and the frequency of consumption of eight food groups. A cluster analysis was used to determine student typologies. Three typologies of students were distinguished with significant differences in the average scores of the SWLS and SWFL scales, self-perception of health, days with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns that foster healthful eating in the entire university population, these campaigns must be specifically targeted to students who do not receive direct support from their families. PMID:25675858

  18. [Physical activity, eating behavior, and pathology].

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Estébanez Humanes, Sonia; Santiago Fernández, María José

    2008-09-01

    Intense physical activity has been reported in patients with eating disorders, and hyperactivity can be found in more than 80% in severe stages. The beginning of food restriction occurs at earlier ages if there is an intense physical activity; body dissatisfaction is more intense among patients who practice exercise; and the presence of intense activity in anorexia nervosa usually precedes to the restrictive diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of exercise at the beginning of the eating disorder, and to analyze possible differences in the kind of exercise, according to age, sex and diagnostic subgroups. In order to evaluate the exercise 745 patients were assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE). The presence of physical activity (driving to caloric consumption, weight loss or modification of body shape), kind of activity, and its intensity were considered. Only the presence of moderate or high intensity clearly related with the mentioned objectives was considered. 407 patients (54.63%) engaged in exercise: 68.96% with anorexia, 68.96% with bulimia, and 34.73% with other non-specified eating disorders. There were not significant differences between men and women. Hyperactivity was the most frequent (47.42%), followed by gym activity (25.79%). Taking into account the different clinic subgroups, we could observe significant differences. To assess eating disorders, a correct evaluation of the physical activity should be necessary in order to include this aspect in treatment programs. PMID:19137991

  19. Space station group activities habitability module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David

    1986-01-01

    This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

  20. Impact of healthy eating practices and physical activity on quality of life among breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Shooka; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Koon, Poh Bee; Amani, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Following breast cancer diagnosis, women often attempt to modify their lifestyles to improve their health and prevent recurrence. These behavioral changes typically involve diet and physical activity modification. The aim of this study was to determine association between healthy eating habits and physical activity with quality of life among Iranian breast cancer survivors. A total of 100 Iranian women, aged between 32 to 61 years were recruited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Eating practices were evaluated by a validated questionnaire modified from the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) study. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). A standardized questionnaire by the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life and its breast cancer module (EORTC QLQ-C30/+BR-23) were applied to determine quality of life. Approximately 29% of the cancer survivors were categorized as having healthy eating practices, 34% had moderate eating practices and 37% had poor eating practices based on nutrition guidelines. The study found positive changes in the decreased intake of fast foods (90%), red meat (70%) and increased intake of fruits (85%) and vegetables (78%). Generally, breast cancer survivors with healthy eating practices had better global quality of life, social, emotional, cognitive and role functions. Result showed that only 12 women (12%) met the criteria for regular vigorous exercise, 22% had regular moderate-intensity exercise while the majority (65%) had low-intensity physical activity. Breast cancer survivors with higher level of physical activity had better emotional and cognitive functions. Healthy eating practices and physical activity can improve quality of life of cancer survivors. Health care professionals should promote good dietary habits and physical activity to improve survivors' health and quality of life. PMID:23534778

  1. Identifying Barriers, Perceptions and Motivations Related to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among 6th to 8th Grade, Rural, Limited-Resource Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Janavi; Adhikari, Koushik; Li, Yijing; Lindshield, Erika; Muturi, Nancy; Kidd, Tandalayo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to enable community members to discuss their perceptions of eating habits and physical activity in relation to sixth, seventh, and eighth graders, and reveal facilitators and barriers to healthy eating behavior and physical activity engagement. Design/methodology/approach: Nine focus groups, which included six…

  2. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-01-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population. PMID:26797054

  3. Home Food Availability, Parental Dietary Intake, and Familial Eating Habits Influence the Diet Quality of Urban Hispanic Children

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Alexandra K.; Carrel, Aaron L.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality. Methods: Hispanic children, 10–14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey. Results: The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had “good” scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that “need improvement” (HEI, 51–80), and 14% had “poor” scores (HEI, <50). Children with lower HEI scores had sugar-sweetened beverages available at home and participated in family meals while watching television more frequently, when compared with children with higher HEI scores. Conclusions: Home food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health. PMID:25259675

  4. [Design and validation of a scale to assess self-regulation of eating habits in Mexican university students].

    PubMed

    Campos-Uscanga, Yolanda; Lagunes Córdoba, Roberto; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Romo-González, Tania

    2015-03-01

    Healthy eating habits promote wellness and prevent disease, however, despite the intention to change a bad habit, people often fail in theirattempts. This is due, since the performance of a change requires self-regulation skills that allow to observe, to evaluate and to take an action, in a constant motivation during the all the process; not only theknowledge about proper nutrition. The objective of this study was to design and validate an instrument to evaluate the level of self-regulation for eating habits in college students.62 items were written and evaluated by four expert judges. Two applications of the instrument were performed to 487 subjects. An unweighted least squares factor analysis whit direct Oblimin rotation was performed. The items saturated in more than one factor were discarded, as well as those who had a loading factor less than 0.40 or commonality less than 0.30. It was obtained an instrument integrated by 14 items grouped into three factors, which explained the 46.9% of the variance: self-reaction, self-observation and self-evaluation. Cronbach's alpha yielded a high reliability coefficient (α = 0.874).The results show that the scale is a valid and reliable tool to measure of self-regulation of eating habits in college students. Its applications include the diagnostic of a population and the evaluation of interventions aimed to improving nutrition based on the assumption that the processes of change require sustained self-regulation skills in people protective effect against increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. PMID:26320305

  5. [The specificity of children and adolescent eating habits (data for schoolchildren in Moscow and Murmansk)].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, A A; Poriadina, G I; Kotova, M B; Ivanova, E I

    2014-01-01

    Objective of the study is to evaluate the specificity of schoolchildren's eating behavior in the cities of Moscow and Murmansk. Dietary habits of 785 children 10-17 years old residing in two cities--Moscow (222 boys and 221 girls, 14.1 ± 1.9 years old) and Murmansk (183 and 159 correspondingly, 14.1 ± 1.8 years old)--were analyzed. The questionnaire included data on the meals ratio per day, frequency of vegetables and fruit intake, fast-food intake, hot meals, soft drinks, meat, fish and milk intake, usage of school cafeteria, regularity of breakfasts. Parents responded to questions concerning the materialsupport of family and education. It was found that more than half of schoolchildren (64.4%) had meals irregularly (3 times per day or less), only 50.9% received hot meals several times a day. Every third child (31.6%) has insufficient intake of vegetables and fruit, 11.8%--insufficient intake of meat dishes. Only 51.4% of schoolchildren consumed dairy products daily (one or several times a day). At the same time 19.5% of children used fast-food products several times a week or more often, 42.2%--carbonated drinks, and 22.7%--smoked food. Only 45.7% of schoolchildren regularly ate at school caf- eteria; 21.9% did it irregularly and 32.5%--did not attend school canteen at all. There were no significant differences between Moscow and Murmansk children as well as gender differences in the usage of school cafeteria. At the same time only 23.4% of children [26.3% in Moscow and 19.3% in Murmansk (significantly less, p = 0.032)] liked cafeteria food, 38.7% did not like and 37.9% had no certain answer. Less obese children (54.0%) have breakfast everyday than children with normal weight (75.4%, p = 0.019). Children of mothers with high and incomplete high education (89.4%) have more regular meat intake (3-4 times per week or more often) than the children of mothers with secondary, incomplete secondary and secondary special education (81.9%, p = 0.034). Schoolchildren

  6. Hearty Habits. Don't Eat Your Heart Out. 15-18 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of this illustrated guide is to teach 15-18 year old students that all healthy Americans, 2 years of age or older, should eat in a way that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol to help reduce the risk of heart disease. The theme reflected throughout the manual is that changes in eating patterns help lower blood cholesterol levels…

  7. Subjective face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility, sleeping disturbances and aberrant eating habits in families with Asperger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Paavonen, Juulia E; Ylisaukko-Oja, Tero; Sarenius, Susan; Källman, Tiia; Järvelä, Irma; von Wendt, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    Background The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether a set of clinical features, which are not included in the DSM-IV or ICD-10 for Asperger Syndrome (AS), are associated with AS in particular or whether they are merely a familial trait that is not related to the diagnosis. Methods Ten large families, a total of 138 persons, of whom 58 individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AS and another 56 did not to fulfill these criteria, were studied using a structured interview focusing on the possible presence of face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility and eating habits and sleeping disturbances. Results The prevalence for face recognition difficulties was 46.6% in individuals with AS compared with 10.7% in the control group. The corresponding figures for subjectively reported presence of aberrant sensibilities were 91.4% and 46.6%, for sleeping disturbances 48.3% and 23.2% and for aberrant eating habits 60.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion An aberrant processing of sensory information appears to be a common feature in AS. The impact of these and other clinical features that are not incorporated in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV on our understanding of AS may hitherto have been underestimated. These associated clinical traits may well be reflected by the behavioural characteristics of these individuals. PMID:15826308

  8. Eating habits of preschool children and the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective : Nutrient excess and nutrient deficiency in the diets of preschool children can lead to permanent modification of metabolic pathways and increased risk of diet-dependent diseases in adults. Children are most susceptible to the adverse consequences of bad eating habits.The objective of this study was to evaluate the eating habits and the diets of preschool children as risk factors for excessive weight, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Methods : The study was conducted on 350 randomly selected preschool children attending kindergartens in south-eastern Poland. Three-day dietary recalls were processed and evaluated in the Dieta 5 application. Results : The analyzed diets were characterized by low diversity and a high share of processed foods, such as pate, sausages, ketchup, mayonnaise, fried meat, French fries and fast-food. The dietary content of vegetables, raw fruit, dairy products and whole grain products was alarmingly low. Conclusions : Diets characterized by excessive energy value and nutritional deficiency can lead to health problems. In most cases, excessive weight gain in children can be blamed on parents and caretakers who are not aware of the health consequences of high-calorie foods rich in fats and sugar. PMID:25674127

  9. Occupational Disparities in the Association between Self-Reported Salt-Eating Habit and Hypertension in Older Adults in Xiamen, China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Manqiong; Chen, Wei; Teng, Bogang; Fang, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Blood pressure responses to sodium intake are heterogeneous among populations. Few studies have assessed occupational disparities in the association between sodium intake and hypertension in older people. We used cross-sectional data from 14,292 participants aged 60 years or older in Xiamen, China, in 2013. Self-reported salt-eating habit was examined with three levels: low, medium, and high. The main lifetime occupation was classified into indoor laborer and outdoor laborer. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations of hypertension with self-reported salt-eating habit, main lifetime occupation, and their interactions by adjusting for some covariates, with further stratification by sex. Overall, 13,738 participants had complete data, of whom 30.22% had hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 31.57%, 28.63%, and 31.97% in participants who reported to have low, medium, and high salt-eating habit, respectively. Outdoor laborers presented significantly lower prevalence of hypertension than indoor laborers (26.04% vs. 34.26%, p < 0.001). Indoor laborers with high salt-eating habit had the greatest odds of hypertension (OR = 1.32, 95% CI [1.09–1.59]). An increased trend of odds in eating habit as salt-heavier was presented in indoor laborers (p-trend = 0.048), especially for women (p-trend = 0.001). No clear trend presented in men. Conclusively, sex-specific occupational disparities exist in the association between self-reported salt-eating habit and hypertension in older individuals. Overlooking the potential moderating role of sex and occupation might affect the relationship between sodium intake and hypertension. PMID:26805865

  10. Media and technology use predicts ill-being among children, preteens and teenagers independent of the negative health impacts of exercise and eating habits

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, L.D.; Lim, A.F.; Felt, J.; Carrier, L.M.; Cheever, N.A.; Lara-Ruiz, J.M.; Mendoza, J.S.; Rokkum, J.

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no screen time for children under the age of 2 and limited screen time for all children. However, no such guidelines have been proposed for preteens and teenagers. Further, research shows that children, preteens, and teenagers are using massive amounts of media and those with more screen time have been shown to have increased obesity, reduced physical activity, and decreased health. This study examined the impact of technology on four areas of ill-being–psychological issues, behavior problems, attention problems and physical health–among children (aged 4–8), preteens (9–12), and teenagers (13–18) by having 1030 parents complete an online, anonymous survey about their own and their child's behaviors. Measures included daily technology use, daily food consumption, daily exercise, and health. Hypothesis 1, which posited that unhealthy eating would predict impaired ill-being, was partially supported, particularly for children and preteens. Hypothesis 2, which posited that reduced physical activity would predict diminished health levels, was partially supported for preteens and supported for teenagers. Hypothesis 3, that increased daily technology use would predict ill-being after factoring out eating habits and physical activity, was supported. For children and preteens, total media consumption predicted illbeing while for preteens specific technology uses, including video gaming and electronic communication, predicted ill-being. For teenagers, nearly every type of technological activity predicted poor health. Practical implications were discussed in terms of setting limits and boundaries on technology use and encouraging healthy eating and physical activity at home and at school. PMID:25717216

  11. Feeling ‘too fat’ rather than being ‘too fat’ increases unhealthy eating habits among adolescents – even in boys

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, Jolanda S.; Gustafsson, Per A.; Nelson, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period of gender-specific physical changes, during which eating habits develop. To better understand what factors determine unhealthy eating habits such as dieting to lose weight, skipping meals, and consumption of unhealthy foods, we studied how physical measurements and body perception relate to eating habits in boys and girls, before and during adolescence. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we obtained data from both written questionnaires and physical measurements of height, weight, and waist circumference (WC). Results Dieting to lose weight and skipping breakfast were more common among adolescents than among younger boys and girls (p<0.05). The strongest risk factor for dieting in both boys and girls was perception of overweight, which persisted after adjusting for age and for being overweight (p<0.01). Another independent risk factor for dieting behaviour was overweight, as defined by body mass index (BMI) among boys (p<0.01) and WC among girls (p<0.05). In both boys and girls, skipping breakfast was associated with both a more negative body perception and higher BMI (p<0.05). Skipping breakfast was also associated with age- and gender-specific unhealthy eating habits such as skipping other meals, lower consumption of fruits and vegetables, and higher consumption of sweets and sugary drinks (p<0.05). Conclusion Body perception among adolescents is an important factor relating to unhealthy eating habits, not only in girls, but even in boys. Focus on body perception and eating breakfast daily is crucial for the development of healthy food consumption behaviours during adolescence and tracking into adulthood. PMID:26894992

  12. Awareness and Habit: Important Factors in Physical Activity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremers, Stef P. J.; Dijkman, Marieke A. M.; de Meij, Judith S. B.; Jurg, Merlin E.; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the extent to which Dutch children are aware of their own physical activity level, and to what extent children's physical activity is habitual. Special attention was paid to the potential moderating effect of "awareness" and "habit strength" on the association between psychosocial factors…

  13. Maternal Eating and Physical Activity Strategies and their Relation with Children's Nutritional Status1

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Ortiz-Félix, Rosario Edith; Cárdenas-Villarreal, Velia Margarita; Ávila-Alpirez, Hermelinda; Alba-Alba, Corina Mariela; Hernández-Carranco, Roandy Gaspar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to describe the maternal eating and physical activity strategies (monitoring, discipline, control, limits and reinforcement) [MEES]; to determine the relation between MEES and the child's nutritional status [body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BFP)]; to verify whether the MEES differ according to the child's nutritional status. Method participants were 558 mothers and children (3 to 11 years of age) who studied at public schools. The Parental Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) was applied and the child's weight, height and BFP were measured. For analysis purposes, descriptive statistics were obtained, using multiple linear regression and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results the highest mean score was found for reinforcement (62.72) and the lowest for control (50.07). Discipline, control and limits explained 12% of the BMI, while discipline and control explained 6% of the BFP. Greater control is found for obese children (χ2=38.36, p=0.001) and greater reinforcement for underweight children (χ2=7.19, p<0.05). Conclusions the mothers exert greater control (pressure to eat) over obese children and greater recognition (congratulating due to healthy eating) in underweight children. Modifications in parental strategies are recommended with a view to strengthening healthy eating and physical activity habits. PMID:26107837

  14. Eating tools in hand activate the brain systems for eating action: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kaori; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Oga, Tatsuhide; Nakajima, Yasoichi

    2014-07-01

    There is increasing neuroimaging evidence suggesting that visually presented tools automatically activate the human sensorimotor system coding learned motor actions relevant to the visual stimuli. Such crossmodal activation may reflect a general functional property of the human motor memory and thus can be operating in other, non-limb effector organs, such as the orofacial system involved in eating. In the present study, we predicted that somatosensory signals produced by eating tools in hand covertly activate the neuromuscular systems involved in eating action. In Experiments 1 and 2, we measured motor evoked response (MEP) of the masseter muscle in normal humans to examine the possible impact of tools in hand (chopsticks and scissors) on the neuromuscular systems during the observation of food stimuli. We found that eating tools (chopsticks) enhanced the masseter MEPs more greatly than other tools (scissors) during the visual recognition of food, although this covert change in motor excitability was not detectable at the behavioral level. In Experiment 3, we further observed that chopsticks overall increased MEPs more greatly than scissors and this tool-driven increase of MEPs was greater when participants viewed food stimuli than when they viewed non-food stimuli. A joint analysis of the three experiments confirmed a significant impact of eating tools on the masseter MEPs during food recognition. Taken together, these results suggest that eating tools in hand exert a category-specific impact on the neuromuscular system for eating. PMID:24835403

  15. Gelatinous bone marrow transformation secondary to unusual eating habits and drastic weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Rafiullah; Islam, Rezwan; Mahmood, Ruth; Sitwala, Kajal V

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT), also known as starvation bone marrow, has been reported in a number of chronic illnesses, eating disorders (anorexia nervosa) and malignancies. We report the case of a 37-year-old man with a history of bipolar disorder and obesity (weighing >300 pounds) who presented due to recently developing a deep yellow colour to his skin. Over the past 2 years, through diet and exercise, he lost over 150 pounds. He reported running 6–8 miles per day and eating ‘lots of squash’. We made the diagnosis of starvation hepatitis and bone marrow degeneration, and referred the patient to a dietician and haematologist/oncologist, where improvements were observed at 4 weeks follow-up. PMID:23861277

  16. Gelatinous bone marrow transformation secondary to unusual eating habits and drastic weight loss.

    PubMed

    Rafiullah; Islam, Rezwan; Mahmood, Ruth; Sitwala, Kajal V

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT), also known as starvation bone marrow, has been reported in a number of chronic illnesses, eating disorders (anorexia nervosa) and malignancies. We report the case of a 37-year-old man with a history of bipolar disorder and obesity (weighing >300 pounds) who presented due to recently developing a deep yellow colour to his skin. Over the past 2 years, through diet and exercise, he lost over 150 pounds. He reported running 6-8 miles per day and eating 'lots of squash'. We made the diagnosis of starvation hepatitis and bone marrow degeneration, and referred the patient to a dietician and haematologist/oncologist, where improvements were observed at 4 weeks follow-up. PMID:23861277

  17. A study of snack consumption, night-eating habits, and nutrient intake in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Jin; Lee, Jinju; Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to identify dietary behavior such as snack consumption, night-eating and nutrients intake associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The study was conducted on 219 normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects and 44 GDM subjects by using a questionnaire including dietary behavior, food frequency and 3-day food record. The mean age, OGTT, and delivery weight of GDM subjects were statistically higher than those in NGT. A larger proportion of NGT subjects consumed black coffee (49.8%) while the majority of GDM subjects (61.4%) drank mixed coffee with sugar and cream. Dairy products were the most frequently consumed snack item in NGT subjects (40.7%), while fruits were most frequently consumed food item in GDM subjects (34.4%). Many of NGT subjects (49.8%) answered that they hardly took night-eating snacks whereas most of GDM subjects (61.4%) took night-eating snacks more than once a week. For change of taste preference, the proportion of NGT subjects who showed less preference for salty taste (33.3%) or greasy taste (16.9%) was higher than that of GDM subjects (11.4%). Nutrient intakes of energy, fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), carbohydrate, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(2), vitamin C, and vitamin E in GDM group were significantly higher than those in NGT group. Nutrient densities of SFA and vitamin C in GDM group were higher and nutrient density of calcium was lower than those in NGT group. Taken together, it is recommended to reduce night-eating snack and choose less salty and fatty foods, black-coffee rather than coffee with cream and sugar, and more dairy products to prevent GDM. PMID:23431085

  18. Lifestyle Habits

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, Hashem; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Waly, Mostafa I.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyle habits—physical activity (PA), eating habits (EH), and sleep duration (SD)—of Omani adolescents, and to examine gender differences in such variables. Methods: 802 Omani adolescents (442 females and 360 males), aged 15–18 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometric indices, PA level, and EH and SD were evaluated by the Arab Teenage Lifestyle questionnaire. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment was also administered. Results: The results showed that although the study subjects had a sedentary lifestyle (lack of PA, average of 6.7 hours sleep, and consumption of high calorie foods), they maintained a normal body mass (less than 25 Kg/m2). Males were more than twice as active as females. With respect to EH, there were few gender differences, except in dairy and meat consumption where 62.5% and 55.5% of males consumed more than 3 servings, respectively, compared to 18.78 % and 35.2% of females, respectively. In addition, waist/height ratio, height, reasons for being active, energy drinks, potato consumption, eating sweets, vigorous PA and breakfast EHs were statistically significant independent predictors for BMI, P <0.05 for both males and females. Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of sedentary behaviors and a low level of physical activity, especially among females. Unhealthy dietary habits were also widely found among both genders. There is an urgent need for more research as well as a national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and discouraging sedentary behaviour among Omani adolescents. PMID:24273660

  19. How Can I Keep Track of Physical Activity and Eating?

    MedlinePlus

    ... ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction Fitness + Weight Management How Can I Keep Track of Physical Activity and Healthy Eating? Food Diary — Once you’ve set your eating goals, use this sample chart to track your efforts. WEEK: ________________________ DAY: ________________________ Food or Beverage Amount Number of Calories Grams of Saturated Fat ...

  20. Eating and nutrition habits in young competitive athletes: a comparison between soccer players and cyclists.

    PubMed Central

    Galanti, Giorgio; Stefani, Laura; Scacciati, Irene; Mascherini, Gabriele; Buti, Gabriella; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the dietary habits in two groups of young athletes, practicing two different sports: soccer players and cycling. The dietary habits of 47 athletes were investigated by questionnaire. Body Mass Index, Fat Mass, Free Fat Mass, Total Body, Intracellular, Extracellular Water and Phase Angle were measured by bioimpedance. The t-Student test for unpaired data was used. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Body Mass Index was similar between the groups, while total body water and extracellular water were significantly higher in the soccer player group (soccer players: 63.8±1.96%; cyclists : 59.8 ± 8.7%; and soccer players 43.9±3.1%, cyclists 43.8 ±2.1%, respectively). Fatty mass of the soccer player group (14.5±2.9%) was significantly lower than that of the cyclist group (19.5±3.6%). Daily food intake was similar between the two groups (2844 kCal/die for soccer players /2630 kcal/die for cyclists), and lower than recommended. There was a low intake of Calcium (soccer players 1120±128.9 mg/die, cyclists 718±309 mg/die) for both groups, and a low intake of Potassium for soccer player (2576 mg/die ± 52.4) The caloric intake of adolescent athletes is lower than recommended. Body composition is significantly different between soccer players and cyclists. PMID:25674549

  1. Eating habits and appetite control in the elderly: the anorexia of aging.

    PubMed

    Donini, Lorenzo M; Savina, Claudia; Cannella, Carlo

    2003-03-01

    Although a high prevalence of overweight is present in elderly people, the main concern in the elderly is the reported decline in food intake and the loss of the motivation to eat. This suggests the presence of problems associated with the regulation of energy balance and the control of food intake. A reduced energy intake causing body weight loss may be caused by social or physiological factors, or a combination of both. Poverty, loneliness, and social isolation are the predominant social factors that contribute to decreased food intake in the elderly. Depression, often associated with loss or deterioration of social networks, is a common psychological problem in the elderly and a significant cause of loss of appetite. The reduction in food intake may be due to the reduced drive to eat (hunger) resulting from a lower need state, or it arises because of more rapidly acting or more potent inhibitory (satiety) signals. The early satiation appears to be predominantly due to a decrease in adaptive relaxation of the stomach fundus resulting in early antral filling, while increased levels and effectiveness of cholecystokinin play a role in the anorexia of aging. The central feeding drive (both the opioid and the neuropeptide Y effects) appears to decline with age. Physical factors such as poor dentition and ill-fitting dentures or age-associated changes in taste and smell may influence food choice and limit the type and quantity of food eaten in older people. Common medical conditions in the elderly such as gastrointestinal disease, malabsorption syndromes, acute and chronic infections, and hypermetabolism often cause anorexia, micronutrient deficiencies, and increased energy and protein requirements. Furthermore, the elderly are major users of prescription medications, a number of which can cause malabsorption of nutrients, gastrointestinal symptoms, and loss of appetite. There is now good evidence that, although age-related reduction in energy intake is largely a

  2. Look who's cooking. Investigating the relationship between watching educational and edutainment TV cooking shows, eating habits and everyday cooking practices among men and women in Belgium.

    PubMed

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2016-01-01

    Television (TV) cooking shows have evolved from focusing on educating to focusing on entertaining, as well. At present, educational TV cooking shows focus on the transfer of cooking knowledge and skills, whereas edutainment TV cooking shows focus on entertaining their viewers. Both types of shows are ongoing success stories. However, little is known regarding the shows' links with the cooking and eating habits of their audiences. Therefore, the current study investigates the relationship between watching an educational or edutainment TV cooking show and one's cooking and eating habits. Given public health concerns regarding the decline in cooking behaviors and the simultaneous increase in caloric intake from food outside the home, this study suggests a promising intervention. The results of a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n = 845) demonstrate that the audiences of educational and edutainment TV cooking shows do not overlap. Although there is little connection between watching specific shows and eating behavior, the connection between watching shows and cooking behaviors varies across gender and age lines. Behaviors also differ depending on whether the viewer is watching an educational or edutainment cooking show. For example, men of all ages appear to cook more often if they watch an educational show. However, only older men (above 38 years) seem to cook more often if they watch an edutainment TV show. The results demonstrate that the relationship between watching TV cooking shows and cooking habits warrants further investigation. PMID:26485291

  3. Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    No matter what your weight loss goal is, the key to reaching your goals is to make changes to your lifestyle like eating and physical activity. This involves setting realistic expectations and making a plan. 

  4. Nutrient intake and eating habits of triathletes on a Brazilian diet.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Júlia A D; Da Costa, Teresa H M

    2004-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary habits, energy balance, and macro- and micronutrient dietary adequacy of triathletes, and to provide an athletes' food pyramid. Thirty-eight Brazilian triathletes, had anthropometric measurements taken. Mean (+/- standard deviation) body weight, height, and percentage body fat were 71.2 kg (+/- 9.4), 176.7 cm (+/- 5.5), and 12.3 % +/- ( 3.6) for men and 55.8 kg (+/- 5.2), 161.6 cm (+/- 4.5), and 24.3 % (+/- 4.2) for women, respectively. A 24-h recall and a food-frequency questionnaire showed that mean total intakes of energy (MJ), carbohydrate, protein, and fat (g x kg(-1) x d(- 1)) were, respectively, 15.4, 7.3, 2.0, and 1.6 for men and 9.9, 5.9, 1.6, and 1.3 for women. The number of meals and intake of some food groups were insufficient, resulting in inadequate intake of carbohydrate and some micronutrients. Based on this study, athletes need help to achieve their sports-related nutrition goals, especially during intense training. PMID:15657473

  5. Nutritional status and eating habits of bus drivers during the day and night.

    PubMed

    Balieiro, Laura Cristina Tibiletti; Rossato, Luana Thomazetto; Waterhouse, Jim; Paim, Samantha Lemos; Mota, Maria Carliana; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare anthropometry and food intake patterns in bus drivers working during the day and night. One hundred and fifty males (81 night workers and 69 day workers) participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Measurements of height, weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile were obtained. A significant difference between groups was observed for mean WC (98.5 ± 10.7 cm in day workers versus 103.2 ± 9.7 cm in night workers; p = 0.005). Night workers had higher prevalence of being overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) than day workers (78.2% day workers versus 90.2% night workers; p = 0.004) and increased WC (>94 cm) (72.4% day workers versus 86.4% night workers; p = 0.03). Significant differences were found for meat consumption (2.3 servings ±0.9 for night workers versus 2.0 servings ±0.7 day workers, p = 0.04) and fruit intake (0.9 servings ±0.4 for night workers versus 0.7 servings for day workers ±0.5; p = 0.006). Night workers had a lower intake of vegetables than recommended compared to day workers (100 versus 92.7%, respectively, p = 0.01) and higher intake of oil (40.7 versus 24.6%, p = 0.03). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that night work was associated with being overweight (OR = 2.94, 95% IC: 1.14-7.66, p = 0.03) and abnormal values of WC (OR = 2.82, 95% IC: 1.20-6.69, p = 0.009) after adjusting for potential confounders. It is concluded that night workers had a higher prevalence and risk of being overweight/obese and increased WC compared with day workers. Night workers also presented a higher proportion of inappropriate intakes of food groups when compared to day workers, even though both groups were eating poor diets. These results demonstrate the need of lifestyle-intervention programs in these

  6. How do mothers manage their preschool children's eating habits and does this change as children grow older? A longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Jarman, Megan; Ogden, Jane; Inskip, Hazel; Lawrence, Wendy; Baird, Janis; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian; Barker, Mary

    2015-12-01

    The practices mothers adopt in relation to feeding their children have been identified as important predictors of children's quality of diet. However, most studies of the impact of these practices on quality of children's diets have been cross-sectional in design, limiting conclusions about change and causality. Previous research has called for qualitative exploration of the way these practices are used in a real-life setting. This study set out to address these gaps in knowledge. At baseline, mothers recruited to a community-based intervention study and who had a preschool child, completed a questionnaire about their use of covert and overt control practices, child food neophobia and demographics. The quality of children's diets was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Both questionnaires were repeated with the mothers two years later. Complete data at both time points were available for 228 mother-child pairs. Four focus group discussions were conducted with 29 mothers of preschool children to explore their experiences of feeding young children. Mothers who increased their use of overt control had children whose level of food neophobia also increased (P = 0.02). Mothers who used more covert control had children with better quality diets at both time points (P = <0.01) and mothers who increased their use of covert control over the two year follow-up had children whose diet quality improved (P = 0.003). These associations were independent of confounders such as mother's level of education. In the focus groups, mothers suggested that feeding young children was stressful and that control was often relinquished in order to reduce conflict at mealtimes. Supporting parents to adopt more covert techniques to control their children's eating habits may be an effective way of improving the quality of young children's diets. PMID:26271222

  7. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. PMID:22188825

  8. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  9. The Galaxy's Eating Habits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, M. E.; Thom, C.; Gibson, B. K.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2004-06-01

    The possibility of a gaseous halo stream which was stripped from the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy is presented. The total mass of the neutral hydrogen along the orbit of the Sgr dwarf in the direction of the Galactic Anti-Center is 4 - 10 × 106 M⊙ (at 36 kpc, the distance to the stellar debris in this region). Both the stellar and gaseous components have negative velocities in this part of the sky, but the gaseous component extends to higher negative velocities. We suggest this gaseous stream was stripped from the main body of the dwarf 0.2 - 0.3 Gyr ago during its current orbit after a passage through a diffuse edge of the Galactic disk with a density > 10-4 cm-3. The gas would then represent the dwarf's last source of star formation fuel and explains how the galaxy was forming stars 0.5-2 Gyr ago.

  10. Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettig, Carol; Rich, Shannon; Engelbrecht, Jo Ann; Sanborn, Charlotte; Essery, Eve; DiMarco, Nancy; Velez, Luisa; Levy, Luba

    2006-01-01

    A diverse group of professionals associated with Texas Woman's University's Institute for Women's Health, working collaboratively with school administrators, teachers, family support teams, and family members, developed Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem, a nutrition program for young children and their families. In tracking the…

  11. The Relationship between Eating and Lifestyle Habits and Cancer in Van Lake Region: Another Endemic Region for Esophageal and Gastric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Sebahattin; Yılmaz, E. Murat; Özden, Ferhat; Kotan, Cetin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between esophageal and gastric cancers commonly seen in Van Lake region and the traditional eating habits of the geography. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric cancer cases, who underwent surgery between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were examined. Pathology reports of the patients and presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) were recorded. Surveys were filled by face to face meeting or telephone call. Control group was created with randomly selected individuals without any cancer diagnosis having age, gender, and socioeconomic characteristics similar to patient group. All data were analyzed using SAS.9.3 statistical programme. Results. Compared with the control group, herby cheese consumption (a component of eating habits) and smoking were significantly higher in the patient group (P < 0.001). Tandoor exposure is compared in terms of female gender, and significant difference was found between the groups (P = 0.0013). As a result of the analysis with logistic regression more than 150 gr of herby cheese consumption per day was found to increase the cancer risk (odds ratio 1.017; 95% CI: 1.012–1.022). Conclusion. A high consumption of herby cheese, cooking bread on tandoor, and heavy smoking were seen to be important risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers. PMID:25648523

  12. Protopopov's ideas on habit formation and their relation to the Pavlovian theory of higher nervous activity.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1929 Viktor P. Protopopov began to replicate E. L. Thorndike's animal experiments on habit acquisition. To determine the conditions necessary for habit formation, Protopopov used the natural experiment method, in which dogs encountered environments that prevented them from reaching a stimulus-bait. Not all dogs acquired the behavior necessary for obtaining the bait. Explaining the results within the framework of the Pavlovian theory of higher nervous activity, Protopopov concluded that habits were acquired when an active animal provoked by a bait-stimulus encountered an environmental barrier. The dogs tried a series of phylogenetic behaviors until the stimulus-bait was reached. The latter movements were retained, forming an ontogenetic habit. The dogs also learned not to produce the unsuccessful movements. In accord with the Pavlovian theory, individual differences in habit formation were related to temperament types. A critique of the Thorndikian Law of Effect is provided in terms of the Pavlovian theory of higher nervous activity. PMID:10696273

  13. How French subjects describe well-being from food and eating habits? Development, item reduction and scoring definition of the Well-Being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ©).

    PubMed

    Guillemin, I; Marrel, A; Arnould, B; Capuron, L; Dupuy, A; Ginon, E; Layé, S; Lecerf, J-M; Prost, M; Rogeaux, M; Urdapilleta, I; Allaert, F-A

    2016-01-01

    Providing well-being and maintaining good health are main objectives subjects seek from diet. This manuscript describes the development and preliminary validation of an instrument assessing well-being associated with food and eating habits in a general healthy population. Qualitative data from 12 groups of discussion (102 subjects) conducted with healthy subjects were used to develop the core of the Well-being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ). Twelve other groups of discussion with subjects with joint (n = 34), digestive (n = 32) or repetitive infection complaints (n = 30) were performed to develop items specific to these complaints. Five main themes emerged from the discussions and formed the modular backbone of the questionnaire: "Grocery shopping", "Cooking", "Dining places", "Commensality", "Eating and drinking". Each module has a common structure: items about subject's food behavior and items about immediate and short-term benefits. An additional theme - "Eating habits and health" - assesses subjects' beliefs about expected benefits of food and eating habits on health, disease prevention and protection, and quality of ageing. A preliminary validation was conducted with 444 subjects with balanced diet; non-balanced diet; and standard diet. The structure of the questionnaire was further determined using principal component analyses exploratory factor analyses, with confirmation of the sub-sections food behaviors, immediate benefits (pleasure, security, relaxation), direct short-term benefits (digestion and satiety, energy and psychology), and deferred long-term benefits (eating habits and health). Thirty-three subscales and 14 single items were further defined. Confirmatory analyses confirmed the structure, with overall moderate to excellent convergent and divergent validity and internal consistency reliability. The Well-BFQ is a unique, modular tool that comprehensively assesses the full picture of well-being related to food and eating habits in

  14. Habit formation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  15. Habit formation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  16. Privileging physical activity over healthy eating: 'Time' to Choose?

    PubMed

    Chircop, Andrea; Shearer, Cindy; Pitter, Robert; Sim, Meaghan; Rehman, Laurene; Flannery, Meredith; Kirk, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity and healthy eating have long been promoted as key strategies in tackling the 'wicked problem' of obesity. Both practices are assumed to go hand-in-hand, but whether one dominates the other has largely remained unexamined. Moreover, time, a dimension beyond the socio-ecological model, is a critical factor of families' busy lives, but related challenges are rarely articulated. We conducted 47 family interviews as part of a mixed methods study examining environmental influences on youth obesity in Nova Scotia, Eastern Canada. Participants were recruited from six schools at the junior high school level (grades 7-9; age range 12-14 years) based on location (urban, suburban and rural) and neighborhood socioeconomic status (high and low socioeconomic status). Time pressure to meet the demands associated with scheduled physical activity for youth was the dominant theme across interviews from all neighborhoods. Physical activity and healthy eating were valued differently, with greater value placed on physical activity than healthy eating. The pressure to engage youth in organized physical activity appeared to outweigh the importance of healthy eating, which led to neglecting family meals at home and consuming fast food and take out options. Our findings further reinforce the need to move beyond the socio-ecological model and integrate critical dimensions such as 'time', its challenges and opportunities, to allow for a more nuanced understanding of contemporary healthy living. It appears 'timely' to focus on healthy public policy in support of families, instead of unwittingly supporting a fast food industry that profits from time-pressured families. PMID:23945086

  17. Habit as moderator of the intention-physical activity relationship in older adults: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    van Bree, Rob J H; van Stralen, Maartje M; Bolman, Catherine; Mudde, Aart N; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether habit strength moderates the intention-physical activity (PA) relationship in older adults, within the framework of the attitude-social influences-efficacy (ASE) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). A total of 1836 older adults (Mage = 62.95 years, SDage = 8.17) completed a questionnaire on social cognitive constructs and PA habit strength at baseline, and six months later a measure of PA. Three PA habit groups (i.e., low, medium and high) were composed, based on tertiles of the mean index score. Multi-group structural equation modelling analyses showed that intention significantly determined PA behaviour only in participants with a low or medium habit strength towards PA. This result suggests that PA is not intentional at high levels of habit strength and demonstrates the usefulness of incorporating habit in the ASE and TPB models. Results also showed that about half of the participants with a strong PA habit did not meet the recommended PA level. As strong habits may prevent intentional behavioural change and may hinder the receptiveness and openness for informational PA change strategies, additional intervention strategies, such as awareness raising and the use of implementation intentions, are needed for strongly habitual, but insufficiently active older adults. PMID:23244776

  18. The Reading Habits of Church Active Mormon Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, Marianne; Cranney, A. Garr

    Data from 149 female members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS) were used to construct a composite of the reading habits and their relation to other characterisitics of this group. The typical respondent was a married woman between 26 and 40 years old who had attended college but remained at home to care for children under…

  19. Guide to Your Child's Nutrition: Making Peace at the Table and Building Healthy Eating Habits for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, William H., Ed.; Stern, Loraine, Ed.

    Noting that the real challenge for parents is not being aware of what to feed their children, but rather getting children to actually eat those foods, this guide provides advice for parents of infants through adolescents regarding children's dietary needs while recognizing the role of children's emotions, tastes, and preferences. Following the…

  20. Association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Marín-Guerrero, A C; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, P; López-García, Esther; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan L

    2015-01-28

    The dietary patterns of immigrants usually change with the duration of residence and progressively resemble those of the host country. However, very few studies have investigated individuals migrating to countries with a high-quality diet, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), and none has yet focused on Latin-American immigrants. The present study examined the association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants residing in Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008-10 in a representative sample of the adult population residing in Spain. Adherence to the MD was defined as a MD Adherence Screener score ≥ 9. Analyses were conducted by including 419 individuals aged 18-64 years born in Latin-American countries. Compared with immigrants residing in Spain for < 5 years, those residing for ≥ 10 years accounted for a lower percentage of individuals who habitually ate at fast-food restaurants and never trimmed visible fat from meat. Moreover, these immigrants were found to have a lower intake of sugary beverages and a higher intake of Na, saturated fat, fibre, olive oil, vegetables and fish and to more frequently strictly adhere to the MD. A longer duration of residence in Spain was found to be associated with both healthy and unhealthy changes in some eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants. Some of the healthy changes observed contrasted the 'Westernisation' of the diet reported in studies conducted in other Western countries. The results of the present study support the role of the food environment of the host country in the modification of the dietary patterns of immigrants. PMID:25418887

  1. Orexin-A controls sympathetic activity and eating behavior

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Giovanni; Dalia, Carmine; Tafuri, Domenico; Monda, Vincenzo; Palmieri, Filomena; Dato, Amelia; Russo, Angelo; De Blasio, Saverio; Messina, Antonietta; De Luca, Vincenzo; Chieffi, Sergio; Monda, Marcellino

    2014-01-01

    It is extremely important for the health to understand the regulatory mechanisms of energy expenditure. These regulatory mechanisms play a central role in the pathogenesis of body weight alteration. The hypothalamus integrates nutritional information derived from all peripheral organs. This region of the brain controls hormonal secretions and neural pathways of the brainstem. Orexin-A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wakefulness rhythm, and neuroendocrine homeostasis. This neuropeptide is involved in the control of the sympathetic activation, blood pressure, metabolic status, and blood glucose level. This minireview focuses on relationship between the sympathetic nervous system and orexin-A in the control of eating behavior and energy expenditure. The “thermoregulatory hypothesis” of food intake is analyzed, underlining the role played by orexin-A in the control of food intake related to body temperature. Furthermore, the paradoxical eating behavior induced orexin-A is illustrated in this minireview. PMID:25250003

  2. Having your cake and eating it too: A habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases mesenteric fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of...

  3. Associations between Parental Feeding Styles and Childhood Eating Habits: A Survey of Hong Kong Pre-School Children.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin; Lee, Albert; Tam, Wilson W S; Keung, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global public health issue, including in the Chinese setting, and its prevalence has increased dramatically throughout the last decade. Since the origins of childhood obesity may lie in the pre-school period, factors relating to very young children's food consumption should be investigated. Parental influence, including feeding style, is the major determinant of childhood dietary behaviour through altering food provision and social environment. However, the applicability of previous research on parental feeding styles was limited by small sample size. To evaluate the influence of parental feeding styles on children's dietary patterns, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 4553 pre-schoolers in Hong Kong. Information was obtained about dietary intake and how regularly they had breakfast, using previous health surveillance surveys taken among primary school students. Parental feeding styles were assessed by a validated Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire and categorized into 'instrumental feeding', 'emotional feeding', 'prompting and encouragement to eat' and 'control over eating'. Multivariable analysis was performed, adjusted for demographic information. Instrumental and/or emotional feeding was found to relate to inadequate consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, and positively correlated with intake of high-energy-density food. Encouragement on eating was associated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products and breakfast. Control over eating correlated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables and breakfast, and less consumption of dairy products and high-energy-density food. The present study has provided evidence on the associations between parental feeding styles and dietary patterns of Hong Kong pre-school children from a reasonably large population. Parents should avoid instrumental and emotional feeding, and implement control and encouragement to promote healthy food intake

  4. Are men more intuitive when it comes to eating and physical activity?

    PubMed

    Gast, Julie; Madanat, Hala; Nielson, Amy Campbell

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine where men fall on the motivation continuum based on intuitive eating status and if motivation for physical activity and intuitive eating are correlated. Results indicate that being an intuitive eater was associated with a lower body mass index. In terms of demographic variables, as age increased, intuitive eating status decreased and body mass index increased. Men scored high on the antidieting and self-care subscales of the Intuitive Eating Scale. Men who were classified as intuitive eaters scored higher on the external and introjected regulation of the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire but no significant differences were reported by eating status and the identified and intrinsic motivation subscales. Intuitive eating holds promise as a weight management and weight loss tool for men. Intuitive eating may also influence initial motivation for physical activity for men. PMID:22105066

  5. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. PMID:25268019

  6. Measurement of exercise habits and prediction of leisure-time activity in established exercise.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Karyn A; Glanz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Habit formation may be important to maintaining repetitive healthy behaviors like exercise. Existing habit questionnaires only measure part of the definition of habit (automaticity; frequency). A novel habit questionnaire was evaluated that measured contextual cueing. We designed a two-stage observational cohort study of regular exercisers. For stage 1, we conducted an in-person interview on a university campus. For stage 2, we conducted an internet-based survey. Participants were 156 adults exercising at least once per week. A novel measure, The Exercise Habit Survey (EHS) assessed contextual cueing through 13 questions on constancy of place, time, people, and exercise behaviors. A subset of the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI), measuring automaticity, was also collected along with measures of intention and self-efficacy, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), leisure-time section. The EHS was evaluated using factor analysis and test-retest reliability. Its correlation to other exercise predictors and exercise behavior was evaluated using Pearson's r and hierarchical regression. Results suggested that the EHS comprised four subscales (People, Place, Time, Exercise Constancy). Only Exercise Constancy correlated significantly with SRHI. Only the People subscale predicted IPAQ exercise metabolic equivalents. The SRHI was a strong predictor. Contextual cueing is an important aspect of habit but measurement methodologies warrant refinement and comparison by different methods. PMID:23384089

  7. School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity: Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Schools play a critical role in improving the dietary and physical activity behaviors of students. Schools can create an environment supportive of students' efforts to eat healthily and be active by implementing policies and practices that support healthy eating and regular physical activity and by providing opportunities for students to learn…

  8. Associations between Parental Feeding Styles and Childhood Eating Habits: A Survey of Hong Kong Pre-School Children

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin; Lee, Albert; Tam, Wilson W. S.; Keung, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global public health issue, including in the Chinese setting, and its prevalence has increased dramatically throughout the last decade. Since the origins of childhood obesity may lie in the pre-school period, factors relating to very young children’s food consumption should be investigated. Parental influence, including feeding style, is the major determinant of childhood dietary behaviour through altering food provision and social environment. However, the applicability of previous research on parental feeding styles was limited by small sample size. To evaluate the influence of parental feeding styles on children's dietary patterns, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 4553 pre-schoolers in Hong Kong. Information was obtained about dietary intake and how regularly they had breakfast, using previous health surveillance surveys taken among primary school students. Parental feeding styles were assessed by a validated Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire and categorized into ‘instrumental feeding’, ‘emotional feeding’, ‘prompting and encouragement to eat’ and ‘control over eating’. Multivariable analysis was performed, adjusted for demographic information. Instrumental and/or emotional feeding was found to relate to inadequate consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, and positively correlated with intake of high-energy-density food. Encouragement on eating was associated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products and breakfast. Control over eating correlated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables and breakfast, and less consumption of dairy products and high-energy-density food. The present study has provided evidence on the associations between parental feeding styles and dietary patterns of Hong Kong pre-school children from a reasonably large population. Parents should avoid instrumental and emotional feeding, and implement control and encouragement to promote healthy

  9. A process-oriented measure of habit strength for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Grove, J. Robert; Zillich, Irja; Medic, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Habitual action is an important aspect of health behaviour, but the relevance of various habit strength indicators continues to be debated. This study focused specifically on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and evaluated the construct validity of a framework emphasizing patterned action, stimulus-response bonding, automaticity, and negative consequences for nonperformance as indicators of habit strength for this form of exercise. Methods: Upper-level undergraduates (N = 124) provided demographic information and responded to questionnaire items assessing historical MVPA involvement, current MVPA involvement, and the four proposed habit strength dimensions. Factor analyses were used to examine the latent structure of the habit strength indicators, and the model's construct validity was evaluated via an examination of relationships with repetition history and current behaviour. Results: At a measurement level, findings indicated that the proposed four-component model possessed psychometric integrity as a coherent set of factors. Criterion-related validity was also demonstrated via significant changes in three of the four factors as a function of past involvement in MVPA and significant correlations with the frequency, duration, and intensity of current MVPA. Conclusions: These findings support the construct validity of this exercise habit strength model and suggest that it could provide a template for future research on how MVPA habits are developed and maintained. PMID:25750789

  10. HEPS Tool for Schools: A Guide for School Policy Development on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simovska, Venka; Dadaczynski, Kevin; Viig, Nina Grieg; Bowker, Sue; Woynarowska, Barbara; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Tool for Schools provides ideas, guidelines and suggested techniques to help schools in their development of school policy on healthy eating and physical activity. There is growing evidence that a comprehensive whole school policy on healthy eating and physical activity can lead to better academic outcomes of pupils as well as promoting…

  11. A Qualitative Investigation of the Relationship between Consumption, Physical Activity, Eating Disorders, and Weight Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.; Barry, Adam E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has identified a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and disordered eating, alcohol consumption and physical activity, and physical activity and disordered eating. However, there is a paucity of published research examining the interrelatedness of all 3 behaviors together. Purpose: This study examines…

  12. Social Support for Exercise and Dietary Habits among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    An assessment inventory (the Friend/Peer Support-Health Eating Physical Activity Scale-FPS-HEPAS) was developed to measure social influence patterns of college student physical activity and food consumption habits. Principal components analysis of 50 items with two referent sets (friends and peers) produced two scales with common factors:…

  13. Consumption of sweetened beverages as a risk factor of colonization of oral cavity by fungi - eating habits of university students.

    PubMed

    Lll, Katarzyna Góralska; Klimczak, Alina; Rachubiński, Paweł; Jagłowska, Aleksandra; Kwapiszewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Foods rich in sugar are an excellent substrate for the microorganisms that inhabit the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract, and one of the most commonly available sources of sugar is the sweetened drink. Students represent an interesting sub-population; the large number of classes and associated stress levels promote fixing of unhealthy behaviors, e.g. tendency to consume a lot of sweetened drinks, for example cola-type or energetic drinks. Aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the amount of sugar consumed in beverages and the prevalence of fungi in the oral cavity. The investigated material consisted of oral washings. Participants completed original questionnaire regarding beverages consumed. The relationship between the consumption of sweetened beverages and risk of the presence of fungi in the oral cavity was determined. Fungi were isolated from 68.1% of examined subjects. Seven species of the genus Candida were observed. Higher prevalence of fungi was seen in the oral cavity of subjects who declared consumption of beverages containing sugar. 37.8% of respondents were found to consume with beverages doses of sugar exceeding the recommended daily requirement. Significantly greater prevalence of oral cavity fungi was noted in those exceeding the recommended GDA (76.3%), compared to of those who were not (68.7%). There were positive correlations between occurrence of fungi and consumption of sweetened carbonated drinks or adding sugar to coffee and tea. The addition of sugar to coffee/tea and sugar consumption above the recommended daily amount significantly increases the risk of colonization of the oral cavity by fungi. Students, due to invalid nutritional habits especially excessive consumption of beverages containing large amounts of sugar, belong to a group with a predisposition to the occurrence of fungi in the oral cavity. PMID:26568990

  14. The host stars of Kepler's habitable exoplanets: superflares, rotation and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, D. J.; Pugh, C. E.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Brown, D. J. A.; Lund, M. N.; Osborn, H. P.; Pollacco, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    We embark on a detailed study of the light curves of Kepler's most Earth-like exoplanet host stars using the full length of Kepler data. We derive rotation periods, photometric activity indices, flaring energies, mass-loss rates, gyrochronological ages, X-ray luminosities and consider implications for the planetary magnetospheres and habitability. Furthermore, we present the detection of superflares in the light curve of Kepler-438, the exoplanet with the highest Earth Similarity Index to date. Kepler-438b orbits at a distance of 0.166 au to its host star, and hence may be susceptible to atmospheric stripping. Our sample is taken from the Habitable Exoplanet Catalogue, and consists of the stars Kepler-22, Kepler-61, Kepler-62, Kepler-174, Kepler-186, Kepler-283, Kepler-296, Kepler-298, Kepler-438, Kepler-440, Kepler-442, Kepler-443 and KOI-4427, between them hosting 15 of the most habitable transiting planets known to date from Kepler.

  15. Parent Conversations about Healthful Eating and Weight: Associations with Adolescent Disordered Eating Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Rich; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of weight-related problems in adolescents is high. Parents of adolescents may wonder whether talking about eating habits and weight is useful or detrimental. This study aimed to examine the associations between parent conversations about healthful eating and weight and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Design Cross-sectional analysis using data from two linked multi-level population-based studies. Setting Anthropometric assessments and surveys completed at school by adolescents and surveys completed at home by parents in 2009–2010. Participants Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse sample (81% ethnic minority; 60% low income) of adolescents from EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens) 2010 (n = 2,793, mean age=14.4) and parents from F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) (n = 3,709, mean age = 42.3). Main Exposure Parent conversations about healthful eating and weight/size. Outcome Measures Adolescent dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and binge eating. Results Mothers and fathers who engaged in weight-related conversations had adolescents who were more likely to diet, use unhealthy weight control behaviors, and engage in binge eating. Overweight/obese adolescents whose mothers engaged in conversations that were focused only on healthful eating behaviors were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight control behaviors. Additionally, sub-analyses with adolescents with data from two parents showed that when both parents engaged in healthful eating conversations, their overweight/obese adolescent children were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight control behaviors. Conclusion Parent conversations focused on weight/size are associated with increased risk for adolescent disordered eating behaviors, whereas conversations focused on healthful eating are protective against disordered eating behaviors. PMID:23797808

  16. Sedentary and Physical Activity Habits of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkoff, Brooke E.; Petosa, Rick L.; Balk, Elizabeth K.; Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Bonny, Andrea E.; Hoffman, Robert P.; Devor, Steven T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The independent association between sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) is such that, regardless of accumulated PA, high amounts of SB are detrimental to health, even in adolescents. Purpose: Our aim was to profile activity patterns in free-living environments and to measure levels of SB and light (LT) and moderate (MOD)…

  17. How do mothers manage their preschool children’s eating habits and does this change as children grow older? A longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Megan; Ogden, Jane; Inskip, Hazel; Lawrence, Wendy; Baird, Janis; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian; Barker, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The practices mothers adopt in relation to feeding their children have been identified as important predictors of children’s quality of diet. However, most studies of the impact of these practices on quality of children’s diets have been cross-sectional in design, limiting conclusions about change and causality. Previous research has called for qualitative exploration of the way these practices are used in a real-life setting. This study set out to address these gaps in knowledge. At baseline, mothers recruited to a community-based intervention study and who had a preschool child, completed a questionnaire about their use of covert and overt control practices, child food neophobia and demographics. The quality of children’s diets was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire Both questionnaires were repeated with the mothers two years later. Complete data at both time points were available for 228 mother-child pairs. Four focus group discussions were conducted with 29 mothers of preschool children to explore their experiences of feeding young children. Mothers who increased their use of overt control had children whose level of food neophobia also increased (P=0.02). Mothers who used more covert control had children with better quality diets at both time points (P=<0.01) and mothers who increased their use of covert control over the two year follow-up had children whose diet quality improved (P=0.003). These associations were independent of confounders such as mother’s level of education. In the focus groups, mothers suggested that feeding young children was stressful and that control was often relinquished in order to reduce conflict at mealtimes. Supporting parents to adopt more covert techniques to control their children’s eating habits may be an effective way of improving the quality of young children’s diets. PMID:26271222

  18. Eating Disorders in Athletes: Weighing the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Defines different eating disorders, discusses athlete eating problems, and presents the signs physicians should look for that signal the presence of an eating disorder. The article also discusses the tailoring of treatment programs, questions to ask athletes about eating habits, and society's influence on an athlete's eating behavior. (GLR)

  19. Analysis of the relation between health statistics and eating habits in Japanese prefectures using fuzzy robust regression model.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Yoshiyuki; Kawaura, Takayuki; Watada, Junzo

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare is working to improve citizen׳s lifestyle and social environment to improve their health. This is because of the following reasons. Diseases related to lifestyle such as malignant neoplasms, heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease account for about 60% of the deaths in 2013. In addition, 32% of all medical expenditures are made on lifestyle-related disease. Lifestyle-related diseases can be prevented by daily exercise, a well-balanced diet, and not smoking. This ministry is promoting measures such as dietary education, physical activity, and exercise. Improvement of diet is the easiest way to reduce the occurrence of lifestyle-related diseases. Thus, in this paper, we analyze the relation between health and diet using our fuzzy robust regression model. PMID:26868966

  20. Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy in Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in an Urban Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Tracey D.; O'Neill, Elizabeth; Kostelis, Kimberly T.; Jaffe, Daniel; Vitti, Steven; Quinlan, Melissa; Boland, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) patterns and eating behaviors of children may be beneficial in implementing interventions in urban elementary schools. Purpose: To examine PA levels and self-efficacy (SE) in PA and health eating (HE) of third, fourth, and fifth graders in 3 low economic elementary schools in…

  1. Impact of Caregiver Type for 3-Year-Old Children on Subsequent Between-Meal Eating Habits and Being Overweight From Childhood to Adulthood: A 20-Year Follow-up of the Ibaraki Children’s Cohort (IBACHIL) Study

    PubMed Central

    Sata, Mizuki; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ikeda, Ai; Irie, Fujiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ota, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of the increasing number of mothers who continue to work after childbirth, participation in childcare has diversified. However, the impact of the main caregiver on children’s habits has not been determined. We sought to examine the effect of caregiver differences on childhood habituation of between-meal eating and body mass index (BMI). Methods The Ibaraki Children’s Cohort Study involved 4592 Japanese children whose parents answered health questionnaires at age 3. Follow-up questionnaires were distributed to parents when children were 6 and 12 years old and to study subjects directly when they were 22 years old. We compared prevalence of between-meal eating and overweight as well as mean BMI at ages 6, 12, and 22 years, by their main daytime caregiver at age 3. Results Compared to children cared for by mothers, those cared for by grandparents had a higher prevalence of between-meal eating before dinner for boys and girls at ages 6 and 12 years. At age 22 years, boys cared for by grandparents had a higher prevalence of overweight than those cared for by mothers (18.5% versus 11.2%, P = 0.037), but no such difference was noted in girls. However, both boys and girls cared for by grandparents had higher mean BMI over time than those cared for by mothers (coefficient = 0.47 kg/m2 for boys and coefficient = 0.35 kg/m2 for girls). Conclusions Being cared for by grandparents at age 3 was associated with subsequent between-meal eating habits, being overweight, and increased mean BMI from childhood to adulthood. PMID:26310570

  2. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders Print ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  3. Validation of a survey instrument to assess home environments for physical activity and healthy eating in overweight children

    PubMed Central

    Gattshall, Michelle L; Shoup, Jo Ann; Marshall, Julie A; Crane, Lori A; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2008-01-01

    parent (r = .15–26) eating habits. Conclusion The HES shows promise as a potentially valid and reliable assessment of the physical and social home environment related to a child's physical activity and eating habits. PMID:18190709

  4. Active Reward Processing during Human Sleep: Insights from Sleep-Related Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Perogamvros, Lampros; Baud, Patrick; Hasler, Roland; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Schwartz, Sophie; Perrig, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present two carefully documented cases of patients with sleep-related eating disorder (SRED), a parasomnia which is characterized by involuntary compulsive eating during the night and whose pathophysiology is not known. Using video-polysomnography, a dream diary and psychometric examination, we found that both patients present elevated novelty seeking and increased reward sensitivity. In light of new evidence on the mesolimbic dopaminergic implication in compulsive eating disorders, our findings suggest a role of an active reward system during sleep in the manifestation of SRED. PMID:23205019

  5. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

  6. Wilderness Eating Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Proper nutrition and eating habits are critical components when facilitating safe, enjoyable expeditions. The author asserts that outdoor leaders must be diligent in overseeing the health of their participants through proper nutrition. Leaders in training with a history of eating issues face a special challenge. The author discusses how these…

  7. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Kontić, Olga; Vasiljević, Nadja; Trisović, Marija; Jorga, Jagoda; Lakić, Aneta; Gasić, Miroslava Jasović

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient's health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one's own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases. PMID:23289290

  8. SALSA : SAving Lives Staying Active to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Eating

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley; Orlando Edwards, Raul; McNeill, Lorna

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity, poor dietary habits, and obesity are vexing problems among minorities. SAving Lives, Staying Active (SALSA) was an 8-week randomized controlled crossover design, pilot study to promote regular physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption as a means to preventing weight gain among women of color. Participants completed measures of demographics, PA, and dietary habits. Women (N = 50; M = 42 years) who participated were overweight (MBMI = 29.7 kg/m2; Mbody fat = 38.5%) and reported low levels of leisure time PA (M = 10.7 MET-min/wk) and FV consumption (M = 4.2 servings/day). All were randomized to a four-week (1) semiweekly Latin dance group or (2) internet-based dietary education group. All participants reported a significant increase in weekly leisure time PA from baseline (M = 10.7 MET-min/wk) to follow up (M = 34.0 MET-min/wk, P < .001), and FV consumption increased over time by group (P = .02). Data suggest that Latin dance interventions to improve PA and web-based interventions to improve dietary habits show promise for improving health among women of color. PMID:21234315

  9. Qualitative Iranian study of parents' roles in adolescent girls' physical activity habit development.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyyed Vahide; Anoosheh, Monireh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    Parents are likely to be key influences on children's physical activity behaviors, although it is not clear how. This study was designed to explore parents' roles in Iranian adolescent girls' physical activity habit development. A qualitative study was conducted by means of semistructured one-to-one interviews with 25 participants, including 16 adolescent girls (10-19 years of age), seven mothers, and two fathers. Content analysis was applied. Two main themes emerged as parental role in adolescent girls' physical activity behavior: developing interest in physical activity (making children familiar with physical activity, discovering talents, and role modeling) and providing support to adolescents for physical activity (material and immaterial). This study provided a better understanding of how Iranian parents influence their children's physical activity behavior. This will enable nurses to design more effective family-based interventions. PMID:23302074

  10. Understanding barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and active living in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Rebecca; Connor, Leah; Nelson, Miriam; LaCroix, Andrea; Eldridge, Galen

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Studies demonstrate that people's food and physical activity (PA) environments influence behavior, yet research examining this in rural communities is limited. Methods. Focus groups of 8-15 women were conducted in rural communities in seven US states. Questions were designed to identify factors within residents' food and PA environments they felt helped or hindered them from eating healthfully and being physically active. Results. Participants were aged 30-84 years; mean (SD) = 61 (14) (N = 95). On average, communities had fewer than 5,000 residents. Limited time, social norms, and distances from or lack of exercise facilities were common PA barriers. Facilitators for PA included social support, dog walking, and availability of affordable facilities. Healthy eating barriers included the perception that healthy foods were too expensive; calorically dense large portion sizes served at family meals; and frequency of eating foods away from home, which were perceived as generally unhealthy. Healthy eating supports included culture/value around local food gathering (e.g., hunting and gardening) and preservation (e.g., canning and smoking). Friends and family were frequently identified as key influencers of eating and PA behavior. Conclusions. Targeting both social and built environment factors, particularly those unique to rural locales, may enhance support for healthy eating and PA behavior change interventions. PMID:25574386

  11. Understanding Barriers and Facilitators to Healthy Eating and Active Living in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Rebecca; Nelson, Miriam; LaCroix, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Studies demonstrate that people's food and physical activity (PA) environments influence behavior, yet research examining this in rural communities is limited. Methods. Focus groups of 8–15 women were conducted in rural communities in seven US states. Questions were designed to identify factors within residents' food and PA environments they felt helped or hindered them from eating healthfully and being physically active. Results. Participants were aged 30–84 years; mean (SD) = 61 (14) (N = 95). On average, communities had fewer than 5,000 residents. Limited time, social norms, and distances from or lack of exercise facilities were common PA barriers. Facilitators for PA included social support, dog walking, and availability of affordable facilities. Healthy eating barriers included the perception that healthy foods were too expensive; calorically dense large portion sizes served at family meals; and frequency of eating foods away from home, which were perceived as generally unhealthy. Healthy eating supports included culture/value around local food gathering (e.g., hunting and gardening) and preservation (e.g., canning and smoking). Friends and family were frequently identified as key influencers of eating and PA behavior. Conclusions. Targeting both social and built environment factors, particularly those unique to rural locales, may enhance support for healthy eating and PA behavior change interventions. PMID:25574386

  12. Top 10 research questions to promote physical activity research in people with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Rosenbaum, Simon; Probst, Michel; Connaughton, Joanne; Du Plessis, Christy; Yamamoto, Taisei; Diedens, Jolien; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    Despite emerging evidence illustrating the benefits of physical activity for people with binge eating disorder, engaging this population in physical activity is challenging. The International Organization of Physical Therapists in Mental Health (IOPTMH) set out to summarize, appraise, and strengthen the direction of physical activity endeavors. This process led to the identification of 10 important research questions which are discussed. Addressing these 10 research questions is critical for developing evidence-based approaches for promoting and sustaining an active lifestyle in people with binge eating disorder. PMID:26694684

  13. Eating extra calories when sick - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Getting more calories - adults ... it is important to get enough protein and calories so you do not lose too much weight. ... better. Change your eating habits to get more calories. Eat when you are hungry, not just at ...

  14. Promoting healthy eating, active play and sustainability consciousness in early childhood curricula, addressing the Ben10™ problem: a randomised control trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper details the research protocol for a study funded by the Australian Research Council. An integrated approach towards helping young children respond to the significant pressures of ‘360 degree marketing’ on their food choices, levels of active play, and sustainability consciousness via the early childhood curriculum is lacking. The overall goal of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of curriculum interventions that educators design when using a pedagogical communication strategy on children’s knowledge about healthy eating, active play and the sustainability consequences of their toy food and toy selections. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised trial will be conducted with 300, 4 to 5 year-old children attending pre-school. Early childhood educators will develop a curriculum intervention using a pedagogical communication strategy that integrates content knowledge about healthy eating, active play and sustainability consciousness and deliver this to their pre-school class. Children will be interviewed about their knowledge of healthy eating, active play and the sustainability consequences of their food and toy selections. Parents will complete an Eating and Physical Activity Questionnaire rating their children’s food preferences, digital media viewing and physical activity habits. All measures will be administered at baseline, the end of the intervention and 6 months post intervention. Informed consent will be obtained from all parents and the pre-school classes will be allocated randomly to the intervention or wait-list control group. Discussion This study is the first to utilise an integrated pedagogical communication strategy developed specifically for early childhood educators focusing on children’s healthy eating, active play, and sustainability consciousness. The significance of the early childhood period, for young children’s learning about healthy eating, active play and sustainability, is now unquestioned. The specific

  15. Perspectives of Mexican-origin smokers on healthy eating and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Strong, Larkin L; Hoover, Diana S; Heredia, Natalia I; Krasny, Sarah; Spears, Claire A; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W; Fernandez, Maria E

    2016-08-01

    Key modifiable risk behaviors such as smoking, poor diet and physical inactivity often cluster and may have multiplicative adverse effects on health. This study investigated barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) in overweight Mexican-origin smokers to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based smoking cessation program into a multiple health behavior change intervention. Five focus groups were conducted with overweight Mexican-origin men (n = 9) and women (n = 21) who smoked. Barriers and facilitators of healthy eating and PA were identified, and gender differences were assessed. Participants expressed some motivation to eat healthfully and identified strategies for doing so, yet many women experienced difficulties related to personal, family and work-related circumstances. Barriers to healthy eating among men were related to food preferences and lack of familiarity with fruits and vegetables. Participants performed PA primarily within the context of work and domestic responsibilities. Stress/depressed mood, lack of motivation and concern for physical well-being limited further PA engagement. Routines involving eating, PA and smoking highlight how these behaviors may be intertwined. Findings emphasize the importance of social, structural and cultural contexts and call for additional investigation into how to integrate healthy eating and PA into smoking cessation interventions for overweight Mexican-origin smokers. PMID:27240536

  16. "Community projects" in Modena (Italy): promote regular physical activity and healthy nutrition habits since childhood.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, Alberto; Severi, Sabrina; Midili, Simona; Corradini, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Lack of exercise and unhealthy diets are two of the most important risk factors to develop overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The school plays a key role in the promotion of lifelong healthy habits in children and their families. Every intervention at school level will need to be matched by changes in the social and cultural context so that the benefits can be sustained and enhanced in the community. We promoted healthy nutrition and a regular physical activity in schools and in local communities, through multifaceted interventions, which involved more than 10,000 children and about 100,000 adults. PMID:21923298

  17. Binge-Like Eating Attenuates Nisoxetine Feeding Suppression, Stress Activation, and Brain Norepinephrine Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Yeh, Chung-Yang; Verpeut, Jessica L.; Walters, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is often associated with binge eating. A critical component of the control of stress is the central norepinephrine system. We investigated how dietary-induced binge eating alters central norepinephrine and related behaviors. Young male Sprague Dawley rats received calorie deprivation (24 h) and /or intermittent sweetened fat (vegetable shortening with sucrose; 30 min) twice a week for 10 weeks. The groups were Restrict Binge (calorie deprivation/sweetened fat), Binge (sweetened fat), Restrict (calorie deprivation), and Naive (no calorie deprivation/no sweetened fat). Dietary-induced binge eating was demonstrated by Restrict Binge and Binge, which showed an escalation in 30-min intake over time. Feeding suppression following nisoxetine (3 mg/kg; IP), a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was not evident in Restrict Binge (Restrict Binge: 107±13, Binge: 52±9, Restrict: 80±8, Naive: 59±13% of saline injection at 1 h). In subsequent experiments with Restrict Binge and Naive, Restrict Binge had reduced corticosterone (Restrict Binge: 266±25; Naive: 494±36 ng/ml) and less feeding suppression (Restrict Binge: 81±12, Naive: 50±11% of non-restraint intake at 30 min) following restraint stress (1 h). Dietary-induced binge eating in Restrict Binge was not altered by a dorsal noradrenergic bundle lesion caused by N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4), but frontal cortex norepinephrine was positively correlated with the average 30-min intake post-lesion (0.69; p<0.01). In a separate set of animals, single-unit in vivo electrophysiological recording of locus coeruleus–norepinephrine neural activity demonstrated reduced sensory-evoked response as a consequence of the Restrict Binge schedule (Restrict Binge: 8.1±0.67, Naive: 11.9±1.09 Hz). These results, which suggest that a consequence of dietary-induced binge eating is to attenuate the responsiveness of the brain norepinephrine system, will further our understanding of how highly

  18. After-School Physical Activity and Eating Behaviors of Middle School Students in Relation to Adult Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wayne C.; Hering, Michelle; Cothran, Carrie; Croteau, Kim; Dunlap, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine after-school activity patterns, eating behaviors, and social environment of overweight and normal weight middle school students. Design: Eating and physical activity behaviors of 141 students, ages 10-14, were monitored. Students completed a diary documenting type of activity, location, adult supervision, accompanying…

  19. Physically active students' intentions and self-efficacy towards healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Bebetsos, Evagelos; Chroni, Stiliani; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated intentions and self-efficacy of physically active university students towards healthy eating. The application of Planned Behavior theory has shown that attitudes, intention, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms play an important role in shaping people's behavior. 96 students, who participated in physical activities, voluntarily completed the Questionnaire for the Planned Behavior Model and the Health Behavior Questionnaire. The former examines attitudes, intentions, perceived behavioral control, and the lately added attitude strength, and role identity towards the behavior factors. The latter assesses one's efficacy expectations towards healthy eating. The regression showed strong associations between the examined variables, signifying that attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and role identity could account for one's intention towards healthy eating behaviors. On the other hand, one's self-efficacy for healthy eating could be explained from the attitudes, intention, perceived behavioral control, and attitude strength held. Overall, systematic participation in physical activities appeared to be accompanied with a relatively healthier diet, while self-efficacy had a significant association with maintaining the healthy eating behaviors. Possible interpretations, limitations, and implications for health professionals are discussed. PMID:12416842

  20. Relationship of Physical Activity to Eating Behaviors and Weight Loss in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakicic, John M.; Wing, Rena R.; Winters-Hart, Carena

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether change in physical activity would relate to compliance with changes in dietary intake and eating behaviors in an 18-month behavioral weight loss program, also noting the contribution of exercise to weight loss. Data on 104 women indicated that physical activity related to long-term weight loss and was part of a constellation of…

  1. BEACHES: An Observational System for Assessing Children's Eating and Physical Activity Behaviors and Associated Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health Evaluation System (BEACHES) codes direct observations of children's dietary and physical activity behaviors and associated environmental events, including physical location, antecedents, and consequences. The system's reliability and validity was assessed in a study of 42 children (ages…

  2. To eat or not to eat: Effects of food availability on reward system activity during food picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Blechert, Jens; Klackl, Johannes; Miedl, Stephan F; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2016-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies have started to explore the role of food characteristics (e.g., calorie-content) and psychological factors (e.g., restrained eating, craving) for the human appetitive system, motivated by the significant health implications of food-choice, overeating and overweight/obesity. However, one key aspect of modern food environments, food availability, especially of high energy foods, has not been adequately modeled in experimental research. Food that is immediately available for consumption could elicit stronger reward system activity and associated cognitive control than food that is not currently available for consumption and this could vary as a function of energy density. To examine this question, 32 healthy participants (16 women) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while passively viewing available foods - i.e. foods that could be eaten during and after the experiment - and unavailable foods of either high or low-caloric density in a 2 × 2 design. Available compared to unavailable foods elicited higher palatability ratings as well as stronger neural activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), amygdala, and left caudate nucleus as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) - and thus structures implicated in reward and appetitive motivation as well as cognitive control, respectively. Availability effects in the caudate were mainly attributable to the high calorie condition (availability × calorie density interaction). These neuroimaging results support the contention that foods are particularly rewarding when immediately available and particularly so when high in caloric density. Thus, our results are consistent with health promoting interventions utilizing a nudging approach, i.e. aiming at decreasing accessibility of high calorie and increasing accessibility of low calorie foods in daily life. Results also imply that controlling/manipulating food availability may be an important methodological aspect in neuroscientific

  3. Influence of Peers and Friends on Children’s and Adolescents’ Eating and Activity Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Bowker, Julie C.; Hermans, Roel C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity during childhood and adolescence is a growing problem in the United States, Canada, and around the world that leads to significant physical, psychological, and social consequences. Peer experiences have been theoretically and empirically related to the “Big Two” contributors to the obesity epidemic, unhealthy eating and physical inactivity [1]. In this article, we synthesize the empirical literature on the influence of peers and friends on youth’s eating and physical activity. Limitations and issues in the theoretical and empirical literatures are also discussed, along with future research directions. In conclusion, we argue that the involvement of children’s and adolescents’ peer networks in prevention and intervention efforts may be critical for promoting and maintaining positive behavioral health trajectories. However, further theoretical and empirical work is needed to better understand the specific mechanisms underlying the effects of peers on youth’s eating and physical activity. PMID:22480733

  4. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  5. Policy perceptions related to physical activity and healthy eating in Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Jones, Ellen; Jacobs, Julie A.; Dobbs, Thomas; Sutton, Victor; Dove, Cassandra; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Determine the public perceptions about policies related to physical activity and healthy eating to inform efforts to change policy for these important public health issues Design Cross sectional, structured phone interview survey Setting 10 counties in Mississippi (5 counties with the highest and 5 with the lowest obesity prevalence) Participants Random sample of 2,800 adults Main Outcome Measure Level of support for each individual policy and summary of support for ten policies related to healthy eating and activity and four related to local funding for infrastructure for physical activity Results This survey showed strong policy support among Mississippi residents for a diverse set of policies aimed at promoting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. This was particularly true for those in counties with the highest levels of obesity. Support for policies related to healthy eating and activity was highest for: Requiring at least 30 minutes of physical activity or physical education everyday for children in kindergarten through 12th grade (93%) and lowest for: Taxing soda and soft drinks and using the money for public education campaigns to fight obesity in children (65%). Support for the use of local government funds to build and maintain infrastructure for physical activity was high across all categories, ranging from 86% (recreation centers) to 74% (swimming pools). The levels of support for each policy, varied according to several demographic characteristics; in general, support for nearly every policy was greater among African Americans, females, and those in counties with higher levels of obesity. Logistic models predicting level of support for healthy eating and physical activity found significant associations with several demographic factors. PMID:23399933

  6. Physical Activity, Dietary Habits and Overall Health in Overweight and Obese Children and Youth with Intellectual Disability or Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckson, Erica A.; Dickinson, Annette; Water, Tineke; Sands, Madeleine; Penman, Lara

    2013-01-01

    In children and youth with disability, the risk of obesity is higher and is associated with lower levels of physical activity, inappropriate eating behaviors, and chronic health conditions. We determined the effectiveness of a program in managing weight, through changes in physical activity and nutrition behaviors in overweight and obese New…

  7. Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in the After-School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Karen J.; Geller, Karly S.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: No research to date has extensively described moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and healthful eating (HE) opportunities in the after-school environment. The current study described the quality of the after-school environment for its impact on children's MVPA and HE. Methods: An alliance of 7 elementary schools and Boys and…

  8. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore multiple family members' perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthful eating and physical activity in the home. Design: Ten multifamily focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting and Participants: Community setting with primarily black and white families. Family members (n = 103) were aged 8 to 61…

  9. Systematic review of the relationship between childcare educators' practices and preschoolers' physical activity and eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Ward, S; Bélanger, M; Donovan, D; Carrier, N

    2015-12-01

    The role of childcare educators is important given that 81% of preschoolers living in developed countries receive childcare outside their home. Since children learn by observing and imitating others, childcare educators may play a role in promoting healthy eating behaviours and physical activity in young children. Six databases were searched for quantitative peer-reviewed, English or French primary studies reporting the correlates, predictors or effectiveness of childcare educators' practices on preschoolers' healthy eating and physical activity behaviours. Risk of bias was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Fifteen articles were included in this review: 10 measured physical activity levels and five assessed eating behaviours. The quality score was rated as low for eight of these articles, and as moderate for the remaining seven. Two of four cross-sectional studies reported a positive relationship between educators and children's behaviours. Eleven intervention studies reported significant favourable effects of interventions. Educators may play a positive role in promoting healthy behaviours in children, but this is mainly based on a small number of intervention type studies of low or moderate quality. The influence of specific components of educators' practices on children's healthy eating and physical activity behaviours remains inconclusive. PMID:26345462

  10. Creating Healthier Afterschool Environments in the Healthy Eating Active Communities Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, Arnell J.; Yoshida, Sallie

    2014-01-01

    Afterschool programs in California have the potential to play a major role in obesity prevention given that they serve close to a million low-income children. A five-year initiative called the Healthy Eating Active Communities (HEAC) was funded in 2005 by the California Endowment to demonstrate that disparities related to childhood obesity and…

  11. Health-Education Policy Interface: The Implementation of the Eat Well Be Active Policies in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Anthony Chee Siong; Macdonald, Doune; Hay, Peter; McCuaig, Louise

    2014-01-01

    While grappling with their traditional core business of imbuing students with official curricular knowledge, schools have simultaneously, increasing demands to take on health promotion responsibilities. This paper examines the mandated implementation of the Eat Well Be Active (EWBA) Action Plan and its subsidiary "Smart" policies in…

  12. 78 FR 38996 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study (NCI) Summary: In compliance with the requirement...

  13. Concerns in Measurement of Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Standards Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, Katherine H.; Mantinan, Karah D.

    2014-01-01

    As part of its 2011 commitment to the Partnership for Healthier America, the YMCA of the USA (Y-USA) pledged that by 2015, 85 percent of its local Y associations with early childhood or afterschool programs would have at least one program site that met 100 percent of the Y-USA's healthy eating and physical activity (HEPA) standards. To inform…

  14. Young adult males' motivators and perceived barrier towards eating healthily and being active: A qualitative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a lack of understanding of young men's perspectives in obesity-related research. This study aims to: (1) identify young men's perceived motivators and barriers in adopting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors, and (2) explore any differences in responses by weight status categorie...

  15. Evaluation of a 2-Year Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Intervention in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haerens, Leen; Deforche, Benedicte; Maes, Lea; Cardon, Greet; Stevens, Veerle; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a middle school physical activity and healthy eating intervention, including an environmental and computer-tailored component, and to investigate the effects of parental involvement. A random sample of 15 schools with seventh and eight graders was randomly assigned to one of three…

  16. Qualitative study exploring healthy eating practices and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in the rural Agincourt subdistrict, covered by a health and sociodemographic surveillance system, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Semistructured “duo-interviews” were carried out with 11 pairs of adolescent female friends aged 16 to 19 years. Thematic content analysis was used. Results The majority of participants considered locally grown and traditional foods, especially fruits and vegetables, to be healthy. Their consumption was limited by availability, and these foods were often sourced from family or neighbourhood gardens. Female caregivers and school meal programmes facilitated healthy eating practices. Most participants believed in the importance of breakfast, even though for the majority, limited food within the household was a barrier to eating breakfast before going to school. The majority cited limited accessibility as a major barrier to healthy eating, and noted the increasing intake of “convenient and less healthy foods”. Girls were aware of the benefits of physical activity and engaged in various physical activities within the home, community, and schools, including household chores, walking long distances to school, traditional dancing, and extramural activities such as netball and soccer. Conclusions The findings show widespread knowledge about healthy eating and the benefits of consuming locally grown and traditional food items in a population that is undergoing nutrition transition. Limited access and food availability are strong barriers to healthy eating practices. School meal programmes are an important

  17. Relationship between Eating Disturbance and Dementia Severity in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Kyoko; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Amano, Koichiro; Tanaka, Hibiki; Fukuhara, Ryuji; Ikeda, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating is one of the most important daily activities in managing patients with dementia. Although various eating disturbance occur as dementia progresses, to our knowledge, most of the studies focused on a part of eating disturbance such as swallowing and appetite. There have been few comprehensive studies including eating habits and food preference in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The aims of this study were to investigate almost all eating disturbance and to examine the relationship of eating disturbance to dementia stage in AD. Methods A total of 220 patients with AD and 30 normal elderly (NE) subjects were recruited. Eating disturbance was assessed by a comprehensive questionnaire that had been previously validated. Potential relationships between the characteristics of eating disturbance and dementia stage as classified by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) were assessed. Results Overall, 81.4% of patients with AD showed some eating and swallowing disturbance, whereas only 26.7% of the NE subjects had such a disturbance. Even in an early stage, patients with AD had many types of eating disturbance; “Appetite change” was shown in nearly half of the mild AD patients (49.5%). In the moderate stage, the scores of “change of eating habits and food preference” were highest, and in the severe stage “swallowing disturbance” became critical. Conclusion In AD, the relationship of dementia stage to eating disturbance differs according to the type of eating disturbance. The relationships between various eating disturbance and the severity of dementia should be considered. PMID:26266531

  18. Promoting physical activity and healthy eating: convergence in framing the role of industry.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Lori; Yancey, Antronette K

    2009-10-01

    This commentary addresses a little explored aspect of prevention, namely, how public health practitioners conceptualize the roles of industries whose business interests may be at odds with physical activity and eating nutrient-rich foods. Taking their cues from successful campaigns in tobacco control, many public health advocates have framed obesity as a battle with the food industry. Such framing presents problems when it exacerbates existing tensions between practitioners in nutrition and physical activity, and alienates potential fitness industry partners. Creating healthy environments requires reframing expectations of all industries that influence physical activity and inactivity. A broader view of the influence of corporate practices on physical and social environments will help both physical activity and nutrition advocates identify what they can do together, and in partnership with the business sector, to create environments that promote activity and nutritious eating. PMID:19576928

  19. Eating Disorders: A Problem in Athletics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckes-Miller, Mardie E.; Black, David R.

    1988-01-01

    A review of research regarding athletes' eating habits suggests that they may practice eating disorder habits and poor weight management behaviors as well as have poor attitudes and knowledge regarding nutrition, indicating their immediate need for appropriate education about the possible detrimental effects of such practices. (CB)

  20. Stellar Activity Mimics a Habitable-zone Planet around Kapteyn's Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Paul; Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2015-06-01

    Kapteyn’s star is an old M subdwarf believed to be a member of the Galactic halo population of stars. A recent study has claimed the existence of two super-Earth planets around the star based on radial velocity (RV) observations. The innermost of these candidate planets—Kapteyn b (P = 48 days)—resides within the circumstellar habitable zone (HZ). Given recent progress in understanding the impact of stellar activity in detecting planetary signals, we have analyzed the observed HARPS data for signatures of stellar activity. We find that while Kapteyn’s star is photometrically very stable, a suite of spectral activity indices reveal a large-amplitude rotation signal, and we determine the stellar rotation period to be 143 days. The spectral activity tracers are strongly correlated with the purported RV signal of “planet b,” and the 48-day period is an integer fraction (1/3) of the stellar rotation period. We conclude that Kapteyn b is not a planet in the HZ, but an artifact of stellar activity.

  1. Is parenting style related to children's healthy eating and physical activity in Latino families?

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Elva M; Elder, John P; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Campbell, Nadia; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan

    2006-12-01

    Parenting styles influence a child's risk for obesity. The goals of this study are to evaluate the influence of (i) parenting style on children's health behaviors (physical activity and dietary intake), (ii) children's sociodemographic characteristics on parenting style and on children's health behaviors and (iii) parents' sociodemographic characteristics on their use of controlling styles to promote a healthy home environment. Survey and anthropometric data were collected from a community sample of Latino parents (n = 812) and their children in kindergarten through second grade. Parental use of positive reinforcement and monitoring was associated with children's healthy eating and exercise. Also, parents' use of appropriate disciplining styles was associated with healthier eating, while parental use of control styles was associated with unhealthy eating. The daughters of parents who used controlling styles ate more unhealthy foods than did the sons. Older, employed and more acculturated parents used less controlling styles than their counterparts. Parenting interventions targeting children's dietary intake and physical activity should encourage parents to use more positive reinforcement and monitor their children's health behaviors as these parenting styles are associated with healthier behaviors. Moreover, intervention researchers may want to encourage Latino parents to use less controlling styles with girls as this parenting style increased girls' risk for unhealthy eating. PMID:17032706

  2. The relation of hedonic hunger and restrained eating to lateralized frontal activation.

    PubMed

    Winter, S R; Feig, E H; Kounios, J; Erickson, B; Berkowitz, S; Lowe, M R

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetrical alpha activation in the prefrontal cortex (frontal asymmetry) in electroencephalography (EEG) has been related to eating behavior. Prior studies linked dietary restraint with right frontal asymmetry [1] and disinhibition with left frontal asymmetry [2]. The current study simultaneously assessed restrained eating and hedonic hunger (drive for food reward in the absence of hunger) in relation to frontal asymmetry. Resting-state EEG and measures of restrained eating (Revised Restraint Scale; RRS) and hedonic hunger (Power of Food Scale; PFS) were assessed in 61 non-obese adults. Individually, hedonic hunger predicted left asymmetry. However, PFS and RRS were correlated (r=0.48, p<0.05) and there was a significant interaction between PFS and RRS on frontal asymmetry, p<0.01. Results indicated that those high in hedonic hunger exhibited left asymmetry irrespective of RRS scores; among those low in PFS, only those high in RRS showed right asymmetry. Results were consistent with literature linking avoidant behaviors (restraint) with right-frontal asymmetry and approach behaviors (binge eating) with left-frontal asymmetry. It appears that a strong drive toward palatable foods predominates at a neural level even when restraint is high. Findings suggest that lateralized frontal activity is an indicator of motivation both to consume and to avoid consuming highly palatable foods. PMID:27133731

  3. Knowledge is (not) power: healthy eating and physical activity for African-American women.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T

    2015-01-01

    African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity. PMID:25905767

  4. Multiple measures of physical activity, dietary habits and weight status in African American and Hispanic or Latina women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Medina, Ashley V; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Banda, Jorge A; Layne, Charles S; Baxter, Meggin; O'Connor, Daniel P; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m(2)), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P < .05). IPAQ was not associated with accelerometry. Regardless of ethnicity, normal weight women did more physical activity, reported more VF consumption, and consumed more fat calories than overweight and obese women (Ps < .05). African American women did more MVPA than Hispanic or Latino women (P < .001). Relationships between behaviors and weight status suggest accelerometry and DHQ are preferable, regardless of ethnicity; and studies may capture different domains of physical activity and dietary habits depending on measure used. PMID:21519867

  5. Multiple Measures of Physical Activity, Dietary Habits and Weight Status in African American and Hispanic or Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V.; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; Banda, Jorge A.; Layne, Charles S.; Baxter, Meggin; O’Connor, Daniel P.; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m2), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P < .05). IPAQ was not associated with accelerometry. Regardless of ethnicity, normal weight women did more physical activity, reported more VF consumption, and consumed more fat calories than overweight and obese women (Ps < .05). African American women did more MVPA than Hispanic or Latino women (P < .001). Relationships between behaviors and weight status suggest accelerometry and DHQ are preferable, regardless of ethnicity; and studies may capture different domains of physical activity and dietary habits depending on measure used. PMID:21519867

  6. A Comparison of Attitudes and Exercise Habits of Alumni from Colleges with Varying Degrees of Physical Education Activity Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.; Brynteson, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Study compared the exercise attitudes and habits of alumni from four colleges with varying physical education activity (PEA) requirements. Survey results indicated the type of PEA programs offered influenced alumni attitudes toward fitness and exercise behaviors. Students from colleges with higher PEA requirements had more positive exercise…

  7. Teachers' Facebook Use: Their Use Habits, Intensity, Self-Disclosure, Privacy Settings, and Activities on Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumuer, Evren; Esfer, Sezin; Yildirim, Soner

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated K12 teachers' Facebook usage habits, intensity, self-disclosure, privacy settings and activities. A multi-method design was employed by collecting quantitative data from 616 teachers with a Facebook account using an online questionnaire and qualitative data from 32 teachers using online open-ended questions. The…

  8. Butyrate-induced proapoptotic and antiangiogenic pathways in EAT cells require activation of CAD and downregulation of VEGF

    SciTech Connect

    Belakavadi, Madesh . E-mail: belakama@umdnj.edu; Prabhakar, B.T.; Salimath, Bharathi P.

    2005-10-07

    Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced in the colon, induces cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in transformed cell lines. In this report, we study the effects of butyrate (BuA) on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells in vivo. BuA, when injected intraperitoneally (i.p) into mice, inhibited proliferation of EAT cells. Further, induction of apoptosis in EAT cells was monitored by nuclear condensation, annexin-V staining, DNA fragmentation, and translocation of caspase-activated DNase into nucleus upon BuA-treatment. Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase-3 inhibitor, completely inhibited BuA-induced apoptosis, indicating that activation of caspase-3 mediates the apoptotic pathway in EAT cells. The proapoptotic effect of BuA also reflects on the antiangiogenic pathway in EAT cells. The antiangiogenic effect of BuA in vivo was demonstrated by the downregulation of the secretion of VEGF in EAT cells. CD31 immunohistochemical staining of peritoneum sections clearly indicated a potential angioinhibitory effect of BuA in EAT cells. These results suggest that BuA, besides regulating other fundamental cellular processes, is able to modulate the expression/secretion of the key angiogenic growth factor VEGF in EAT cells.

  9. Profiling physical activity, diet, screen and sleep habits in Portuguese children.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Chaves, Raquel N; Champagne, Catherine M; Barreira, Tiago V; Maia, José A R

    2015-06-01

    Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1) describe profiles of children's lifestyle behaviours; (2) identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3) estimate combined effects of individual/ socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR) = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74-10.41), and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98-4.72) were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43-0.84). Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05). PMID:26043034

  10. Profiling Physical Activity, Diet, Screen and Sleep Habits in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Maia, José A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1) describe profiles of children’s lifestyle behaviours; (2) identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3) estimate combined effects of individual/socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR) = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74–10.41), and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98–4.72) were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43–0.84). Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05). PMID:26043034

  11. Determinants of children's eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni, Silvia; Arrizza, Chiara; Vecchi, Fiammetta; Tedeschi, Sabrina

    2011-12-01

    Parents have a high degree of control over the environments and experiences of their children. Food preferences are shaped by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. This article is a review of current data on effective determinants of children's eating habits. The development of children's food preferences involves a complex interplay of genetic, familial, and environmental factors. There is evidence of a strong genetic influence on appetite traits in children, but environment plays an important role in modeling children's eating behaviors. Parents use a variety of strategies to influence children's eating habits, some of which are counterproductive. Overcontrol, restriction, pressure to eat, and a promise of rewards have negative effects on children's food acceptance. Parents' food preferences and eating behaviors provide an opportunity to model good eating habits. Satiety is closely related to diet composition, and foods with low energy density contribute to prevent overeating. Parents should be informed about the consequences of an unhealthy diet and lifestyle and motivated to change their nutritional habits. Parents should be the target of prevention programs because children model themselves on their parents' eating behaviors, lifestyles, eating-related attitudes, and dissatisfaction regarding body image. Pediatricians can have an important role in the prevention of diet-related diseases. Informed and motivated parents can become a model for children by offering a healthy, high-satiety, low-energy-dense diet and promoting self-regulation from the first years of life. PMID:22089441

  12. Habitability: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S; Bush, T; Bryce, C; Direito, S; Fox-Powell, M; Harrison, J P; Lammer, H; Landenmark, H; Martin-Torres, J; Nicholson, N; Noack, L; O'Malley-James, J; Payler, S J; Rushby, A; Samuels, T; Schwendner, P; Wadsworth, J; Zorzano, M P

    2016-01-01

    Habitability is a widely used word in the geoscience, planetary science, and astrobiology literature, but what does it mean? In this review on habitability, we define it as the ability of an environment to support the activity of at least one known organism. We adopt a binary definition of "habitability" and a "habitable environment." An environment either can or cannot sustain a given organism. However, environments such as entire planets might be capable of supporting more or less species diversity or biomass compared with that of Earth. A clarity in understanding habitability can be obtained by defining instantaneous habitability as the conditions at any given time in a given environment required to sustain the activity of at least one known organism, and continuous planetary habitability as the capacity of a planetary body to sustain habitable conditions on some areas of its surface or within its interior over geological timescales. We also distinguish between surface liquid water worlds (such as Earth) that can sustain liquid water on their surfaces and interior liquid water worlds, such as icy moons and terrestrial-type rocky planets with liquid water only in their interiors. This distinction is important since, while the former can potentially sustain habitable conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis that leads to the rise of atmospheric oxygen and potentially complex multicellularity and intelligence over geological timescales, the latter are unlikely to. Habitable environments do not need to contain life. Although the decoupling of habitability and the presence of life may be rare on Earth, it may be important for understanding the habitability of other planetary bodies. PMID:26741054

  13. Family Functioning: Associations with Weight Status, Eating Behaviors, and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010

  14. Privileging physical activity over healthy eating: ‘Time’ to Choose?

    PubMed Central

    Chircop, Andrea; Shearer, Cindy; Pitter, Robert; Sim, Meaghan; Rehman, Laurene; Flannery, Meredith; Kirk, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and healthy eating have long been promoted as key strategies in tackling the ‘wicked problem’ of obesity. Both practices are assumed to go hand-in-hand, but whether one dominates the other has largely remained unexamined. Moreover, time, a dimension beyond the socio-ecological model, is a critical factor of families' busy lives, but related challenges are rarely articulated. We conducted 47 family interviews as part of a mixed methods study examining environmental influences on youth obesity in Nova Scotia, Eastern Canada. Participants were recruited from six schools at the junior high school level (grades 7–9; age range 12–14 years) based on location (urban, suburban and rural) and neighborhood socioeconomic status (high and low socioeconomic status). Time pressure to meet the demands associated with scheduled physical activity for youth was the dominant theme across interviews from all neighborhoods. Physical activity and healthy eating were valued differently, with greater value placed on physical activity than healthy eating. The pressure to engage youth in organized physical activity appeared to outweigh the importance of healthy eating, which led to neglecting family meals at home and consuming fast food and take out options. Our findings further reinforce the need to move beyond the socio-ecological model and integrate critical dimensions such as ‘time’, its challenges and opportunities, to allow for a more nuanced understanding of contemporary healthy living. It appears ‘timely’ to focus on healthy public policy in support of families, instead of unwittingly supporting a fast food industry that profits from time-pressured families. PMID:23945086

  15. Maintenance of Activity and Eating Change Following a Clinical Trial of Tailored Newsletters with Older Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Susan Noble; Pullen, Carol H.; Hageman, Patricia A.; Boeckner, Linda S.; Hertzog, Melody; Oberdorfer, Maureen K.; Rutledge, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the Wellness for Women Project, a randomized-by-site 1-year controlled clinical trial, the efficacy of generic newsletters and tailored newsletters on Health Promotion Model behavior-specific cognitions, eating change, and activity change were compared among 225 women aged 50 to 69 years. Objectives To compare the maintenance of change in healthy eating and physical activity over 12 months following the tailored versus generic mailed newsletter intervention. Method Outcomes at 18 and 24 months included behavioral markers and biomarkers of physical activity and eating. Data were analyzed using the multivariate approach to repeated measures analysis of variance and generalized estimating equations (α < .05). Results At 18 months, the tailored group maintained levels of all eating and activity behaviors, while the generic group maintained levels of fruit and vegetable servings and moderate or greater activity, stretching exercise, lower body strength, and flexibility, but increased saturated fat intake and declined in weekly strength exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness. At 24 months, both groups maintained or returned to 12-month levels of all eating behaviors and moderate or greater activity, stretching exercise, and flexibility, but declined in cardiorespiratory fitness; the tailored group maintained levels of strength exercise and lower body strength, while the generic group decreased in both. A greater proportion of women who received tailored newsletters continued to achieve most Healthy People 2010 criteria for eating and activity. Discussion Mailed tailored print newsletters were more effective than generic newsletters in facilitating maintenance of change in eating and activity for 6 months postintervention. Both tailored and generic newsletters facilitated the maintenance of change in eating behaviors and in moderate or greater physical activity and stretching exercise, while tailored newsletters were more effective in maintaining change in

  16. Getting on Track: Physical Activity and Healthy Eating for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... online physical activity and nutrition trackers for this purpose. See the "Additional Resources" section at the end ... Information Strategic Plans & Reports Advisory & Coordinating Committees Research Areas Jobs at NIDDK FAQs Visit Us News NIDDK ...

  17. Inferring Meal Eating Activities in Real World Settings from Ambient Sounds: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomaz, Edison; Zhang, Cheng; Essa, Irfan; Abowd, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary self-monitoring has been shown to be an effective method for weight-loss, but it remains an onerous task despite recent advances in food journaling systems. Semi-automated food journaling can reduce the effort of logging, but often requires that eating activities be detected automatically. In this work we describe results from a feasibility study conducted in-the-wild where eating activities were inferred from ambient sounds captured with a wrist-mounted device; twenty participants wore the device during one day for an average of 5 hours while performing normal everyday activities. Our system was able to identify meal eating with an F-score of 79.8% in a person-dependent evaluation, and with 86.6% accuracy in a person-independent evaluation. Our approach is intended to be practical, leveraging off-the-shelf devices with audio sensing capabilities in contrast to systems for automated dietary assessment based on specialized sensors. PMID:25859566

  18. Greater Corticolimbic Activation to High-Calorie Food Cues after Eating in Obese vs. Normal-Weight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Tkach, Jean; Ho, Alan; Kennedy, James

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to identify the neural response to rewarding food cues before and after eating in overweight/obese (OB) and normal-weight (NW) adults. Based on the previous literature, we expected greater differential activation to food cues vs. objects for OB compared to NW participants both prior to eating and after consumption of a typical lunch. Twenty-two overweight/obese (11 male) and 16 normal-weight (6 male) individuals participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging task examining neural response to visual cues of high- and low-calorie foods before and after eating. The OB group demonstrated increased neural response to high- and low-calorie foods after eating in comparison to the NW participants in frontal, temporal, and limbic regions. In addition, greater activation in corticolimbic regions (lateral OFC, caudate, anterior cingulate) to high-calorie food cues was evident in OB vs. NW participants after eating. These findings suggest that for OB individuals, high-calorie food cues show sustained response in brain regions implicated in reward and addiction even after eating. Moreover, food cues did not elicit similar brain response after eating in the NW group suggesting that neural activity in response to food cues diminishes with reduced hunger for these individuals. PMID:22063094

  19. Scientific Activity Is a Better Predictor of Nobel Award Chances than Dietary Habits and Economic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Hideyuki; Heeren, Alexandre; Maurage, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have described a strong correlation between nutritional or economic data and the number of Nobel awards obtained across a large range of countries. This sheds new light on the intriguing question of the key predictors of Nobel awards chances. However, all these studies have been focused on a single predictor and were only based on simple correlation and/or linear model analysis. The main aim of the present study was thus to clarify this debate by simultaneously exploring the influence of food consumption (cacao, milk, and wine), economic variables (gross domestic product) and scientific activity (number of publications and research expenditure) on Nobel awards. An innovative statistical analysis, hierarchical partitioning, has been used because it enables us to reduce collinearity problems by determining and comparing the independent contribution of each factor. Our results clearly indicate that a country's number of Nobel awards can be mainly predicted by its scientific achievements such as number of publications and research expenditure. Conversely, dietary habits and the global economy variable are only minor predictors; this finding contradicts the conclusions of previous studies. Dedicating a large proportion of the GDP to research and to the publication of a high number of scientific papers would thus create fertile ground for obtaining Nobel awards. PMID:24675712

  20. What's Eating into School Recess? Implications of Extended Eating for Free Play and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyver, Shirley; Engelen, Lina; Bundy, Anita; Naughton, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    An assumption made when designing recess interventions in schools is that there is a clear demarcation between eating time and play time. We used observational data conducted as part of the Sydney Playground Project to test if this assumption was correct. The Sydney Playground Project is a cluster randomised controlled trial of a recess…

  1. Media-Smart Youth: Eat, Think, and Be Active!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document provides an overview for the Media-Smart Youth Program, which is an education program that helps young people ages 11 to 13 understand the complex media world around them, and how it can influence their health--especially in regard to nutrition and physical activity. The following questions are answered in this document: (1) Why is…

  2. Eat Well, Learn Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Child Nutrition and Food Distribution Div.

    New research has found a clear connection between nutrition and learning. This document highlights the importance of good nutrition in preparing children to learn and identifies California schools' crucial role in building healthy eating habits. The role of nutrition services in a comprehensive school health system--including the development of a…

  3. Exoplanet detection. Stellar activity masquerading as planets in the habitable zone of the M dwarf Gliese 581.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Paul; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Endl, Michael; Roy, Arpita

    2014-07-25

    The M dwarf star Gliese 581 is believed to host four planets, including one (GJ 581d) near the habitable zone that could possibly support liquid water on its surface if it is a rocky planet. The detection of another habitable-zone planet--GJ 581g--is disputed, as its significance depends on the eccentricity assumed for d. Analyzing stellar activity using the Hα line, we measure a stellar rotation period of 130 ± 2 days and a correlation for Hα modulation with radial velocity. Correcting for activity greatly diminishes the signal of GJ 581d (to 1.5 standard deviations) while significantly boosting the signals of the other known super-Earth planets. GJ 581d does not exist, but is an artifact of stellar activity which, when incompletely corrected, causes the false detection of planet g. PMID:24993348

  4. An economic framework for understanding physical activity and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John

    2004-10-01

    This paper offers an economic framework of human behavior with respect to physical activity and nutrition. Economics offers useful insights into these behaviors because it is the study of how people allocate their scarce resources of time and money to maximize their lifetime happiness. This paper outlines the criteria for policy interventions from an economic perspective and also considers arguments for policy intervention that are not based on economic considerations. The implications of the economic framework are summarized and its limitations are described. PMID:15450622

  5. Process evaluation methods, implementation fidelity results and relationship to physical activity and healthy eating in the Faith, Activity, and Nutrition (FAN) study.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Ruth P; Wilcox, Sara; Baruth, Meghan; Dowda, Marsha

    2014-04-01

    Faith, Activity and Nutrition (FAN), a community-based participatory research project in African American churches, aimed to increase congregant physical activity and healthy eating. The Health-Promoting Church framework, developed collaboratively with faith-based partners, guided the intervention and a comprehensive process evaluation. The Health-Promoting Church components related to healthy eating and physical activity were getting the message out, opportunities, pastor support, and organizational policy. There was no evidence for sequential mediation for any of the healthy eating components. These results illustrate the complexity of systems change within organizational settings and the importance of conducting process evaluation. The FAN intervention resulted in increased implementation for all physical activity and most healthy eating components. Mediation analyses revealed no direct association between implementation and increased physical activity; rather, sequential mediation analysis showed that implementation of physical activity messages was associated with improved self-efficacy at the church level, which was associated with increased physical activity. PMID:24394548

  6. Perceptions of Midwest rural women related to their physical activity and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jane; Schmer, Carol; Ward-Smith, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to describe the perceptions of 65 Midwestern rural women related to healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management. A semistructured interview guide was used to elicit data. Theory of planned behavior constructs were used to categorize the data into 4 predominant themes related to healthy lifestyle behaviors, (a) knowledge and attitudes, (b) rural cultural influences, (c) facilitators, and (d) barriers. Analyses revealed that facilitators and barriers consisted of social and environmental factors, and personal life situations. Results suggest key elements for developing and implementing effective physical activity and weight management interventions for Midwestern rural women. PMID:23659220

  7. Red Dwarf Stars: Ages, Rotation, Magnetic Dynamo Activity and the Habitability of Hosted Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, S. G.; Guinan, E. F.

    2011-12-01

    We report on our continued efforts to understand and delineate the magnetic dynamo-induced behavior/variability of red dwarf (K5 V - M6 V) stars over their long lifetimes. These properties include: rotation, light variations (from star spots), coronal-chromospheric XUV activity and flares. This study is being carried out as part of the NSF-sponsored Living with a Red Dwarf program. The Living with a Red Dwarf program's database of dM stars with photometrically determined rotation rates (from starspot modulations) continues to expand, as does the inventory of archival XUV observations. Recently, the photometric properties of several hundred dM stars from the Kepler database are being analyzed to determine the rotation rates, starspot areal coverage/distributions and stellar flare rates. When all data setsare combined with ages from cluster/population memberships and kinematics, the determination of Age-Rotation-Activity relationships is possible. Such relationships have broad impacts not only on the studies of magnetic dynamo theory and angular momentum loss of low-mass stars with deep convective zones, but also on the suitability of planets hosted by red dwarfs to support life. With intrinsically low luminosities (L< 0.02L⊙), the liquid water habitable zones (HZs) for hosted planets are very close to their host stars - typically at ˜0.1 AU < HZ < 0.4 AU. Planets located close to their host stars risk damage and atmospheric loss from coronal & chromospheric XUV radiation, flares and plasma blasts via strong winds and coronal mass ejections. In addition, our relationships permit the stellar ages to be determined through measures of either the stars' rotation periods (best way) or XUV activity levels. This also permits a determination of the ages of their hosted planets. We illustrate this with examples of age determinations of the exoplanet systems: GJ 581 and HD 85512 (both with large Earth-size planets within the host star's HZ), GJ 1214 (hot, close

  8. Pathways curriculum and family interventions to promote healthful eating and physical activity in American Indian schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sally M.; Clay, Theresa; Smyth, Mary; Gittelsohn, Joel; Arviso, Vivian; Flint-Wagner, Hilary; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Brice, Richard A.; Metcalfe, Lauve; Stewart, Dawn; Vu, Maihan; Stone, Elaine J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathways, a multisite school-based study aimed at promoting healthful eating and increasing physical activity, was a randomized field trial including 1704 American Indian third to fifth grade students from 41 schools (21 intervention, 20 controls) in seven American Indian communities. Methods The intervention schools received four integrated components: a classroom curriculum, food service, physical activity, and family modules. The curriculum and family components were based on Social Learning Theory, American Indian concepts, and results from formative research. Process evaluation data were collected from teachers (n = 235), students (n = 585), and families. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Questionnaire data were collected from 1150 students including both intervention and controls. Results There were significant increases in knowledge and cultural identity in children in intervention compared to control schools with a significant retention of knowledge over the 3 years, based on the results of repeating the third and fourth grade test items in the fifth grade. Family members participated in Family Events and take-home activities, with fewer participating each year. Conclusion A culturally appropriate school intervention can promote positive changes in knowledge, cultural identity, and self-reported healthful eating and physical activity in American Indian children and environmental change in school food service. PMID:14636806

  9. Influence of Physical Activity Participation on the Associations between Eating Behaviour Traits and Body Mass Index in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Riou, Marie-Ève; Doucet, Éric; Provencher, Véronique; Weisnagel, S. John; Piché, Marie-Ève; Dubé, Marie-Christine; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eating behaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eating behaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity participation. Information from the TFEQ and physical activity was obtained from 113 postmenopausal women (56.7 ± 4.2 years; 28.5 ± 5.9 kg/m2). BMI was compared between four groups formed on the basis of the physical activity participation and eating behaviour traits medians. In groups of women with higher physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women who presented higher dietary restraint when compared to women who had lower dietary restraint (25.5 ± 0.5 versus 30.3 ± 1.7 kg/m2, P < .05). In addition, among women with lower physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women presenting a lower external hunger than in those with a higher external hunger (27.5 ± 0.8 versus 32.4 ± 1.1 kg/m2, P < .001). Our results suggest that physical activity participation should also be taken into account when interpreting the relationship between adiposity and eating behaviour traits. PMID:20871862

  10. Habitable Trinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Maruyama, S.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a new concept of a habitable environment in the search for life beyond Earth that goes beyond the follow-the-water paradigm, newly named Habitable Trinity. Habitable Trinity is the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N), an ocean (H and O), and a landmass (supplier of nutrients). It is the minimum requirement for the beginning of life to satisfy (1) formation of membrane, (2) metabolism, and (3) self-replication as we know it. A habitable planet, which has largely been defined as having an adequate climate, a sufficient atmosphere, and the presence of liquid water on its surface, is insufficient to meet the requirements to bear life. Also, material circulation driven by the Sun must be maintained with Habitable Trinity to continue the supply of elements necessary to sustain organic radical reactions that is the basis of life. The Sun is the major engine that links the three components primarily through hydrological cycling, including weathering, erosion, and transport of nutrient-enriched landmass materials to the ocean via far-reaching river systems. Habitable Trinity can be applied to other planets and moons to discuss the presence of extraterrestrial life. Mars is considered to be the best target to test the hypothesis of whether life exists elsewhere in our solar system, as it records an ancient Habitable Trinity (i.e., lakes and oceans which interacted with a landmass (cratered southern highlands) and an atmosphere). Other terrestrial planets, as well as satellites of the gaseous giants such as Europa and Titan, have little chance to harbor life as we know it because they lack Habitable Trinity. Going beyond 'the-follow-the-water-approach', the Habitable-Trinity concept provides an index in the quest for life-containing planetary bodies beyond our solar system as the reconnaissance systems become increasingly autonomous and at higher resolution, affording greater perspective during this golden age of international and

  11. Effects of a recreational physical activity and healthy habits orientation program, using an illustrated diary, on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese schoolchildren: a pilot study in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Militão, Angeliete Garcez; de Oliveira Karnikowski, Margô Gomes; da Silva, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez Militão, Elba Sancho; dos Santos Pereira, Raiane Maiara; Grubert Campbell, Carmen Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Educative strategies need to be adopted to encourage the consumption of healthy foods and to promote physical activity in childhood and adolescence. The effects of recreational physical activity and a health-habit orientation program using an illustrated diary on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese children was investigated. Methods The weight and height of 314 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 11 years old, in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil, were recorded. According to the body mass index (BMI) classification proposed by the World Health Organization, 84 were overweight or obese for their age and sex. Of these children, 34 (40%) participated in the study. Students were divided into two groups matched for sex, age, BMI, percent body fat (%BF): the intervention group (IG, n = 17) and the control group (CG, n = 17). The IG underwent a program of 10 weeks of exercise with recreational activities and health-habit orientation using an illustrated diary of habits, while no such interventions were used with the CG during the study period. Before and after the intervention, the children’s weight, height, BMI, %BF, waist circumference (WC), maximum oxygen intake (VO2max), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, glucose, eating habits, and physical activity level (PAL) were assessed. In analyzing the data, we used descriptive statistics and paired and unpaired t-tests, using a significance level of 0.05. For assessment of dietary habits, a questionnaire, contingency tables, and the chi-squared test were used, with <0.05 set as the significance level. Results After 10 weeks of intervention, the IG showed a reduction in BMI (pre: 22.2 ± 2.1 kg/m2 versus [vs] post: 21.6 ± 2.1 kg/m2, P < 0.01); WC (pre: 70.1 ± 6.1 cm vs post: 69.1 ± 5.8 cm, P < 0.01); %BF (pre: 29.2% ± 4.6% vs post: 28.0% ± 4.8%, P < 0.01); systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01); VO2max (P

  12. Outcome From a Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder: Comparing Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for Binge Eating to an Active Comparison Group Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Debra L.; Robinson, Athena Hagler; Jo, Booil

    2011-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder (DBT-BED) aims to reduce binge eating by improving adaptive emotion-regulation skills. Preliminary findings have been promising but have only compared DBT-BED to a wait-list. To control for the hypothesized specific effects of DBT-BED, the present study compared DBT-BED to an active comparison group therapy (ACGT). Men and women (n = 101) meeting DSM-IV BED research criteria were randomly assigned to 20 group sessions of DBT-BED (n = 50) or ACGT (n = 51). DBT-BED had a significantly lower dropout rate (4%) than ACGT (33.3%). Linear Mixed Models revealed that posttreatment binge abstinence and reductions in binge frequency were achieved more quickly for DBT-BED than for ACGT (posttreatment abstinence rate = 64% for DBT-BED vs. 36% for ACGT) though differences did not persist over the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up assessments (e.g., 12-month follow-up abstinence rate = 64% for DBT-BED vs. 56% for ACGT). Secondary outcome measures revealed no sustained impact on emotion regulation. Although both DBT-BED and ACGT reduced binge eating, DBT-BED showed significantly fewer dropouts and greater initial efficacy (e.g., at posttreatment) than ACGT. The lack of differential findings over follow-up suggests that the hypothesized specific effects of DBT-BED do not show long-term impact beyond those attributable to nonspecific common therapeutic factors. PMID:20171332

  13. Strategies to Increase After-School Program Staff Skills to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Beighle, Aaron; Webster, Collin; Huberty, Jennifer; Moore, Justin B

    2016-01-01

    Standards targeting children's healthy eating and physical activity (HEPA) in after-school programs call for staff to display or refrain from HEPA-promoting or -discouraging behaviors that are linked to children's HEPA. This study evaluated strategies to align staff behaviors with HEPA Standards. Staff at four after-school programs serving approximately 500 children participated in professional development training from January 2012 to May 2013. Site leaders also attended workshops and received technical support during the same time frame. Changes in staff behaviors were evaluated using the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Activity and Nutrition in a pre- (fall 2011) multiple-post (spring 2012, fall 2012, and spring 2013), no-control group study design. A total of 8,949 scans were completed across the four measurement periods. Of the 19 behaviors measured, 14 changed in the appropriate direction. For example, staff engaging in physical activity with children increased from 27% to 40% of scans and staff eating unhealthy foods decreased from 56% to 14% of days. Ongoing training and technical assistance can have a measureable impact on staff behaviors linked to child-level HEPA outcomes. Future research should explore the feasibility of disseminating ongoing trainings to after-school program staff on a large scale. PMID:26055462

  14. Motivators and barriers to healthful eating and physical activity among low-income overweight and obese mothers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Guilford, Eileen; Adair, Constance H; Hazard, Diana L

    2008-06-01

    Low-income women who are overweight and obese are at high risk for long-term retention of weight gain during pregnancy, in part because they may have poor diets and inadequate physical activity, both of which may be exacerbated by stressful situations. This study identified motivators and barriers to healthful eating and physical activity among low-income overweight and obese non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white mothers. Qualitative data were collected via eight focus group interviews. Eighty low-income overweight and obese non-Hispanic black (n=41) and non-Hispanic white (n=39) mothers, age 18 to 35 years, were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children sites in six counties in Michigan. Personal appearance, fit in clothes, inability to play with their children, and social support were motivating factors for healthful eating and physical activity. Stressful experiences triggered emotional eating and reduced participants' ability to practice these behaviors. Other factors-for example, wanting quick weight-loss results-made it difficult for these mothers to follow recommended healthful lifestyle practices. Nutrition educators can address these concerns by including information about ways to deal with stress and emotional eating and emphasizing the benefits of healthful eating and physical activity in their program plans. PMID:18502238

  15. Learning strategies, study habits and social networking activity of undergraduate medical students

    PubMed Central

    O'Deasmhunaigh, Conall; O'Flynn, Siun; O'Tuathaigh, Colm

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine learning strategies, study habits, and online social networking use of undergraduates at an Irish medical school, and their relationship with academic performance. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Year 2 and final year undergraduate-entry and graduate-entry students at an Irish medical school. Data about participants’ demographics and educational background, study habits (including time management), and use of online media was collected using a self-report questionnaire. Participants’ learning strategies were measured using the 18-item Approaches to Learning and Studying Inventory (ALSI). Year score percentage was the measure of academic achievement. The association between demographic/educational factors, learning strategies, study habits, and academic achievement was statistically analysed using regression analysis.  Results Forty-two percent of students were included in this analysis (n=376). A last-minute “cramming” time management study strategy was associated with increased use of online social networks. Learning strategies differed between undergraduate- and graduate-entrants, with the latter less likely to adopt a ‘surface approach’ and more likely adopt a ‘study monitoring’ approach. Year score percentage was positively correlated with the ‘effort management/organised studying’ learning style. Poorer academic performance was associated with a poor time management approach to studying (“cramming”) and increased use of the ‘surface learning’ strategy.                   Conclusions Our study demonstrates that effort management and organised studying should be promoted, and surface learning discouraged, as part of any effort to optimise academic performance in medical school. Excessive use of social networking contributes to poor study habits, which are associated with reduced academic achievement. PMID:27424041

  16. Study of television viewing habits in children.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sharmila Banerjee; Gupta, Yogita; Aneja, Satinder

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from developing countries have reported that Television (TV) viewing, if excessive and of poor quality has a proven negative influence on child health. Indian studies on this subject are few. The present study aimed at determining TV viewing habits of children and their families as well as parental perspectives on the impact of TV on child health using a provider completed indigenously developed questionnaire in Hindi. The study group comprised of 109 children attending a government hospital who belonged predominantly to lower socio-economic strata with poor maternal literacy. It was observed that 100 % children watched excessive TV (> 2 h daily), with majority viewing unsupervised and low quality content. There were minimal parental restrictions and no active discussion regarding contents. Negative impact was found on play, hobbies, sleep hygiene and eating habits in most children. Most parents were unaware of unhealthy viewing and the associated deleterious effects. As pediatricians we need to enquire about TV viewing habits routinely and educate parents about appropriate TV viewing. PMID:24682808

  17. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fuglestad, Paul T; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2013-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589

  18. Persistence or Change in Leisure-Time Physical Activity Habits and Waist Gain During Early Adulthood: A Twin-Study

    PubMed Central

    Rottensteiner, Mirva; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between persistence or change in leisure-time physical activity habits and waist gain among young adults. Design and Methods Population-based cohort study among 3383 Finnish twin individuals (1578 men) from five birth cohorts (1975–1979), who answered questionnaires at mean ages of 24.4 y (SD 0.9) and 33.9 y (SD 1.2), with reported self-measured waist circumference. Persistence or change in leisure-time physical activity habits was defined based on thirds of activity metabolic equivalent h/day during follow-up (mean 9.5 y; SD 0.7). Results Decreased activity was linked to greater waist gain compared to increased activity (3.6 cm, P<0.001 for men; 3.1 cm, P<0.001 for women). Among same-sex activity discordant twin pairs, twins who decreased activity gained an average 2.8 cm (95%CI 0.4 to 5.1, P=0.009) more waist than their co-twins who increased activity (n=85 pairs); among MZ twin pairs (n=43), the difference was 4.2 cm (95%CI 1.2 to 7.2, P=0.008). Conclusions Among young adults, an increase in leisure-time physical activity or staying active during a decade of follow-up was associated with less waist gain, but any decrease in activity level, regardless baseline activity, led to waist gain that was similar to that associated with being persistently inactive. PMID:24839266

  19. Activity-related parenting practices: development of the Parenting Related to Activity Measure (PRAM) and links with mothers' eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise beliefs.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25377732

  20. Habitability design for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    Habitability is understood to mean those spacecraft design elements that involve a degree of comfort, quality or necessities to support man in space. These elements are environment, architecture, mobility, clothing, housekeeping, food and drink, personal hygiene, off-duty activities, each of which plays a substantial part in the success of a mission. Habitability design for past space flights is discussed relative to the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab spacecraft, with special emphasis on an examination of the Shuttle Orbiter cabin design from a habitability standpoint. Future projects must consider the duration and mission objectives to meet their habitability requirements. Larger ward rooms, improved sleeping quarters and more complete hygiene facilities must be provided for future prolonged space flights

  1. A participatory and capacity-building approach to healthy eating and physical activity – SCIP-school: a 2-year controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Schools can be effective settings for improving eating habits and physical activity, whereas it is more difficult to prevent obesity. A key challenge is the “implementation gap”. Trade-off must be made between expert-driven programmes on the one hand and contextual relevance, flexibility, participation and capacity building on the other. The aim of the Stockholm County Implementation Programme was to improve eating habits, physical activity, self-esteem, and promote a healthy body weight in children aged 6–16 years. We describe the programme, intervention fidelity, impacts and outcomes after two years of intervention. Methods Nine out of 18 schools in a middle-class municipality in Sweden agreed to participate whereas the other nine schools served as the comparison group (quasi-experimental study). Tailored action plans were developed by school health teams on the basis of a self-assessment questionnaire called KEY assessing strengths and weaknesses of each school’s health practices and environments. Process evaluation was carried out by the research staff. Impacts at school level were assessed yearly by the KEY. Outcome measures at student level were anthropometry (measured), and health behaviours assessed by a questionnaire, at baseline and after 2 years. All children in grade 2, 4 and 7 were invited to participate (n=1359) of which 59.8% consented. The effect of the intervention on health behaviours, self-esteem, weight status and BMIsds was evaluated by unilevel and multilevel regression analysis adjusted for gender and baseline values. Results Programme fidelity was high demonstrating feasibility, but fidelity to school action plans was only 48% after two years. Positive and significant (p<.05) impacts were noted in school health practices and environments after 2 years. At student level no significant intervention effects were seen for the main outcomes. Conclusions School staff has the capacity to create their own solutions and make

  2. The impact of adolescent girls' life concerns and leisure activities on body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to situate adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem in the context of their life concerns and leisure activities. Questionnaires containing measures of life concerns, leisure activities, body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem were administered to 306 girls with a mean age of 16 years. It was found that although academic success and intelligence were rated as the most important life concerns, an emphasis on slimness was most strongly linked to body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and global self-esteem. An emphasis on popularity with girls also was related to body dissatisfaction, and hours spent watching television were related to lower self-esteem. In contrast, emphasis on sport seemed to serve a protective function. It was concluded that adolescent girls who have a high concern for slimness should be assisted in decreasing this emphasis in order to improve their general well-being. PMID:11432599

  3. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatments and Therapies Join a Study Learn More Eating Disorders Definition There is a commonly held view that ... can lead to stroke or heart attack Binge-eating disorder People with binge-eating disorder lose control over ...

  4. n-back task performance and corresponding brain-activation patterns in women with restrictive and bulimic eating-disorder variants: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Israel, Mimi; Klein, Michael; Pruessner, Jens; Thaler, Lea; Spilka, Michael; Efanov, Simona; Ouellette, Anne-Sophie; Berlim, Marcelo; Ali, Nida; Beaudry, Thomas; Van den Eynde, Frederique; Walker, Claire-Dominique; Steiger, Howard

    2015-04-30

    Eating disorder (ED) variants characterized by "binge-eating/purging" symptoms differ from "restricting-only" variants along diverse clinical dimensions, but few studies have compared people with these different eating-disorder phenotypes on measures of neurocognitive function and brain activation. We tested the performances of 19 women with "restricting-only" eating syndromes and 27 with "binge-eating/purging" variants on a modified n-back task, and used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine task-induced brain activations in frontal regions of interest. When compared with "binge-eating/purging" participants, "restricting-only" participants showed superior performance. Furthermore, in an intermediate-demand condition, "binge-eating/purging" participants showed significantly less event-related activation than did "restricting-only" participants in a right posterior prefrontal region spanning Brodmann areas 6-8-a region that has been linked to planning of motor responses, working memory for sequential information, and management of uncertainty. Our findings suggest that working memory is poorer in eating-disordered individuals with binge-eating/purging behaviors than in those who solely restrict food intake, and that observed performance differences coincide with interpretable group-based activation differences in a frontal region thought to subserve planning and decision making. PMID:25707581

  5. Parents' Perceived Barriers to Healthful Eating and Physical Activity for Low-Income Adolescents Who Are at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon L.; Bell, Toya Wilson; Hasin, Afroza

    2009-01-01

    Healthful eating and regular physical activity are vitally important for low-income adolescents who are at risk for developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM). To design a relevant, community-based intervention for these at risk adolescents, parent perceptions of barriers to healthful eating and physical activity should be assessed. Such barriers have been…

  6. Eating habits modulate short term memory and epigenetical regulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampus of low-and high running capacity rats

    PubMed Central

    Torma, Ferenc; Bori, Zoltan; Koltai, Erika; Felszeghy, Klara; Vacz, Gabriella; Koch, Lauren; Britton, Steven; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Exercise capacity and dietary restriction (DR) are linked to improved quality of life, including enhanced brain function and neuro-protection. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the key proteins involved in the beneficial effects of exercise on brain. Low capacity runner (LCR) and high capacity runner (HCR) rats were subjected to DR in order to investigate the regulation of BDNF. HCR-DR rats out-performed other groups in a passive avoidance test. BDNF content increased significantly in the hippocampus of HCR-DR groups compared to control groups (p<0.05). The acetylation of H3 increased significantly only in the LCR-DR group. However, Chip-assay revealed that the specific binding between acetylated histone H3 and BNDF promoter was increased in both LCR-DR and HCR-DR groups. In spite of these increases in binding, at the transcriptional level only, the LCR-DR group showed an increase in BDNF mRNA content. Additionally, DR also induced the activity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), while the content of SIRT1 was not altered. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) was elevated in HCR-DR groups. But, based on the levels of nuclear respiratory factor-1 and cytocrome c oxidase, it appears that DR did not cause mitochondrial biogenesis. The data suggest that DR-mediated induction of BDNF levels includes chromatin remodeling. Moreover, DR does not induce mitochondrial biogenesis in the hippocampus of LCR/HCR rats. DR results in different responses to a passive avoidance test, and BDNF regulation in LCR and HCR rats. PMID:25043449

  7. Bedtime habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... up at night to eat, keep the room dark and quiet. Sleeping with a baby younger than 12 months may increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). YOUR INFANT (3 TO 12 MONTHS) AND SLEEP By age 4 months, your child might sleep for up ...

  8. A comparison of attitudes and exercise habits of alumni from colleges with varying degrees of physical education activity programs.

    PubMed

    Adams, T M; Brynteson, P

    1992-06-01

    A survey of alumni attitudes about their college physical education activity (PEA) program and current exercise habits was sent to a representative sample (N = 3169) of alumni who had graduated between 1970 and 1984 from four private colleges. The percent returned was 48, 31, 43, and 41 from Colleges A-D, respectively. Three of the four colleges had required PEA programs. College A had an eight-credit-hour requirement, College B required four credit-hours, College C required two credits, and College D did not have a PEA requirement. Results indicated a significant difference among the four colleges in the alumni's perceived value of their college PEA program in terms of its contribution to their knowledge about fitness, attitude towards fitness, and current exercise habits. Additionally, alumni differed in their perception of the health value of exercise and in their frequency of weekly exercise. When alumni exercise behaviors were quantified by aerobic points and classified according to type of activity, no statistically significant differences were found. The conclusion of the study was that the attitudes and exercise behaviors of alumni are related to the type of college PEA requirement; however, aerobic points earned are not affected. Students graduating from colleges with higher PEA requirements demonstrate more positive exercise attitudes and behaviors. PMID:1585061

  9. Predicting adolescent eating and activity behaviors: the role of social norms and personal agency.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christina Wood; Little, Todd D; Brownell, Kelly D

    2003-03-01

    Guided by the theory of planned behavior, this 2-week longitudinal study examined health behaviors in a sample of 279 adolescents. Social norms and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were tested as predictors of self-reported intentions and behaviors in 2 domains, eating and physical activity. Differentiating, as opposed to aggregating, parent and peer norms provided unique information. For PBC, the authors distinguished global causality beliefs from self-related agency beliefs and intraself (effort, ability) from extraself (parents, teachers) means. Intraself agency beliefs strongly predicted healthy intentions, whereas intraself causality beliefs had a negative influence. Patterns differed somewhat across behaviors and gender. Results highlight theoretical issues and provide potential targets for research on health promotion programs for youth. PMID:12683739

  10. Effectiveness of a Nutrition Education Program to Improve Children's Chewing Habits

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Fumi; Yoshiike, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study determined whether the nutrition education program we developed to promote chewing food properly influenced children's chewing habits successfully. Four kindergarten classes in Japan (150 children, aged 5-6 years) were studied; one class received the educational program in the classroom and at home (Group A) and three classes received the program in the classroom only (Group B). The educational program was integrated into the classes' daily curriculum for five weeks. It included storytelling with large picture books, chewing consciously while eating lunch, singing a song with gestures, and greetings before and after meals (both groups). Group A also used a paper textbook and was provided information by the leaflet to encourage guardians to implement the program at home. Chewing habits before and after intervention were evaluated: (1) guardians completed seven questionnaire items related to chewing habits and chewing movement and (2) the number of chews and time spent eating the test meal were measured by a portable chewing sensor. Both approaches improved the children's chewing habits; however, no difference was found between the two groups. We concluded that this intervention could be used to improve chewing habits in young children even without active involvement of their guardians. PMID:27382638

  11. Effectiveness of a Nutrition Education Program to Improve Children's Chewing Habits.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nanae; Hayashi, Fumi; Yoshiike, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study determined whether the nutrition education program we developed to promote chewing food properly influenced children's chewing habits successfully. Four kindergarten classes in Japan (150 children, aged 5-6 years) were studied; one class received the educational program in the classroom and at home (Group A) and three classes received the program in the classroom only (Group B). The educational program was integrated into the classes' daily curriculum for five weeks. It included storytelling with large picture books, chewing consciously while eating lunch, singing a song with gestures, and greetings before and after meals (both groups). Group A also used a paper textbook and was provided information by the leaflet to encourage guardians to implement the program at home. Chewing habits before and after intervention were evaluated: (1) guardians completed seven questionnaire items related to chewing habits and chewing movement and (2) the number of chews and time spent eating the test meal were measured by a portable chewing sensor. Both approaches improved the children's chewing habits; however, no difference was found between the two groups. We concluded that this intervention could be used to improve chewing habits in young children even without active involvement of their guardians. PMID:27382638

  12. I eat healthfully but I am not a freak. Consumers' everyday life perspective on healthful eating.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Laura I; te Molder, Hedwig; Koelen, Maria M; van Woerkum, Cees M J

    2009-12-01

    The gap between the awareness and understanding of healthful eating on the one hand and actual eating practices on the other has been addressed in several ways in the literature. In this paper, we consider it from an everyday life perspective. Using discourse analysis, we analyse how Dutch consumers account for their everyday food choices. We show how Dutch consumers use three interpretative repertoires to confirm the importance of health, while not portraying themselves as too self- and health-conscious eaters. The first repertoire associates healthful eating with common knowledge and 'scripted' actions, thereby suggesting that such eating is self-evident rather than difficult. The second repertoire constructs eating for health and pleasure as uncomplicated, by emphasizing consumers' relaxed way of dealing with both. The third repertoire constructs unhealthful eating practices as naturally requiring compensation in the form of certain products or pills. We discuss how the use of these repertoires may pose socio-interactional barriers to the pursuance of healthful eating behaviour. The depiction of one's eating habits as uncomplicated, self-evidently healthful and - when bad - easy to compensate for, does not seem to provide a basis for critical considerations about these eating habits. If structural change in eating practices is to be achieved, nutrition promotion must invest in creating a new social standard that both avoids 'overdoing' bio-medical health and challenges people's construction of their eating habits as naturally healthful. PMID:19698753

  13. Effects of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents’ motivation to eat and energy intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: assess the effect of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents’ motivation to eat and their energy intake. Methods Participants (n¼103; M age¼13.6 years) were either ostracized or included when playing a computer game, Cyberball. Next, they wrote about their friend...

  14. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  15. A Social Marketing Approach to Promoting Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in Low-Income and Ethnically Diverse Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Jung, Yumi; Oh, Hyun Jung; Alaimo, Katherine; Pfeiffer, Karin; Carlson, Joseph J.; Wen, Yalu; Betz, Heather Hayes; Orth, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term outcome of the social marketing approach used in Project FIT, we developed a school- and community-based programme for promoting healthful eating and physical activity in kindergarten to 5th-grade children and their parents. Design: A 2-year quasi-experiment for children and two cross-sectional surveys for…

  16. Using Participatory Action Research to Develop a School-Based Environmental Intervention to Support Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecchiarelli, Stephanie; Prelip, Michael; Slusser, Wendelin; Weightman, Heather; Neumann, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    Rates of overweight children and adolescents have nearly tripled over the past 30 years. Many barriers exist to healthy eating and physical activity for children and adolescents, including factors in the school and community environment. It is these modifiable school environmental factors that led to the development of the Nutrition Friendly…

  17. 78 FR 56901 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request: Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request: Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the provisions of...

  18. Psychosocial and Environmental Determinants of Eating Behaviors, Physical Activity, and Weight Change among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaille, Lara J.; Dauner, Kim Nichols; Krambeer, Rachel J.; Pedersen, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to identify factors that college students perceived as contributing to healthy and unhealthy eating patterns, physical activity (PA) levels, and weight change. Participants: Forty-nine 18- to 22-year-old students at a midwestern university participated. Methods: Six focus groups (3 with each gender) were…

  19. Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Schools in Europe: A Toolkit for Policy Development and Its Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simovska, Venka; Dadaczynski, Kevin; Woynarowska, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the HEPS project ("H"ealthy "E"ating and "P"hysical Activity in "S"chools) and discuss initial steps of the project implementation within EU countries. On the basis of the Health Promoting School approach as a conceptual foundation for the project, HEPS aimed at developing and implementing an…

  20. Cognitive-behavioral therapy with simultaneous nutritional and physical activity education in obese patients with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Fossati, M; Amati, F; Painot, D; Reiner, M; Haenni, C; Golay, A

    2004-06-01

    An important problem with obese patients suffering from binge eating disorders (BED) is to treat their dysfunctional eating patterns while initiating a weight loss. We propose to assess a cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with a nutritional and a physical activity program. Our purpose is to verify that the addition of a nutritional and a physical program leads to a significant weight loss and enables psychological improvement. The patients (n=61) participated in a 12 weekly sessions group treatment of either a purely cognitive-behavioral therapy, or a cognitive-behavioral therapy associated to a nutritional approach mainly focused on fat restriction, or to a cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with a nutritional and a physical activity approach. The mean weight loss is significant (p<0.01) after the association of the cognitive-behavioral therapy and the nutritional education, but is even more significant (p<0.001) after the combination of a cognitive-behavioral therapy with a nutritional education and a physical activity program. Depression scores decrease in the three approaches, anxiety (p<0.05) results improve only in the combined nutritional, physical activity and cognitive-behavioral approach. Eating disorders improved significantly in all three approaches even if improvements in subscales seem more important in the combined approach. Finally, exercise seems to be a positive addition to the nutritional cognitive-behavioral therapy since it decreases negative mood, improves eating disorders and leads to an effective body weight loss. PMID:15330081

  1. Making Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Policy Practice: Process Evaluation of a Group Randomized Controlled Intervention in Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Hutto, Brent; Saunders, Ruth P.; Moore, Justin B.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Pate, Russell R.; Beighle, Aaron; Freedman, Darcy

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the link between level of implementation and outcomes from an intervention to increase afterschool programs' (ASPs) achievement of healthy eating and physical activity (HE-PA) Standards. Ten intervention ASPs implemented the Strategies-To-Enhance-Practice (STEPs), a multi-component, adaptive intervention framework identifying…

  2. Physical Activity, Disordered Eating Risk, and Anthropometric Measurement: A Comparison of College Female Athletes and Non Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinauskas, Brenda M.; Cucchiara, Andrew J.; Aeby, Victor G.; Bruening, Christi C.

    2007-01-01

    Opportunities for women in sport have expanded, whereas the media-driven ideal female continues to have a slender body. To attain the body that society has promoted, college-age females are vulnerable to psychological disordered eating risk. This study examines relationships among physical activity, body composition, and psychological eating…

  3. Planetary Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was entitled 'Planetary Habitability' and the work performed under it related to elucidating the conditions that lead to habitable, i.e. Earth-like, planets. Below are listed publications for the past two and a half years that came out of this work. The main thrusts of the research involved: (1) showing under what conditions atmospheric O2 and O3 can be considered as evidence for life on a planet's surface; (2) determining whether CH4 may have played a role in warming early Mars; (3) studying the effect of varying UV levels on Earth-like planets around different types of stars to see whether this would pose a threat to habitability; and (4) studying the effect of chaotic obliquity variations on planetary climates and determining whether planets that experienced such variations might still be habitable. Several of these topics involve ongoing research that has been carried out under a new grant number, but which continues to be funded by NASA's Exobiology program.

  4. Effects of Partners Together in Health (PaTH) Intervention on Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Behaviors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Bernice C.; Norman, Joseph; Meza, Jane; Krogstrand, Kaye Stanek; Harrington, Susana; Shurmur, Scott; Johnson, Matthew; Schumacher, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite proven efficacy of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in helping patients initiate physical activity and healthy eating changes, less than 50% of CR participants maintain changes 6 months later. Objective The objective of this feasibility study was to test the Partners Together in Health (PaTH) Intervention versus usual care (UC) in improving physical activity and healthy eating behaviors in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients and spouses. Methods An experimental, two-group (n = 17 couples/group), repeated measures design was used. CABG patients in both groups participated in Phase II outpatient CR. Spouses in the PaTH group attended CR with the patient and were asked to make the same physical activity and healthy eating changes as patients. Spouses in the control group attended educational classes with patients. It was theorized that “two persons would be better than one” at making changes and sticking with them long-term. Physical activity behavior was measured using the Actiheart accelerometer; the activity biomarker was an exercise tolerance test. Eating behavior was measured using 3-day food records; the biomarker was the lipid profile. Data were collected at baseline (entrance in CR), 3-months (post-CR), and 6-months. Changes over time were examined using Mann-Whitney U statistics and effect sizes. Results The PaTH intervention was successful primarily in demonstrating improved trends in healthy eating behavior for patients and spouses. No differences were found between the PaTH and UC patients or spouses at 3 or 6 months in the number of minutes/week of physical activity. By 6 months, patients in both groups were, on average, below the national guidelines for PA recommendations (≥ 150 min/week at > 3 METs). Conclusions The couple-focused PaTH intervention demonstrated promise in offsetting the decline in dietary adherence typically seen 6 months after CR. PMID:24434826

  5. Spontaneous regional brain activity links restrained eating to later weight gain among young women.

    PubMed

    Dong, Debo; Jackson, Todd; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Theory and prospective studies have linked restrained eating (RE) to risk for future weight gain and the onset of obesity, but little is known about resting state neural activity that may underlie this association. To address this gap, resting fMRI was used to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity in regions associated with inhibitory control and food reward account for potential relations between baseline RE levels and changes in body weight among dieters over a one-year interval. Spontaneous regional activity patterns corresponding to RE were assessed among 50 young women using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which measured temporal synchronization of spontaneous fluctuations within a food deprivation condition. Analyses indicated higher baseline RE scores predicted more weight gain at a one-year follow-up. Furthermore, food-deprived dieting women with high dietary restraint scores exhibited more spontaneous local activity in brain regions associated with the expectation and valuation for food reward [i.e., orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)] and reduced spontaneous local activity in inhibitory control regions [i.e., bilateral dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)] at baseline. Notably, the association between baseline RE and follow-up weight gain was mediated by decreased local synchronization of the right DLPFC in particular and, to a lesser degree, increased local synchronization of the right VMPFC. In conjunction with previous research, these findings highlight possible neural mechanisms underlying the relation between RE and risk for weight gain. PMID:26004091

  6. Neural Activation during Anticipated Peer Evaluation and Laboratory Meal Intake in Overweight Girls with and without Loss of Control Eating

    PubMed Central

    Jarcho, Johanna; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Nelson, Eric E.; Engel, Scott G.; Vannucci, Anna; Field, Sara E.; Romer, Adrienne; Hannallah, Louise; Brady, Sheila M.; Demidowich, Andrew P.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Courville, Amber B.; Pine, Daniel S.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    The interpersonal model of loss of control (LOC) eating proposes that socially distressing situations lead to anxious states that trigger excessive food consumption. Self-reports support these links, but the neurobiological underpinnings of these relationships remain unclear. We therefore examined brain regions associated with anxiety in relation to LOC eating and energy intake in the laboratory. Twenty-two overweight and obese (BMIz: 1.9±0.4) adolescent (15.8±1.6y) girls with LOC eating (LOC+, n=10) and without LOC eating (LOC−, n=12) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a simulated peer interaction chatroom paradigm. Immediately after the fMRI scan, girls consumed lunch ad libitum from a 10,934-kcal laboratory buffet meal with the instruction to “let yourself go and eat as much as you want.” Pre-specified hypotheses regarding activation of five regions of interest were tested. Analysis of fMRI data revealed a significant group by peer feedback interaction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), such that LOC+ had less activity following peer rejection (vs. acceptance), while LOC− had increased activity (p <.005). Moreover, functional coupling between vmPFC and striatum for peer rejection (vs. acceptance) interacted with LOC status: coupling was positive for LOC+, but negative in LOC− (p <.005). Activity of fusiform face area (FFA) during negative peer feedback from high-value peers also interacted with LOC status (p < .005). A positive association between FFA activation and intake during the meal was observed among only those with LOC eating. In conclusion, overweight and obese girls with LOC eating may be distinguished by a failure to engage regions of prefrontal cortex implicated in emotion regulation in response to social distress. The relationship between FFA activation and food intake supports the notion that heightened sensitivity to incoming interpersonal cues and perturbations in socio-emotional neural circuits

  7. Neural activation during anticipated peer evaluation and laboratory meal intake in overweight girls with and without loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Jarcho, Johanna M; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Nelson, Eric E; Engel, Scott G; Vannucci, Anna; Field, Sara E; Romer, Adrienne L; Hannallah, Louise; Brady, Sheila M; Demidowich, Andrew P; Shomaker, Lauren B; Courville, Amber B; Pine, Daniel S; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-03-01

    The interpersonal model of loss of control (LOC) eating proposes that socially distressing situations lead to anxious states that trigger excessive food consumption. Self-reports support these links, but the neurobiological underpinnings of these relationships remain unclear. We therefore examined brain regions associated with anxiety in relation to LOC eating and energy intake in the laboratory. Twenty-two overweight and obese (BMIz: 1.9±0.4) adolescent (15.8±1.6y) girls with LOC eating (LOC+, n=10) and without LOC eating (LOC-, n=12) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a simulated peer interaction chatroom paradigm. Immediately after the fMRI scan, girls consumed lunch ad libitum from a 10,934-kcal laboratory buffet meal with the instruction to "let yourself go and eat as much as you want." Pre-specified hypotheses regarding activation of five regions of interest were tested. Analysis of fMRI data revealed a significant group by peer feedback interaction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), such that LOC+ had less activity following peer rejection (vs. acceptance), while LOC- had increased activity (p<.005). Moreover, functional coupling between vmPFC and striatum for peer rejection (vs. acceptance) interacted with LOC status: coupling was positive for LOC+, but negative in LOC- (p<.005). Activity of fusiform face area (FFA) during negative peer feedback from high-value peers also interacted with LOC status (p<.005). A positive association between FFA activation and intake during the meal was observed among only those with LOC eating. In conclusion, overweight and obese girls with LOC eating may be distinguished by a failure to engage regions of prefrontal cortex implicated in emotion regulation in response to social distress. The relationship between FFA activation and food intake supports the notion that heightened sensitivity to incoming interpersonal cues and perturbations in socio-emotional neural circuits may lead to

  8. Eating as the "Means" Activity in a Contingency: Effects on Young Children's Food Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann Lipps; And Others

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the effects of instrumental eating on food preferences, 45 preschool children were assigned to either instrumental eating or control conditions. Preference data obtained before and after a series of snack sessions (consisting of milk beverages) demonstrated a significant negative shift in preference for the instrumental groups.…

  9. Policies to promote on physical activity and healthy eating in kindergartens from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2011-10-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that there seems to be a relation between the existence of a policy and at least some health behaviours of children. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief account of the value of policy as a tool that can be used at local level to guide action to promote healthy lifestyle in kindergartens. A policy can be defined as a set of adopted principles that guide the work of an organization and aim to achieve a well defined goal, but only policies that rely on the active participation and involvement of concerned actors will be efficient. A number of studies suggest that local level policy on nutrition and on physical activity seems to have the potential to work as a good frame for the organizational efforts that the kindergarten undertakes in order to promote healthy eating and physical activity among children in kindergarten. However, kindergartens need to make the policy tool an active vehicle for an improvement of children's lifestyle behaviour and thus a dynamic instrument. PMID:21923288

  10. Vegetarian eating for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Laurie; Kollar, Linda M

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, vegetarianism has risen in popularity among American families. Well-planned vegetarian diets can satisfy the nutritional needs and promote normal growth of infants and children. Research has highlighted nutritional advantages to vegetarian diets and has indicated that this style of eating can lead to lifelong healthy eating habits when adopted at a young age. Several vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients may be deficient within a vegetarian diet. Careful nutrition assessment and counseling will allow nurse practitioners to play a key role in encouraging families to adopt healthy eating habits to assist in disease prevention. PMID:16399477

  11. Effects of combined physical education and nutritional programs on schoolchildren’s healthy habits

    PubMed Central

    Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Iazzoni, Sara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Migliaccio, Silvia; Guidetti, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background. A multidisciplinary approach seems to be effective in creating healthy habits in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three 5-month combined physical education (PE) and nutritional interventions on body composition, physical activity (PA) level, sedentary time and eating habits of schoolchildren. Methods. Anthropometric data, weekly PA level, sedentary time and eating habits of 230 healthy students were analysed using a repeated-measures ANOVA with Group (experimental group 1 vs experimental group 2 vs control group), Adiposity Status (under fat vs normal fat vs obese), and Time (pre vs post) as factors. Results. Body fat mass percentage increased after intervention (18.92 ± 8.61% vs 19.40 ± 8.51%) in all groups. The weekly PA level significantly increased after intervention in both experimental groups. Sedentary time significantly decreased after the intervention period (565.70 ± 252.93 vs 492.10 ± 230.97 min/week, p < 0.0001). Moreover, obese children were more sedentary than under fat and normal fat children. Children significantly changed the consumption of some specific foods after intervention. Discussion. This study revealed the effectiveness of a combined PE and nutritional intervention to improve children’s healthful dietary practices and to encourage an active lifestyle. However, it needs a further appropriate development to establish patterns of healthful dietary practices that encourage an active lifestyle with which to maintain healthy habits through life. PMID:27077004

  12. Age aspects of habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, M.; Murthy, J.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2016-04-01

    A `habitable zone' of a star is defined as a range of orbits within which a rocky planet can support liquid water on its surface. The most intriguing question driving the search for habitable planets is whether they host life. But is the age of the planet important for its habitability? If we define habitability as the ability of a planet to beget life, then probably it is not. After all, life on Earth has developed within only ~800 Myr after its formation - the carbon isotope change detected in the oldest rocks indicates the existence of already active life at least 3.8 Gyr ago. If, however, we define habitability as our ability to detect life on the surface of exoplanets, then age becomes a crucial parameter. Only after life had evolved sufficiently complex to change its environment on a planetary scale, can we detect it remotely through its imprint on the atmosphere - the so-called biosignatures, out of which the photosynthetic oxygen is the most prominent indicator of developed (complex) life as we know it. Thus, photosynthesis is a powerful biogenic engine that is known to have changed our planet's global atmospheric properties. The importance of planetary age for the detectability of life as we know it follows from the fact that this primary process, photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones, and is sensitive to the particular thermal conditions of the planet. Therefore, the onset of photosynthesis on planets in habitable zones may take much longer time than the planetary age. The knowledge of the age of a planet is necessary for developing a strategy to search for exoplanets carrying complex (developed) life - many confirmed potentially habitable planets are too young (orbiting Population I stars) and may not have had enough time to develop and/or sustain detectable life. In the last decade, many planets orbiting old (9-13 Gyr) metal-poor Population II stars have been discovered. Such planets had had

  13. Associations of negative affect and eating behaviour in obese women with and without binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Laessle, R G

    2010-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate differences in psychopathological features, eating behaviour and eating habits between obese women with and without BED. It also aimed to identify specific relationships between affective symptoms and eating behaviour in obese women with BED. Eighty-four obese women were studied (40 with BED, 44 non-BED). Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed with the structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety with the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). Eating habits (emotional and restrained eating) were assessed by the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ). Food diaries were used for assessing naturalistic eating behaviour (food intake) and mood before and after food intake. BED subjects exhibited higher levels of comorbidity (in particular mood disorders, anxiety disorders and substance-related disorders), higher depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, external and emotional eating scores than non-BED subjects. Regression analyses revealed that anxiety and emotional eating were significant predictors for BED status. In the BED group, depressive symptoms were significantly related to emotional eating and food intake and negatively related to restraint. Anxiety was significantly related to emotional eating. In general, food intake significantly enhanced mood. Mood was worse on the days with self-reported binge eating episodes than on nonbinge days. These results are discussed with regard to aetiological models for BED and for BED being a distinct diagnostic category separate from obesity. PMID:21406953

  14. Mars Surface Habitability Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Howard, Robert; Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on current habitability concepts for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) prepared by the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT). For many years NASA has investigated alternative human Mars missions, examining different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies; the combinations of which have been referred to as reference missions or architectures. At the highest levels, decisions regarding the timing and objectives for a human mission to Mars continue to evolve while at the lowest levels, applicable technologies continue to advance. This results in an on-going need for assessments of alternative system designs such as the habitat, a significant element in any human Mars mission scenario, to provide meaningful design sensitivity characterizations to assist decision-makers regarding timing, objectives, and technologies. As a subset of the Evolvable Mars Campaign activities, the habitability team builds upon results from past studies and recommends options for Mars surface habitability compatible with updated technologies.

  15. A reason to stay healthy: The role of meaning in life in relation to physical activity and healthy eating among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brassai, László; Piko, Bettina F; Steger, Michael F

    2015-05-01

    The present longitudinal study investigated the incremental contribution of meaning in life to sustaining health-promoting behaviors, after controlling for well-being and health values among East-European adolescents (N = 456). Time 1 responses on presence of meaning, search for meaning, well-being, and health values were used to predict levels of healthy eating and physical activity 13 months later. All independent variables significantly predicted engagement in healthy eating and physical activity. Presence of meaning and search for meaning were the most robust predictors, and the interaction of them predicted additional variance in healthy eating among boys and physical activity among girls. PMID:25903235

  16. Eat More, Weigh Less?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Eat More, Weigh Less? ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español (Spanish) ...

  17. Concerns in measurement of healthy eating and physical activity standards implementation.

    PubMed

    Hohman, Katherine H; Mantinan, Karah D

    2014-01-01

    As part of its 2011 commitment to the Partnership for Healthier America, the YMCA of the USA (Y-USA) pledged that by 2015, 85 percent of its local Y associations with early childhood or afterschool programs would have at least one program site that met 100 percent of the Y-USA's healthy eating and physical activity (HEPA) standards. To inform the measurement and monitoring of HEPA standards, the Y-USA designed a thirty-three-item online survey to assess which HEPA standards were being met in afterschool program sites each year in order to track progress over time. Verification activities including direct observation, key informant interviews, and document review generated overall compliance ratings for each standard. Compliance ratings were then compared to the self-reported survey results to determine the validity of the survey for assessing each HEPA standard. The survey had variable accuracy when compared to the validation methods. This chapter aims to inform the measurement and monitoring of HEPA standards implementation in larger afterschool networks by reporting on learnings from the Y-USA's early efforts in its network. PMID:25530239

  18. [Stomatologic complications of eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Nagy, Agnes

    2012-11-11

    Since the 1990s numerous international experts have reported about the somatic complications of eating disorders including those having a dental and stomatological nature. Several reports emphasised that deformations in the oral cavity resulting from this grave nutritional disease typical of the young generation could already appear in the early stage and, therefore, dentists are among the first to diagnose them. Dentists are still often unaware of the importance of their role in multidisciplinary treatment. Even if they knew what the disease was about and recognised it on the basis of deformations in the oral cavity in time, their advice that their patients should brush their teeth more often would fail to eliminate the root cause of the problem. Not only the earliest possible treatment of the complications of the bingeing-purging mechanism and the maintenance of oral hygiene are important, but controlling and curing pathological habits with active participation of psychiatrists are also required to ensure full recovery. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the disease, manifold communication is required. For this reason, publishing the dental ramifications of organic and systemic diseases at dental conferences and in technical journals, as well as providing information about oral complications of eating disorders for general practitioners and specialists are particularly important. PMID:23123325

  19. Evaluation of About Being Active, an online lesson about physical activity shows that perception of being physically active is higher in eating competent low-income women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eating competence (EC) has been associated with positive health outcomes such as reduced cardiovascular risk and higher diet quality. This study compared reported physical activity and EC in 512 low-income women participating in an online program that included a physical activity lesson and assessed response to this lesson. Methods Educational intervention and surveys were completed online. EC was assessed with the Satter Eating Competence Inventory for Low-Income (ecSI/LI). Results Participants were mostly white, <31 years, overweight/obese (60%), and food insecure (58%). EC was higher for those who self-reported being physically active (30.1 ± 8.3 vs. 24.9 ± 8.1; P<0.001) and were active for ≥ 30 minutes/day (29.9 ± 8.3 vs. 26.3 ± 8.6), even with age, weight satisfaction, and BMI controlled. EC of obese physically active persons was higher than normal weight, but physically inactive women. The physical activity module was well received with responses unrelated to time involved or physical activity level. Conclusions Low-income women were interested in learning about physical activity and responded positively to online delivery. Overall EC levels were low, but higher for physically active women, supporting efforts to enhance EC. Additional research is needed to determine if EC is associated with responses to physical activity education. PMID:23496893

  20. Martian Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.

    2012-09-01

    Due to the reported Mars surface environmental conditions (Klein, 1978) (oxidative stress, high UV radiation levels, etc.) the possibility for life development in the surface of the red planet is very small. The identification of water-ice on the subsurface on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer onboard of the Mars Odyssey (Kieffer and Titus, 2001) and from the High Energy Neutron Detector (Litvak, et al., 2006) has important astrobiological connotations, because in addition to be a potential source for water, these locations are shielding habitats against the harsh conditions existing on the planet, like UV radiation (Gomez, et al., 2007; Gomez, et al., 2012). Martian habitability potential could change in particular located micro-niches. Salt deliquescence and hard environmental parameters modification could be relevant for life under protected niches. An example could be endolithic niches inside salt deposits used by phototrophs for taking advantage of sheltering particular light wavelengths. Similar acidic salts deposits are located in Río Tinto extreme environment with shelter life forms which are difficult to localize by eye. Techniques for its localization and study during space missions are needed to develop. Extreme environments are good scenarios where to test and train those techniques and where hypothetical Astrobiological space missions could be simulated for increasing possibilities of micro niches identification. Here we will report some experiments of bacteria exposition to Martian surface conditions in Mars Simulation chamber. Bacteria were shelter and exposed included in simulated salty endolithic micro niches. High percentage of bacteria resistance and adaptation to harsh extreme those conditions was reported (Gómez, F. et al., 2010). These results were used to develop and implement a Habitability Index to study Martian habitability during the next MSL mission to Mars landed on August 2012 on the surface of the red planet.

  1. Glossary of Terms Related to Healthy Eating, Obesity, Physical Activity, and Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... cheese, cream, regular ice cream, and whole milk), coconut oil, lard, palm oil, ready-to-eat meats, ... our diet include beef fat, butter, chicken fat, coconut oil, palm oil, pork fat (lard), shortening, and ...

  2. Exoplanet habitability.

    PubMed

    Seager, Sara

    2013-05-01

    The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet's surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world. PMID:23641111

  3. Review of Measures of Worksite Environmental and Policy Supports for Physical Activity and Healthy Eating

    PubMed Central

    Reeds, Dominic N.; van Bakergem, Margaret A.; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.; Pamulapati, Surya C.; Hoehner, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obesity prevention strategies are needed that target multiple settings, including the worksite. The objective of this study was to assess the state of science concerning available measures of worksite environmental and policy supports for physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE). Methods We searched multiple databases for instruments used to assess worksite environments and policies. Two commonly cited instruments developed by state public health departments were also included. Studies that were published from 1991 through 2013 in peer-reviewed publications and gray literature that discussed the development or use of these instruments were analyzed. Instrument administration mode and measurement properties were documented. Items were classified by general health topic, 5 domains of general worksite strategy, and 19 subdomains of worksite strategy specific to PA or HE. Characteristics of worksite measures were described including measurement properties, length, and administration mode, as well as frequencies of items by domain and subdomain. Results Seventeen instruments met inclusion criteria (9 employee surveys, 5 manager surveys, 1 observational assessment, and 2 studies that used multiple administration modes). Fourteen instruments included reliability testing. More items were related to PA than HE. Most instruments (n = 10) lacked items in the internal social environment domain. The most common PA subdomains were exercise facilities and lockers/showers; the most common HE subdomain was healthy options/vending. Conclusion This review highlights gaps in measurement of the worksite social environment. The findings provide a useful resource for researchers and practitioners and should inform future instrument development. PMID:25950572

  4. Mineral decline due to modernization of food habits.

    PubMed

    Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Bi, Xinyan; Lim, Joseph; Lau, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and other micronutrients are essential for health and well-being. Dairy products are the main sources of calcium in western countries. In most regions of Asia, the consumption of these products is limited due to the lactose intolerance and costs. A major contributor to the micronutrients intake in this region is the consumption of small fish, such as anchovies. Traditionally, dried anchovies are consumed as a whole body. Recently, an increasingly popular method of eating anchovies has been to eat it in a cleaned, eviscerated form. This brief communication highlights how "modernization" of food habits may have unintentional nutritional consequences. A minor change in the dietary habits of eating cleaned anchovies may lead to a reduction in micronutrients intake. This reinforces the need for caution when we modernize our traditional eating habits. PMID:26212960

  5. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  6. [Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

  7. Schools and Obesity Prevention: Creating School Environments and Policies to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Story, Mary; Nanney, Marilyn S; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2009-01-01

    Context: Research consistently shows that the majority of American children do not consume diets that meet the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, nor do they achieve adequate levels of daily physical activity. As a result, more children are overweight today than at any other time in U.S. history. Schools offer many opportunities to develop strategies to prevent obesity by creating environments in which children eat healthfully and engage regularly in physical activity. Methods: This article discusses the role of schools in obesity prevention efforts. Current issues in schools' food and physical activity environments are examined, as well as federal, state, and local policies related to food and physical activity standards in schools. The article is organized around four key areas: (1) school food environments and policies, (2) school physical activity environments and policies, (3) school body mass index measurements, and (4) school wellness policies. Recommendations for accelerating change also are addressed. Findings: The article found that (1) competitive foods (foods sold outside of federally reimbursed school meals) are widely available in schools, especially secondary schools. Studies have related the availability of snacks and drinks sold in schools to students' high intake of total calories, soft drinks, total fat and saturated fat, and lower intake of fruits and vegetables; (2) physical activity can be added to the school curriculum without academic consequences and also can offer physical, emotional, and social benefits. Policy leadership has come predominantly from the districts, then the states, and, to a much lesser extent, the federal government; (3) few studies have examined the effectiveness or impact of school-based BMI measurement programs; and (4) early comparative analyses of local school wellness policies suggest that the strongest policies are found in larger school districts and districts with a greater number of

  8. Reliability of questionnaires to assess the healthy eating and activity environment of a child's home and school.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Annabelle; Magarey, Anthea; Mastersson, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity are a growing concern globally, and environments, including the home and school, can contribute to this epidemic. This paper assesses the reliability of two questionnaires (parent and teacher) used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention, the eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs. Parents and teachers were recruited from two primary schools and they completed the same questionnaire twice in 2008 and 2009. Data from both questionnaires were classified into outcomes relevant to healthy eating and activity, and target outcomes, based on the goals of the ewba Community Programs, were identified. Fourteen and 12 outcomes were developed from the parent and teacher questionnaires, respectively. Sixty parents and 28 teachers participated in the reliability study. Intraclass correlation coefficients for outcomes ranged from 0.37 to 0.92 (parent) (P < 0.05) and from 0.42 to 0.86 (teacher) (P < 0.05). Internal consistency, measured by Cronbach's alpha, of teacher scores ranged from 0.11 to 0.91 and 0.13 to 0.78 for scores from the parent questionnaire. The parent and teacher questionnaires are moderately reliable tools for simultaneously assessing child intakes, environments, attitudes, and knowledge associated with healthy eating and physical activity in the home and school and may be useful for evaluation of similar programs. PMID:23936636

  9. Physical activity, dietary habits and overall health in overweight and obese children and youth with intellectual disability or autism.

    PubMed

    Hinckson, Erica A; Dickinson, Annette; Water, Tineke; Sands, Madeleine; Penman, Lara

    2013-04-01

    In children and youth with disability, the risk of obesity is higher and is associated with lower levels of physical activity, inappropriate eating behaviors, and chronic health conditions. We determined the effectiveness of a program in managing weight, through changes in physical activity and nutrition behaviors in overweight and obese New Zealand children and youth with intellectual disability or autism. Twenty-two children and youth 14±4 y (mean±SD) and their families participated in a 10-week school-based program. The program consisted of 18 sessions focusing on physical activity and nutrition. Changes were measured immediately after completion of the program (post 1) and at 24 weeks (follow up). Fitness was assessed with the six-minute walk-test (6MWT) and body fatness via waist circumference and BMI. Physical activity and nutrition changes were measured by means of proxy reporting and interviews with parents. Individual interviews were conducted with school teachers and program leaders at 24 weeks to gain feedback regarding the program. Most quantitative outcomes were either unclear or trivial. The only possible change was observed in the six-minute walk-test where 24 weeks post program where participants walked 51 m further. There was however, a substantial reduction in the consumption of confectionery and chocolate at the two measurement points. Parents commented that during the program there were less hospital visits and absences from school related to illness. The program assisted in the development of a supportive community network and participants' abilities to partake in family and community activities. This the first study to report on the results of a physical activity and nutrition program targeted in children and youth with intellectual disability and autism. The results of this study may support and inform future developments of an integrated weight management and prevention program to enhance the health and well being in children and youth

  10. Obesity-related eating behaviors are associated with low physical activity and poor diet quality in Spain.

    PubMed

    Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Graciani, Auxiliadora; López-García, Esther; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan Luis; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the association of obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB) with physical activity, sedentariness, and diet quality. Data were taken from a cross-sectional study in 10,791 persons representative of the Spanish population who were ≥18 y of age in 2008-2010. The following self-reported information was collected on 12 OREB: not planning how much to eat before sitting down, not deciding the amount of food on the plate, skipping breakfast, eating precooked/canned food or snacks bought at vending machines or at fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-energy foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, eating while watching television or seated on a sofa or an armchair, and taking a short time for meals. Analyses were performed with linear or logistic regression, as appropriate, and adjusted for the main confounders. In comparison to participants with ≤1 OREB, those with ≥5 OREB performed less physical activity [β: -2.61 (95% CI: -4.44, -0.78); P-trend < 0.001] and spent more time watching television [β: 2.17 (95% CI: 1.39, 2.95); P-trend < 0.001]; furthermore, they had greater total energy intake [β: 160 (95% CI: 115, 210); P-trend < 0.001] and were less likely to follow a Mediterranean diet [OR: 0.55 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.73); P-trend < 0.001]. In conclusion, the association between OREB and obesity is biologically plausible because OREB are associated with energy intake and poor accordance with the Mediterranean diet. Studies on the association between OREB and obesity should control for the confounding effect of physical activity and sedentariness. PMID:22623382

  11. ELSa interventional Portuguese health program to promote physical activity.

    PubMed

    Mourão Carvalhal, Maria Isabel Martins; Fonseca, Sandra; de Castro Coelho, Eduarda Maria Rocha Teles

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the communication was to present the baseline data from incidence of obesity, eating habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, before ELSa, interventional Portuguese health program. The sample was composed of 496 children (238 girls and 258 boys) with an average 7.7 (± 2.5) years of age. Thinness, overweight and obesity were calculated by using the BMI and the cut off of Cole et al., 24 h dietary recalls and a general questionnaire was completed by the parents to provide information about eating habits, sedentary behaviour and physical activity. The results indicated high incidence of overweight and obesity, many hours in screen activities and low level of physical activity. The eating habits seemed healthy, but our children's lifestyles were sedentary. To combat the high incidence of obesity it is very urgent to design a multi-level intervention aimed to modify key behaviours: physical activity, screen time and nutrition. PMID:21923295

  12. Eating Well While Eating Out

    MedlinePlus

    ... energy strength weight future health Eating on the Go It's easier than you think to make good ... help you make wise choices when eating out: Go for balance. Choose meals that contain a balance ...

  13. Promoting healthy habits in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, William F; Phelan, Sharon T

    2008-09-01

    Most women have an appreciation of what are generally considered healthy habits including more exercise; eating a healthy diet; avoiding cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs; using seatbelts; and being current on preventive care, such as good dental status. Being pregnant can be a strong motivator to change or modify behavioral choices. This is an optimal time for a provider to build on this potential motivator to effect change. Frequent follow-up visits allow re-enforcement of attempted change. This constant encouragement and support helps to impress on the woman and her family the importance of change. PMID:18760226

  14. Cognitive Interviews of Vietnamese Americans on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Health Educational Materials.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Bang H; Nguyen, Chi P; McPhee, Stephen J; Stewart, Susan L; Bui-Tong, Ngoc; Nguyen, Tung T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand if a health educational presentation using culturally adapted materials was understandable and culturally appropriate, and that the content was retained, in an older Vietnamese American population. This study used cognitive interviewing. A convenient sampling was used to recruit eight participants by staff of a community-based organization from its client base. This is the first study to document that family eating style poses a challenge for estimating food intake among Vietnamese Americans. Participants who ate in a family eating style were not able to recall or estimate the number of servings of protein and vegetables. Some older Vietnamese Americans used food for healing and self-adjusted portion sizes from dietary recommendations. Cognitive interviewing is a useful method to improve comprehension, retention, and cultural appropriateness of health educational materials. Further nutrition research concerning intake measurement in ethnic groups that practice a family eating style is warranted. PMID:25782182

  15. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorder - binge eating; Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, ...

  16. Multiple Intelligences and Positive Life Habits: 174 Activities for Applying Them in Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachner, Lynne; Pickett, Anola

    This book offers teachers a toolbox for discovering the innate strengths and talents and the unique learning styles of each student. Drawing from Howard Gardner's work on multiple intelligences, the book offers more than a dozen activities specifically tailored to each of the eight multiple intelligences: verbal/linguistic, mathematical/logical,…

  17. Eating behaviors and their relationship with cardiovascular disease. A case/case-control study.

    PubMed

    Konidari, Zoe; Kastorini, Christina-Maria; Milionis, Haralampos J; Bika, Eftychia; Nikolaou, Vassilios; Vemmos, Konstantinos N; Goudevenos, John A; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the combined role of eating behaviors and to investigate their effect on the likelihood of developing an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or an ischemic stroke. During 2009-2010, 1000 participants were enrolled; 250 consecutive patients with a first ACS (83% males, 60 ± 12 years) and 250 control subjects, as well as 250 consecutive patients with a first ischemic stroke (56% males, 77 ± 9 years) and 250 controls. The controls were population-based and age-sex matched with the patients. Detailed information regarding their anthropometric data, medical records and lifestyle characteristics (dietary and smoking habits, physical activity, psychological state and eating practices -using a special questionnaire-) were recorded. Five eating behaviors were selected to compose an eating behavior score for the purposes of this work: adherence to the Mediterranean diet (using the MedDietScore), frequency of breakfast consumption, eating while being stressed, eating while working and skipping meals. Eating behaviors with beneficial health effects were scored with 0, while those with negative effects were assigned score 1. The total range of the score was between 0 and 5. Higher scores reveal "unhealthier" eating practices. After controlling for potential confounding factors, each unit increase of the eating behavior score was associated with 70% (95% CI: 1.29-2.22) higher likelihood of developing an ACS. Insignificant associations were observed regarding ischemic stroke. The overall adoption of specific "unhealthy" eating practices seems to have a detrimental effect on cardiovascular health, and especially coronary heart disease. PMID:24819341

  18. Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- and Palatability-Induced Binge Eating

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Matthew M.; Maunze, Brian; Block, Megan E.; Frenkel, Mogen M.; Reilly, Michael J.; Kim, Eugene; Chen, Yao; Li, Yan; Baker, David A.; Liu, Qing-Song; Choi, SuJean

    2016-01-01

    While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger) and hedonic-related (palatability) drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding); surprisingly, this manipulation failed to alter palatable food consumption in satiated rats (e.g., hedonic feeding). In contrast, inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), through local microinjections of GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, decreased hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. PACAP microinjections produced the site-specific changes in synaptic transmission needed to decrease feeding via VMN or NAc circuitry. PACAP into the NAc mimicked the actions of GABA agonists by reducing hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. In contrast, PACAP into the VMN mimicked the actions of AMPA by decreasing homeostatic feeding without affecting hedonic feeding. Slice electrophysiology recordings verified PACAP excitation of VMN neurons and inhibition of NAc neurons. These data suggest that the VMN and NAc regulate distinct circuits giving rise to unique feeding drives, but that both can be regulated by the neuropeptide PACAP to potentially curb excessive eating stemming from either drive. PMID:27597817

  19. Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- and Palatability-Induced Binge Eating.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Matthew M; Maunze, Brian; Block, Megan E; Frenkel, Mogen M; Reilly, Michael J; Kim, Eugene; Chen, Yao; Li, Yan; Baker, David A; Liu, Qing-Song; Choi, SuJean

    2016-01-01

    While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger) and hedonic-related (palatability) drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding); surprisingly, this manipulation failed to alter palatable food consumption in satiated rats (e.g., hedonic feeding). In contrast, inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), through local microinjections of GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, decreased hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. PACAP microinjections produced the site-specific changes in synaptic transmission needed to decrease feeding via VMN or NAc circuitry. PACAP into the NAc mimicked the actions of GABA agonists by reducing hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. In contrast, PACAP into the VMN mimicked the actions of AMPA by decreasing homeostatic feeding without affecting hedonic feeding. Slice electrophysiology recordings verified PACAP excitation of VMN neurons and inhibition of NAc neurons. These data suggest that the VMN and NAc regulate distinct circuits giving rise to unique feeding drives, but that both can be regulated by the neuropeptide PACAP to potentially curb excessive eating stemming from either drive. PMID:27597817

  20. Dietary-induced binge eating increases prefrontal cortex neural activation to restraint stress and increases binge food consumption following chronic guanfacine.

    PubMed

    Bello, Nicholas T; Walters, Amy L; Verpeut, Jessica L; Caverly, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    Binge eating is a prominent feature of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Stress or perceived stress is an often-cited reason for binge eating. One notion is that the neural pathways that overlap with stress reactivity and feeding behavior are altered by recurrent binge eating. Using young adult female rats in a dietary-induced binge eating model (30 min access to binge food with or without 24-h calorie restriction, twice a week, for 6 weeks) we measured the neural activation by c-Fos immunoreactivity to the binge food (vegetable shortening mixed with 10% sucrose) in bingeing and non-bingeing animals under acute stress (immobilization; 1 h) or no stress conditions. There was an increase in the number of immunopositive cells in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in stressed animals previously exposed to the binge eating feeding schedules. Because attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) medications target the mPFC and have some efficacy at reducing binge eating in clinical populations, we examined whether chronic (2 weeks; via IP osmotic mini-pumps) treatment with a selective alpha-2A adrenergic agonist (0.5 mg/kg/day), guanfacine, would reduce binge-like eating. In the binge group with only scheduled access to binge food (30 min; twice a week; 8 weeks), guanfacine increased total calories consumed during the 30-min access period from the 2-week pre-treatment baseline and increased binge food consumption compared with saline-treated animals. These experiments suggest that mPFC is differentially activated in response to an immobilization stress in animals under different dietary conditions and chronic guanfacine, at the dose tested, was ineffective at reducing binge-like eating. PMID:25158105

  1. A narrative review of psychological and educational strategies applied to young children's eating behaviours aimed at reducing obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Gibson, E L; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Vögele, C; Summerbell, C D; Nixon, C; Moore, H; Douthwaite, W; Manios, Y

    2012-03-01

    Strategies to reduce risk of obesity by influencing preschool children's eating behaviour are reviewed. The studies are placed in the context of relevant psychological processes, including inherited and acquired preferences, and behavioural traits, such as food neophobia, 'enjoyment of food' and 'satiety responsiveness'. These are important influences on how children respond to feeding practices, as well as predictors of obesity risk. Nevertheless, in young children, food environment and experience are especially important for establishing eating habits and food preferences. Providing information to parents, or to children, on healthy feeding is insufficient. Acceptance of healthy foods can be encouraged by five to ten repeated tastes. Recent evidence suggests rewarding healthy eating can be successful, even for verbal praise alone, but that palatable foods should not be used as rewards for eating. Intake of healthier foods can be promoted by increasing portion size, especially in the beginning of the meal. Parental strategies of pressuring to eat and restriction do not appear to be causally linked to obesity, but are instead primarily responses to children's eating tendencies and weight. Moderate rather than frequent restriction may improve healthy eating in children. Actively positive social modelling by adults and peers can be effective in encouraging healthier eating. PMID:22309067

  2. Sex differences in obesity, dietary habits, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshis

    PubMed Central

    Saquib, Juliann; Saquib, Nazmus; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Anand, Shuchi; Rahman, Mahbubur; Chertow, Glenn M.; Barry, Michele; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Cullen, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The sustained economic growth in Bangladesh during the previous decade has created a substantial middle-class population, who have adequate income to spend on food, clothing, and lifestyle management. Along with the improvements in living standards, has also come negative impact on health for the middle class. The study objective was to assess sex differences in obesity prevalence, diet, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshi. Methods In this cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, we randomly selected 402 adults from Mohammedpur, Dhaka. The sampling technique was multi-stage random sampling. We used standardized questionnaires for data collection and measured height, weight, and waist circumference. Results Mean age (standard deviation) was 49.4 (12.7) years. The prevalence of both generalized (79% vs. 53%) and central obesity (85% vs. 42%) were significantly higher in women than men. Women reported spending more time watching TV and spending less time walking than men (p<.05); however, men reported a higher intake of unhealthy foods such as fast food and soft drinks. Conclusions We conclude that the prevalence of obesity is significantly higher in urban middle-class Bangladeshis than previous urban estimates, and the burden of obesity disproportionately affects women. Future research and public health efforts are needed to address this severe obesity problem and to promote active lifestyles. PMID:27610059

  3. MEASURING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES CAUSED BY EATING ACTIVITIES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small, pilot field study was conducted to measure dietary exposures of young children which included contamination of foods while eating. Samples were collected to estimate the amount of a pesticide recently applied within the home which was transferred from contaminated surfa...

  4. Early Childhood Policy Focus: Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Mackintosh, Bonnie; McCoy-Roth, Marci

    2011-01-01

    The importance of good nutrition and exercise is well known, and parents have long worried about their children's diets and envied their high energy levels. Like so many life style habits, patterns of nutrition and exercise behaviors are typically established in early childhood. Poor diet and lack of exercise contribute to obesity, which has been…

  5. Understanding the Activation and Solution Properties of Lunar Dust for Future Lunar Habitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William T.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.

    2009-01-01

    The decision to return humans to the moon by 2020 makes it imperative to understand the effects of lunar dust on human and mechanical systems.( Bush 2004; Gaier 2005; Mendell 2005) During the Apollo missions, dust was found to cause numerous problems for various instruments and systems. Additionally, the dust may have caused health issues for some of the astronauts.(Gaier 2005; Rowe 2007) It is necessary, therefore, for studies to be carried out in a variety of disciplines in order to mitigate the effects of the dust as completely as possible. Due to the lack of an atmosphere, there is nothing to protect the lunar soil from ultraviolet radiation, solar wind, and meteorite impacts. These processes could all serve to "activate" the soil, or produce reactive surface species. In order to understand the possible toxic effects of the reactive dust, it is necessary to "reactivate" the dust, as samples returned during the Apollo missions were exposed to the atmosphere of the Earth. We have used grinding and exposure to UV radiation in order to mimic some of the processes occurring on the lunar surface. To monitor the reactivity of the dust, we have measured the ability of the dust to produce hydroxyl radicals in solution. These radicals have been measured using a novel fluorescent technique developed in our laboratory,(Wallace et al. 2008) as well as using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

  6. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Erzegovesi, Stefano; Bellodi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Twenty years have passed from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and, in the meanwhile, a lot of research data about eating disorders has been published. This article reviews the main modifications to the classification of eating disorders reported in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" chapter of the DSM-5, and compares them with the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines. Particularly, we will show that DSM-5 criteria widened the diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa to less severe forms (so decreasing the frequency of Eating Disorders, Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) diagnoses), introduced the new category of Binge Eating Disorder, and incorporated several feeding disorders that were first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. On the whole, the DSM-5 revision should allow the clinician to make more reliable and timely diagnoses for eating disorders. PMID:27319605

  7. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Rome, Ellen S

    2003-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in girls and young women. Management of eating disorders typically requires a multidisciplinary team approach, often spear-headed by the clinician initially detecting the illness. This article addresses the definitions and prevalence of eating disorders, tips on recognition and management of medical complications, and reproductive health concerns for these young women. Issues surrounding care of the patient with the female athlete triad, or amenorrhea, osteopenia, and eating disorders, are also discussed. PMID:12836725

  8. Exercise motives and positive body image in physically active college women and men: Exploring an expanded acceptance model of intuitive eating.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Homan, Kristin J

    2015-09-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating posits that body acceptance by others facilitates body appreciation and internal body orientation, which contribute to intuitive eating. Two domains of exercise motives (functional and appearance) may also be linked to these variables, and thus were integrated into the model. The model fit the data well for 406 physically active U.S. college students, although some pathways were stronger for women. Body acceptance by others directly contributed to higher functional exercise motives and indirectly contributed to lower appearance exercise motives through higher internal body orientation. Functional exercise motives positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to body appreciation. Whereas body appreciation positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to intuitive eating for women, only the latter association was evident for men. To benefit positive body image and intuitive eating, efforts should encourage body acceptance by others and emphasize functional and de-emphasize appearance exercise motives. PMID:26281958

  9. Exoplanets, extremophiles and habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot Pacheco, E.; Bernardes, L.

    2012-09-01

    Estimates of the average surface temperature and CO2 partial atmospheric pressure of already discovered exoplanets supposed to be in their Habitable Zone of their stars were surveyed from the Exoplanet Encyclopedia database. Moreover, since planetary surface temperature strongly depends on its albedo and geodynamic conditions, we have been feeding exoplanetary data into a comprehensive model of Earth's atmosphere to get better estimations. We also investigated the possible presence of "exomoons" belonging to giant planets capable of harbour dynamic stability and to retain atmospheric layers and keep geodynamic activity for long time spans. Collected information on biological data of micro-organisms classified as "extremophiles" indicate that such kind of microbial species could dwell in many of them. We thus propose an extension of the more astronomically defined "Habitable Zone" concept into the more astrobiologically "Extremophile Zone", taking into account other refined parameters allowing survival of more robust life forms.

  10. Eating and drinking activity of newly weaned piglets: effects of individual characteristics, social mixing, and addition of extra zinc to the feed.

    PubMed

    Dybkjaer, L; Jacobsen, A P; Tøgersen, F A; Poulsen, H D

    2006-03-01

    In production systems, piglets usually fast for a period after weaning, thereby increasing the risk of diarrhea and a reduction in growth. The low level of eating may relate to insufficient drinking activity, as solid feed intake must be accompanied by water intake. Mixing of newly weaned piglets is a well-known stressor and a common procedure in pig production. The effect of mixing on the temporal development of eating and drinking activity in newly weaned piglets has not been elucidated. High concentrations of zinc (Zn) in the feed improve the health and performance of piglets after weaning, but the underlying mechanisms are still obscure. One possibility is that Zn affects eating and drinking behavior. The effects of mixing 4 littermates from each of 2 litters and adding zinc oxide (ZnO; 2,500 ppm of Zn) to the feed were studied in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment using 123 piglets weaned at 27 d of age. Individual eating and drinking times during the initial 48 h after weaning were analyzed on 2 levels of aggregation, day and hour. The piglets spent less time eating on the first day after weaning compared with the second day (20 +/- 5 vs. 98 +/- 10 min, respectively; P < 0.001), whereas they spent more time drinking on the first day compared with the second day (13 +/- 1 vs. 9 +/- 0.5 min, respectively; P < 0.001). Eating and drinking times were positively associated (P < 0.001). Females ate for longer than males (61 +/- 8 vs. 44 +/- 7 min/24 h, respectively, P = 0.002), whereas sex did not affect drinking time. Drinking time increased (P = 0.003) and eating time decreased (P = 0.001) with increasing preweaning growth rate and weaning weight. Neither mixing nor addition of ZnO affected the daily eating time. However, nonmixed piglets given 2,500 ppm of Zn as ZnO in the feed spent more time drinking per day (12 +/- 1 min) than did nonmixed piglets offered 100 ppm of Zn as ZnO (10 +/- 1 min; P = 0.002). Mixing also affected the hourly distribution of the drinking

  11. Population-Based Childhood Overweight Prevention: Outcomes of the ‘Be Active, Eat Right’ Study

    PubMed Central

    van Grieken, Amy; Veldhuis, Lydian; Renders, Carry M.; Borsboom, Gerard J.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Objective An overweight prevention protocol was used in the ‘Be active, eat right’ study; parents of overweight children (5 years) were offered healthy lifestyle counseling by youth health care professionals. Effects of the protocol on child BMI and waist circumference at age 7 years were evaluated. Methods A cluster RCT was conducted among nine youth health care centers in the Netherlands. Parents of overweight, not obese, children received lifestyle counseling and motivational interviewing according to the overweight prevention protocol in the intervention condition (n = 349) and usual care in the control condition (n = 288). Measurements were made of child height, weight and waist circumference at baseline and at a two-year follow-up; parents completed questionnaires regarding demographic characteristics. Linear mixed models were applied; interaction terms were explored. Results The analyzed population consisted of 38.1% boys; mean age 5.7 [sd: 0.4] years; mean BMI 18.1 [sd: 0.6], the median number of counseling sessions in the intervention condition was 2. The regression model showed no significant difference in BMI increase between the research conditions at follow-up (beta −0.16; 95% CI:−0.60 to 0.27; p = 0.463). There was a significant interaction between baseline BMI and research condition; children with a baseline BMI of 17.25 and 17.50 had a smaller increase in BMI at follow-up when allocated to the intervention condition compared to control condition (estimated adjusted mean difference −0.67 [se: 0.30] and −0.52 [se: 0.36]). Conclusion Mildly overweight children (baseline BMI 17.25 and 17.50) in the intervention condition showed a significantly smaller increase in BMI at follow-up compared to the control condition; there was no overall difference between intervention and control condition. Future research may explore and evaluate improvements of the prevention protocol. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN04965410

  12. [Cognitive function in eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yuri

    2014-04-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by uncontrolled eating behaviors. The core psychopathology is expressed in a variety of ways: body image distortion, preoccupation with food and weight, fear of weight gain, and so on. Brain-imaging techniques provide many opportunities to study neural circuits related symptoms in eating disorder. The present article focuses studies about functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of eating disorders. Studies of anorexia nervosa suggest 1) relationship between amygdala activation and fear of weight gain, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive flexibility. Studies of bulimic eating disorder (bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and so on) suggest 1) relationship between brain reward system and overeating, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and impulse control. PMID:24796094

  13. Understanding and Addressing Barriers to Implementation of Environmental and Policy Interventions to Support Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Barnidge, Ellen K.; Radvanyi, Catherine; Duggan, Kathleen; Motton, Freda; Wiggs, Imogene; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Rural residents are at greater risk of obesity than urban and suburban residents. Failure to meet physical activity and healthy eating recommendations play a role. Emerging evidence shows the effectiveness of environmental and policy interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Yet most of the evidence comes from urban and suburban communities. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify types of environmental and policy interventions being implemented in rural communities to promote physical activity or healthy eating, 2) identify barriers to the implementation of environmental or policy interventions, and 3) identify strategies rural communities have employed to overcome these barriers. METHODS Key informant interviews with public health professionals working in rural areas in the United States were conducted in 2010. A purposive sample included 15 practitioners engaged in planning, implementing, or evaluating environmental or policy interventions to promote physical activity or healthy eating. FINDINGS Our findings reveal that barriers in rural communities include cultural differences, population size, limited human capital, and difficulty demonstrating the connection between social and economic policy and health outcomes. Key informants identified a number of strategies to overcome these barriers such as developing broad-based partnerships and building on the existing infrastructure. CONCLUSON Recent evidence suggests that environmental and policy interventions have potential to promote physical activity and healthy eating at the population level. To realize positive outcomes, it is important to provide opportunities to implement these types of interventions and document their effectiveness in rural communities. PMID:23289660

  14. What works in community-based interventions promoting physical activity and healthy eating? A review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Brand, Tilman; Pischke, Claudia R; Steenbock, Berit; Schoenbach, Johanna; Poettgen, Saskia; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-06-01

    Chronic diseases, such as type II diabetes, are on the rise worldwide. There is consistent evidence that physical activity and healthy eating are important lifestyle factors which affect the risk for chronic diseases. Community-based interventions are of particular public health interest as they reach target groups in their natural living environment and may thus achieve high population-level impacts. We conducted a systematic literature search to assess the effectiveness of community-based interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Specifically, we searched for promising intervention strategies in this setting. We narratively summarized the results of 18 systematic reviews. Among children and adolescents, we found moderate evidence for effects on weight change in primary school-aged children for interventions containing a school component. The evidence for interventions aimed at general adult populations was inconclusive. Self-monitoring, group-based components, and motivational signs to encourage stair use were identified as promising strategies to increase physical activity. Among adults at risk for type II diabetes, evidence was found for beneficial effects on weight change and diabetes incidence. However, interventions for this group were not integrated in more comprehensive community-based approaches. PMID:24886756

  15. What Works in Community-Based Interventions Promoting Physical Activity and Healthy Eating? A Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Tilman; Pischke, Claudia R.; Steenbock, Berit; Schoenbach, Johanna; Poettgen, Saskia; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases, such as type II diabetes, are on the rise worldwide. There is consistent evidence that physical activity and healthy eating are important lifestyle factors which affect the risk for chronic diseases. Community-based interventions are of particular public health interest as they reach target groups in their natural living environment and may thus achieve high population-level impacts. We conducted a systematic literature search to assess the effectiveness of community-based interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Specifically, we searched for promising intervention strategies in this setting. We narratively summarized the results of 18 systematic reviews. Among children and adolescents, we found moderate evidence for effects on weight change in primary school-aged children for interventions containing a school component. The evidence for interventions aimed at general adult populations was inconclusive. Self-monitoring, group-based components, and motivational signs to encourage stair use were identified as promising strategies to increase physical activity. Among adults at risk for type II diabetes, evidence was found for beneficial effects on weight change and diabetes incidence. However, interventions for this group were not integrated in more comprehensive community-based approaches. PMID:24886756

  16. Time Spent Eating and Its Implications for Americans' Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zick, Cathleen D.; Stevens, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    The upward trend in Americans' weight has precipitated research aimed at identifying its underlying causes. In this paper we examine trends in Americans' time spent eating in an attempt to gain a better understanding of Americans' changing eating habits and their predictors. Data used in the analyses come from four national time use surveys…

  17. Habit Discontinuity, Self-Activation, and the Diminishing Influence of Context Change: Evidence from the UK Understanding Society Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Gregory Owen; Poortinga, Wouter; Sautkina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Repeated behaviours in stable contexts can become automatic habits. Habits are resistant to information-based techniques to change behaviour, but are contextually cued, so a change in behaviour context (e.g., location) weakens habit strength and can facilitate greater consideration of the behaviour. This idea was demonstrated in previous work, whereby people with strong environmental attitudes have lower car use, but only after recently moving home. We examine the habit discontinuity hypothesis by analysing the Understanding Society dataset with 18,053 individuals representative of the UK population, measuring time since moving home, travel mode to work, and strength of environmental attitudes. Results support previous findings where car use is significantly lower among those with stronger environmental views (but only after recently moving home), and in addition, demonstrate a trend where this effects decays as the time since moving home increases. We discuss results in light of moving into a new home being a potential ‘window of opportunity’ to promote pro-environmental behaviours. PMID:27120333

  18. Laboratory-Based Studies of Eating among Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Haynos, Ann F.; Kotler, Lisa A.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of pediatric overweight has increased dramatically over the past three decades, likely due to changes in food intake as well as physical activity. Therefore, information examining eating patterns among children and adolescents is needed to illuminate which aspects of eating behavior require modification to prevent and treat pediatric overweight. Because child self-report and parent-report of children's eating habits are often inconsistent and limited by recall and other biases, laboratory-based studies in which food intake is observed and monitored have increased in number. Such studies offer objective and controlled methods of measuring and describing eating behaviors. However, to our knowledge, no publication exists that consolidates, reviews, and provides critical commentary on the literature to date in pediatric samples. In this paper, we review the literature of studies utilizing laboratory methods to examine eating behavior in samples ranging from birth through adolescence. Our review includes all relevant articles retrieved from the PubMed, Medline and PsychInfo search engines. Specifically, we examine meal-feeding studies conducted during the various developmental stages (infancy, preschool, middle childhood, and adolescence), with a focus on methodology. Included in our review are feeding studies related to dietary regulation, exposure and preference, as well as paradigms examining disordered eating patterns and their relationship to body composition. We have structured this review so that both consistent and inconsistent findings are presented by age group, and innovative methods of assessment are discussed in more detail. Following each section, we summarize findings and draw potential conclusions from the available data. We then discuss clinical implications of the research data and suggest directions for the next generation of studies of feeding behavior in children. PMID:19030122

  19. A review of interventions that promote eating by internal cues.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Julie T; Magnuson, Amy B

    2014-05-01

    Traditional diet programs that encourage individuals to consciously restrict their dietary intake have not only been ineffective in terms of weight outcomes, but have also been counterproductive, promoting psychological distress and unhealthy eating behaviors. Nondiet approaches shift the focus away from weight outcomes to the improvement of health outcomes and psychological well-being. One such approach, intuitive eating, promotes dietary intake based on internal cues of hunger and fullness, body acceptance, and making behavior choices based on health as well as enjoyment. Several studies have implemented such ideas into intervention programs. The purpose of our review was to examine the physical and psychological effects of these programs. Twenty interventions were identified. Overall, studies had positive results, demonstrating improvements in eating habits, lifestyle, and body image as measured by dietary restraint, restrictive dieting, physical activity, body satisfaction, and drive for thinness. Participants also experienced improved psychological health as measured by depression, ineffectiveness, anxiety, self-esteem, negative affect, and quality of life. Several improvements were sustained through follow-up periods as long as 2 years. Completion rates were as high as 92% in nondieting groups. In addition, improvements in eating behaviors and maintaining a nondiet approach, increased self-esteem, and decreased body dissatisfaction were sustained long-term. Overall, studies that encourage individuals to eat intuitively help participants abandon unhealthy weight control behaviors, improve metabolic fitness, increase body satisfaction, and improve psychological distress. Results from our review favor the promotion of programs that emphasize a nonrestrictive pattern of eating, body acceptance, and health rather than weight loss. PMID:24631111

  20. Laboratory-Based Studies of Eating among Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Haynos, Ann F; Kotler, Lisa A; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of pediatric overweight has increased dramatically over the past three decades, likely due to changes in food intake as well as physical activity. Therefore, information examining eating patterns among children and adolescents is needed to illuminate which aspects of eating behavior require modification to prevent and treat pediatric overweight. Because child self-report and parent-report of children's eating habits are often inconsistent and limited by recall and other biases, laboratory-based studies in which food intake is observed and monitored have increased in number. Such studies offer objective and controlled methods of measuring and describing eating behaviors. However, to our knowledge, no publication exists that consolidates, reviews, and provides critical commentary on the literature to date in pediatric samples. In this paper, we review the literature of studies utilizing laboratory methods to examine eating behavior in samples ranging from birth through adolescence. Our review includes all relevant articles retrieved from the PubMed, Medline and PsychInfo search engines. Specifically, we examine meal-feeding studies conducted during the various developmental stages (infancy, preschool, middle childhood, and adolescence), with a focus on methodology. Included in our review are feeding studies related to dietary regulation, exposure and preference, as well as paradigms examining disordered eating patterns and their relationship to body composition. We have structured this review so that both consistent and inconsistent findings are presented by age group, and innovative methods of assessment are discussed in more detail. Following each section, we summarize findings and draw potential conclusions from the available data. We then discuss clinical implications of the research data and suggest directions for the next generation of studies of feeding behavior in children. PMID:19030122

  1. Parents report intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental barriers to supporting healthy eating and physical activity among their preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, John; Needham, Lisa; Simpson, Janis Randall; Heeney, Elizabeth Shaver

    2008-04-01

    There is an increasing trend in childhood obesity in Canada and many preschool children are overweight or obese. The objective of this study was to explore parents' experiences and challenges in supporting healthy eating and physical activity among their preschool children. A qualitative descriptive study involving 5 focus groups was conducted. A convenience sample of 39 parents from 3 childcare centres in Hamilton, Ontario, participated. Parents were English speaking and had a child aged 2-5 years attending the childcare centre for at least 3 months. The research team read transcripts of the audio-taped sessions and used a constant comparison approach to develop themes, which involved coding comments by continually referring to previously coded comments for comparison. The social ecological model was used to organize the themes into 3 higher-level categories: (i) intrapersonal (individual): preschoolers' preferences and health; (ii) interpersonal (interactions): parents' and others' different views and practices, influence of the childcare centre, parents' lack of time, and family structure; and (iii) physical environment: accessibility of healthy foods, preschoolers with special needs, media influence, weather, lack of safety, and inaccessible resources. Parents perceived that there are various intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental barriers to supporting healthy eating and physical activity among their children. Program planners and health professionals can consider these barriers when developing interventions to promote healthy bodyweights among preschoolers. PMID:18347689

  2. Applying a performance monitoring framework to increase reach and adoption of children's healthy eating and physical activity programs.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Louise; Lloyd, Beverley; Matthews, Rhonda; Bravo, Andrea; Wiggers, John; Rissel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The allocation of a significant amount of new funding for health promotion in Australia through the National Partnership Agreement on Preventive Health (2009-14) created a unique opportunity to implement a comprehensive approach to the prevention of chronic diseases and demonstrate significant health improvements. Building on existing health promotion infrastructure in Local Health Districts, the NSW Ministry of Health adopted a scaled-up state-wide capacity-building model, designed to alter policies and practices in key children's settings to increase healthy eating and physical activity among children. NSW also introduced a performance monitoring framework to track implementation and impacts. This paper describes the model that NSW developed for monitoring state-wide programs in the Children's Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Program and presents the model's application to early childhood education and care and primary school settings, including current results. This approach to monitoring the scaling up of program implementation at the state-wide level has potential for more widespread application in other policy areas in NSW. PMID:25828447

  3. Food-Related Beliefs, Eating Behavior, and Classroom Food Practices of Middle School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed middle school teachers regarding their classroom food and eating behaviors. Using food (particularly candy) as student incentives was common. Most foods used did not support development of healthy eating habits. Many teachers did not role model healthy eating at school. Prevalent use of vending machines was reported. Correlates of…

  4. Promoting Lifelong Healthy Eating: An Overview. CDC's Guidelines for School Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA. Adolescent and School Health Div.

    This publication describes the importance of promoting healthy eating habits among school-age children, discussing the benefits of healthy eating (e.g., prevents child and adolescent health problems and health problems later in life) and noting the consequences of unhealthy eating (e.g., hungry childen are more likely to have behavioral,…

  5. Validation of the modified Parenting Strategies for Eating and Physical Activity Scale-Diet (PEAS-Diet) in Latino children.

    PubMed

    Soto, Sandra C; Arredondo, Elva M; Horton, Lucy A; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2016-03-01

    Research shows that Latino parenting practices influence children's dietary and weight outcomes. Most studies use parent-reported data, however data from children may provide additional insight into how parents influence their children's diet and weight outcomes. The Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) has been validated in Latino adults, but not in children. This study evaluated the factor structure and concurrent and predictive validity of a modified version of the PEAS (PEAS-Diet) among Latino children. Data were collected from 361 children ages 7-13 from Imperial County, California, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy eating. The PEAS-Diet included 25 candidate items targeting six parenting practices pertaining to children's eating behaviors: (a) monitoring; (b) disciplining; (c) control; (d) permissiveness; (e) reinforcing; and (f) limit-setting. Children were on average ten years old (±2), 50% boys, 93% self-identified as Latino, 81% were US-born, and 55% completed English versus Spanish-language interviews. Using varimax rotation on baseline data with the total sample, six items were removed due to factor loadings <.40 and/or cross-loading (>.32 on more than one component). Parallel analysis and interpretability suggested a 5-factor solution explaining 59.46% of the variance. The subscale "limit-setting" was removed from the scale. The final scale consisted of 19 items and 5 subscales. Internal consistency of the subscales ranged from α = .63-.82. Confirmatory factor analyses provided additional evidence for the 5-factor scale using data collected 4 and 6 months post-baseline among the control group (n = 164, n = 161, respectively). Concurrent validity with dietary intake was established for monitoring, control, permissiveness, and reinforcing subscales in the expected directions. Predictive validity was not established. Results indicated that with the reported changes, the interview-administered PEAS

  6. Obsessive-compulsivity and working memory are associated with differential prefrontal cortex and insula activation in adolescents with a recent diagnosis of an eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Samantha J; Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda; Swenne, Ingemar; Aronsson, Marianne; Zarei, Sanaz; Lundberg, Lina; Jacobsson, Josefin A; Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Salonen-Ros, Helena; Rosling, Agneta; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2014-12-30

    The role of rumination at the beginning of eating disorder (ED) is not well understood. We hypothesised that impulsivity, rumination and restriction could be associated with neural activity in response to food stimuli in young individuals with eating disorders (ED). We measured neural responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), tested working memory (WM) and administered the eating disorders examination questionnaire (EDE-Q), Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) and obsessive-compulsive inventory (OCI-R) in 15 adolescent females with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (mean age 15 years) and 20 age-matched healthy control females. We found that EDNOS subjects had significantly higher scores on the BIS 11, EDE-Q and OCI-R scales. Significantly increased neural responses to food images in the EDNOS group were observed in the prefrontal circuitry. OCI-R scores in the EDNOS group also significantly correlated with activity in the prefrontal circuitry and the cerebellum. Significantly slower WM responses negatively correlated with bilateral superior frontal gyrus activity in the EDNOS group. We conclude that ruminations, linked to WM, are present in adolescent females newly diagnosed with EDNOS. These may be risk factors for the development of an eating disorder and may be detectable before disease onset. PMID:25456522

  7. Media-Smart Youth: Eat, Think, and Be Active! A Workshop Curriculum for Youth Ages 11 to 13. Guide for Training Program Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Eunice Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    The Media-Smart Youth: Eat, Think, and Be Active! program is an engaging curriculum that helps young people understand the complex media world around them so they can make thoughtful decisions about issues important to their health, specifically nutrition and physical activity. This training guide was developed in response to the requests of…

  8. The Winning with Wellness pilot project: rural Appalachian elementary student physical activity and eating behaviors and program implementation 4 years later.

    PubMed

    Schetzina, Karen E; Dalton, William T; Pfortmiller, Deborah T; Robinson, Hazel F; Lowe, Elizabeth F; Stern, H Patrick

    2011-01-01

    School-based efforts to promote physical activity and healthier eating are a potentially effective approach to decreasing child obesity in rural populations. This article describes follow-up data on student activity and eating behaviors 4 years after implementation of the Winning with Wellness obesity prevention initiative. This project was based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's coordinated school health model and used a community-based participatory research approach to address health behaviors in rural Appalachian elementary students. Results suggest significant increases in daily pedometer steps and healthier food selections by students as well as teacher support for continued health promotion efforts. PMID:21378512

  9. A survey of junior high school students' sleep habit and lifestyle in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, M; Taira, K; Tanaka, H; Yamakawa, K; Toguchi, H; Kadekaru, H; Yamamoto, Y; Uezu, E; Shirakawa, S

    2001-06-01

    A survey was made of the sleep and lifestyle activity patterns of 3754 students from 14 different junior high schools on Okinawa Island. The survey showed that bedtimes became progressively and significantly later as students ascended to higher grades, resulting in adolescent sleep debt. The later adolescents retired to sleep, there appeared significantly greater numbers suffering from insufficient sleep, who found difficulty in waking up, who arose later in the mornings, and who failed to eat breakfast. The study indicated that along with later bedtimes, staying up late resulted in deterioration of sleep health, poor dietary habits and feeling ill, contributing to sleepiness during class. PMID:11422845

  10. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...

  11. Circumbinary habitability niches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Paul A.; Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.; Clark, Joni M.

    2015-07-01

    Binaries could provide the best niches for life in the Galaxy. Although counterintuitive, this assertion follows directly from stellar tidal interaction theory and the evolution of lower mass stars. There is strong evidence that chromospheric activity of rapidly rotating young stars may be high enough to cause mass loss from atmospheres of potentially habitable planets. The removal of atmospheric water is most critical. Tidal breaking in binaries could help reduce magnetic dynamo action and thereby chromospheric activity in favour of life. We call this the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM) that we suggest allows for water retention at levels comparable to or better than the Earth. We discuss novel advantages that life may exploit, in these cases, and suggest that life may even thrive on some circumbinary planets. We find that while many binaries do not benefit from BHM, high-quality niches do exist for various combinations of stars between 0.55 and 1.0 solar masses. For a given pair of stellar masses, BHM operates only for certain combinations of period and eccentricity. Binaries having a solar-type primary seem to be quite well-suited niches having wide and distant habitable zones with plentiful water and sufficient light for photosynthetic life. We speculate that, as a direct result of BHM, conditions may be suitable for life on several planets and possibly even moons of giant planets orbiting some binaries. Lower mass combinations, while more restrictive in parameter space, provide niches lasting many billions of years and are rich suppliers of photosynthetic photons. We provide a publicly available web-site (http://bit.ly/BHM-calculator or http://bit.ly/BHM-calculator-mirror), which calculates the BHM effects presented in this paper.

  12. Changing your sleep habits

    MedlinePlus

    Insomnia - sleep habits; Sleep disorder - sleep habits; Problems falling asleep; Sleep hygiene ... People who have insomnia are often worried about getting enough sleep. The more they try to sleep, the more frustrated and upset they ...

  13. Psychology of Habit.

    PubMed

    Wood, Wendy; Rünger, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    As the proverbial creatures of habit, people tend to repeat the same behaviors in recurring contexts. This review characterizes habits in terms of their cognitive, motivational, and neurobiological properties. In so doing, we identify three ways that habits interface with deliberate goal pursuit: First, habits form as people pursue goals by repeating the same responses in a given context. Second, as outlined in computational models, habits and deliberate goal pursuit guide actions synergistically, although habits are the efficient, default mode of response. Third, people tend to infer from the frequency of habit performance that the behavior must have been intended. We conclude by applying insights from habit research to understand stress and addiction as well as the design of effective interventions to change health and consumer behaviors. PMID:26361052

  14. Healthy eating at school to compensate for the activity-related obesigenic lifestyle in children and adolescents: the Quebec experience.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Angelo; Arguin, Hélène

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we describe the Quebec experience about the determinants of childhood obesity and the search for solutions, which are well adapted to the constraints of the current lifestyle. As expected, it is likely that a decrease in physical fitness and its related sedentariness as well as suboptimal food habits have contributed to the increase in overweight prevalence that was observed between 1980 and 2000. Our research experience suggests that other less suspected activity related factors have also played an important role in the occurrence of the obesity epidemic. This is particularly the case for short sleeping and demanding mental work, which are features of our modern lifestyle. Because there is no foreseeable prospect for a change in sleep and mental work habits, we argue that compensations in other factors may be necessary to prevent weight gain in this new context. We thus developed a concept of food design aiming at the maximization of the satiating properties of a food or a meal course. In this context, we were successful in the design of healthy lunch bags for students of a school located in a low socioeconomic area. Indeed, for a majority of menus, an optimal compromise seemed to be reached between nutrient composition, satiating potential, palatability, and financial accessibility. In summary, the Quebec experience reveals that childhood obesity is a complex problem that partly results from unsuspected environmental factors that deserve creative solutions to at least partly compensate for their effect. PMID:22332048

  15. Nutritional knowledge and dietary habits survey in high school population.

    PubMed

    Milosavljević, Dragana; Mandić, Milena L; Banjari, Ines

    2015-03-01

    During adolescence, young people are in a sensitive transition period when they gradually take over the responsibility for their own eating habits, health attitudes and behaviours and create lifelong habits so it is essential that they adopt healthy habits according to dietary recommendations. Knowledge is one of the factors necessary for the changes in dietary habits. The'objective of this study was to gain insight in nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents. The sample included 117 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, representing modified version of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, nutritional knowledge about nutrients, dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationship, and dietary habits. Less than one third of adolescents showed satisfactory knowledge, but boys, adolescents from rural environment and overweight adolescents showed significantly lower knowledge unlike others. Meal skipping was present habit, especially for breakfast consumption. Especially high consumption of meat and meat products was noted for boys, while fruit and vegetables for girls. Fad dieting was quite practiced habit, especially in girls and overweight adolescents. Among girls, high consumption of sweets was confirmed, while boys showed high consumption of soft drinks. Television presents the main source of infor- mation about nutrition for adolescents. Collected data shows similarity with other research in Europe and North America that confirm strong influence of globalization and fast spread of unhealthy habits. The results pointed out weak spots in nutritional knowledge and revealed unhealthy eating habits. This information is necessary for the development of new approaches to modulate their knowledge and consequently act on their behaviour. Behavioral changes would include higher number of meals per day, regular breakfast consumption, higher intake of fish

  16. A Comprehensive Professional Development Training's Effect on Afterschool Program Staff Behaviors to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Beighle, Aaron; Webster, Collin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate a comprehensive intervention designed to support staff and program leaders in the implementation of the YMCA of USA Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) Standards for their afterschool programs (3-6pm). Design Pre (Fall 2011) and post (Spring 2012) assessment no control-group. Setting/Participants Four large-scale YMCA afterschool programs serving approximately 500 children. Intervention Professional development training founded in the 5Ms (i.e. Mission, Model, Manage, Monitor, Maximize) and LET US Play principles (i.e. lines, elimination, team size, uninvolved staff/kids, and space, equipment and rules), on-site booster training sessions, workshops, and ongoing technical support for staff and program leaders from January to May 2012. Main outcome measures System for Observing Staff Promotion of Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN). Analysis Multilevel mixed effects linear (i.e., staff behaviors expressed as a percentage of the number of scans observed) and logistic regression. Results A total of 5328 SOSPAN scans were completed over the two measurement periods. Of the 20 staff behaviors identified in HEPA Standards and measured in this study, 17 increased or decreased in the appropriate direction. For example, staff engaged in physical activity with children increased from 26.6% to 37% and staff eating unhealthy foods decreased from 42.1% to 4.5%. Conclusions Comprehensive professional development training, founded in the 5Ms and LET US Play principles, and ongoing technical assistance can have a sizable impact on key staff behaviors identified by HEPA Standards for afterschool programs. PMID:24858323

  17. Impact of sensory-based food education in kindergarten on willingness to eat vegetables and berries

    PubMed Central

    Hoppu, Ulla; Prinz, Mira; Ojansivu, Pauliina; Laaksonen, Oskar; Sandell, Mari A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children use all of their senses when exploring new foods, and sensory-based food education provides new possibilities for promoting healthy dietary habits. Objective To evaluate the effect of sensory-based food education activities on children's willingness to eat test samples of selected vegetables and berries. Design Two kindergartens in Hanko, Finland, participated in the study and the subjects were children aged 3–6 years, divided in the intervention (n=44) and control (n=24) kindergarten. In the intervention kindergarten, five sensory-based food education sessions focusing on vegetables and berries were implemented, once per week for 5 weeks. A tasting protocol was performed with the children at baseline and after the intervention. The willingness to eat (5 different vegetables and 3 Finnish berries) was categorised. Parents also filled in a questionnaire on the children's food preferences at home. Results In the intervention kindergarten, the willingness to eat the samples increased significantly (p≤0.001, Wilcoxon and Friedman), while in the control kindergarten, no significant change was observed when all of the test samples were taken into account. The parental report of their children's preferences and children's actual eating of the test samples corresponded relatively weakly. Conclusions Sensory-based food education activities may promote a willingness to eat vegetables and berries. Child-centred test methods are important for evaluating the effects of dietary interventions among children. PMID:26652259

  18. Body image, dieting and disordered eating and activity practices among teacher trainees: implications for school-based health education and obesity prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2009-06-01

    The aim was to investigate and compare body image, body dissatisfaction, dieting, disordered eating, exercise and eating disorders among trainee health education/physical education (H&PE) and non-H&PE teachers. Participants were 502 trainee teachers randomly selected from class groups at three Australian universities who completed the questionnaire. H&PE males and females had significantly poorer body image and higher levels of body dissatisfaction, dieting and disordered eating behaviors than non-H&PE participants. H&PE teachers were more likely to over-exercise and have exercise disorders, but very few self-identified problems with objectively assessed excessive exercise behaviors. Lifetime prevalence of eating disorders was 12.5% in H&PE males, 0% in non-H&PE males, 7.7% in H&PE females and 6% in non-H&PE females. Few participants had received any past or current treatment. Of particular concern is the likelihood of the teachers' inappropriate and dangerous attitudes and behaviors being intentionally or unintentionally conveyed to their school students. Those planning school health education, nutrition education and school-based obesity prevention programs should provide suitable training for the teachers involved. Screening and treatment services among teachers may also be helpful in order to detect, treat and educate young teachers about body image, dieting, disordered eating and physical activity practices. PMID:18787173

  19. Dietary Habits Are Associated With School Performance in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies suggest that dietary habits are associated with poor academic performance. However, few studies have evaluated these relations after adjusting for numerous confounding factors. This study evaluated the frequency of various diet items (fruit, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk) and the regularity of meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) all at once. A total of 359,264 participants aged from 12 to 18 years old were pooled from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) for the 2009 to 2013 period. Dietary habits over the last 7 days were surveyed, including the regularity of consuming breakfast, lunch and dinner and the frequency of eating fruits, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk. Physical activity, obesity, region of residence, subjective assessment of health, stress level, economic level, and parental education level were collected from all of the study participants. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of dietary habits for school performance were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the effects of diet factors on school performance while considering the effects of other variables on both diet factors and school performance. Frequent intakes of breakfast (AOR = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20–2.48), fruits (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.62–1.86), vegetables (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.37–1.61), and milk (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.28–1.43) were related to high levels of school performance (each with P < 0.001). In contrast, soft drinks (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.38–0.46), instant noodles (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.55–0.70), fast food (AOR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72–0.96), and confectionary (AOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.80–0.93) were negatively

  20. Dietary Habits Are Associated With School Performance in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    Several studies suggest that dietary habits are associated with poor academic performance. However, few studies have evaluated these relations after adjusting for numerous confounding factors. This study evaluated the frequency of various diet items (fruit, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk) and the regularity of meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) all at once.A total of 359,264 participants aged from 12 to 18 years old were pooled from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) for the 2009 to 2013 period. Dietary habits over the last 7 days were surveyed, including the regularity of consuming breakfast, lunch and dinner and the frequency of eating fruits, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk. Physical activity, obesity, region of residence, subjective assessment of health, stress level, economic level, and parental education level were collected from all of the study participants. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of dietary habits for school performance were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the effects of diet factors on school performance while considering the effects of other variables on both diet factors and school performance.Frequent intakes of breakfast (AOR = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20-2.48), fruits (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.62-1.86), vegetables (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.37-1.61), and milk (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.28-1.43) were related to high levels of school performance (each with P < 0.001). In contrast, soft drinks (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.38-0.46), instant noodles (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.55-0.70), fast food (AOR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.96), and confectionary (AOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.80-0.93) were negatively associated with school

  1. Dietary Habits and Leisure-time Physical Activity in Relation to Adiposity, Dyslipidemia, and Incident Dysglycemia in the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Andrew B.; Adesanya, E.A. Omoluyi; Owei, Ibiye; Gilles, Ashley K.; Ebenibo, Sotonte; Wan, Jim; Edeoga, Chimaroke; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary and exercise data are frequently recorded in clinical research, but their correlation with metabolic measures needs further evaluation. Objective We examined the association of food and exercise habits with body size, lipid profile, and glycemia in a prospective biracial cohort. Methods The Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort study followed initially normoglycemic offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for the occurrence of incident prediabetes, defined as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). At enrollment, participants underwent a 75-g OGTT, anthropometry, measurement of fasting lipids, insulin, and body fat (DEXA), and completed the Food Habits Questionnaire (FHQ), and Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ). We assessed the relationship between FHQ and MAQ scores and adiposity, cardiometabolic measures, and incident dysglycemia. Results Among our cohort of 338 subjects (188 black, 150 white; mean age {± SD} 45.2 ± 10.2 y, BMI 30.3 ± 7.2 kg/m2), FHQ and MAQ scores were individually correlated with BMI (r= 0.14, −0.12; P=0.01, 0.03) and waist circumference (r= 0.19, −0.11; P=0.004, 0.05). Diet-adjusted leisure activity (MAQ/FHQ) was significantly correlated with total body fat (r= −0.20, P=0.0007), trunk fat (r= −0.20, P=0.0006), and serum triglycerides (r= −0.17, P=0.003) and HDL cholesterol (r= 0.11, P=0.04) levels. During 5.5yrs of follow-up, 111 subjects (Progressors) developed prediabetes (n=101) or diabetes (n=10) and 227 remained normoglycemic (Non-progressors). Age, BMI, MAQ and MAQ/FHQ values were significant predictors of incident prediabetes/diabetes. Progressors reported similar dietary habits (FHQ score 2.57±0.49 vs. 2.57±0.53) but 30% lower physical activity (MAQ score 15.2±20.5 vs. 22.3±30.5 MET-hr/wk, P=0.015) compared with non-progressors. Conclusions Among African-American and Caucasian offspring of parents with T2DM, self-reported dietary and exercise

  2. "If Michael Owen Drinks It, Why Can't I? "--9 and 10 Year Olds' Perceptions of Physical Activity and Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosling, Rachael; Stanistreet, Debbi; Swami, Viren

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the perceptions of physical activity and healthy eating among children from two north west of England primary schools, with the ultimate aim of improving healthy lifestyle choices. Design: A qualitative study in which each child participated in two focus groups. Setting: Two primary schools in a deprived ward of Warrington,…

  3. Reach and Effectiveness of an Integrated Community-Based Intervention on Physical Activity and Healthy Eating of Older Adults in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luten, Karla A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled pre-post quasi-experimental design, with 430…

  4. Adapted Intervention Mapping: A Strategic Planning Process for Increasing Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Opportunities in Schools via Environment and Policy Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belansky, Elaine S.; Cutforth, Nick; Chavez, Robert; Crane, Lori A.; Waters, Emily; Marshall, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: School environment and policy changes have increased healthy eating and physical activity; however, there has been modest success in translating research ?ndings to practice. The School Environment Project tested whether an adapted version of Intervention Mapping (AIM) resulted in school change. Methods: Using a pair randomized design,…

  5. Reliability and Validity of the SE-HEPA: Examining Physical Activity- and Healthy Eating-Specific Self-Efficacy among a Sample of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Michael M.; Burns, Leonard G.; Whitaker, Brandi N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the self-efficacy for healthy eating and physical activity measure (SE-HEPA) for preadolescents. Method. The reliability of the measure was examined to determine if the internal consistency of the measure was adequate (i.e., [alpha]s greater than 0.70). Next, in an…

  6. Fit, Healthy, and Ready To Learn: A School Health Policy Guide. Part I: Physical Activity, Health Eating, and Tobacco-Use Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogden, James F.

    This policy guide reflects the concerns and priorities of education policymakers and administrators, addressing broad policy issues and focusing on physical activity, healthy eating, and tobacco use prevention. Section 1, "Overview," reviews the issue and presents sample policies. Section 2, "The Art of Policymaking," discusses what policy is, the…

  7. The APPLE Project: An Investigation of the Barriers and Promoters of Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in New Zealand Children Aged 5-12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williden, Micalla; Taylor, Rachael W; McAuley, Kirsten A; Simpson, Jean C; Oakley, Maggie; Mann, Jim I

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To use the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework to determine the barriers and promoters of healthy eating and physical activity in children aged 5-12 years, as a basis for the development of a pilot community-based programme for preventing obesity in children (APPLE project: A Pilot Programme for Lifestyle…

  8. Parent-Reported Eating and Leisure-Time Activity Selection Patterns Related to Energy Balance in Preschool- and School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Jelalian, Elissa; Vivier, Patrick M.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare parent-reported preschool- and school-aged children's eating and leisure-time activity patterns that are proposed to influence energy balance. Design: Cross-sectional investigation of children, 2 to 12 years, attending a well visit. Setting: Pediatric private practice/ambulatory pediatric clinic. Participants: One hundred…

  9. You stole my food! Eating alterations in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Marilena; Silani, Vincenzo; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2016-08-01

    Patients with different types of dementia may exhibit pathological eating habits, including food fads, hyperphagia, or even ingestion of inanimate objects. Several findings reveal that such eating alterations are more common in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) than other types of dementia. Moreover, eating alterations may differ between the two variants of the disease, namely the behavioral variant and semantic dementia (SD). In this review, we summarized evidences regarding four areas: eating and body weight alterations in FTD, the most common assessment methods, anatomical correlates of eating disorders, and finally, proposed underlying mechanisms. An increasing understanding of the factors that contribute to eating abnormalities may allow first, a better comprehension of the clinical features of the disease and second, shed light on the mechanism underlying eating behaviors in the normal population. PMID:27327171

  10. Correlation between Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activation to Food Aromas and Cue-driven Eating: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Eiler, William J.A.; Dzemidzic, Mario; Case, K. Rose; Considine, Robert V.; Kareken, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Food aromas are signals associated with both food's availability and pleasure. Previous research from this laboratory has shown that food aromas under fasting conditions evoke robust activation of medial prefrontal brain regions thought to reflect reward value (Bragulat, et al. 2010). In the current study, eighteen women (eleven normal-weight and seven obese) underwent a two-day imaging study (one after being fed, one while fasting). All were imaged on a 3T Siemens Trio-Tim scanner while sniffing two food (F; pasta and beef) odors, one non-food (NF; Douglas fir) odor, and an odorless control (CO). Prior to imaging, participants rated hunger and perceived odor qualities, and completed the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) to assess “Externality” (the extent to which eating is driven by external food cues). Across all participants, both food and non-food odors (compared to CO) elicited large blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses in olfactory and reward-related areas, including the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, and bilateral piriform cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. However, food odors produced greater activation of medial prefrontal cortex, left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and inferior insula than non-food odors. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the [F > CO] BOLD response in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and “Externality” sub-scale scores of the DEBQ, but only under the fed condition; no such correlation was present with the [NF > CO] response. This suggests that in those with high Externality, ventromedial prefrontal cortex may inappropriately valuate external food cues in the absence of internal hunger. PMID:25485031

  11. Making healthy eating and physical activity policy practice: process evaluation of a group randomized controlled intervention in afterschool programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Hutto, Brent; Saunders, Ruth P; Moore, Justin B; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer L; Ward, Dianne S; Pate, Russell R; Beighle, Aaron; Freedman, Darcy

    2015-12-01

    This study describes the link between level of implementation and outcomes from an intervention to increase afterschool programs' (ASPs) achievement of healthy eating and physical activity (HE-PA) Standards. Ten intervention ASPs implemented the Strategies-To-Enhance-Practice (STEPs), a multi-component, adaptive intervention framework identifying factors essential to meeting HE-PA Standards, while 10 control ASPs continued routine practice. All programs, intervention and control, were assigned a STEPs for HE-PA index score based on implementation. Mixed-effects linear regressions showed high implementation ASPs had the greatest percentage of boys and girls achieving 30 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (47.3 and 29.3%), followed by low implementation ASPs (41.3 and 25.0%), and control ASPs (34.8 and 18.5%). For healthy eating, high/low implementation programs served fruits and vegetables an equivalent number of days, but more days than control programs (74.0 and 79.1% of days versus 14.2%). A similar pattern emerged for the percent of days sugar-sweetened foods and beverages were served, with high and low implementation programs serving sugar-sweetened foods (8.0 and 8.4% of days versus 52.2%), and beverages (8.7 and 2.9% of days versus 34.7%) equivalently, but less often than control programs. Differences in characteristics and implementation of STEPs for HE-PA between high/low implementers were also identified. PMID:26590240

  12. Health Habits of Nursing versus Non-nursing Students: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Cathy B.; Scott-Stiles, Anne

    2000-01-01

    The Health Habits Inventory was completed at two time intervals by 71 nursing and 83 other students. Nursing students scored higher in health habits and improved significantly over 2 years, especially in such behaviors as eating breakfast, performing self-exams, reading food labels, wearing seatbelts, and exercising. (SK)

  13. Service-learning in Higher Education Relevant to the Promotion of Physical Activity, Healthful Eating, and Prevention of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2012-10-01

    Service-learning is a type of experiential teaching and learning strategy combining classroom instruction and meaningful community service and guided activities for reflection. This educational approach has been used frequently in higher education settings, including an array of disciplines such as medicine, theology, public health, physical education, nutrition, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. The purpose of the present review paper was to provide guidance on the use of service-learning within higher education, relevant to the preventive medicine and public health topics of healthful eating, physical activity, and obesity prevention. In service-learning, coursework is structured to address community needs, and to benefit students through the real-world application of knowledge. The benefits for students include positive impacts on social skills, empathy, awareness, understanding, and concern regarding community issues, plus greater confidence and skills to work with diverse populations, increased awareness of community resources, improved motivation, and enhanced knowledge. Educational institutions may also benefit through improved "town and gown" relations, as strong ties, partnerships, and mutually beneficial activities take place. The present literature review describes several service-learning applications such as nutrition education for kids, dietary improvement for seniors, foodservice recipe modification on a college campus, an intergenerational physical activity program for nursing home residents, motor skill development in kindergarteners, organized elementary school recess physical activities, health education, and obesity prevention in children. From this review, service-learning appears to have great potential as a flexible component of academic coursework in the areas of preventive medicine and public health. PMID:23112892

  14. Flares and habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrevaya, Ximena C.; Cortón, Eduardo; Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    2012-07-01

    At present, dwarf M stars are being considered as potential hosts for habitable planets. However, an important fraction of these stars are flare stars, which among other kind of radiation, emit large amounts of UV radiation during flares, and it is unknown how this events can affect life, since biological systems are particularly vulnerable to UV. In this work we evaluate a well known dMe star, EV Lacertae (GJ 873) as a potential host for the emergence and evolution of life, focusing on the effects of the UV emission associated with flare activity. Since UV-C is particularly harmful for living organisms, we studied the effect of UV-C radiation on halophile archaea cultures. The halophile archaea or haloarchaea are extremophile microorganisms, which inhabit in hypersaline environments and which show several mechanisms to cope with UV radiation since they are naturally exposed to intense solar UV radiation on Earth. To select the irradiance to be tested, we considered a moderate flare on this star. We obtained the mean value for the UV-C irradiance integrating the IUE spectrum in the impulsive phase, and considering a hypothetical planet in the center of the liquid water habitability zone. To select the irradiation times we took the most frequent duration of flares on this star which is from 9 to 27 minutes. Our results show that even after considerable UV damage, the haloarchaeal cells survive at the tested doses, showing that this kind of life could survive in a relatively hostile UV environment.

  15. Functional neuroimaging of avoidance habits in OCD

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, Claire M; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Sule, Akeem; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We aimed to (i) test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and (ii) infer, based on abnormalities in brain activation, whether these habits arise from dysfunction in the goal-directed or habit system. Method Thirty-seven OCD patients and 33 controls learned to avoid shocks while undergoing a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan. Following 4 blocks of training, we tested if the avoidance response had become a habit by removing the threat of shock and measuring continued avoidance. We tested for task-related differences in brain activity in 3 ROIs, the caudate, putamen and medial orbitofrontal cortex at a statistical threshold of p<.05, family-wise error (FWE) corrected. Results We observed excessive habit formation in OCD patients, which was associated with hyper-activation in the caudate. Activation in this region was also associated with subjective ratings of increased urge to perform habits. The OCD group, as a whole, showed hyper-activation in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) during the acquisition of avoidance, however this did not relate directly to habit formation. Conclusions OCD patients exhibited excessive habits that were associated with hyper-activation in a key region implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, the caudate nucleus. Prior studies suggest that this region is important for goal-directed behavior, suggesting that habit-forming biases in OCD may be a result of impairments in this system, rather than differences in the build up of stimulus-response habits themselves. PMID:25526600

  16. Perceived Parental Barriers to and Strategies for Supporting Physical Activity and Healthy Eating among Head Start Children.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiying; B Robbins, Lorraine; Hines-Martin, Vicki

    2016-06-01

    Despite the need for parents to support their children's healthy behaviors, knowledge of factors preventing parents from doing so is still rudimentary. This study primarily aimed to explore perceived parental barriers to and strategies for supporting physical activity and healthy eating among Head Start children. A semi-structured interview format was used with four focus groups conducted at two urban Head Start centers in the Midwestern U.S. A qualitative content analysis of audio-recorded sessions was facilitated using ATLAS.ti7. A convenience sample of 32 parents (Mage = 34.97 years) participated. Over half were female (78.1 %), African Americans (65.6 %), and single (65.6 %). About 61.3 % reported an annual family income <$20,000, and 43.8 % were unemployed. Three themes reflected the barriers: (1) intrapersonal (child): short attention span and limited eating preferences; (2) interpersonal (parent): lack of time and cooking skills and a tight family budget; and (3) environmental: inaccessible programs, lack of age-appropriate education, electronic media use, and unsafe environment. Parents across all groups expressed high interest in enrolling in a program with their children. Recommendations included: parents' support team; family outings at parks; taking a walk or enrolling in a class with children; and planting a garden. Many parents showed their preference for face-to-face meetings and a support group, but repulsion of counseling. To promote parental support in future interventions with Head Start children, their perceived intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental barriers should be considered as intervention targets. Involving parents through a support group and face-to-face meetings is recommended. PMID:26660100

  17. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies. PMID:24740724

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced.

    PubMed

    Ptacek, Radek; Stefano, George B; Weissenberger, Simon; Akotia, Devang; Raboch, Jiri; Papezova, Hana; Domkarova, Lucie; Stepankova, Tereza; Goetz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs). In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1) impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2) other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3) poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4) other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from both a historical perspective and the one based on the revealing nature of its comorbidities. PMID:27042070

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced

    PubMed Central

    Ptacek, Radek; Stefano, George B; Weissenberger, Simon; Akotia, Devang; Raboch, Jiri; Papezova, Hana; Domkarova, Lucie; Stepankova, Tereza; Goetz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs). In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1) impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2) other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3) poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4) other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from both a historical perspective and the one based on the revealing nature of its comorbidities. PMID:27042070

  20. Planetary evolution and habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, T.

    2008-09-01

    Planetary habitability is usually thought to require water on (or near) the surface, a magnetic field to protect life against cosmic radiation, and transport mechanisms for nutrients. A magnetic field also serves to protect an existing atmosphere against erosion by the solar wind and thus helps to stabilize the presence of water and habitability. Magnetic fields are generated in the cores of the terrestrial planets and thus habitability is linked to the evolution of the interior. Moreover, the interior is a potential source and sink for water and CO2 and may interact with the surface and atmosphere reservoirs through volcanic activity and recycling. On the Earth, water is stabilized by complex interactions between the atmosphere, the biosphere, the oceans, the crust, and the deep interior. On geological timescales, the anorganic CO2 cycle is most important. The most efficient known mechanism for recycling is plate tectonics. Plate tectonics is known to operate, at present, only on the Earth, although Mars may have had a phase of plate tectonics as may have Venus. Single-plate tectonics associated with stagnant lid convection can transfer water and CO2 from the interior but a simple recycling mechanism is lacking for this tectonic style. Stagnant lid convection will evolve to thicken the lid and increasingly frustrate volcanic activity and degassing. (This can keep the interior from running completely dry.) Plate tectonics supports the generation of magnetic fields by effectively cooling the deep interior. In addition, plate tectonics rejuvenates nutrients on the surface and generates granitic cratons. For Venus it is likely that a present-day magnetic field would require plate tectonics to operate. The chemistry of the Martian core likely precludes the growth of an inner core and thus a present-day dynamo. An early field is possible for both planets even with stagnant lid convection but the dynamos will have operated less than about a billion years on Mars and a

  1. Eating for 1, Healthy and Active for 2; feasibility of delivering novel, compact training for midwives to build knowledge and confidence in giving nutrition, physical activity and weight management advice during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Women in Wales are more likely to be obese in pregnancy than in any other United Kingdom (UK) country. Midwives are ideally placed to explore nutrition, physical activity and weight management concerns however qualitative studies indicate they lack confidence in raising the sensitive issue of weight. Acknowledging this and the reality of finite time and resources, this study aimed to deliver compact training on nutrition, physical activity and weight management during pregnancy to increase the knowledge and confidence of midwives in this subject. Methods A compact training package for midwives was developed comprising of evidence based nutrition, physical activity and weight management guidance for pregnancy. Training was promoted via midwifery leads and delivered within the Health Board. Questionnaires based on statements from national public health guidance were used to assess changes in self-reported knowledge and confidence pre and post training. Descriptive statistics were applied and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 43 midwives registered for training, 32 (74%) attended and completed the questionnaires. Although, pre training knowledge and confidence varied between participants, statistically significant improvements in self-reported knowledge and confidence were observed post training. 97% indicated knowledge of pregnancy specific food and nutrition messages as ‘better’ (95% CI 85 to 100), as opposed to 3% stating ‘stayed the same’ – 60% stated ‘much better’. 83% indicated confidence to explain the risks of raised BMI in pregnancy was either ‘much’ or ‘somewhat better’ (95% CI 66 to 93), as opposed to 17% stating ‘stayed the same’. 89% indicated confidence to discuss eating habits and physical activity was ‘much’ or ‘somewhat better’ (95% CI 73 to 97) as opposed to 11% stating ‘stayed the same’. Emergent themes highlighted that training was positively received and relevant to midwifery

  2. Family meal traditions. Comparing reported childhood food habits to current food habits among university students.

    PubMed

    De Backer, Charlotte J S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results. PMID:23707416

  3. Incisor toothwear caused by a dietary habit involving chillies-a case report.

    PubMed

    Addy, Liam; Antonarakis, Gregory

    2005-05-01

    Toothwear cases can vary dramatically in their presentation, with some displaying quite peculiar patterns. This case report outlines a patient's unusual eating habit that had led to a localized pattern of toothwear affecting his maxillary and mandibular central incisors. The patient had a habit of eating fresh chillies between his incisors after most evening meals; this was followed by immediate toothbrushing, which he had done for many years. This case illustrates that, not only is diet analysis important in identifying aetiological factors in toothwear cases, but also dietary habits. PMID:15938340

  4. Effect of a School-Based Intervention on Nutritional Knowledge and Habits of Low-Socioeconomic School Children in Israel: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; Fraser, Drora; Friger, Michael; Geva, Dikla; Bilenko, Natalya; Vardi, Hillel; Elhadad, Naama; Mor, Karen; Feine, Zvi; Shahar, Danit R

    2016-01-01

    Early social and economic deprivation, associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, may lead to adverse health trajectories. A cluster-randomized controlled-trial examining the effect of a school-based comprehensive intervention on nutrition knowledge, eating habits, and behaviors among low socioeconomic status (LSES) school-aged children was performed. LSES school-aged children (4-7 years) and their mothers were recruited from 11 schools, located in one town. The intervention was implemented on three levels: children, mothers, and teachers. The intervention (IArm) included nutrition classes for children, mothers, and teachers and physical activity (PA) classes for children; the control (CArm) received PA only. Interventions were conducted by professional personnel, who were trained during in a two-day session to deliver the specific program in schools. Family data were obtained by parental interviews. Food knowledge observations, packed lunch records, and anthropometric measurements were obtained in school at baseline, six months, and at the end of the school year. Of 258 children enrolled, 220 (87.6%) completed the six-month program. Only children in the IArm improved their nutrition knowledge and eating-habits and increased food variety and fruit and vegetable consumption, quality score of packed lunches (p < 0.001 for all), habitual water drinking increased (p = 0.02), and decreased sweet-drink consumption (p = 0.05). A school-based comprehensive nutrition intervention targeting LSES population improved eating habits, nutritional knowledge, and healthier packed lunches. PMID:27110817

  5. Effect of a School-Based Intervention on Nutritional Knowledge and Habits of Low-Socioeconomic School Children in Israel: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; Fraser, Drora; Friger, Michael; Geva, Dikla; Bilenko, Natalya; Vardi, Hillel; Elhadad, Naama; Mor, Karen; Feine, Zvi; Shahar, Danit R.

    2016-01-01

    Early social and economic deprivation, associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, may lead to adverse health trajectories. A cluster-randomized controlled-trial examining the effect of a school-based comprehensive intervention on nutrition knowledge, eating habits, and behaviors among low socioeconomic status (LSES) school-aged children was performed. LSES school-aged children (4–7 years) and their mothers were recruited from 11 schools, located in one town. The intervention was implemented on three levels: children, mothers, and teachers. The intervention (IArm) included nutrition classes for children, mothers, and teachers and physical activity (PA) classes for children; the control (CArm) received PA only. Interventions were conducted by professional personnel, who were trained during in a two-day session to deliver the specific program in schools. Family data were obtained by parental interviews. Food knowledge observations, packed lunch records, and anthropometric measurements were obtained in school at baseline, six months, and at the end of the school year. Of 258 children enrolled, 220 (87.6%) completed the six-month program. Only children in the IArm improved their nutrition knowledge and eating-habits and increased food variety and fruit and vegetable consumption, quality score of packed lunches (p < 0.001 for all), habitual water drinking increased (p = 0.02), and decreased sweet-drink consumption (p = 0.05). A school-based comprehensive nutrition intervention targeting LSES population improved eating habits, nutritional knowledge, and healthier packed lunches. PMID:27110817

  6. Policy change to create supportive environments for physical activity and healthy eating: which options are the most realistic for local government?

    PubMed

    Allender, Steven; Gleeson, Erin; Crammond, Brad; Sacks, Gary; Lawrence, Mark; Peeters, Anna; Loff, Bebe; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-06-01

    The objective is to identify and test regulatory options for creating supportive environments for physical activity and healthy eating among local governments in Victoria, Australia. A literature review identified nine potential areas for policy intervention at local government level, including the walking environment and food policy. Discussion documents were drafted which summarized the public health evidence and legal framework for change in each area. Levels of support for particular interventions were identified through semi-structured interviews conducted with key informants from local government. We conducted 11 key informant interviews and found support for policy intervention to create environments supportive of physical activity but little support for policy changes to promote healthy eating. Participants reported lack of relevance and competing priorities as reasons for not supporting particular interventions. Promoting healthy eating environments was not considered a priority for local government above food safety. There is a real opportunity for action to prevent obesity at local government level (e.g. mandate the promotion of healthy eating environments). For local government to have a role in the promotion of healthy food environments, regulatory change and suitable funding are required. PMID:21421579

  7. RCT of a theory-based intervention promoting healthy eating and physical activity amongst out-patients older than 65 years.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Kate; Abraham, Charles

    2004-08-01

    A randomised controlled trial was used to evaluate a theory-based health promotion intervention. The intervention, a healthy living booklet, was designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity amongst people aged over 65 years attending hospital out-patient clinics. The booklet employed persuasive arguments targeting the most proximal cognitive antecedents of behaviour specified by the theory of planned behaviour, as well as goal setting prompts. Participants (N = 252, average age=82) were randomly allocated to a control (patient satisfaction questionnaire) or intervention (healthy living booklet) group. Cognitions and behaviour were measured pre-intervention and at a two week follow up. The intervention group made significantly higher gains in perceived behavioural control, intention and behaviour for both target behaviours, suggesting that the intervention was successful. Sixty three of those invited to set goals to eat more healthily (e.g., "to eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day") did so, and 67% of those who set such goals reported 100% success in acting on them. By contrast, only 34% of intervention participants set an activity goal (e.g., "a five minute walk everyday"), and only 51% reported 100% success in enacting these goals. Results suggest that the observed behavioural effects of the healthy eating booklet could be attributed to goal setting as well as changes in perceived behavioural control and intention. PMID:15177835

  8. Eat to Learn, Learn to Eat: The Link between Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Children's eating habits and food attitudes develop early and last a lifetime. Nutrition is important in child development and ability to learn. In the prenatal years, nutrition is one of many factors affecting pregnancy outcome. In the preschool and school years, undernutrition causes stunting, lethargy, and other symptoms. (SM)

  9. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy for kids to choose healthy snacks by keeping fruits and vegetables on hand and ready to eat. ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping ... Award-Winning Cafeteria Recipes Garden-Fresh Lunches Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Kid's Guide ...

  10. Eating disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  11. Embedding Physical Activity and Nutrition in Early Care and Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deiner, Penny Low; Qiu, Wei

    2007-01-01

    The infant and toddler years provide a window of opportunity to establish healthy habits as part of daily routines and activities that prevent childhood obesity. Early care and education programs have the opportunity to make a significant impact on physical development when they promote healthy eating and physical activity in their daily routines.…

  12. Space Station Habitability Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  13. Space Station habitability research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Y. A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Cente is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  14. Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gucciardi, Enza; Celasun, Nalan; Ahmad, Farah; Stewart, Donna E

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and self-concept disturbances, are more prevalent among women than men. Women with eating disorders are also at risk for long-term psychological and social problems, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse and suicide. For instance, in 2000, the prevalence of depression among women who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of anorexia (11.5%) or bulimia (15.4 %) was more than twice the rate of depression (5.7 %) among the general population of Canadian women. The highest incidence of depression was found in women aged 25 to 39 years for both anorexia and bulimia. Data Gaps and Recommendations Hospitalization data are the most recent and accessible information available. However, this data captures only the more severe cases. It does not include the individuals with eating disorders who may visit clinics or family doctors, or use hospital outpatient services or no services at all. Currently, there is no process for collecting this information systematically across Canada; consequently, the number of cases obtained from hospitalization data is underestimated. Other limitations noted during the literature review include the overuse of clinical samples, lack of longitudinal data, appropriate comparison groups, large samples, and ethnic group analysis. PMID:15345084

  15. Impact of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity on Bone Health among 40 to 60 Year Old Females at Risk of Osteoporosis in India.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Rafiya; Kochhar, Anita; Garg, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disorder of bones with increasing risk among women. However, a number of modifiable factors can help in combating this disorder. Present study examined the relationship of diet and physical activity and risk of osteoporosis through biochemical tests, bone mass density (BMD) scores, and standard questionnaires. Genetic risk for osteoporosis, presence of osteoarthritis, and thyroid problems were found among 8%, 7%, and 3% of participants, respectively; and 78% had onset of menopause between 47 to 55 years of age. Results revealed that less intake of proteins, minerals, and diverse fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly (p≤0.05; 0.01) correlated with decreased BMD score and serum calcium. It was concluded that adequate intake of varied fruits and vegetables, good protein, habit of daily physical activity, adequate sun exposure, and dietary calcium, may play a promising role in decreasing the risk of osteoporosis among women of this age group. PMID:25782139

  16. Changing Your Habits: Steps to Better Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... ups or pull-ups, lift weights, do heavy gardening, or work with rubber resistance bands. Eat more ... be active in many ways, including dancing, walking, gardening, or taking fun fitness classes. Make your own ...

  17. Development of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Morales-Ruán, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Salazar-Coronel, Araceli; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Mexico has the highest and most alarming rates of childhood obesity worldwide. A study conducted in the State of Mexico revealed that one of every three children presents overweight or obesity. The objective of this paper is to provide a step-by-step description of the design and implementation of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity called "Healthy Recess". The educational intervention was designed using the six stages of the Health Communication Process. This methodological model allowed identifying the needs of school-age children on information and participation in activities. In order to improve the strategy, adjustments were made to the print and audiovisual materials as well as to assessment tools. Typography was modified as well as the color of the images in student's workbook and facilitator's; special effects of the videos were increased; the narration of the radio spots was improved and common words and phrases were included. The Health Communication Process is an effective tool for program planners to design interventions aimed at managing prevalent health problems such as overweight and obesity in school-age children. PMID:26099561

  18. Service-learning in Higher Education Relevant to the Promotion of Physical Activity, Healthful Eating, and Prevention of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2012-01-01

    Service-learning is a type of experiential teaching and learning strategy combining classroom instruction and meaningful community service and guided activities for reflection. This educational approach has been used frequently in higher education settings, including an array of disciplines such as medicine, theology, public health, physical education, nutrition, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. The purpose of the present review paper was to provide guidance on the use of service-learning within higher education, relevant to the preventive medicine and public health topics of healthful eating, physical activity, and obesity prevention. In service-learning, coursework is structured to address community needs, and to benefit students through the real-world application of knowledge. The benefits for students include positive impacts on social skills, empathy, awareness, understanding, and concern regarding community issues, plus greater confidence and skills to work with diverse populations, increased awareness of community resources, improved motivation, and enhanced knowledge. Educational institutions may also benefit through improved “town and gown” relations, as strong ties, partnerships, and mutually beneficial activities take place. The present literature review describes several service-learning applications such as nutrition education for kids, dietary improvement for seniors, foodservice recipe modification on a college campus, an intergenerational physical activity program for nursing home residents, motor skill development in kindergarteners, organized elementary school recess physical activities, health education, and obesity prevention in children. From this review, service-learning appears to have great potential as a flexible component of academic coursework in the areas of preventive medicine and public health. PMID:23112892

  19. Habitability Designs for Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    NASA's space human factors team is contributing to the habitability of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), which will take crews to low Earth orbit, and dock there with additional vehicles to go on to the moon's surface. They developed a task analysis for operations and for self-sustenance (sleeping, eating, hygiene), and estimated the volumes required for performing the various tasks and for the associated equipment, tools and supplies. Rough volumetric mockups were built for crew evaluations. Trade studies were performed to determine the size and location of windows. The habitability analysis also contributes to developing concepts of operations by identifying constraints on crew time. Recently completed studies provided stowage concepts, tools for assessing lighting constraints, and approaches to medical procedure development compatible with the tight space and absence of gravity. New work will be initiated to analyze design concepts and verify that equipment and layouts do meet requirements.

  20. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status appears to have an effect on their children's behaviour. Place of residence (urban or semi-rural areas) and gender does not influence their knowledge about different diets. It was, finally, shown that as children grow older they tend to eat less healthy foods.

  1. Healthy habits for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... less by the time it is over. Practice Healthy Eating Life gets busy and a lot of people ... Emotional eating, or eating for comfort rather than nutrition, can make a big difference in what and ...

  2. Evolution of galaxy habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobat, R.; Hong, S. E.

    2016-08-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution with constraints on circumstellar habitable zones and the distribution of terrestrial planets in order to probe the suitability of galaxies of different mass and type to host habitable planets, and how it evolves with time. We find that the fraction of stars with terrestrial planets in their habitable zone (known as habitability) depends only weakly on galaxy mass, with a maximum around 4 × 1010M⊙. We estimate that 0.7% of all stars in Milky Way-type galaxies to host a terrestrial planet within their habitable zone, consistent with the value derived from Kepler observations. On the other hand, the habitability of passive galaxies is slightly but systematically higher, unless we assume an unrealistically high sensitivity of planets to supernovae. We find that the overall habitability of galaxies has not changed significantly in the last ~8 Gyr, with most of the habitable planets in local disk galaxies having formed ~1.5 Gyr before our own solar system. Finally, we expect that ~1.4 ×109 planets similar to present-day Earth have existed so far in our galaxy.

  3. Healthy Kids Out of School: Using Mixed Methods to Develop Principles for Promoting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Out-of-School Settings in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shanti; Dietz, William H.; Dolan, Peter R.; Nelson, Miriam E.; Newman, Molly B.; Rockeymoore, Maya; Economos, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Widespread practices supporting availability of healthful foods, beverages, and physical activity in out-of-school-time (OST) settings would further obesity prevention efforts. The objective of this article was to describe principles to guide policy development in support of healthy eating and physical activity practices in out-of-school settings to promote obesity prevention. Methods The Institute of Medicine’s L.E.A.D. framework (Locate Evidence, Evaluate it, Assemble it, and Inform Decisions) was used to identify practices relevant to children’s healthful eating in most OST settings: 1) locate and evaluate information from a national survey of children’s perceptions of healthful-food access; published research, reports, policies and guidelines; and roundtables with OST organizations’ administrators; 2) assemble information to prioritize actionable practices; and 3) inform programmatic direction. Results Three evidence-informed guiding principles for short-duration OST resulted: 1) drink right: choose water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages; 2) move more: boost movement and physical activity in all programs; and 3) snack smart: fuel up on fruits and vegetables. Conclusion Healthy Kids Out of School was launched to support the dissemination and implementation of these guiding principles in short-duration OST settings, complementing efforts in other OST settings to shift norms around eating and physical activity. PMID:25551182

  4. Changes in Eating, Physical Activity, and Related Behaviors in a Primary-Care-Based Weight Loss Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Volger, Sheri; Wadden, Thomas A.; Sarwer, David B.; Moore, Reneé H.; Chittams, Jesse; Diewald, Lisa; Panigrahi, Eva; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Schmitz, Kathryn; Vetter, Marion L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine changes in eating behaviors and physical activity, as well as predictors of weight loss success, in obese adults who participated in a 2-year behavioral weight loss intervention conducted in a primary care setting. Design A longitudinal, randomized-controlled, multi-site trial. Subjects 390 obese (body mass index, 30 to 50 kg/m2) adults, ≥21 yr, in the Philadelphia region. Methods Participants were assigned to one of three interventions 1) Usual Care [Quarterly primary care provider (PCP) visits that included education on diet and exercise]; 2) Brief Lifestyle Counseling [quarterly PCP visits plus monthly Lifestyle Counseling (LC) sessions about behavioral weight control]; or 3) Enhanced Brief LC (the previous intervention with a choice of meal replacements or weight loss medication). Results At month 24, participants in both Brief LC and Enhanced Brief LC reported significantly greater improvements in mean (±SE) dietary restraint than those in Usual Care (4.4±0.5, 4.8±0.5, and 2.8±0.5, respectively; both ps≤0.016). The percentage of calories from fat, along with fruit and vegetable consumption, did not differ significantly among the three groups. The Brief LC and Enhanced Brief LC groups both reported significantly greater energy expenditure (kcal/week) at month 24 than Usual Care (+593.4±175.9, +415.4±179.6, and −70.4±185.5, respectively; both ps≤0.037). The strongest predictor of weight loss at month 6 (partial R2=33.4%, p<0.0001) and at month 24 (partial R2=19.3%, p<0.001) was food records completed during the first 6 months. Participants who achieved a 5% weight loss at month 6 had 4.7 times greater odds of maintaining a 5% weight loss at month 24. Conclusions A behavioral weight loss intervention delivered in a primary care setting can result in significant weight loss, with corresponding improvements in eating restraint and energy expenditure. Moreover, completion of food records, along with weight loss at month 6, is a

  5. Defining Features of Unhealthy Exercise Associated with Disordered Eating and Eating Disorder Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Lauren A.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The current study sought to compare different features of unhealthy exercise on associations with disordered eating and their ability to identify individuals with eating disorders. A secondary aim of the study was to compare prevalence and overlap of different aspects of unhealthy exercise and potential differences in their gender distribution. Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Methods A community-based sample of men (n=592) and women (n=1468) completed surveys of health and eating patterns, including questions regarding exercise habits and eating disorder symptoms. Results Compulsive and compensatory features of exercise were the best predictors of disordered eating and eating disorder diagnoses compared to exercise that was excessive in quantity. Further, compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise represented overlapping, yet distinct qualities in both men and women. Conclusions Including the compulsive quality among the defining features of unhealthy exercise may improve identification of eating disorders, particularly in men. Results suggest that the compensatory aspect of unhealthy exercise is not adequately captured by the compulsive aspect of unhealthy exercise. Thus, interventions that target unhealthy exercise behaviors among high-risk individuals, such as athletes, may benefit from addressing both the compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise. Future prospective longitudinal studies will aid in determining the direction of the association between these features of unhealthy exercise and the onset of eating pathology. PMID:24391457

  6. Worms Eat Our Garbage: Classroom Activities for a Better Environment. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelhof, Mary; And Others

    This curriculum guide and activity book is designed as an aid for teaching elementary and middle school grades about recycling and composting with earthworms but can be adapted to a variety of situations. The book is organized into three sections that teach the following concepts: (1) introduces earthworms through a series of activities; (2)…

  7. Mobile apps for pediatric obesity prevention and treatment, healthy eating, and physical activity promotion: just fun and games?

    PubMed

    Schoffman, Danielle E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Jones, Sonya J; Wilcox, Sara

    2013-09-01

    Mobile applications (apps) offer a novel way to engage children in behavior change, but little is known about content of commercially available apps for this population. We analyzed the content of apps for iPhone/iPad for pediatric weight loss, healthy eating (HE), and physical activity (PA). Fifty-seven apps were downloaded and tested by two independent raters. Apps were coded for: inclusion of the Expert Committee for Pediatric Obesity Prevention's (ECPOP) eight recommended strategies (e.g., set goals) and seven behavioral targets (e.g., do ≥1 h of PA per day), utilization of gaming elements, and general characteristics. Most apps lacked any expert recommendations (n = 35, 61.4 %). The mean number of recommendations among apps that used recommendations was 3.6 ± 2.7 out of 15, 56.1 % (n = 32) apps were classified as games, and mean price per app was $1.05 ± 1.66. Most apps reviewed lacked expert recommendations and could be strengthened by addition of comprehensive information about health behavior change and opportunities for goal setting. PMID:24073184

  8. Dietary habits in adolescent girls with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadou, Maria; Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Lykeridou, Katerina; Iliadis, Iakovos; Michala, Lina

    2015-04-01

    The phenotype of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is known to worsen with weight gain, increased ingestion of carbohydrates and a sedentary lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary habits in a group of adolescent girls with PCOS. Adolescents with PCOS were recruited and asked to complete a questionnaire on their eating habits and a recall dietary diary, from which their caloric and macronutrient intake was calculated. Results were compared with those from a group of normal controls. Thirty-five women with PCOS and 46 controls were included. Girls with PCOS were less likely to have cereals for breakfast (20.7 versus 66.7%) and as a result consumed less fibre than controls. They were more likely to eat an evening meal (97.1 versus 78.3%) and eat this over an hour later when compared to controls. Despite having comparable body mass indexes, girls with PCOS ate a daily surplus calorie average of 3% versus controls that had a negative calorie intake of 0.72% (p = 0.047). Ameliorating eating habits early in adolescence in girls with PCOS may improve future metabolic concerns related to a genetic predisposition and worsened by an unhealthy lifestyle. PMID:25430596

  9. Factors affecting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among multiethnic blue- and white-collar workers: a case study of one healthcare institution.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Jodi H; Braun, Kathryn L; Novotny, Rachel; Mokuau, Noreen

    2013-09-01

    Worksite health promotion programs can reduce prevalence of chronic disease among employees, but little research has been done to discern whether they meet the needs and incorporate the preferences of workers of different occupational types. The objective of this study is to examine differences in influences to healthy eating and physical activity and preferences for programs among multiethnic blue- and white-collar workers in Hawai'i. A total of 57 employees from a major health care corporation in Hawai'i participated. A mixed-methods approach was employed, in which findings from focus groups with white-collar workers (WCW) (n=18) were used to inform development of a questionnaire with closed and open-ended items for use with blue-collar workers (BCW) (n=39), whose jobs did not provide adequate time to participate in focus groups. Focus groups with WCW revealed that onsite availability of healthy food and fitness opportunities provided the most support for healthy eating and physical activity at work; work demands, easy access to unhealthy foods, and lack of onsite fitness opportunities were barriers; and lifestyle management was a topic of substantial interest. BCW cited the ability to bring home lunch and their (physically active) jobs as being supportive of healthy behaviors; not having enough time to eat and personal illness/injury were barriers; and chronic disease topics were of greatest interest. Knowing differences in influences to healthy eating and physical activity, as well as preferences for worksite wellness programming, among BCW and WCW, is important when planning and implementing worksite health promotion programs. PMID:24069570

  10. To eat or not to eat? Kinematics and muscle activity of reach-to-grasp movements are influenced by the action goal, but observers do not detect these differences.

    PubMed

    Naish, Katherine R; Reader, Arran T; Houston-Price, Carmel; Bremner, Andrew J; Holmes, Nicholas P

    2013-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the mirror neuron system responds to the goals of actions, even when the end of the movement is hidden from view. To investigate whether this predictive ability might be based on the detection of early differences between actions with different outcomes, we used electromyography (EMG) and motion tracking to assess whether two actions with different goals (grasp to eat and grasp to place) differed from each other in their initial reaching phases. In a second experiment, we then tested whether observers could detect early differences and predict the outcome of these movements, based on seeing only part of the actions. Experiment 1 revealed early kinematic differences between the two movements, with grasp-to-eat movements characterised by an earlier peak acceleration, and different grasp position, compared to grasp-to-place movements. There were also significant differences in forearm muscle activity in the reaching phase of the two actions. The behavioural data arising from Experiments 2a and 2b indicated that observers are not able to predict whether an object is going to be brought to the mouth or placed until after the grasp has been completed. This suggests that the early kinematic differences are either not visible to observers, or that they are not used to predict the end-goals of actions. These data are discussed in the context of the mirror neuron system. PMID:23247469

  11. Survival and Metabolic Activity of Listeria monocytogenes on Ready-to-Eat Roast Beef Stored at 4 °C.

    PubMed

    Broady, Johnathan W; Han, Dong; Yuan, Jing; Liao, Chao; Bratcher, Christy L; Lilies, Mark R; Schwartz, Elizabeth H; Wang, Luxin

    2016-07-01

    Three brands of commercial roast beef were purchased and artificially inoculated with a 5-strain Listeria monocytogenes cocktail at 2 inoculation levels (approximately 3 and 6 Log CFU/g). Although all 3 brands contained sodium diacetate and sodium lactate, inoculated Listeria cocktail survived for 16 d in all 3 brands; significant increases in L. monocytogenes numbers were seen on inoculated Brand B roast beef on days 12 and 16. Numbers of L. monocytogenes increased to 4.14 Log CFU/g for the 3 Log CFU/g inoculation level and increased to 7.99 Log CFU/g for the 6 Log CFU/g inoculation level by day 16, with the pH values being 5.4 and 5.8 respectively. To measure the cell viability in potential biofilms formed, an Alamar blue assay was conducted. Brand B meat homogenate had the highest metabolic activities (P < 0.05). By comparing its metabolic activities to Brands A and C and the inoculated autoclaved meat homogenates, results indicated that the microflora present in Brand B may be the reason for high metabolic activities. Based on the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index analysis, the "Brand" factor significantly impacted the diversity index (P = 0.012) and Brand B had the highest microflora diversity (Shannon index 1.636 ± 0.011). Based on this study, results showed that antimicrobials cannot completely inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat roast beef. Native microflora (both diversity and abundance), together with product formula, pH, antimicrobial concentrations, and storage conditions may all impact the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes. PMID:27258789

  12. Dopamine and binge eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Hajnal, Andras

    2010-01-01

    Central dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the motivational aspects of eating and food choices. This review focuses on human and animal data examining the importance of dopamine on binge eating behaviors. Early works examining dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of bulimic individuals suggested decreased dopamine turnover during the active phase of the illness. While neuroimaging studies of dopamine mechanisms in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are limited, genetic studies in humans have implicated an increased frequency of dopamine transporter and associated D2 receptor polymorphisms with binge pathology. Recent examinations of rodent models of dietary-induced binge eating (DIBE) have investigated plausible dopamine mechanisms involved in sustaining binge eating behaviors. In DIBE models, highly palatable foods (fats, sugars and their combination), as well as restricted access conditions appear to promote ingestive responses and result in sustained dopamine stimulation within the nucleus accumbens. Taken together with studies examining the comorbidity of illicit drug use and eating disorders, the data reviewed here support a role for dopamine in perpetuating the compulsive feeding patterns of BN and BED. As such, we propose that sustained stimulation of the dopamine systems by bingeing promoted by preexisting conditions (e.g., genetic traits, dietary restraint, stress, etc.) results in progressive impairments of dopamine signaling. To disrupt this vicious cycle, novel research-based treatment options aiming at the neural substrates of compulsive eating patterns are necessary. PMID:20417658

  13. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... though they are not hungry. Eats alone (in secret). Feels guilty, disgusted, ashamed, or depressed after eating ... large amounts of high-calorie foods, often in secret. After this binge eating, they often force themselves ...

  14. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  15. Effects of eating on vection-induced motion sickness, cardiac vagal tone, and gastric myoelectric activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uijtdehaage, S. H.; Stern, R. M.; Koch, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of food ingestion on motion sickness severity and its physiological mechanisms. Forty-six fasted subjects were assigned either to a meal group or to a no-meal group. Electrogastrographic (EGG) indices (normal 3 cpm activity and abnormal 4-9 cpm tachyarrhythmia) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured before and after a meal and during a subsequent exposure to a rotating drum in which illusory self-motion was induced. The results indicated that food intake enhanced cardiac parasympathetic tone (RSA) and increased gastric 3 cpm activity. Postprandial effects on motion sickness severity remain equivocal due to group differences in RSA baseline levels. During drum rotation, dysrhythmic activity of the stomach (tachyarrhythmia) and vagal withdrawal were observed. Furthermore, high levels of vagal tone prior to drum rotation predicted a low incidence of motion sickness symptoms, and were associated positively with gastric 3 cpm activity and negatively with tachyarrhythmia. These data suggest that enhanced levels of parasympathetic activity can alleviate motion sickness symptoms by suppressing, in part, its dysrhythmic gastric underpinnings.

  16. Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better: a community-based health awareness program for African-American women.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Leslie; Brown, Zaneta G; Gill, Jennifer E

    2008-12-01

    Statistics indicate that African-American women have the highest rate of obesity among all racial groups. In response, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) developed "Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better," a national program that encourages African-American women to maintain a healthy weight by becoming more physically active and by eating healthier foods. "Sisters Together" programs are run locally by individuals or community groups in locations such as churches and health departments. The NIDDK offers culturally relevant materials and technical assistance to program leaders, including a recently updated program guide. The guide walks leaders through program planning, promotion, implementation, and evaluation. It is based on obesity, nutrition, and physical activity research; evidence-based programs for African-American women; and proven health communication strategies. The guide is consumer friendly, using clear language and real-life examples. "Sisters Together" programs encourage African-American women and their families to improve their eating habits and their physical activity habits. PMID:19397055

  17. Habitability design elements for a space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Habitability in space refers to the components, characteristics, conditions, and design parameters that go beyond but include the basic life sustaining requirements. Elements of habitability covered include internal environment, architecture, mobility and restraint, food, clothing, personal hygiene, housekeeping, communications, and crew activities. All elements are interrelated and need to be treated as an overall discipline. Designing for a space station is similar to designing on earth but with 'space rules' instead of ground rules. It is concluded that some habitability problems require behavioral science solutions.

  18. The Role of Built Environments in Physical Activity, Eating, and Obesity in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallis, James F.; Glanz, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Over the past forty years various changes in the U.S. "built environment" have promoted sedentary lifestyles and less healthful diets. James Sallis and Karen Glanz investigate whether these changes have had a direct effect on childhood obesity and whether improvements to encourage more physical activity and more healthful diets are likely to lower…

  19. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most recent Australian Health survey identified that young men (18-24yrs) have numerous health concerns including: 42% overweight/obese, 48% not meeting national physical activity recommendations and 97% failing to consume adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables. There is a lack of engagement a...

  20. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  1. Gobble Up Math: Fun Activities To Complete and Eat for Kids in Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogard, Sue; McDonnell, Ginny

    This book uses foods as catalysts for learning mathematical concepts. Each hands-on activity in this math center suggests accessible, healthful, and easy-to-prepare foods to be used in school or at home. An introduction to parents and teachers includes supplies list, gobble-up germs poster, and food guide pyramid and serving information. The…

  2. Is Parenting Style Related to Children's Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Latino Families?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, Elva M.; Elder, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Campbell, Nadia; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Parenting styles influence a child's risk for obesity. The goals of this study are to evaluate the influence of (i) parenting style on children's health behaviors (physical activity and dietary intake), (ii) children's sociodemographic characteristics on parenting style and on children's health behaviors and (iii) parents' sociodemographic…

  3. Activity Response to Climate Seasonality in Species with Fossorial Habits: A Niche Modeling Approach Using the Lowland Burrowing Treefrog (Smilisca fodiens)

    PubMed Central

    Encarnación-Luévano, Alondra; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R.; Sigala-Rodríguez, J. Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The importance of climatic conditions in shaping the geographic distribution of amphibian species is mainly associated to their high sensitivity to environmental conditions. How they cope with climate gradients through behavioral adaptations throughout their distribution is an important issue due to the ecological and evolutionary implications for population viability. Given their low dispersal abilities, the response to seasonal climate changes may not be migration, but behavioral and physiological adaptations. Here we tested whether shifts in climatic seasonality can predict the temporal variation of surface activity of the fossorial Lowland Burrowing Treefrog (Smilisca fodiens) across its geographical distribution. We employed Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) to perform a monthly analysis of spatial variation of suitable climatic conditions (defined by the July conditions, the month of greatest activity), and then evaluated the geographical correspondence of monthly projections with the occurrence data per month. We found that the species activity, based on the species' occurrence data, corresponds with the latitudinal variation of suitable climatic conditions. Due to the behavioral response of this fossorial frog to seasonal climate variation, we suggest that precipitation and temperature have played a major role in the definition of geographical and temporal distribution patterns, as well as in shaping behavioral adaptations to local climatic conditions. This highlights the influence of macroclimate on shaping activity patterns and the important role of fossorials habits to meet the environmental requirements necessary for survival. PMID:24244301

  4. Habitability Of Europa's Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, R.; Tufts, B. R.; Geissler, P.; Hoppa, G.

    Physical characterization of Europa's crust shows it to be rich in potentially habitable niches, with several timescales for change that would allow stability for organisms to prosper and still require and drive evolution and adaptation. Studies of tectonics on Europa indicate that tidal stress causes much of the surface cracking, that cracks pen- etrate through to liquid water (so the ice must be thin), and that cracks continue to be worked by tidal stress. Thus a global ocean is (or was until recently) well linked to the surface. Daily tidal flow (period~days) transports substances up and down through the active cracks, mixing surface oxidants and fuels (cometary material) with the oceanic reservoir of endogenic and exogenic substances. Organisms moving with the flow or anchored to the walls could exploit the disequilibrium chemistry, and those within a few meters of the surface could photosynthesize. Cracks remain active for at least ~10,000 yr, but deactivate as nonsynchronous rotation moves them to different stress regimes in less than a million yr. Thus, to survive, organisms squeezed into the ocean must migrate to new cracks, and those frozen in place must hibernate. Most sites remelt and would release captive organisms within about a million yr based on the prevalence of chaotic terrain, which covers nearly half of Europa. Linkage of the ocean to the surface also could help sustain life in the ocean by delivering oxidants and fuels. Suboceanic volcanism (if any) could provide additional sites and support for life, but is not necessary. Recent results support this model. We further constrain the non-synchronous rotation rate, demonstrate the plausibility of episodic melt-through, show that characteristics of pits and uplift features do not imply thick ice, and demonstrate polar wander, i.e. that the ice crust is detached from the solid interior and has slipped as a unit relative to the spin axis. Thus Europa's biosphere (habitable if not inhabited) likely

  5. Effects of parental relations and upbringing in troubled adolescent eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bäck, Emma A

    2011-01-01

    Family relations may constitute a risk for developing eating problems. Not enough is known about parent-child relationship quality and upbringing in food situations. Self-report data from 80 high school students (45 males) showed that females had more eating problems than males, and their problems were related both to insecure mother attachment, controlling for body/weight dissatisfaction, and to more memories of childhood food rules. Secure mother attachment was related to decreased eating problems, via increasing body/weight satisfaction. Especially the mother- daughter relationship seems to affect adolescent girls' eating habits and can either protect against or enhance the risk for eating problems. PMID:21932971

  6. Effects of Eating Fast and Eating Before Bedtime on the Development of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Takumi; Babazono, Akira; Maeda, Toshiki; Imatoh, Takuya; Une, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effects of lifestyle habits, such as eating behaviors, on the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is known that NAFLD increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the effect of eating behaviors and interactions between these behaviors on the development of NAFLD among health insurance beneficiaries without NAFLD. Study subjects were 2254 male and female insurance beneficiaries without NAFLD who had attended specific health checkups during fiscal years 2009 and 2012 among health insurance societies located in Fukuoka and Shizuoka Prefectures (Japan). The incidence of NAFLD was defined as Fatty Liver Index scores ≥60 or visiting medical organizations for fatty liver disease treatment according to claims data. Eating behaviors, including eating speed and eating before bedtime, were evaluated by a self-administered questionnaire. During the study period, 52 (2.3%) subjects progressed to NAFLD. Subjects who ate before bedtime but did not eat fast had a higher risk of NAFLD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-4.46). Those with both negative eating habits had a significantly higher risk of NAFLD (AOR = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.09-5.63). Subjects who habitually ate before bedtime, and those who ate fast and before bedtime, tended to have an increased risk of NAFLD. Earlier intervention to modify these poor eating behaviors could be useful to prevent NAFLD. (Population Health Management 2016;19:279-283). PMID:26565781

  7. Investigating habits: strategies, technologies and models

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding habits at a biological level requires a combination of behavioral observations and measures of ongoing neural activity. Theoretical frameworks as well as definitions of habitual behaviors emerging from classic behavioral research have been enriched by new approaches taking account of the identification of brain regions and circuits related to habitual behavior. Together, this combination of experimental and theoretical work has provided key insights into how brain circuits underlying action-learning and action-selection are organized, and how a balance between behavioral flexibility and fixity is achieved. New methods to monitor and manipulate neural activity in real time are allowing us to have a first look “under the hood” of a habit as it is formed and expressed. Here we discuss ideas emerging from such approaches. We pay special attention to the unexpected findings that have arisen from our own experiments suggesting that habitual behaviors likely require the simultaneous activity of multiple distinct components, or operators, seen as responsible for the contrasting dynamics of neural activity in both cortico-limbic and sensorimotor circuits recorded concurrently during different stages of habit learning. The neural dynamics identified thus far do not fully meet expectations derived from traditional models of the structure of habits, and the behavioral measures of habits that we have made also are not fully aligned with these models. We explore these new clues as opportunities to refine an understanding of habits. PMID:24574988

  8. A Review of Habit Reversal with Childhood Habit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Douglas W.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper first reviews four classes of habit disorders in children: motor and vocal tics, nervous habits, stuttering, and Tourette's disorder. It then describes the habit reversal procedure and reviews the literature on its use and variations to treat each of the four classes of habit disorders. Emphasis is on simplified versions of the original…

  9. Habitability study shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Habitability design concepts for the Shuttle Orbiter Program are provided for MSC. A variety of creative solutions for the stated tasks are presented. Sketches, mock-ups, mechanicals and models are included for establishing a foundation for future development.

  10. Habitability study shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies of the habitability of the space shuttle orbiter are briefly summarized. Selected illustrations and descriptions are presented for: crew compartment, hygiene facilities, food system and galley, and storage systems.

  11. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  12. Habitability: CAMELOT 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alequin, W.; Barragan, A.; Carro, M.; Garcia, F.; Gonzalez, I.; Mercado, J. A.; Negron, N.; Lopez, D.; Rivera, L. A.; Rivera, M.

    1990-01-01

    During 1988 to 1989 the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program sponsored research and design efforts aimed at developing habitability criteria and at defining a habitability concept as a useful tool in understanding and evaluating dwellings for prolonged stays in extraterrestrial space. The Circulating Auto sufficient Mars-Earth Luxurious Orbital Transport (CAMELOT) was studied as a case in which the students would try to enhance the quality of life of the inhabitants by applying architectural design methodology. The study proposed 14 habitability criteria considered necessary to fulfill the defined habitability concept, which is that state of equilibrium that results from the interaction between components of the Individual Architecture Mission Complex, which allows a person to sustain physiological homeostatis, adequate performance, and acceptable social relationships. Architecture, design development, refinements and revisions to improve the quality of life, new insights on artificial gravity, form and constitution problems, and the final design concept are covered.

  13. Mahlzeit! (Enjoy Your Meal!) German Table Manners, Menus, and Eating Establishments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Debbie

    A series of short texts focus on German eating habits and types of eating establishments. Vocabulary is glossed in the margin and each text is followed by comprehension questions. Menus from a restaurant, an inn, and a fast-food restaurant; vocabulary exercises; a word search puzzle and its solution; and directions in English for conversational…

  14. Does Eating Breakfast Affect the Performance of College Students on Biology Exams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gregory W.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the breakfast eating habits of 1,259 college students over an eleven year period to determine if eating breakfast had an impact upon their grade on a General Biology exam. The study determined that there was a significant difference in the performance on the exam with a higher percent of the participants, who had eaten…

  15. Weight Concerns, Problem Eating Behaviors, and Problem Drinking Behaviors in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutgesell, Margaret E.; Moreau, Kerrie L.; Thompson, Dixie L.

    2003-01-01

    Compared eating behaviors and alcohol drinking habits between female varsity college athletes and female controls (non-athletes). Data from a student survey indicated that self-reported problem drinking and eating behaviors existed in both groups at similar rates. There did not appear to be a significant relationship between self-reported alcohol…

  16. Nutrition Transition: An Intergenerational Comparison of Dietary Habits among Women of Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    AHMADI, Aliyar

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a shift worldwide towards a diet that is high in processed foods and low in fiber, leading to a corresponding increase in degenerative diseases. These diseases are interrelated with lifestyles and especially with diets. The aim of this study was to investigate the eating habit differences between two generations of mothers and daughters and their tendency towards modern foods. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, the data were gathered using structured questionnaires. The sample of the study includes 618 women in Shiraz City (309 mothers and 309 daughters) selected through stratified random sampling. Data analysis was carried out using the SPSS software. Results: In the mothers’ generation, around 80% showed a traditional nutritional pattern while in the young generation more than 50% had a modern or close to modern pattern of nutrition (P ≤ 0.05). The findings confirmed a significant difference in dietary habits among the two generations. For both generations, nutrition pattern was significantly different in terms of social class, weight control, education, using mass communication, and physical activities (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Iran is currently experiencing a nutrition transition. The current inappropriate habits in the lifestyles of the girls’ in Shiraz are a health threat for them, and it will increase the risk of non-communicable diseases. Therefore, policy makers have to set new agenda to increase the nutritional knowledge of the population. PMID:25905062

  17. Worksite Neighborhood and Obesogenic Behaviors: Findings Among Employees in the Promoting Activity and Changes in Eating (PACE) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, Wendy E.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Duncan, Glen E.; Moudon, Anne Vernez

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding mechanisms linking neighborhood context to health behaviors may provide targets for increasing lifestyle intervention effectiveness. Although associations between home neighborhood and obesogenic behaviors have been studied, less is known about the role of worksite neighborhood. Purpose To evaluate associations between worksite neighborhood context at baseline (2006) and change in obesogenic behaviors of adult employees at follow-up (2007–2009) in a worksite randomized trial to prevent weight gain. Methods Worksite property values were used as an indicator of worksite neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES). Worksite neighborhood built environment attributes associated with walkability were evaluated as explanatory factors in relationships among worksite NSES, diet, and physical activity behaviors of employees. Behavioral data were collected at baseline (2005–2007) and follow-up (2007–2009). Multilevel linear and logistic models were constructed adjusting for covariates and accounting for clustering within worksites. Product-of-coefficients methods were used to assess mediation. Analyses were performed after study completion (2011–2012). Results Higher worksite NSES was associated with more walking (OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.03, 1.30, p=0.01). Higher density of residential units surrounding worksites was associated with more walking and eating ≥five daily servings of fruits and vegetables, independent of worksite NSES. Residential density partially explained relationships among worksite NSES, fruit and vegetable consumption, and walking. Conclusions Worksite neighborhood context may influence employees’ obesogenic behaviors. Furthermore, residential density around worksites could be an indicator of access to dietary and physical activity–related infrastructure in urban areas. This may be important given the popularity of worksites as venues for obesity prevention efforts. PMID:25442234

  18. Nitrogenase diversity and activity in the gastrointestinal tract of the wood-eating catfish Panaque nigrolineatus.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Ryan; Zhang, Fan; Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J

    2015-12-01

    The Amazonian catfish, Panaque nigrolineatus, consume large amounts of wood in their diets. The nitrogen-fixing community within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of these catfish was found to include nifH phylotypes that are closely related to Clostridium sp., Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria, and sequences associated with GI tracts of lower termites. Fish fed a diet of sterilized palm wood were found to contain nifH messenger RNA within their GI tracts, displaying high sequence similarity to the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium group. Nitrogenase activity, measured by acetylene reduction assays, could be detected in freshly dissected GI tract material and also from anaerobic enrichment cultures propagated in nitrogen-free enrichment media; nifH sequences retrieved from these cultures were dominated by Klebsiella- and Clostridium-like sequences. Microscopic examination using catalyzed reporter deposition-enhanced immunofluorescence revealed high densities of nitrogenase-containing cells colonizing the woody digesta within the GI tract, as well as cells residing within the intestinal mucous layer. Our findings suggest that the P. nigrolineatus GI tract provides a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation that may facilitate production of reduced nitrogen by the resident microbial population under nitrogen limiting conditions. Whether this community is providing reduced nitrogen to the host in an active or passive manner and whether it is present in a permanent or transient relationship remains to be determined. The intake of a cellulose rich diet and the presence of a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation suggest that the GI tract microbial community may allow a unique trophic niche for P. nigrolineatus among fish. PMID:25909976

  19. Nitrogenase diversity and activity in the gastrointestinal tract of the wood-eating catfish Panaque nigrolineatus

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Ryan; Zhang, Fan; Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J

    2015-01-01

    The Amazonian catfish, Panaque nigrolineatus, consume large amounts of wood in their diets. The nitrogen-fixing community within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of these catfish was found to include nifH phylotypes that are closely related to Clostridium sp., Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria, and sequences associated with GI tracts of lower termites. Fish fed a diet of sterilized palm wood were found to contain nifH messenger RNA within their GI tracts, displaying high sequence similarity to the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium group. Nitrogenase activity, measured by acetylene reduction assays, could be detected in freshly dissected GI tract material and also from anaerobic enrichment cultures propagated in nitrogen-free enrichment media; nifH sequences retrieved from these cultures were dominated by Klebsiella- and Clostridium-like sequences. Microscopic examination using catalyzed reporter deposition-enhanced immunofluorescence revealed high densities of nitrogenase-containing cells colonizing the woody digesta within the GI tract, as well as cells residing within the intestinal mucous layer. Our findings suggest that the P. nigrolineatus GI tract provides a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation that may facilitate production of reduced nitrogen by the resident microbial population under nitrogen limiting conditions. Whether this community is providing reduced nitrogen to the host in an active or passive manner and whether it is present in a permanent or transient relationship remains to be determined. The intake of a cellulose rich diet and the presence of a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation suggest that the GI tract microbial community may allow a unique trophic niche for P. nigrolineatus among fish. PMID:25909976

  20. Planning For a Healthy School Year: Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Planning For A Healthy School Year Healthy Eating Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents How ... federal government releases a set of guidelines on healthy eating. The guidelines suggest balancing calories with physical activity. ...

  1. The Role and Impact of Student Leadership on Participants in a Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutuskey, Lila; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo; Centeio, Erin; Garn, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the USA there are rising rates of obesity among children, at least in part due to unhealthy eating and physical inactivity. Implementing school-based health interventions with elementary school children focused on youth empowerment could lead to improved health environments and behaviours. The purpose of the present study was to…

  2. How Does the Brain Implement Adaptive Decision Making to Eat?

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, B. Timothy; Kaye, Walter; Geliebter, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive decision making to eat is crucial for survival, but in anorexia nervosa, the brain persistently supports reduced food intake despite a growing need for energy. How the brain persists in reducing food intake, sometimes even to the point of death and despite the evolution of multiple mechanisms to ensure survival by governing adaptive eating behaviors, remains mysterious. Neural substrates belong to the reward-habit system, which could differ among the eating disorders. The present review provides an overview of neural circuitry of restrictive food choice, binge eating, and the contribution of specific serotonin receptors. One possibility is that restrictive food intake critically engages goal-directed (decision making) systems and “habit,” supporting the view that persistent caloric restriction mimics some aspects of addiction to drugs of abuse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT An improved understanding of the neural basis of eating disorders is a timely challenge because these disorders can be deadly. Up to 70 million of people in the world suffer from eating disorders. Anorexia nervosa affects 1–4% of women in United States and is the first cause of death among adolescents in Europe. Studies relying on animal models suggest that decision making to eat (or not) can prevail over actual energy requirements due to emotional disturbances resulting in abnormal habitual behavior, mimicking dependence. These recent studies provide a foundation for developing more specific and effective interventions for these disorders. PMID:26468187

  3. Habitability: from stars to cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaux, Emmanuelle J.; Dehant, Véronique

    2010-07-01

    To determine where to search for life in our solar system or in other extrasolar systems, the concept of habitability has been developed, based on the only sample we have of a biological planet—the Earth. Habitability can be defined as the set of the necessary conditions for an active life to exist, even if it does not exist. In astronomy, a habitable zone (HZ) is the zone defined around a sun/star, where the temperature conditions allow liquid water to exist on its surface. This habitability concept can be considered from different scientific perspectives and on different spatial and time scales. Characterizing habitability at these various scales requires interdisciplinary research. In this article, we have chosen to develop the geophysical, geological, and biological aspects and to insist on the need to integrate them, with a particular focus on our neighboring planets, Mars and Venus. Important geodynamic processes may affect the habitability conditions of a planet. The dynamic processes, e.g., internal dynamo, magnetic field, atmosphere, plate tectonics, mantle convection, volcanism, thermo-tectonic evolution, meteorite impacts, and erosion, modify the planetary surface, the possibility to have liquid water, the thermal state, the energy budget, and the availability of nutrients. They thus play a role in the persistence of life on a planet. Earth had a liquid water ocean and some continental crust in the Hadean between 4.4 and 4.0 Ga (Ga: billions years ago), and may have been habitable very early on. The origin of life is not understood yet; but the oldest putative traces of life are early Archean (~3.5 Ga). Studies of early Earth habitats documented in the rock record hosting fossil life traces provide information about possible habitats suitable for life beyond Earth. The extreme values of environmental conditions in which life thrives today can also be used to characterize the “envelope” of the existence of life and the range of potential

  4. Kids on the Move: Afterschool Programs Promoting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. America After 3PM Special Report. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs continue to make advances when it comes to providing students with nutritious foods, keeping them physically fit and promoting health. Such programs have great potential to help prevent obesity and instill lifelong healthy habits, serving more than 10 million children and youth across America, with more than 19 million more…

  5. Growth habit and photo-synthetic activity of shoot cultures of Medicago sativa L. transformed with the oryzacystatin II gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro maintained shoot cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Zajeÿarska 83) that were transformed with the oryzacystatin II (OCII) gene and propagated on growth regulator-free medium were subjected to analysis of morphological characteristics and photosynthetic activity. The most striking f...

  6. Dietary habits and gastroesophageal reflux disease in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, You Jin; Ha, Eun Kyo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the relationship between dietary habits and childhood gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in preschool children. Methods We performed a questionnaire study to analyze the relationship between dietary habits and GERD in 85 preschool children with GERD and 117 healthy children of the same age. Results Irregular and picky eating were more p–revalent in the GERD group than in the control group (odds ratio [OR], 4.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37–12.54 and OR, 4.96; 95% CI, 1.88–13.14, respectively). The snack preferences and the late night eating habits were significantly more prevalent in the GERD group than in the control group (OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.23–11.87 and OR, 9.51; 95% CI, 2.55–35.49, respectively). A preference for liquid foods was significantly more prevalent in the GERD group (OR, 9.51; 95% CI, 2.548–35.485). The dinner-to-bedtime interval was significantly shorter in the GERD group than in the control group (157.06±48.47 vs. 174.62±55.10, P=0.020). In addition, the time between dinner and bedtime was shorter than 3 hours in 47 children (55.3%) of the GERD group and 44 (37.6%) of the control group. This difference was statistical significance (P=0.015). Conclusion Dietary habits such as picky and irregular eating, snack preference, a preference of liquid foods, late night eating, and a shorter dinner-to-bedtime interval had a significant correlation with GERD. Further large-scale studies are necessary to confirm our results. PMID:27588031

  7. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  8. Physical Activity, Dietary Practices, and Other Health Behaviors of At-Risk Youth Attending Alternative High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the interest of alternative high school staff in intervention research on students' eating and physical activity habits and the feasibility of conducting such research in alternative school settings. A two-phase descriptive design incorporated both quantitative and qualitative methods. In fall/winter 2001-2002, alternative high…

  9. Eating disorders and women's health: an update.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Anne Marie; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2006-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified have a significant impact on the health care and childbearing outcomes of the female population. Primary care contact for gynecologic care, childbearing, or infertility can serve as a critical entry point for the initial recognition of potentially devastating disorders that may result in permanent impairment and/or chronic debilitation. This review addresses the nature and prevalence of eating disorders and the management of pregnancy complicated by an active eating disorder or a history of an eating disorder. Genetic influences and intergenerational transmission of eating disorders are discussed. Finally, the increased risk for postpartum depression among women with a current or past eating disorder is examined. Factors critical to improving pregnancy outcome and reducing the risk for exacerbation or relapse in the postpartum period are identified. PMID:16647671

  10. Microorganisms, Organic Carbon, and Their Relationship with Oxidant Activity in Hyper-Arid Mars-Like Soils: Implications for Soil Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Karouia, Fathi; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Soil samples from the hyper-arid region in the Atacama 23 Desert in Southern Peru (La Joya Desert) were analyzed for total and labile organic carbon (TOC & LOC), phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA), quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 4',6- diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-fluorescent microscopy, culturable microorganisms, and oxidant activity, in order to understand the relationship between the presence of organic matter and microorganisms in these types of soils. TOC content levels were similar to the labile pool of carbon suggesting the absence of recalcitrant carbon in these soils. The range of LOC was from 2 to 60 micro-g/g of soil. PLFA analysis indicated a maximum of 2.3 x 10(exp 5) cell equivalents/g. Culturing of soil extracts yielded 1.1 x 10(exp 2)-3.7 x 10(exp 3) CFU/g. qRT-PCR showed between 1.0 x 10(exp 2) and 8 x 10(exp 3) cells/g; and DAPI fluorescent staining indicated bacteria counts up to 5 x 104 cells/g. Arid and semiarid samples (controls) showed values between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 11) cells/g with all of the methods used. Importantly, the concentration of microorganisms in hyper-arid soils did not show any correlation with the organic carbon content; however, there was a significant dependence on the oxidant activity present in these soil samples evaluated as the capacity to decompose sodium formate in 10 hours. We suggest that the analysis of oxidant activity could be a useful indicator of the microbial habitability in hyper-arid soils, obviating the need to measure water activity over time. This approach could be useful in astrobiological studies on other worlds.

  11. Exoplanet detection. Comment on "Stellar activity masquerading as planets in the habitable zone of the M dwarf Gliese 581".

    PubMed

    Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Tuomi, Mikko

    2015-03-01

    Robertson et al. (Reports, 25 July 2014, p. 440) claimed that activity-induced variability is responsible for the Doppler signal of the proposed planet candidate GJ 581d. We point out that their analysis using periodograms of residual data is inappropriate and promotes inadequate tools. Because the claim challenges the viability of the method to detect exo-Earths, we encourage reanalysis and a deliberation on what the field-standard methods should be. PMID:25745156

  12. Infant Nutrition: Drinking from a Cup, Eating from a Spoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the developmental stages of infants' and children's eating habits. Provides directions for introducing cup and spoon to babies and for making homemade infant foods. Includes information on breast feeding and how child caregivers can support breast-feeding mothers. (HTH)

  13. Geophysical and atmospheric evolution of habitable planets.

    PubMed

    Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Frank; Chassefière, Eric; Breuer, Doris; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Kulikov, Yuri N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Biernat, Helfried K; Leblanc, Francois; Kallio, Esa; Lundin, Richard; Westall, Frances; Bauer, Siegfried J; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gröller, Hannes; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Hausleitner, Walter; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Leitzinger, Martin; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Motschmann, Uwe; Odert, Petra; Paresce, Francesco; Parnell, John; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rauer, Heike; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Spohn, Tilman; Stadelmann, Anja; Stangl, Günter; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and activity, orbit location of the habitable zone, and the planet's initial water inventory. Depending on the host star's radiation and particle flux evolution, the composition in the thermosphere, and the availability of an active magnetic dynamo, the atmospheres of Earth-like planets within their habitable zones are differently affected due to thermal and nonthermal escape processes. For some planets, strong atmospheric escape could even effect the stability of the atmosphere. PMID:20307182

  14. Impulse control and restrained eating among young women: Evidence for compensatory cortical activation during a chocolate-specific delayed discounting task.

    PubMed

    Dong, Debo; Wang, Yulin; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Shuaiyu; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Theory and associated research indicate that people with elevated restrained eating (RE) scores have higher risk for binge eating, future bulimic symptom onset and weight gain. Previous imaging studies have suggested hyper-responsive reward brain area activation in response to food cues contributes to this risk but little is known about associated neural impulse control mechanisms, especially when considering links between depleted cognitive resources related to unsuccessful RE. Towards illuminating this issue, we used a chocolate-specific delayed discounting (DD) task to investigate relations between RE scores, behavior impulsivity, and corresponding neural impulse control correlates in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of 27 young women. Specifically, participants were required to choose between more immediate, smaller versus delayed, larger hypothetical chocolate rewards following initial consumption of a chocolate. As predicted, RE scores were correlated positively with behavior impulse control levels. More critically, higher RE scores were associated with stronger activation in impulse control region, the dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the completion of difficult decision trials reflecting higher cognitive demands and resource depletion relative to easy decision trials. Exploratory analyses revealed a positive correlation between RE scores and activity in a reward system hub, the right striatum. Moreover, a positive correlation between left DLPFC and striatum activation was posited to reflect, in part, impulse control region compensation in response to stronger reward signal among women with RE elevations. Findings suggested impulse control lapses may contribute to difficulties in maintaining RE, particularly when cognitive demands are high. PMID:27208593

  15. Association between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Rui; Xiao, Cheng

    2014-04-01

    Some studies have indicated that the consumption of chilli-containing foods can influence iron absorption and affect serum insulin and glucose concentrations, which may help to alleviate diabetes or prediabetes. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric data, and chilli food habit data collected from 8433 adults (aged 18 to 99), in 2009, as part of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a large-scale longitudinal, household-based survey in China. Chilli food habits were assessed using chilli food eating frequencies (no eating, sometimes eating, often eating, and usually eating) and chilli food types (a little bit hot, moderately hot, and very hot). Fasting serum ferritin, insulin, and fasting plasma glucose were also measured. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to estimate insulin resistance. Compared with the chilli-eating group, the no eating group had higher HOMA-IR levels for both men and women (P<.05). There were significant differences in HOMA-IR (P<.05) for both men and women and in ferritin (P<.001) for women according to different chilli food types. However, there was no significant difference in the ferritin level and HOMA-IR components for different chilli food eating frequencies in both sex groups. Chilli food habits, especially the different hotness levels of chilli food, were associated with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Additional studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of action and to establish causal inference. PMID:24479485

  16. A descriptive narrative of healthy eating: a social marketing approach using psychographics in conjunction with interpersonal, community, mass media and new media activities.

    PubMed

    Dutta-Bergman, Mohar J

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the profile of healthy and unhealthy eating consumers in terms of demographic, psychographic and communicative variables. Data from 3,388 respondents to the 1999 DDB Needham Life Style Study were analyzed. The results show the healthy eaters to be environmentally conscious and health-oriented, suggesting an underlying theme of personal and social responsibility. The communicative activities of healthy eaters demonstrate an information orientation while unhealthy eaters are more entertainment oriented. Practical and social implications are discussed for social marketers regarding target segmentation and message design. PMID:15018003

  17. High prevalence of preobesity and obesity among medical students of Lahore and its relation with dietary habits and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zeeshan Nasir; Assir, Muhammad Zaman Khan; Shafiq, Mudassar; Chaudhary, Aghosh-e-Gul; Jabeen, Atika

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among students of medical colleges of Lahore and to study its correlation with high-caloric diet intake and physical inactivity. Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at four medical colleges of Lahore, Pakistan between March and June 2012. Methods: A total of 244 medical students (85 males, 159 females) of the median age of 20 years (range: 18–25) were randomly included in the study. Anthropometric measures were obtained. High-caloric diet intake and physical profile were assessed through a self-reported questionnaire. The relationships between obesity indices (body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio) were investigated and correlated with the studied dietary and physical activity factors. Results: Approximately, 30.5% males and 16% females had BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2 overall affecting 21% of total medical students. Central obesity was found in 46% of male and 31.4% of female students. Central obesity was associated with a higher total daily caloric intake, studying at private medical college and male gender. Overall, 197 of 244 (80.7%) students played no sports in college. Median time to watch television or work on the computer was 120 min a day (range: 30–420). Only 70 (28.7%) students had regular walk or jogging. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of Pakistani medical students were overweight or obese. Higher total daily caloric intake was associated with central obesity but not a BMI >25. Physical activity parameters favored an overall sedentary aptitude for medical students. PMID:27042417

  18. Educating Children to Proper Eating Habits in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Marian

    A brief discussion of proper nutrition in general precedes an examination of proper nutrition for school children and the specification of nutrition education objectives for kindergarten or first grade students. The remainder of the paper delineates food projects by which objectives can be realized (for example, snack necklace, jack-o-lantern…

  19. Relationships of eating competence, sleep behaviors and quality, and overweight status among college students.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia; Shoff, Suzanne; Lohse, Barbara; White, Adrienne; Horacek, Tanya; Greene, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the relationships between eating competence (intra-individual approach to eating and food-related attitudes and behaviors that entrain positive bio-psychosocial outcomes) and sleep behaviors and quality in college students, a high-risk group for poor eating habits, weight gain, and inadequate sleep. Thus, data from full-time college students (N=1035; 82% White; 61% female) aged 18-24 years from 5 U.S. universities were obtained from online questionnaires (eating competence (ecSI), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), physical activity, demographics) and physical assessments (measured height, weight), to explore sleep behavior and quality between eating-competent (EC; ecSI score≥32) and non-EC groups (ecSI<32). Generalized linear models controlling for gender, body mass index, and physical activity were utilized. A higher proportion of those in the EC group reported adequate sleep quality (67% vs. 57% in non-EC, p=0.001), sleep duration of ≥7 h nightly (58% vs. 50% in non-EC, p=0.007), and infrequent daytime dysfunction (72% vs. 65% in non-EC, p=0.02). When ecSI scores were grouped as tertiles, those in the highest tertile reported a higher prevalence of no sleep disturbances (7% vs. 2% in the lowest ecSI tertile, p=0.006) and lower prevalence of sleep medication use (10% vs. 15% in the lowest ecSI tertile, p=0.04). Results suggest that competent eaters are more likely to have better overall sleep quality and fewer sleep-related issuescompared to less competent eaters. These findings may inform future longitudinal studies, and health promotion and weight management interventions for young adults. PMID:26164670

  20. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia. PMID:27553980

  1. Changing your sleep habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... wake up at the same time each day. Go to bed around the same time every day, but not more than 8 hours before you expect to start your day. Avoid beverages with caffeine or alcohol in the evening. Avoid eating heavy meals at least 2 hours before going ...

  2. Episodic future thinking reduces eating in a food court.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Jessica; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Epstein, Leonard H

    2016-01-01

    Episodic future thinking (EFT) is the psychological process of vividly imagining a future event, and this process has been shown to reduce overeating in the laboratory. To assess the efficacy of EFT in the natural environment, twenty-nine overweight or obese women who wanted to improve their eating habits were randomly assigned to one of two smartphone-implemented interventions--EFT or control episodic recent thinking (ERT)--while they ate dinner in a public food court. Results showed a reduction in consumption of total calories, a reduction in percent calories from fat, and an increase in percent calories from protein for EFT versus ERT. These data suggest EFT may be used to modify eating habits in natural eating environments, and may show potential as a component of behavioral obesity interventions. PMID:26562686

  3. Parent-reported eating and leisure-time activity selection patterns related to energy balance in preschool-and school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Jelalian, Elissa; Vivier, Patrick M.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Compare parent-reported preschool- and school-aged children’s eating and leisure-time activity patterns that are proposed to influence energy balance. Design Cross-sectional investigation of children, 2 to 12 years, attending a well-visit. Setting Pediatric private practice/ambulatory pediatric clinic. Participants One hundred seventy-four children: 49% preschool-aged, 54% female, 28% Hispanic, and 34% overweight/at risk for overweight. Variables Measured Parent-reported eating/leisure-time behaviors. Height/weight from medical records. Analysis Analyses of covariance/Chi-square tests; significance at P ≤ 0.05. Results By parents’ report, preschool-aged children consumed more servings/day of low-fat dairy (2.1 ± 1.6 vs. 1.7 ± 1.5; P <.01), fewer servings/day of sweetened drinks (1.4 ± 1.9 vs. 2.2 ± 2.6; P <.01), and watched fewer hours/day of weekend TV (2.3 ± 1. 3 vs. 2.7 ± 1.3; P <.05) than school-aged children. Fewer preschool-aged children consumed salty (14.0% vs. 26.1%; P <.05) and sweet (16.3% vs. 29.5%; P <.05) snack foods daily, and a greater percentage regularly consumed dinner with a parent (93.0% vs. 80.7%; P <.05), as assessed by parent report. Conclusions and Implications Parent-reported children’s eating/leisure-time patterns that may influence energy balance were less healthy in the school-aged children. However, most children did not meet recommendations, irrespective of age/weight. Interventions for meeting recommendations should start with families with preschool-aged children. Future research should focus on identifying factors that might be contributing to increased reporting of problematic food and leisure-time activity patterns in school-aged children. PMID:19161916

  4. Reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention on physical activity and healthy eating of older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community.

    PubMed

    Luten, Karla A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled pre-post quasi-experimental design, with 430 randomly selected older adults participating in the intervention group and 213 in a control group at baseline. The intervention included a local media campaign and environmental approaches (e.g., community involvement) and was implemented during a 3-month high-intensity period, followed by a 6-month low-intensity one. Levels of physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption were assessed at baseline and at 3 and 9 months after baseline. At the follow-up measurements, the intervention had reached respectively 68 and 69% of the participants in the intervention group. No significant differences were found between the intervention group and the control group in changes to any outcome except for transport-related PA at 3 and 9 months follow-up. The systematically developed community-based intervention reached a relatively large proportion of the participants, but had only small effects on the levels of physical activity and healthy eating in older adults in the short and medium term. PMID:26675175

  5. Palliative options of last resort: a comparison of voluntarily stopping eating and drinking, terminal sedation, physician-assisted suicide, and voluntary active euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Quill, T E; Lo, B; Brock, D W

    1997-12-17

    Palliative care is generally agreed to be the standard of care for the dying, but there remain some patients for whom intolerable suffering persists. In the face of ethical and legal controversy about the acceptability of physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia, voluntarily stopping eating and drinking and terminal sedation have been proposed as ethically superior responses of last resort that do not require changes in professional standards or the law. The clinical and ethical differences and similarities between these 4 practices are critically compared in light of the doctrine of double effect, the active/passive distinction, patient voluntariness, proportionality between risks and benefits, and the physician's potential conflict of duties. Terminal sedation and voluntarily stopping eating and drinking would allow clinicians to remain responsive to a wide range of patient suffering, but they are ethically and clinically more complex and closer to physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia than is ordinarily acknowledged. Safeguards are presented for any medical action that may hasten death, including determining that palliative care is ineffective, obtaining informed consent, ensuring diagnostic and prognostic clarity, obtaining an independent second opinion, and implementing reporting and monitoring processes. Explicit public policy about which of these practices are permissible would reassure the many patients who fear a bad death in their future and allow for a predictable response for the few whose suffering becomes intolerable in spite of optimal palliative care. PMID:9403426

  6. Parent-Adolescent Conversations about Eating, Physical Activity and Weight: Prevalence across Sociodemographic Characteristics and Associations with Adolescent Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent BMI, dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n=3,424; 62% females) and adolescents (n=2,182; 53.2% girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported more parent-adolescent conversations about healthful eating and physical activity with their sons and mothers reported more weight-focused conversations with their daughters. Parents of Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Hmong youth and parents from lower SES categories engaged in more conversations about weight and size. Adolescents whose mothers or fathers had weight-focused conversations with them had higher BMI percentiles. Adolescents who had two parents engaging in weight-related conversations had higher BMI percentiles. Healthcare providers may want to talk about the types of weight-related conversations parents are having with their adolescents and emphasize avoiding conversations about weight specifically. PMID:24997555

  7. AHA Scientific Statement Population Approaches to Improve Diet, Physical Activity, and Smoking Habits A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Afshin, Ashkan; Benowitz, Neal L.; Bittner, Vera; Daniels, Stephen R.; Franch, Harold A.; Jacobs, David R.; Kraus, William E.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Krummel, Debra A.; Popkin, Barry M.; Whitsel, Laurie P.; Zakai, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor lifestyle, including suboptimal diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Although even modest population shifts in risk substantially alter health outcomes, the optimal population-level approaches to improve lifestyle are not well established. Methods and Results For this American Heart Association Scientific Statement, the writing group systematically reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for effective population approaches to improve dietary habits, increase physical activity, and reduce tobacco use. Strategies were considered in 6 broad domains: (1) media and education campaigns; (2) labeling and consumer information; (3) taxation, subsidies, and other economic incentives; (4) school and workplace approaches; (5) local environmental changes; and (6) direct restrictions and mandates. The writing group also reviewed the potential contributions of healthcare systems and surveillance systems to behavior change efforts. Several specific population interventions that achieved a Class I or IIa recommendation with grade A or B evidence were identified, providing a set of specific evidence-based strategies that deserve close attention and prioritization for wider implementation. Effective interventions included specific approaches in all 6 domains evaluated for improving diet, increasing activity, and reducing tobacco use. The writing group also identified several specific interventions in each of these domains for which current evidence was less robust, as well as other inconsistencies and evidence gaps, informing the need for further rigorous and interdisciplinary approaches to evaluate population programs and policies. Conclusions This systematic review identified and graded the evidence for a range of population-based strategies to promote lifestyle change. The findings provide a framework for policy makers, advocacy groups, researchers, clinicians, communities, and other

  8. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  9. On Study Habits on an Introductory Course on Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willman, Salla; Lindén, Rolf; Kaila, Erkki; Rajala, Teemu; Laakso, Mikko-Jussi; Salakoski, Tapio

    2015-01-01

    Computer aided assessment systems enable the collection of exact time and date information on students' activity on a course. These activity patterns reflect students' study habits and these study habits further predict students' likelihood to pass or fail a course. By identifying such patterns, those who design the courses can enforce positive…

  10. Preventing a Continuum of Disordered Eating: Going beyond the Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2007-01-01

    Efforts aimed at the prevention of eating disorders need to consider the context within which these disorders develop and aim to promote not only healthy eating and physical activity but also address mental health factors, such as body image. Exploring the relationship between body image and eating disorders will provide a foundation and further…

  11. Choosing Stars to Search for Habitable Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    M-dwarf stars are excellent targets for planet searches because the signal of an orbiting planet is relatively larger (and therefore easier to detect!) around small, dim M dwarfs, compared to Sun-like stars. But are there better or worse stars to target within this category when searching for habitable, Earth-like planets?Confusing the SignalRadial velocity campaigns search for planets by looking for signatures in a stars spectra that indicate the star is wobbling due to the gravitational pull of an orbiting planet. Unfortunately, stellar activity can mimic the signal of an orbiting planet in a stars spectrum something that is particularly problematic for M dwarfs, which can remain magnetically active for billions of years. To successfully detect planets that orbit in their stars habitable zones, we have to account for this problem.In a recent study led by Elisabeth Newton (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), the authors use literature measurements to examine the rotation periods for main-sequence, M-type stars. They focus on three factors that are important for detecting and characterizing habitable planets around M dwarfs:Whether the habitable-zone orbital periods coincide with the stellar rotationFalse planet detections caused by stellar activity often appear as a planet with an orbital period thats a multiple of the stellar rotation period. If a stars rotation period coincides with the range of orbital periods corresponding to its habitable zone, its therefore possible to obtain false detections of habitable planets.How long stellar activity and rapid rotation last in the starAll stars become less magnetically active and rotate more slowly as they age, but the rate of this decay depends on their mass: lower-mass stars stay magnetically active for longer and take longer to spin down.Whether detailed atmospheric characterization will be possibleIts ideal to be able to follow up on potentially habitable exoplanets, and search for biosignatures such as

  12. Beliefs about eating and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence; Perrin, Nancy A; Rosselli, Francine; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Debar, Lynn L; Kraemer, Helena C

    2009-08-01

    Beliefs about foods and binge eating may influence the development and maintenance of eating disorders and the likelihood that people will seek treatment. We found that the majority of a random sample of members of a large health maintenance organization considered binge eating a problem for which there are effective treatments. Self-reported binge eaters, however, were significantly less likely to agree that there are effective treatments. Two thirds of the sample reported that certain foods are addictive and also believed that strict dieting is an effective means of reducing binge eating. Therapeutic implications of these attitudes are discussed. PMID:19665098

  13. Spectral Fingerprints of Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenegger, L.; Selsis, F.

    2010-01-01

    The emerging field of extrasolar planet search has shown an extraordinary ability to combine research by astrophysics, chemistry, biology and geophysics into a new and exciting interdisciplinary approach to understand our place in the universe. Are there other worlds like ours? How can we characterize those planets and assess if they are habitable? After a decade rich in giant exoplanet detections, observation techniques have now reached the ability to find planets of less than 10 M_Earth (so called Super-Earths) that may potentially be habitable. The detection and characterization of Earth-like planet is approaching rapidly with dedicated space observatories already in operation (Corot) or in development phase (Kepler, James Webb Space Telescope, Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), Darwin/TPF). Space missions like CoRoT (CNES, Rouan et al. 1998) and Kepler (NASA, Borucki et al. 1997) will give us statistics on the number, size, period and orbital distance of planets, extending to terrestrial planets on the lower mass range end as a first step, while missions like Darwin/TPF are designed to characterize their atmospheres. In this chapter we discuss how we can read a planet's spectral fingerprint and characterize if it is potentially habitable. We discuss the first steps to detect a habitable planet and set biomarker detection in context in Section 1. In Section 2 we focus on biomarkers, their signatures at different wavelengths, abiotic sources and cryptic photosynthesis - using Earth as our primary example - the only habitable planet we know of so far. Section 3 concentrates on planets around different stars, and Section 4 summarizes the chapter.

  14. The impact and process of a community-led intervention on reducing environmental inequalities related to physical activity and healthy eating - a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is growing recognition that a sedentary lifestyle is being driven, at least in part, by environmental factors that affect individuals' physical activity choices and health behaviours. In other words, the environments in which we live, and with which we interact, have become ones that encourage lifestyle choices that decrease physical activity and encourage over-consumption of foods. However, evidence from community-led interventions to change local neighbourhood environments to support physical activity and healthy eating is lacking. This article summarises the research protocol developed to evaluate a community-led intervention "My Health Matters" aimed at reducing health inequalities relating to increasing physical activity and healthy eating as defined by community members themselves. Methods/Design This study includes three of the most deprived electoral wards in Stoke-on-Trent. In each of these areas, environmental factors including proximity of physical activity spaces, greenspace and leisure facilities, neighbourhood connectivity and walkability, land-use-mix and population density, traffic, safety and crime, and food outlets will be mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). A community postal survey of randomly selected addresses assessing environmental characteristics relating to physical activity, perceived health status, social capital, fruit and vegetable consumption and levels of physical activity will be undertaken (baseline and at 2 year follow-up). Based on baseline findings an intervention will be designed and implemented over a 2 year period that includes the following; use of community participatory research to build effective community partnerships; use of partnership consensus to identify, prioritise and design intervention(s) related to specific health disparities; recruitment of local residents to help with the delivery and sustainability of target intervention(s); and the development of local systems for ongoing

  15. Habitable zones in the universe.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2005-12-01

    Habitability varies dramatically with location and time in the universe. This was recognized centuries ago, but it was only in the last few decades that astronomers began to systematize the study of habitability. The introduction of the concept of the habitable zone was key to progress in this area. The habitable zone concept was first applied to the space around a star, now called the Circumstellar Habitable Zone. Recently, other, vastly broader, habitable zones have been proposed. We review the historical development of the concept of habitable zones and the present state of the research. We also suggest ways to make progress on each of the habitable zones and to unify them into a single concept encompassing the entire universe. PMID:16254692

  16. Effects of grain source and marginal change in lucerne hay particle size on feed sorting, eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahi, S M; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Yang, W Z

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of grain source and lucerne hay (LH) particle length on eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. Eight Holstein dairy cows (175 ± 21 days in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 21-days periods. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with barley grain alone or equal blend of barley and maize grains combined with short (15 mm) and long (30 mm) LH. Diets were fed ad libitum as total mixed ration with a concentrate to forage ratio of 60:40. Interactions between grain source and LH particle length on feed particle distributions, sorting index, chewing activity, and milk production were minimal. Partially replacing barley grain with maize in the diet overall did not change diurnal distributions of particles retained on the sieves of Penn State Particle Separator but reduced the proportion of particles on 1.18-sieve and increased that of particles on pan (p < 0.05). Grain source did not affect sorting index and chewing activity. However, feeding long LH increased (p < 0.01) intakes of long particles retained on 19- and 8-mm of sieve, prolonged (p < 0.05) eating time, and lowered eating rate (p < 0.05). Interestingly, cows fed with long LH ate more coarse particle during critical-early time post feeding (i. e. 1.5 h), where eating time increased and eating rate decreased (p < 0.05). Increasing particle length of dietary LH tended to increase milk fat-to-protein ratio (p = 0.08). The results suggested that the increased eating time and decreased eating rate as a result of marginally increasing LH particle length would be beneficial to alleviate reduction of ruminal pH and milk fat percentage following the ingestion of highly fermentable diets. PMID:24661569

  17. Feasibility and acceptability of a midwife-led intervention programme called 'Eat Well Keep Active' to encourage a healthy lifestyle in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating a diet that is high in fat and sugar and having a sedentary lifestyle during pregnancy is understood to increase the risk of excessive gestational weight gain and obesity following the birth of the baby. However, there are no clinical guidelines in the UK on what is considered to be appropriate gestational weight gain. Indeed, clinical recommendations discourage the routine re-weighing of pregnant women, stating instead that women should be advised regarding their diet and activity levels, in order to prevent excessive weight gain. Pregnancy is seen as a time when many women may have an increased motivation to improve their lifestyle behaviours for the benefit of the fetus. However, it is evident that many women have difficulty in both maintaining a healthy balanced diet and remaining active through pregnancy. It would seem that midwives may be ideally placed to assist women to make and maintain healthier lifestyle choices during pregnancy. Methods/design This study will look at the feasibility and acceptability of a newly devised intervention programme called 'Eat Well Keep Active'. Participants will complete a questionnaire prior to the programme to obtain baseline data on food frequency, physical activity and to gauge their perception of personal ability to improve/maintain healthy lifestyle. The programme comprises client centred techniques; motivational interviewing and goal setting delivered early in pregnancy (12-16 weeks) with the aim of supporting a healthy well balanced diet and either continuing or commencing appropriate levels of physical activity. Participants will then be followed up six weeks following the intervention with a one-to-one interview, and a further brief questionnaire. The interview will provide preliminary data regarding perceived effectiveness and acceptability of the 'Eat Well Keep Active' programme whilst the questionnaire will provide data regarding changes in the confidence of participants to lead a healthy

  18. Factors associated with early childhood education and care service implementation of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices in Australia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wolfenden, Luke; Finch, Meghan; Nathan, Nicole; Weaver, Natasha; Wiggers, John; Yoong, Sze Lin; Jones, Jannah; Dodds, Pennie; Wyse, Rebecca; Sutherland, Rachel; Gillham, Karen

    2015-09-01

    Many early childhood education and care (ECEC) services fail to implement recommended policies and practices supportive of healthy eating and physical activity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether certain theoretically-based factors are associated with implementation of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices in a sample of ECEC services. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with Service Managers of ECEC services. The survey assessed the operational characteristics, policy, and practice implementation, and 13 factors were suggested by Damschroder's Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to impede or promote implementation. Logistic regression analyses found a significant association between implementation factor score and full implementation (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.18-1.61; p = <0.01), indicating that for every one point increase in implementation score, ECEC services were 38 % more likely to be fully implementing the policies and practices. The findings highlight the opportunities for improving implementation of obesity prevention interventions in this setting by developing interventions that address such factors. PMID:26327938

  19. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of an implementation intervention to increase healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies, and practices in centre-based childcare services: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Meghan; Yoong, Sze Lin; Thomson, Rebecca J; Seward, Kirsty; Cooney, Mairead; Jones, Jannah; Fielding, Alison; Wiggers, John; Gillham, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in early childhood is recommended as a global chronic disease prevention strategy. Centre-based childcare services represent a promising setting to provide children with opportunities to improve healthy eating and physical activity. Evidence to inform implementation of childcare obesity prevention guidelines into routine practice in childcare, however, is lacking. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of an intervention, delivered to childcare staff, aiming to increasing service implementation of healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies and practices. Methods and analysis A pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial will be undertaken with 165 childcare services in the Hunter New England region of New South Wales, Australia. Services will be randomised to receive either a 10-month evidence-based performance review intervention with other resources to support practice change, or to a waitlist control group. The primary trial outcome is the proportion of services implementing all of the following recommended healthy eating and physical activity promoting practices: written nutrition, physical activity and small screen recreation policies; providing information to families regarding healthy eating (including breastfeeding), physical activity and small screen time; providing twice weekly healthy eating learning experiences to children; providing water and only plain milk to children; providing fundamental movement skills activities for children every day; and limiting and using electronic screen time more for educational purposes and learning experiences. Effectiveness will be assessed using a telephone interview of practice implementation with childcare staff at baseline and 12 months following baseline. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee and the University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee

  20. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat children and teens with anorexia and bulimia. In family-based therapy, parents play an important and active role in a child's treatment. Additionally, a study is starting to see how this type of ... eating disorders are complex and affect a variety of people ...

  1. Adult Reading Habits and Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.; Rhee, Ock

    2001-01-01

    Examines the reading habits and patterns of White and Asian American adults. Hypothesizes that when grouped by demographic variables, participants' responses about their reading habits and patterns would not differ. Concludes that gender, race, and education were predictors for participants' reading habits; education and race were predictors for…

  2. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and men also are vulnerable. Boys with eating disorders show the same types of ... as girls, but for a variety of reasons, boys are less likely to be diagnosed with what ...

  3. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  4. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000464.htm Tracheostomy tube - eating To use the sharing features on ... when you swallow foods or liquids. Eating and Tracheostomy Tubes When you get your tracheostomy tube, or ...

  5. Eating right during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000584.htm Eating right during pregnancy To use the sharing features on ... is hard work for a woman's body. Eating right is one of the best things you can ...

  6. Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Physical Activity, Food Intake, Eating Behaviors, Psychological Health, and Modeled Change in Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harbron, Janetta; van der Merwe, Lize; Zaahl, Monique G.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Senekal, Marjanne

    2014-01-01

    The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085–rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire), psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory), and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire). The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores), a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation. PMID:25102252

  7. The myth of Chinese Barbies: eating disorders in China including Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Getz, M J

    2014-10-01

    Much of the literature on eating disorders deals with Western subjects. Although the majority of those seen in clinical settings are Caucasians, reports from Asia suggest that anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa do occur in the Chinese, sparking debate as to whether or not it is the result of Westernization. This project begins with a review of the current literature on eating disorders in Chinese populations and the role of culture as a mediating factor. A psychodynamic conceptualization and the potential role of traumatic experiences are explored in the emergence of pathological eating habits. Research suggests that applying Western models for Chinese subjects with eating disorders may not always be appropriate. PMID:25356465

  8. Habitable zones and UV habitable zones around host stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianpo; Zhang, Fenghui; Zhang, Xianfei; Han, Zhanwen

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is a double-edged sword to life. If it is too strong, the terrestrial biological systems will be damaged. And if it is too weak, the synthesis of many biochemical compounds cannot go along. We try to obtain the continuous ultraviolet habitable zones, and compare the ultraviolet habitable zones with the habitable zones of host stars. Using the boundary ultraviolet radiation of ultraviolet habitable zone, we calculate the ultraviolet habitable zones of host stars with masses from 0.08 to 4.00 M ⊙. For the host stars with effective temperatures lower than 4,600 K, the ultraviolet habitable zones are closer than the habitable zones. For the host stars with effective temperatures higher than 7,137 K, the ultraviolet habitable zones are farther than the habitable zones. For a hot subdwarf as a host star, the distance of the ultraviolet habitable zone is about ten times more than that of the habitable zone, which is not suitable for the existence of life.

  9. [Current Care Guideline: Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Suokas, Jaana; Alenius, Heidi; Ebeling, Hanna; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Järvi, Leea; Koskinen, Minna; Laukkanen, Eila; Meskanen, Katarina; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Ryöppönen, Anita; Salonen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Päivi; Vuorela, Piia

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis with intervention is linked to better outcome. In primary care patients in risk for eating disorder should be screened and actively asked about eating disorder symptoms. Treatment is mainly out-patient care and should first be focused on gaining a normal nutritional status. It is important to involve the patient's family in the treatment. A confidential relationship between health care professionals and the patient is important. The patient's own motivation and readiness for recuperation are essential. Different therapeutic and psychosocial approaches are central in the treatment, as the disorders are psychiatric. Medical treatment may bring additional help in treating binge-eating disorder or bulimia nervosa, but it is seldom of help in treating anorexia nervosa. PMID:26245050

  10. Participation in mindfulness-based stress reduction is not associated with reductions in emotional eating or uncontrolled eating.

    PubMed

    Kearney, David J; Milton, Meredith L; Malte, Carol A; McDermott, Kelly A; Martinez, Michelle; Simpson, Tracy L

    2012-06-01

    The adverse health effects and increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States make interventions for obesity a priority in health research. Diet-focused interventions generally do not result in lasting reductions in weight. Behavioral interventions that increase awareness of eating cues and satiety have been postulated to result in healthier eating habits. We hypothesized that participation in a program called mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) would positively influence the eating behaviors and nutritional intake of participants through changes in emotional eating (EE), uncontrolled eating (UE), and type and quantity of food consumed. Forty-eight veterans at a large urban Veterans Administration medical center were assessed before MBSR, after MBSR, and 4 months later. For all participants (N = 48), MBSR participation was not associated with significant changes in EE or UE. In addition, there were no significant differences in the intake of energy, fat, sugar, fruit, or vegetables at either follow-up time point as compared with baseline. Enhanced mindfulness skills and reduced depressive symptoms were seen over time with medium to large effect sizes. Changes in mindfulness skills were significantly and negatively correlated with changes in EE and UE over time. Overall, there was no evidence that participation in MBSR was associated with beneficial changes in eating through reductions in disinhibited eating or significant changes in dietary intake. Randomized studies are needed to further define the relationship between mindfulness program participation and eating behaviors. PMID:22749177

  11. Entering Adulthood: Looking at Body Image and Eating Disorders. A Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Contemporary Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giarratano, Susan

    This module includes six lessons which focus on issues related to body image and self-esteem, eating disorders, and sensible eating habits for adolescents in grades 9-12. In lesson 1, students examine influences on body image, assess their personal traits, and trade assessments with their peers. In lesson 2, students look at pressure and…

  12. Stress, shift duty, and eating behavior among nurses in Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almajwal, Ali M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between stress, shift work, and eating behavior among non-Saudi female nurses working in Central Saudi Arabia. Methods: A sample of 395 non-Saudi female nurses from 2 major hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia participated in this cross-sectional study. The nurses completed a questionnaire from November 2013 to January 2014 that included items relating to stress and eating behavior using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ). The questionnaire also contained items pertaining to socio-demographic data, body mass index, shift work, and hours worked per week. Results: For all eating styles, stress, and shift duty influenced the amount of food nurses consumed, but was more significant under a restrained eating style. Under this eating style, a significantly higher percentage of nurses reported eating more fast food, snacks, and binging, while fruits and vegetables were the least likely to be eaten under stress. High stressed nurses were more likely to present with abnormal restrained eating (odds ratio [OR]=1.52, p=0.004), emotional (OR=1.24; p=0.001), and external (OR=1.21; p=0.001) DEBQ scores. Working nighttime shift duty was positively associated with restrained eating (OR=1.53; p=0.029) and emotional eating (OR=1.24; p=0.001), but negatively associated with external eating (OR=0.45; p=0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that stress and shift duty were associated with eating habits. PMID:26837403

  13. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... from a weight-loss program that also offers treatment for eating disorders. However, some people with binge eating disorder may ... disorder should get help from a specialist in eating disorders, such as a psychiatrist or a psychologist. Treatment may include the use of behavior change therapy, ...

  14. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Binge Eating Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Binge Eating Disorder Print A A A Text Size What's in ... takes a combination of things to develop an eating disorder — including a person's genes, emotions, and behaviors (such ...

  15. Trajectories of Martian Habitability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Beginning from two plausible starting points—an uninhabited or inhabited Mars—this paper discusses the possible trajectories of martian habitability over time. On an uninhabited Mars, the trajectories follow paths determined by the abundance of uninhabitable environments and uninhabited habitats. On an inhabited Mars, the addition of a third environment type, inhabited habitats, results in other trajectories, including ones where the planet remains inhabited today or others where planetary-scale life extinction occurs. By identifying different trajectories of habitability, corresponding hypotheses can be described that allow for the various trajectories to be disentangled and ultimately a determination of which trajectory Mars has taken and the changing relative abundance of its constituent environments. Key Words: Mars—Habitability—Liquid water—Planetary science. Astrobiology 14, 182–203. PMID:24506485

  16. Trajectories of martian habitability.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-02-01

    Beginning from two plausible starting points-an uninhabited or inhabited Mars-this paper discusses the possible trajectories of martian habitability over time. On an uninhabited Mars, the trajectories follow paths determined by the abundance of uninhabitable environments and uninhabited habitats. On an inhabited Mars, the addition of a third environment type, inhabited habitats, results in other trajectories, including ones where the planet remains inhabited today or others where planetary-scale life extinction occurs. By identifying different trajectories of habitability, corresponding hypotheses can be described that allow for the various trajectories to be disentangled and ultimately a determination of which trajectory Mars has taken and the changing relative abundance of its constituent environments. PMID:24506485

  17. Effective Physics Study Habits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  18. Eating Disorders: Symptoms and Warning Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... from diuretic abuse severe dehydration from purging Binge Eating Disorder frequently eating large amounts of food (binge-eating) ... can lead to more binge-eating Read More "Eating Disorders" Articles Understanding Eating Disorders: Anorexia, Bulemia, and Binge- ...

  19. [Eating disorders and sexual function].

    PubMed

    Kravvariti, V; Gonidakis, Fr

    2016-01-01

    Women suffering from eating disorders, present considerable retardation and difficulties in their psychosexual development during adolescence. This leads to primary or secondary insufficiencies in their adult sexual life. The cause of these difficulties seems to be a series of biological, family and psychosocial factors. The majority of the research findings indicate that eating disorders have a negative impact on the patient's sexual function. The factors related to eating disorders symptomatology that influence sexuality are various and differ among each eating disorder diagnostic categories. Considering anorexia nervosa, it has been reported that women have negative attitudes to sexual issues and their body. Their sexual motivation increases when they engage in psychotherapy and their body weight is gradually restored. Starvation and its consequences on the human physiology and especially on the brain function seem to be the main factor that leads to reduced sexual desire and scarce sexual activity. Moreover, personality traits that are common in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa such as compulsivity and rigidity are also related with difficulties initiating and retaining romantic and sexual relationships. Usually patients suffering from anorexia nervosa report impaired sexual behavior and lack of interest to engage in a sexual relationship. Considering Bulimia Nervosa, impulsivity and difficulties in emotion regulation that are common features of the individuals that suffer from bulimia nervosa are also related to impulsive and sometimes self-harming sexual behaviors. Moreover women sufferers often report repulsion, anger and shame towards their body and weight, mainly due to the distorted perception that they are fat and ugly. It is interesting that a number of research findings indicate that although patients suffering from bulimia nervosa are more sexually active and have more sexual experiences than patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, both

  20. 36 CFR 1280.28 - Where can I eat and drink on NARA property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where can I eat and drink on... NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.28 Where can I eat and drink on NARA property? You may only eat and drink in designated areas in NARA facilities. Eating and drinking is prohibited in...

  1. 'Eating, eating is always there': food, consumerism and cardiovascular disease. Some evidence from Kerala, south India.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Caroline

    2010-12-01

    The state of Kerala, south India, has particularly high prevalence rates for cardiovascular disease (20%, Sugathan, Soman and Sankaranarayanan 2008) and Type II diabetes (16.3%, Kutty, Joseph, and Soman 1999). Although so-called 'lifestyle' diseases can be prevented and symptoms controlled by diet, exercise, and medicines, heart disease and diabetes have become the most common causes of suffering, disability and death. This article explores the social dynamics transforming consumer lifestyles as increased food consumption, reduced physical activity and social stress contribute to the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It examines the centrality of food to ideas of the 'good life', to nurture social relationships and strengthen weak modern bodies, as the principle source of embodied pleasure and health. It explores the micro and macro politics of eating and feasting, limiting the extent to which 'individuals' (can) control food habits. Thus, despite widespread recognition of the relationship between diet, exercise and heart disease, the flow of food, the immediacy of pleasure, and associations between appetite and health override latent concerns about the negative impacts of dietary excesses on long-term health and chronic illness. Findings are discussed to highlight the inherent limitations of public health interventions focusing on education and individual choice. PMID:21153961

  2. What's Cookin'? Nutrition: It's Habit-Forming. Student Guide--Footsteps. Report Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Sharon; And Others

    This student guide for a program concerned with how young children acquire their food likes and dislikes, their feelings about food, and their patterns of eating, discusses how parents can help their children develop good nutrition habits and provides some basic nutrition information for the whole family. Designed around a magazine format to allow…

  3. Shaping Up: Overweight Students Learn Healthy Habits to Last a Lifetime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Describes an elective high school weight-loss course. Students do fat-burning exercises in an atmosphere that does not stigmatize them because they are heavy or unathletic. They study nutrition, proper eating habits, and self-esteem. Most students continue to lose weight or sustain their weight after the course is completed. (SM)

  4. Skylab Experiment M487 - Habitability/Crew Quarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    It was the purpose of Experiment M487, Habitability/Crew Quarters, to evaluate the effectiveness of the habitability provisions of Skylab for the benefit of designers of future spacecraft. Some of the more interesting findings in the areas of internal environment, architectural arrangements, mobility and restraint aids, food, clothing, personal hygiene, housekeeping, communication between crewmen, and off-duty activities equipment are discussed.

  5. Making Ethics a Habit in Your Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terkel, Susan Neiburg

    1993-01-01

    Suggests family activities related to moral values: (1) instilling the giving habit; (2) using stories and games to trigger moral reflection; (3) encouraging earth ethics; (4) developing the moral opinion habit; (5) making moral reminders part of the home decor; (6) using every opportunity to teach; and (7) sharing holidays with others. (GLR)

  6. Eating disorders in males.

    PubMed

    Robb, Adelaide S; Dadson, Michele J

    2002-04-01

    Eating disorders are one of the rare psychiatric disorders with a large preponderance of female patients. The other articles in this issue review eating disorders in children and adolescents and focus primarily on female patients. This article reviews the eating disorders that occur in male children and teenagers, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder named muscle dysmorphobia, and obesity. This article reviews subgroups of boys who are at higher risk for developing eating disorders. The article commences with the difference in male perceptions of body image and dieting behaviors. PMID:12109328

  7. Food advertising and television exposure: influence on eating behavior and nutritional status of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p < 0.001) and a positive relationship between the number of televisions per household and body weight (r = 0.246, p = 0.015) and the amount of liquid consumed during meals (r = 0.277, p = 0.013). Findings also highlighted the association between watching television while eating and the reduced probability of fruit consumption (p = 0.032), contrasted with a greater likelihood of daily artificial juice intake (p = 0.039). In conclusion, watching television is associated with lower probability of daily consumption of fruits and the number of television at household is positively related to BMI in children and adolescents. PMID:23477208

  8. [Eating disorders in men].

    PubMed

    Bak, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Despite of being perceived as 'woman's diseases', eating disorders were described among boys and adult men. This article presents epidemiological data on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in men. The clinical presentation of eating disorders in men was described and compared with similar data from the female population. Moreover, a significance of selected risk factors, specifically those referring to men, was discussed. These are: the disturbance of body perception, personality traits and potential association of eating disorders with sexual orientation. Efficacy of different psychotherapy approaches aimed at eating disorders was summarized. Rules governing psychotherapy of men suffering from eating disorders were described. Specific features of eating disorders' aetiology were taken into account together with characteristic difficulties influencing treatment. PMID:19697523

  9. Preadolescent Disordered Eating Predicts Subsequent Eating Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Carolyn M.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This article tested whether disordered eating in the spring of sixth grade can be predicted by the behaviors of fifth grade elementary school children. Method Measurements of disordered eating were collected from 1906 children (mean age = 10.86 years) at Time 1 (spring of fifth grade), Time 2 (fall of sixth grade), and Time 3 (spring of sixth grade). Results A number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating during the previous 2 weeks: 12.1% reported objective binge episodes, 4.8% reported purging food, and 9.8% reported restricting food intake. These behaviors predicted disordered eating during the spring of sixth grade. In addition, fifth grade pubertal onset predicted higher levels of restricting for girls. Conclusion A substantial number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating behaviors, and these behaviors predicted disordered eating behaviors in the spring of sixth grade. Disordered eating can be studied at least as early as fifth grade. PMID:22961314

  10. Relationship of Physical Activity and Healthy Eating with Mortality and Incident Heart Failure among Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Normal Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmawgoud, Ahmed; Brown, Cynthia J.; Sui, Xuemei; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Kokkinos, Peter F.; Bittner, Vera; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Fletcher, Ross D.; Blair, Steven N.; Ahmed, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Aims Normal body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality and may be achieved by physical activity (PA), healthy eating (HE), or both. We examined the association of PA and HE with mortality and incident heart failure (HF) among 2040 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥ 65 years with baseline BMI 18.5 to 24.99 kg/m2 during 13 years of follow-up in Cardiovascular Health Study. Methods and results Baseline PA was defined as ≥500 weekly metabolic equivalent task-minutes (MET-minutes) and HE as ≥5 daily servings of vegetable and fruit intake. Participants were categorized into 4 groups: (1) PA−/HE− (n=384); (2) PA+/HE− (n=992); (3) PA−/HE+ (n=162); and (4) PA+/HE+ (n=502). Participants had a mean age of 74 (±6) years, mean BMI of 22.6 (±1.5) kg/m2, 61% were women, and 4% African American. Compared with PA−/HE−, age-sex-race-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality for PA−/HE+, PA+/HE−, and PA+/HE+ groups were 0.96 (0.76–1.21), 0.61 (0.52–0.71) and 0.62 (0.52–0.75), respectively. These associations remained unchanged after multivariable adjustment and were similar for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortalities. Respective demographic-adjusted HRs (95% Cis) for incident HF among 1954 participants without baseline HF were 1.21 (0.81–1.81), 0.71 (0.54–0.94) and 0.71 (0.51–0.98). These later associations lost significance after multivariable-adjustment. Conclusion Among community-dwelling older adults with normal BMI, physical activity, regardless of healthy eating, was associated with lower risk of mortality and incident HF, but healthy eating had no similar protective association in this cohort.

  11. Do excessive internet use, television viewing and poor lifestyle habits affect low vision in school children?

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Mahdi, Huda S; Vachhani, Pankit J; Al-Nufal, Mohammed; Ali, Awab I

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether excessive internet use, television viewing and the ensuing poor lifestyle habits affect low vision in school children in a rapidly developing country. This is a cross-sectional study and 3000 school students aged between six and 18 years were approached and 2467 (82.2%) students participated. Of the studied school children 12.6 percent had low vision. Most of the low vision school children were in the 6-10 years age group and came from middle income backgrounds (41.8%; p = 0.008). A large proportion of the children with low vision spent ≥ 3 hours per day on the internet (48.2%; p< 0.001) and ≥ 3 hours reclining (62.4%; p < 0.001). A significantly smaller frequency of studied children with low vision participated in each of the reviewed forms of physical activity (p < 0.001) yet a larger proportion consumed fast food (86.8%; p < 0.001). Highly significant positive correlations were found between low vision and BMI, hours spent reclining and on the internet respectively. Blurred vision was the most commonly complained of symptom among the studied children (p < 0.001). The current study suggested a strong association between spending prolonged hours on the computer or TV, fast food eating, poor lifestyle habits and low vision. PMID:20823076

  12. Food habits and nutritional status assessment of adolescent soccer players. A necessary and accurate approach.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; García-Rovés, Pablo M; Rodríguez, Carmen; Braga, Socorro; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the food habits and nutritional status of high level adolescent soccer players (N = 33; ages 14-16 yrs) living in their home environment. Body composition (height, mass, skinfolds), biochemical and hematological parameters, performance in soccer-specific tests (sprinting, jumping, intermittent endurance), and dietary intake (weighed food intake method) and related behaviors (nutrient supplement use, daily activity profile) were assessed. Daily energy expenditure and energy intake were 12.5 MJ and 12.6 MJ, respectively. Protein (16% of energy intake; 1.9 g/kg of body mass), lipid (38%), and cholesterol (385 mg) intake were above recommendations, while carbohydrates (45%) were below. The food intake of these adolescents was based on cereals and derivates; meat, fish, and eggs; milk and dairy products; biscuits and confectionery; and oil, butter and margarine, which provided 78% of total energy intake, 85% of proteins, 64% of carbohydrates, 90% of lipids, and 47% of fiber. Although diet provided sufficient iron, 48% of individuals showed iron deficiency without anemia. Based on these results, a well designed nutrition intervention would be advisable for optimizing performance, and especially for promoting healthy eating habits in adolescent soccer players. PMID:15855680

  13. Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Stage, S.A.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs.

  14. Sedentary versus active leisure activities and their relationship with sleeping habits and body mass index in children of 9 and 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Isaac; Peña, Elsa; Errasti, José Manuel; Busto, Raquel

    2014-11-18

    A random sample of 291 9- and 10-year-old schoolchildren from Asturias (Spain) was taken. Using path analysis, a model was tested in which bedtime, the number of hours spent sleeping and leisure activities were the independent variables and the body mass index was the dependent variable. The results show that sedentary and active leisure time and hours spent sleeping are predictors of the body mass index in children. Those children who go to bed late and who use that extra time to watch the television or play with the computer tend to have a greater body mass index, while those children who go to bed earlier and have spent more time reading or playing in the park or at home have a lower body mass index. Encouraging active leisure activities can have an extremely positive effect on their body mass index. PMID:25411196

  15. Childcare Service Centers’ Preferences and Intentions to Use a Web-Based Program to Implement Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Policies and Practices: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher Michael; Finch, Meghan; Wyse, Rebecca; Jones, Jannah; Freund, Megan; Wiggers, John Henry; Nathan, Nicole; Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity is a significant public health problem that impacts a large number of children globally. Supporting childcare centers to deliver healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies and practices is a recommended strategy for obesity prevention, given that such services provide access to a substantial proportion of children during a key developmental period. Electronic Web-based interventions represent a novel way to support childcare service providers to implement such policies and practices. Objective This study aimed to assess: (1) childcare centers’ current use of technology, (2) factors associated with intention to use electronic Web-based interventions, and (3) Web-based features that managers rated as useful to support staff with implementing healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies and practices. Methods A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) was conducted with service managers from long day care centers and preschools. The CATI assessed the following: (1) childcare center characteristics, (2) childcare centers’ use of electronic devices, (3) intention to use a hypothetical electronic Web-based program—assessed using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with ratings between 1 (strongly disagree) and 7 (strongly agree), and (4) features rated as useful to include in a Web-based program. Results Overall, 214 service centers out of 277 (77.3%) consented to participate. All service centers except 2 reported using computers (212/214, 99.1%), whereas 40.2% (86/214) used portable tablets. A total of 71.9% (151/210) of childcare service managers reported a score of 6 or more for intention to use a hypothetical electronic Web-based program. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, intention to use the program was significantly associated with perceived ease of use (P=.002, odds ratio [OR] 3.9, 95% CI 1.6-9.2) and perceived usefulness (P<.001, OR 28,95% CI 8.0-95.2). Features reported by

  16. Values, body weight, and well being: the influence of the protestant ethic and consumerism on physical activity, eating, and body image.

    PubMed

    Vanden Heede, Fred; Pelican, Suzanne; Holmes, Betty; Moore, Sylvia A; Buchanan, David

    This article explores how people's values shape their experiences and emotions with respect to physical activity, eating, and body image. It describes the results of a grounded theory analysis of individual and focus group interviews conducted as part of a community-based health improvement project, Wellness IN the Rockies (WIN the Rockies). The analysis links core theoretical constructs, including habitus, sedimentation, and natural attitude, to larger socio-cultural and historical trends embodied in the Protestant ethic and the rise of consumerism, illuminating how these values shape people's everyday understanding of their experiences. Key analytic frameworks focus on the socialization processes involved in inculcating values, identity formation, and moralization as they relate to health attitudes and behaviors. Major implications of the results are discussed, especially the need to enhance self-understanding about social values in health education. PMID:17686746

  17. If we build it, we will come: a model for community-led change to transform neighborhood conditions to support healthy eating and active living.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Vedette R; Seeholzer, Eileen L; Leon, Janeen B; Chappelle, Sandra Byrd; Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2015-06-01

    Neighborhoods affect health. In 3 adjoining inner-city Cleveland, Ohio, neighborhoods, residents have an average life expectancy 15 years less than that of a nearby suburb. To address this disparity, a local health funder created the 2010 to 2013 Francis H. Beam Community Health Fellowship to develop a strategic community engagement process to establish a Healthy Eating & Active Living (HEAL) culture and lifestyle in the neighborhoods. The fellow developed and advanced a model, engaging the community in establishing HEAL options and culture. Residents used the model to identify a shared vision for HEAL and collaborated with community partners to create and sustain innovative HEAL opportunities. This community-led, collaborative model produced high engagement levels (15% of targeted 12 000 residents) and tangible improvements in the neighborhood's physical, resource, and social environments. PMID:25880943

  18. If We Build It, We Will Come: A Model for Community-Led Change to Transform Neighborhood Conditions to Support Healthy Eating and Active Living

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Vedette R.; Seeholzer, Eileen L.; Leon, Janeen B.; Chappelle, Sandra Byrd; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhoods impact health. In three adjoining inner-city Cleveland neighborhoods, residents have an average life expectancy 15 years less than that of a nearby suburb.1 To address this disparity a local health funder created a Fellowship to develop a strategic community engagement process to establish a Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) culture and lifestyle in the neighborhoods. The Fellow developed and advanced a model, engaging the community in establishing HEAL options and culture. Using the model, residents identified a shared vision for HEAL and collaborated with community partners to create and sustain innovative HEAL opportunities. This community-led, collaborative model produced high engagement levels (15% of targeted 12,000 residents) and tangible improvements in the neighborhood's physical, resource, and social environments. PMID:25880943

  19. Meals and snacks: Children's characterizations of food and eating cues.

    PubMed

    Marx, Jenna M; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-02-01

    This study examined preschoolers' and their parents' categorizations of eating episodes based on cues used for defining these occasions (i.e., time, portion size, preparation, content, and emotion) as a meal or snack. Thirty-four children aged 4 to 6 saw pictorial representations of each cue, along with a short verbal description, and were asked to place the picture in one of three boxes: "meal", "snack", or "either meal or snack". One parent per child (85% mothers, Mean age = 35.1 years) separately categorized the same items in an online survey. Results illustrated which cues play a role in how parents and children categorize eating occasions as meals or snacks. Parents used 24 of the 32 cue-related items to distinguish between eating occasions as a meal or a snack, while children used only four. Parents and preschoolers were consistent in using cartoon character packaging to indicate a snack, and also used several of the same content cues. The current study highlights the various cues used to categorize an eating occasion, and the unhealthy character of snacks, as participants associated some unhealthy foods and very few healthy foods with snacks. Future research should focus on the role of parents, the home environment, and advertising media in shaping children's characterizations of eating occasions towards development of healthy eating habits and away from problematic eating behaviors that may persist later in life. PMID:26585635

  20. Gender differences in disordered eating and its correlates.

    PubMed

    Elgin, J; Pritchard, M

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions. PMID:17075236

  1. [Encouraging healthy habits by playing with the child in the family milieu: the snakes and ladders game].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Echenique, M; Pèlach, R

    2002-01-01

    In recent decades society has been undergoing many changes and these have had a strong incidence on infant morbidity and mortality. Diseases that have practically vanished due to the impact of vaccinations and the improvement of the standard of living have given way to others derived from the changes in eating habits and life style; accidents, on the other hand, have come to be the first cause of morbidity and mortality after the first year of life has been passed. Strategies must be directed towards avoiding the causes of this new way of falling ill. We present a Spanish version of a game similar to "snakes and ladders" called "the healthy goose", which encourages healthy living habits. In order that the child should internalize safe habits by means of the game, certain squares in the game have been replaced by positive drawings, in which the child carries out healthy activities, receiving prizes for these, and others in which risky activities are performed, which are penalized. The areas dealt with are: habits (nutrition, sleep, study, games, etc.), Accidents at home, road safety (pedestrian, cyclist and automobile traveler), and swimming pools. The game starts with a child of 3-4 years and the goal is reached as a healthy adolescent. Given that the variation in personalities is enormous, we believe the family milieu should be the complement to legislative and educational measures and general campaigns in the means of communication, since it is what the child knows best and where he learns his deepest attitudes. This game could be a help to parents in this difficult task. PMID:12861260

  2. A community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among middle-aged African American women in rural Alabama: Findings from a group randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Scarinci, Isabel C.; Moore, Artisha; Wynn, Theresa; Cherrington, Andrea; Fouad, Mona; Li, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the efficacy of a community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among African American (AA) women between the ages of 45–65 years, residing in rural Alabama. Methods We conducted a group randomized controlled trial with counties as the unit of randomization that evaluated two interventions based on health priorities identified by the community: (1) promotion of healthy eating and physical activity; and (2) promotion of breast and cervical cancer screening. A total of 6 counties with 565 participants were enrolled in the study between November 2009 and October 2011. Results The overall retention rate at 24-month follow-up was 54.7%. Higher retention rate was observed in the “healthy lifestyle” arm (63.1%) as compared to the “screening” arm (45.3%). Participants in the “healthy lifestyle” arm showed significant positive changes compared to the “screening” arm at 12-month follow-up with regard to decrease in fried food consumption and an increase in both fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity. At 24-month follow-up, these positive changes were maintained with healthy eating behaviors, but not engagement in physical activity. Conclusions A culturally relevant intervention, developed in collaboration with the target audience, can improve (and maintain) healthy eating among AA women living in rural areas. PMID:25152504

  3. Sex differences in the physiology of eating.

    PubMed

    Asarian, Lori; Geary, Nori

    2013-12-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amounts eaten in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects of these hormones (i.e., effects dependent on hormone levels). Male-female sex differences in the physiology of eating involve both organizational and activational effects of androgens and estrogens. An activational effect of estrogens decreases eating 1) during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle in rats, mice, monkeys, and women and 2) tonically between puberty and reproductive senescence or ovariectomy in rats and monkeys, sometimes in mice, and possibly in women. Estrogens acting on estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in the caudal medial nucleus of the solitary tract appear to mediate these effects in rats. Androgens, prolactin, and other reproductive hormones also affect eating in rats. Sex differences in eating are mediated by alterations in orosensory capacity and hedonics, gastric mechanoreception, ghrelin, CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, amylin, apolipoprotein A-IV, fatty-acid oxidation, and leptin. The control of eating by central neurochemical signaling via serotonin, MSH, neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone, and dopamine is modulated by HPG function. Finally, sex differences in the physiology of eating may contribute to human obesity, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating. The variety and physiological importance of what has been learned so far warrant intensifying basic, translational, and clinical research on sex differences in eating. PMID:23904103

  4. Sex differences in the physiology of eating

    PubMed Central

    Asarian, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amounts eaten in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects of these hormones (i.e., effects dependent on hormone levels). Male-female sex differences in the physiology of eating involve both organizational and activational effects of androgens and estrogens. An activational effect of estrogens decreases eating 1) during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle in rats, mice, monkeys, and women and 2) tonically between puberty and reproductive senescence or ovariectomy in rats and monkeys, sometimes in mice, and possibly in women. Estrogens acting on estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in the caudal medial nucleus of the solitary tract appear to mediate these effects in rats. Androgens, prolactin, and other reproductive hormones also affect eating in rats. Sex differences in eating are mediated by alterations in orosensory capacity and hedonics, gastric mechanoreception, ghrelin, CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, amylin, apolipoprotein A-IV, fatty-acid oxidation, and leptin. The control of eating by central neurochemical signaling via serotonin, MSH, neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone, and dopamine is modulated by HPG function. Finally, sex differences in the physiology of eating may contribute to human obesity, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating. The variety and physiological importance of what has been learned so far warrant intensifying basic, translational, and clinical research on sex differences in eating. PMID:23904103

  5. Are we driving our kids to unhealthy habits? Results of the active healthy kids Canada 2013 report card on physical activity for children and youth.

    PubMed

    Gray, Casey E; Larouche, Richard; Barnes, Joel D; Colley, Rachel C; Bonne, Jennifer Cowie; Arthur, Mike; Cameron, Christine; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Faulkner, Guy; Janssen, Ian; Kolen, Angela M; Manske, Stephen R; Salmon, Art; Spence, John C; Timmons, Brian W; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-06-01

    This article examines the time trends in patterns of school travel mode among Canadian children and youth to inform the Active Transportation (AT) indicator of the 2013 Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. The AT grade was assigned based on a comprehensive synthesis of the 2000 and 2010 Physical Activity Monitor studies from the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute and the 1992, 1998, 2005, and 2010 General Social Survey from Statistics Canada. The results showed that in 2013, AT was graded a D, because less than half of Canadian children and youth used only active modes of transportation to get to and from school. The proportion of Canadian children and youth who used only inactive modes of transportation for school travel increased significantly from 51% to 62% over the last decade. Children and youth from larger communities and those with lower household income levels were significantly more likely to use AT than those living in smaller communities and those in higher income households, respectively. In conclusion, motorized transport for school travel has increased steadily over the last decade across Canada. Regional and socio-demographic disparities should be considered in efforts to increase the number of children using AT. PMID:24905246

  6. Are We Driving Our Kids to Unhealthy Habits? Results of the Active Healthy Kids Canada 2013 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Casey E.; Larouche, Richard; Barnes, Joel D.; Colley, Rachel C.; Cowie Bonne, Jennifer; Arthur, Mike; Cameron, Christine; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Faulkner, Guy; Janssen, Ian; Kolen, Angela M.; Manske, Stephen R.; Salmon, Art; Spence, John C.; Timmons, Brian W.; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the time trends in patterns of school travel mode among Canadian children and youth to inform the Active Transportation (AT) indicator of the 2013 Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. The AT grade was assigned based on a comprehensive synthesis of the 2000 and 2010 Physical Activity Monitor studies from the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute and the 1992, 1998, 2005, and 2010 General Social Survey from Statistics Canada. The results showed that in 2013, AT was graded a D, because less than half of Canadian children and youth used only active modes of transportation to get to and from school. The proportion of Canadian children and youth who used only inactive modes of transportation for school travel increased significantly from 51% to 62% over the last decade. Children and youth from larger communities and those with lower household income levels were significantly more likely to use AT than those living in smaller communities and those in higher income households, respectively. In conclusion, motorized transport for school travel has increased steadily over the last decade across Canada. Regional and socio-demographic disparities should be considered in efforts to increase the number of children using AT. PMID:24905246

  7. Trojans in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Richard; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Dvorak, Rudolf; Erdi, Balint; Sándor, Zsolt

    2005-10-01

    With the aid of numerical experiments we examined the dynamical stability of fictitious terrestrial planets in 1:1 mean motion resonance with Jovian-like planets of extrasolar planetary systems. In our stability study of the so-called "Trojan" planets in the habitable zone, we used the restricted three-body problem with different mass ratios of the primary bodies. The application of the three-body problem showed that even massive Trojan planets can be stable in the 1:1 mean motion resonance. From the 117 extrasolar planetary systems only 11 systems were found with one giant planet in the habitable zone. Out of this sample set we chose four planetary systems--HD17051, HD27442, HD28185, and HD108874--for further investigation. To study the orbital behavior of the stable zone in the different systems, we used direct numerical computations (Lie Integration Method) that allowed us to determine the escape times and the maximum eccentricity of the fictitious "Trojan planets." PMID:16225431

  8. Counseling on lifestyle habits in the United States and Sweden: a report comparing primary care health professionals’ perspectives on lifestyle counseling in terms of scope, importance and competence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of primary care professionals in lifestyle counseling for smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet is receiving attention at the national level in many countries. The U. S. and Sweden are two countries currently establishing priorities in these areas. A previously existing international research collaboration provides a unique opportunity to study this issue. Methods Data from a national survey in Sweden and a study in rural Upstate New York were compared to contrast the perspectives, attitudes, and practice of primary care professionals in the two countries. Answers to four key questions on counseling for tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and eating habits were compared. Results The response rates were 71% (n = 180) and 89% (n = 86) in the Sweden and the U.S. respectively. U.S. professionals rated counseling "very important" significantly more frequently than Swedish professionals for tobacco (99% versus 92%, p < .0001), physical activity (90% versus 79%, p = .04), and eating habits (86% versus 69%, p = .003). U.S. professionals also reported giving "very much" counseling more frequently for these same three endpoints than did the Swedish professionals (tobacco 81% versus 38%, p < .0001, physical activity 64% versus 31%, p < .0001, eating 59% versus 34%, p = .0001). Swedish professionals also rated their level of expertise in providing counseling significantly lower than did their U.S. counterparts for all four endpoints. A higher percentage of U.S. professionals expressed a desire to increase levels of counseling "very much", but only significantly so for eating habits (42% versus 28%, p = .037). Conclusions The study demonstrates large differences between the extent that Swedish and American primary care professionals report being engaged in counseling on lifestyle issues, how important they perceive counseling to be, and what expertise they possess in this regard

  9. Family Health Climate and Adolescents’ Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Cross-Sectional Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads

    PubMed Central

    Niermann, Christina Y. N.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Renner, Britta; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The importance of the family environment for children’s and adolescents’ health behavior has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this influence remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between family environmental and individual determinants. It was hypothesized that the Family Health Climate (FHC) is associated with adolescents’ physical activity and dietary behavior and that intrinsic motivation mediates this association. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from 198 families (mother, father, and child) using questionnaires. Perceptions of FHC of mothers, fathers, and their children were assessed using the FHC-scales for physical activity (FHC-PA) and nutrition (FHC-NU). The adolescents also rated their intrinsic motivation for exercise and healthy eating, their physical activity and consumption of healthful food. A structural equation model was analyzed and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test direct and indirect effects. Results The FHC-PA was related to the amount of weekly physical activity and the FHC-NU to the consumption of fruit, vegetables and salad. These effects were mediated by adolescents’ intrinsic motivation; the indirect effects were significant for both behaviors. Discussion These results emphasize the importance of the FHC in shaping adolescents’ physical activity and dietary behavior. Individual motivational factors are potential mediators of family and parental influences. Considering family-level variables and their interaction with individual factors contributes to the understanding of adolescents’ health behavior. PMID:26606157

  10. A Coordinated Comprehensive Professional Development Training’s Effect on Summer Day Camp Staff Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Promoting Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Beighle, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Background The YMCA of USA recently adopted Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) Standards for their summer-day-camps (SDCs). Standards call for staff to exhibit HEPA promoting behaviors while eliminating HEPA discouraging behaviors. No studies have evaluated training programs to influence policy specified staff behaviors and related changes in child activity in SDCs. Method Four YMCA summer-day-camps serving approximately 800 children per week participated in this no control group pre/post pilot study. Professional development training founded in the 5Ms (Mission, Model, Manage, Monitor, Maximize) and LET US Play principles (lines, elimination, team size, uninvolved staff/kids, and space, equipment and rules) was delivered to staff. Outcomes were staff promotion behaviors and child activity assessed via systematic observation instruments. Results Twelve of 17 HEPA staff behaviors changed in the appropriate direction from baseline to post-assessment with five behaviors reaching statistically significant changes. The percentage of girls and boys observed in moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity increased from 15.3% to 18.3% (p > .05) and 17.9% to 21.2% whereas sedentary behavior decreased from 66.8% to 59.8% and 62.3% to 53.6%, respectively. Conclusion Evidence suggests that the professional development training designed to assist SDCs to meet the HEPA Standards can lead to important changes in staff behaviors and children’s physical activity. PMID:25368946

  11. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vainik, Uku; Dubé, Laurette; Lu, Ji; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied. Methods A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner). The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation. Results Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment. PMID:26633707

  12. Emotional eating moderates the relationship of night eating with binge eating and body mass.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Allison, Kelly C; Platte, Petra

    2014-03-01

    Night eating syndrome is marked by substantial evening or nocturnal food intake, insomnia, morning anorexia, and depressed mood. Night eating severity has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI), binge eating frequency, and emotional eating tendencies. We conducted an online questionnaire study among students (N=729) and explored possible interactive effects between those variables. Night eating severity, binge eating frequency, BMI and emotional eating were all positively correlated with each other. Regression analyses showed that night eating severity was particularly related to more frequent binge episodes and higher BMI at high levels of emotional eating but unrelated to those variables at low levels of emotional eating. Thus, eating as a means of emotion regulation appears to be an important moderator of the relationship between night eating and both binge eating and BMI. PMID:24293184

  13. [Prevention and treatment of sleep disorders through regulation] of sleeping habits].

    PubMed

    Onen, S H; Onen, F; Bailly, D; Parquet, P

    1994-03-12

    Healthy sleeping habits is a complex balance between behaviour, environment and circadian rhythm. The quality of sleep can be improved by behaviour, e.g. eating tryptophan and carbohydrate rich foods, physical exercise in the afternoon or a cold shower just before going to bed. Total sleep time is maximal in thermoneutrality and decreases above and below the thermoneutrality zone. Thermoneutrality is reached for an environmental temperature of 30-32 degrees C without night clothing or of 16-19 degrees with a pyjama and at least one sheet. Noise also modifies sleep structure and above 50dB shortens total sleeping time. Although subjects do become subjectively accustomed to noise, vegetative cardiovascular reactivity to environmental noise remains unchanged. The spontaneous circadian awake/sleep cycle is 25 hours, slightly longer than the body temperature cycle, but when subjects are exposed to environmental synchronization, the two cycles coincide. In individuals undergoing temporal isolation, the two rhythms become independent often leading to subjective discomfort and fatigue. Certain factors including age can favour internal desynchronization. Other factors may include social contact, stress due to mental work load, and constant lighting which could lengthen the awake/sleep cycle. Caffeine blocks the receptors of adenosine, and thus its effects of inhibiting neurotransmission. Intake 30 to 60 minutes before sleeping shortens total sleep time and increases the duration of stage 2 and shortens stage 3 and 4. Alcohol may act as a relaxing, sedative agent when consumed just before sleeping but can also lead to night-time awakening due to sympathetic activation which does not return to baseline levels until the blood alcohol levels have returned to 0. Nicotine has a biphasic effect on sleep: at low concentrations, it leads to relaxation and sedation and at high concentrations inhibits sleep. A careful study of sleeping habits is the first step in evaluating complains

  14. The Faith, Activity, and Nutrition (FAN) Program: Design of a participatory research intervention to increase physical activity and improve dietary habits in African American churches

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Laken, Marilyn; Parrott, Allen W.; Condrasky, Margaret; Saunders, Ruth; Addy, Cheryl L.; Evans, Rebecca; Baruth, Meghan; Samuel, May

    2010-01-01

    Background African Americans are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer morbidity and mortality. Physical activity and healthy dietary practices can reduce this risk. The church is a promising setting to address health disparities, and community-based participatory research is a preferred approach. Objectives Using a community-based participatory approach and the social ecologic model, the FAN trial aims to increase self-reported moderate-intensity physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption and reduce blood pressure in African American church members. Secondary aims are to increase objectively measured moderate-intensity physical activity and fiber/whole grain consumption and reduce fat consumption. Design FAN is a group randomized trial (GRT) with two levels of clustering: participants (N=1,279; n=316 accelerometer subgroup) within church and church within church cluster. In the first wave, seven clusters including 23 churches were randomized to an immediate intervention or delayed intervention. In subsequent waves, 51 churches were randomized to an immediate or delayed intervention. Methods Church committee members, pastors, and cooks participate in full-day trainings to learn how to implement physical activity and dietary changes in the church. Monthly mailings and technical assistance calls are delivered over the 15-month intervention. Members complete measurements at baseline and 15-months. A detailed process evaluation is included. Summary FAN focuses on modifying the social, cultural, and policy environment in a faith-based setting. The use of a community-based participatory research approach, engagement of church leaders, inclusion of a detailed process evaluation, and a formal plan for sustainability and dissemination make FAN unique. PMID:20359549

  15. Predicting habits of vegetable parenting practices to facilitate the design of change programmes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Habit has been defined as the automatic performance of a usual behaviour. The present paper reports the relationships of variables from a Model of Goal Directed Behavior to four scales in regard to parents' habits when feeding their children: habit of (i) actively involving child in selection of veg...

  16. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

  17. Body Image, Dieting and Disordered Eating and Activity Practices among Teacher Trainees: Implications for School-Based Health Education and Obesity Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to investigate and compare body image, body dissatisfaction, dieting, disordered eating, exercise and eating disorders among trainee health education/physical education (H&PE) and non-H&PE teachers. Participants were 502 trainee teachers randomly selected from class groups at three Australian universities who completed the…

  18. [Dietary habits as an environmental factor of overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Lucyna; Karczewski, Jan; Szwarc, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    The study objective was to assess chosen environmental factors contributing to body weight increase, with special regard to dietary habits. The questionnaire survey involved 68 women and 42 men. Based on BMI, the subjects were divided into those with normal body weight, with overweight and obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Weight at the age of 18 was found to be most correlated with the current body weight. Other major factors included the time of life when overweight began, alcohol consumption and earlier smoking. The dietary factors analysed: such as having something additional to eat, type of eaten snacks, night eating, no control of the caloricity value of meals in the current study may have a significant effect on the occurrence of overweight and obesity. PMID:17711127

  19. Exploring child-feeding style in childcare settings: how might nursery practitioners affect child eating style and weight?

    PubMed

    Elford, L; Brown, A

    2014-04-01

    Although considerable research has explored the role of parents in affecting child eating habits and weight, there has been little consideration of the impact of other key care providers in the early years. A controlling maternal child-feeding style (e.g. use of pressure to eat or restricting certain foods) has been associated with over consumption, fussy eating and weight issue. Conversely, responsive child-feeding styles whereby children are allowed to regulate their own intake but encouraged to eat a range of foods and try new tastes are associated with healthier eating styles and weight. Increasing numbers of preschool children now spend time in day care settings, many for up to fifty hours a week but interactions with caregivers during mealtimes remain unexplored. The aim of the current study was to begin to explore child-feeding styles of nursery practitioners working with children aged 0-5 years. Sixty three nursery practitioners completed an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire to examine their interactions with children during mealtimes. Themes included pressure to eat, encouragement to eat and use of reward. Typically practitioners reported responsive child-feeding styles with low levels of pressure to eat but high levels of encouragement to try new foods. Use of reward to eat certain foods or as a bribe to modify behaviour was however more common. The findings have important implications for understanding the role of childcare providers in affecting child eating habits and weight. PMID:24854825

  20. Development and validation of a scale to measure Latino parenting strategies related to children's obesigenic behaviors. The parenting strategies for eating and activity scale (PEAS).

    PubMed

    Larios, Sandra E; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Arredondo, Elva M; Baquero, Barbara; Elder, John P

    2009-02-01

    Research has shown that children's dietary and activity-related behaviors are shaped by the family environment and parenting behaviors. The present study describes the development and validation of a bilingual (Spanish and English) scale assessing parenting strategies associated with children's dietary and activity-related behaviors in the home. Items were generated from focus groups with Latina mothers and a review of the literature, and two different samples were used to assess the scale's psychometric properties, including an examination of predictive validity using measured child body mass index. Factor analysis of the first sample (N=91) yielded a 5-factor solution (limit setting, monitoring, discipline, control and concern) and accounted for 65% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analyses on a second sample of Latina mothers recruited into a childhood obesity prevention study (N=714) showed that a 26-item 5-factor solution (limit setting, monitoring, discipline, control and reinforcement) provided the best fit for the data. Parenting strategies characterized as controlling were associated with a lower BMI among children. After using multiple samples and establishing its validity, the parenting strategies for eating and activity scale (PEAS) was found to be valid and reliable in measuring Latino parenting strategies related to children's dietary and activity-related behaviors. PMID:18845197