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Sample records for activity enjoyment scale

  1. Measuring enjoyment of physical activity in older adults: invariance of the physical activity enjoyment scale (paces) across groups and time

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in a sample of older adults. Participants within two different exercise groups were assessed at two time points, 6 months apart. Group and longitudinal invariance was established for a novel, 8-item version of the PACES. The shortened, psychometrically sound measure provides researchers and practitioners an expedited and reliable instrument for assessing the enjoyment of physical activity. PMID:21951520

  2. Leisure Activity Enjoyment of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eversole, Megan; Collins, Diane M.; Karmarkar, Amol; Colton, Lisa; Quinn, Jill Phillips; Karsbaek, Rita; Johnson, Jessica Reinken; Callier, Nicolle Patricia; Hilton, Claudia L.

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment is a fundamental component of activity participation. This study compared leisure activity enjoyment experienced by typically developing children (TD; n = 64) and those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 67) from age 6 to 13. The TD children enjoyed "formal" and "physical" activities significantly more than the…

  3. The effects of curiosity-evoking events on activity enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Isikman, Elif; MacInnis, Deborah J; Ülkümen, Gülden; Cavanaugh, Lisa A

    2016-09-01

    Whereas prior literature has studied the positive effects of curiosity-evoking events that are integral to focal activities, we explore whether and how a curiosity-evoking event that is incidental to a focal activity induces negative outcomes for enjoyment. Four experiments and 1 field study demonstrate that curiosity about an event that is incidental to an activity in which individuals are engaged, significantly affects enjoyment of a concurrent activity. The reason why is that curiosity diverts attention away from the concurrent activity and focuses attention on the curiosity-evoking event. Thus, curiosity regarding an incidental event enjoyment of a positive focal activity but enjoyment of a negative focal activity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27608068

  4. Influence of a health-related physical fitness model on students' physical activity, perceived competence, and enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Fu, You; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James; Shultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Sibthorp, Jim

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to explore the effects of a health-related physical fitness physical education model on students' physical activity, perceived competence, and enjoyment. 61 students (25 boys, 36 girls; M age = 12.6 yr., SD = 0.6) were assigned to two groups (health-related physical fitness physical education group, and traditional physical education group), and participated in one 50-min. weekly basketball class for 6 wk. Students' in-class physical activity was assessed using NL-1000 pedometers. The physical subscale of the Perceived Competence Scale for Children was employed to assess perceived competence, and children's enjoyment was measured using the Sport Enjoyment Scale. The findings suggest that students in the intervention group increased their perceived competence, enjoyment, and physical activity over a 6-wk. intervention, while the comparison group simply increased physical activity over time. Children in the intervention group had significantly greater enjoyment.

  5. EGameFlow: A Scale to Measure Learners' Enjoyment of E-Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Fong-Ling; Su, Rong-Chang; Yu, Sheng-Chin

    2009-01-01

    In an effective e-learning game, the learner's enjoyment acts as a catalyst to encourage his/her learning initiative. Therefore, the availability of a scale that effectively measures the enjoyment offered by e-learning games assist the game designer to understanding the strength and flaw of the game efficiently from the learner's points of view.…

  6. Evaluating the effects of the Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play (LEAP) school playground intervention on children’s quality of life, enjoyment and participation in physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An emerging public health strategy is to enhance children’s opportunities to be physically active during school break periods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play (LEAP) school playground intervention on primary school children’s quality of life (QOL), enjoyment and participation in physical activity (PA). Methods This study consisted of a movable/recycled materials intervention that included baseline, a 7-week post-test and an 8-month follow-up data collection phase. Children within an intervention school (n = 123) and a matched control school (n = 152) aged 5-to-12-years-old were recruited for the study. Children’s PA was measured using a combination of pedometers and direct observation (SOPLAY). Quality of life, enjoyment of PA and enjoyment of lunchtime activities were assessed in the 8-12 year children. A multi-level mixed effect linear regression model was applied in STATA (version 12.0) using the xtmixed command to fit linear mixed models to each of the variables to examine whether there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the intervention and control school at the three time points (pre, post and follow-up). Results Significant overall interaction effects (group × time) were identified for children’s mean steps and distance (pedometers) in the intervention school compared to the control school. Intervention school children also spent significantly higher proportions within specified target areas engaged in higher PA intensities in comparison to the control school at both the 7-week post-test and 8-month follow-up. A short-term treatment effect was revealed after 7-weeks for children’s physical health scale QOL, enjoyment of PA and enjoyment of intra-personal play activities. Conclusions Examining the effects of this school playground intervention over a school year suggested that the introduction of movable/recycled materials can have a significant

  7. Relationships Between Physical Education Students’ Motivational Profiles, Enjoyment, State Anxiety, and Self-Reported Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students’ enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the “High motivation profile”, in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the “Low motivation profile”, in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education. Key points Two motivational profiles were revealed: 1) the “High motivation profile”, in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the “Low motivation profile”, in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile. Moreover, the representatives of the “High motivation profile ”experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the “Low motivation profile” These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined? PMID:24149994

  8. Relationships between physical education students' motivational profiles, enjoyment, state anxiety, and self-reported physical activity.

    PubMed

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education. Key pointsTWO MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES WERE REVEALED: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation.The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile.Moreover, the representatives of the "High motivation profile "experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the "Low motivation profile"These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined? PMID:24149994

  9. Relationships between physical education students' motivational profiles, enjoyment, state anxiety, and self-reported physical activity.

    PubMed

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education. Key pointsTWO MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES WERE REVEALED: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation.The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile.Moreover, the representatives of the "High motivation profile "experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the "Low motivation profile"These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined?

  10. Enjoyment of exercise moderates the impact of a school-based physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A school-based physical activity intervention designed to encourage adolescent girls to be more active was more effective for some participants than for others. We examined whether baseline enjoyment of exercise moderated response to the intervention. Methods Adolescent girls with a low level of baseline activity who participated in a controlled trial of an intervention to promote increased physical activity participation (n = 122) self-reported their enjoyment of exercise and physical activity participation at baseline, mid-way through the intervention, and at the end of the 9-month intervention period. At all three time points, participants also underwent assessments of cardiovascular fitness (VO2peak) and body composition (percent body fat). Repeated measures analysis of variance examined the relationship of baseline enjoyment to change in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, body composition and enjoyment of exercise. Results A significant three-way interaction between time, baseline enjoyment, and group assignment (p < .01) showed that baseline enjoyment moderated the effect of the intervention on vigorous activity. Within the intervention group, girls with low enjoyment of exercise at baseline increased vigorous activity from pre-to post-intervention, and girls with high baseline enjoyment of exercise showed no pre-post change in vigorous activity. No differences emerged in the comparison group between low-and high-enjoyment girls. Conclusion Adolescent girls responded differently to a physical activity promotion intervention depending on their baseline levels of exercise enjoyment. Girls with low enjoyment of exercise may benefit most from a physical-education based intervention to increase physical activity that targets identified barriers to physical activity among low-active adolescent girls. PMID:21689396

  11. An Examination of the Relationship between Enjoyment, Physical Education, Physical Activity and Health in Irish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Tannehill, Deborah; Walsh, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Enjoyment of physical activity (EPA) is positively correlated with activity, yet little is known of its relationship with enjoyment of physical education (EPE). This study's purpose was to explore EPE and its relationship to EPA. Cross-sectional data (N = 4122, average age 14.5 plus or minus 1.7 years, 48% male) were collected as part of the CSPPA…

  12. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...

  13. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  14. Participation and Enjoyment of Leisure Activities in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Birnbaum, Rena; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Rosenbaum, Peter; Poulin, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize participation in leisure activities in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and identify determinants of greater involvement. Ninety-five children of school age (9y 7mo [SD 2y 1mo]) with CP were recruited, and participation was evaluated with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment in a…

  15. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Huang, Wendy Y.J.; Maddison, Ralph; Baranowski, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. Objective The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Methods Sample 1 (n = 273, aged 8–12 years) was recruited (May–June, 2013) from two primary schools. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted to assess factorial validity. Criterion validity was assessed by correlating measured constructs with self-reported PA. Cronbach's alpha was computed to assess scale internal consistency. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was performed to assess scale test–retest reliability. Criterion validity was further examined in Sample 2 (n = 84, aged 8–12 years) from a third school by correlating measured constructs with objectively measured PA collected in September 2013 and February 2014. Results The CFA results supported the one-factor structure of the scales. All PA correlates were significantly (p < 0.01) associated with self-reported PA in Sample 1. Self-efficacy and enjoyment were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with objectively measured PA in Sample 2. All the scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. All ICC values of the scales suggested acceptable test–retest reliability. Conclusion The results provide psychometric support for using the scales to measure PA correlates among Hong Kong Chinese children. PMID:26844039

  16. Picture Me Playing--A Portrait of Participation and Enjoyment of Leisure Activities in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Shevell, Michael; Lach, Lucyna; Law, Mary; Schmitz, Norbert; Poulin, Chantal; Majnemer, Annette

    2013-01-01

    In recent years attention has been paid to the participation levels of children and youth with Cerebral Palsy (CP), particularly the extent to which they have the opportunity to be involved in and enjoy leisure activities. The objective of this study is to describe the level of participation and enjoyment in leisure activities among adolescents…

  17. Financial motivation undermines potential enjoyment in an intensive diet and activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Moller, Arlen C; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2014-10-01

    The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial-a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit-vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation. PMID:24142187

  18. Financial motivation undermines potential enjoyment in an intensive diet and activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Moller, Arlen C; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2014-10-01

    The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial-a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit-vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation.

  19. Financial motivation undermines potential enjoyment in an intensive diet and activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Moller, Arlen C.; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H. Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit–vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation. PMID:24142187

  20. Enjoyment, Barriers, and Beliefs about Physical Activity among Adolescents With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda G.

    2016-01-01

    We compared physical activity enjoyment, perceived barriers, beliefs, and self-efficacy between adolescents with ASD and typically developing (TD) adolescents. A questionnaire was verbally administered to 35 adolescents with ASD and 60 TD adolescents. Compared to TD adolescents, fewer adolescents with ASD enjoyed team sports (65% vs. 95%, p<0.001) and physical education (84% vs. 98%, p=0.02). A greater proportion of adolescents with ASD perceived that physical activities were too hard to learn (16% vs. 0%, p<0.01), and fewer adolescents with ASD believed that physical activity was a way to make friends (68% vs. 97%, p<0.001). Fewer adolescents with ASD preferred to do physical activity in their free time (25% vs. 58%, p<0.01). Most adolescents with ASD felt that physical activity is fun (84%), but the proportion was lower than TD adolescents (98%, p=0.03). Some perceptions about physical activity were similar between the two groups, but differences identified may inform program development. PMID:26485735

  1. Alcohol-related and alcohol-free activity participation and enjoyment among college students: a behavioral theories of choice analysis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James G; Barnett, Nancy P; Colby, Suzanne M

    2006-08-01

    College student alcohol abuse remains a significant public health problem, and there is a need for theory-driven and empirically based models to guide prevention efforts. Behavioral theories of choice assume that the decision to consume alcohol is influenced by the relative value of alcohol versus other available activities. In the present study, a sample of college student drinkers (N=108; 56% female, 44% male) who had previously completed a mandatory alcohol intervention completed a measure of alcohol-related and alcohol-free activity participation and enjoyment. The goals of the study were to examine the influence of drinking quantity and contextual variables on activity enjoyment and to identify enjoyable alcohol-free activities that take place on evenings when students might otherwise be drinking. Overall, students found alcohol-related activities more enjoyable than alcohol-free activities, and drinking quantity was positively related to enjoyment. However, alcohol-free activities such as watching movies, going to the theater or museums, going to bars or parties, hanging out with friends, eating at restaurants, and engaging in creative activity were generally as enjoyable as drinking. Alcohol-free activities that included peers or dates were more enjoyable than solitary activities. Men were less likely to engage in alcohol-free activities that included peers and reported less enjoyment related to alcohol-free activities than did women. Further research is required to identify procedures for increasing participation in alcohol-free activities and to determine whether increased alcohol-free activity participation results in decreased alcohol consumption. PMID:16893277

  2. Activity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Larry C.; Weiner, Michael J.

    This twenty-four item scale assesses students' actual and desired political-social activism in terms of physical participation, communication activities, and information-gathering activities. About ten minutes are required to complete the instrument. The scale is divided into two subscales. The first twelve items (ACT-A) question respondents on…

  3. Novel Approaches to Obesity Prevention: Effects of Game Enjoyment and Game Type on Energy Expenditure in Active Video Games

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Komoski, Stephanie E.; Carr, Philip M.; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Some active video games have been found to promote physical activity adherence because of enjoyment. However, many active games are exercise themed, which may interfere with the distracting properties that make game-based exercise more enjoyable than traditional exercise. This study compared exercise-themed and game-themed active games to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment. Method Young adults (N = 100, 50 female, 55 overweight, aged 18–35 years) played two of four Wii Fit games (one aerobic game and one balance game per person) for 10 min each. Of the two aerobic games, one was exercise themed (jogging) and the other was game themed (hula hooping). Both balance games were game themed. Energy expenditure and enjoyment were measured. Results After adjustment for gender and weight, aerobic games produced 2.70 kcal/kg-1/h-1 (95% confidence interval 2.41, 3.00) greater energy expenditure than balance games (p < .001), but balance games were more enjoyable (p < .001). In aerobic games, jogging produced greater energy expenditure than hula hooping in normal-weight and male participants (p < .001); in overweight and female participants, no differences were found (p > .17). Hula hooping was enjoyed more than jogging (p = .008). Enjoyment predicted energy expenditure in aerobic games (B = 0.767, p = .010). Conclusions Aerobic games produced greater energy expenditure but lower enjoyment than balance games, and a game-themed aerobic game was found more enjoyable than an exercise-themed aerobic game. Integrating more strenuous activity into entertaining games instead of games that simply simulate exercise may be a fruitful avenue for active game development. PMID:22920810

  4. Increased frequency of social interaction is associated with enjoyment enhancement and reward system activation.

    PubMed

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Makita, Kai; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-04-19

    Positive social interactions contribute to the sense that one's life has meaning. Enjoyment of feelings associated through social interaction motivates humans to build social connections according to their personal preferences. Therefore, we hypothesized that social interaction itself activates the reward system in a manner that depends upon individual interaction preferences. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which 38 participants played a virtual ball-toss game in which the number of ball tosses to the participant was either similar to (normal-frequency condition) or higher than (high-frequency condition) the number of tosses to the other players. Participants reported greater-than-anticipated enjoyment during the high-frequency condition, suggesting that receiving a social reward led to unexpected positive feelings. Consistent with this, the high-frequency condition produced stronger activation in the ventral striatum, which is part of the reward system, and the precuneus, representing positive self-image, which might be translated to social reward. Furthermore, ventral striatal activation covaried with individual participants' preference for interactions with others. These findings suggest that an elevated frequency of social interaction is represented as a social reward, which might motivate individuals to promote social interaction in a manner that is modulated by personal preference.

  5. Increased frequency of social interaction is associated with enjoyment enhancement and reward system activation

    PubMed Central

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Makita, Kai; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Positive social interactions contribute to the sense that one’s life has meaning. Enjoyment of feelings associated through social interaction motivates humans to build social connections according to their personal preferences. Therefore, we hypothesized that social interaction itself activates the reward system in a manner that depends upon individual interaction preferences. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which 38 participants played a virtual ball-toss game in which the number of ball tosses to the participant was either similar to (normal-frequency condition) or higher than (high-frequency condition) the number of tosses to the other players. Participants reported greater-than-anticipated enjoyment during the high-frequency condition, suggesting that receiving a social reward led to unexpected positive feelings. Consistent with this, the high-frequency condition produced stronger activation in the ventral striatum, which is part of the reward system, and the precuneus, representing positive self-image, which might be translated to social reward. Furthermore, ventral striatal activation covaried with individual participants’ preference for interactions with others. These findings suggest that an elevated frequency of social interaction is represented as a social reward, which might motivate individuals to promote social interaction in a manner that is modulated by personal preference. PMID:27090501

  6. Affective and Enjoyment Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Overweight-to-Obese and Insufficiently Active Adults.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Nic; Kilpatrick, Marcus W; Salomon, Kristen; Jung, Mary E; Little, Jonathan P

    2015-04-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has many known physiological benefits, but research investigating the psychological aspects of this training is limited. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the affective and enjoyment responses to continuous and high-intensity interval exercise sessions. Twenty overweight-to-obese, insufficiently active adults completed four counterbalanced trials: a 20-min trial of heavy continuous exercise and three 24-min HIIT trials that used 30-s, 60-s, and 120-s intervals. Affect declined during all trials (p < .05), but affect at the completion of trials was more positive in the shorter interval trials (p < .05). Enjoyment declined in the 120-s interval and heavy continuous conditions only (p < .05). Postexercise enjoyment was higher in the 60-s trial than in the 120-s trial and heavy continuous condition (p < .05). Findings suggest that pleasure and enjoyment are higher during shorter interval trials than during a longer interval or heavy continuous exercise.

  7. Enjoying vs. smiling: Facial muscular activation in response to emotional language.

    PubMed

    Fino, Edita; Menegatti, Michela; Avenanti, Alessio; Rubini, Monica

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined whether emotionally congruent facial muscular activation - a somatic index of emotional language embodiment can be elicited by reading subject-verb sentences composed of action verbs, that refer directly to facial expressions (e.g., Mario smiles), but also by reading more abstract state verbs, which provide more direct access to the emotions felt by the agent (e.g., Mario enjoys). To address this issue, we measured facial electromyography (EMG) while participants evaluated state and action verb sentences. We found emotional sentences including both verb categories to have valence-congruent effects on emotional ratings and corresponding facial muscle activations. As expected, state verb-sentences were judged with higher valence ratings than action verb-sentences. Moreover, despite emotional congruent facial activations were similar for the two linguistic categories, in a late temporal window we found a tendency for greater EMG modulation when reading action relative to state verb sentences. These results support embodied theories of language comprehension and suggest that understanding emotional action and state verb sentences relies on partially dissociable motor and emotional processes.

  8. Differences in the impact of the frequency and enjoyment of joint family activities on adolescent substance use and violence.

    PubMed

    Windlin, Béat; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2012-05-01

    Previous research has concentrated exclusively on the association between the frequency of joint family activities (JFA) and adolescent problem behaviours. In this study, multiple linear regressions based on a national sample of 3467 13- to 16-year-olds in Switzerland revealed that JFA enjoyment rather than JFA frequency is consistently related to low adolescent substance use and violence. By choosing JFA that their children enjoy, parents might provide opportunities for disclosure, strengthen family bonds and reduce the likelihood of adolescent problem behaviours. In terms of prevention, a shift in focus towards the quality rather than the quantity of JFA could prove more effective. PMID:21963683

  9. Quantifying the impact of mosquitoes on quality of life and enjoyment of yard and porch activities in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Yara A; Shepard, Donald S; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A; Clark, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    The recent expansion of Aedes albopictus, a day-biting mosquito, to densely inhabited areas in the northeastern Atlantic states of the USA has dramatically increased the problem that mosquitoes create for urban and suburban residents. We quantified the impact of mosquitoes on residents' quality of life within the context of a comprehensive area-wide integrated pest management program to control Ae. albopictus in two counties (Mercer and Monmouth) in New Jersey. We interviewed residents of 121 randomly selected households in both counties between October and November 2010. We asked residents about their experience with mosquitoes in their neighborhood and the importance of the ability to relax outdoors without mosquitoes compared to other neighborhood characteristics (1 = not important, 5 = extremely important). We rated residents' utility based on paired comparisons to known states from the EuroQol health description system. The majority (54.6%) of respondents considered mosquitoes to be a problem. Respondents reported an average of 7.1 mosquito bites in a typical week during that summer. Mosquitoes prevented 59.5% of residents from enjoying their outdoor activities at least to some extent. Residents rated the mosquito acceptability (mean ± standard deviation) during that summer on a scale of 0 (mosquito invasion) to 100 (no mosquitoes) at 56.7±28.7, and their overall utility at 0.87±0.03. This is comparable to living with up to two risk factors for diabetes (i.e., abdominal obesity, body mass index of 28 or more, reported cholesterol problems, diagnosis of hypertension, or history of cardiovascular disease) or women experiencing menstrual disorders. Respondents rated the importance of enjoying outdoor activities without mosquitoes (4.69±0.80) comparable to that of neighborhood safety (4.74±0.80) and higher than that of a clean neighborhood (4.59±0.94). In conclusion, New Jersey residents reported that mosquitoes decreased their utility by 0

  10. Quantifying the Impact of Mosquitoes on Quality of Life and Enjoyment of Yard and Porch Activities in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Halasa, Yara A.; Shepard, Donald S.; Fonseca, Dina M.; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A.; Clark, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    The recent expansion of Aedes albopictus, a day-biting mosquito, to densely inhabited areas in the northeastern Atlantic states of the USA has dramatically increased the problem that mosquitoes create for urban and suburban residents. We quantified the impact of mosquitoes on residents' quality of life within the context of a comprehensive area-wide integrated pest management program to control Ae. albopictus in two counties (Mercer and Monmouth) in New Jersey. We interviewed residents of 121 randomly selected households in both counties between October and November 2010. We asked residents about their experience with mosquitoes in their neighborhood and the importance of the ability to relax outdoors without mosquitoes compared to other neighborhood characteristics (1 = not important, 5 = extremely important). We rated residents' utility based on paired comparisons to known states from the EuroQol health description system. The majority (54.6%) of respondents considered mosquitoes to be a problem. Respondents reported an average of 7.1 mosquito bites in a typical week during that summer. Mosquitoes prevented 59.5% of residents from enjoying their outdoor activities at least to some extent. Residents rated the mosquito acceptability (mean ± standard deviation) during that summer on a scale of 0 (mosquito invasion) to 100 (no mosquitoes) at 56.7±28.7, and their overall utility at 0.87±0.03. This is comparable to living with up to two risk factors for diabetes (i.e., abdominal obesity, body mass index of 28 or more, reported cholesterol problems, diagnosis of hypertension, or history of cardiovascular disease) or women experiencing menstrual disorders. Respondents rated the importance of enjoying outdoor activities without mosquitoes (4.69±0.80) comparable to that of neighborhood safety (4.74±0.80) and higher than that of a clean neighborhood (4.59±0.94). In conclusion, New Jersey residents reported that mosquitoes decreased their utility by 0

  11. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Physical Education and School Sport Interventions Targeting Physical Activity, Movement Skills and Enjoyment of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Dean; Okely, Anthony; Pearson, Philip; Cotton, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of published literature on the effectiveness of physical education in promoting participation in physical activity, enjoyment of physical activity and movement skill proficiency in children and adolescents. The review utilized a literature search, specifically publications listed in Ovid, A+ Education,…

  12. Enjoyable learning: the role of humour, games, and fun activities in nursing and midwifery education.

    PubMed

    Baid, Heather; Lambert, Nicky

    2010-08-01

    Education that captures the attention of students is an essential aspect of promoting meaningful, active learning. Rather than standing at the front of a group of learners simply speaking about a topic, teachers have the opportunity of livening up their teaching with humour, games, and other fun activities. This article critically evaluates the benefits and limitations of humour within nursing education as well as the use of games and fun activities as teaching strategies. Examples of various games and interactive activities are also provided.

  13. Tanoshii Gakushu--Learning with Enjoyment: Activities about Japan for Elementary Students. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoresman, Michele; Kinoshita, Waunita

    A variety of experiences are provided to encourage active learning and involvement on the part of U.S. students studying Japanese culture. The aim is to enable the mathematics, English, art, physical education, and science teacher as well as the social studies instructor to incorporate the study of Japan into their curricula. In each of these…

  14. Enjoyment Fosters Engagement: The Key to Involving Middle School Students in Physical Education and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pharez, Emily S.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the challenges faced by a middle school teacher who inherited a recreation-based physical education program in which students had been accustomed to choosing what they wanted to do. Stressing the importance of implementing a standards-based program in which students of all skill levels and activity preferences were able to…

  15. Exploring Links to Unorganized and Organized Physical Activity during Adolescence: The Role of Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Weight Status, and Enjoyment of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Ahmed, Rashid; Farnoush, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    There is limited research on participation context in studies of physical activity correlates during adolescence. Using an ecological approach, this study explored the association of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), weight status, and physical education enjoyment with participation in organized and unorganized physical activity contexts in a…

  16. Reliability of the Norwegian Version of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) and Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtorp, Heidi L.; Nyquist, Astrid; Jahnsen, Reidun; Moser, Thomas; Strand, Liv Inger

    2013-01-01

    This study examined test-retest reliability of the Norwegian version of Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE), and Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC) in children with and without disabilities. Totally 141 children, 107 typically developing, mean age 11.1, and 34 with disabilities, mean age 14.2 years participated. A…

  17. Health-Related Quality of Life, Self-Efficacy and Enjoyment Keep the Socially Vulnerable Physically Active in Community-Based Physical Activity Programs: A Sequential Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Herens, Marion; Bakker, Evert Jan; van Ophem, Johan; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Koelen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is most commonly found in socially vulnerable groups. Dutch policies target these groups through community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programs. As robust evidence on the effectiveness of this approach is limited, this study investigated whether CBHEPA programs contribute to an increase in and the maintenance of physical activity in socially vulnerable groups. In four successive cohorts, starting at a six-month interval, 268 participants from 19 groups were monitored for twelve months in seven CBHEPA programs. Data collection was based on repeated questionnaires. Socio-economic indicators, program participation and coping ability were measured at baseline. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and on-going program participation were measured three times. Self-efficacy and enjoyment were measured at baseline and at twelve months. Statistical analyses were based on a quasi-RCT design (independent t-tests), a comparison of participants and dropouts (Mann-Whitney test), and multilevel modelling to assess change in individual physical activity, including group level characteristics. Participants of CBHEPA programs are socially vulnerable in terms of low education (48.6%), low income (52.4%), non-Dutch origin (64.6%) and health-related quality of life outcomes. Physical activity levels were not below the Dutch average. No increase in physical activity levels over time was observed. The multilevel models showed significant positive associations between health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment, and leisure-time physical activity over time. Short CBHEPA programs (10–13 weeks) with multiple trainers and gender-homogeneous groups were associated with lower physical activity levels over time. At twelve months, dropouts' leisure-time physical activity levels were significantly lower compared to continuing participants, as were health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment outcomes. BMI and

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life, Self-Efficacy and Enjoyment Keep the Socially Vulnerable Physically Active in Community-Based Physical Activity Programs: A Sequential Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Herens, Marion; Bakker, Evert Jan; van Ophem, Johan; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Koelen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is most commonly found in socially vulnerable groups. Dutch policies target these groups through community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programs. As robust evidence on the effectiveness of this approach is limited, this study investigated whether CBHEPA programs contribute to an increase in and the maintenance of physical activity in socially vulnerable groups. In four successive cohorts, starting at a six-month interval, 268 participants from 19 groups were monitored for twelve months in seven CBHEPA programs. Data collection was based on repeated questionnaires. Socio-economic indicators, program participation and coping ability were measured at baseline. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and on-going program participation were measured three times. Self-efficacy and enjoyment were measured at baseline and at twelve months. Statistical analyses were based on a quasi-RCT design (independent t-tests), a comparison of participants and dropouts (Mann-Whitney test), and multilevel modelling to assess change in individual physical activity, including group level characteristics. Participants of CBHEPA programs are socially vulnerable in terms of low education (48.6%), low income (52.4%), non-Dutch origin (64.6%) and health-related quality of life outcomes. Physical activity levels were not below the Dutch average. No increase in physical activity levels over time was observed. The multilevel models showed significant positive associations between health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment, and leisure-time physical activity over time. Short CBHEPA programs (10-13 weeks) with multiple trainers and gender-homogeneous groups were associated with lower physical activity levels over time. At twelve months, dropouts' leisure-time physical activity levels were significantly lower compared to continuing participants, as were health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment outcomes. BMI and

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life, Self-Efficacy and Enjoyment Keep the Socially Vulnerable Physically Active in Community-Based Physical Activity Programs: A Sequential Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Herens, Marion; Bakker, Evert Jan; van Ophem, Johan; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Koelen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is most commonly found in socially vulnerable groups. Dutch policies target these groups through community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programs. As robust evidence on the effectiveness of this approach is limited, this study investigated whether CBHEPA programs contribute to an increase in and the maintenance of physical activity in socially vulnerable groups. In four successive cohorts, starting at a six-month interval, 268 participants from 19 groups were monitored for twelve months in seven CBHEPA programs. Data collection was based on repeated questionnaires. Socio-economic indicators, program participation and coping ability were measured at baseline. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and on-going program participation were measured three times. Self-efficacy and enjoyment were measured at baseline and at twelve months. Statistical analyses were based on a quasi-RCT design (independent t-tests), a comparison of participants and dropouts (Mann-Whitney test), and multilevel modelling to assess change in individual physical activity, including group level characteristics. Participants of CBHEPA programs are socially vulnerable in terms of low education (48.6%), low income (52.4%), non-Dutch origin (64.6%) and health-related quality of life outcomes. Physical activity levels were not below the Dutch average. No increase in physical activity levels over time was observed. The multilevel models showed significant positive associations between health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment, and leisure-time physical activity over time. Short CBHEPA programs (10-13 weeks) with multiple trainers and gender-homogeneous groups were associated with lower physical activity levels over time. At twelve months, dropouts' leisure-time physical activity levels were significantly lower compared to continuing participants, as were health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment outcomes. BMI and

  20. Fundamentals of Outdoor Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Fear, Gene

    The purpose of this preventive search and rescue teachers guide is to help high school aged youth understand the complexities and priorities necessary to manage a human body in outdoor environments and the value of planning ahead to have on hand the skills and equipment needed for outdoor survival, comfort, and enjoyment. Separate sections present…

  1. Performativity and Enjoyable Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberstone, Barbara; Beard, Colin; Clayton, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes critical lenses to interpret what students find enjoyable in their learning in specific "subject" environments within the prevailing socio-economic climate in higher education. It considers student dispositions that emerged from dialogues with two groups of students attending a non-traditional university and taking…

  2. Sport Education and Social Goals in Physical Education: Relationships with Enjoyment, Relatedness, and Leisure-Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallhead, Tristan L.; Garn, Alex C.; Vidoni, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adolescents' decisions to engage in physical activities are influenced by the social aspects of the activity, including opportunity for affiliation, being part of a team, and the social status it offers. A curriculum and instructional model that has been shown to embed the student social system within a positive program of action…

  3. Prediction of enjoyment in school physical education.

    PubMed

    Gråstén, Arto; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony; Yli-Piipari, Sami

    2012-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to examine whether motivational climate, perceived physical competence, and exercise motivation predict enjoyment in school physical education within the same sample of adolescents across three years of secondary school. A sample of 639 students (girls = 296, boys = 343) aged between 13- to 15-years at the commencement of the study completed the Intrinsic Motivation Climate in Physical Education Questionnaire, Physical Self-Perception Profile, Physical Education Motivation Scale, and Physical Education Enjoyment Scale. Results derived from path analyses indicated that task-involving motivational climate predicted enjoyment in physical education via perceived physical competence and intrinsic motivation in both girls and boys. In particular, these results supported previous findings of Vallerand et. al (1997) with the self-determination theory and the achievement goal theory. Ego-involving climate was not a significant predictor either in girls or boys. The current results provide continuing support for the investigation of Vallerand's model in the physical education setting, and highlight that motivational climate is an area that requires further evaluation as a contributing factor in the improvement of physical education teaching. A better understanding of the role of motivational climate may assist efforts to promote children's and adolescents' perceived physical competence, intrinsic motivation, and enjoyment in the school physical education setting. Key pointsThe findings of the current study support existing suggestions of Vallerand's (1997) model in which social factors mediated by a psychological mediator, and exercise motivation are related to positive consequences in the PE context.Task-involving motivational climate predicted PE enjoyment via perceived physical competence and intrinsic motivation with both girls and boys. Task-involving motivational climate in PE lessons at Grade 7 had a strong association with PE

  4. Prediction of enjoyment in school physical education.

    PubMed

    Gråstén, Arto; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony; Yli-Piipari, Sami

    2012-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to examine whether motivational climate, perceived physical competence, and exercise motivation predict enjoyment in school physical education within the same sample of adolescents across three years of secondary school. A sample of 639 students (girls = 296, boys = 343) aged between 13- to 15-years at the commencement of the study completed the Intrinsic Motivation Climate in Physical Education Questionnaire, Physical Self-Perception Profile, Physical Education Motivation Scale, and Physical Education Enjoyment Scale. Results derived from path analyses indicated that task-involving motivational climate predicted enjoyment in physical education via perceived physical competence and intrinsic motivation in both girls and boys. In particular, these results supported previous findings of Vallerand et. al (1997) with the self-determination theory and the achievement goal theory. Ego-involving climate was not a significant predictor either in girls or boys. The current results provide continuing support for the investigation of Vallerand's model in the physical education setting, and highlight that motivational climate is an area that requires further evaluation as a contributing factor in the improvement of physical education teaching. A better understanding of the role of motivational climate may assist efforts to promote children's and adolescents' perceived physical competence, intrinsic motivation, and enjoyment in the school physical education setting. Key pointsThe findings of the current study support existing suggestions of Vallerand's (1997) model in which social factors mediated by a psychological mediator, and exercise motivation are related to positive consequences in the PE context.Task-involving motivational climate predicted PE enjoyment via perceived physical competence and intrinsic motivation with both girls and boys. Task-involving motivational climate in PE lessons at Grade 7 had a strong association with PE

  5. Prediction of Enjoyment in School Physical Education

    PubMed Central

    Gråstén, Arto; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony; Yli-Piipari, Sami

    2012-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to examine whether motivational climate, perceived physical competence, and exercise motivation predict enjoyment in school physical education within the same sample of adolescents across three years of secondary school. A sample of 639 students (girls = 296, boys = 343) aged between 13- to 15-years at the commencement of the study completed the Intrinsic Motivation Climate in Physical Education Questionnaire, Physical Self-Perception Profile, Physical Education Motivation Scale, and Physical Education Enjoyment Scale. Results derived from path analyses indicated that task-involving motivational climate predicted enjoyment in physical education via perceived physical competence and intrinsic motivation in both girls and boys. In particular, these results supported previous findings of Vallerand et. al (1997) with the self-determination theory and the achievement goal theory. Ego-involving climate was not a significant predictor either in girls or boys. The current results provide continuing support for the investigation of Vallerand's model in the physical education setting, and highlight that motivational climate is an area that requires further evaluation as a contributing factor in the improvement of physical education teaching. A better understanding of the role of motivational climate may assist efforts to promote children's and adolescents' perceived physical competence, intrinsic motivation, and enjoyment in the school physical education setting. Key pointsThe findings of the current study support existing suggestions of Vallerand’s (1997) model in which social factors mediated by a psychological mediator, and exercise motivation are related to positive consequences in the PE context.Task-involving motivational climate predicted PE enjoyment via perceived physical competence and intrinsic motivation with both girls and boys. Task-involving motivational climate in PE lessons at Grade 7 had a strong association with PE

  6. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods/Design The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA) sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. Discussion NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an important contribution to the

  7. Preventing Obesity Among Adolescent Girls: One-Year Outcomes of the Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Okely, Anthony D; Dewar, Deborah; Collins, Clare E; Batterham, Marijka; Callister, Robin; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2012-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of a 12-month multicomponent school-based obesity prevention program, Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls among adolescent girls. DESIGN Group randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. SETTING Twelve secondary schools in low-income communities in the Hunter and Central Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred fifty-seven adolescent girls aged 12 to 14 years. INTERVENTION A multicomponent school-based intervention program tailored for adolescent girls. The intervention was based on social cognitive theory and included teacher professional development, enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity sessions, handbooks and pedometers for self-monitoring, parent newsletters, and text messaging for social support. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), BMI z score, body fat percentage, physical activity, screen time, dietary intake, and self-esteem. RESULTS After 12 months, changes in BMI (adjusted mean difference, -0.19; 95% CI, -0.70 to 0.33), BMI z score (mean, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.04), and body fat percentage (mean, -1.09; 95% CI, -2.88 to 0.70) were in favor of the intervention, but they were not statistically different from those in the control group. Changes in screen time were statistically significant (mean, -30.67 min/d; 95% CI, -62.43 to -1.06), but there were no group by time effects for physical activity, dietary behavior, or self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS A school-based intervention tailored for adolescent girls from schools located in low-income communities did not significantly reduce BMI gain. However, changes in body composition were of a magnitude similar to previous studies and may be associated with clinically important health outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION anzctr.org.au Identifier: 12610000330044. PMID:22566517

  8. Assessment of factors associated with exercise enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Wininger, Steven R; Pargman, David

    2003-01-01

    Participating in regular physical activity results in many positive physical and psychological effects. Even though this is widely known, the majority of Americans do not engage in regular physical activity and many persons who start an exercise program drop out shortly thereafter. A question of central importance is "What motivates a person to adhere to an exercise program?" A collection of quantitative and qualitative studies has shown enjoyment of exercise to be an important factor in determining adherence to exercise. Despite these findings, very little research has been conducted on factors contributing to exercise enjoyment. The purpose of this study was to examine variables believed to make such a contribution. Variables were selected based upon results of past research and theory. These were: satisfaction with the music used in the exercise environment, satisfaction with the exercise instructor, and salience of exercise role-identity (EIS). Subjects for this study were 282 female volunteers from not-for-credit aerobic dance classes at 2 university activity centers. Results revealed significant positive correlations between all 3 variables and exercise enjoyment, ranging from .34 to .45. Stepwise regression indicated that satisfaction with music (21%) accounted for the most variance in exercise enjoyment followed by satisfaction with the instructor (8%), and finally salience of exercise role identity (4%). Follow-up analyses to examine specific components of satisfaction with music and the exercise instructor were also conducted. PMID:17590968

  9. Enjoyment and the Good Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Cheryl; Henderson, Karla

    2003-01-01

    Presents information to update parks and recreation professionals about what recent research says in regard to enjoyment and the good life, noting what applications this research has for practitioners. The article focuses on: the good life and leisure services; happiness, subjective well-being, and intrinsic motivation; leisure, happiness, and…

  10. Peers' influence on exercise enjoyment: a self-determination theory approach.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Juan Antonio Moreno; Román, Maria López de San; Galindo, Celestina Martínez; Alonso, Néstor; González-Cutre, David

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the influence of motivational climate perceived in peers and basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness) on self-determined motivation and enjoyment in exercise. A sample comprised of 394 non- competitive physical exercisers, 156 women and 238 men aged between 16 and 54 (M = 21.64, SD = 7. 18), completed the Motivational Climate Perceived in Peers Scale, Scale of Motivational Mediators in Physical Activity, Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. A correlation analysis between the variables studied, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation analysis were performed. The results showed that the task- involving peer motivational climate positively predicted the three basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness). In turn, meeting the needs for competence and relatedness positively predicted self-determined motivation, which also positively predicted the enjoyment the exercisers had during the activity. There were no significant associations between the ego- involving peer motivational climate and psychological needs. A multisample analysis indicated that the model was invariant across age and degree of exercise involvement. This study reiterates the importance of increasing exercisers' self-determined motivation in order to obtain more enjoyment and to be more committed to the exercise. Therefore, it is essential to foster perceptions of competence, autonomy and relatedness by means of a task-involving climate. The findings provide evidence for the importance of peer motivational climate in sports motivation. Key pointsTask-involving peer motivational climate positively predicted the three basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness). There were no significant associations between the ego-involving peer motivational climate and psychological needs.Needs for competence and relatedness positively

  11. Peers’ Influence on Exercise Enjoyment: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Murcia, Juan Antonio Moreno; Román, Maria López de San; Galindo, Celestina Martínez; Alonso, Néstor; González-Cutre, David

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the influence of motivational climate perceived in peers and basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness) on self-determined motivation and enjoyment in exercise. A sample comprised of 394 non- competitive physical exercisers, 156 women and 238 men aged between 16 and 54 (M = 21.64, SD = 7. 18), completed the Motivational Climate Perceived in Peers Scale, Scale of Motivational Mediators in Physical Activity, Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. A correlation analysis between the variables studied, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation analysis were performed. The results showed that the task- involving peer motivational climate positively predicted the three basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness). In turn, meeting the needs for competence and relatedness positively predicted self-determined motivation, which also positively predicted the enjoyment the exercisers had during the activity. There were no significant associations between the ego- involving peer motivational climate and psychological needs. A multisample analysis indicated that the model was invariant across age and degree of exercise involvement. This study reiterates the importance of increasing exercisers’ self-determined motivation in order to obtain more enjoyment and to be more committed to the exercise. Therefore, it is essential to foster perceptions of competence, autonomy and relatedness by means of a task-involving climate. The findings provide evidence for the importance of peer motivational climate in sports motivation. Key pointsTask-involving peer motivational climate positively predicted the three basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness). There were no significant associations between the ego-involving peer motivational climate and psychological needs.Needs for competence and relatedness positively

  12. Examining elementary school children's level of enjoyment of traditional tag games vs. interactive dance games.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zan; Zhang, Peng; Podlog, Leslie William

    2014-01-01

    Enjoyment has been implicated as a determinant of physical activity among children and adolescents. However, the effect of different sport activities on children's enjoyment remains largely unexplored. This study examined whether children's enjoyment in physical education (PE) varied as a function of learning activities. Participants were 210 third- through sixth-grade children who had a 30 min PE class every week. Participants responded to a standardized self-report enjoyment survey measuring their enjoyment level in a PE class during which they participated in tag games. Students completed the same questionnaire when involved in interactive dance games in PE. The results revealed that children reported significantly higher scores in enjoyment toward interactive dance games than they did toward traditional games (p < .01). Also, girls exhibited higher enjoyment toward interactive dance games than boys did (p < .05). However, no gender difference emerged on enjoyment toward traditional games. In conclusion, it is practical and meaningful to integrate interactive dance games into PE.

  13. Kindergarten Practitioners' Experience of Promoting Children's Involvement in and Enjoyment of Physically Active Play: Does the Contagion of Physical Energy Affect Physically Active Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjørgen, Kathrine; Svendsen, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    This research is based on interviews that explore the reflections of 10 Norwegian kindergarten practitioners with regard to the importance of their involvement in children's physically active outdoor playtime. The data were analysed from a qualitative phenomenological perspective and resulted in basic themes that describe the practitioners'…

  14. A Hierarchical Conceptualization of Enjoyment in Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Hall, Nathan C.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the present study is on students' experiences of enjoyment, an emotion largely neglected in educational research. We present a model in which specific levels of generalization of the construct of enjoyment are differentiated. Based on their extent of generalization, these differentiated constructs of enjoyment are located in a…

  15. Children's Ability to Distinguish between Enjoyment and Non-Enjoyment Smiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Pierre; Perron, Melanie; Maassarani, Reem

    2010-01-01

    Children's ability to distinguish between enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles was investigated by presenting participants with short video excerpts of smiles. Enjoyment smiles differed from non-enjoyment smiles by greater symmetry and by appearance changes produced in the eye region by the Cheek Raiser action. The results indicate that 6- and…

  16. Crowd enjoys the FIRST event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST team members and friends enjoy the FIRST event. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co- sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  17. Commitment, enjoyment and motivation in young soccer competitive players.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Mas, Alexandre; Palou, Pere; Gili, Margarita; Ponseti, Xavier; Borras, Pere A; Vidal, Josep; Cruz, Jaume; Torregrosa, Miquel; Villamarín, Francisco; Sousa, Catarina

    2010-11-01

    Building upon Deci's and Ryan (1985) Self-determination theory as well as the sportive behavioral correlates of the model of Commitment (Scanlan et al., 1976), this study tries to establish the relationship between motivation and commitment in youth sport. For this purpose 454 young competitive soccer players answered the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) and the Sport Commitment Questionnaire (SCQ) during the regular season. The SMS measures the three dimensions of the Motivational continuum (the Amotivation, the Extrinsic Motivation and the Intrinsic Motivation). The SCQ measures the Sportive Commitment and its composing factors such as the Enjoyment, the Alternatives to the sport, and the Social Pressure. Our findings provided a clear pattern of the influence of motivation in sport enjoyment and commitment, outlining the positive contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to enjoyment and commitment. Amotivation, contributes positively to alternatives to sport and negatively to enjoyment and commitment, It should be noted that extrinsic motivation has a higher contribution to enjoyment whereas intrinsic motivation has a higher contribution to commitment.

  18. The Enjoyment of Formal and Informal Recreation and Leisure Activities: A Comparison of School-Aged Children with and without Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Petrenchik, Theresa; Law, Mary; Hurley, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fairly extensive literature on the developmental benefits of youth's participation in organised, out-of-school activities, little is known about the participation of school-aged children with physical disabilities in formal recreation and leisure activities, both in comparison with their participation in informal activities and with…

  19. The Impact of a Mastery Motivational Climate on Obese and Overweight Children's Commitment to and Enjoyment of Physical Activity: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kent; Meaney, Karen; Hart, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obese and overweight children are often cast as being lazy or unmotivated in regards to participation in physical activity. Purpose: Based on the social cognitive principle of triadic reciprocality, this pilot study was designed to examine the impact of a mastery motivational climate on overweight and obese children's commitment to,…

  20. What Do You Enjoy about Coaching, Directing, or Advising?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Journal, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this article, several teachers share their ideas on what they enjoy about coaching, directing, or advising. One of them, Mary Ann Yedinak, teaches middle school language arts, has a family, and has several partially written books still stored on her computer. However, she still wants to add an extracurricular activity such as Drama Club to her…

  1. Evaluation of a Science Camp: Enjoyable Discovery of Mysterious World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birinci Konur, Kader; Seyihoglu, Aysegul; Sezen, Gulsah; Tekbiyik, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    In this research, summer science camp which is carried out on the purpose of developing positive attitude towards science and nature with enjoyable experiments in primary school students and activities were evaluated. The camp was performed as two 5 days stages with a total 48 students who had finished 7th grade at primary school. The findings of…

  2. The Impact of Continuous and Interval Cycle Exercise on Affect and Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Marcus W.; Greeley, Samuel J.; Collins, Larry H.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of physical activity remain low despite public health efforts. One form of physical activity that provides significant physiological benefit but has not been evaluated in terms of affective and enjoyment responses is interval exercise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare affect and enjoyment assessed before, during, and after…

  3. Dodge the Jet Lag, Enjoy Your Trip

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159864.html Dodge the Jet Lag, Enjoy Your Trip Sleep specialist offers tips ... HealthDay News) -- People crossing time zones may assume jet lag is something they have to endure -- like ...

  4. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment. PMID:26331623

  5. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Los Arcos, Asier; Vázquez, Juan Sebastián; Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment. PMID:26331623

  6. Disentangling Fun and Enjoyment in Exergames Using an Expanded Design, Play, Experience Framework: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Mellecker, Robin; Lyons, Elizabeth J; Baranowski, Tom

    2013-06-01

    With exergames (as with physical activity in general), more intense and longer-duration game play should accrue more health benefits. Exergames, however, appear to be played for relatively short durations, often at medium or lower intensities. Ostensibly games are played for fun or enjoyment. Enhancing the fun or enjoyment experienced during exergame play should enhance the intensity and duration of physical activity, and thereby the health benefits. Research, reviewed herein, indicates fun and/or enjoyment in games are inherently laden with psychosocial, physiological, and embodiment substrates. Physical activity may also have separate or closely related psychosocial, physiological, and embodiment enjoyment substrates. Research is needed to integrate these levels of experience and to identify the game mechanics that enhance, and even maximize, the fun or enjoyment experienced in exergames, to thereby increase the health benefit.

  7. Disentangling Fun and Enjoyment in Exergames Using an Expanded Design, Play, Experience Framework: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Mellecker, Robin; Baranowski, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Abstract With exergames (as with physical activity in general), more intense and longer-duration game play should accrue more health benefits. Exergames, however, appear to be played for relatively short durations, often at medium or lower intensities. Ostensibly games are played for fun or enjoyment. Enhancing the fun or enjoyment experienced during exergame play should enhance the intensity and duration of physical activity, and thereby the health benefits. Research, reviewed herein, indicates fun and/or enjoyment in games are inherently laden with psychosocial, physiological, and embodiment substrates. Physical activity may also have separate or closely related psychosocial, physiological, and embodiment enjoyment substrates. Research is needed to integrate these levels of experience and to identify the game mechanics that enhance, and even maximize, the fun or enjoyment experienced in exergames, to thereby increase the health benefit. PMID:24761322

  8. [Enjoying the sun well protected].

    PubMed

    Andrey, M

    1999-06-01

    According to the annual figures, skin cancer is the fastest growing type of cancer: one child in every hundred is currently at risk of developing a melanoma, the most malignant form of skin cancer. Surveys show that people are changing their behaviour when it comes to dealing with the sun. But only in small steps. That's why the Cancer League launches a sun protection campaign every year. Simple rules for protection from the sun: Between 11.00 a.m. and 3.00 p.m. (summer time), people should remain in the shade. A head covering and light, loose clothing should be worn in the sun. Tightly-woven, strong-coloured fabric offers better UV protection than coarsely-woven natural fibres. Sunglasses protect the eyes. The choice of sun screen depends on the skin type, the desired level of protection and the intended activity in the sun. The sun cream should be applied liberally half an hour before exposure to the sun. Depending on the particular preparation, it may need to be reapplied after bathing or showering to ensure that sun protection is maintained. Where reflective surfaces are present, e.g. sand, snow, cement and water, it is advisable to use sun protection creams even in the shade. Babies up to one year of age should be kept in the shade and sun protection agents should not be used on them. Like other chemical products, these may irritate the sensitive skin of babies and trigger allergies. Sunscreens used in older children should be waterproof, contain no alcohol and possess a high sun protection factor (at least SPF 15). Baby oil should not be used since it makes the child's skin even more sensitive to light. Parents should set an example to children in the way they protect themselves from the sun. Artificial UV light from sunbeds should be avoided, particularly by children and persons with an increased risk of developing a melanoma. PMID:10420807

  9. Lessons we most enjoy learning.

    PubMed

    Coleman, P L

    1993-03-01

    In the mid-1970s, the Philippine Commission on Population (POPCOM) began to use entertainment programs for reaching people with messages on population and development issues. 2 major motion pictures contained family planning (FP) messages. Radio dramas, print media, and theater also were used to convey FP messages. The early experiments were continued in the late 1980s through the work of the Philippine Center for Population and Development (PCPD). PCPD, with the assistance of the Johns Hopkins University/Population Communication Services (JHU/PCS) project, embarked on a program which used popular music to encourage young people to become sexually responsible adults. In 1990, the Philippine Non-Governmental Organization Council (PNGOC), the Department of Health (DOH) and JHU/PCS began an effort funded by USAID to form a coalition with the entertainment community for social development causes. DOH, JHU/PCS, and USAID wanted to promote FP and health through the Enter-Educate concept. PNGOC and JHU/PCS contacted over 20 entertainment organizations and held more than 75 conferences, work shops, and meetings which attended by more than 300 people. The movement of Entertainment for Social Change was launched in October 1991 with the creation of the Enter-Educate Foundation, Inc. (EEF). The aims of EEF include rewards, professional approach, and establishment of a network of dedicated entertainment and social development professionals. In 1993, a television comedy series will focus on FP as well as on maternal and child health. Further plans at the local level include: tree planting; discussions on migration; talks about FP; meetings on community population and environment activities; and networking of organizations involved with youth, the environment, and population. JHU/PCS provides technical assistance for the production, monitoring, and evaluation of the project. With these efforts, the EEF is attempting to focus on the country's biggest problems: population and the

  10. Lessons we most enjoy learning.

    PubMed

    Coleman, P L

    1993-03-01

    In the mid-1970s, the Philippine Commission on Population (POPCOM) began to use entertainment programs for reaching people with messages on population and development issues. 2 major motion pictures contained family planning (FP) messages. Radio dramas, print media, and theater also were used to convey FP messages. The early experiments were continued in the late 1980s through the work of the Philippine Center for Population and Development (PCPD). PCPD, with the assistance of the Johns Hopkins University/Population Communication Services (JHU/PCS) project, embarked on a program which used popular music to encourage young people to become sexually responsible adults. In 1990, the Philippine Non-Governmental Organization Council (PNGOC), the Department of Health (DOH) and JHU/PCS began an effort funded by USAID to form a coalition with the entertainment community for social development causes. DOH, JHU/PCS, and USAID wanted to promote FP and health through the Enter-Educate concept. PNGOC and JHU/PCS contacted over 20 entertainment organizations and held more than 75 conferences, work shops, and meetings which attended by more than 300 people. The movement of Entertainment for Social Change was launched in October 1991 with the creation of the Enter-Educate Foundation, Inc. (EEF). The aims of EEF include rewards, professional approach, and establishment of a network of dedicated entertainment and social development professionals. In 1993, a television comedy series will focus on FP as well as on maternal and child health. Further plans at the local level include: tree planting; discussions on migration; talks about FP; meetings on community population and environment activities; and networking of organizations involved with youth, the environment, and population. JHU/PCS provides technical assistance for the production, monitoring, and evaluation of the project. With these efforts, the EEF is attempting to focus on the country's biggest problems: population and the

  11. Sensitivity to Differences between Enjoyment and Non-Enjoyment Smiles in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blampied, Meredith; Johnston, Lucy; Miles, Lynden; Liberty, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity of male children (5-15 years) with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to the affective state of others was tested using an emotion recognition task. Only children without ASD could reliably differentiate between enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles. Results are considered in terms of the social impairments of children with…

  12. Mouse Activity across Time Scales: Fractal Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Lima, G. Z. dos Santos; Lobão-Soares, B.; do Nascimento, G. C.; França, Arthur S. C.; Muratori, L.; Ribeiro, S.; Corso, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we devise a classification of mouse activity patterns based on accelerometer data using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We use two characteristic mouse behavioural states as benchmarks in this study: waking in free activity and slow-wave sleep (SWS). In both situations we find roughly the same pattern: for short time intervals we observe high correlation in activity - a typical 1/f complex pattern - while for large time intervals there is anti-correlation. High correlation of short intervals ( to : waking state and to : SWS) is related to highly coordinated muscle activity. In the waking state we associate high correlation both to muscle activity and to mouse stereotyped movements (grooming, waking, etc.). On the other side, the observed anti-correlation over large time scales ( to : waking state and to : SWS) during SWS appears related to a feedback autonomic response. The transition from correlated regime at short scales to an anti-correlated regime at large scales during SWS is given by the respiratory cycle interval, while during the waking state this transition occurs at the time scale corresponding to the duration of the stereotyped mouse movements. Furthermore, we find that the waking state is characterized by longer time scales than SWS and by a softer transition from correlation to anti-correlation. Moreover, this soft transition in the waking state encompass a behavioural time scale window that gives rise to a multifractal pattern. We believe that the observed multifractality in mouse activity is formed by the integration of several stereotyped movements each one with a characteristic time correlation. Finally, we compare scaling properties of body acceleration fluctuation time series during sleep and wake periods for healthy mice. Interestingly, differences between sleep and wake in the scaling exponents are comparable to previous works regarding human heartbeat. Complementarily, the nature of these sleep-wake dynamics could lead to a better

  13. Enjoying the Red Camelias of Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Virginia M.

    Based on the premise that educators are vitally interested in literary moments that engage the reader instantly, this paper discusses books that provide enjoyment for children. After suggesting that the most important "basics" are those that promote an exploration of language through literature, the paper notes the importance of good literature…

  14. Leveraging Avatars in 3D Virtual Environments ("Second Life") for Interactive Learning: The Moderating Role of the Behavioral Activation System "vs." Behavioral Inhibition System and the Mediating Role of Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Seung-A. Annie

    2011-01-01

    Within the Entertainment-Education (E-E) framework, two experiments examined the effects of avatar-based e-health education targeting college students. Study 1 (between-subjects factorial design experiment: N = 94) tested the effects of message framing in e-learning and the moderating role of students' motivational systems on their enjoyment of…

  15. Planning for Enjoyment in the General Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koops, Lisa Huisman; Keppen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Enjoyment is an important but often overlooked element in the music classroom. In this article, we review research literature related to enjoyment in musical interactions and discuss the role of enjoyment in the general music classroom. Drawing on research literature, our experience as general music teachers, and our research on enjoyment during…

  16. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  17. Amplitude Scaling of Active Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalnov, Oksana; Seifert, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    Three existing and two new excitation magnitude scaling options for active separation control at Reynolds numbers below one Million. The physical background for the scaling options was discussed and their relevance was evaluated using two different sets of experimental data. For F+ approx. 1, 2D excitation: a) The traditional VR and C(mu) - do not scale the data. b) Only the Re*C(mu) is valid. This conclusion is also limited for positive lift increment.. For F+ > 10, 3D excitation, the Re corrected C(mu), the St corrected velocity ratio and the vorticity flux coefficient, all scale the amplitudes equally well. Therefore, the Reynolds weighted C(mu) is the preferred choice, relevant to both excitation modes. Incidence also considered, using Ue from local Cp.

  18. Mouse activity across time scales: fractal scenarios.

    PubMed

    Lima, G Z dos Santos; Lobão-Soares, B; do Nascimento, G C; França, Arthur S C; Muratori, L; Ribeiro, S; Corso, G

    2014-01-01

    In this work we devise a classification of mouse activity patterns based on accelerometer data using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We use two characteristic mouse behavioural states as benchmarks in this study: waking in free activity and slowwave sleep (SWS). In both situations we find roughly the same pattern: for short time intervals we observe high correlation in activity--a typical 1/f complex pattern--while for large time intervals there is anti-correlation. High correlation of short intervals (0.01 s to 2 s: waking state and 0.01 s to 0.1 s: SWS) is related to highly coordinated muscle activity. In the waking state we associate high correlation both to muscle activity and to mouse stereotyped movements (grooming, waking, etc.). On the other side, the observed anti-correlation over large time scales (30 s to 300 s: waking state and 0.3 s to 5 s: SWS) during SWS appears related to a feedback autonomic response. The transition from correlated regime at short scales to an anti-correlated regime at large scales during SWS is given by the respiratory cycle interval, while during the waking state this transition occurs at the time scale corresponding to the duration of the stereotyped mouse movements. Furthermore, we find that the waking state is characterized by longer time scales than SWS and by a softer transition from correlation to anticorrelation. Moreover, this soft transition in the waking state encompass a behavioural time scale window that gives rise to a multifractal pattern. We believe that the observed multifractality in mouse activity is formed by the integration of several stereotyped movements each one with a characteristic time correlation. Finally, we compare scaling properties of body acceleration fluctuation time series during sleep and wake periods for healthy mice. Interestingly, differences between sleep and wake in the scaling exponents are comparable to previous works regarding human heartbeat. Complementarily, the nature of these sleep

  19. Live Scale Active Shooter Exercise: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Randy

    2008-01-01

    On October 23, 2007, the Lake Land College Public Safety Department conducted a full-scale live exercise that simulated an active shooter and barricaded hostage. In this article, the author will emphasize what they learned, and how they intend to benefit from it. He will list the law enforcement issues and general issues they encountered, and then…

  20. If It's Enjoyable, Is It Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsden, Judith M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a small-scale study of a course that placed emphasis on context- and activity-based science. The Salters' science course makes use of a wide range of learning strategies. Author concludes that pupils' interest and enthusiasm for school science may be increased through a combination of using pupil's everyday interests and employing a wide…

  1. Recording of brain activity across spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C M; Bosman, C A; Fries, P

    2015-06-01

    Brain activity reveals exquisite coordination across spatial scales, from local microcircuits to brain-wide networks. Understanding how the brain represents, transforms and communicates information requires simultaneous recordings from distributed nodes of whole brain networks with single-cell resolution. Realizing multi-site recordings from communicating populations is hampered by the need to isolate clusters of interacting cells, often on a day-to-day basis. Chronic implantation of multi-electrode arrays allows long-term tracking of activity. Lithography on thin films provides a means to produce arrays of variable resolution, a high degree of flexibility, and minimal tissue displacement. Sequential application of surface arrays to monitor activity across brain-wide networks and subsequent implantation of laminar arrays to target specific populations enables continual refinement of spatial scale while maintaining coverage. PMID:25544724

  2. Optimising sprint interval exercise to maximise energy expenditure and enjoyment in overweight boys.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Nicole A; Fournier, Paul A; Licari, Melissa K; Braham, Rebecca; Guelfi, Kym J

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the sprint frequency that when supplemented to continuous exercise at the intensity that maximises fat oxidation (Fat(max)), optimises energy expenditure, acute postexercise energy intake and enjoyment. Eleven overweight boys completed 30 min of either continuous cycling at Fat(max) (MOD), or sprint interval exercise that consisted of continuous cycling at Fat(max) interspersed with 4-s maximal sprints every 2 min (SI(120)), every 1 min (SI(60)), or every 30 s (SI(30)). Energy expenditure was assessed during exercise, after which participants completed a modified Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) followed by a buffet-type breakfast to measure acute postexercise energy intake. Energy expenditure increased with increasing sprint frequency (p < 0.001), but the difference between SI(60) and SI(30) did not reach significance (p = 0.076), likely as a result of decreased sprint quality as indicated by a significant decline in peak power output from SI(60) to SI(30) (p = 0.034). Postexercise energy intake was similar for MOD, SI(120), and SI(30) (p > 0.05), but was significantly less for SI(60) compared with MOD (p = 0.025). PACES was similar for MOD, SI(120), and SI(60) (p > 0.05), but was less for SI(30) compared with MOD (p = 0.038), SI(120) (p = 0.009), and SI(60) (p = 0.052). In conclusion, SI(60) appears optimal for overweight boys given that it maximises energy expenditure (i.e., there was no additional increase in expenditure with a further increase in sprint frequency) without prompting increased energy intake. This, coupled with the fact that enjoyment was not compromised, may have important implications for increased adherence and long-term energy balance.

  3. High-intensity interval running is perceived to be more enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise: implications for exercise adherence.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Jonathan D; Close, Graeme L; MacLaren, Don P M; Gregson, Warren; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively quantify ratings of perceived enjoyment using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale following high-intensity interval running versus moderate-intensity continuous running. Eight recreationally active men performed two running protocols consisting of high-intensity interval running (6 × 3 min at 90% VO(2max) interspersed with 6 × 3 min active recovery at 50% VO(2max) with a 7-min warm-up and cool down at 70% VO(2max)) or 50 min moderate-intensity continuous running at 70% VO(2max). Ratings of perceived enjoyment after exercise were higher (P < 0.05) following interval running compared with continuous running (88 ± 6 vs. 61 ± 12) despite higher (P < 0.05) ratings of perceived exertion (14 ± 1 vs. 13 ± 1). There was no difference (P < 0.05) in average heart rate (88 ± 3 vs. 87 ± 3% maximum heart rate), average VO(2) (71 ± 6 vs. 73 ± 4%VO(2max)), total VO(2) (162 ± 16 vs. 166 ± 27 L) or energy expenditure (811 ± 83 vs. 832 ± 136 kcal) between protocols. The greater enjoyment associated with high-intensity interval running may be relevant for improving exercise adherence, since running is a low-cost exercise intervention requiring no exercise equipment and similar relative exercise intensities have previously induced health benefits in patient populations.

  4. Enjoying Sad Music: Paradox or Parallel Processes?

    PubMed

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment of negative emotions in music is seen by many as a paradox. This article argues that the paradox exists because it is difficult to view the process that generates enjoyment as being part of the same system that also generates the subjective negative feeling. Compensation theories explain the paradox as the compensation of a negative emotion by the concomitant presence of one or more positive emotions. But compensation brings us no closer to explaining the paradox because it does not explain how experiencing sadness itself is enjoyed. The solution proposed is that an emotion is determined by three critical processes-labeled motivational action tendency (MAT), subjective feeling (SF) and Appraisal. For many emotions the MAT and SF processes are coupled in valence. For example, happiness has positive MAT and positive SF, annoyance has negative MAT and negative SF. However, it is argued that in an aesthetic context, such as listening to music, emotion processes can become decoupled. The decoupling is controlled by the Appraisal process, which can assess if the context of the sadness is real-life (where coupling occurs) or aesthetic (where decoupling can occur). In an aesthetic context sadness retains its negative SF but the aversive, negative MAT is inhibited, leaving sadness to still be experienced as a negative valanced emotion, while contributing to the overall positive MAT. Individual differences, mood and previous experiences mediate the degree to which the aversive aspects of MAT are inhibited according to this Parallel Processing Hypothesis (PPH). The reason for hesitancy in considering or testing PPH, as well as the preponderance of research on sadness at the exclusion of other negative emotions, are discussed. PMID:27445752

  5. Enjoying Sad Music: Paradox or Parallel Processes?

    PubMed

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment of negative emotions in music is seen by many as a paradox. This article argues that the paradox exists because it is difficult to view the process that generates enjoyment as being part of the same system that also generates the subjective negative feeling. Compensation theories explain the paradox as the compensation of a negative emotion by the concomitant presence of one or more positive emotions. But compensation brings us no closer to explaining the paradox because it does not explain how experiencing sadness itself is enjoyed. The solution proposed is that an emotion is determined by three critical processes-labeled motivational action tendency (MAT), subjective feeling (SF) and Appraisal. For many emotions the MAT and SF processes are coupled in valence. For example, happiness has positive MAT and positive SF, annoyance has negative MAT and negative SF. However, it is argued that in an aesthetic context, such as listening to music, emotion processes can become decoupled. The decoupling is controlled by the Appraisal process, which can assess if the context of the sadness is real-life (where coupling occurs) or aesthetic (where decoupling can occur). In an aesthetic context sadness retains its negative SF but the aversive, negative MAT is inhibited, leaving sadness to still be experienced as a negative valanced emotion, while contributing to the overall positive MAT. Individual differences, mood and previous experiences mediate the degree to which the aversive aspects of MAT are inhibited according to this Parallel Processing Hypothesis (PPH). The reason for hesitancy in considering or testing PPH, as well as the preponderance of research on sadness at the exclusion of other negative emotions, are discussed.

  6. Enjoying Sad Music: Paradox or Parallel Processes?

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment of negative emotions in music is seen by many as a paradox. This article argues that the paradox exists because it is difficult to view the process that generates enjoyment as being part of the same system that also generates the subjective negative feeling. Compensation theories explain the paradox as the compensation of a negative emotion by the concomitant presence of one or more positive emotions. But compensation brings us no closer to explaining the paradox because it does not explain how experiencing sadness itself is enjoyed. The solution proposed is that an emotion is determined by three critical processes—labeled motivational action tendency (MAT), subjective feeling (SF) and Appraisal. For many emotions the MAT and SF processes are coupled in valence. For example, happiness has positive MAT and positive SF, annoyance has negative MAT and negative SF. However, it is argued that in an aesthetic context, such as listening to music, emotion processes can become decoupled. The decoupling is controlled by the Appraisal process, which can assess if the context of the sadness is real-life (where coupling occurs) or aesthetic (where decoupling can occur). In an aesthetic context sadness retains its negative SF but the aversive, negative MAT is inhibited, leaving sadness to still be experienced as a negative valanced emotion, while contributing to the overall positive MAT. Individual differences, mood and previous experiences mediate the degree to which the aversive aspects of MAT are inhibited according to this Parallel Processing Hypothesis (PPH). The reason for hesitancy in considering or testing PPH, as well as the preponderance of research on sadness at the exclusion of other negative emotions, are discussed. PMID:27445752

  7. Validating the youth sport enjoyment construct in high school physical education.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Hairul; Grove, J Robert; Whipp, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop and validate a questionnaire measuring teaching processes related to physical education (PE) enjoyment. Scanlan and Lewthwaite's (1986) youth sport enjoyment model provided the theoretical foundation for this work. Content validity and item readability of the instrument were established by obtaining feedback from eight experts in psychology and four highly experienced secondary school teachers. Construct validity was then established by conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on data from 304 secondary school students (grades 8, 9, and 10). As a result of these analyses, six teaching processes related to PE enjoyment were identified: self-referent competency (four items), other-referent competency (four items), teacher-generated excitement (three items), activity-generated excitement (five items), peer interaction (two items), and parental encouragement (two items). Correlation analyses revealed that all of these processes were positively correlated with PE enjoyment. The weakest correlation was between peer interaction and enjoyment (r = .31, p < .05), and the strongest was between activity-generated excitement and enjoyment (r = .83, p < .05). We believe that the instrument is appropriate for studying affective outcomes within physical educational settings among students in grades 8, 9, and 10.

  8. Self-efficacy and enjoyment of middle school children performing the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER).

    PubMed

    Kane, Irene; Robertson, Robert J; Fertman, Carl I; Nagle, Elizabeth F; McConnaha, Wendell R; Rabin, Bruce S

    2013-10-01

    Self-efficacy and enjoyment were examined among 34 middle school children (M age = 12.5 yr.) performing the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Exercise self-efficacy (running) and physical activity enjoyment were measured after viewing a video illustrating the PACER, and subsequently following a PACER test. Significantly greater pre- than post-exercise self-efficacy was reported; enjoyment scores did not differ. Ratings of self-efficacy were higher before exercise than after, but enjoyment scores were not significantly different. A significant correlation was found between post-exercise self-efficacy and enjoyment, but not between pre-exercise self-efficacy and enjoyment. Although positive correlations were found between PACER laps and pre-/post-exercise self-efficacy, correlations with ratings of enjoyment were not significant. Exercise self-efficacy was associated with children's beliefs about the task-specific PACER aerobic exercise; however, exercise enjoyment was stable. Children's self-efficacy and enjoyment beliefs should be considered when developing interventional strategies to promote aerobic exercise participation. PMID:24611251

  9. Leisure Participation and Enjoyment among the Elderly: Individual Characteristics and Sociability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-Yen; Fu, Yang-Chih

    2008-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of adults in Taiwan, this study explored how often older adults participate in and how much they enjoy 2 mostly-solitary leisure activities (reading books and watching TV/DVDs/videos) and 2 mostly-social leisure activities (socializing with friends and engaging in physical activities). According to ordinal…

  10. Using Grounded Theory and Action Research to Raise Attainment in, and Enjoyment of, Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Jill

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale, qualitative research project that critically reflects on the process and impact of using both grounded and action research to enhance attainment and enjoyment of reading, in such a way as to raise awareness at an individual and whole school level. The purpose of the project was to ascertain if the selected…

  11. Energy Expenditure and Enjoyment during Video Game Play: Differences by Game Type

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Kalyararaman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Play of physically active video games may be a way to increase physical activity and/or decrease sedentary behavior, but games are not universally active or enjoyable. Active games may differ from traditional games on important attributes, which may affect frequency and intensity of play. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment across four game types: shooter (played with traditional controllers), band simulation (guitar or drum controller), dance simulation (dance mat controller), and fitness (balance board controller). Methods Energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents [METs]) and enjoyment were measured across ten games in 100 young adults aged 18 to 35 (50 females). Results All games except shooter games significantly increased energy expenditure over rest (P < .001). Fitness and dance games increased energy expenditure by 322 (mean [SD] 3.10 [0.89] METs) and 298 (2.91 [0.87] METs) percent, which was greater than that produced by band simulation (73%, 1.28 [0.28] METs) and shooter games (23%, 0.91 [0.16] METs). However, enjoyment was higher in band simulation games than in other types (P < .001). Body mass-corrected energy expenditure was greater in normal weight than overweight participants in the two most active game types (P < .001). Conclusions Active video games can significantly increase energy expended during screen time, but these games are less enjoyable than other more sedentary games, suggesting that they may be less likely to be played over time. Less active but more enjoyable video games may be a promising method for decreasing sedentary behavior. PMID:21364477

  12. Fun and Enjoyment in Physical Education: Young People's Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dismore, Harriet; Bailey, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Fun and enjoyment are recurring themes in physical education literature, although there has been some debate concerning the distinction between the two concepts. Whereas enjoyment is generally regarded as helpful in fostering positive attitudes towards physical education, fun has not always been considered an appropriate outcome of physical…

  13. Empirical Taxonomies of Gameplay Enjoyment: Personality and Video Game Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, John M.; Atkinson, Robert K.; Lin, Lijia

    2012-01-01

    A survey study was conducted to better understand how gameplay enjoyment relates to players' personality traits and video game preferences. This study demonstrated that the core design elements of games that lead to enjoyment can be empirically identified. Similarly, it showed that considering personality, an individual characteristic, can produce…

  14. Enjoy Successful Parenting: Practical Strategies You Can Use Today!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Roger W.

    A child's best interest is served when parents enjoy and are satisfied with their family responsibilities. This book, for parents of children ages 2-10, illustrates how children learn their communication styles, imitate their parents, and acquire and modify their own dispositions. So that the family may be enjoyed by everyone, children need good…

  15. Enjoyment of life and declining physical function at older ages: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Background: Positive affective well-being (i.e., feelings of happiness and enjoyment) has been associated with longer survival and reduced incidence of serious illness. Our objective was to discover whether enjoyment of life also predicted a reduced risk of functional impairment over an 8-year period in a large population sample. Methods: We carried out a prospective analysis involving 3199 men and women aged 60 years or older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Enjoyment of life was assessed by questionnaire. Outcomes were impairment in 2 or more activities of daily living and changes in gait speed on a walking test. Covariates included sociodemographic factors, baseline health, depressive symptoms, impairment of mobility and health behaviours. Results: Two or more impaired activities of daily living developed among 4.4%, 11.7% and 16.8% of participants in the high, medium and low enjoyment-of-life tertiles, respectively. After adjustment for covariates, the odds of impaired activities of daily living developing were 1.83 (95% confidence interval 1.13–2.96) in the low compared with high tertile. Gait speed after 8 years was also related to baseline enjoyment of life after adjustment for gait speed and other covariates at baseline (p < 0.001). We obtained similar results when we limited analyses to participants younger than 70 years at baseline. Interpretation: This is an observational study, so causal conclusions cannot be drawn. But our results provide evidence that reduced enjoyment of life may be related to the future disability and mobility of older people. PMID:24446463

  16. Pediatric aquatic therapy on motor function and enjoyment in children diagnosed with cerebral palsy of various motor severities.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Jou; Liu, Wen-Yu; Yang, Tsui-Fen; Chen, Chia-Ling; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chan, Rai-Chi

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of pediatric aquatic therapy on motor function, enjoyment, activities of daily living, and health-related quality of life for children with spastic cerebral palsy of various motor severities. Children with spastic cerebral palsy were assigned to a pediatric aquatic therapy group (n = 11; mean age = 85.0 ± 33.1 months; male : female = 4 : 7) or a control group (n = 13; mean age = 87.6 ± 34.0 months; male : female = 9 : 4). The statistic results indicate that the pediatric aquatic therapy group had greater average 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure following intervention than the control group (η(2) = 0.308, P = .007), even for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System level IV (5.0 vs 1.3). The pediatric aquatic therapy group had higher Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale scores than the control group at post-treatment (P = .015). These findings demonstrate that pediatric aquatic therapy can be an effective and alternative therapy for children with cerebral palsy even with poor Gross Motor Function Classification System level.

  17. Pediatric aquatic therapy on motor function and enjoyment in children diagnosed with cerebral palsy of various motor severities.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Jou; Liu, Wen-Yu; Yang, Tsui-Fen; Chen, Chia-Ling; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chan, Rai-Chi

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of pediatric aquatic therapy on motor function, enjoyment, activities of daily living, and health-related quality of life for children with spastic cerebral palsy of various motor severities. Children with spastic cerebral palsy were assigned to a pediatric aquatic therapy group (n = 11; mean age = 85.0 ± 33.1 months; male : female = 4 : 7) or a control group (n = 13; mean age = 87.6 ± 34.0 months; male : female = 9 : 4). The statistic results indicate that the pediatric aquatic therapy group had greater average 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure following intervention than the control group (η(2) = 0.308, P = .007), even for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System level IV (5.0 vs 1.3). The pediatric aquatic therapy group had higher Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale scores than the control group at post-treatment (P = .015). These findings demonstrate that pediatric aquatic therapy can be an effective and alternative therapy for children with cerebral palsy even with poor Gross Motor Function Classification System level. PMID:24907137

  18. Reliability and Validity of the Physical Education Activities Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Diane L.; Feng, Du

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measuring adolescent perceptions of physical education (PE) activities is necessary in understanding determinants of school PE activity participation. This study assessed reliability and validity of the Physical Education Activities Scale (PEAS), a 41-item visual analog scale measuring high school adolescent perceptions of school PE…

  19. Reliability and validity of the German language version of Girls' Disinclination for Physical Activity Scale.

    PubMed

    Pedisic, Zeljko; Matouschek, Stefanie; Stückler, Martina; Basaric, Amir; Titze, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    The high prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PA) among adolescents is an important public health issue. Studying reasons for disliking PA might help researchers better understand its underlying mechanisms, yet this psychological construct has been understudied. This study established the psychometric properties of the German language version of the Girls' Disinclination for Physical Activity Scale (G-DAS-Ger). Data were collected on a sample of 257 adolescent girls in Austria (mean age: 13.0 ± 0.7 years) using the G-DAS-Ger and the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. One week after the first assessment, the questionnaires were re-administered to 78 girls. Between two administrations, PA of 215 girls was monitored for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Confirmatory factor analysis of G-DAS-Ger showed good fit for a three-factor model (χ(2)/df = 2.025; Bollen-Stine (B-S) p = 0.159; root mean square error of approximation = 0.063; standardised root mean square residual = 0.054; comparative fit index = 0.950). Cronbach's alphas for G-DAS-Ger factors/subscales ranged 0.64-0.76. The test-retest reliability assessed by Spearman's rank correlation ranged 0.62-0.75. Only one subscale correlated significantly with vigorous-intensity PA (Spearman's rho = -0.16) and none with moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA, which indicated poor predictive validity of the G-DAS-Ger. Correlations between G-DAS-Ger subscales and enjoyment of PA ranged from -0.29 to -0.41, indicating satisfactory convergent validity. The G-DAS-Ger may be used in its present form to assess disinclination for PA among adolescent girls in German-speaking countries. However, our results put into question the stability of the originally proposed factor structure of the questionnaire and its predictive validity among German-speaking adolescent girls. Methodological refinements to the G-DAS-Ger may be required to improve its psychometric properties in this population.

  20. What Do Children Most Enjoy about Summer Soccer Camp? Gender and Group Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rhys

    2005-01-01

    One hundred children attending a summer soccer camp in NE Ohio provided written data on what they most enjoyed about the camp. Findings indicated that, overall, they ranked "soccer games and skills" and "camp related activities" as the two leading major categories. In terms of gender group analysis (females = 49; males = 51) the males gave more…

  1. Disentangling fun and enjoyment in exergames using an expanded design, play, experience framework: A narrative review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With exergames (as with physical activity in general), more intense and longer-duration game play should accrue more health benefits. Exergames, however, appear to be played for relatively short durations, often at medium or lower intensities. Ostensibly games are played for fun or enjoyment. Enhanc...

  2. But I like PE: Factors Associated with Enjoyment of Physical Education Class in Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ward, Dianne S.; Conway, Terry L.; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D.; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they…

  3. Scale-free brain activity: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    He, Biyu J.

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity observed at many spatiotemporal scales exhibits a 1/f-like power spectrum, including neuronal membrane potentials, neural field potentials, noninvasive electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. A 1/f-like power spectrum is indicative of arrhythmic brain activity that does not contain a predominant temporal scale (hence, “scale-free”). This characteristic of scale-free brain activity distinguishes it from brain oscillations. While scale-free brain activity and brain oscillations coexist, our understanding of the former remains very limited. Recent research has shed light on the spatiotemporal organization, functional significance and potential generative mechanisms of scale-free brain activity, as well as its developmental and clinical relevance. A deeper understanding of this prevalent brain signal should provide new insights and analytical tools for cognitive neuroscience. PMID:24788139

  4. Scale-free brain activity: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    He, Biyu J

    2014-09-01

    Brain activity observed at many spatiotemporal scales exhibits a 1/f-like power spectrum, including neuronal membrane potentials, neural field potentials, noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals. A 1/f-like power spectrum is indicative of arrhythmic brain activity that does not contain a predominant temporal scale (hence, 'scale-free'). This characteristic of scale-free brain activity distinguishes it from brain oscillations. Although scale-free brain activity and brain oscillations coexist, our understanding of the former remains limited. Recent research has shed light on the spatiotemporal organization, functional significance, and potential generative mechanisms of scale-free brain activity, as well as its developmental and clinical relevance. A deeper understanding of this prevalent brain signal should provide new insights into, and analytical tools for, cognitive neuroscience.

  5. Large-scale recording of astrocyte activity

    PubMed Central

    Nimmerjahn, Axel; Bergles, Dwight E.

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes are highly ramified glial cells found throughout the central nervous system (CNS). They express a variety of neurotransmitter receptors that can induce widespread chemical excitation, placing these cells in an optimal position to exert global effects on brain physiology. However, the activity patterns of only a small fraction of astrocytes have been examined and techniques to manipulate their behavior are limited. As a result, little is known about how astrocytes modulate CNS function on synaptic, microcircuit, or systems levels. Here, we review current and emerging approaches for visualizing and manipulating astrocyte activity in vivo. Deciphering how astrocyte network activity is controlled in different physiological and pathological contexts is critical for defining their roles in the healthy and diseased CNS. PMID:25665733

  6. Enjoy Life in the Fast Lane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urshan, J.

    This guide to supermarket shopping provides information in an outline format. It first covers preliminary activities such as determining family needs, shopping on a budget, and planning at home. A number of suggestions are then made for the actual shopping. Topics include shopper aids (unit pricing, nutritional labeling, freshness coding), store…

  7. Enjoying the Environment. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Since an increasing number of people today are spending leisure time in the out-of-doors, there is a need to develop society's awareness and understanding of the environment, develop outdoor skills, and stress factors in outdoor activity participation. This unit is designed to provide enough information and skill development to enable educable…

  8. Scaling explosive activity at Stromboli Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    marchetti, emanuele; ripepe, maurizio

    2013-04-01

    Ordinary explosive activity at Stromboli volcano is sometimes interrupted by Paroxysms and more often by Major Explosions. Major explosion represent a primary element of risk, given the large amount of material ejected, able to reach Pizzo Sopra la Fossa and the other summit trails, and the frequency of occurrence (2.1 events/year). However, while paroxysms are easy to be identified and there is a general consensous on their occurrence this does not necessarily hold for Major Explosions. Generally, Major Explosions are defined as based on the amount of material emitted and on the area covered by the ejecta dispersal, as well as on the properties of material emitted, but this is not always possible nor suitable for a near-real time information delivery to Civil Defence Authorities. With this purpose we have analyzed the seismic, tilt and infrasonic data collected at Stromboli since 2008 for a total database >400000 events to provide a geophysical classification of major explosions. We assumed that seismic (in the VLP band), ground tilt, and the acoustic excess pressure are efficient signals to discriminate different explosive energy. We show how ordinary activity is confined below a seismic VLP ground displacement of 8x10-6 m, a deformation of 0.25 μrad and an infrasonic excess pressure of 100 Pa. A separate cluster of events, characterized by tilt and seismic displacement significantly larger than these threshold are defined as Major Explosions. Here we propose these threshold can be used to quantitatively discriminate between ordinary activity and Major explosions. While above these precise threshold we have several explosions which can be considered as Major Explosions, the two paroxysms are associated to orders of magnitude (ground displacement of 10-3 m and tilt of 10 μrad) larger ground tilt and seismic VLP displacement. Besides our classification is suggesting the existence of a possible energy gap between Major and Paroxysms explosive dynamics which has

  9. Enjoy your food: on losing weight and taking pleasure.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Else; Mol, Annemarie

    2014-02-01

    Does healthy eating require people to control themselves and abstain from pleasure? This idea is dominant, but in our studies of dieting in The Netherlands we encountered professionals who work in other ways. They encourage their clients to enjoy their food, as only such joy provides satisfaction and the sense that one has eaten enough. Enjoying one's food is not easy. It depends on being sensitive. This does not come naturally but needs training. And while one kind of hunger may be difficult to distinguish from another, feeling pleasure may open the doors to feeling pain. What is more, sensitivity is not enough: enjoying one's food also depends on the food being enjoyable. A lot of care is required for that. But while engaging in such care is hard work, along the way clients are encouraged to no longer ask 'Am I being good?' but to wonder instead 'Is this good for me?' Both these questions are normative and focus on the person rather than on her socio-material context. However, in the situations related here the difference is worth making. For it entails a shift from externally controlling your behaviour to self-caringly enjoying your food. PMID:24528307

  10. Doctors’ enjoyment of their work and satisfaction with time available for leisure: UK time trend questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    Surman, Geraldine; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Doctors’ job satisfaction is important to the health service to ensure commitment, effective training, service provision and retention. Job satisfaction matters to doctors for their personal happiness, fulfilment, service to patients and duty to employers. Monitoring job satisfaction trends informs workforce planning. Materials and methods We surveyed UK-trained doctors up to 5 years after graduation for six graduation year cohorts: 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2012. Doctors scored their job enjoyment (Enjoyment) and satisfaction with time outside work (Leisure) on a scale from 1 (lowest enjoyment/satisfaction) to 10 (highest). Results Overall, 47% had a high level of Enjoyment (scores 8–10) 1 year after graduation and 56% after 5 years. For Leisure, the corresponding figures were 19% and 37% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. For Leisure at 1 year, high scores were given by about 10% in the 1990s, rising to about 25% in the mid-2000s. Low scores (1–3) for Enjoyment were given by 15% of qualifiers of 1996, falling to 5% by 2008; corresponding figures for Leisure were 42% and 19%. At 5 years, the corresponding figures were 6% and 4%, and 23% and 17%. Enjoyment and Leisure were scored higher by general practitioners than doctors in other specialties. Both measures varied little by sex, ethnicity or medical school attended. Conclusions Scores for Enjoyment were generally high; those for Leisure were lower. Policy initiatives should address why this aspect of satisfaction is low, particularly in the first year after graduation but also among hospital doctors 5 years after graduation. PMID:26783328

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Commitment to Physical Activity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Huberty, Jennifer; Pettee, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess psychometric properties of the Commitment to Physical Activity Scale (CPAS). Methods: Girls in third to fifth grades (n = 932) completed the CPAS before and after a physical activity intervention. Psychometric measures included internal consistency, factor analysis, and concurrent validity. Results: Three CPAS factors emerged:…

  12. The Validation of the Active Learning in Health Professions Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammer, Rebecca; Schreiner, Laurie; Kim, Young K.; Denial, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for an assessment tool for evaluating the effectiveness of active learning strategies such as problem-based learning in promoting deep learning and clinical reasoning skills within the dual environments of didactic and clinical settings in health professions education. The Active Learning in Health Professions Scale (ALPHS)…

  13. Cycling Wheelchair Provides Enjoyable Pedaling Exercises with Increased Physiological Indexes.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yuya; Misu, Shogo; Sawa, Ryuichi; Nakatsu, Nobuyuki; Sugimoto, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kazuya; Takamori, Kumi; Ono, Kumiko; Seki, Kazunori; Handa, Yasunobu; Ono, Rei

    2016-01-01

    The cycling wheelchair (CWC) can be used as a pedaling exercise machine. However, physiological indexes in the CWC at various pedaling rates and the difference between the CWC and the existing pedaling machines such as the portable ergometer (ERG) are unclear. The aim of this study was to measure physiological indexes in the CWC at various pedaling rates and compare the CWC to the ERG, focusing on psychological stress. The present non-randomized crossover study included ten healthy men (22.3 ± 1.2 years) who performed pedaling exercise with the CWC and the ERG. Both experiments were composed of three pedaling exercise sessions (40, 60, and 80 rpm). Physiological indexes, consisting of oxygen consumption, heart rate, perceived breathlessness and leg fatigue, and salivary amylase activity (SAA), an index of psychological stress, were measured. The metabolic equivalent (METs) and the rate of change in SAA from rest to immediately after each pedaling session (ΔSAA) were calculated. In the CWC, all physiological indexes significantly increased with pedaling rates. The METs were 2.2 ± 0.3, 2.7 ± 0.4, and 3.5 ± 0.4 at 40, 60, and 80 rpm, respectively. In comparison between the CWC and the ERG, ΔSAA was lower in the CWC than in the ERG at 60 and 80 rpm. Our results indicate that the CWC pedaling can provide low or moderate intensity exercises with adjusting pedaling rates and is less stressful than the ERG. Thus, the CWC is a useful pedaling machine to promote regular and enjoyable exercises. PMID:26672774

  14. Phat Exercise: How Young Adults Enjoy and Sustain Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimiecik, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Sport psychologists know that many people who do a behavior voluntarily over a long period of time have discovered for themselves an inner feeling that motivates them to perform the behavior, such as exercise, for its own sake. This form of motivation has been labeled "intrinsic" by some researchers. The concept of intrinsic motivation, when…

  15. Mindful Music Listening Instruction Increases Listening Sensitivity and Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of mindful listening instruction on music listening sensitivity and music listening enjoyment. A pretest--posttest control group design was used. Participants, fourth-grade students (N = 42) from an elementary school in a large city in the Northeastern United States, were randomly assigned to two…

  16. Using English Songs: An Enjoyable and Effective Approach to ELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Chunxuan

    2009-01-01

    How can ELT be made enjoyable and effective? One feasible pedagogical application is to integrate English songs into ELT. Song, a combination of music and lyrics, possesses many intrinsic merits, such as a kaleidoscope of culture, expressiveness, recitability and therapeutic functions, which render it an invaluable source for language teaching.…

  17. Early Adolescents' Enjoyment Experienced in Learning Situations at School and Its Relation to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagenauer, Gerda; Hascher, Tina

    2014-01-01

    While many studies confirm that positive emotions, including enjoyment, lead to better student achievement, less empirical evidence exists about possible mediator variables that link achievement to enjoyment. It is proposed that achievement and enjoyment form a circular dependency; enjoyment in learning leads to higher achievement but a degree of…

  18. Emotional Transmission in the Classroom: Exploring the Relationship between Teacher and Student Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenzel, Anne C.; Goetz, Thomas; Ludtke, Oliver; Pekrun, Reinhard; Sutton, Rosemary E.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the relationship between teacher and student enjoyment. Based on social-cognitive approaches to emotions, they hypothesized (a) that teacher enjoyment and student enjoyment within classrooms are positively linked and (b) that teacher enthusiasm mediates the relationship between teacher and student enjoyment.…

  19. Multi-scale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    DOE PAGES

    Gamborino, Diana; del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Martinell, Julio J.

    2016-07-08

    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps that are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions, we show that the multi-scale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also to be extracted from the analysis.

  20. Adding sprints to continuous exercise at the intensity that maximises fat oxidation: implications for acute energy balance and enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Nicole A; Fournier, Paul A; Licari, Melissa K; Braham, Rebecca; Guelfi, Kym J

    2012-09-01

    The objective was to examine the effect of adding sprints to continuous exercise at the intensity that maximises fat oxidation (Fat(max)) on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, enjoyment and post-exercise energy intake in boys. Nine overweight and nine normal weight boys (8-12 years) attended the laboratory on three mornings. First, body anthropometrics, peak aerobic capacity and Fat(max) were assessed. On the remaining two sessions, resting metabolic rate was determined before participants completed 30 min of either continuous cycling at Fat(max) (MOD) or sprint interval exercise consisting of continuous cycling at Fat(max) interspersed with four-second maximal sprints every two minutes (SI). Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were measured during exercise and for 30 min post-exercise, while participants completed a modified Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES). This was followed by a buffet-like breakfast to measure post-exercise energy intake. Fat oxidation rate was similar between groups and protocols (P>0.05). Both groups expended more energy with SI compared to MOD, resulting from increased carbohydrate oxidation (P<0.05), which was not compensated by increased energy intake. Participants indicated that they preferred SI more than MOD, although there was no significant difference in PACES score between the protocols (P>0.05). In summary, the addition of short sprints to continuous exercise at Fat(max) increased energy expenditure without compromising fat oxidation or stimulating increased post-exercise energy intake. The boys preferred SI and did not perceive it to be any harder than MOD, indicating that sprint interval exercise should be considered in exercise prescription for this population.

  1. SciDAC Institute for Ultra-Scale Visualization: Activity Recognition for Ultra-Scale Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, Deborah

    2014-04-30

    Understanding the science behind ultra-scale simulations requires extracting meaning from data sets of hundreds of terabytes or more. Developing scalable parallel visualization algorithms is a key step enabling scientists to interact and visualize their data at this scale. However, at extreme scales, the datasets are so huge, there is not even enough time to view the data, let alone explore it with basic visualization methods. Automated tools are necessary for knowledge discovery -- to help sift through the information and isolate characteristic patterns, thereby enabling the scientist to study local interactions, the origin of features and their evolution in large volumes of data. These tools must be able to operate on data of this scale and work with the visualization process. In this project, we developed a framework for activity detection to allow scientists to model and extract spatio-temporal patterns from time-varying data.

  2. Solar Irradiance Variations on Active Region Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labonte, B. J. (Editor); Chapman, G. A. (Editor); Hudson, H. S. (Editor); Willson, R. C. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The variations of the total solar irradiance is an important tool for studying the Sun, thanks to the development of very precise sensors such as the ACRIM instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission. The largest variations of the total irradiance occur on time scales of a few days are caused by solar active regions, especially sunspots. Efforts were made to describe the active region effects on total and spectral irradiance.

  3. Moving and academic learning are not antagonists: acute effects on executive function and enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Vazou, Spyridoula; Smiley-Oyen, Ann

    2014-10-01

    Classroom-based physical activity is a new approach aiming to improve both physical activity levels and academic achievement. This study investigated the acute effect of a 10-min bout of aerobic physical activity integrated with math practice, compared with a seated math practice, on executive function and enjoyment among normal-weight (n = 24) and overweight children (n = 11). Thirty-five typically developing prepubescent children (10.55 ± 0.74 years) completed a session of physical activity integrated with math practice and a seated math practice session in counterbalanced order. Results showed that following integrated physical activity, the response time in the Standard Flanker improved more than after seated practice. Among the overweight children, physical activity benefitted performance in the Standard Flanker by preventing the decline associated with seated practice. Children enjoyed the physical activity practice more than the seated practice. These findings suggest that integrating physical activity with academic instruction may be a realistic strategy for promoting physical activity because it may facilitate, not antagonize, executive function.

  4. Development of the Faith Activities in the Home Scale (FAITHS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Nathaniel M.; Dollahite, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the development of the Faith Activities In The Home Scale (FAITHS). The initial FAITHS measure was improved on and expanded by using qualitative data of two separate samples and then empirically tested on three separate samples. Study 1 comprised two samples totaling 57 highly religious families from New England and California…

  5. Cultivating Engagement and Enjoyment in Exergames Using Feedback, Challenge, and Rewards

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This article reviews theoretical and empirical evidence related to three mechanisms for encouraging enjoyment during exergame play: Feedback, challenge, and rewards. Materials and Methods: A literature search and narrative review were conducted. Results: Feedback is found in nearly all exergames, and richer, more in-depth feedback is associated with increased activity. Challenge is a vital component of any videogame, and exergames include physical as well as cognitive challenges. Flow states have traditionally been conceptualized as occurring when an optimal match between player skills and game challenge occurs. However, failure and retrial are necessary for feelings of overall satisfaction and fun, despite not necessarily being ideally fun or satisfying themselves. Rewards are a more complicated issue, with significant theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting positive and negative effects of reward systems. How rewards are integrated into the mechanics and storyline of the game likely impacts how they are perceived and, thus, their effectiveness. Finally, integration of these mechanisms into exergames requires specific attention to both cognitive and physical implementations. Movements that are not themselves enjoyable or engaging may lead to cheating and lower energy expenditure. Conclusions: Feedback, challenge, and rewards are promising mechanisms by which exergames could become more enjoyable. How these concepts are operationalized can affect physical and psychological reactions to exergames. Attention to these concepts in future exergame development and implementation would benefit theory, research, and practice. PMID:26181675

  6. Scales of convective activity in the MJO (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houze, R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the results of the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) field experiment (DYNAMO) is the realization that an active period of the MJO is not a continuous stretch of time in which convection and rainfall are occurring. Rather, an active MJO period, as determined by standard statistical treatments of the wind and satellite data such as that of Wheeler and Hendon (2004), has periods of highly suppressed conditions interspersed with bursts or episodes of deep convection and rainfall. At a given location, an MJO cycle is of the order of 30-60 days. The active half of a cycle is then about 2-4 weeks. DYNAMO data show that within this multi-week period rain falls in intermittent bursts of deep convection at intervals of 2-6 days, with each burst lasting 1-2 days. The time between bursts is highly suppressed, such that the convective cloud population consists of shallow non-precipitating cumulus. This intermediate burst timescale is neither the MJO timescale nor the timescale of an individual convective cloud. The modulation on the 2-6 day timescale was related to various types of higher frequency equatorial waves (especially, inertio-gravity waves and easterly waves). The largest individual convective cloud element in the MJO environment is the mesoscale convective system (MCS), which lasts about a half day, much shorter than the time period of the wave-modulated bursts. The intermediate scale bursts reflect an evolution of the cloud population. Numerous individual cloud systems undergo their lifecycles within the envelope of the wave-controlled time period of a few days. At a given site, such as the principal island site of Addu Atoll in DYNAMO, radar observations show that in an intermediate timescale episode the convective ensemble goes through a systematic series of stages characterized by differing proportions of elements of different sizes and intensities. The first stage is a population of shallow non-precipitating cumulus, followed by an ensemble

  7. How Large Scales Flows May Influence Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, D. H.

    2004-01-01

    Large scale flows within the solar convection zone are the primary drivers of the Sun's magnetic activity cycle and play important roles in shaping the Sun's magnetic field. Differential rotation amplifies the magnetic field through its shearing action and converts poloidal field into toroidal field. Poleward meridional flow near the surface carries magnetic flux that reverses the magnetic poles at about the time of solar maximum. The deeper, equatorward meridional flow can carry magnetic flux back toward the lower latitudes where it erupts through the surface to form tilted active regions that convert toroidal fields into oppositely directed poloidal fields. These axisymmetric flows are themselves driven by large scale convective motions. The effects of the Sun's rotation on convection produce velocity correlations that can maintain both the differential rotation and the meridional circulation. These convective motions can also influence solar activity directly by shaping the magnetic field pattern. While considerable theoretical advances have been made toward understanding these large scale flows, outstanding problems in matching theory to observations still remain.

  8. Simulation of Active-Region-Scale Flux Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, W.; van der Holst, B.

    2015-12-01

    Shear flows long observed in solar active regions are now understood to be a consequence of the Lorentz force that develops from a complex interaction between magnetic fields and the thermal pressure of the Sun's gravitationally stratified atmosphere. The shearing motions transport magnetic flux and energy from the submerged portion of the field to the corona providing the necessary energy for flares, filament eruptions and CMEs. To further examine this shearing process, we simulate flux emergence on the scale of active regions with a large-scale model of the near surface convection zone constructed on an adaptive spherical grid. This model is designed to simulate flux emerging on the scale of active regions from a depth of 30 Mm. Here, we show results of a twisted flux rope emerging through the hierarchy of granular convection, and examine the flow patterns that arise as the flux approaches the photosphere. We show how these organized flows driven by the Lorentz force cause the coronal field evolve to a highly non-potential configuration capable of driving solar eruptions such as CMEs and flares.

  9. [Healthy nutrition - prerequisite for life enjoyment and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Ritzel, G

    1978-12-01

    Bad nutritional habits can cause or enhance various, especially chronic, diseases. The right amount of calories, an adequate composition and the distribution of the meals over the day are the basis of good nutrition. A coordinating office could improve the information of our population, since many different professions must cooperate. Nutritions education must be improved. Industry, professional organisations, nutritionists, consumer organisations and specialists for communication must cooperate to solve the difficult problem of nutritional habits and to demonstrate that good nutrition can--as the gastrotonomy of the future--help to enjoy life. PMID:735436

  10. Congressman Dave Weldon enjoys viewing the STS-97 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Florida Congressman Dave Weldon enjoys the on-time launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Weldon and other guests of NASA viewed the launch from the Banana Creek VIP viewing site. Liftoff of Endeavour occurred at 10:06:01 p.m. EST. Endeavour is transporting the P6 Integrated Truss Structure that comprises Solar Array Wing-3 and the Integrated Electronic Assembly, to provide power to the Space Station. The 11-day mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  11. Activities of Daily Living Scale in Hoarding Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Randy O.; Hristova, Veselina; Steketee, Gail; Tolin, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Research on hoarding over the last two decades has shown that hoarding disorder appears to be a distinct disorder that burdens the individual, the community and the families of people who hoard. Although hoarding clearly interferes with the daily functioning, especially in the context of extensive clutter, no validated measures of this interference have been developed. The present research examined the psychometric properties of the Activities of Daily Living in Hoarding scale (ADL-H) in two large samples of individuals with significant hoarding problems, one identified through the internet (n=363) and a second through clinical diagnostic interviews (n=202). The ADL-H scale test-retest (1–12 weeks), interrater and internal reliabilities ranged from 0.79 to 0.96. Convergent and discriminant validity were established through analyses of correlational data collected for measures of hoarding severity and non-hoarding psychopathology (obsessive compulsive disorder [OCD], mood state, attention deficit, and perfectionism/uncertainty), as well as through comparisons of scores among individuals with hoarding, hoarding plus OCD, OCD without hoarding, and community controls. The ADL-H scale appears to have strong psychometric properties and to be useful in clinical and research settings. Suggestions are made for expansion of the scale, and study limitations are noted. PMID:23482436

  12. Middle school-aged child enjoyment of food tastings predicts interest in nutrition education on osteoporosis prevention

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Feon W.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND NEEDs for Bones (NFB), based on the Health Belief Model, is a 4-lesson osteoporosis-prevention curriculum for 11-14 year-olds. This study examined the relationship between enjoyment of food tastings and interest in NFB. METHODS NFB was administered by teachers as part of standard practice and evaluated after the 4th lesson using a 21-item survey. Significant clustering of students within classrooms required use of random-intercept multilevel ordinal regression models in SAS proc GLIMMIX, with students nested within classrooms. Analyses considered tasting experience, eating attitudes, sex, grade, and cohort. RESULTS Students (N = 1619; 50% girls) participated from 85 4th-8th grade classrooms (47% 6th grade; 31% 7th grade) in 16 Pennsylvania SNAP-Ed eligible schools over 2 academic years. For all foods tasted, students who did not enjoy the food tasting were less interested in the lesson than students who did enjoy the food tasting (all p < .001); refried beans (OR 0.30), soy milk (OR = 0.55), cranapple juice (OR = 0.51), sunflower kernels (OR = 0.48), and Swiss cheese (OR = 0.49). CONCLUSIONS Enjoyment of food tasting activities can predict interest in nutrition education on osteoporosis prevention, supporting resource allocation and inclusion of food tasting activities in school-age nutrition education. PMID:26032277

  13. The Relationship Between Web Enjoyment and Student Perceptions and Learning Using a Web-Based Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Timothy J. F.; Chen, Sherry Y.; Macredie, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Web enjoyment has been regarded as a component of system experience. However, there has been little targeted research considering the role of web enjoyment alone in student learning using web-based systems. To address this gap, this study aims to examine the influence of web enjoyment on learning performance and perceptions by controlling system…

  14. The active commuting route environment scale (ACRES): development and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Route environments can be a potentially important factor in influencing people's behaviours in relation to active commuting. To better understand these possible relationships, assessments of route environments are needed. We therefore developed a scale; the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), for the assessment of bicyclists' and pedestrians' perceptions of their commuting route environments. Here we will report on the development and the results of validity and reliability assessments thereof. Methods Active commuters (n = 54) were recruited when they bicycled in Stockholm, Sweden. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm were assembled to form an expert panel (n = 24). The active commuters responded to the scale on two occasions, and the expert panel responded to it once. To test criterion-related validity, differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban environments of Greater Stockholm were compared between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, four items were compared with existing objective measures. Test-retest reproducibility was assessed with three types of analysis: order effect, typical error and intraclass correlation. Results There was a concordance in sizes and directions of differences in ratings of inner urban and suburban environments between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, both groups' ratings were in line with existing objectively measured differences between the two environmental settings. Order effects between test and retest were observed in 6 of 36 items. The typical errors ranged from 0.93 to 2.54, and the intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 'moderate' (0.42) to 'almost perfect' (0.87). Conclusions The ACRES was characterized by considerable criterion-related validity and reasonable test-retest reproducibility. PMID:20609250

  15. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being.

  16. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being. PMID:24944133

  17. Scaling of cluster growth for coagulating active particles.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Peet; Löwen, Hartmut

    2014-02-01

    Cluster growth in a coagulating system of active particles (such as microswimmers in a solvent) is studied by theory and simulation. In contrast to passive systems, the net velocity of a cluster can have various scalings dependent on the propulsion mechanism and alignment of individual particles. Additionally, the persistence length of the cluster trajectory typically increases with size. As a consequence, a growing cluster collects neighboring particles in a very efficient way and thus amplifies its growth further. This results in unusual large growth exponents for the scaling of the cluster size with time and, for certain conditions, even leads to "explosive" cluster growth where the cluster becomes macroscopic in a finite amount of time.

  18. Spatiotemporal dynamics of large-scale brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuman, Jeremy

    Understanding the dynamics of large-scale brain activity is a tough challenge. One reason for this is the presence of an incredible amount of complexity arising from having roughly 100 billion neurons connected via 100 trillion synapses. Because of the extremely high number of degrees of freedom in the nervous system, the question of how the brain manages to properly function and remain stable, yet also be adaptable, must be posed. Neuroscientists have identified many ways the nervous system makes this possible, of which synaptic plasticity is possibly the most notable one. On the other hand, it is vital to understand how the nervous system also loses stability, resulting in neuropathological diseases such as epilepsy, a disease which affects 1% of the population. In the following work, we seek to answer some of these questions from two different perspectives. The first uses mean-field theory applied to neuronal populations, where the variables of interest are the percentages of active excitatory and inhibitory neurons in a network, to consider how the nervous system responds to external stimuli, self-organizes and generates epileptiform activity. The second method uses statistical field theory, in the framework of single neurons on a lattice, to study the concept of criticality, an idea borrowed from physics which posits that in some regime the brain operates in a collectively stable or marginally stable manner. This will be examined in two different neuronal networks with self-organized criticality serving as the overarching theme for the union of both perspectives. One of the biggest problems in neuroscience is the question of to what extent certain details are significant to the functioning of the brain. These details give rise to various spatiotemporal properties that at the smallest of scales explain the interaction of single neurons and synapses and at the largest of scales describe, for example, behaviors and sensations. In what follows, we will shed some

  19. Large-scale multielectrode recording and stimulation of neural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sher, A.; Chichilnisky, E. J.; Dabrowski, W.; Grillo, A. A.; Grivich, M.; Gunning, D.; Hottowy, P.; Kachiguine, S.; Litke, A. M.; Mathieson, K.; Petrusca, D.

    2007-09-01

    Large circuits of neurons are employed by the brain to encode and process information. How this encoding and processing is carried out is one of the central questions in neuroscience. Since individual neurons communicate with each other through electrical signals (action potentials), the recording of neural activity with arrays of extracellular electrodes is uniquely suited for the investigation of this question. Such recordings provide the combination of the best spatial (individual neurons) and temporal (individual action-potentials) resolutions compared to other large-scale imaging methods. Electrical stimulation of neural activity in turn has two very important applications: it enhances our understanding of neural circuits by allowing active interactions with them, and it is a basis for a large variety of neural prosthetic devices. Until recently, the state-of-the-art in neural activity recording systems consisted of several dozen electrodes with inter-electrode spacing ranging from tens to hundreds of microns. Using silicon microstrip detector expertise acquired in the field of high-energy physics, we created a unique neural activity readout and stimulation framework that consists of high-density electrode arrays, multi-channel custom-designed integrated circuits, a data acquisition system, and data-processing software. Using this framework we developed a number of neural readout and stimulation systems: (1) a 512-electrode system for recording the simultaneous activity of as many as hundreds of neurons, (2) a 61-electrode system for electrical stimulation and readout of neural activity in retinas and brain-tissue slices, and (3) a system with telemetry capabilities for recording neural activity in the intact brain of awake, naturally behaving animals. We will report on these systems, their various applications to the field of neurobiology, and novel scientific results obtained with some of them. We will also outline future directions.

  20. The development of video game enjoyment in a role playing game.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Werner; Ryffel, Fabian; von Pape, Thilo; Karnowski, Veronika

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the development of video game enjoyment over time. The results of a longitudinal study (N=62) show that enjoyment increases over several sessions. Moreover, results of a multilevel regression model indicate a causal link between the dependent variable video game enjoyment and the predictor variables exploratory behavior, spatial presence, competence, suspense and solution, and simulated experiences of life. These findings are important for video game research because they reveal the antecedents of video game enjoyment in a real-world longitudinal setting. Results are discussed in terms of the dynamics of video game enjoyment under real-world conditions. PMID:23363226

  1. The development of video game enjoyment in a role playing game.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Werner; Ryffel, Fabian; von Pape, Thilo; Karnowski, Veronika

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the development of video game enjoyment over time. The results of a longitudinal study (N=62) show that enjoyment increases over several sessions. Moreover, results of a multilevel regression model indicate a causal link between the dependent variable video game enjoyment and the predictor variables exploratory behavior, spatial presence, competence, suspense and solution, and simulated experiences of life. These findings are important for video game research because they reveal the antecedents of video game enjoyment in a real-world longitudinal setting. Results are discussed in terms of the dynamics of video game enjoyment under real-world conditions.

  2. Mapping brain activity at scale with cluster computing.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jeremy; Vladimirov, Nikita; Kawashima, Takashi; Mu, Yu; Sofroniew, Nicholas J; Bennett, Davis V; Rosen, Joshua; Yang, Chao-Tsung; Looger, Loren L; Ahrens, Misha B

    2014-09-01

    Understanding brain function requires monitoring and interpreting the activity of large networks of neurons during behavior. Advances in recording technology are greatly increasing the size and complexity of neural data. Analyzing such data will pose a fundamental bottleneck for neuroscience. We present a library of analytical tools called Thunder built on the open-source Apache Spark platform for large-scale distributed computing. The library implements a variety of univariate and multivariate analyses with a modular, extendable structure well-suited to interactive exploration and analysis development. We demonstrate how these analyses find structure in large-scale neural data, including whole-brain light-sheet imaging data from fictively behaving larval zebrafish, and two-photon imaging data from behaving mouse. The analyses relate neuronal responses to sensory input and behavior, run in minutes or less and can be used on a private cluster or in the cloud. Our open-source framework thus holds promise for turning brain activity mapping efforts into biological insights.

  3. Methods and tools to enjoy and to study inaccessible Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, M.; Campi, M.

    2014-06-01

    Our research on a multi-purpose survey of cultural Heritage located in UNESCO Historical Centre of Naples has the following goals: to test some innovative strategies to improve public enjoyment for inaccessible sites; to explore the use of some interactive systems to study heritage in remote; to explore how to access the information system through AR applications. In this paper we are going to focus on comparison between interactive system to access 3D data and photogrammetric processing of panoramic images. We investigated on: a. the use of 360° panorama for 3D restitutions; b. the use of 360° panorama as an interface to 3D data to extract real 3D coordinates and accurately measure distances; c. the use of 3D PDF to access a 3D database.

  4. Enjoyable learning experiences--an aid to retention?

    PubMed

    Leidy, K

    1992-01-01

    Stress is related to job dissatisfaction and is a significant factor in high turnover rates for nursing staff. In the current labor market, all possible aids to retention need to be considered and innovative approaches need to be tried. Perhaps one of the most powerful retention tools, laughter, is being overlooked. Research indicates that laughter and humor have positive effects by reducing stress and enhancing the immune system. Stress within the hospital environment contributes to burnout. Burnout results in absenteeism, decreased productivity, and turnover. Incorporating laughter and humor into educational programs is one strategy to reduce stress and may be an antidote for burnout. A game called "Not So Trivial ... Protective Pursuit" was used with 150 staff on the evening and night shift. The observed effects were very positive. The implications are that nurse educators can make a significant contribution to preventing hospital burnout by making learning experiences enjoyable.

  5. Synaptic scaling stabilizes persistent activity driven by asynchronous neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Volman, Vladislav; Gerkin, Richard C

    2011-04-01

    Small networks of cultured hippocampal neurons respond to transient stimulation with rhythmic network activity (reverberation) that persists for several seconds, constituting an in vitro model of synchrony, working memory, and seizure. This mode of activity has been shown theoretically and experimentally to depend on asynchronous neurotransmitter release (an essential feature of the developing hippocampus) and is supported by a variety of developing neuronal networks despite variability in the size of populations (10-200 neurons) and in patterns of synaptic connectivity. It has previously been reported in computational models that "small-world" connection topology is ideal for the propagation of similar modes of network activity, although this has been shown only for neurons utilizing synchronous (phasic) synaptic transmission. We investigated how topological constraints on synaptic connectivity could shape the stability of reverberations in small networks that also use asynchronous synaptic transmission. We found that reverberation duration in such networks was resistant to changes in topology and scaled poorly with network size. However, normalization of synaptic drive, by reducing the variance of synaptic input across neurons, stabilized reverberation in such networks. Our results thus suggest that the stability of both normal and pathological states in developing networks might be shaped by variance-normalizing constraints on synaptic drive. We offer an experimental prediction for the consequences of such regulation on the behavior of small networks.

  6. Facial Feedback and Social Input: Effects on Laughter and Enjoyment in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Helt, Molly S; Fein, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Both social input and facial feedback appear to be processed differently by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We tested the effects of both of these types of input on laughter in children with ASD. Sensitivity to facial feedback was tested in 43 children with ASD, aged 8-14 years, and 43 typically developing children matched for mental age (6-14), in order to examine whether children with ASD use bodily feedback as an implicit source of information. Specifically, children were asked to view cartoons as they normally would (control condition), and while holding a pencil in their mouth forcing their smiling muscles into activation (feedback condition) while rating their enjoyment of the cartoons. The authors also explored the effects of social input in children with ASD by investigating whether the presence of a caregiver or friend (companion condition), or the presence of a laugh track superimposed upon the cartoon (laugh track condition) increased the children's self-rated enjoyment of cartoons or the amount of positive affect they displayed. Results showed that the group with ASD was less affected by all three experimental conditions, but also that group differences seemed to have been driven by one specific symptom of ASD: restricted range of affect. The strong relationship between restricted affect and insensitivity to facial feedback found in this study sheds light on the implications of restricted affect for social development in ASD.

  7. Changing memory of food enjoyment to increase food liking, choice and intake.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne

    2012-10-28

    Novel ways to increase liking and intake of food are needed to encourage acceptance of healthier food. How enjoyable we remember food to have been is likely to be a significant predictor of food choice. Two studies examined whether remembered enjoyment of eating a food can be increased and whether this makes individuals more likely to eat that food in the future. In Study One, a simple manipulation of instructing participants to rehearse what they found enjoyable about a food immediately after eating it was used to increase remembered enjoyment (relative to controls). In a separate study; Study Two, the effect of increasing remembered enjoyment on food choice was tested by examining whether the manipulation to increase remembered enjoyment resulted in participants choosing to eat more of a food as part of a later buffet lunch. The experimental manipulation increased remembered enjoyment for the food (Study One). A change in remembered enjoyment was shown to have a significant effect on the amount of a food participants chose to eat the following day for lunch (Study Two). The present studies suggest that remembered enjoyment can be increased via a simple act of rehearsal, resulting in a later increase in the amount of food chosen and eaten. Interventions based on altering remembered enjoyment of healthy food choices warrant further investigation.

  8. Peak and end effects on remembered enjoyment of eating in low and high restrained eaters.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-08-01

    Memory is likely to be important in food choice because many food likes and dislikes are learnt. Evidence suggests that the final few moments of an experience ('end effect') and the most intense moments of an experience ('peak effect') have a disproportionately large influence on hedonic memories. In Study 1 we examined whether the end effect bias is applicable to remembered enjoyment of a food and whether this holds true for restrained and unrestrained eaters. One hundred and four participants ate the same yoghurt but half the participants experienced a pleasant end and half a bland end (control condition). Although both the 'pleasant ending' and control group had a similar online enjoyment of the yoghurt, unrestrained eaters who experienced a pleasant end remembered it to have been significantly more enjoyable than those in the control condition. No end effect was observed for restrained eaters. In Study 2 we examined predictors of remembered enjoyment of a multi-item meal. Forty-six participants consumed and rated 5 buffet style food items as part of a lunch time meal. For unrestrained eaters, remembered enjoyment of the meal was only predicted by 'peak' online enjoyment of the most liked item. Participant's enjoyment of the first, last and least liked items did not predict remembered enjoyment. For restrained eaters, remembered enjoyment was not predicted by any of the four predictor variables. These results suggest that for unrestrained eaters key moments in eating experiences have disproportionately large influence on remembered enjoyment of eating.

  9. Peak and end effects on remembered enjoyment of eating in low and high restrained eaters.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-08-01

    Memory is likely to be important in food choice because many food likes and dislikes are learnt. Evidence suggests that the final few moments of an experience ('end effect') and the most intense moments of an experience ('peak effect') have a disproportionately large influence on hedonic memories. In Study 1 we examined whether the end effect bias is applicable to remembered enjoyment of a food and whether this holds true for restrained and unrestrained eaters. One hundred and four participants ate the same yoghurt but half the participants experienced a pleasant end and half a bland end (control condition). Although both the 'pleasant ending' and control group had a similar online enjoyment of the yoghurt, unrestrained eaters who experienced a pleasant end remembered it to have been significantly more enjoyable than those in the control condition. No end effect was observed for restrained eaters. In Study 2 we examined predictors of remembered enjoyment of a multi-item meal. Forty-six participants consumed and rated 5 buffet style food items as part of a lunch time meal. For unrestrained eaters, remembered enjoyment of the meal was only predicted by 'peak' online enjoyment of the most liked item. Participant's enjoyment of the first, last and least liked items did not predict remembered enjoyment. For restrained eaters, remembered enjoyment was not predicted by any of the four predictor variables. These results suggest that for unrestrained eaters key moments in eating experiences have disproportionately large influence on remembered enjoyment of eating. PMID:21570432

  10. Active galactic nuclei as scaled-up Galactic black holes.

    PubMed

    McHardy, I M; Koerding, E; Knigge, C; Uttley, P; Fender, R P

    2006-12-01

    A long-standing question is whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) vary like Galactic black hole systems when appropriately scaled up by mass. If so, we can then determine how AGN should behave on cosmological timescales by studying the brighter and much faster varying Galactic systems. As X-ray emission is produced very close to the black holes, it provides one of the best diagnostics of their behaviour. A characteristic timescale--which potentially could tell us about the mass of the black hole--is found in the X-ray variations from both AGN and Galactic black holes, but whether it is physically meaningful to compare the two has been questioned. Here we report that, after correcting for variations in the accretion rate, the timescales can be physically linked, revealing that the accretion process is exactly the same for small and large black holes. Strong support for this linkage comes, perhaps surprisingly, from the permitted optical emission lines in AGN whose widths (in both broad-line AGN and narrow-emission-line Seyfert 1 galaxies) correlate strongly with the characteristic X-ray timescale, exactly as expected from the AGN black hole masses and accretion rates. So AGN really are just scaled-up Galactic black holes.

  11. Active galactic nuclei as scaled-up Galactic black holes.

    PubMed

    McHardy, I M; Koerding, E; Knigge, C; Uttley, P; Fender, R P

    2006-12-01

    A long-standing question is whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) vary like Galactic black hole systems when appropriately scaled up by mass. If so, we can then determine how AGN should behave on cosmological timescales by studying the brighter and much faster varying Galactic systems. As X-ray emission is produced very close to the black holes, it provides one of the best diagnostics of their behaviour. A characteristic timescale--which potentially could tell us about the mass of the black hole--is found in the X-ray variations from both AGN and Galactic black holes, but whether it is physically meaningful to compare the two has been questioned. Here we report that, after correcting for variations in the accretion rate, the timescales can be physically linked, revealing that the accretion process is exactly the same for small and large black holes. Strong support for this linkage comes, perhaps surprisingly, from the permitted optical emission lines in AGN whose widths (in both broad-line AGN and narrow-emission-line Seyfert 1 galaxies) correlate strongly with the characteristic X-ray timescale, exactly as expected from the AGN black hole masses and accretion rates. So AGN really are just scaled-up Galactic black holes. PMID:17151661

  12. Active scale changer for anamorphic, distortion free, telecentric zoom system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Hugot, Emmanuel; Bernard, Anaïs.; Madec, Fabrice; Lemared, Sabri

    2014-07-01

    We present the conception of an anamorphic and telecentric scale changer with no distortion, able to provide magnifications in the range of 2 to 30 without any interchangeable optics, dedicated to ground or space applications. Several optical designs are investigated and the final configuration is based on off-axis five mirrors system with no moving elements. Four active mirrors are adapted to four different zoom configurations. A specific mechanical profile with variable thickness distribution is simulated and optimized on each mirror to allow using a minimal number of actuators. An opto-mechanical design will be presented, showing the implementation of actuators on the system. This work is done in the frame of the ANR project OASIX and will produce a lab prototype in 2015.

  13. COMMUNICATION: Neuron network activity scales exponentially with synapse density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, G. J.; Boehler, M. D.; Pearson, R. A.; DeMaris, A. A.; Ide, A. N.; Wheeler, B. C.

    2009-02-01

    Neuronal network output in the cortex as a function of synapse density during development has not been explicitly determined. Synaptic scaling in cortical brain networks seems to alter excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to produce a representative rate of synaptic output. Here, we cultured rat hippocampal neurons over a three-week period to correlate synapse density with the increase in spontaneous spiking activity. We followed the network development as synapse formation and spike rate in two serum-free media optimized for either (a) neuron survival (Neurobasal/B27) or (b) spike rate (NbActiv4). We found that while synaptophysin synapse density increased linearly with development, spike rates increased exponentially in developing neuronal networks. Synaptic receptor components NR1, GluR1 and GABA-A also increase linearly but with more excitatory receptors than inhibitory. These results suggest that the brain's information processing capability gains more from increasing connectivity of the processing units than increasing processing units, much as Internet information flow increases much faster than the linear number of nodes and connections.

  14. Neuron network activity scales exponentially with synapse density.

    PubMed

    Brewer, G J; Boehler, M D; Pearson, R A; DeMaris, A A; Ide, A N; Wheeler, B C

    2009-02-01

    Neuronal network output in the cortex as a function of synapse density during development has not been explicitly determined. Synaptic scaling in cortical brain networks seems to alter excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to produce a representative rate of synaptic output. Here, we cultured rat hippocampal neurons over a three-week period to correlate synapse density with the increase in spontaneous spiking activity. We followed the network development as synapse formation and spike rate in two serum-free media optimized for either (a) neuron survival (Neurobasal/B27) or (b) spike rate (NbActiv4). We found that while synaptophysin synapse density increased linearly with development, spike rates increased exponentially in developing neuronal networks. Synaptic receptor components NR1, GluR1 and GABA-A also increase linearly but with more excitatory receptors than inhibitory. These results suggest that the brain's information processing capability gains more from increasing connectivity of the processing units than increasing processing units, much as Internet information flow increases much faster than the linear number of nodes and connections. PMID:19104141

  15. Soil biological activity at European scale - two calculation concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Janine; Rühlmann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    The CATCH-C project aims to identify and improve the farm-compatibility of Soil Management Practices including to promote productivity, climate change mitigation and soil quality. The focus of this work concentrates on turnover conditions for soil organic matter (SOM). SOM is fundamental for the maintenance of quality and functions of soils while SOM storage is attributed a great importance in terms of climate change mitigation. The turnover conditions depend on soil biological activity characterized by climate and soil properties. To assess the turnover conditions two model concepts are applied: (I) Biological active time (BAT) regression approach derived from CANDY model (Franko & Oelschlägel 1995) expresses the variation of air temperature, precipitation and soil texture as a timescale and an indicator of biological activity for soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. (II) Re_clim parameter within the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (Andrén & Kätterer 1997) states the soil temperature and soil water to estimate soil biological activity. The modelling includes two strategies to cover the European scale and conditions. BAT was calculated on a 20x20 km grid basis. The European data sets of precipitation and air temperature (time period 1901-2000, monthly resolution), (Mitchell et al. 2004) were used to derive long-term averages. As we focus on agricultural areas we included CORINE data (2006) to extract arable land. The resulting BATs under co-consideration of the main soil textures (clay, silt, sand and loam) were investigated per environmental zone (ENZs, Metzger et al. 2005) that represents similar conditions for precipitation, temperature and relief to identify BAT ranges and hence turnover conditions for each ENZ. Re_clim was quantified by climatic time series of more than 250 weather stations across Europe presented by Klein Tank et al. (2002). Daily temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (maximal thermal extent) were used to calculate

  16. Production Scale-Up or Activated Carbons for Ultracapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Steven D. Dietz

    2007-01-10

    Transportation use accounts for 67% of the petroleum consumption in the US. Electric and hybrid vehicles are promising technologies for decreasing our dependence on petroleum, and this is the objective of the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Inexpensive and efficient energy storage devices are needed for electric and hybrid vehicle to be economically viable, and ultracapacitors are a leading energy storage technology being investigated by the FreedomCAR program. The most important parameter in determining the power and energy density of a carbon-based ultracapacitor is the amount of surface area accessible to the electrolyte, which is primarily determined by the pore size distribution. The major problems with current carbons are that their pore size distribution is not optimized for liquid electrolytes and the best carbons are very expensive. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed methods to prepare porous carbons with tunable pore size distributions from inexpensive carbohydrate based precursors. The use of low-cost feedstocks and processing steps greatly lowers the production costs. During this project with the assistance of Maxwell Technologies, we found that an impurity was limiting the performance of our carbon and the major impurity found was sulfur. A new carbon with low sulfur content was made and found that the performance of the carbon was greatly improved. We also scaled-up the process to pre-production levels and we are currently able to produce 0.25 tons/year of activated carbon. We could easily double this amount by purchasing a second rotary kiln. More importantly, we are working with MeadWestvaco on a Joint Development Agreement to scale-up the process to produce hundreds of tons of high quality, inexpensive carbon per year based on our processes.

  17. Large-scale field trials of active immunizing agents

    PubMed Central

    Cockburn, W. Charles

    1955-01-01

    In this discussion of the methods to be used in large-scale field trials of active immunizing agents and of the results to be expected from such trials, special emphasis is laid on pertussis vaccine trials in Great Britain. After a review of the criteria for strictly controlled field studies and of the investigation of typhoid vaccines conducted in 1904-08 by the Antityphoid Committee of the British Army, the author describes the pertussis vaccine studies which have been and are now being carried by the Whooping-Cough Immunization Committee of the Medical Research Council of Great Britain. The original strictly controlled trials have been completed and the results published. Studies are now being made of vaccines prepared by different methods and evaluated both in the field and in the laboratory. Each vaccine is given to some 2000-3000 children of 4-6 months to 4 years of age. By the end of the studies 30 000-40 000 children will have been followed up for a period of two years. Since in the current studies all the children are vaccinated and none are left as unvaccinated controls, the relative and not the absolute protective value of the vaccines will be measured. PMID:13270079

  18. Ultrafast Outflows: Galaxy-scale Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  19. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-20

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  20. A Proposal for Making Human Life More Enjoyable by Learning Multiple Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Shoji

    Quick globalization of human activity of economy has made English the most important international communication tool in the world past two decades. Taking the fact that the people speaking English as a mother language is less than ten percents of the total world population, into account, it is obviously to be noted that almost all the people using other language with different cultural background can basically truly be communicated not in English but in individual language. In this respect, learning multiple languages leads to be fascinated by different national culture and results in further enjoyment of one‧s life. This is actually demonstrated in terms of the author‧s experience in this paper.

  1. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. Methods A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18–30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60–80% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as V˙O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. Results After training, V˙O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, −1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, −2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Conclusion Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals. PMID:27368057

  2. Development of a therapist activity rating scale: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Conte, H R; Plutchik, R; Picard, S; Karasu, T B

    1993-06-01

    A 61-item scale was constructed of relatively explicit descriptions of behavior in which a psychotherapist might engage. The scale is largely noninferential, is basically atheoretical but applicable to psychodynamically oriented therapy, may be completed by either the therapist or an independent rater with minimal training, and may be used to rate entire therapy sessions or specific segments of sessions. The scale shows high interrater reliability and discriminant validity. PMID:8337316

  3. Adolescents' Enjoyment of Graphic Horror: Effects of Viewers' Attitudes and Portrayals of Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Mary Beth

    1993-01-01

    Finds that more permissive sexual attitudes and lower levels of punitiveness were associated with adolescents' greater enjoyment of "slasher films." Shows that traditional attitudes toward females' sexuality were positively associated with gore-watching motivations and with greater enjoyment of previews featuring female victims. (SR)

  4. 26 CFR 1.674(a)-1 - Power to control beneficial enjoyment; scope of section 674.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Power to control beneficial enjoyment; scope of... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.674(a)-1 Power to control beneficial enjoyment; scope of section 674. (a) Under section 674,...

  5. Mapping the Interrelationships of Reading Enjoyment, Attitudes, Behaviour and Attainment: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina; De Zoysa, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    It is frequently said or implicitly assumed that there is a positive relationship between enjoyment, attitudes, behaviour and attainment, with pupils who enjoy reading or writing having more positive attitudes towards it, doing it more and thereby getting better at it. This paper explores to what extent this is an assumption or to what extent it…

  6. Measuring enjoyable informal learning using augmented reality at cultural heritage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendit, Ulka Chandini; Zaibon, Syamsul Bahrin; Bakar, Juliana Aida Abu

    2016-08-01

    The instrument of evaluation of measuring enjoyable informal learning at cultural heritage site was produced by validity and reliability analysis. It involved two cycles of steps, content validity and face validity and content validity and reliability analysis. From the analysis, it was found out that the instrument is reliable to be measure enjoyable informal learning at cultural heritage site.

  7. Validating the Youth Sport Enjoyment Construct in High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Hairul; Grove, J. Robert; Whipp, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop and validate a questionnaire measuring teaching processes related to physical education (PE) enjoyment. Scanlan and Lewthwaite's (1986) youth sport enjoyment model provided the theoretical foundation for this work. Content validity and item readability of the instrument were established by obtaining…

  8. The motive for sensory pleasure: enjoyment of nature and its representation in painting, music, and literature.

    PubMed

    Eisenberger, Robert; Sucharski, Ivan L; Yalowitz, Steven; Kent, Robert J; Loomis, Ross J; Jones, Jason R; Paylor, Sarah; Aselage, Justin; Mueller, Meta Steiger; McLaughlin, John P

    2010-04-01

    Eight studies assessed the motive for sensory pleasure (MSP) involving a general disposition to enjoy and pursue pleasant nature-related experiences and avoid unpleasant nature-related experiences. The stated enjoyment of pleasant sights, smells, sounds, and tactile sensations formed a unitary construct that was distinct from sensation seeking, novelty preference, and need for cognition. MSP was found to be related to (a) enjoyment of pleasant nature scenes and music of high but not low clarity; (b) enjoyment of writings that portrayed highly detailed nature scenes; (c) enjoyment of pleasantly themed paintings and dislike of unpleasant paintings, as distinct from findings with Openness to Experience; (d) choice of pleasant nature scenes over exciting or intellectually stimulating scenes; (e) view duration and memory of artistically rendered quilts; (f) interest in detailed information about nature scenes; and (g) frequency of sensory-type suggestions for improvement of a museum exhibit.

  9. The Importance of Parents' Behavior in their Children's Enjoyment and Amotivation in Sports.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro A; Leo, Francisco M; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Amado, Diana; García-Calvo, Tomás

    2013-03-01

    The main aim of the research was to examine the relationship between motivational orientations and parents' behavior with regard to the players' motivational orientation, motivational climate, enjoyment and amotivation. The sample comprised 723 athletes (M = 12.37, SD = 1.48) and 723 parents (M = 46.46, SD = 2.56). Players were male and female who belonged to federative basketball, handball, football and volleyball teams. Parents and athletes completed questionnaires that assessed motivational orientations, parents' involvement in the practice as well as enjoyment and motivation in the sport. Results showed a positive relationship between parents' support of the sport and players' enjoyment and a negative relationship with players' amotivation. Moreover, in players who perceived more pressure from their parents, there was a positive association with amotivation and a negative one with enjoyment. Lastly, it was emphasized that appropriate parental participation can promote an increase of players' enjoyment of and motivation for sport.

  10. Validation of psychosocial scales for physical activity in university students

    PubMed Central

    Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; de Farias, José Cazuza; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Tenório, Maria Cecília Marinho; Cabral, Poliana Coelho; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Translate the Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire, adapt it cross-culturally and identify the psychometric properties of the psychosocial scales for physical activity in young university students. METHODS The Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire is made up of 39 items divided into constructs based on the social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model. The analyzed constructs were, as follows: behavior change strategy (15 items), decision-making process (10), self-efficacy (6), support from family (4), and support from friends (4). The validation procedures were conceptual, semantic, operational, and functional equivalences, in addition to the equivalence of the items and of measurements. The conceptual, of items and semantic equivalences were performed by a specialized committee. During measurement equivalence, the instrument was applied to 717 university students. Exploratory factor analysis was used to verify the loading of each item, explained variance and internal consistency of the constructs. Reproducibility was measured by means of intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS The two translations were equivalent and back-translation was similar to the original version, with few adaptations. The layout, presentation order of the constructs and items from the original version were kept in the same form as the original instrument. The sample size was adequate and was evaluated by the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, with values between 0.72 and 0.91. The correlation matrix of the items presented r < 0.8 (p < 0.05). The factor loadings of the items from all the constructs were satisfactory (> 0.40), varying between 0.43 and 0.80, which explained between 45.4% and 59.0% of the variance. Internal consistency was satisfactory (α ≥ 0.70), with support from friends being 0.70 and 0.92 for self-efficacy. Most items (74.3%) presented values above 0.70 for the reproducibility test

  11. Method and apparatus for actively controlling a micro-scale flexural plate wave device

    DOEpatents

    Dohner, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    An actively controlled flexural plate wave device provides a micro-scale pump. A method of actively controlling a flexural plate wave device produces traveling waves in the device by coordinating the interaction of a magnetic field with actively controlled currents. An actively-controlled flexural plate wave device can be placed in a fluid channel and adapted for use as a micro-scale fluid pump to cool or drive micro-scale systems, for example, micro-chips, micro-electrical-mechanical devices, micro-fluid circuits, or micro-scale chemical analysis devices.

  12. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  13. The Tobacco Control Scale: a new scale to measure country activity

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level using a new Tobacco Control Scale and to report initial results using the scale. Method A questionnaire sent to correspondents in 30 European countries, using a scoring system designed with the help of a panel of international tobacco control experts. Results The 30 countries are ranked by their total score on the scale out of a maximum possible score of 100. Only four countries (Ireland, United Kingdom, Norway, Iceland) scored 70 or more, with an eight point gap (most differences in scores are small) to the fifth country, Malta, on 62. Only 13 countries scored above 50, 11 of them from the European Union (EU), and the second largest points gap occurs between Denmark on 45 and Portugal on 39, splitting the table into three groups: 70 and above, 45 to 62, 39 and below. Ireland had the highest overall score, 74 out of 100, and Luxembourg was bottom with 26 points. However even Ireland, much praised for their ban on smoking in public places, did not increase tobacco taxes in 2005, for the first time since 1995. Conclusions Although the Tobacco Control Scale has limitations, this is the first time such a scale has been developed and applied to so many countries. We hope it will be useful in encouraging countries to strengthen currently weak areas of their tobacco control policy. PMID:16728757

  14. How High Is It? An Educator's Guide with Activities Focused on Scale Models of Distances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Carla B.; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    This guide focuses on scale models of distances. Activities also incorporate mathematics but can be used in science and technology grades 5-8 classes. The content of the book is divided into three sections: (1) Introductory Activities; (2) Core Activities; and (3) Activity/Assessment. Activities include: (1) KWL Chart; (2) Ball and String…

  15. Broken detailed balance at mesoscopic scales in active biological systems.

    PubMed

    Battle, Christopher; Broedersz, Chase P; Fakhri, Nikta; Geyer, Veikko F; Howard, Jonathon; Schmidt, Christoph F; MacKintosh, Fred C

    2016-04-29

    Systems in thermodynamic equilibrium are not only characterized by time-independent macroscopic properties, but also satisfy the principle of detailed balance in the transitions between microscopic configurations. Living systems function out of equilibrium and are characterized by directed fluxes through chemical states, which violate detailed balance at the molecular scale. Here we introduce a method to probe for broken detailed balance and demonstrate how such nonequilibrium dynamics are manifest at the mesosopic scale. The periodic beating of an isolated flagellum from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits probability flux in the phase space of shapes. With a model, we show how the breaking of detailed balance can also be quantified in stationary, nonequilibrium stochastic systems in the absence of periodic motion. We further demonstrate such broken detailed balance in the nonperiodic fluctuations of primary cilia of epithelial cells. Our analysis provides a general tool to identify nonequilibrium dynamics in cells and tissues. PMID:27126047

  16. Why Atens Enjoy Enhanced Accessibility For Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent; Adamo, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    (SBDB), comprising 37.7% of known NEOs. Apollos have orbits crossing Earth's with periods greater than Earth's. An Apollo is therefore defined to have perihelion less than 1.017 AU and a greater than 1.0 AU. As of 2011.0 UT, Apollos numbered 4080 in the SBDB, comprising 53.9% of known NEOs. Atens have orbits crossing Earth's with periods less than Earth's. An Aten is therefore defined to have aphelion greater than 0.983 AU and a less than 1.0 AU. As of 2011.0 UT, Atens numbered 618 in the SBDB, comprising 8.2% of known NEOs. Atiras have orbits everywhere inferior to (inside of) Earth's. An Atira is therefore defined to have aphelion less than 0.983 AU. As of 2011.0 UT, Atiras numbered 11 in the SBDB, comprising 0.1% of known NEOs. It is no surprise that the largest n values are chiefly associated with Apollos and Atens. Because these orbits cross Earth's, distance to be covered in a given round trip mission time delta-t can be far less than is possible for Amors or Atiras . This delta-t or the sum of mission propulsive impulse magnitudes delta-v can more frequently be minimized to enhance NHATS compliance for Apollos and Atens than is generally the case for Amors and Atiras. A less intuitive trend in NHATS results is that Atens nearly outnumber the more numerous Apollos among the most compliant NEOs as measured by n. This trend is completely out of proportion to the degree Atens are represented among the known NEO population. A theory based on geocentric NEO dynamics is presented by this paper to explain why Atens enjoy inherently greater accessibility than do Apollos. Another trend evident from mapping into (a, e, i) space is the dearth of known NEOs at low e when a < 1 AU. Underrepresentation of Atens and Atiras in the NEO catalog is at least in part attributable to observing exclusively from a perspective near Earth. Generally inferior Aten and Atira orbits are rarely, if ever, in Earth's night sky. Until a comprehensive NEO survey is conducted from an

  17. Talking Less during Social Interactions Predicts Enjoyment: A Mobile Sensing Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Tseng, Vincent Wen-Sheng; Costa, Jean; Okeke, Fabian; Choudhury, Tanzeem; Dunn, Elizabeth W.

    2016-01-01

    Can we predict which conversations are enjoyable without hearing the words that are spoken? A total of 36 participants used a mobile app, My Social Ties, which collected data about 473 conversations that the participants engaged in as they went about their daily lives. We tested whether conversational properties (conversation length, rate of turn taking, proportion of speaking time) and acoustical properties (volume, pitch) could predict enjoyment of a conversation. Surprisingly, people enjoyed their conversations more when they spoke a smaller proportion of the time. This pilot study demonstrates how conversational properties of social interactions can predict psychologically meaningful outcomes, such as how much a person enjoys the conversation. It also illustrates how mobile phones can provide a window into everyday social experiences and well-being. PMID:27438475

  18. Talking Less during Social Interactions Predicts Enjoyment: A Mobile Sensing Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Sandstrom, Gillian M; Tseng, Vincent Wen-Sheng; Costa, Jean; Okeke, Fabian; Choudhury, Tanzeem; Dunn, Elizabeth W

    2016-01-01

    Can we predict which conversations are enjoyable without hearing the words that are spoken? A total of 36 participants used a mobile app, My Social Ties, which collected data about 473 conversations that the participants engaged in as they went about their daily lives. We tested whether conversational properties (conversation length, rate of turn taking, proportion of speaking time) and acoustical properties (volume, pitch) could predict enjoyment of a conversation. Surprisingly, people enjoyed their conversations more when they spoke a smaller proportion of the time. This pilot study demonstrates how conversational properties of social interactions can predict psychologically meaningful outcomes, such as how much a person enjoys the conversation. It also illustrates how mobile phones can provide a window into everyday social experiences and well-being. PMID:27438475

  19. Analysis and Management of Large-Scale Activities Based on Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaofan; Ji, Jingwei; Lu, Ligang; Wang, Zhiyi

    Based on the concepts of system safety engineering, life-cycle and interface that comes from American system safety standard MIL-STD-882E, and apply them to the process of risk analysis and management of large-scale activities. Identify the involved personnel, departments, funds and other contents throughout the life cycle of large-scale activities. Recognize and classify the ultimate risk sources of people, objects and environment of large-scale activities from the perspective of interface. Put forward the accident cause analysis model according to the previous large-scale activities' accidents and combine with the analysis of the risk source interface. Analyze the risks of each interface and summary various types of risks the large-scale activities faced. Come up with the risk management consciousness, policies and regulations, risk control and supervision departments improvement ideas.

  20. Students’ Perceptions of Motivational Climate and Enjoyment in Finnish Physical Education: A Latent Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, Timo; Wang, C. K. John; Soini, Markus; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify student clusters with homogenous profiles in perceptions of task- and ego-involving, autonomy, and social relatedness supporting motivational climate in school physical education. Additionally, we investigated whether different motivational climate groups differed in their enjoyment in PE. Participants of the study were 2 594 girls and 1 803 boys, aged 14-15 years. Students responded to questionnaires assessing their perception of motivational climate and enjoyment in physical education. Latent profile analyses produced a five-cluster solution labeled 1) ‘low autonomy, relatedness, task, and moderate ego climate’ group’, 2) ‘low autonomy, relatedness, and high task and ego climate, 3) ‘moderate autonomy, relatedness, task and ego climate’ group 4) ‘high autonomy, relatedness, task, and moderate ego climate’ group, and 5) ‘high relatedness and task but moderate autonomy and ego climate’ group. Analyses of variance showed that students in clusters 4 and 5 perceived the highest level of enjoyment whereas students in cluster 1 experienced the lowest level of enjoyment. The results showed that the students’ perceptions of various motivational climates created differential levels of enjoyment in PE classes. Key points Latent profile analyses produced a five-cluster solution labeled 1) ‘low autonomy, relatedness, task, and moderate ego climate’ group’, 2) ‘low autonomy, relatedness, and high task and ego climate, 3) ‘moderate autonomy, relatedness, task and ego climate’ group 4) ‘high autonomy, relatedness, task, and moderate ego climate’ group, and 5) ‘high relatedness and task but moderate autonomy and ego climate’ group. Analyses of variance showed that clusters 4 and 5 perceived the highest level of enjoyment whereas cluster 1 experienced the lowest level of enjoyment. The results showed that the students’ perceptions of motivational climate create differential levels of enjoyment in

  1. Students' Perceptions of Motivational Climate and Enjoyment in Finnish Physical Education: A Latent Profile Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Timo; Wang, C K John; Soini, Markus; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify student clusters with homogenous profiles in perceptions of task- and ego-involving, autonomy, and social relatedness supporting motivational climate in school physical education. Additionally, we investigated whether different motivational climate groups differed in their enjoyment in PE. Participants of the study were 2 594 girls and 1 803 boys, aged 14-15 years. Students responded to questionnaires assessing their perception of motivational climate and enjoyment in physical education. Latent profile analyses produced a five-cluster solution labeled 1) 'low autonomy, relatedness, task, and moderate ego climate' group', 2) 'low autonomy, relatedness, and high task and ego climate, 3) 'moderate autonomy, relatedness, task and ego climate' group 4) 'high autonomy, relatedness, task, and moderate ego climate' group, and 5) 'high relatedness and task but moderate autonomy and ego climate' group. Analyses of variance showed that students in clusters 4 and 5 perceived the highest level of enjoyment whereas students in cluster 1 experienced the lowest level of enjoyment. The results showed that the students' perceptions of various motivational climates created differential levels of enjoyment in PE classes. Key pointsLatent profile analyses produced a five-cluster solution labeled 1) 'low autonomy, relatedness, task, and moderate ego climate' group', 2) 'low autonomy, relatedness, and high task and ego climate, 3) 'moderate autonomy, relatedness, task and ego climate' group 4) 'high autonomy, relatedness, task, and moderate ego climate' group, and 5) 'high relatedness and task but moderate autonomy and ego climate' group.Analyses of variance showed that clusters 4 and 5 perceived the highest level of enjoyment whereas cluster 1 experienced the lowest level of enjoyment. The results showed that the students' perceptions of motivational climate create differential levels of enjoyment in PE classes. PMID:26336332

  2. An Enjoyable Distraction During Exercise Augments the Positive Effects of Exercise on Mood

    PubMed Central

    Privitera, Gregory J.; Antonelli, Danielle E.; Szal, Abigail L.

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that an enjoyable distraction during exercise will augment the intensity of positive mood post-exercise was tested. A sample of 84 undergraduate students rated their mood and arousal before and after a standardized exercise, which consisted of walking on a treadmill at a pace of 3.6 mph for 10 minutes. During the work out session, participants watched the same television show, which they previously rated as enjoyable, or not enjoyable. As added controls, a third group exercised with no distraction (the TV was turned off); a fourth group did not exercise, but watched the television show. The results showed that exercise alone was sufficient to increase pleasant mood (95% CI 0.61, 1.46) and that including an enjoyable distraction during exercise significantly augmented pleasant mood compared to all other groups (95% CI 1.58, 2.99; R2 = 0.29). These results show that the enjoyment of a distraction is a key factor that can augment the intensity of positive mood following exercise. Key points The hypothesis that an enjoyable distraction during exercise will augment the intensity of positive mood post-exercise was tested. The results support this hypothesis by showing for the first time that while exercise alone was sufficient to increase the intensity of positive mood; combining exercise with an enjoyable distraction resulted in significantly greater increases in pleasant mood compared to exercise alone. Accounting for the enjoyment of a distraction type in future studies can increase the sensitivity of research designs used to detect changes in positive mood post-exercise. PMID:24790478

  3. Music Engineering as a Novel Strategy for Enhancing Music Enjoyment in the Cochlear Implant Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Kohlberg, Gavriel D.; Mancuso, Dean M.; Chari, Divya A.; Lalwani, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Enjoyment of music remains an elusive goal following cochlear implantation. We test the hypothesis that reengineering music to reduce its complexity can enhance the listening experience for the cochlear implant (CI) listener. Methods. Normal hearing (NH) adults (N = 16) and CI listeners (N = 9) evaluated a piece of country music on three enjoyment modalities: pleasantness, musicality, and naturalness. Participants listened to the original version along with 20 modified, less complex, versions created by including subsets of the musical instruments from the original song. NH participants listened to the segments both with and without CI simulation processing. Results. Compared to the original song, modified versions containing only 1–3 instruments were less enjoyable to the NH listeners but more enjoyable to the CI listeners and the NH listeners with CI simulation. Excluding vocals and including rhythmic instruments improved enjoyment for NH listeners with CI simulation but made no difference for CI listeners. Conclusions. Reengineering a piece of music to reduce its complexity has the potential to enhance music enjoyment for the cochlear implantee. Thus, in addition to improvements in software and hardware, engineering music specifically for the CI listener may be an alternative means to enhance their listening experience. PMID:26543322

  4. Influence of mental imagery on spatial presence and enjoyment assessed in different types of media.

    PubMed

    Weibel, David; Wissmath, Bartholomäus; Mast, Fred W

    2011-10-01

    Previous research studies on spatial presence point out that the users' imagery abilities are of importance. However, this influence has not yet been tested for different media. This is surprising because theoretical considerations suggest that mental imagery comes into play when a mediated environment lacks vividness. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence mental imagery abilities can have on the sensation of presence and enjoyment in different mediated environments. We presented the participants (n = 60) a narrative text, a movie sequence, and a computer game. Across all media, no effect of mental imagery abilities on presence and enjoyment was found, but imagery abilities marginally interacted with the mediated environment. Individuals with high imagery abilities experienced more presence and enjoyment in the text condition. The results were different for the film condition: here, individuals with poor imagery abilities reported marginally higher enjoyment ratings, whereas the presence ratings did not differ between the two groups. Imagery abilities had no influence on presence and enjoyment within the computer game condition. The results suggest that good imagery abilities contribute to the sensations of presence and enjoyment when reading a narrative text. The results for this study have an applied impact for media use because their effectiveness can depend on the individual mental imagery abilities.

  5. Pair programming and secondary school girls' enjoyment of programming and the subject Information Technology (IT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebenberg, Janet; Mentz, Elsa; Breed, Betty

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study that examined how pair programming shapes the experience of secondary school girls taking IT as a subject, with respect to their enjoyment of programming and the subject itself. The study involved six Grade 11 girls who were doing solo programming in Grade 10 and pair programming in their following Grade. The results showed that the girls enjoyed the subject more when programming in pairs due to improved comprehension of the task. They especially enjoyed the socialization and communication brought about by pair programming. The assistance, support, motivation, focus and encouragement they received from partners when stuck or while fixing errors made the programming experience more enjoyable for them. The increased enjoyment brought about by pair programming resulted in the perception of greater learning in the subject IT and also to greater interest in it. It also led to greater persistence in dealing with problems. Pair programming should be implemented right from the start of Grade 10 since it may lead to greater enjoyment of programming and the subject IT in general. The approach may also lead to more girls being attracted to the subject.

  6. Validity Evidence for the State Mindfulness Scale for Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Anne E.; Ullrich-French, Sarah; French, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Being attentive to and aware of one's experiences in the present moment with qualities of acceptance and openness reflects the state of mindfulness. Positive associations exist between state mindfulness and state autonomous motivation for everyday activities. Though this suggests that state mindfulness links with adaptive motivational experiences,…

  7. Metabolic Enzymes Enjoying New Partnerships as RNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Castello, Alfredo; Hentze, Matthias W; Preiss, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    In the past century, few areas of biology advanced as much as our understanding of the pathways of intermediary metabolism. Initially considered unimportant in terms of gene regulation, crucial cellular fate changes, cell differentiation, or malignant transformation are now known to involve 'metabolic remodeling' with profound changes in the expression of many metabolic enzyme genes. This review focuses on the recent identification of RNA-binding activity of numerous metabolic enzymes. We discuss possible roles of this unexpected second activity in feedback gene regulation ('moonlighting') and/or in the control of enzymatic function. We also consider how metabolism-driven post-translational modifications could regulate enzyme-RNA interactions. Thus, RNA emerges as a new partner of metabolic enzymes with far-reaching possible consequences to be unraveled in the future.

  8. Metabolic Enzymes Enjoying New Partnerships as RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Castello, Alfredo; Hentze, Matthias W.; Preiss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In the past century, few areas of biology advanced as much as our understanding of the pathways of intermediary metabolism. Initially considered unimportant in terms of gene regulation, crucial cellular fate changes, cell differentiation, or malignant transformation are now known to involve ‘metabolic remodeling’ with profound changes in the expression of many metabolic enzyme genes. This review focuses on the recent identification of RNA-binding activity of numerous metabolic enzymes. We discuss possible roles of this unexpected second activity in feedback gene regulation (‘moonlighting’) and/or in the control of enzymatic function. We also consider how metabolism-driven post-translational modifications could regulate enzyme–RNA interactions. Thus, RNA emerges as a new partner of metabolic enzymes with far-reaching possible consequences to be unraveled in the future. PMID:26520658

  9. Student Autonomy and its Effects on Student Enjoyment in a Traditional Mechanics Course for First-Year Engineering Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Janaki I.; Quinlivan, Brendan T.; Simonovich, Jennifer A.; Towers, Emily; Zadik, Oren H.; Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.

    2012-02-01

    In light of recent literature in educational psychology, this study investigates instructional support and students' autonomy at a small technical undergraduate school. Grounded theory is used to analyze twelve semi-structured open-ended interviews about engineering students' experiences in Introductory Mechanics that includes Lecture, Recitation, and Laboratory components. Using data triangulation with each course component as a unit of analysis, this study examines students' course enjoyment as a function of instructional support and autonomy. The Lecture utilizes traditional instructor-centered pedagogy with predominantly passive learning and no student autonomy. The Recitation creates an active learning environment through small group work with a moderate degree of autonomy. The Laboratory is designed around self-guided project-based activities with significant autonomy. Despite these differences, all three course components provide similar levels of instructional support. The data reveal that students enjoy the low autonomy provided by Lecture and Recitations while finding the Laboratory frustrating. Analyses indicate that the differences in autonomy contribute to students' misinterpretation of the three course components' value within the context of the entire course.

  10. Factor- and Item-Level Analyses of the 38-Item Activities Scale for Kids-Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Anita M.; Gorton, George E.; Bjornson, Kristie; Bevans, Katherine; Stout, Jean L.; Narayanan, Unni; Tucker, Carole A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Children and adolescents highly value their ability to participate in relevant daily life and recreational activities. The Activities Scale for Kids-performance (ASKp) instrument measures the frequency of performance of 30 common childhood activities, and has been shown to be valid and reliable. A revised and expanded 38-item ASKp (ASKp38)…

  11. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form: Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Rachel C.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Luo, Wen

    2011-01-01

    Following a landmark component analysis of cognitive therapy by Jacobson and colleagues (1996), there has been renewed interest in behavioral activation (BA) treatments for depression. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) was developed to measure when and how clients become activated over the course of BA treatment. Multiple…

  12. Social Support and Peer Norms Scales for Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B.; Resnicow, Ken; Bakhoya, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate psychometric properties of a Social Support and Peer Norms Scale in 5th-7th grade urban girls. Methods Baseline data from 509 girls and test-retest data from another 94 girls in the Midwestern US were used. Results Cronbach's alpha was .83 for the Social Support Scale and .72 for the Peer Norms Scale, whereas test-re-test reliability was .78 for both scales. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a single factor structure for the Social Support Scale, and a 3-factor structure for the Peer Norms Scale. Social support was correlated with accelerometer-measured physical activity (r = .13, p = .006), and peer norms (r = .50, p < .0001). Conclusions Both scales have adequate psychometric properties. PMID:25207514

  13. Active assembly for large-scale manufacturing of integrated nanostructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Spoerke, Erik David; Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Bachand, George David; Hendricks, Judy K.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

    2007-01-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins are protein-based biological agents that work cooperatively to facilitate the organization and transport of nanomaterials within living organisms. This report describes the application of these biological agents as tools in a novel, interdisciplinary scheme for assembling integrated nanostructures. Specifically, selective chemistries were used to direct the favorable adsorption of active motor proteins onto lithographically-defined gold electrodes. Taking advantage of the specific affinity these motor proteins have for microtubules, the motor proteins were used to capture polymerized microtubules out of suspension to form dense patterns of microtubules and microtubule bridges between gold electrodes. These microtubules were then used as biofunctionalized templates to direct the organization of functionalized nanocargo including single-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles. This biologically-mediated scheme for nanomaterials assembly has shown excellent promise as a foundation for developing new biohybrid approaches to nanoscale manufacturing.

  14. How to teach, learning, doing and enjoying Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, R. M.

    2006-08-01

    This contribution deals with the author's experience organising a Summer School for European teachers over ten years and the parallels with the everyday school for students. The main interests for teachers are similar to students. It is necessary to give them: • answers to their questions • practical activities: learning by doing • study astronomy using different approaches: making models, cutting, drawings, playing in the playground and in general they feel like actors in the teaching/learning process • astronomical activities can help teachers/students to teach/learn mathematics or physics in a more appropriate way to attract young people to science • simple and clear language. It is good to reduce the specialized language and try to play with the proximity to the student. • methods which promote rationality, curiosity and creativity. All schools have a sky over their buildings, it must be used to observe and take measurements. • a contextualized approach to astronomy. Do not present the concepts in an isolated way. The school must be connected with the place where students are living. In summary, students should feel a positive passion related to some astronomical experiences then they will add a positive connotation to astronomy. This presentation will mix some concrete examples of all these ideas.

  15. Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…

  16. Passive and Active Vibrations Allow Self-Organization in Large-Scale Electromechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscarino, Arturo; Fortuna, Carlo Famoso Luigi; Frasca, Mattia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the role of passive and active vibrations for the control of nonlinear large-scale electromechanical systems is investigated. The mathematical model of the system is discussed and detailed experimental results are shown in order to prove that coupling the effects of feedback and vibrations elicited by proper control signals makes possible to regularize imperfect uncertain large-scale systems.

  17. Motivational climate, goal orientation, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment within Finnish junior ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, T; Ntoumanis, N; Liukkonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations among situational motivational climate, dispositional approach and avoidance achievement goals, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment in Finnish male junior ice hockey players. The sample comprised 265 junior B-level male players with a mean age of 17.03 years (SD = 0.63). Players filled questionnaires tapping their perceptions of coach motivational climate, achievement goals, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment. For the statistical analysis, players were divided into high and low perceived sport ability groups. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed an indirect path from task-involving motivational climate via task-approach goal to enjoyment. Additionally, SEM demonstrated four other direct associations, which existed in both perceived ability groups: from ego-involving motivational climate to ego-approach and ego-avoidance goals; from ego-approach goal to ego-avoidance goal; and from task-avoidance goal to ego-avoidance goal. Additionally, in the high perceived sport ability group, there was an association from task-involving motivational climate to enjoyment. The results of this study reveal that motivational climate emphasizing effort, personal development and improvement, and achievement goal mastering tasks are significant elements of enjoyment in junior ice hockey. PMID:25648198

  18. The relationship between selective exposure and the enjoyment of television violence.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Andrew J; Kobach, Matthew J

    2012-01-01

    The existing research on the appeal of media violence has led to an apparent incongruity: violent content tends to increase selective exposure to media, but violence often decreases enjoyment. In this experiment, we used two independent manipulations to assess the role of violence in both selective exposure and enjoyment in order to examine the relationship between the two. Program descriptions for four prime-time television dramas were altered to create violent and nonviolent descriptions for each episode. Then the episodes themselves were edited to create violent and nonviolent versions of each. Participants (N = 191) were more likely to choose violent descriptions to watch, but enjoyed the nonviolent episodes more than the violent episodes. Moreover, the nonviolent episodes were rated as more enjoyable even when the participants had chosen to watch a violent program description. From a theoretical perspective, these results suggest the need to move beyond explaining the appeal of violence in terms of increased enjoyment and instead further explore other motivations that could be driving selective exposure to violent content.

  19. Demographic and Practice Characteristics of Pathologists Who Enjoy Breast Tissue Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Natalia V.; Geller, Berta; Carney, Patricia A.; Reisch, Lisa M.; Onega, Tracy; Weaver, Donald L.; Frederick, Paul; Elmore, Joann G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Physician attributes, job satisfaction and confidence in clinical skills are associated with enhanced performance and better patient outcomes. We surveyed 252 pathologists to evaluate associations between enjoyment of breast pathology, demographic/clinical characteristics and diagnostic performance. Diagnostic performance was determined by agreement with patient cases previously reviewed by a panel of experienced pathologists. Eighty-three percent of study participants reported enjoying breast pathology. Pathologists who enjoy breast interpretation were more likely to review ≥10 cases/week (p=0.003), report breast interpretation expertise (p=0.013), and high levels of confidence interpreting breast pathology (p<0.001). These pathologists were less likely to report that the field was challenging (p<0.001) and that breast cases make them more nervous than other types of pathology (p<0.001). Enjoyment was not associated with diagnostic performance. Millions of women undergo breast biopsy annually, thus it is reassuring that although nearly a fifth of practicing pathologists who interpret breast tissue report not enjoying the field, precision is not impacted. PMID:25554017

  20. Demographic and practice characteristics of pathologists who enjoy breast tissue interpretation.

    PubMed

    Oster, Natalia V; Geller, Berta M; Carney, Patricia A; Reisch, Lisa M; Onega, Tracy; Weaver, Donald L; Frederick, Paul; Elmore, Joann G

    2015-04-01

    Physician attributes, job satisfaction and confidence in clinical skills are associated with enhanced performance and better patient outcomes. We surveyed 252 pathologists to evaluate associations between enjoyment of breast pathology, demographic/clinical characteristics and diagnostic performance. Diagnostic performance was determined by comparing pathologist assessments of a set of 60 cases with consensus assessments of the same cases made by a panel of experienced pathologists. Eighty-three percent of study participants reported enjoying breast pathology. Pathologists who enjoy breast interpretation were more likely to review ≥10 cases/week (p = 0.003), report breast interpretation expertise (p = 0.013) and have high levels of confidence interpreting breast pathology (p < 0.001). These pathologists were less likely to report that the field was challenging (p < 0.001) and that breast cases make them more nervous than other types of pathology (p < 0.001). Enjoyment was not associated with diagnostic performance. Millions of women undergo breast biopsy annually, thus it is reassuring that although nearly a fifth of practicing pathologists who interpret breast tissue report not enjoying the field, precision is not impacted.

  1. Free-Hand Small-Scale Maps: Activities for Cognitive Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saveland, Robert N.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that small-scale mapping activities can be used in geography courses to help students understand geographic concepts such as latitude, longitude, situation, relative location, and national boundaries. (Author/DB)

  2. Modelling large scale human activity in San Francisco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Marta

    2010-03-01

    Diverse group of people with a wide variety of schedules, activities and travel needs compose our cities nowadays. This represents a big challenge for modeling travel behaviors in urban environments; those models are of crucial interest for a wide variety of applications such as traffic forecasting, spreading of viruses, or measuring human exposure to air pollutants. The traditional means to obtain knowledge about travel behavior is limited to surveys on travel journeys. The obtained information is based in questionnaires that are usually costly to implement and with intrinsic limitations to cover large number of individuals and some problems of reliability. Using mobile phone data, we explore the basic characteristics of a model of human travel: The distribution of agents is proportional to the population density of a given region, and each agent has a characteristic trajectory size contain information on frequency of visits to different locations. Additionally we use a complementary data set given by smart subway fare cards offering us information about the exact time of each passenger getting in or getting out of the subway station and the coordinates of it. This allows us to uncover the temporal aspects of the mobility. Since we have the actual time and place of individual's origin and destination we can understand the temporal patterns in each visited location with further details. Integrating two described data set we provide a dynamical model of human travels that incorporates different aspects observed empirically.

  3. Active osmotic exchanger for advanced filtration at the nano scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marbach, Sophie; Bocquet, Lyderic

    2015-11-01

    One of the main functions of the kidney is to remove the waste products of an organism, mostly by excreting concentrated urea while reabsorbing water and other molecules. The human kidney is capable of recycling about 200 liters of water per day, at the relatively low cost of 0.5 kJ/L (standard dialysis requiring at least 150 kJ/L). Kidneys are constituted of millions of parallel filtration networks called nephrons. The nephrons of all mammalian kidneys present a specific loop geometry, the Loop of Henle, that is believed to play a key role in the urinary concentrating mechanism. One limb of the loop is permeable to water and the other contains sodium pumps that exchange with a common interstitium. In this work, we take inspiration from this osmotic exchanger design to propose new nanofiltration principles. We first establish simple analytical results to derive general operating principles, based on coupled water permeable pores and osmotic pumps. The best filtration geometry, in terms of power required for a given water recycling ratio, is comparable in many ways to the mammalian nephron. It is not only more efficient than traditional reverse osmosis systems, but can also work at much smaller pressures (of the order of the blood pressure, 0.13 bar, as compared to more than 30 bars for pressure-retarded osmosis systems). We anticipate that our proof of principle will be a starting point for the development of new filtration systems relying on the active osmotic exchanger principle.

  4. Multistability in Large Scale Models of Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Golos, Mathieu; Jirsa, Viktor; Daucé, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Noise driven exploration of a brain network’s dynamic repertoire has been hypothesized to be causally involved in cognitive function, aging and neurodegeneration. The dynamic repertoire crucially depends on the network’s capacity to store patterns, as well as their stability. Here we systematically explore the capacity of networks derived from human connectomes to store attractor states, as well as various network mechanisms to control the brain’s dynamic repertoire. Using a deterministic graded response Hopfield model with connectome-based interactions, we reconstruct the system’s attractor space through a uniform sampling of the initial conditions. Large fixed-point attractor sets are obtained in the low temperature condition, with a bigger number of attractors than ever reported so far. Different variants of the initial model, including (i) a uniform activation threshold or (ii) a global negative feedback, produce a similarly robust multistability in a limited parameter range. A numerical analysis of the distribution of the attractors identifies spatially-segregated components, with a centro-medial core and several well-delineated regional patches. Those different modes share similarity with the fMRI independent components observed in the “resting state” condition. We demonstrate non-stationary behavior in noise-driven generalizations of the models, with different meta-stable attractors visited along the same time course. Only the model with a global dynamic density control is found to display robust and long-lasting non-stationarity with no tendency toward either overactivity or extinction. The best fit with empirical signals is observed at the edge of multistability, a parameter region that also corresponds to the highest entropy of the attractors. PMID:26709852

  5. Centennial Scale Variations in Lake Productivity Linked to Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englebrecht, A.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Guilderson, T. P.; Ingram, L.; Byrne, R.

    2012-12-01

    Solar variations on both decadal and centennial timescales have been associated with climate phenomena (van Loon et al., 2004; Hodell et al., 2001; White et al., 1997). The energy received by the Earth at the peak of the solar cycle increases by <0.1%; so the question has remained of how this could be amplified to produce an observable climate response. Recent modeling shows that the response of the Earth's climate system to the 11-year solar cycle may be amplified through stratosphere and ocean feedbacks and has the potential to impact climate variability on a multidecadal to centennial timescales (Meehl et al., 2009). Here, we report a 1000-year record of changes in the stratigraphy and carbon isotope composition of varved lake sediment from Isla Isabela (22°N, 106°W) in the subtropical northeast Pacific. Stable carbon isotopes and carbonate stratigraphy can be used to infer surface productivity in the lake. Our analysis shows variations in primary productivity on centennial timescales and suggests that solar activity may be an important component of Pacific climate variability. A possible response during solar maxima acts to keep the eastern equatorial Pacific cooler and drier than usual, producing conditions similar to a La Niña event. In the region around Isla Isabela peak solar years were characterized by decreased surface temperatures and suppressed precipitation (Meehl et al., 2009), which enhance productivity at Isabela (Kienel et al. 2011). In the future, we plan to analyze the data using advanced time series analysis techniques like the wavelets together with techniques to handle irregularly spaced time series data. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-571672

  6. Transforming community prevention systems for sustained impact: embedding active implementation and scaling functions.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, William A; Boothroyd, Renée I; Fleming, W Oscar; Lofts Jarboe, Karen; Morrow, Jane; Ritchie, Gail F; Sebian, Joyce

    2016-03-01

    Traditional efforts to translate evidence-based prevention strategies to communities, at scale, have not often produced socially significant outcomes or the local capacity needed to sustain them. A key gap in many efforts is the transformation of community prevention systems to support and sustain local infrastructure for the active implementation, scaling, and continuous improvement of effective prevention strategies. In this paper, we discuss (1) the emergence of applied implementation science as an important type 3-5 translational extension of traditional type 2 translational prevention science, (2) active implementation and scaling functions to support the full and effective use of evidence-based prevention strategies in practice, (3) the organization and alignment of local infrastructure to embed active implementation and scaling functions within community prevention systems, and (4) policy and practice implications for greater social impact and sustainable use of effective prevention strategies. PMID:27012261

  7. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  8. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  9. A Validation and Reliability Study of Community Service Activities Scale in Turkey: A Social Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özden; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim; Tasdan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the reliability and validity of Community Service Activities Scale (CSAS) developed by Demir, Kaya and Tasdan (2012) with a view to identify perceptions of Faculty of Education students regarding community service activities. The participants of the study are 313 randomly chosen students who attend six…

  10. Caffeine consumption around an exercise bout: effects on energy expenditure, energy intake, and exercise enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Hall, Susan; Leveritt, Michael; Grant, Gary; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-10-01

    Combining an exercise and nutritional intervention is arguably the optimal method of creating energy imbalance for weight loss. This study sought to determine whether combining exercise and caffeine supplementation was more effective for promoting acute energy deficits and manipulations to substrate metabolism than exercise alone. Fourteen recreationally active participants (mean ± SD body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2) completed a resting control trial (CON), a placebo exercise trial (EX), and a caffeine exercise trial (EX+CAF, 2 × 3 mg/kg of caffeine 90 min before and 30 min after exercise) in a randomized, double-blinded design. Trials were 4 h in duration with 1 h of rest, 1 h of cycling at ∼65% power at maximum O2 consumption or rest, and a 2-h recovery. Gas exchange, appetite perceptions, and blood samples were obtained periodically. Two hours after exercise, participants were offered an ad libitum test meal where energy and macronutrient intake were recorded. EX+CAF resulted in significantly greater energy expenditure and fat oxidation compared with EX (+250 kJ; +10.4 g) and CON (+3,126 kJ; +29.7 g) (P < 0.05). A trend for reduced energy and fat intake compared with CON (-718 kJ; -8 g) (P = 0.055) was observed. Consequently, EX+CAF created a greater energy deficit (P < 0.05). Caffeine also led to exercise being perceived as less difficult and more enjoyable (P < 0.05). Combining caffeine with exercise creates a greater acute energy deficit, and the implications of this protocol for weight loss or maintenance over longer periods of time in overweight/obese populations should be further investigated. PMID:25123196

  11. Developmental Coordination Disorder and Reported Enjoyment of Physical Education in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, John; Hay, John; Mandigo, James; Wade, Terrance; Faught, Brent E.; Flouris, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are less likely to enjoy participating in physical education (PE) than children without motor coordination difficulties. However, no studies have attempted to quantify this relationship or examine potentially modifiable mediating variables. Using a large sample (N = 590) of children (aged 9…

  12. The Role of Graphic and Sanitized Violence in the Enjoyment of Television Dramas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Andrew J.; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment explores the relationship between television violence and viewer enjoyment. Over 400 participants were randomly assigned to one of 15 conditions that were created by editing five TV programs into three versions each: A graphically violent version, a sanitized violent version, and a nonviolent version. After viewing, participants…

  13. Students' Self-Perception of Reading Ability, Enjoyment of Reading and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.; Gilmore, Alison; Jameson, Madgerie

    2012-01-01

    Using data from New Zealand's National Education Monitoring Project, a light sampling, low stakes performance based national school assessment program, reading self-efficacy, reading enjoyment, and reading achievement were examined in samples of 8 and 12 year old children. Sample sizes were n = 480 for each group. While reading achievement…

  14. Nonlinguistic Variables in Advanced Second Language Reading: Learners' Self-Assessment and Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    The present study on second language (L2) reading and individual difference variables (IDVs) examines learners' self-assessed ability level and enjoyment and the effects of these factors on two different measures of comprehension. The investigation controls for topic familiarity differences by gender and the study utilizes the authentic short…

  15. The Influence of Hormonal Fluctuations on Womens' Selection and Enjoyment of Television Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadowcroft, Jeanne; Zillmann, Dolf

    Existing theory suggests that women in the premenstrual and menstrual phases of their hormonal cycle would select and enjoy nonarousing television programs, sucy as nonhostile comedy and game shows, and would avoid action drama and hostile and arousing programs. To test this theory, female undergraduates from telecommunications and journalism…

  16. Food neophobia and enjoyment of tactile play: Associations between preschool children and their parents.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Sahota, Simran

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine whether the relationship between enjoyment of tactile play and food neophobia observed in children (Coulthard & Thakker, 2015) would be related to levels seen in their parents. One hundred and twenty six participants were recruited from playgroup centres in the Walsall area of the West Midlands, UK; 63 children (2-5 years; 30 girls and 33 boys) and 63 attendant parents (53 mothers and 10 fathers). Children and their parents' enjoyment of a tactile play task was rated by both the parent and a researcher, and questionnaire measures of food neophobia and tactile sensitivity were completed by the parent for both themselves and their children. Strong associations were found between parent and child scores across all the measures; food neophobia, tactile sensitivity and tactile play enjoyment. The variables most strongly related to child food neophobia were parental neophobia and enjoyment of tactile play (parent and child). These findings indicate that family resemblance exists not only for food neophobia, but for tactile sensory processing as well, and may represent a possible inherited route to neophobia. The findings strengthen the suggestion that tactile processing is associated with food neophobia although the causal nature of this relationship is still not known. PMID:26631252

  17. Enjoyment and Consumption of Defiant Rock Music as a Function of Adolescent Rebelliousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleich, Susan; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of adolescent rebelliousness highlights a study of high school students that explored the relationship between rebelliousness as a personality trait and the enjoyment of defiant rock music. Hypotheses tested are discussed, the use of MTV concept music videos is explained, gender differences are considered, and further research is…

  18. Enjoying God's Death: "The Passion of the Christ" and the Practices of an Evangelical Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Publics are not simply a product of common attention to texts, but are also animated by an economy of tropes and affects that relies on processes of metonymic connection, metaphorical condensation, and affective investment. Drawing on Jacques Lacan's theory of enjoyment and his treatments of metaphor and metonymy as rhetorical forms, this essay…

  19. Reading enjoyment amongst non-leisure readers can affect achievement in secondary school

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate determinants of differences in leisure reading behavior and school achievement. We specifically examined reading enjoyment, mental imagery, and sex as predictors in a large, age-homogeneous sample of Dutch secondary school students (N = 1,071). Results showed that the prevalence of leisure reading was low in both the lower, pre-vocational track (19.5%) and the higher, pre-academic track (32.5%). Boys read even less than girls. Almost all leisure readers enjoyed reading and engaged in mental imagery, i.e., the propensity “to see images” of a written story in the mind’s eye. Overall, boys who did not like to read for leisure had the poorest school performance. Non-leisure readers who reported that they enjoyed reading got higher school grades in the higher educational track. In the lower track, this was the case for girls. Our study findings imply that reading promotion programs should take into account individual differences in sex, achievement level, and reading enjoyment when aiming to decrease the academic achievement gap. PMID:25386154

  20. Comparison of Traditional and Alternative Fitness Teaching Formats on Heart Rate Intensity and Perceived Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Amy Sau-ching; Heung-Sang Wong, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Compared a traditional and an alternative (skill-fitness- music) fitness teaching format to determine whether there would be differences on Hong Kong middle school students' heart rate intensity and perceived enjoyment. Data from heart rate monitors and student surveys indicated that the two formats did not produce differences in heart rates.…

  1. Investigating the Individual Difference Antecedents of Perceived Enjoyment in Students' Use of Blogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi-Shun; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    With the proliferation of weblogs (blogs) used in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to blog has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this study is to explore the individual difference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence blogging…

  2. The Effect of Mindful Listening Instruction on Listening Sensitivity and Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William Todd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Mindful Listening Instruction on Music Listening Sensitivity and Music Listening Enjoyment. The type of mindfulness investigated in this study was of the social-psychological type, which shares both commonalities with and distinctions from meditative mindfulness. Enhanced context awareness,…

  3. Televised Entertainment-Education to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol Use: Perceived Realism, Enjoyment, and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Leeuwen, Lonneke; Renes, Reint Jan; Leeuwis, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is a concern in the Netherlands because of its high prevalence and risks. To discourage adolescents from drinking alcohol, a televised entertainment-education (E-E) intervention was developed. This study investigated responses of adolescents on perceived realism and enjoyment of the E-E intervention, as well as its…

  4. Book Clubs in Developmental Reading: Building Reading Comprehension, Fostering Reading Enjoyment, and Engaging Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The use of book clubs in college developmental reading classes is an effective way to encourage reluctant readers to build and strengthen reading skills, foster reading enjoyment, and engage students. In addition, book clubs build a sense of community within the classroom as the students converse and share their interpretations of the reading…

  5. The effects of achievement goals on performance, enjoyment, and practice of a novel motor task.

    PubMed

    Kavussanu, Maria; Morris, Rebecca L; Ring, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    We examined the effects of trichotomous achievement goals on performance, enjoyment, and practice of a golf-putting task. Male (n = 39) and female (n = 63) undergraduate students participated in the experiment in exchange for course credit. Participants were assigned to a mastery, performance-approach, or performance-avoidance goal condition and completed seven blocks of 10 trials (one for baseline, four for the experimental phase, and two for the transfer phase) of a golf-putting task. Distance from the target was measured and performance measures of accuracy and consistency were calculated. Self-reported enjoyment during the baseline and experimental phases and practice during a 5-min period before and following the experimental task were also assessed. Performance accuracy and consistency improved similarly among the three groups. Individuals in all three conditions reported enjoying the task to the same extent. Mastery participants practiced for longer than performance-approach participants during the practice period. Performance-avoidance participants did not differ significantly from the other two groups. The three goals were equally effective in promoting performance and enjoyment of the golf-putting task. The differential practice results for the two performance goals suggest that they should be considered separately. PMID:19735037

  6. Antecedents of Academic Emotions: Testing the Internal/External Frame of Reference Model for Academic Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Hall, Nathan C.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    The present study focused on students' academic enjoyment as predicted by achievement in multiple academic domains. Assumptions were based on Marsh's internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model and Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions, and were tested in a sample of 1380 German students from grades 5 to 10. Students' academic…

  7. Investigating Essential Factors on Students' Perceived Accomplishment and Enjoyment and Intention to Learn in Web Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yulei; Dang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Web development is an important component in the curriculum of computer science and information systems areas. However, it is generally considered difficult to learn among students. In this study,we examined factors that could influence students' perceptions of accomplishment and enjoyment and their intention to learn in the web development…

  8. Mastery, Enjoyment, Tradition and Innovation: A Reflective Practice Model for Instrumental and Vocal Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a model to assist music teachers in reflecting on their teaching practice in relation to their aims and values. Initially developed as a workshop aid for use on a music education MA program, the model is intended to provoke critical engagement with two prominent tensions in music education: that between mastery and enjoyment,…

  9. Pair Programming and Secondary School Girls' Enjoyment of Programming and the Subject Information Technology (IT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebenberg, Janet; Mentz, Elsa; Breed, Betty

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study that examined how pair programming shapes the experience of secondary school girls taking IT as a subject, with respect to their enjoyment of programming and the subject itself. The study involved six Grade 11 girls who were doing solo programming in Grade 10 and pair programming in their following Grade.…

  10. Promoting Enjoyment in Girls' Physical Education: The Impact of Goals, Beliefs, and Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. K. John; Liu, W. C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the network of relationships between sport ability beliefs, achievement goals, self-determination and female students' enjoyment in school physical education (PE). Female secondary students (n = 343) from a single-sex secondary school in Singapore participated in the survey. They were assessed on sport ability beliefs, goal…

  11. Differences between Children and Adults in the Recognition of Enjoyment Smiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco; Colle, Livia

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences between 8-year-olds (n = 80) and adults (n = 80) in recognition of felt versus faked enjoyment smiles by using a newly developed picture set that is based on the Facial Action Coding System. The authors tested the effect of different facial action units (AUs) on judgments of smile authenticity. Multiple…

  12. How Large Scale Flows in the Solar Convection Zone may Influence Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, D. H.

    2004-01-01

    Large scale flows within the solar convection zone are the primary drivers of the Sun s magnetic activity cycle. Differential rotation can amplify the magnetic field and convert poloidal fields into toroidal fields. Poleward meridional flow near the surface can carry magnetic flux that reverses the magnetic poles and can convert toroidal fields into poloidal fields. The deeper, equatorward meridional flow can carry magnetic flux toward the equator where it can reconnect with oppositely directed fields in the other hemisphere. These axisymmetric flows are themselves driven by large scale convective motions. The effects of the Sun s rotation on convection produce velocity correlations that can maintain the differential rotation and meridional circulation. These convective motions can influence solar activity themselves by shaping the large-scale magnetic field pattern. While considerable theoretical advances have been made toward understanding these large scale flows, outstanding problems in matching theory to observations still remain.

  13. Scale-dependent geomorphic responses to active restoration and implications for cutthroat trout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salant, N.; Miller, S. W.

    2009-12-01

    The predominant goal of instream habitat restoration is to increase the diversity, density and/or biomass of aquatic organisms through enhanced physical heterogeneity and increased food availability. In physically homogenized systems, habitat restoration is most commonly achieved at the reach-scale through the addition of structures or channel reconfiguration. Despite the completion of over 6,000 restoration projects in the United States, studies of fish responses to habitat restoration have largely produced equivocal results. Paradoxically, restoration monitoring overwhelmingly focuses on fish response without understanding how these responses link to the physical variables being altered and the scale at which geomorphic changes occur. Our study investigates whether instream habitat restoration affects geomorphic conditions at spatial scales relevant to the organism of interest (i.e. the spatial scale of the variables limiting to that organism). We measure the effects of active restoration on geomorphic metrics at three spatial scales (local, unit, and reach) using a before-after-control-impact design in a historically disturbed and heavily managed cutthroat trout stream. Observed trout habitat preferences (for spawning and juvenile/adult residence) are used to identify the limiting physical variables and are compared to the scale of spatially explicit geomorphic responses. Four reaches representing three different stages of restoration (before, one month and one year after) are surveyed for local-scale physical conditions, unit- and reach-scale morphology, resident fish use, and redd locations. Local-scale physical metrics include depth, nearbed and average velocity, overhead cover, particle size, and water quality metrics. Point measurements stratified by morphological unit are used to determine physical variability among unit types. Habitat complexity and availability are assessed at the reach-scale from topographic surveys and unit maps. Our multi-scale

  14. The effects of gamelike features and test location on cognitive test performance and participant enjoyment

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Andy; Woods, Andy T.; Lawrence, Natalia S.; Munafò, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Computerised cognitive assessments are a vital tool in the behavioural sciences, but participants often view them as effortful and unengaging. One potential solution is to add gamelike elements to these tasks in order to make them more intrinsically enjoyable, and some researchers have posited that a more engaging task might produce higher quality data. This assumption, however, remains largely untested. We investigated the effects of gamelike features and test location on the data and enjoyment ratings from a simple cognitive task. We tested three gamified variants of the Go-No-Go task, delivered both in the laboratory and online. In the first version of the task participants were rewarded with points for performing optimally. The second version of the task was framed as a cowboy shootout. The third version was a standard Go-No-Go task, used as a control condition. We compared reaction time, accuracy and subjective measures of enjoyment and engagement between task variants and study location. We found points to be a highly suitable game mechanic for gamified cognitive testing because they did not disrupt the validity of the data collected but increased participant enjoyment. However, we found no evidence that gamelike features could increase engagement to the point where participant performance improved. We also found that while participants enjoyed the cowboy themed task, the difficulty of categorising the gamelike stimuli adversely affected participant performance, increasing No-Go error rates by 28% compared to the non-game control. Responses collected online vs. in the laboratory had slightly longer reaction times but were otherwise very similar, supporting other findings that online crowdsourcing is an acceptable method of data collection for this type of research. PMID:27441120

  15. The effects of gamelike features and test location on cognitive test performance and participant enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, Jim; Skinner, Andy; Woods, Andy T; Lawrence, Natalia S; Munafò, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Computerised cognitive assessments are a vital tool in the behavioural sciences, but participants often view them as effortful and unengaging. One potential solution is to add gamelike elements to these tasks in order to make them more intrinsically enjoyable, and some researchers have posited that a more engaging task might produce higher quality data. This assumption, however, remains largely untested. We investigated the effects of gamelike features and test location on the data and enjoyment ratings from a simple cognitive task. We tested three gamified variants of the Go-No-Go task, delivered both in the laboratory and online. In the first version of the task participants were rewarded with points for performing optimally. The second version of the task was framed as a cowboy shootout. The third version was a standard Go-No-Go task, used as a control condition. We compared reaction time, accuracy and subjective measures of enjoyment and engagement between task variants and study location. We found points to be a highly suitable game mechanic for gamified cognitive testing because they did not disrupt the validity of the data collected but increased participant enjoyment. However, we found no evidence that gamelike features could increase engagement to the point where participant performance improved. We also found that while participants enjoyed the cowboy themed task, the difficulty of categorising the gamelike stimuli adversely affected participant performance, increasing No-Go error rates by 28% compared to the non-game control. Responses collected online vs. in the laboratory had slightly longer reaction times but were otherwise very similar, supporting other findings that online crowdsourcing is an acceptable method of data collection for this type of research. PMID:27441120

  16. Connecting multiple spatial scales to decode the population activity of grid cells.

    PubMed

    Stemmler, Martin; Mathis, Alexander; Herz, Andreas V M

    2015-12-01

    Mammalian grid cells fire when an animal crosses the points of an imaginary hexagonal grid tessellating the environment. We show how animals can navigate by reading out a simple population vector of grid cell activity across multiple spatial scales, even though neural activity is intrinsically stochastic. This theory of dead reckoning explains why grid cells are organized into discrete modules within which all cells have the same lattice scale and orientation. The lattice scale changes from module to module and should form a geometric progression with a scale ratio of around 3/2 to minimize the risk of making large-scale errors in spatial localization. Such errors should also occur if intermediate-scale modules are silenced, whereas knocking out the module at the smallest scale will only affect spatial precision. For goal-directed navigation, the allocentric grid cell representation can be readily transformed into the egocentric goal coordinates needed for planning movements. The goal location is set by nonlinear gain fields that act on goal vector cells. This theory predicts neural and behavioral correlates of grid cell readout that transcend the known link between grid cells of the medial entorhinal cortex and place cells of the hippocampus. PMID:26824061

  17. The temporal structures and functional significance of scale-free brain activity.

    PubMed

    He, Biyu J; Zempel, John M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Raichle, Marcus E

    2010-05-13

    Scale-free dynamics, with a power spectrum following P proportional to f(-beta), are an intrinsic feature of many complex processes in nature. In neural systems, scale-free activity is often neglected in electrophysiological research. Here, we investigate scale-free dynamics in human brain and show that it contains extensive nested frequencies, with the phase of lower frequencies modulating the amplitude of higher frequencies in an upward progression across the frequency spectrum. The functional significance of scale-free brain activity is indicated by task performance modulation and regional variation, with beta being larger in default network and visual cortex and smaller in hippocampus and cerebellum. The precise patterns of nested frequencies in the brain differ from other scale-free dynamics in nature, such as earth seismic waves and stock market fluctuations, suggesting system-specific generative mechanisms. Our findings reveal robust temporal structures and behavioral significance of scale-free brain activity and should motivate future study on its physiological mechanisms and cognitive implications. PMID:20471349

  18. The temporal structures and functional significance of scale-free brain activity.

    PubMed

    He, Biyu J; Zempel, John M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Raichle, Marcus E

    2010-05-13

    Scale-free dynamics, with a power spectrum following P proportional to f(-beta), are an intrinsic feature of many complex processes in nature. In neural systems, scale-free activity is often neglected in electrophysiological research. Here, we investigate scale-free dynamics in human brain and show that it contains extensive nested frequencies, with the phase of lower frequencies modulating the amplitude of higher frequencies in an upward progression across the frequency spectrum. The functional significance of scale-free brain activity is indicated by task performance modulation and regional variation, with beta being larger in default network and visual cortex and smaller in hippocampus and cerebellum. The precise patterns of nested frequencies in the brain differ from other scale-free dynamics in nature, such as earth seismic waves and stock market fluctuations, suggesting system-specific generative mechanisms. Our findings reveal robust temporal structures and behavioral significance of scale-free brain activity and should motivate future study on its physiological mechanisms and cognitive implications.

  19. The temporal structures and functional significance of scale-free brain activity

    PubMed Central

    He, Biyu J.; Zempel, John M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Scale-free dynamics, with a power spectrum following P ∝ f-β, are an intrinsic feature of many complex processes in nature. In neural systems, scale-free activity is often neglected in electrophysiological research. Here, we investigate scale-free dynamics in human brain and show that it contains extensive nested frequencies, with the phase of lower frequencies modulating the amplitude of higher frequencies in an upward progression across the frequency spectrum. The functional significance of scale-free brain activity is indicated by task performance modulation and regional variation, with β being larger in default network and visual cortex and smaller in hippocampus and cerebellum. The precise patterns of nested frequencies in the brain differ from other scale-free dynamics in nature, such as earth seismic waves and stock market fluctuations, suggesting system-specific generative mechanisms. Our findings reveal robust temporal structures and behavioral significance of scale-free brain activity and should motivate future study on its physiological mechanisms and cognitive implications. PMID:20471349

  20. Trim9 regulates activity-dependent fine-scale topography in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yang, Limin; Li, Ruonan; Kaneko, Takuya; Takle, Kendra; Morikawa, Rei K; Essex, Laura; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Jie; Emoto, Kazuo; Xiang, Yang; Ye, Bing

    2014-05-01

    Topographic projection of afferent terminals into 2D maps in the CNS is a general strategy used by the nervous system to encode the locations of sensory stimuli. In vertebrates, it is known that although guidance cues are critical for establishing a coarse topographic map, neural activity directs fine-scale topography between adjacent afferent terminals [1-4]. However, the molecular mechanism underlying activity-dependent regulation of fine-scale topography is poorly understood. Molecular analysis of the spatial relationship between adjacent afferent terminals requires reliable localization of the presynaptic terminals of single neurons as well as genetic manipulations with single-cell resolution in vivo. Although both requirements can potentially be met in Drosophila melanogaster [5, 6], no activity-dependent topographic system has been identified in flies [7]. Here we report a topographic system that is shaped by neuronal activity in Drosophila. With this system, we found that topographic separation of the presynaptic terminals of adjacent nociceptive neurons requires different levels of Trim9, an evolutionarily conserved signaling molecule [8-11]. Neural activity regulates Trim9 protein levels to direct fine-scale topography of sensory afferents. This study offers both a novel mechanism by which neural activity directs fine-scale topography of axon terminals and a new system to study this process at single-neuron resolution.

  1. Trim9 regulates activity-dependent fine-scale topography in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yang, Limin; Li, Ruonan; Kaneko, Takuya; Takle, Kendra; Morikawa, Rei K; Essex, Laura; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Jie; Emoto, Kazuo; Xiang, Yang; Ye, Bing

    2014-05-01

    Topographic projection of afferent terminals into 2D maps in the CNS is a general strategy used by the nervous system to encode the locations of sensory stimuli. In vertebrates, it is known that although guidance cues are critical for establishing a coarse topographic map, neural activity directs fine-scale topography between adjacent afferent terminals [1-4]. However, the molecular mechanism underlying activity-dependent regulation of fine-scale topography is poorly understood. Molecular analysis of the spatial relationship between adjacent afferent terminals requires reliable localization of the presynaptic terminals of single neurons as well as genetic manipulations with single-cell resolution in vivo. Although both requirements can potentially be met in Drosophila melanogaster [5, 6], no activity-dependent topographic system has been identified in flies [7]. Here we report a topographic system that is shaped by neuronal activity in Drosophila. With this system, we found that topographic separation of the presynaptic terminals of adjacent nociceptive neurons requires different levels of Trim9, an evolutionarily conserved signaling molecule [8-11]. Neural activity regulates Trim9 protein levels to direct fine-scale topography of sensory afferents. This study offers both a novel mechanism by which neural activity directs fine-scale topography of axon terminals and a new system to study this process at single-neuron resolution. PMID:24746793

  2. Brief scales to assess physical activity and sedentary equipment in the home

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviors such as TV viewing are associated with childhood obesity, while physical activity promotes healthy weight. The role of the home environment in shaping these behaviors among youth is poorly understood. The study purpose was to examine the reliability of brief parental proxy-report and adolescent self-report measures of electronic equipment and physical activity equipment in the home and to assess the construct validity of these scales by examining their relationship to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status of children and adolescents. Methods Participants were adolescents (n = 189; mean age = 14.6), parents of adolescents (n = 171; mean age = 45.0), and parents of younger children (n = 116; parents mean age = 39.6; children's mean age = 8.3) who completed two surveys approximately one month apart. Measures included a 21-item electronic equipment scale (to assess sedentary behavior facilitators in the home, in the child or adolescent's bedroom, and portable electronics) and a 14-item home physical activity equipment scale. Home environment factors were examined as correlates of children's and adolescents' physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status after adjusting for child age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, and number of children in the home. Results Most scales had acceptable test-retest reliability (intraclass correlations were .54 - .92). Parent and adolescent reports were correlated. Electronic equipment in adolescents' bedrooms was positively related to sedentary behavior. Activity equipment in the home was inversely associated with television time in adolescents and children, and positively correlated with adolescents' physical activity. Children's BMI z-score was positively associated with having a television in their bedroom. Conclusions The measures of home electronic equipment and activity equipment were similarly reliable when reported by parents and by adolescents. Home environment

  3. Development and psychometric testing of the active aging scale for Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-arun; Hatthakit, Urai

    2014-01-01

    Background Active aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about active aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of scales to measure the expression of active aging attributes. Purpose The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite scale of active aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods Eight steps of scale development were followed: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test–retest reliability. Results Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item scale consisting of seven factors of active aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being actively engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in active learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test–retest reliability were confirmed. Conclusion The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of active aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a

  4. Development of scaling factors for the activated concrete of the KRR-2.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang-Bum; Kang, Mun-Ja; Lee, Ki-Won; Chung, Un-Soo

    2009-01-01

    The biological shielding concrete of KRR-2 was activated by a thermal neutron reaction during the operation of the reactor, thus a variety of radionuclides were generated in the concrete. In order to verify the radioactivity for the final disposal of waste and to achieve a more efficient cutting of the concrete, the radioactivity inventories and distributions of the activated concrete were evaluated. The activity of gamma-emitting radionuclides was measured by using an HPGe detector. The beta-emitting radionuclides were measured by an oxidation/combustion method for (3)H and (14)C and a combined method of an extraction chromatography and a liquid scintillation for (55)Fe and (63)Ni. The dominant radioactive nuclides in the activated concrete were (3)H, (14)C, (55)Fe and (60)Co, and the maximum gamma activity was 105Bq/g at the surface around the thermal column. The specific activities of all the nuclides were found to decrease almost linearly on a logarithmic scale along the depth from the inner surface of the concrete. Equations for scaling factors were obtained by a linear regression of logarithms from the radioactivity data of (3)H/(60)Co, (14)C/(60)Co and (55)Fe/(60)Co nuclide pairs of the activated concrete. The scaling factors can be utilized for the estimation of beta radioactivity without the time consuming separation processes of the nuclides. PMID:19303787

  5. ActivitySim: large-scale agent based activity generation for infrastructure simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Gali, Emmanuel; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Mniszewski, Sue; Cuellar, Leticia; Teuscher, Christof

    2008-01-01

    The United States' Department of Homeland Security aims to model, simulate, and analyze critical infrastructure and their interdependencies across multiple sectors such as electric power, telecommunications, water distribution, transportation, etc. We introduce ActivitySim, an activity simulator for a population of millions of individual agents each characterized by a set of demographic attributes that is based on US census data. ActivitySim generates daily schedules for each agent that consists of a sequence of activities, such as sleeping, shopping, working etc., each being scheduled at a geographic location, such as businesses or private residences that is appropriate for the activity type and for the personal situation of the agent. ActivitySim has been developed as part of a larger effort to understand the interdependencies among national infrastructure networks and their demand profiles that emerge from the different activities of individuals in baseline scenarios as well as emergency scenarios, such as hurricane evacuations. We present the scalable software engineering principles underlying ActivitySim, the socia-technical modeling paradigms that drive the activity generation, and proof-of-principle results for a scenario in the Twin Cities, MN area of 2.6 M agents.

  6. Summary of pilot-scale activities with resorcinol ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Sargent, T.N.; Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, J.P.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-10-02

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating vitrification technology for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW). They have chartered the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to study vitrification of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC`s efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. As part of the fiscal year (FY) 1995 activities, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with organic resins. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites, as well as commercial industries, that use resins for treatment of liquid wastes. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be due to a reduction in funding. Instead, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with organic resins performed under the guidance of SRTC was provided in this report. The studies which will be discussed used a resorcinol- formaldehyde resin loaded with non-radioactive cesium, which was fed with simulated wastewater treatment sludge feed. The first study was performed at the SRTC in the mini-melter, 1/100th scale of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter, and also involved limited crucible-scale studies to determine the resin loading obtainable. The other study was performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research (Center) and involved both crucible and pilot-scale testing in the Stir-Melter stirred-melter. Both studies were successful in vitrifying the resin in simulated radioactive sludge and glass additive feeds.

  7. Scaling laws of coronal loops compared to a 3D MHD model of an active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, Ph.-A.; Bingert, S.; Peter, H.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The structure and heating of coronal loops have been investigated for decades. Established scaling laws relate fundamental quantities like the loop apex temperature, pressure, length, and coronal heating. Aims: We test these scaling laws against a large-scale 3D magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) model of the solar corona, which became feasible with current high-performance computing. Methods: We drove an active region simulation with photospheric observations and find strong similarities to the observed coronal loops in X-rays and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength. A 3D reconstruction of stereoscopic observations shows that our model loops have a realistic spatial structure. We compared scaling laws to our model data extracted along an ensemble of field lines. Finally, we fit a new scaling law that represents hot loops and also cooler structures, which was not possible before based only on observations. Results: Our model data gives some support for scaling laws that were established for hot and EUV-emissive coronal loops. For the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana (RTV) scaling law we find an offset to our model data, which can be explained by 1D considerations of a static loop with a constant heat input and conduction. With a fit to our model data we set up a new scaling law for the coronal heat input along magnetic field lines. Conclusions: RTV-like scaling laws were fitted to hot loops and therefore do not predict well the coronal heat input for cooler structures that are barely observable. The basic differences between 1D and self-consistent 3D modeling account for deviations between earlier scaling laws and ours. We also conclude that a heating mechanism by MHD-turbulent dissipation within a braided flux tube would heat the corona stronger than is consistent with our model corona.

  8. Teaching Methods for Modelling Problems and Students' Task-Specific Enjoyment, Value, Interest and Self-Efficacy Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schukajlow, Stanislaw; Leiss, Dominik; Pekrun, Reinhard; Blum, Werner; Muller, Marcel; Messner, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    In this study which was part of the DISUM-project, 224 ninth graders from 14 German classes from middle track schools (Realschule) were asked about their enjoyment, interest, value and self-efficacy expectations concerning three types of mathematical problems: intra-mathematical problems, word problems and modelling problems. Enjoyment, interest,…

  9. Plant chlorophyll fluorescence: active and passive measurements at canopy and leaf scales with different nitrogen treatments

    PubMed Central

    Cendrero-Mateo, M. Pilar; Moran, M. Susan; Papuga, Shirley A.; Thorp, K.R.; Alonso, L.; Moreno, J.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Rascher, U.; Wang, G.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies assessing chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) have examined leaf responses to environmental stress conditions using active techniques. Alternatively, passive techniques are able to measure ChlF at both leaf and canopy scales. However, the measurement principles of both techniques are different, and only a few datasets concerning the relationships between them are reported in the literature. In this study, we investigated the potential for interchanging ChlF measurements using active techniques with passive measurements at different temporal and spatial scales. The ultimate objective was to determine the limits within which active and passive techniques are comparable. The results presented in this study showed that active and passive measurements were highly correlated over the growing season across nitrogen treatments at both canopy and leaf-average scale. At the single-leaf scale, the seasonal relation between techniques was weaker, but still significant. The variability within single-leaf measurements was largely related to leaf heterogeneity associated with variations in CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, and less so to variations in leaf chlorophyll content, leaf size or measurement inputs (e.g. light reflected and emitted by the leaf and illumination conditions and leaf spectrum). This uncertainty was exacerbated when single-leaf analysis was limited to a particular day rather than the entire season. We concluded that daily measurements of active and passive ChlF at the single-leaf scale are not comparable. However, canopy and leaf-average active measurements can be used to better understand the daily and seasonal behaviour of passive ChlF measurements. In turn, this can be used to better estimate plant photosynthetic capacity and therefore to provide improved information for crop management. PMID:26482242

  10. Plant chlorophyll fluorescence: active and passive measurements at canopy and leaf scales with different nitrogen treatments.

    PubMed

    Cendrero-Mateo, M Pilar; Moran, M Susan; Papuga, Shirley A; Thorp, K R; Alonso, L; Moreno, J; Ponce-Campos, G; Rascher, U; Wang, G

    2016-01-01

    Most studies assessing chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) have examined leaf responses to environmental stress conditions using active techniques. Alternatively, passive techniques are able to measure ChlF at both leaf and canopy scales. However, the measurement principles of both techniques are different, and only a few datasets concerning the relationships between them are reported in the literature. In this study, we investigated the potential for interchanging ChlF measurements using active techniques with passive measurements at different temporal and spatial scales. The ultimate objective was to determine the limits within which active and passive techniques are comparable. The results presented in this study showed that active and passive measurements were highly correlated over the growing season across nitrogen treatments at both canopy and leaf-average scale. At the single-leaf scale, the seasonal relation between techniques was weaker, but still significant. The variability within single-leaf measurements was largely related to leaf heterogeneity associated with variations in CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, and less so to variations in leaf chlorophyll content, leaf size or measurement inputs (e.g. light reflected and emitted by the leaf and illumination conditions and leaf spectrum). This uncertainty was exacerbated when single-leaf analysis was limited to a particular day rather than the entire season. We concluded that daily measurements of active and passive ChlF at the single-leaf scale are not comparable. However, canopy and leaf-average active measurements can be used to better understand the daily and seasonal behaviour of passive ChlF measurements. In turn, this can be used to better estimate plant photosynthetic capacity and therefore to provide improved information for crop management.

  11. [Validity and reliability of a scale to assess self-efficacy for physical activity in elderly].

    PubMed

    Borges, Rossana Arruda; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Meurer, Simone Teresinha; Benedetti, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze the confirmatory factor validity and reliability of a self-efficacy scale for physical activity in a sample of 118 elderly (78% women) from 60 to 90 years of age. Mplus 6.1 was used to evaluate the confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was tested by internal consistency and temporal stability. The original scale consisted of five items with dichotomous answers (yes/no), independently for walking and moderate and vigorous physical activity. The analysis excluded the item related to confidence in performing physical activities when on vacation. Two constructs were identified, called "self-efficacy for walking" and "self-efficacy for moderate and vigorous physical activity", with a factor load ≥ 0.50. Internal consistency was adequate both for walking (> 0.70) and moderate and vigorous physical activity (> 0.80), and temporal stability was adequate for all the items. In conclusion, the self-efficacy scale for physical activity showed adequate validity, reliability, and internal consistency for evaluating this construct in elderly Brazilians.

  12. Optimal Scaling of HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors in Ethnically Diverse Homosexually Active Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used homogeneity analysis and latent class analysis to analyze sexual behavior patterns in two samples of homosexually active men. Results support the existence of a single, nonlinear, latent dimension underlying male homosexual behaviors consistent with HIV-related risk taking, providing an efficient means to scale sexual behavior patterns. (RJM)

  13. Reliability and Construct Validity of Turkish Version of Physical Education Activities Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memis, Ugur Altay

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine the reliability and construct validity of Turkish version of physical education activities scale (PEAS) which was developed by Thomason (2008). Participants in this study included 313 secondary and high school students from 7th to 11th grades. To analyse the data, confirmatory factor analysis, post hoc…

  14. Validity and Reliability of a Turkish Version of the Friendship Activity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalbant, Sibel; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable Turkish version of the Friendship Activity Scale (FAS). Both the English and Turkish versions of the FAS were administered to 36 students to check for language equivalence. The Turkish version of the FAS was then administered to 226 students to ensure internal consistency, and to 61…

  15. Efficiency of an unstable resonator with an active medium containing small-scale phase inhomogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    Lobachev, V V; Strakhov, S Yu

    2004-01-31

    Properties of an unstable resonator with small-scale periodic inhomogeneities of the refractive index in an active medium are considered. It is shown that the parameters of output radiation depend on the structure of a phase inhomogeneity. The methods for increasing the resonator efficiency are analysed. (resonators. interferometers)

  16. CURRENT HELICITY OF ACTIVE REGIONS AS A TRACER OF LARGE-SCALE SOLAR MAGNETIC HELICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Gao, Y.; Xu, H.; Moss, D.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.; Kuzanyan, K.; Sokoloff, D.

    2012-05-20

    We demonstrate that the current helicity observed in solar active regions traces the magnetic helicity of the large-scale dynamo generated field. We use an advanced two-dimensional mean-field dynamo model with dynamo saturation based on the evolution of the magnetic helicity and algebraic quenching. For comparison, we also studied a more basic two-dimensional mean-field dynamo model with simple algebraic alpha-quenching only. Using these numerical models we obtained butterfly diagrams both for the small-scale current helicity and also for the large-scale magnetic helicity, and compared them with the butterfly diagram for the current helicity in active regions obtained from observations. This comparison shows that the current helicity of active regions, as estimated by -A {center_dot} B evaluated at the depth from which the active region arises, resembles the observational data much better than the small-scale current helicity calculated directly from the helicity evolution equation. Here B and A are, respectively, the dynamo generated mean magnetic field and its vector potential. A theoretical interpretation of these results is given.

  17. Motivations Underlying Career Decision-Making Activities: The Career Decision-Making Autonomy Scale (CDMAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Frederic

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to develop and validate a measure of motivation toward career decision-making activities, the Career Decision-Making Autonomy Scale (CDMAS). The CDMAS is designed to assess the constructs of intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, and external regulation. A longitudinal study was…

  18. Microbial Survey of a Full-Scale, Biologically Active Filter for Treatment of Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    DeBry, Ronald W.; Lytle, Darren A.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial community of a full-scale, biologically active drinking water filter was surveyed using molecular techniques. Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Sphingomonadales, and Rhizobiales dominated the clone libraries. The results elucidate the microbial ecology of biological filters and demonstrate that biological treatment of drinking water should be considered a viable alternative to physicochemical methods. PMID:22752177

  19. Evaluation of Social Cognitive Scaling Response Options in the Physical Activity Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Ryan E.; Matheson, Deborah Hunt; Mark, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability, variability, and predictive validity of two common scaling response formats (semantic differential, Likert-type) and two numbers of response options (5-point, 7-point) in the physical activity domain. Constructs of the theory of planned behavior were chosen in this analysis based on its…

  20. Anisotropy of the Taylor scale and the correlation scale in plasma sheet magnetic field fluctuations as a function of auroral electrojet activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weygand, James M.; Matthaeus, W. H.; El-Alaoui, M.; Dasso, S.; Kivelson, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic field data from the Cluster spacecraft in the magnetospheric plasma sheet are employed to determine the correlation scale and the magnetic Taylor microscale from simultaneous multiple-point measurements for multiple intervals over a range of mean magnetic field directions for three different levels of geomagnetic activity. We have determined that in the plasma sheet the correlation scale along the mean magnetic field direction decreases from 19,500 ± 2200 to 13,100 ± 700 km as the auroral electrojet activity increases from quiet (<80 nT) to active conditions (>200 nT). The reverse occurs for the correlation scale perpendicular to the magnetic field, which increases from 8200 ± 600 km to 13,000 ± 2100 km as the auroral electrojet activity increases from quiet to active conditions. This variation of the correlation scale with geomagnetic activity may mean either a change in the scale size of the turbulence driver or may mean a change in the predominance of one over another type of turbulence driving mechanism. Unlike the correlation scale, the Taylor scale does not show any clear variation with geomagnetic activity. We find that the Taylor scale is longer parallel to the magnetic field than perpendicular to it for all levels of geomagnetic activity. The correlation and Taylor scales may be used to estimate the effective magnetic Reynolds numbers separately for each angular channel. Reynolds numbers were found to be approximately independent of the angle relative to the mean magnetic field. These results may be useful in magnetohydrodynamic modeling of the magnetosphere and can contribute to our understanding of energetic particle diffusion in the magnetosphere.

  1. Dance-Based ExerGaming: User Experience Design Implications for Maximizing Health Benefits Based on Exercise Intensity and Perceived Enjoyment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thin, Alasdair G.; Poole, Nicola

    Dance is a form of exercise that is considered to have widespread popular appeal and in particular to adolescent females. Dance-based body-movement controlled video games are a popular form of ExerGaming that is being adopted for use in school-based physical activity health promotion programs. The results of this study indicate that the game play mechanics and skill demands of the dance-based ExerGames would appear to have limited the subjects' level of physical exertion over the period of study. After training there was an increase in enjoyment rating for the Step Aerobics game which appears related to a perceptible improvement in game performance. It is therefore recommended that ExerGames should be designed with very low initial skill demands in order to maximize the user's level of exertion and to realize and reward progress, thereby helping to promote an enjoyable exercise experience and counterbalance any sense of exertional discomfort. Keywords: exercise; health promotion; exergaming; user experience; design; video game; enjoyment.

  2. Enjoyment and its discontents: Ecclesiastes in dialogue with Freud on the stewardship of joy.

    PubMed

    Browning Helsel, Philip

    2010-03-01

    The book of Ecclesiastes has frequently been mischaracterized as a cynical or pessimistic work. Instead, this article recommends Ecclesiastes, following Eunny P. Lee, as contributing to pastoral theology through its embodied and pragmatic theology of enjoyment in which practices of joy revitalize the human spirit. However, there are some who are unable to experience satisfaction. The absence of reflection on this problem in Ecclesiastes scholarship is considered the starting point of pastoral theology, and is addressed by a turn to the frequently misunderstood passage in 7:16-18, bringing it into conversation with the structural [corrected] model of the human person developed by Freud. At the same time, the interpersonal aspects of enjoyment found in Ecclesiastes critique Freud by suggesting how the fragmented parts of self-experience can be held together in an interpersonal context.

  3. Gender differences and the effect of contextual features on game enjoyment and responses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Fang

    2010-10-01

    This article explores the effect of gender and contextual features on emotional reactions, identification toward game characters, and game enjoyment. Two aspects of contextual features are specifically examined: the moral justification of game characters and violence. An experiment was conducted by allowing participants to play either a morally justified character of a non-violent game, a morally justified character of a violent game, or a morally unjustified character of a violent game. The results show that participants felt less guilty and identified with the characters more when playing the morally justified characters of the non-violent game. Furthermore, males and females demonstrate different patterns of enjoyment to different contextual features of video games. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20950177

  4. STS-27 Atlantis, OV-104, crewmembers enjoy preflight breakfast at KSC O and C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-27 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, crewmembers enjoy preflight breakfast at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Operations and Checkout (O and C) Building. Seated around the table and wearing mission t-shirts are (left to right) Pilot Guy S. Gardner, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross, Commander Robert L. Gibson, MS Richard M. Mullane, and MS William M. Shepherd. In the center of the table is a cake decorated with the STS-27 mission insignia.

  5. Avoidance and activation as keys to depression: adaptation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale in a Spanish sample.

    PubMed

    Barraca, Jorge; Pérez-Alvarez, Marino; Lozano Bleda, José Héctor

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we present the adaptation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS), developed by Kanter, Mulick, Busch, Berlin, and Martell (2007), in a Spanish sample. The psychometric properties were tested in a sample of 263 participants (124 clinical and 139 non-clinical). The results show that, just as in the original English version, the Spanish BADS is a valid and internally consistent scale. Construct validity was examined by correlation with the BDI-II, AAQ, ATQ, MCQ-30, STAI and EROS. Factor analysis justified the four-dimensions of the original instrument (Activation, Avoidance/Rumination, Work/School Impairment and Social Impairment), although with some differences in the factor loadings of the items. Further considerations about the usefulness of the BADS in the clinical treatment of depressed patients are also suggested.

  6. Enjoyment of tactile play is associated with lower food neophobia in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Thakker, Dipti

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has shown that parental reports of food neophobia and tactile sensitivity are associated with lower fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in children. This study aimed to pilot a behavioral observation measure of tactile play in young children. The primary aim of the study was to see whether children's enjoyment of tactile play was associated with higher F/V consumption, as well as lower food neophobia. Seventy 2- to 5-year-old children (37 males and 33 females) and their parents were recruited through children's centers in the Leicester region of the United Kingdom during July to October 2012. Children's engagement in two tactile play tasks using sticky foods (mashed potatoes and vegetarian gelatin) was observed and rated by both the researcher and parent. Parents were asked to complete a series of questionnaires measuring F/V consumption, food neophobia, and sensory processing. It was found that lower child food neophobia was significantly related to enjoyment of tactile play, whereas child F/V consumption was associated with parental F/V consumption, but not enjoyment of tactile play. The findings strengthen the idea that tactile processing may be associated with the acceptance of food variety, but not the total amount of F/V consumed. Additional research is indicated to determine whether tactile play tasks can be used to lower child food neophobia.

  7. Social climate profiles in adolescent sports: Associations with enjoyment and intention to continue.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Lauren A; Magee, Christopher A; Vella, Stewart A

    2016-10-01

    This study explored whether adolescent sports participants' perceptions of the social climate fall into distinct profiles, and whether these profiles are related to enjoyment and intention to continue. A Latent Profile Analysis using 313 Australian sports participants (Mage = 13.03 years) revealed four distinct profiles: positive social climate (45.1%), diminished social climate (19.8%), positive coach relationship quality (19.8%), and positive friendship quality (15.3%). Individuals within the positive social climate and the positive coach relationship quality profiles reported relatively higher levels of enjoyment and intention to continue than individuals in the diminished social climate and the positive friendship quality profiles. Indirect path analyses found the social climate profiles were linked with intention to continue through enjoyment. Results highlight the value of investigating multiple dimensions of the social climate and suggest that the coach may be of particular importance in this age group. Findings have implications for understanding youth sports participation and preventing dropout.

  8. Social climate profiles in adolescent sports: Associations with enjoyment and intention to continue.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Lauren A; Magee, Christopher A; Vella, Stewart A

    2016-10-01

    This study explored whether adolescent sports participants' perceptions of the social climate fall into distinct profiles, and whether these profiles are related to enjoyment and intention to continue. A Latent Profile Analysis using 313 Australian sports participants (Mage = 13.03 years) revealed four distinct profiles: positive social climate (45.1%), diminished social climate (19.8%), positive coach relationship quality (19.8%), and positive friendship quality (15.3%). Individuals within the positive social climate and the positive coach relationship quality profiles reported relatively higher levels of enjoyment and intention to continue than individuals in the diminished social climate and the positive friendship quality profiles. Indirect path analyses found the social climate profiles were linked with intention to continue through enjoyment. Results highlight the value of investigating multiple dimensions of the social climate and suggest that the coach may be of particular importance in this age group. Findings have implications for understanding youth sports participation and preventing dropout. PMID:27544492

  9. Energy expenditure and enjoyment of small-sided soccer games in overweight boys.

    PubMed

    Toh, Sharon H; Guelfi, Kym J; Wong, Patricia; Fournier, Paul A

    2011-06-01

    When space is limited, it would be preferable to play multiple small-sided soccer games (SSG) simultaneously on small courts, rather than a single game, to maximise participation. Given that the layouts of most gymnasiums incorporate several badminton courts, we examined whether energy expenditure and enjoyment of SSG on a badminton court (6.1×13.4 m) were comparable to larger court dimensions (volleyball and basketball courts; 9×18 m and 14.2×26.5 m, respectively). Twelve overweight boys played 30 min three-a-side SSG on each court in a counterbalanced design. During SSG, energy expenditure was estimated via accelerometry, heart rate was monitored and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and enjoyment were obtained. Energy expenditure was similar between badminton and volleyball courts, but lower than the basketball court (p<.05). Mean% HR(max) was significantly lower on the badminton court than the volleyball and basketball courts (p<.05). There was no effect of court size on RPE or enjoyment (p>.05). These results suggest that it may be preferable to play SSG on a larger court when space is available. Alternatively, when space is limited the difference in energy expenditure between court sizes can be accounted for by an additional 2.3 min of play on a badminton court. PMID:21255856

  10. Energy expenditure and enjoyment of small-sided soccer games in overweight boys.

    PubMed

    Toh, Sharon H; Guelfi, Kym J; Wong, Patricia; Fournier, Paul A

    2011-06-01

    When space is limited, it would be preferable to play multiple small-sided soccer games (SSG) simultaneously on small courts, rather than a single game, to maximise participation. Given that the layouts of most gymnasiums incorporate several badminton courts, we examined whether energy expenditure and enjoyment of SSG on a badminton court (6.1×13.4 m) were comparable to larger court dimensions (volleyball and basketball courts; 9×18 m and 14.2×26.5 m, respectively). Twelve overweight boys played 30 min three-a-side SSG on each court in a counterbalanced design. During SSG, energy expenditure was estimated via accelerometry, heart rate was monitored and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and enjoyment were obtained. Energy expenditure was similar between badminton and volleyball courts, but lower than the basketball court (p<.05). Mean% HR(max) was significantly lower on the badminton court than the volleyball and basketball courts (p<.05). There was no effect of court size on RPE or enjoyment (p>.05). These results suggest that it may be preferable to play SSG on a larger court when space is available. Alternatively, when space is limited the difference in energy expenditure between court sizes can be accounted for by an additional 2.3 min of play on a badminton court.

  11. Activity blockade and GABAA receptor blockade produce synaptic scaling through chloride accumulation in embryonic spinal motoneurons and interneurons.

    PubMed

    Lindsly, Casie; Gonzalez-Islas, Carlos; Wenner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic scaling represents a process whereby the distribution of a cell's synaptic strengths are altered by a multiplicative scaling factor. Scaling is thought to be a compensatory response that homeostatically controls spiking activity levels in the cell or network. Previously, we observed GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic spinal motoneurons following in vivo blockade of either spiking activity or GABAA receptors (GABAARs). We had determined that activity blockade triggered upward GABAergic scaling through chloride accumulation, thus increasing the driving force for these currents. To determine whether chloride accumulation also underlies GABAergic scaling following GABAAR blockade we have developed a new technique. We expressed a genetically encoded chloride-indicator, Clomeleon, in the embryonic chick spinal cord, which provides a non-invasive fast measure of intracellular chloride. Using this technique we now show that chloride accumulation underlies GABAergic scaling following blockade of either spiking activity or the GABAAR. The finding that GABAAR blockade and activity blockade trigger scaling via a common mechanism supports our hypothesis that activity blockade reduces GABAAR activation, which triggers synaptic scaling. In addition, Clomeleon imaging demonstrated the time course and widespread nature of GABAergic scaling through chloride accumulation, as it was also observed in spinal interneurons. This suggests that homeostatic scaling via chloride accumulation is a common feature in many neuronal classes within the embryonic spinal cord and opens the possibility that this process may occur throughout the nervous system at early stages of development.

  12. Release probability of hippocampal glutamatergic terminals scales with the size of the active zone.

    PubMed

    Holderith, Noemi; Lorincz, Andrea; Katona, Gergely; Rózsa, Balázs; Kulik, Akos; Watanabe, Masahiko; Nusser, Zoltan

    2012-06-10

    Cortical synapses have structural, molecular and functional heterogeneity; our knowledge regarding the relationship between their ultrastructural and functional parameters is still fragmented. Here we asked how the neurotransmitter release probability and presynaptic [Ca(2+)] transients relate to the ultrastructure of rat hippocampal glutamatergic axon terminals. Two-photon Ca(2+) imaging-derived optical quantal analysis and correlated electron microscopic reconstructions revealed a tight correlation between the release probability and the active-zone area. Peak amplitude of [Ca(2+)] transients in single boutons also positively correlated with the active-zone area. Freeze-fracture immunogold labeling revealed that the voltage-gated calcium channel subunit Cav2.1 and the presynaptic protein Rim1/2 are confined to the active zone and their numbers scale linearly with the active-zone area. Gold particles labeling Cav2.1 were nonrandomly distributed in the active zones. Our results demonstrate that the numbers of several active-zone proteins, including presynaptic calcium channels, as well as the number of docked vesicles and the release probability, scale linearly with the active-zone area.

  13. Using Accelerometers to Measure Physical Activity in Large-Scale Epidemiologic Studies: Issues and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for aerobic activity require that adults carry out ≥150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity physical activity, with a large body of epidemiologic evidence showing this level of activity to decrease the incidence of many chronic diseases. Less is known about whether light-intensity activities also have such benefits, and whether sedentary behavior is an independent predictor of increased risks of these chronic diseases, as imprecise assessments of these behaviours and cross-sectional study designs have limited knowledge to date. Methods Recent technological advances in assessment methods have made the use of movement sensors, such as the accelerometer, feasible for use in longitudinal, large-scale epidemiologic studies. Several such studies are collecting sensor-assessed, objective measures of physical activity with the aim of relating these to the development of clinical endpoints. This is a relatively new area of research; thus, in this paper, we use the Women’s Health Study (WHS) as a case study to illustrate challenges related to data collection, data processing, and analyses of the vast amount of data collected. Results The WHS plans to collect 7 days of accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior in ~18,000 women aged ≥62 years. Several logistical challenges exist in collecting data; nonetheless as of 31 August 2013, 11,590 women have already provided some data. Additionally, the WHS experience on data reduction and data analyses can help inform other similar large-scale epidemiologic studies. Conclusions Important data on the health effects of light-intensity activity and sedentary behaviour will emerge from large-scale epidemiologic studies collecting objective assessments of these behaviours. PMID:24297837

  14. Active mechanics in living oocytes reveal molecular-scale force kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Wylie; Fodor, Etienne; Almonacid, Maria; Bussonnier, Matthias; Verlhac, Marie-Helene; Gov, Nir; Visco, Paolo; van Wijland, Frederic; Betz, Timo

    Unlike traditional materials, living cells actively generate forces at the molecular scale that change their structure and mechanical properties. This nonequilibrium activity is essential for cellular function, and drives processes such as cell division. Single molecule studies have uncovered the detailed force kinetics of isolated motor proteins in-vitro, however their behavior in-vivo has been elusive due to the complex environment inside the cell. Here, we quantify active forces and intracellular mechanics in living oocytes using in-vivo optical trapping and laser interferometry of endogenous vesicles. We integrate an experimental and theoretical framework to connect mesoscopic measurements of nonequilibrium properties to the underlying molecular- scale force kinetics. Our results show that force generation by myosin-V drives the cytoplasmic-skeleton out-of-equilibrium (at frequencies below 300 Hz) and actively softens the environment. In vivo myosin-V activity generates a force of F ~ 0 . 4 pN, with a power-stroke of length Δx ~ 20 nm and duration τ ~ 300 μs, that drives vesicle motion at vv ~ 320 nm/s. This framework is widely applicable to characterize living cells and other soft active materials.

  15. Large-scale filament formation inhibits the activity of CTP synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Rachael M; Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Lorestani, Alexander; Charles, Emeric J; Habrian, Chris H; Hansen, Jesse M; Li, Hsin-Jung; Baldwin, Enoch P; Wingreen, Ned S; Kollman, Justin M; Gitai, Zemer

    2014-01-01

    CTP Synthetase (CtpS) is a universally conserved and essential metabolic enzyme. While many enzymes form small oligomers, CtpS forms large-scale filamentous structures of unknown function in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. By simultaneously monitoring CtpS polymerization and enzymatic activity, we show that polymerization inhibits activity, and CtpS's product, CTP, induces assembly. To understand how assembly inhibits activity, we used electron microscopy to define the structure of CtpS polymers. This structure suggests that polymerization sterically hinders a conformational change necessary for CtpS activity. Structure-guided mutagenesis and mathematical modeling further indicate that coupling activity to polymerization promotes cooperative catalytic regulation. This previously uncharacterized regulatory mechanism is important for cellular function since a mutant that disrupts CtpS polymerization disrupts E. coli growth and metabolic regulation without reducing CTP levels. We propose that regulation by large-scale polymerization enables ultrasensitive control of enzymatic activity while storing an enzyme subpopulation in a conformationally restricted form that is readily activatable. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03638.001 PMID:25030911

  16. Seasonal prediction of lightning activity in North Western Venezuela: Large-scale versus local drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Á. G.; Díaz-Lobatón, J.; Chourio, X.; Stock, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    The Lake Maracaibo Basin in North Western Venezuela has the highest annual lightning rate of any place in the world (~ 200 fl km- 2 yr- 1), whose electrical discharges occasionally impact human and animal lives (e.g., cattle) and frequently affect economic activities like oil and natural gas exploitation. Lightning activity is so common in this region that it has a proper name: Catatumbo Lightning (plural). Although short-term lightning forecasts are now common in different parts of the world, to the best of the authors' knowledge, seasonal prediction of lightning activity is still non-existent. This research discusses the relative role of both large-scale and local climate drivers as modulators of lightning activity in the region, and presents a formal predictability study at seasonal scale. Analysis of the Catatumbo Lightning Regional Mode, defined in terms of the second Empirical Orthogonal Function of monthly Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS-TRMM) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) satellite data for North Western South America, permits the identification of potential predictors at seasonal scale via a Canonical Correlation Analysis. Lightning activity in North Western Venezuela responds to well defined sea-surface temperature patterns (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Meridional Mode) and changes in the low-level meridional wind field that are associated with the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone migrations, the Caribbean Low Level Jet and tropical cyclone activity, but it is also linked to local drivers like convection triggered by the topographic configuration and the effect of the Maracaibo Basin Nocturnal Low Level Jet. The analysis indicates that at seasonal scale the relative contribution of the large-scale drivers is more important than the local (basin-wide) ones, due to the synoptic control imposed by the former. Furthermore, meridional CAPE transport at 925 mb is identified as the best potential predictor for lightning activity in the Lake

  17. How Do Young Children with DCD Participate and Enjoy Daily Activities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, O.; Jarus, T.; Erez, Y.; Rosenberg, L.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental problems may decrease participation of children. The objective of this study was to evaluate multidimensional aspects of participation amongst preschool children with and without DCD. Participants included 63 children with mean age of 4.96 years (SD = 0.62; range = 4.02-6.35 years). Twenty one children were diagnosed with DCD, 21…

  18. Active open boundary forcing using dual relaxation time-scales in downscaled ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzfeld, M.; Gillibrand, P. A.

    2015-05-01

    Regional models actively forced with data from larger scale models at their open boundaries often contain motion at different time-scales (e.g. tidal and low frequency). These motions are not always individually well specified in the forcing data, and one may require a more active boundary forcing while the other exert less influence on the model interior. If a single relaxation time-scale is used to relax toward these data in the boundary equation, then this may be difficult. The method of fractional steps is used to introduce dual relaxation time-scales in an open boundary local flux adjustment scheme. This allows tidal and low frequency oscillations to be relaxed independently, resulting in a better overall solution than if a single relaxation parameter is optimized for tidal (short relaxation) or low frequency (long relaxation) boundary forcing. The dual method is compared to the single relaxation method for an idealized test case where a tidal signal is superimposed on a steady state low frequency solution, and a real application where the low frequency boundary forcing component is derived from a global circulation model for a region extending over the whole Great Barrier Reef, and a tidal signal subsequently superimposed.

  19. Evidence of parsec-scale jets in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Mezcua, M.; Prieto, M. A.

    2014-05-20

    The nuclear radio emission of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) is often associated with unresolved cores. In this paper we show that most LLAGNs present extended jet radio emission when observed with sufficient angular resolution and sensitivity. They are thus able to power, at least, parsec-scale radio jets. To increase the detection rate of jets in LLAGNs, we analyze subarcsecond resolution data of three low-ionization nuclear emission regions. This yields the detection of extended jet-like radio structures in NGC 1097 and NGC 2911 and the first resolved parsec-scale jet of NGC 4594 (Sombrero). The three sources belong to a sample of nearby LLAGNs for which high-spatial-resolution spectral energy distribution of their core emission is available. This allows us to study their accretion rate and jet power (Q {sub jet}) without drawing on (most) of the ad hoc assumptions usually considered in large statistical surveys. We find that those LLAGNs with large-scale radio jets (>100 pc) have Q {sub jet} > 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}, while the lowest Q {sub jet} correspond to those LLAGNs with parsec-scale (≤100 pc) jets. The Q {sub jet} is at least as large as the radiated bolometric luminosity for all LLAGN, in agreement with previous statistical studies. Our detection of parsec-scale jets in individual objects further shows that the kinematic jet contribution is equally important in large- or parsec-scale objects. We also find that the Eddington-scaled accretion rate is still highly sub-Eddingtonian (<10{sup –4}) when adding the Q {sub jet} to the total emitted luminosity (radiated plus kinetic). This indicates that LLAGNs are not only inefficient radiators but that they also accrete inefficiently or are very efficient advectors.

  20. Health service costs of paediatric cochlear implantation: influence of the scale and scope of activity.

    PubMed

    Barton, Garry R; Bloor, Karen E; Marshall, David H; Summerfield, A Quentin

    2004-01-01

    The health service cost of paediatric cochlear implantation (CI) varies among hospitals in the UK. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the variation is associated with differences in the scale and scope of activity in CI programmes. The health service cost of CI was estimated for 908 children implanted in 12 hospitals between 1989 and 1998. Annual levels of activity in implanting children and adults were monitored in the same hospitals. Costs of paediatric CI were lower in hospitals implanting larger numbers of children and adults, thereby benefiting from economies of scale and scope, respectively. These economies arose from lower per-child staff costs in larger programmes, and were estimated to be exhausted when a hospital implanted more than nine children and more than 20 adults each year. Accommodating increased numbers of children in an existing programme is predicted to cost less than setting up a new programme.

  1. Peculiarities of the optimisation of optical resonators with regular small-scale inhomogeneities of an active medium

    SciTech Connect

    Lobachev, V V; Strakhov, S Yu

    2005-10-31

    The peculiarities of parametric optimisation of resonators containing small-scale inhomogeneities are considered. The two most important practical cases are studied in detail: an unstable resonator with small-scale phase inhomogeneities in the active medium and a stable resonator with small-scale amplitude modulations caused by the use of a perforated output mirror. (resonators)

  2. Spontaneous Neuronal Activity in Developing Neocortical Networks: From Single Cells to Large-Scale Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Heiko J.; Sinning, Anne; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Reyes-Puerta, Vicente; Stüttgen, Maik C.; Kirischuk, Sergei; Kilb, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal activity has been shown to be essential for the proper formation of neuronal circuits, affecting developmental processes like neurogenesis, migration, programmed cell death, cellular differentiation, formation of local and long-range axonal connections, synaptic plasticity or myelination. Accordingly, neocortical areas reveal distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal activity patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, when immature neurons start to develop voltage-dependent channels, spontaneous activity is highly synchronized within small neuronal networks and governed by electrical synaptic transmission. Subsequently, spontaneous activity patterns become more complex, involve larger networks and propagate over several neocortical areas. The developmental shift from local to large-scale network activity is accompanied by a gradual shift from electrical to chemical synaptic transmission with an initial excitatory action of chloride-gated channels activated by GABA, glycine and taurine. Transient neuronal populations in the subplate (SP) support temporary circuits that play an important role in tuning early neocortical activity and the formation of mature neuronal networks. Thus, early spontaneous activity patterns control the formation of developing networks in sensory cortices, and disturbances of these activity patterns may lead to long-lasting neuronal deficits. PMID:27252626

  3. Spontaneous Neuronal Activity in Developing Neocortical Networks: From Single Cells to Large-Scale Interactions.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Sinning, Anne; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Reyes-Puerta, Vicente; Stüttgen, Maik C; Kirischuk, Sergei; Kilb, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal activity has been shown to be essential for the proper formation of neuronal circuits, affecting developmental processes like neurogenesis, migration, programmed cell death, cellular differentiation, formation of local and long-range axonal connections, synaptic plasticity or myelination. Accordingly, neocortical areas reveal distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal activity patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, when immature neurons start to develop voltage-dependent channels, spontaneous activity is highly synchronized within small neuronal networks and governed by electrical synaptic transmission. Subsequently, spontaneous activity patterns become more complex, involve larger networks and propagate over several neocortical areas. The developmental shift from local to large-scale network activity is accompanied by a gradual shift from electrical to chemical synaptic transmission with an initial excitatory action of chloride-gated channels activated by GABA, glycine and taurine. Transient neuronal populations in the subplate (SP) support temporary circuits that play an important role in tuning early neocortical activity and the formation of mature neuronal networks. Thus, early spontaneous activity patterns control the formation of developing networks in sensory cortices, and disturbances of these activity patterns may lead to long-lasting neuronal deficits.

  4. Spontaneous Neuronal Activity in Developing Neocortical Networks: From Single Cells to Large-Scale Interactions.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Sinning, Anne; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Reyes-Puerta, Vicente; Stüttgen, Maik C; Kirischuk, Sergei; Kilb, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal activity has been shown to be essential for the proper formation of neuronal circuits, affecting developmental processes like neurogenesis, migration, programmed cell death, cellular differentiation, formation of local and long-range axonal connections, synaptic plasticity or myelination. Accordingly, neocortical areas reveal distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal activity patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, when immature neurons start to develop voltage-dependent channels, spontaneous activity is highly synchronized within small neuronal networks and governed by electrical synaptic transmission. Subsequently, spontaneous activity patterns become more complex, involve larger networks and propagate over several neocortical areas. The developmental shift from local to large-scale network activity is accompanied by a gradual shift from electrical to chemical synaptic transmission with an initial excitatory action of chloride-gated channels activated by GABA, glycine and taurine. Transient neuronal populations in the subplate (SP) support temporary circuits that play an important role in tuning early neocortical activity and the formation of mature neuronal networks. Thus, early spontaneous activity patterns control the formation of developing networks in sensory cortices, and disturbances of these activity patterns may lead to long-lasting neuronal deficits. PMID:27252626

  5. Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    James O'Brien

    2012-09-01

    This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during January–August 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

  6. Activation barrier scaling and crossover for noise-induced switching in micromechanical parametric oscillators.

    PubMed

    Chan, H B; Stambaugh, C

    2007-08-10

    We explore fluctuation-induced switching in parametrically driven micromechanical torsional oscillators. The oscillators possess one, two, or three stable attractors depending on the modulation frequency. Noise induces transitions between the coexisting attractors. Near the bifurcation points, the activation barriers are found to have a power law dependence on frequency detuning with critical exponents that are in agreement with predicted universal scaling relationships. At large detuning, we observe a crossover to a different power law dependence with an exponent that is device specific.

  7. Temporal Taylor's scaling of facial electromyography and electrodermal activity in the course of emotional stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chołoniewski, Jan; Chmiel, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Julian; Hołyst, Janusz A.; Küster, Dennis; Kappas, Arvid

    2016-09-01

    High frequency psychophysiological data create a challenge for quantitative modeling based on Big Data tools since they reflect the complexity of processes taking place in human body and its responses to external events. Here we present studies of fluctuations in facial electromyography (fEMG) and electrodermal activity (EDA) massive time series and changes of such signals in the course of emotional stimulation. Zygomaticus major (ZYG, "smiling" muscle) activity, corrugator supercilii (COR, "frowning"bmuscle) activity, and phasic skin conductance (PHSC, sweating) levels of 65 participants were recorded during experiments that involved exposure to emotional stimuli (i.e., IAPS images, reading and writing messages on an artificial online discussion board). Temporal Taylor's fluctuations scaling were found when signals for various participants and during various types of emotional events were compared. Values of scaling exponents were close to 1, suggesting an external origin of system dynamics and/or strong interactions between system's basic elements (e.g., muscle fibres). Our statistical analysis shows that the scaling exponents enable identification of high valence and arousal levels in ZYG and COR signals.

  8. Imaging large-scale cellular activity in spinal cord of freely behaving mice

    PubMed Central

    Sekiguchi, Kohei J.; Shekhtmeyster, Pavel; Merten, Katharina; Arena, Alexander; Cook, Daniela; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Ngo, Alexander; Nimmerjahn, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Sensory information from mechanoreceptors and nociceptors in the skin plays key roles in adaptive and protective motor behaviours. To date, very little is known about how this information is encoded by spinal cord cell types and their activity patterns, particularly under freely behaving conditions. To enable stable measurement of neuronal and glial cell activity in behaving mice, we have developed fluorescence imaging approaches based on two- and miniaturized one-photon microscopy. We show that distinct cutaneous stimuli activate overlapping ensembles of dorsal horn neurons, and that stimulus type and intensity is encoded at the single-cell level. In contrast, astrocytes show large-scale coordinated calcium responses to intense but not weak sensory inputs. Sensory-evoked activity is potently suppressed by anaesthesia. By revealing the cellular and computational logic of spinal cord networks under behaving conditions, our approach holds promise for better understanding of healthy and aberrant spinal cord processes. PMID:27121084

  9. Dynamic optimization and conformity in health behavior and life enjoyment over the life cycle.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Hernán D; Kaplan, Hillard; Rassenti, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This article examines individual and social influences on investments in health and enjoyment from immediate consumption. Our lab experiment mimics the problem of health investment over a lifetime (Grossman, 1972a,b). Incentives to find the appropriate expenditures on life enjoyment and health are given by making in each period come period a function of previous health investments. In order to model social effects in the experiment, we randomly assigned individuals to chat/observation groups. Groups were permitted to freely chat between repeated lifetimes. Two treatments were employed: In the Independent-rewards treatment, an individual's rewards from investments in life enjoyment depend only on his choice and in the Interdependent-rewards treatment; rewards not only depend on an individual's choices but also on their similarity to the choices of the others in their group, generating a premium on conformity. The principal hypothesis is that gains from conformity increase variance in health behavior among groups and can lead to suboptimal performance. We tested three predictions and each was supported by the data: the Interdependent-rewards treatment (1) decreased within-group variance, (2) increased between-group variance, and (3) increased the likelihood of behavior far from the optimum with respect to the dynamic problem. We also test and find support for a series of subsidiary hypotheses. We found: (4) Subjects engaged in helpful chat in both treatments; (5) there was significant heterogeneity among both subjects and groups in chat frequencies; and (6) chat was most common early in the experiment, and (7) the interdependent rewards treatment increased strategic chat frequency. Incentives for conformity appear to promote prosocial behavior, but also increase variance among groups, leading to convergence on suboptimal strategies for some groups. We discuss these results in light of the growing literature focusing on social networks and health outcomes. PMID

  10. Assistive technology use and human rights enjoyment: a cross-sectional study in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background About half a billion people with disabilities in developing countries have limited access to assistive technology. The Convention on the Rights of persons with Disabilities requires governments to take measures to ensure provision of such technologies. To guide implementation of these measures there is a need for understanding health outcomes from a human rights perspective. The objective of this study was therefore to explore the relation between assistive technology use and enjoyment of human rights in a low-income country. Methods Data was collected in eight districts of Bangladesh through interviews of people with hearing impairments using and not using hearings aids, and people with ambulatory impairments using and not using manual wheelchairs (N = 583). Using logistic regression, self-reported outcomes on standard of living, health, education, work, receiving information and movement were analyzed. Results The adjusted likelihood of reporting greater enjoyment of human rights was significantly higher among people using hearing aids compared to non-users for all outcomes except working status. Compared to non-users, users of wheelchairs reported a significantly higher adjusted likelihood of good ambulatory performance and a significantly lower adjusted likelihood of reporting a positive working status. Further analyses indicated that physical accessibility to working places and duration of wheelchair use had a statistically significant impact on the likelihood of reporting positive work outcomes. Conclusions The findings support the notion that assistive technology use increases the likelihood of human rights enjoyment, particularly hearing aid use. Physical accessibility should always be addressed in wheelchair provision. PMID:22992413

  11. Dynamic optimization and conformity in health behavior and life enjoyment over the life cycle.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Hernán D; Kaplan, Hillard; Rassenti, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This article examines individual and social influences on investments in health and enjoyment from immediate consumption. Our lab experiment mimics the problem of health investment over a lifetime (Grossman, 1972a,b). Incentives to find the appropriate expenditures on life enjoyment and health are given by making in each period come period a function of previous health investments. In order to model social effects in the experiment, we randomly assigned individuals to chat/observation groups. Groups were permitted to freely chat between repeated lifetimes. Two treatments were employed: In the Independent-rewards treatment, an individual's rewards from investments in life enjoyment depend only on his choice and in the Interdependent-rewards treatment; rewards not only depend on an individual's choices but also on their similarity to the choices of the others in their group, generating a premium on conformity. The principal hypothesis is that gains from conformity increase variance in health behavior among groups and can lead to suboptimal performance. We tested three predictions and each was supported by the data: the Interdependent-rewards treatment (1) decreased within-group variance, (2) increased between-group variance, and (3) increased the likelihood of behavior far from the optimum with respect to the dynamic problem. We also test and find support for a series of subsidiary hypotheses. We found: (4) Subjects engaged in helpful chat in both treatments; (5) there was significant heterogeneity among both subjects and groups in chat frequencies; and (6) chat was most common early in the experiment, and (7) the interdependent rewards treatment increased strategic chat frequency. Incentives for conformity appear to promote prosocial behavior, but also increase variance among groups, leading to convergence on suboptimal strategies for some groups. We discuss these results in light of the growing literature focusing on social networks and health outcomes.

  12. Dynamic optimization and conformity in health behavior and life enjoyment over the life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Bejarano, Hernán D.; Kaplan, Hillard; Rassenti, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This article examines individual and social influences on investments in health and enjoyment from immediate consumption. Our lab experiment mimics the problem of health investment over a lifetime (Grossman, 1972a,b). Incentives to find the appropriate expenditures on life enjoyment and health are given by making in each period come period a function of previous health investments. In order to model social effects in the experiment, we randomly assigned individuals to chat/observation groups. Groups were permitted to freely chat between repeated lifetimes. Two treatments were employed: In the Independent-rewards treatment, an individual's rewards from investments in life enjoyment depend only on his choice and in the Interdependent-rewards treatment; rewards not only depend on an individual's choices but also on their similarity to the choices of the others in their group, generating a premium on conformity. The principal hypothesis is that gains from conformity increase variance in health behavior among groups and can lead to suboptimal performance. We tested three predictions and each was supported by the data: the Interdependent-rewards treatment (1) decreased within-group variance, (2) increased between-group variance, and (3) increased the likelihood of behavior far from the optimum with respect to the dynamic problem. We also test and find support for a series of subsidiary hypotheses. We found: (4) Subjects engaged in helpful chat in both treatments; (5) there was significant heterogeneity among both subjects and groups in chat frequencies; and (6) chat was most common early in the experiment, and (7) the interdependent rewards treatment increased strategic chat frequency. Incentives for conformity appear to promote prosocial behavior, but also increase variance among groups, leading to convergence on suboptimal strategies for some groups. We discuss these results in light of the growing literature focusing on social networks and health outcomes. PMID

  13. Tracking and visualization of space-time activities for a micro-scale flu transmission study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases pose increasing threats to public health with increasing population density and more and more sophisticated social networks. While efforts continue in studying the large scale dissemination of contagious diseases, individual-based activity and behaviour study benefits not only disease transmission modelling but also the control, containment, and prevention decision making at the local scale. The potential for using tracking technologies to capture detailed space-time trajectories and model individual behaviour is increasing rapidly, as technological advances enable the manufacture of small, lightweight, highly sensitive, and affordable receivers and the routine use of location-aware devices has become widespread (e.g., smart cellular phones). The use of low-cost tracking devices in medical research has also been proved effective by more and more studies. This study describes the use of tracking devices to collect data of space-time trajectories and the spatiotemporal processing of such data to facilitate micro-scale flu transmission study. We also reports preliminary findings on activity patterns related to chances of influenza infection in a pilot study. Methods Specifically, this study employed A-GPS tracking devices to collect data on a university campus. Spatiotemporal processing was conducted for data cleaning and segmentation. Processed data was validated with traditional activity diaries. The A-GPS data set was then used for visual explorations including density surface visualization and connection analysis to examine space-time activity patterns in relation to chances of influenza infection. Results When compared to diary data, the segmented tracking data demonstrated to be an effective alternative and showed greater accuracies in time as well as the details of routes taken by participants. A comparison of space-time activity patterns between participants who caught seasonal influenza and those who did not revealed interesting

  14. STS-45 blue shift crewmembers enjoy eating a meal on OV-104's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-45 Commander Charles F. Bolden retrieves a straw from his meal tray assembly secured on the middeck ceiling as other blue shift crewmembers around him enjoy eating their meals. Below Bolden, Pilot Brian Duffy balances a meal tray assembly on his lap as a food package and spoon freefloat between his hands. Payload Specialist Dirk D. Frimout, holding a food package and a spoon, steadies himself while eating by positioning his feet under a forward locker handhold strap. In the background, Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Kathryn D. Sullivan prepares to take a bite of food.

  15. Observing Evolution in the Supergranular Network Length Scale During Periods of Low Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Leamon, Robert J.; Hock, Rachel A.; Rast, Mark P.; Ulrich, Roger K.

    2011-03-01

    We present the initial results of an observational study into the variation of the dominant length scale of quiet solar emission: supergranulation. The distribution of magnetic elements in the lanes that from the network affects, and reflects, the radiative energy in the plasma of the upper solar chromosphere and transition region at the magnetic network boundaries forming as a result of the relentless interaction of magnetic fields and convective motions of the Suns' interior. We demonstrate that a net difference of ~0.5 Mm in the supergranular emission length scale occurs when comparing observation cycle 22/23 and cycle 23/24 minima. This variation in scale is reproduced in the data sets of multiple space- and ground-based instruments and using different diagnostic measures. By means of extension, we consider the variation of the supergranular length scale over multiple solar minima by analyzing a subset of the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory Ca II K image record. The observations and analysis presented provide a tantalizing look at solar activity in the absence of large-scale flux emergence, offering insight into times of "extreme" solar minimum and general behavior such as the phasing and cross-dependence of different components of the spectral irradiance. Given that the modulation of the supergranular scale imprints itself in variations of the Suns' spectral irradiance, as well as in the mass and energy transport into the entire outer atmosphere, this preliminary investigation is an important step in understanding the impact of the quiet Sun on the heliospheric system.

  16. Scaling up of HIV-TB collaborative activities: Achievements and challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rajesh; Shah, Amar; Sachdeva, K S; Sreenivas, A N; Gupta, R S; Khaparde, S D

    2016-01-01

    India has been implementing HIV/TB collaborative activities since 2001 with rapid scale-up of infrastructure across the country during past decade in National AIDS Control Programme and Revised National TB Control Programme. India has shown over 50% reduction in new infections and around 35% reduction in AIDS-related deaths, thereby being one of the success stories globally. Substantial progress in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities has occurred in India and it is marching towards target set out in the Global Plan to Stop TB and endorsed by the UN General Assembly to halve HIV associated TB deaths by 2015. While the successful approaches have led to impressive gains in HIV/TB control in India, there are emerging challenges including newer pockets with rising HIV trends in North India, increasing drug resistance, high mortality among co-infected patients, low HIV testing rates among TB patients in northern and eastern states in India, treatment delays and drop-outs, stigma and discrimination, etc. In spite of these difficulties, established HIV/TB coordination mechanisms at different levels, rapid scale-up of facilities with decentralisation of treatment services, regular joint supervision and monitoring, newer initiatives like use of rapid diagnostics for early diagnosis of TB among people living with HIV, TB notification, etc. have led to success in combating the threat of HIV/TB in India. This article highlights the steps taken by India, one of the largest HIV/TB programmes in world, in scaling up of the joint HIV-TB collaborative activities, the achievements so far and discusses the emerging challenges which could provide important lessons for other countries in scaling up their programmes. PMID:27235937

  17. Scaling up of HIV-TB collaborative activities: Achievements and challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rajesh; Shah, Amar; Sachdeva, K S; Sreenivas, A N; Gupta, R S; Khaparde, S D

    2016-01-01

    India has been implementing HIV/TB collaborative activities since 2001 with rapid scale-up of infrastructure across the country during past decade in National AIDS Control Programme and Revised National TB Control Programme. India has shown over 50% reduction in new infections and around 35% reduction in AIDS-related deaths, thereby being one of the success stories globally. Substantial progress in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities has occurred in India and it is marching towards target set out in the Global Plan to Stop TB and endorsed by the UN General Assembly to halve HIV associated TB deaths by 2015. While the successful approaches have led to impressive gains in HIV/TB control in India, there are emerging challenges including newer pockets with rising HIV trends in North India, increasing drug resistance, high mortality among co-infected patients, low HIV testing rates among TB patients in northern and eastern states in India, treatment delays and drop-outs, stigma and discrimination, etc. In spite of these difficulties, established HIV/TB coordination mechanisms at different levels, rapid scale-up of facilities with decentralisation of treatment services, regular joint supervision and monitoring, newer initiatives like use of rapid diagnostics for early diagnosis of TB among people living with HIV, TB notification, etc. have led to success in combating the threat of HIV/TB in India. This article highlights the steps taken by India, one of the largest HIV/TB programmes in world, in scaling up of the joint HIV-TB collaborative activities, the achievements so far and discusses the emerging challenges which could provide important lessons for other countries in scaling up their programmes.

  18. A zebrafish scale assay to monitor dioxin-like activity in surface water samples.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, Sergi; López-Roldán, Ramón; González, Susana; Casado, Marta; Raldúa, Demetrio; Cortina, Jose Luis; Piña, Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    New regulations on water quality require a close control of the possible biological activities known or unexpected pollutants may bring about. We present here a protocol based on the direct exposure of zebrafish to river water and the analysis of expression of specific genes in their scales to determine the presence of compounds with dioxin-like biological activity. The method does not require the killing of animals and allows detection of the biological activity after a single day of exposure. When tested, the method with real samples from the Llobregat River, clear temporal and spatial variations were observed, demonstrating its suitability for monitoring natural variations in water quality linked to specific discharges. High biological activities were unrelated to the currently checked water quality parameters (macropollutants, turbidity, TOC, etc.), but they did correlate with the presence of micropollutants (estrogens, detergents, etc.) related to domestic and/or industrial runoffs. The scale assay therefore provides a new tool to evaluate water quality changes that cannot be easily derived from the existing standard analytical procedures. It ranks among the very few described protocols able to detect biological effects from natural water samples, without a pre-concentration step, and after only 24 h of exposure. PMID:21822775

  19. Large-scale pattern formation in active particles suspensions: from interacting microtubules to swimming bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranson, Igor

    2006-03-01

    We consider two biological systems of active particles exhibiting large-scale collective behavior: microtubules interacting with molecular motors and hydrodynamically entrained swimming bacteria. Starting from a generic stochastic microscopic model of inelastically colliding polar rods with an anisotropic interaction kernel, we derive set of equations for the local rods concentration and orientation. Above certain critical density of rods the model exhibits orientational instability and onset of large-scale coherence. For the microtubules and molecular motors system we demonstrate that the orientational instability leads to the formation of vortices and asters seen in recent experiments. Similar approach is applied to colonies of swimming bacteria Bacillus subtilis confined in thin fluid film. The model is formulated in term of two-dimensional equations for local density and orientation of bacteria coupled to the low Reynolds number Navier-Stokes equation for the fluid flow velocity. The collective swimming of bacteria is represented by additional source term in the Navier-Stokes equation. We demonstrate that this system exhibits formation of dynamic large-scale patterns with the typical scale determined by the density of bacteria.

  20. Fishing for space: fine-scale multi-sector maritime activities influence fisher location choice.

    PubMed

    Tidd, Alex N; Vermard, Youen; Marchal, Paul; Pinnegar, John; Blanchard, Julia L; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The European Union and other states are moving towards Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management to balance food production and security with wider ecosystem concerns. Fishing is only one of several sectors operating within the ocean environment, competing for renewable and non-renewable resources that overlap in a limited space. Other sectors include marine mining, energy generation, recreation, transport and conservation. Trade-offs of these competing sectors are already part of the process but attempts to detail how the seas are being utilised have been primarily based on compilations of data on human activity at large spatial scales. Advances including satellite and shipping automatic tracking enable investigation of factors influencing fishers' choice of fishing grounds at spatial scales relevant to decision-making, including the presence or avoidance of activities by other sectors. We analyse the determinants of English and Welsh scallop-dredging fleet behaviour, including competing sectors, operating in the eastern English Channel. Results indicate aggregate mining activity, maritime traffic, increased fishing costs, and the English inshore 6 and French 12 nautical mile limits negatively impact fishers' likelihood of fishing in otherwise suitable areas. Past success, net-benefits and fishing within the 12 NM predispose fishers to use areas. Systematic conservation planning has yet to be widely applied in marine systems, and the dynamics of spatial overlap of fishing with other activities have not been studied at scales relevant to fisher decision-making. This study demonstrates fisher decision-making is indeed affected by the real-time presence of other sectors in an area, and therefore trade-offs which need to be accounted for in marine planning. As marine resource extraction demands intensify, governments will need to take a more proactive approach to resolving these trade-offs, and studies such as this will be required as the evidential foundation for future

  1. Fishing for Space: Fine-Scale Multi-Sector Maritime Activities Influence Fisher Location Choice

    PubMed Central

    Tidd, Alex N.; Vermard, Youen; Marchal, Paul; Pinnegar, John; Blanchard, Julia L.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    The European Union and other states are moving towards Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management to balance food production and security with wider ecosystem concerns. Fishing is only one of several sectors operating within the ocean environment, competing for renewable and non-renewable resources that overlap in a limited space. Other sectors include marine mining, energy generation, recreation, transport and conservation. Trade-offs of these competing sectors are already part of the process but attempts to detail how the seas are being utilised have been primarily based on compilations of data on human activity at large spatial scales. Advances including satellite and shipping automatic tracking enable investigation of factors influencing fishers’ choice of fishing grounds at spatial scales relevant to decision-making, including the presence or avoidance of activities by other sectors. We analyse the determinants of English and Welsh scallop-dredging fleet behaviour, including competing sectors, operating in the eastern English Channel. Results indicate aggregate mining activity, maritime traffic, increased fishing costs, and the English inshore 6 and French 12 nautical mile limits negatively impact fishers’ likelihood of fishing in otherwise suitable areas. Past success, net-benefits and fishing within the 12 NM predispose fishers to use areas. Systematic conservation planning has yet to be widely applied in marine systems, and the dynamics of spatial overlap of fishing with other activities have not been studied at scales relevant to fisher decision-making. This study demonstrates fisher decision-making is indeed affected by the real-time presence of other sectors in an area, and therefore trade-offs which need to be accounted for in marine planning. As marine resource extraction demands intensify, governments will need to take a more proactive approach to resolving these trade-offs, and studies such as this will be required as the evidential foundation for

  2. Reference Values for the Marx Activity Rating Scale in a Young Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Kenneth L.; Peck, Karen Y.; Thompson, Brandon S.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Owens, Brett D.; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. Objective: To present reference values by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and percentiles for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. Results: The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ2 = 13.22, df = 1, P < 0.001) with no prior history of knee ligament injury. In contrast, there was no significant difference in median MARS scores between men and women (χ2 = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ2 = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Conclusion: Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference values for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex

  3. Analyzing visual enjoyment of color: using female nude digital Image as example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Sin-Ho

    2014-04-01

    This research adopts three primary colors and their three mixed colors as main color hue variances by changing the background of a female nude digital image. The color saturation variation is selected to 9S as high saturation and 3S as low saturation of PCCS. And the color tone elements are adopted in 3.5 as low brightness, 5.5 as medium brightness for primary color, and 7.5 as low brightness. The water-color brush stroke used for two female body digital images which consisting of a visual pleasant image with elegant posture and another unpleasant image with stiff body language, is to add the visual intimacy. Results show the brightness of color is the main factor impacting visual enjoyment, followed by saturation. Explicitly, high-brightness with high saturation gains the highest rate of enjoyment, high-saturation medium brightness (primary color) the second, and high-brightness with low saturation the third, and low-brightness with low saturation the least.

  4. One-hundred-km-scale basins on Enceladus: Evidence for an active ice shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.

    2009-08-01

    Stereo-derived topographic mapping of ˜50% of Enceladus reveals at least 6 large-scale, ovoid depressions (basins) 90-175 km across and 800-to-1500 m deep and uncorrelated with geologic boundaries. In contrast, the south polar depression is larger and apparently shallower and correlates with active resurfacing. The shape and scale of the basins is inconsistent with impact, geoid surface deflections, or with dynamically supported topography. Isostatic thinning of Enceladus' ice shell associated with upwellings (and tidally-driven ice melting) can plausibly account for these basins. Thinning implies upwarping of the base of the shell of ˜10-20 km beneath the depressions, depending on total shell thickness; loss of near-surface porosity due to enhanced heat flow may also contribute to basin lows. Alternatively, the basins may overly cold, inactive, and hence denser ice, but thermal isostasy alone requires thermal expansion more consistent with clathrate hydrate than water ice.

  5. Performance Enhancement of a Full-Scale Vertical Tail Model Equipped with Active Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Edward A.; Lacy, Douglas; Lin, John C.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Washburn, Anthony E.; Graff, Emilio; Wygnanski, Israel J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes wind tunnel test results from a joint NASA/Boeing research effort to advance active flow control (AFC) technology to enhance aerodynamic efficiency. A full-scale Boeing 757 vertical tail model equipped with sweeping jet actuators was tested at the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel (40x80) at NASA Ames Research Center. The model was tested at a nominal airspeed of 100 knots and across rudder deflections and sideslip angles that covered the vertical tail flight envelope. A successful demonstration of AFC-enhanced vertical tail technology was achieved. A 31- actuator configuration significantly increased side force (by greater than 20%) at a maximum rudder deflection of 30deg. The successful demonstration of this application has cleared the way for a flight demonstration on the Boeing 757 ecoDemonstrator in 2015.

  6. A scale for measuring the activities of daily living (ADL) of patients with craniomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    List, T; Helkimo, M

    1995-01-01

    A rating scale based on methods used in medical and behavioral science was modified for specific assessment of the function of the masticatory system. Eleven common activities of daily living were recorded on a scale rated from 0 to 10. Thirty-one patients (23 women and 8 men) who had exhibited facial pain and/or headache for a duration of at least one year participated. Test-retest coefficients of reliability for the patients' assessment of pain and discomfort on two different occasions two weeks apart were high and varied (with the exception of one question) between r = 0.67 and r = 0.92. The correlations between the patients' own estimations and that which one member of the family made were high and varied (with the exception of one question) between r = 0.78 and r = 0.92.

  7. Bacterial diversity and active biomass in full-scale granular activated carbon filters operated at low water temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kaarela, Outi E; Härkki, Heli A; Palmroth, Marja R T; Tuhkanen, Tuula A

    2015-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration enhances the removal of natural organic matter and micropollutants in drinking water treatment. Microbial communities in GAC filters contribute to the removal of the biodegradable part of organic matter, and thus help to control microbial regrowth in the distribution system. Our objectives were to investigate bacterial community dynamics, identify the major bacterial groups, and determine the concentration of active bacterial biomass in full-scale GAC filters treating cold (3.7-9.5°C), physicochemically pretreated, and ozonated lake water. Three sampling rounds were conducted to study six GAC filters of different operation times and flow modes in winter, spring, and summer. Total organic carbon results indicated that both the first-step and second-step filters contributed to the removal of organic matter. Length heterogeneity analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes illustrated that bacterial communities were diverse and considerably stable over time. α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Nitrospira dominated in all of the GAC filters, although the relative proportion of dominant phylogenetic groups in individual filters differed. The active bacterial biomass accumulation, measured as adenosine triphosphate, was limited due to low temperature, low flux of nutrients, and frequent backwashing. The concentration of active bacterial biomass was not affected by the moderate seasonal temperature variation. In summary, the results provided an insight into the biological component of GAC filtration in cold water temperatures and the operational parameters affecting it. PMID:25242545

  8. Bacterial diversity and active biomass in full-scale granular activated carbon filters operated at low water temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kaarela, Outi E; Härkki, Heli A; Palmroth, Marja R T; Tuhkanen, Tuula A

    2015-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration enhances the removal of natural organic matter and micropollutants in drinking water treatment. Microbial communities in GAC filters contribute to the removal of the biodegradable part of organic matter, and thus help to control microbial regrowth in the distribution system. Our objectives were to investigate bacterial community dynamics, identify the major bacterial groups, and determine the concentration of active bacterial biomass in full-scale GAC filters treating cold (3.7-9.5°C), physicochemically pretreated, and ozonated lake water. Three sampling rounds were conducted to study six GAC filters of different operation times and flow modes in winter, spring, and summer. Total organic carbon results indicated that both the first-step and second-step filters contributed to the removal of organic matter. Length heterogeneity analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes illustrated that bacterial communities were diverse and considerably stable over time. α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Nitrospira dominated in all of the GAC filters, although the relative proportion of dominant phylogenetic groups in individual filters differed. The active bacterial biomass accumulation, measured as adenosine triphosphate, was limited due to low temperature, low flux of nutrients, and frequent backwashing. The concentration of active bacterial biomass was not affected by the moderate seasonal temperature variation. In summary, the results provided an insight into the biological component of GAC filtration in cold water temperatures and the operational parameters affecting it.

  9. Molecular mechanism of vinculin activation and nano-scale spatial organization in focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Case, Lindsay B.; Baird, Michelle A.; Shtengel, Gleb; Campbell, Sharon L.; Hess, Harald F.; Davidson, Michael W.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) link the extracellular matrix (ECM) to the actin cytoskeleton to mediate cell adhesion, migration, mechanosensing and signaling. FAs have conserved nanoscale protein organization, suggesting that the position of proteins within FAs regulates their activity and function. Vinculin binds different FA proteins to mediate distinct cellular functions, but how vinculin’s interactions are spatiotemporally organized within FA is unknown. Using interferometric photo-activation localization (iPALM) super-resolution microscopy to assay vinculin nanoscale localization and a FRET biosensor to assay vinculin conformation, we found that upward repositioning within the FA during FA maturation facilitates vinculin activation and mechanical reinforcement of FA. Inactive vinculin localizes to the lower integrin signaling layer in FA by binding to phospho-paxillin. Talin binding activates vinculin and targets active vinculin higher in FA where vinculin can engage retrograde actin flow. Thus, specific protein interactions are spatially segregated within FA at the nano-scale to regulate vinculin activation and function. PMID:26053221

  10. Large scale organization of rat sensorimotor cortex based on a motif of large activation spreads

    PubMed Central

    Frostig, Ron D.; Xiong, Ying; Chen-Bee, Cynthia H.; Kvašňák, Eugen; Stehberg, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Parcellation according to function (e.g., visual, somatosensory, auditory, motor) is considered a fundamental property of sensorimotor cortical organization, traditionally defined from cytoarchitectonics and mapping studies relying on peak evoked neuronal activity. In the adult rat, stimulation of single whiskers evokes peak activity at topographically appropriate locations within somatosensory cortex and provides an example of cortical functional specificity. Here, we show that single whisker stimulation also evokes symmetrical areas of supra- and sub-threshold neuronal activation that spread extensively away from peak activity, effectively ignoring cortical borders by spilling deeply into multiple cortical territories of different modalities (auditory, visual and motor), where they were blocked by localized neuronal activity blocker injections and thus ruled out as possibly due to ‘volume conductance’. These symmetrical activity spreads were supported by underlying border-crossing, long-range horizontal connections as confirmed with transection experiments and injections of anterograde neuronal tracer experiments. We found such large evoked activation spreads and their underlying connections irrespective of whisker identity, cortical layer, or axis of recorded responses, thereby revealing a large scale nonspecific organization of sensorimotor cortex based on a motif of large symmetrical activation spreads. Because the large activation spreads and their underlying horizontal connections ignore anatomical borders between cortical modalities, sensorimotor cortex could therefore be viewed as a continuous entity rather than a collection of discrete, delineated unimodal regions – an organization that could co-exist with established specificity of cortical organization and that could serve as a substrate for associative learning, direct multimodal integration and recovery of function following injury. PMID:19052219

  11. Delineation of Urban Active Faults Using Multi-scale Gravity Analysis in Shenzhen, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    In fact, many cities in the world are established on the active faults. As the rapid urban development, thousands of large facilities, such as ultrahigh buildings, supersized bridges, railway, and so on, are built near or on the faults, which may change the balance of faults and induce urban earthquake. Therefore, it is significant to delineate effectively the faults for urban planning construction and social sustainable development. Due to dense buildings in urban area, the ordinary approaches to identify active faults, like geological survey, artificial seismic exploration and electromagnetic exploration, are not convenient to be carried out. Gravity, reflecting the mass distribution of the Earth's interior, provides a more efficient and convenient method to delineate urban faults. The present study is an attempt to propose a novel gravity method, multi-scale gravity analysis, for identifying urban active faults and determining their stability. Firstly, the gravity anomalies are decomposed by wavelet multi-scale analysis. Secondly, based on the decomposed gravity anomalies, the crust is layered and the multilayer horizontal tectonic stress is inverted. Lastly, the decomposed anomalies and the inverted horizontal tectonic stress are used to infer the distribution and stability of main active faults. For validating our method, a case study on active faults in Shenzhen City is processed. The results show that the distribution of decomposed gravity anomalies and multilayer horizontal tectonic stress are controlled significantly by the strike of the main faults and can be used to infer depths of the faults. The main faults in Shenzhen may range from 4km to 20km in the depth. Each layer of the crust is nearly equipressure since the horizontal tectonic stress has small amplitude. It indicates that the main faults in Shenzhen are relatively stable and have no serious impact on planning and construction of the city.

  12. Large scale photospheric magnetic field: The diffusion of active region fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, K. H.; Leighton, R. B.; Howard, R.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    The large-scale phototospheric magnetic field was computed by allowing observed active region fields to diffuse and to be sheared by differential rotation in accordance with the Leighton (1969) magneto-kinematic model of the solar cycle. The differential rotation of the computed field patterns as determined by autocorrelation curves is similar to that of the observed photospheric field, and poleward of 20 deg. latitude both are significantly different from the differential rotation of the long-lived sunspots (Newton and Nunn, 1951) used as an input into the computations.

  13. Joy, Exercise, Enjoyment, Getting out: A Qualitative Study of Older People's Experience of Cycling in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Passmore, Erin; Mason, Chloe; Rissel, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cycling can be an enjoyable way to meet physical activity recommendations and is suitable for older people; however cycling participation by older Australians is low. This qualitative study explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling among older people through an age-targeted cycling promotion program. Methods. Seventeen adults who aged 50–75 years participated in a 12-week cycling promotion program which included a cycling skills course, mentor, and resource pack. Semistructured interviews at the beginning and end of the program explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling. Results. Fitness and recreation were the primary motivators for cycling. The biggest barrier was fear of cars and traffic, and the cycling skills course was the most important enabler for improving participants' confidence. Reported outcomes from cycling included improved quality of life (better mental health, social benefit, and empowerment) and improved physical health. Conclusions. A simple cycling program increased cycling participation among older people. This work confirms the importance of improving confidence in this age group through a skills course, mentors, and maps and highlights additional strategies for promoting cycling, such as ongoing improvement to infrastructure and advertising. PMID:23864869

  14. The downside of choice: Having a choice benefits enjoyment, but at a cost to efficiency and time in visual search.

    PubMed

    Kunar, Melina A; Ariyabandu, Surani; Jami, Zaffran

    2016-04-01

    The efficiency of how people search for an item in visual search has, traditionally, been thought to depend on bottom-up or top-down guidance cues. However, recent research has shown that the rate at which people visually search through a display is also affected by cognitive strategies. In this study, we investigated the role of choice in visual search, by asking whether giving people a choice alters both preference for a cognitively neutral task and search behavior. Two visual search conditions were examined: one in which participants were given a choice of visual search task (the choice condition), and one in which participants did not have a choice (the no-choice condition). The results showed that the participants in the choice condition rated the task as both more enjoyable and likeable than did the participants in the no-choice condition. However, despite their preferences, actual search performance was slower and less efficient in the choice condition than in the no-choice condition (Exp. 1). Experiment 2 showed that the difference in search performance between the choice and no-choice conditions disappeared when central executive processes became occupied with a task-switching task. These data concur with a choice-impaired hypothesis of search, in which having a choice leads to more motivated, active search involving executive processes.

  15. The downside of choice: Having a choice benefits enjoyment, but at a cost to efficiency and time in visual search.

    PubMed

    Kunar, Melina A; Ariyabandu, Surani; Jami, Zaffran

    2016-04-01

    The efficiency of how people search for an item in visual search has, traditionally, been thought to depend on bottom-up or top-down guidance cues. However, recent research has shown that the rate at which people visually search through a display is also affected by cognitive strategies. In this study, we investigated the role of choice in visual search, by asking whether giving people a choice alters both preference for a cognitively neutral task and search behavior. Two visual search conditions were examined: one in which participants were given a choice of visual search task (the choice condition), and one in which participants did not have a choice (the no-choice condition). The results showed that the participants in the choice condition rated the task as both more enjoyable and likeable than did the participants in the no-choice condition. However, despite their preferences, actual search performance was slower and less efficient in the choice condition than in the no-choice condition (Exp. 1). Experiment 2 showed that the difference in search performance between the choice and no-choice conditions disappeared when central executive processes became occupied with a task-switching task. These data concur with a choice-impaired hypothesis of search, in which having a choice leads to more motivated, active search involving executive processes. PMID:26892010

  16. Field-Scale Stable-Isotope Probing of Active Methanotrophs in a Landfill-Cover Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, M. H.; Henneberger, R.; Chiri, E.

    2012-12-01

    The greenhouse gas methane (CH4) is an important contributor to global climate change. While its atmospheric concentration is increasing, a large portion of produced CH4 never reaches the atmosphere, but is consumed by aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). The latter are ubiquitous in soils and utilize CH4 as sole source of energy and carbon. Among other methods, MOB may be differentiated based on characteristic phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). Stable-isotope probing (SIP) on PLFA has been widely applied to identify active members of MOB communities in laboratory incubation studies, but results are often difficult to extrapolate to the field. Thus, novel field-scale approaches are needed to link activity and identity of MOB in their natural environment. We present results of field experiments in which we combined PLFA-SIP with gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) to label active MOB at the field-scale while simultaneously quantifying CH4 oxidation activity. During a SIP-GPPT, a mixture of reactive (here 13CH4, O2) and non-reactive tracer gases (e.g., Ar, Ne, He) is injected into the soil at a location of interest. Thereafter, gas flow is reversed and the gas mixture diluted with soil air is extracted from the same location and sampled periodically. Rate constants for CH4 oxidation can be calculated by analyzing breakthrough curves of 13CH4 and a suitable non-reactive tracer gas. SIP-GPPTs were performed in a landfill-cover soil, and feasibility of this novel approach was tested at several locations along a gradient of MOB activity and soil temperature. Soil samples were collected before and after SIP-GPPTs, total PLFA were extracted, and incorporation of 13C in the polar lipid fraction was analyzed. Potential CH4 oxidation rates derived from SIP-GPPTs were similar to those derived from regular GPPTs (using unlabeled CH4) performed at the same locations prior to SIP-GPPTs, indicating that application of 13CH4 did not adversely affect bacterial CH4 oxidation rates. Rates

  17. Accelerating efforts to prevent childhood obesity: spreading, scaling, and sustaining healthy eating and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Debbie I; Gertel-Rosenberg, Allison; Snyder, Kim

    2014-12-01

    During the past decade, progress has been made in addressing childhood obesity through policy and practice changes that encourage increased physical activity and access to healthy food. With the implementation of these strategies, an understanding of what works to prevent childhood obesity is beginning to emerge. The task now is to consider how best to spread, scale, and sustain promising childhood obesity prevention strategies. In this article we examine a project led by Nemours, a children's health system, to address childhood obesity. We describe Nemours's conceptual approach to spreading, scaling, and sustaining a childhood obesity prevention intervention. We review a component of a Nemours initiative in Delaware that focused on early care and education settings and its expansion to other states through the National Early Care and Education Learning Collaborative to prevent childhood obesity. We also discuss lessons learned. Focusing on the spreading, scaling, and sustaining of promising strategies has the potential to increase the reach and impact of efforts in obesity prevention and help ensure their impact on population health.

  18. Failure and deformation mechanisms at macro- and nano-scales of alkali activated clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar Das, Pradip; Bhattacharya, Manjima; Chanda, Dipak Kr; Dalui, Srikanta; Acharya, Saikat; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Here we report two qualitative models on failure and deformation mechanisms at macro- and nano-scales of alkali activated clay (AACL), a material of extraordinary importance as a low cost building material. The models were based on experimental data of compressive failure and nanoindentation response of the AACL materials. A 420% improvement in compressive strength (σ c) of the AACL was achieved after 28 days (d) of curing at room temperature and it correlated well with the decrements in the residual alkali and pH concentrations with the increase in curing time. Based on extensive post-mortem FE-SEM examinations, a schematic model for the compressive failure mechanism of AACL was proposed. In addition, the nanoindentation results of AACL provided the first ever experimental evidence of the presence of nano-scale plasticity and a nano-scale contact deformation resistance that increased with the applied load. These results meant the development of a unique strain tolerant microstructure in the AACL of Indian origin. The implications of these new observations were discussed in terms of a qualitative model based on the deformation of layered clay structure.

  19. Miniature microscopes for large-scale imaging of neuronal activity in freely behaving rodents.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Yaniv; Ghosh, Kunal K

    2015-06-01

    Recording neuronal activity in behaving subjects has been instrumental in studying how information is represented and processed by the brain. Recent advances in optical imaging and bioengineering have converged to enable time-lapse, cell-type specific recordings of neuronal activities from large neuronal populations in deep-brain structures of freely behaving rodents. We will highlight these advancements, with an emphasis on miniaturized integrated microscopy for large-scale imaging in freely behaving mice. This technology potentially enables studies that were difficult to perform using previous generation imaging and current electrophysiological techniques. These studies include longitudinal and population-level analyses of neuronal representations associated with different types of naturalistic behaviors and cognitive or emotional processes. PMID:25951292

  20. Miniature microscopes for large-scale imaging of neuronal activity in freely behaving rodents.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Yaniv; Ghosh, Kunal K

    2015-06-01

    Recording neuronal activity in behaving subjects has been instrumental in studying how information is represented and processed by the brain. Recent advances in optical imaging and bioengineering have converged to enable time-lapse, cell-type specific recordings of neuronal activities from large neuronal populations in deep-brain structures of freely behaving rodents. We will highlight these advancements, with an emphasis on miniaturized integrated microscopy for large-scale imaging in freely behaving mice. This technology potentially enables studies that were difficult to perform using previous generation imaging and current electrophysiological techniques. These studies include longitudinal and population-level analyses of neuronal representations associated with different types of naturalistic behaviors and cognitive or emotional processes.

  1. Brain activity mapping at multiple scales with silicon microprobes containing 1,024 electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Shobe, Justin L.; Claar, Leslie D.; Parhami, Sepideh; Bakhurin, Konstantin I.

    2015-01-01

    The coordinated activity of neural ensembles across multiple interconnected regions has been challenging to study in the mammalian brain with cellular resolution using conventional recording tools. For instance, neural systems regulating learned behaviors often encompass multiple distinct structures that span the brain. To address this challenge we developed a three-dimensional (3D) silicon microprobe capable of simultaneously measuring extracellular spike and local field potential activity from 1,024 electrodes. The microprobe geometry can be precisely configured during assembly to target virtually any combination of four spatially distinct neuroanatomical planes. Here we report on the operation of such a device built for high-throughput monitoring of neural signals in the orbitofrontal cortex and several nuclei in the basal ganglia. We perform analysis on systems-level dynamics and correlations during periods of conditioned behavioral responding and rest, demonstrating the technology's ability to reveal functional organization at multiple scales in parallel in the mouse brain. PMID:26133801

  2. Quantity-activity relationship of denitrifying bacteria and environmental scaling in streams of a forested watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, B.L.; Hondzo, Miki; Dobraca, D.; LaPara, T.M.; Finlay, J.A.; Brezonik, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial variability of subreach denitrification rates in streams was evaluated with respect to controlling environmental conditions, molecular examination of denitrifying bacteria, and dimensional analysis. Denitrification activities ranged from 0 and 800 ng-N gsed-1 d-1 with large variations observed within short distances (<50 m) along stream reaches. A log-normal probability distribution described the range in denitrification activities and was used to define low (16% of the probability distributibn), medium (68%), and high (16%) denitrification potential groups. Denitrifying bacteria were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) technique that amplified the nirK gene that encodes for nitrite reductase. Results showed a range of nirK quantities from 103 to 107 gene-copy-number gsed.-1 A nonparametric statistical test showed no significant difference in nirK quantifies among stream reaches, but revealed that samples with a high denitrification potential had significantly higher nirK quantities. Denitrification activity was positively correlated with nirK quantities with scatter in the data that can be attributed to varying environmental conditions along stream reaches. Dimensional analysis was used to evaluate denitrification activities according to environmental variables that describe fluid-flow properties, nitrate and organic material quantities, and dissolved oxygen flux. Buckingham's pi theorem was used to generate dimensionless groupings and field data were used to determine scaling parameters. The resulting expressions between dimensionless NO3- flux and dimensionless groupings of environmental variables showed consistent scaling, which indicates that the subreach variability in denitrification rates can be predicted by the controlling physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Quantity-activity relationship of denitrifying bacteria and environmental scaling in streams of a forested watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Ben L.; Hondzo, Miki; Dobraca, Dina; Lapara, Timothy M.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Brezonik, Patrick L.

    2006-12-01

    The spatial variability of subreach denitrification rates in streams was evaluated with respect to controlling environmental conditions, molecular examination of denitrifying bacteria, and dimensional analysis. Denitrification activities ranged from 0 and 800 ng-N gsed-1 d-1 with large variations observed within short distances (<50 m) along stream reaches. A log-normal probability distribution described the range in denitrification activities and was used to define low (16% of the probability distribution), medium (68%), and high (16%) denitrification potential groups. Denitrifying bacteria were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) technique that amplified the nirK gene that encodes for nitrite reductase. Results showed a range of nirK quantities from 103 to 107 gene-copy-number gsed-1. A nonparametric statistical test showed no significant difference in nirK quantities among stream reaches, but revealed that samples with a high denitrification potential had significantly higher nirK quantities. Denitrification activity was positively correlated with nirK quantities with scatter in the data that can be attributed to varying environmental conditions along stream reaches. Dimensional analysis was used to evaluate denitrification activities according to environmental variables that describe fluid-flow properties, nitrate and organic material quantities, and dissolved oxygen flux. Buckingham's pi theorem was used to generate dimensionless groupings and field data were used to determine scaling parameters. The resulting expressions between dimensionless NO3- flux and dimensionless groupings of environmental variables showed consistent scaling, which indicates that the subreach variability in denitrification rates can be predicted by the controlling physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions.

  4. Quantifying the metabolic activities of human-associated microbial communities across multiple ecological scales

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, Corinne Ferrier; Turnbaugh, Peter James

    2013-01-01

    Humans are home to complex microbial communities, whose aggregate genomes and their encoded metabolic activities are referred to as the human microbiome. Recently, researchers have begun to appreciate that different human body habitats and the activities of their resident microorganisms can be better understood in ecological terms, as a range of spatial scales encompassing single cells, guilds of microorganisms responsive to a similar substrate, microbial communities, body habitats, and host populations. However, the bulk of the work to date has focused on studies of culturable microorganisms in isolation or on DNA sequencing-based surveys of microbial diversity in small to moderately sized cohorts of individuals. Here, we discuss recent work that highlights the potential for assessing the human microbiome at a range of spatial scales, and for developing novel techniques that bridge multiple levels: for example, through the combination of single cell methods and metagenomic sequencing. These studies promise to not only provide a much-needed epidemiological and ecological context for mechanistic studies of culturable and genetically tractable microorganisms, but may also lead to the discovery of fundamental rules that govern the assembly and function of host-associated microbial communities. PMID:23550823

  5. Behavioral stochastic resonance associated with large-scale synchronization of human brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajo, Keiichi; Yamanaka, Kentaro; Nozaki, Daichi; Ward, Lawrence M.; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2004-05-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that enhanced detection of weak visual signals by addition of visual noise is accompanied by an increase in phase synchronization of EEG signals across widely-separated areas of the human brain. In our sensorimotor integration task, observers responded to a weak rectangular gray-level signal presented to their right eyes by pressing and releasing a button whenever they detected an increment followed by a decrement in brightness. Signal detection performance was optimized by presenting randomly-changing-gray-level noise separately to observers' left eyes using a mirror stereoscope. We measured brain electrical activity at the scalp by electroencephalograph (EEG), calculated the instantaneous phase for each EEG signal, and evaluated the degree of large-scale phase synchronization between pairs of EEG signals. Dynamic synchronization-desynchronization patterns were observed and we found evidence of noise-enhanced large-scale synchronization associated with detection of the brightness changes under conditions of noise-enhanced performance. Our results suggest that behavioral stochastic resonance might arise from noise-enhanced synchronization of neural activities across widespread brain regions.

  6. Coronal holes, large-scale magnetic field, and activity complexes in solar cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavastsherna, K. S.; Polyakow, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    A correlation among coronal holes (CH), a large-scale magnetic field (LMF), and activity complexes (AC) is studied in this work for 1997-2007 with the use of a coronal hole series obtained from observations at the Kitt Peak Observatory in the HeI 10830 Å line in 1975-2003 and SOHO/EIT-195 Å in 1996-2012 (Tlatov et al., 2014), synoptic Hα charts from Kislovodsk Mountain Astonomical Station, and the catalog of AC cores (Yazev, 2012). From the imposition of CH boundaries on Hα charts, which characterize the positions of neutral lines of the radial components of a large-scale solar magnetic field, it turns out that 70% of CH are located in unipolar regions of their sign during the above period, 10% are in the region of an opposite sign, and 20% are mainly very large CH, which are often crossed by the neutral lines of several unipolar regions. Data on mutual arrangement of CH and AC cores were obtained. It was shown that only some activity comples cores have genetic relationships with CH.

  7. A Validation and Reliability Study of the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Christina M.; De Ayala, R. J.; Lebow, Ryan; Hayden, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain validity evidence for the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE). Construct validity evidence identifies four subscales: Goal-Setting for Physical Activity, Goal-Setting for Healthy Food Choices, Decision-Making for Physical Activity, and Decision-Making for Healthy Food…

  8. Measuring damages for lost enjoyment of life: the view from the bench and the jury box.

    PubMed

    Poser, Susan; Bornstein, Brian H; McGorty, E Kiernan

    2003-02-01

    Civil jury instructions are inconsistent in defining what constitutes noneconomic damages, which may include pain, suffering, disability, disfigurement, and loss of enjoyment of life (LEL), among other injury sequelae. This inconsistency has been manifested recently in court decisions that have considered whether LEL should be treated as a separate element of noneconomic damages, distinct from pain and suffering. This paper reviews the case law on this issue and also describes a jury simulation experiment. Mock jurors awarded damages after they received instructions on noneconomic damages in which LEL was (1) not identified as a distinct element of damages; (2) defined as an element of damages distinct from pain and suffering, but participants awarded a single amount for noneconomic damages; or (3) defined as a distinct element of damages, and participants awarded separate amounts for LEL and pain and suffering. Instructions about LEL resulted in larger awards, but only when mock jurors also made a separate award for that element of damages.

  9. Participation and Enjoyment in Play with a Robot between Children with Cerebral Palsy who use AAC and their Peers.

    PubMed

    Ferm, Ulrika M; Claesson, Britt K; Ottesjö, Cajsa; Ericsson, Stina

    2015-06-01

    This study explores children with complex communication needs, their peers and adult support persons in play with the talking and moving robot LekBot. Two triads were filmed playing with LekBot at pre-school. LekBot was developed to facilitate independent and enjoyable play on equal terms for children with significant communication disabilities and their peers. Using Conversation Analysis, participatory symmetry and enjoyment were investigated in relation to spoken and gestural communication, embodied stance, gaze, and affective display. Data originated from three video-recorded sessions that were approximately 2 hours long. Four different interaction situations were identified and explored: Participatory Asymmetry, Adult Facilitation, Greater Participatory Symmetry and Creativity, and Turn-taking and Enjoyable Play with LekBot. Neither participatory symmetry nor enjoyment were easily achieved in the play sessions and may require considerable effort, including adult involvement, but creative, spontaneous and highly enjoyable play, correlating with participatory symmetry to various degrees, was observed in a few instances. The findings are discussed with regard to play, AAC and the future development of robots to facilitate play.

  10. Participation and Enjoyment in Play with a Robot between Children with Cerebral Palsy who use AAC and their Peers.

    PubMed

    Ferm, Ulrika M; Claesson, Britt K; Ottesjö, Cajsa; Ericsson, Stina

    2015-06-01

    This study explores children with complex communication needs, their peers and adult support persons in play with the talking and moving robot LekBot. Two triads were filmed playing with LekBot at pre-school. LekBot was developed to facilitate independent and enjoyable play on equal terms for children with significant communication disabilities and their peers. Using Conversation Analysis, participatory symmetry and enjoyment were investigated in relation to spoken and gestural communication, embodied stance, gaze, and affective display. Data originated from three video-recorded sessions that were approximately 2 hours long. Four different interaction situations were identified and explored: Participatory Asymmetry, Adult Facilitation, Greater Participatory Symmetry and Creativity, and Turn-taking and Enjoyable Play with LekBot. Neither participatory symmetry nor enjoyment were easily achieved in the play sessions and may require considerable effort, including adult involvement, but creative, spontaneous and highly enjoyable play, correlating with participatory symmetry to various degrees, was observed in a few instances. The findings are discussed with regard to play, AAC and the future development of robots to facilitate play. PMID:25921358

  11. Ice stream activity scaled to ice sheet volume during Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, C R; Margold, M; Clark, C D; Tarasov, L

    2016-02-18

    The contribution of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets to sea level has increased in recent decades, largely owing to the thinning and retreat of outlet glaciers and ice streams. This dynamic loss is a serious concern, with some modelling studies suggesting that the collapse of a major ice sheet could be imminent or potentially underway in West Antarctica, but others predicting a more limited response. A major problem is that observations used to initialize and calibrate models typically span only a few decades, and, at the ice-sheet scale, it is unclear how the entire drainage network of ice streams evolves over longer timescales. This represents one of the largest sources of uncertainty when predicting the contributions of ice sheets to sea-level rise. A key question is whether ice streams might increase and sustain rates of mass loss over centuries or millennia, beyond those expected for a given ocean-climate forcing. Here we reconstruct the activity of 117 ice streams that operated at various times during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (from about 22,000 to 7,000 years ago) and show that as they activated and deactivated in different locations, their overall number decreased, they occupied a progressively smaller percentage of the ice sheet perimeter and their total discharge decreased. The underlying geology and topography clearly influenced ice stream activity, but--at the ice-sheet scale--their drainage network adjusted and was linked to changes in ice sheet volume. It is unclear whether these findings can be directly translated to modern ice sheets. However, contrary to the view that sees ice streams as unstable entities that can accelerate ice-sheet deglaciation, we conclude that ice streams exerted progressively less influence on ice sheet mass balance during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. PMID:26887494

  12. It's not how much you play, but how much you enjoy the game: the longitudinal associations between adolescents' self-esteem and the frequency versus enjoyment of involvement in sports.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of involvement in sports often has been concurrently and longitudinally associated with higher self-esteem. The interpretation of this association consistently has been framed as involvement in sports leading to higher levels of self-esteem over time (i.e., socialization effect), although no studies have tested whether higher levels of self-esteem lead to increased involvement in sports over time (i.e., selection effect). Another important aspect of involvement in sports that may be related to self-esteem is the degree to which youth enjoy sports. However, this aspect has received much less attention. To address these gaps in the literature, we first examined the bidirectional effects between self-esteem and the frequency of involvement in sports with 1,492 adolescents (50.8 % female; 92.4 % Canadian-born) over 4 years. Higher levels of self-esteem predicted greater involvement in sports over time, but greater involvement in sports did not predict higher levels of self-esteem over time, offering support only for selection effects. We then tested the bidirectional effects between the enjoyment of sports and self-esteem and found evidence of both socialization and selection effects. Specifically, greater enjoyment of sports predicted higher self-esteem over time, and higher self-esteem predicted greater enjoyment of sports over time. These novel findings suggest that adolescents with higher self-esteem play sports more frequently and enjoy sports more than adolescents with lower self-esteem. In addition, the degree to which adolescents enjoy sports may be more important for increasing self-esteem than the frequency with which adolescents play sports.

  13. Evaluating digestion efficiency in full-scale anaerobic digesters by identifying active microbial populations through the lens of microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Ran; Narihiro, Takashi; Nobu, Masaru K.; Kuroda, Kyohei; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a common technology to biologically stabilize wasted solids produced in municipal wastewater treatment. Its efficiency is usually evaluated by calculating the reduction in volatile solids, which assumes no biomass growth associated with digestion. To determine whether this assumption is valid and further evaluate digestion efficiency, this study sampled 35 digester sludge from different reactors at multiple time points together with the feed biomass in a full-scale water reclamation plant at Chicago, Illinois. The microbial communities were characterized using Illumina sequencing technology based on 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene (rDNA). 74 core microbial populations were identified and represented 58.7% of the entire digester community. Among them, active populations were first identified using the ratio of 16S rRNA and 16S rDNA (rRNA/rDNA) for individual populations, but this approach failed to generate consistent results. Subsequently, a recently proposed mass balance model was applied to calculate the specific growth rate (μ), and this approach successfully identified active microbial populations in digester (positive μ) that could play important roles than those with negative μ. It was further estimated that 82% of microbial populations in the feed sludge were digested in comparison with less than 50% calculated using current equations.

  14. Evaluating digestion efficiency in full-scale anaerobic digesters by identifying active microbial populations through the lens of microbial activity

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Ran; Narihiro, Takashi; Nobu, Masaru K.; Kuroda, Kyohei; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a common technology to biologically stabilize wasted solids produced in municipal wastewater treatment. Its efficiency is usually evaluated by calculating the reduction in volatile solids, which assumes no biomass growth associated with digestion. To determine whether this assumption is valid and further evaluate digestion efficiency, this study sampled 35 digester sludge from different reactors at multiple time points together with the feed biomass in a full-scale water reclamation plant at Chicago, Illinois. The microbial communities were characterized using Illumina sequencing technology based on 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene (rDNA). 74 core microbial populations were identified and represented 58.7% of the entire digester community. Among them, active populations were first identified using the ratio of 16S rRNA and 16S rDNA (rRNA/rDNA) for individual populations, but this approach failed to generate consistent results. Subsequently, a recently proposed mass balance model was applied to calculate the specific growth rate (μ), and this approach successfully identified active microbial populations in digester (positive μ) that could play important roles than those with negative μ. It was further estimated that 82% of microbial populations in the feed sludge were digested in comparison with less than 50% calculated using current equations. PMID:27666090

  15. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Evans, P M; Allinson, N M; Wells, K

    2014-07-01

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  16. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Konstantinidis, A. C.; Zheng, Y.; Speller, R. D.; Evans, P. M.; Allinson, N. M.; Wells, K.

    2014-07-01

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  17. Effect of acceleration on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities: Analysis of bone metabolism using goldfish scale as a model for bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kitamura, K.; Nemoto, N.; Shimizu, S.; Wada, W.; Kondo, K.; Tabata, T.; Sodeyama, S.; Ijiri, I.; Hattori, H.

    It is well known that hypo-gravity and hyper-gravity influence bone metabolism However basic data concerning the mechanism are a few because no in vitro model system of human bone is available Human bone consists of osteoblasts osteoclasts and the bone matrix No technique for the co-culture of these components has ever been developed Fish scale is a calcified tissue that contains osteoblasts osteoclasts and bone matrix all of which are similar to those found in human bone Recently we developed a new in vitro model system using goldfish scale This system can simultaneously detect the activities of both scale osteoclasts and osteoblasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase as the respective markers Using this system we analyzed the bone metabolism under acceleration with a custom-made G-load apparatus Osteoclastic activity in the goldfish scales was suppressed under low-acceleration 0 5-G while osteoblastic activity did not change under this acceleration Under high-acceleration 6-G however the osteoblastic activity of the scales increased In addition the osteoclastic activity of the scales decreased These results suggest that both osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities are regulated by the strength of acceleration Therefore we strongly believe that our in vitro system is useful for analysis of bone metabolism under acceleration

  18. Effect of nano-scale characteristics of graphene on electrochemical performance of activated carbon supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasni, M. R. M.; Deraman, M.; Suleman, M.; Hamdan, E.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Nor, N. S. M.; Shamsudin, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Graphene with its typical nano-scale characteristic properties has been widely used as an additive in activated carbon electrodes in order to enhance the performance of the electrodes for their use in high performance supercapacitors. Activated carbon monoliths (ACMs) electrodes have been prepared by carbonization and activation of green monoliths (GMs) of pre-carbonized fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches or self-adhesive carbon grains (SACGs) and SACGs added with 6 wt% of KOH-treated multi-layer graphene. ACMs electrodes have been assembled in symmetrical supercapacitor cells that employed aqueous KOH electrolyte (6 M). The cells have been tested with cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge discharge methods to investigate the effect of graphene addition on the specific capacitance (Csp), specific energy (E), specific power (P), equivalent series resistance (ESR) and response time (τo) of the supercapacitor cells. The results show that the addition of graphene in the GMs change the values of Csp, Emax, Pmax, ESR and τo from (61-96) F/g, 2 Wh/kg, 104 W/kg, 2.6 Ω and 38 s, to the respective values of (110-124) F/g, 3 Wh/kg, 156 W/kg, 3.4 Ω and 63 s. This study demonstrates that the graphene addition in the GMs has a significant effect on the electrochemical behavior of the electrodes.

  19. Phosphorus removal by an 'active' slag filter-a decade of full scale experience.

    PubMed

    Shilton, Andy N; Elmetri, Ibrahim; Drizo, Alexsandra; Pratt, Steven; Haverkamp, Richard G; Bilby, Stuart C

    2006-01-01

    Active filters, which facilitate phosphorus (P) removal via precipitation and/or adsorption, offer a promising 'appropriate technology' for upgrading small wastewater treatment systems. Research on active filters for P removal using steel slag material has been conducted in laboratories across the world, however, field experiments have been limited and long-term data is practically non-existent. This paper presents a decade of experience on P removal by active slag filters at a full-scale treatment plant. During 1993-1994 the filter removed 77% of the total phosphorus (TP), and over the first 5 years of the filter's operation it reduced the mean effluent TP concentration to 2.3 mgl(-1). However during the sixth year of operation P removal was significantly reduced. Over the 11 years of monitoring, 22.4 tonnes of TP was removed by the filter, 19.7 tonnes of this in the first 5-year period. It was determined that the slag material maintained its maximum removal potential until reaching a P-retention ratio of 1.23 kg TP per tonne of slag. This paper provides the first long-term field data for slag filters, and shows that they can provide P removal for a half a decade before filter replacement/rejuvenation is required.

  20. PARSEC-SCALE FARADAY ROTATION MEASURES FROM GENERAL RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Avery E.; McKinney, Jonathan C. E-mail: jmckinne@stanford.ed

    2010-12-10

    It is now possible to compare global three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) jet formation simulations directly to multi-wavelength polarized VLBI observations of the pc-scale structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets. Unlike the jet emission, which requires post hoc modeling of the nonthermal electrons, the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) depend primarily upon simulated quantities and thus provide a direct way to confront simulations with observations. We compute RM distributions of a three-dimensional global GRMHD jet formation simulation, extrapolated in a self-consistent manner to {approx}10 pc scales, and explore the dependence upon model and observational parameters, emphasizing the signatures of structures generic to the theory of MHD jets. With typical parameters, we find that it is possible to reproduce the observed magnitudes and many of the structures found in AGN jet RMs, including the presence of transverse RM gradients. In our simulations, the RMs are generated in the circum-jet material, hydrodynamically a smooth extension of the jet itself, containing ordered toroidally dominated magnetic fields. This results in a particular bilateral morphology that is unlikely to arise due to Faraday rotation in distant foreground clouds. However, critical to efforts to probe the Faraday screen will be resolving the transverse jet structure. Therefore, the RMs of radio cores may not be reliable indicators of the properties of the rotating medium. Finally, we are able to constrain the particle content of the jet, finding that at pc scales AGN jets are electromagnetically dominated, with roughly 2% of the comoving energy in nonthermal leptons and much less in baryons.

  1. Meso Scale Impacy On Biological Activity In The NE Atlantic : Pomme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memery, L.; Pomme Team

    The Programme Océan Multidisciplinaire Méso Echelle (POMME) seeks to under- stand the impact of meso scale dynamics on mode water formation and subduction, and on the seasonal evolution of water mass characteristics in the NE Atlantic ocean (15-210W, 38-45N). The field work, achieved in 2001,was based on three 6 week cruises with two vessels, nine moorings equipped with current-meters and other in- struments, including four with sediment traps, and over100 drifters and buoys. Real time data assimilation was used to optimise the meso scale surveys by the two ves- sels. The observation array will be described, and first results will be presented. A significant meso scale signal was observed in this low-energy region, including a few coherent structures. Their biological impact of the structures is strong mostly at the fronts located near the rims of the eddies. On the other hand, we did not observe sys- tematic differences between cyclones and anticyclones. The biological production had already started in the south in February, and has presented a steady, although strong, increase until mid May in the north. In September, the region is strongly oligotrophic and usually heterotrophic with high level of bacterial activity, and strong modifica- tions of phytoplankton and zooplankton populations. The heterogeneity driven by the fronts between eddies is large during all the seasons. This area of the North Atlantic is a CO2 sink in winter and spring and a CO2 source in late summer and early fall.

  2. Exercisers' perceptions of their fitness instructor's interacting style, perceived competence, and autonomy as a function of self-determined regulation to exercise, enjoyment, affect, and exercise frequency.

    PubMed

    Puente, Rogelio; Anshel, Mark H

    2010-02-01

    The primary purpose of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis, derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT), that an individual's perceived competence and autonomy mediate the relationship between the exercisers' perception of their instructor's interaction style and the exercisers' motivation to exercise. A secondary purpose was to identify the affective and behavioral outcomes derived from self-determined regulation. It was hypothesized that SDT would significantly explain and predict exercise behavior. Participants consisted of 238 college students, 103 males and 135 females (M age = 20.4 years, SD = 2.16), who volunteered to participate in the study. They were asked to complete a battery of questionnaires measuring instructor's interacting style, self-regulation to exercise, perceived autonomy and competence, enjoyment, positive and negative affect, and exercise frequency. Using structural equation modeling with observed variables, the results showed that perceived competence and autonomy mediated the relationship between perceived instructor's interacting style and self-determined regulation. It was also found that self-determined regulation was significantly related to exercise enjoyment, positive affect, and exercise frequency. It was concluded that understanding the motivational factors and emotional and behavioral consequences of physical activity will partially explain an individual's motives to engage regularly in exercise.

  3. Temporal and spatial variability of soil biological activity at European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallast, Janine; Rühlmann, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    The CATCH-C project aims to identify and improve the farm-compatibility of Soil Management Practices including to promote productivity, climate change mitigation and soil quality. The focus of this work concentrates on turnover conditions for soil organic matter (SOM). SOM is fundamental for the maintenance of quality and functions of soils while SOM storage is attributed a great importance in terms of climate change mitigation. The turnover conditions depend on soil biological activity characterized by climate and soil properties. Soil biological activity was investigated using two model concepts: a) Re_clim parameter within the ICBM (Introductory Carbon Balance Model) (Andrén & Kätterer 1997) states a climatic factor summarizing soil water storage and soil temperature and its influence on soil biological activity. b) BAT (biological active time) approach derived from model CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen Dynamic) (Franko & Oelschlägel 1995) expresses the variation of soil moisture, soil temperature and soil aeration as a time scale and an indicator of biological activity for soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. During an earlier stage both model concepts, Re_clim and BAT, were applied based on a monthly data to assess spatial variability of turnover conditions across Europe. This hampers the investigation of temporal variability (e.g. intra-annual). The improved stage integrates daily data of more than 350 weather stations across Europe presented by Klein Tank et al. (2002). All time series data (temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration and soil texture derived from the European Soil Database (JRC 2006)), are used to calculate soil biological activity in the arable layer. The resulting BAT and Re_clim values were spatio-temporal investigated. While "temporal" refers to a long-term trend analysis, "spatial" includes the investigation of soil biological activity variability per environmental zone (ENZ, Metzger et al. 2005 representing similar

  4. Development and Validation of the Comprehensive Health Activities Scale: A New Approach to Health Literacy Measurement

    PubMed Central

    CURTIS, LAURA M.; REVELLE, WILLIAM; AND, KATHERINE WAITE; WILSON, ELIZABETH A. H.; CONDON, DAVID M.; BOJARSKI, ELIZABETH; PARK, DENISE C.; AND, DAVID W. BAKER; WOLF, MICHAEL S.

    2014-01-01

    Current health literacy measures have been criticized for solely measuring reading and numeracy skills when a broader set of skills is necessary for making informed health decisions, especially when information is often conveyed verbally and through multimedia video. We devised nine health tasks and a corresponding 190 item assessment to more comprehensively measure health literacy skills. A sample of 826 participants age 55-74 recruited from an academic General Internal Medicine practice and three Federally Qualified Health Centers in Chicago, Illinois completed the assessment. Items were reduced using hierarchical factor analysis and item response theory resulting in the 45-item Comprehensive Health Activities Scale (CHAS). All 45 items loaded on one general latent trait and the resulting scale demonstrated high reliability and strong construct validity using measures of health literacy and global cognitive functioning. The predictive validity of the CHAS using self-reported general, physical, and mental health status was comparable to or better than widely used measures of health literacy, depending on the outcome. Despite comprehensively measuring health literacy skills, items in the CHAS supported one primary construct. With similar psychometric properties, current measures may be adequate, depending on the purpose of the assessment. PMID:25375025

  5. δ-SUNSPOT FORMATION IN SIMULATION OF ACTIVE-REGION-SCALE FLUX EMERGENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Fang; Fan, Yuhong

    2015-06-10

    δ-sunspots, with highly complex magnetic structures, are very productive in energetic eruptive events, such as X-class flares and homologous eruptions. We here study the formation of such complex magnetic structures by numerical simulations of magnetic flux emergence from the convection zone into the corona in an active-region-scale domain. In our simulation, two pairs of bipolar sunspots form on the surface, originating from two buoyant segments of a single subsurface twisted flux rope, following the approach of Toriumi et al. Expansion and rotation of the emerging fields in the two bipoles drive the two opposite polarities into each other with apparent rotating motion, producing a compact δ-sunspot with a sharp polarity inversion line. The formation of the δ-sunspot in such a realistic-scale domain produces emerging patterns similar to those formed in observations, e.g., the inverted polarity against Hale's law, the curvilinear motion of the spot, and strong transverse field with highly sheared magnetic and velocity fields at the polarity inversion line (PIL). Strong current builds up at the PIL, giving rise to reconnection, which produces a complex coronal magnetic connectivity with non-potential fields in the δ-spot overlaid by more relaxed fields connecting the two polarities at the two ends.

  6. Lab-scale experimental strategy for determining micropollutant partition coefficient and biodegradation constants in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Pomiès, M; Choubert, J M; Wisniewski, C; Miège, C; Budzinski, H; Coquery, M

    2015-03-01

    The nitrifying/denitrifying activated sludge process removes several micropollutants from wastewater by sorption onto sludge and/or biodegradation. The objective of this paper is to propose and evaluate a lab-scale experimental strategy for the determination of partition coefficient and biodegradation constant for micropollutant with an objective of modelling their removal. Four pharmaceutical compounds (ibuprofen, atenolol, diclofenac and fluoxetine) covering a wide hydrophobicity range (log Kow from 0.16 to 4.51) were chosen. Dissolved and particulate concentrations were monitored for 4 days, inside two reactors working under aerobic and anoxic conditions, and under different substrate feed conditions (biodegradable carbon and nitrogen). We determined the mechanisms responsible for the removal of the target compounds: (i) ibuprofen was biodegraded, mainly under aerobic conditions by cometabolism with biodegradable carbon, whereas anoxic conditions suppressed biodegradation; (ii) atenolol was biodegraded under both aerobic and anoxic conditions (with a higher biodegradation rate under aerobic conditions), and cometabolism with biodegradable carbon was the main mechanism; (iii) diclofenac and fluoxetine were removed by sorption only. Finally, the abilities of our strategy were evaluated by testing the suitability of the parameters for simulating effluent concentrations and removal efficiency at a full-scale plant. PMID:25300180

  7. Pilot-scale study of powdered activated carbon recirculation for micropollutant removal.

    PubMed

    Meinel, F; Sperlich, A; Jekel, M

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) is a promising technique for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) from treated wastewater. To enhance the adsorption efficiency, PAC is recycled back into the adsorption stage. This technique was examined in pilot scale in comparison to a reference without recirculation. Coagulation with Fe(3+) was carried out simultaneously to adsorption. Extensive OMP measurements showed that recirculation significantly increased OMP eliminations. Thus, significant PAC savings were feasible. The PAC concentration in the contact reactor proved to be an important operating parameter that can be surrogated by the easily measurable total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. OMP eliminations increased with increasing TSS concentrations. At 20 mg PAC L(-1) and 2.8 g TSS L(-1) in the contact reactor, well-adsorbable carbamazepine was eliminated by 97%, moderately adsorbable diclofenac was eliminated by 92% and poorly-adsorbable acesulfame was eliminated by 54% in comparison to 49%, 35% and 18%, respectively, without recirculation. The recirculation system represents an efficient technique, as the PAC's adsorption capacity is practically completely used. Small PAC dosages yield high OMP eliminations. Poorly-adsorbable gabapentin was eliminated to an unexpectedly high degree. A laboratory-scale biomass inhibition study showed that aerobic biodegradation removed gabapentin in addition to adsorption. PMID:27533867

  8. Physical Education Teacher Attitudes toward Fitness Tests Scale: Cross-Revalidation and Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Xiaofen D.; Guan, Jianmin; Ferguson, Robert H.; Chen, Li; Bridges, Dwan M.

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to provide further evidence of validity and reliability for the Physical Education Teacher Attitudes toward Fitness Tests Scale (PETAFTS), which consisted of affective and cognitive domains. There were two subdomains in the affective domain (i.e., enjoyment of implementing fitness tests and enjoyment of using test results) and one…

  9. Design of plasmonic photodetector with high absorptance and nano-scale active regions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingshu; Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel plasmonic photodetector with high responsivity, utilizing nano-scale active regions. This design can be applied to diverse materials (group III-V or IV materials) and different operation wavelengths covering the O-U bands. The periodic structure utilizing Surface Plasmon Polariton Bloch Waves (SPP-BWs) has low optical power loss. FDTD simulation shows an absorptance of 74.4% which means a responsivity of about 0.74 A/W at 1550 nm. The low capacitance brings low noise, reduced power consumption, and a high electrical bandwidth which is estimated to be 140 GHz. Among the plasmonic PDs with inherent high speeds but low responsivities, our design makes the obvious progress on improving the absorptance. PMID:27505787

  10. Activated scaling in disorder-rounded first-order quantum phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellafard, Arash; Chakravarty, Sudip

    2016-09-01

    First-order phase transitions, classical or quantum, subject to randomness coupled to energylike variables (bond randomness) can be rounded, resulting in continuous transitions (emergent criticality). We study perhaps the simplest such model, the quantum three-color Ashkin-Teller model, and show that the quantum critical point in (1 +1 ) dimension is an unusual one, with activated scaling at the critical point and Griffiths-McCoy phase away from it. The behavior is similar to the transverse random field Ising model, even though the pure system has a first-order transition in this case. We believe that this fact must be attended to when discussing quantum critical points in numerous physical systems.

  11. Assessment of impairment in activities of daily living in mild cognitive impairment using an individualized scale.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Giseli de Fátima Dos Santos; Oliveira, Alexandra Martini; Chaves, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Aprahamian, Ivan; Nunes, Paula Villela

    2016-07-01

    Mild impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) can occur in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), but the nature and extent of these difficulties need to be further explored. The Canadian occupational performance measure (COPM) is one of the few individualized scales designed to identify self-perceived difficulties in ADL. The present study investigated impairments in ADL using the COPM in elderly with MCI. A total of 58 MCI patients were submitted to the COPM for studies of its validity and reliability. The COPM proved a valid and consistent instrument for evaluating ADL in elderly MCI patients. A total of 74.6% of the MCI patients reported difficulties in ADL. Of these problems, 41.2% involved self-care, 31.4% productivity and 27.4% leisure. This data further corroborates recent reports of possible functional impairment in complex ADL in MCI. PMID:27487375

  12. Scaling law for the ion-induced electronic sputtering of intact biomolecules: Evidence of thermal activation

    SciTech Connect

    Szenes, G.

    2004-09-01

    A linear scaling is found for intact biomolecules in the form of ln(Y/S{sub e})-1/S{sub e} where Y, and S{sub e} are the sputtering yield and the electronic stopping power, respectively. The law is in good agreement with the experimental data for valine, leucine, and insulin molecules in various charge states in a broad range of S{sub e}. The thermal spike model of the author is applied and the activation energies of desorption U are obtained from the slope of the semilogarithmic lines. U is considerably higher for neutral leucine molecules than for ions. The Coulomb contribution to U for molecular ions does not depend on S{sub e} in a broad range. During sputtering, the specific heat is approximately 10% of its room temperature value for valine and leucine.

  13. The Growth Factor Receptor ERBB2 Regulates Mitochondrial Activity on a Signaling Time Scale*

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nirav; Barrientos, Antoni; Landgraf, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the ERBB2 receptor tyrosine kinase and the mitochondrial inner membrane protein UCP2 occurs frequently in aggressive cancers with dysfunctional mitochondria. Overexpressed ERBB2 signals constitutively and elevated UCP2 can uncouple mitochondria and alleviate oxidative stress. However, the physiological contributions of UCP2 and ERBB2 at the low expression levels that are typical of most tissues, as well as the path to oncogenic deregulation, are poorly understood. We now show that ERBB2 directly controls UCP2 levels, both at low physiological levels and oncogenic overexpression. At low levels of receptor and UCP2, ligand stimulation creates a distinct temporal response pattern driven by the opposing forces of translational suppression of the exceptionally short lived UCP2 protein and a time delayed transcriptional up-regulation. The latter becomes dominant through constitutive signaling by overexpressed ERBB2, resulting in high levels of UCP2 that contribute mitochondrial uncoupling. By contrast, ligand stimulation of non-overexpressed ERBB2 transiently removes UCP2 and paradoxically reduces the mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption, and OXPHOS on a signaling time scale. However, neither the transporter activity nor down-regulation of already low UCP2 levels drive this reduction in mitochondrial activity. Instead, UCP2 is required to establish mitochondria that are capable of responding to ligand. UCP2 knockdown impairs proliferation at high glucose but its absence specifically impairs ligand-induced growth when glucose levels fluctuate. These findings demonstrate the ability of growth factor signaling to control oxidative phosphorylation on a signaling time scale and point toward a non-transporter role for low levels of UCP2 in establishing dynamic response capability. PMID:24142693

  14. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment as drivers for the user acceptance of interactive mobile maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.; Yusof, Muhammad Mat

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the user perception of usefulness, ease of use and enjoyment as drivers for the users' complex interaction with map on mobile devices. TAM model was used to evaluate users' intention to use and their acceptance of interactive mobile map using the above three beliefs as antecedents. Quantitative research (survey) methodology was employed and the analysis and findings showed that all the three explanatory variables used in this study, explain the variability in the user acceptance of interactive mobile map technology. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment each have significant positive influence on user acceptance of interactive mobile maps. This study further validates the TAM model.

  15. The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichner, Robert J.

    2011-04-01

    How do you keep a classroom of 100 undergraduates actively learning? Can students practice communication and teamwork skills in a large class? How do you boost the performance of underrepresented groups? The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) Project has addressed these concerns. Because of their inclusion in a leading introductory physics textbook, project materials are used by more than 1/3 of all science, math, and engineering majors nationwide. The room design and pedagogy have been adopted at more than 100 leading institutions across the country. Physics, chemistry, math, astronomy, biology, engineering, earth sciences, and even literature classes are currently being taught this way. Educational research indicates that students should collaborate on interesting tasks and be deeply involved with the material they are studying. We promote active learning in a redesigned classroom for 100 students or more. (Of course, smaller classes can also benefit.) Class time is spent primarily on "tangibles" and "ponderables"--hands-on activities, simulations, and interesting questions. Nine students sit in three teams at round tables. Instructors circulate and engage in Socratic dialogues. The setting looks like a banquet hall, with lively interactions nearly all the time. Hundreds of hours of classroom video and audio recordings, transcripts of numerous interviews and focus groups, data from conceptual learning assessments (using widely-recognized instruments in a pretest/posttest protocol), and collected portfolios of student work are part of our rigorous assessment effort. Our findings (based on data from over 16,000 students collected over five years as well as replications at adopting sites) can be summarized as the following: 1) Female failure rate is 1/5 of previous levels, even though more is demanded of students. 2) Minority failure rate is 1/4 that seen in traditionally taught courses. 3) At-risk students are more

  16. How Do Adults With Down Syndrome Perceive Physical Activity?

    PubMed

    Love, Adam; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis

    2016-07-01

    Adults with Down syndrome (DS) tend to have low physical activity levels, which may relate to how they perceive participation in physical activities. The current study entailed interviews with 30 adults with DS (age 18-71 yr, 18 women) to examine how they perceived physical activity, exercise, and sport. Through qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory, the investigators found that adults with DS have positive perceptions of physical activity that center on enjoyment. Three facets of enjoyment were identified: interaction, achievement, and process. Interaction reflected enjoyment of social contact with others including relatives, peers, caregivers, and animals. Achievement involved enjoyment of achieving particular ends including accomplishment of tasks, material rewards, formation of athletic identities, and improvement of health. Process represented enjoyment from performing a particular activity itself. This multifaceted enjoyment expressed by adults with DS may facilitate physical activity and should be considered when developing programs to improve their well-being. PMID:27623609

  17. From baseline to epileptiform activity: A path to synchronized rhythmicity in large-scale neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shusterman, Vladimir; Troy, William C.

    2008-06-01

    In large-scale neural networks in the brain the emergence of global behavioral patterns, manifested by electroencephalographic activity, is driven by the self-organization of local neuronal groups into synchronously functioning ensembles. However, the laws governing such macrobehavior and its disturbances, in particular epileptic seizures, are poorly understood. Here we use a mean-field population network model to describe a state of baseline physiological activity and the transition from the baseline state to rhythmic epileptiform activity. We describe principles which explain how this rhythmic activity arises in the form of spatially uniform self-sustained synchronous oscillations. In addition, we show how the rate of migration of the leading edge of the synchronous oscillations can be theoretically predicted, and compare the accuracy of this prediction with that measured experimentally using multichannel electrocorticographic recordings obtained from a human subject experiencing epileptic seizures. The comparison shows that the experimentally measured rate of migration of the leading edge of synchronous oscillations is within the theoretically predicted range of values. Computer simulations have been performed to investigate the interactions between different regions of the brain and to show how organization in one spatial region can promote or inhibit organization in another. Our theoretical predictions are also consistent with the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in particular with observations that lower-frequency electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms entrain larger areas of the brain than higher-frequency rhythms. These findings advance the understanding of functional behavior of interconnected populations and might have implications for the analysis of diverse classes of networks.

  18. From baseline to epileptiform activity: a path to synchronized rhythmicity in large-scale neural networks.

    PubMed

    Shusterman, Vladimir; Troy, William C

    2008-06-01

    In large-scale neural networks in the brain the emergence of global behavioral patterns, manifested by electroencephalographic activity, is driven by the self-organization of local neuronal groups into synchronously functioning ensembles. However, the laws governing such macrobehavior and its disturbances, in particular epileptic seizures, are poorly understood. Here we use a mean-field population network model to describe a state of baseline physiological activity and the transition from the baseline state to rhythmic epileptiform activity. We describe principles which explain how this rhythmic activity arises in the form of spatially uniform self-sustained synchronous oscillations. In addition, we show how the rate of migration of the leading edge of the synchronous oscillations can be theoretically predicted, and compare the accuracy of this prediction with that measured experimentally using multichannel electrocorticographic recordings obtained from a human subject experiencing epileptic seizures. The comparison shows that the experimentally measured rate of migration of the leading edge of synchronous oscillations is within the theoretically predicted range of values. Computer simulations have been performed to investigate the interactions between different regions of the brain and to show how organization in one spatial region can promote or inhibit organization in another. Our theoretical predictions are also consistent with the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in particular with observations that lower-frequency electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms entrain larger areas of the brain than higher-frequency rhythms. These findings advance the understanding of functional behavior of interconnected populations and might have implications for the analysis of diverse classes of networks. PMID:18643304

  19. Determination of paleoseismic activity over a large time-scale: Fault scarp dating with 36Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozafari Amiri, Nasim; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Sümer, Ökmen; Özkaymak, Çaǧlar; Uzel, Bora; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Sözbilir, Hasan; Akçar, Naki

    2016-04-01

    Bedrock fault scarps are the most direct evidence of past earthquakes to reconstruct seismic activity in a large time-scale using cosmogenic 36Cl dating if built in carbonates. For this method, a surface along the fault scarp with a minimum amount of erosion is required to be chosen as an ideal target point. The section of the fault selected for sampling should cover at least two meters of the fault surface from the lower part of the scarp, where intersects with colluvium wedge. Ideally, sampling should be performed on a continuous strip along the direction of the fault slip direction. First, samples of 10 cm high and 15 cm wide are marked on the fault surface. Then, they are collected using cutters, hammer and chisel in a thickness of 3 cm. The main geometrical factors of scarp dip, scarp height, top surface dip and colluvium dip are also measured. Topographic shielding in the sampling spot is important to be estimated as well. Moreover, density of the fault scarp and colluvium are calculated. The physical and chemical preparations are carried in laboratory for AMS and chemical analysis of the samples. A Matlab® code is used for modelling of seismically active periods based on increasing production rate of 36Cl following each rupture, when a buried section of a fault is exposed. Therefore, by measuring the amount of cosmogenic 36Cl versus height, the timing of major ruptures and their offsets are determined. In our study, Manastır, Mugırtepe and Rahmiye faults in Gediz graben, Priene-Sazlı, Kalafat and Yavansu faults in Büyük Menderes graben and Ören fault in Gökava half-graben have been examined in the seismically active region of Western Turkey. Our results reconstruct at least five periods of high seismic activity during the Holocene time, three of which reveal seismic ruptures beyond the historical pre-existing data.

  20. Removal of micropollutants and reduction of biological activity in a full scale reclamation plant using ozonation and activated carbon filtration.

    PubMed

    Reungoat, J; Macova, M; Escher, B I; Carswell, S; Mueller, J F; Keller, J

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds are found in secondary treated effluents up to microg L(-1) levels and therefore discharged into surface waters. Since the long term effects of these compounds on the environment and human health are, to date, largely unknown, implementation of advanced treatment of wastewaters is envisaged to reduce their discharge. This is of particular relevance where surface waters are used as drinking water sources and when considering indirect potable reuse. This study aimed at assessing the removal of organic micropollutants and the concurrent reduction of their biological activity in a full scale reclamation plant treating secondary effluent. The treatment consists of 6 stages: denitrification, pre-ozonation, coagulation/flocculation/dissolved air flotation and filtration (DAFF), main ozonation, activated carbon filtration and final ozonation for disinfection. For that purpose, representative 24-hour composite samples were collected after each stage. The occurrence of 85 compounds was monitored by LC/MS-MS. A battery of 6 bioassays was also used as a complementary tool to evaluate non-specific toxicity and 5 specific toxic modes of action. Results show that, among the 54 micropollutants quantified in the influent water, 50 were removed to below their limit of quantification representing more than 90% of concentration reduction. Biological activity was reduced, depending on the specific response that was assessed, from a minimum of 62% (AhR response) to more than 99% (estrogenicity). The key processes responsible for the plant's performances were the coagulation/flocculation/DAFF, main ozonation and activated carbon filtration. The effect of these 3 processes varied from one compound or bioassay to another but their combination was almost totally responsible for the overall observed reduction. Bioassays yielded complementary information, e.g. estrogenic compounds were not detected in the secondary effluent by chemical analysis, but the samples had an

  1. Cohort Profile of the Goals Study: A Large-Scale Research of Physical Activity in Dutch Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Renate H. M.; van Dijk, Martin L.; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The GOALS study (Grootschalig Onderzoek naar Activiteiten van Limburgse Scholieren [Large-scale Research of Activities in Dutch Students]) was set up to investigate possible associations between different forms of physical activity and inactivity with cognitive performance, academic achievement and mental well-being. It was conducted at a…

  2. Promoting Leisure Physical Activity Participation among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Validation of Self-Efficacy and Social Support Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jana J.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe, John B.; Nothwehr, Faryle K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities are not sufficiently active for availing health benefits. Little is known about correlates of physical activity among this population on which to build health promotion interventions. Materials and Methods: We developed scales for measurement of self-efficacy and social support for…

  3. Network effect of knowledge spillover: Scale-free networks stimulate R&D activities and accelerate economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Tomohiko

    2016-09-01

    We study how knowledge spillover networks affect research and development (R&D) activities and economic growth. For this purpose, we extend a Schumpeterian growth model to the one on networks that depict the knowledge spillover relationships of R&D. We show that scale-free networks stimulate R&D activities and accelerate economic growth.

  4. Active and Social Data Curation: Reinventing the Business of Community-scale Lifecycle Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, R. H.; Kumar, P.; Plale, B. A.; Myers, J.; Hedstrom, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Effective long-term curation and preservation of data for community use has historically been limited to high-value and homogeneous collections produced by mission-oriented organizations. The technologies and practices that have been applied in these cases, e.g. relational data bases, development of comprehensive standardized vocabularies, and centralized support for reference data collections, are arguably applicable to the much broader range of data generated by the long tail of investigator-led research, with the logical conclusion of such an argument leading to the call for training, evangelism, and vastly increased funding as the best means of broadening community-scale data management. In this paper, we question this reasoning and explore how alternative approaches focused on the overall data lifecycle and the sociological and business realities of distributed multi-disciplinary research communities might dramatically lower costs, increase value, and consequently drive dramatic advances in our ability to use and re-use data, and ultimately enable more rapid scientific advance. Specifically, we introduce the concepts of active and social curation as a means to decrease coordination costs, align costs and values for individual data producers and data consumers, and improve the immediacy of returns for data curation investments. Further, we describe the specific architecture and services for active and social curation that are being prototyped within the Sustainable Environment - Actionable Data (SEAD) project within NSF's DataNet network and discuss how they are motivated by the long-tail dynamics in the cross-disciplinary sustainability research community.

  5. Vertebrate Protein CTCF and its Multiple Roles in a Large-Scale Regulation of Genome Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaev, L.G; Akopov, S.B; Didych, D.A; Sverdlov, E.D

    2009-01-01

    The CTCF transcription factor is an 11 zinc fingers multifunctional protein that uses different zinc finger combinations to recognize and bind different sites within DNA. CTCF is thought to participate in various gene regulatory networks including transcription activation and repression, formation of independently functioning chromatin domains and regulation of imprinting. Sequencing of human and other genomes opened up a possibility to ascertain the genomic distribution of CTCF binding sites and to identify CTCF-dependent cis-regulatory elements, including insulators. In the review, we summarized recent data on genomic distribution of CTCF binding sites in the human and other genomes within a framework of the loop domain hypothesis of large-scale regulation of the genome activity. We also tried to formulate possible lines of studies on a variety of CTCF functions which probably depend on its ability to specifically bind DNA, interact with other proteins and form di- and multimers. These three fundamental properties allow CTCF to serve as a transcription factor, an insulator and a constitutive dispersed genome-wide demarcation tool able to recruit various factors that emerge in response to diverse external and internal signals, and thus to exert its signal-specific function(s). PMID:20119526

  6. Vertebrate Protein CTCF and its Multiple Roles in a Large-Scale Regulation of Genome Activity.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, L G; Akopov, S B; Didych, D A; Sverdlov, E D

    2009-08-01

    The CTCF transcription factor is an 11 zinc fingers multifunctional protein that uses different zinc finger combinations to recognize and bind different sites within DNA. CTCF is thought to participate in various gene regulatory networks including transcription activation and repression, formation of independently functioning chromatin domains and regulation of imprinting. Sequencing of human and other genomes opened up a possibility to ascertain the genomic distribution of CTCF binding sites and to identify CTCF-dependent cis-regulatory elements, including insulators. In the review, we summarized recent data on genomic distribution of CTCF binding sites in the human and other genomes within a framework of the loop domain hypothesis of large-scale regulation of the genome activity. We also tried to formulate possible lines of studies on a variety of CTCF functions which probably depend on its ability to specifically bind DNA, interact with other proteins and form di- and multimers. These three fundamental properties allow CTCF to serve as a transcription factor, an insulator and a constitutive dispersed genome-wide demarcation tool able to recruit various factors that emerge in response to diverse external and internal signals, and thus to exert its signal-specific function(s). PMID:20119526

  7. Comparison of dielectric materials for the activation of a macro-scale hinge configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordi, C.; Schmidt, A.; Kovacs, G.; Ermanni, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    While much of the research on dielectric elastomer actuators used to concentrate on VHB 4910 as dielectric material, lately many new, specifically developed materials have come into focus. The acrylic VHB has been thoroughly characterized in a macro-scale agonist-antagonist configuration on an active hinge. This was carried out with the aim of using it on an airship, which was activated, undulating body and a fin and thus propelled in a fish-like manner. The concept was proved in flight, but still lifetime and viscosity of the actuators and the time-costing fabrication due to the necessary large pre-stretches of the dielectric membrane caused severe inconveniences. In order to evaluate the usability of other materials for this specific purpose, two other materials, a corrugated silicone with silver electrodes (by PolyPower) and an acrylic with interpenetrating network (IPN) developed by Pei et al. were characterized under similar conditions. The influence of the material on performance and design of the actuators and the conclusions for the use of the materials on the airship (and on applications with similar performance requirements) are presented.

  8. Scale Development for Measuring and Predicting Adolescents’ Leisure Time Physical Activity Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Francis; Romero Granados, Santiago; Arribas Galarraga, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a scale for assessing and predicting adolescents’ physical activity behavior in Spain and Luxembourg using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework. The sample was comprised of 613 Spanish (boys = 309, girls = 304; M age =15.28, SD =1.127) and 752 Luxembourgish adolescents (boys = 343, girls = 409; M age = 14.92, SD = 1.198), selected from students of two secondary schools in both countries, with a similar socio-economic status. The initial 43-items were all scored on a 4-point response format using the structured alternative format and translated into Spanish, French and German. In order to ensure the accuracy of the translation, standardized parallel back-translation techniques were employed. Following two pilot tests and subsequent revisions, a second order exploratory factor analysis with oblimin direct rotation was used for factor extraction. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were also tested. The 4-week test-retest correlations confirmed the items’ time stability. The same five factors were obtained, explaining 63.76% and 63.64% of the total variance in both samples. Internal consistency for the five factors ranged from α = 0.759 to α = 0. 949 in the Spanish sample and from α = 0.735 to α = 0.952 in the Luxembourgish sample. For both samples, inter-factor correlations were all reported significant and positive, except for Factor 5 where they were significant but negative. The high internal consistency of the subscales, the reported item test-retest reliabilities and the identical factor structure confirm the adequacy of the elaborated questionnaire for assessing the TPB-based constructs when used with a population of adolescents in Spain and Luxembourg. The results give some indication that they may have value in measuring the hypothesized TPB constructs for PA behavior in a cross-cultural context. Key points When using the structured alternative format, weak internal consistency was obtained

  9. Near scale-free dynamics in neural population activity of waking/sleeping rats revealed by multiscale analysis.

    PubMed

    Safonov, Leonid A; Isomura, Yoshikazu; Kang, Siu; Struzik, Zbigniew R; Fukai, Tomoki; Câteau, Hideyuki

    2010-09-28

    A neuron embedded in an intact brain, unlike an isolated neuron, participates in network activity at various spatial resolutions. Such multiple scale spatial dynamics is potentially reflected in multiple time scales of temporal dynamics. We identify such multiple dynamical time scales of the inter-spike interval (ISI) fluctuations of neurons of waking/sleeping rats by means of multiscale analysis. The time scale of large non-Gaussianity in the ISI fluctuations, measured with the Castaing method, ranges up to several minutes, markedly escaping the low-pass filtering characteristics of neurons. A comparison between neural activity during waking and sleeping reveals that non-Gaussianity is stronger during waking than sleeping throughout the entire range of scales observed. We find a remarkable property of near scale independence of the magnitude correlations as the primary cause of persistent non-Gaussianity. Such scale-invariance of correlations is characteristic of multiplicative cascade processes and raises the possibility of the existence of a scale independent memory preserving mechanism.

  10. Feeling the need for (personalized) speed: how natural controls and customization contribute to enjoyment of a racing game through enhanced immersion.

    PubMed

    Schmierbach, Mike; Limperos, Anthony M; Woolley, Julia K

    2012-07-01

    Prior research suggests that video game features that appear natural or that otherwise allow players to identify with their in-game experience will promote enjoyment. Using a 2 × 2 experiment, this study demonstrates the positive effects of a steering-wheel controller and the opportunity to customize the driven vehicle on enjoyment of a console driving game, as mediated by transportation and challenge-skill balance. The role of presence is also probed, with results suggesting no direct link to enjoyment.

  11. Ice stream activity scaled to ice sheet volume during Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, C. R.; Margold, M.; Clark, C. D.; Tarasov, L.

    2016-02-01

    The contribution of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets to sea level has increased in recent decades, largely owing to the thinning and retreat of outlet glaciers and ice streams. This dynamic loss is a serious concern, with some modelling studies suggesting that the collapse of a major ice sheet could be imminent or potentially underway in West Antarctica, but others predicting a more limited response. A major problem is that observations used to initialize and calibrate models typically span only a few decades, and, at the ice-sheet scale, it is unclear how the entire drainage network of ice streams evolves over longer timescales. This represents one of the largest sources of uncertainty when predicting the contributions of ice sheets to sea-level rise. A key question is whether ice streams might increase and sustain rates of mass loss over centuries or millennia, beyond those expected for a given ocean-climate forcing. Here we reconstruct the activity of 117 ice streams that operated at various times during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (from about 22,000 to 7,000 years ago) and show that as they activated and deactivated in different locations, their overall number decreased, they occupied a progressively smaller percentage of the ice sheet perimeter and their total discharge decreased. The underlying geology and topography clearly influenced ice stream activity, but—at the ice-sheet scale—their drainage network adjusted and was linked to changes in ice sheet volume. It is unclear whether these findings can be directly translated to modern ice sheets. However, contrary to the view that sees ice streams as unstable entities that can accelerate ice-sheet deglaciation, we conclude that ice streams exerted progressively less influence on ice sheet mass balance during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  12. How to survive (and enjoy) doing a thesis: the experiences of a methodological working group.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Lynne S; Wood, Pamela J

    2006-03-01

    'Doing a thesis', whether for Masters or PhD, can be a lonely and tortuous journey. This article offers a complementary process to the traditional apprenticeship supervision model. It describes the experiences of students who during their thesis research met monthly in a grounded theory working group. They reflected on their experiences during a focus group interview. After describing the background to how the group started in 1999 and exploring some of the ideas in the literature concerning the thesis experience, the article presents the interview. To focus the presentation, specific questions are used as category headings. Overall, the participants found attending the group was a "life-line" that gave them "hope" and was complementary to the supervision process. Through the support of peers, guidance from those ahead in the process, and consultancy with teachers and visiting methodological scholars, these students not only successfully completed their theses, but reported that they had some enjoyment along the way. This is the fifteenth in a series of articles which have been based on interviews with nursing and midwifery researchers, and were primarily designed to offer the beginning researcher a first-hand account of the experience of using particular methodologies.

  13. Effect of Peer Influence on Exercise Behavior and Enjoyment in Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Andrew J; Petersen, Jennifer L; Barkley, Jacob E

    2016-02-01

    Fitness professionals and popular media sources often recommend exercising with a partner to increase exercise motivation, adherence, intensity, and/or duration. Although competition with peers has been shown to enhance maximal athletic performance, experimental research examining the impact of peer influence on submaximal exercise behavior in adults is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the presence of familiar and unfamiliar peers, vs. running alone, on recreational runners' voluntary running duration, distance, intensity, liking (i.e., enjoyment), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs). Recreational runners (n = 12 males, n = 12 females) completed 3 experimental trials, each under a different social condition, in a randomized order. Each trial consisted of self-paced running for a duration voluntarily determined by the participant. The 3 social conditions were running alone, with a sex- and fitness-matched familiar peer, or with a sex- and fitness-matched unfamiliar peer. A wrist-worn global positioning system was used to record running duration, distance, and average speed. Liking and RPE were assessed at the end of each trial. Mixed model regression analysis showed no significant effects of social condition (p ≥ 0.40) for any of the dependent variables. The presence of a familiar or unfamiliar peer did not alter recreational runners' running behavior, liking, or perceived exertion during submaximal exercise. However, exercising with others may have other benefits (e.g., reduced attrition) not examined herein.

  14. Effect of Peer Influence on Exercise Behavior and Enjoyment in Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Andrew J; Petersen, Jennifer L; Barkley, Jacob E

    2016-02-01

    Fitness professionals and popular media sources often recommend exercising with a partner to increase exercise motivation, adherence, intensity, and/or duration. Although competition with peers has been shown to enhance maximal athletic performance, experimental research examining the impact of peer influence on submaximal exercise behavior in adults is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the presence of familiar and unfamiliar peers, vs. running alone, on recreational runners' voluntary running duration, distance, intensity, liking (i.e., enjoyment), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs). Recreational runners (n = 12 males, n = 12 females) completed 3 experimental trials, each under a different social condition, in a randomized order. Each trial consisted of self-paced running for a duration voluntarily determined by the participant. The 3 social conditions were running alone, with a sex- and fitness-matched familiar peer, or with a sex- and fitness-matched unfamiliar peer. A wrist-worn global positioning system was used to record running duration, distance, and average speed. Liking and RPE were assessed at the end of each trial. Mixed model regression analysis showed no significant effects of social condition (p ≥ 0.40) for any of the dependent variables. The presence of a familiar or unfamiliar peer did not alter recreational runners' running behavior, liking, or perceived exertion during submaximal exercise. However, exercising with others may have other benefits (e.g., reduced attrition) not examined herein. PMID:26813634

  15. Spectral damping scaling factors for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Idriss, I.M.; Campbell, Kenneth; Abrahamson, Norman; Silva, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for elastic response spectra, including the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models, are typically developed at a 5% viscous damping ratio. In reality, however, structural and non-structural systems can have damping ratios other than 5%, depending on various factors such as structural types, construction materials, level of ground motion excitations, among others. This report provides the findings of a comprehensive study to develop a new model for a Damping Scaling Factor (DSF) that can be used to adjust the 5% damped spectral ordinates predicted by a GMPE to spectral ordinates with damping ratios between 0.5 to 30%. Using the updated, 2011 version of the NGA database of ground motions recorded in worldwide shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions (i.e., the NGA-West2 database), dependencies of the DSF on variables including damping ratio, spectral period, moment magnitude, source-to-site distance, duration, and local site conditions are examined. The strong influence of duration is captured by inclusion of both magnitude and distance in the DSF model. Site conditions are found to have less significant influence on DSF and are not included in the model. The proposed model for DSF provides functional forms for the median value and the logarithmic standard deviation of DSF. This model is heteroscedastic, where the variance is a function of the damping ratio. Damping Scaling Factor models are developed for the “average” horizontal ground motion components, i.e., RotD50 and GMRotI50, as well as the vertical component of ground motion.

  16. One-Hundred-km-Scale Basins on Enceladus: Evidence for an Active Ice Shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Stereo-derived topographic mapping of 50% of Enceladus reveals at least 6 large-scale, ovoid depressions (basins) 90-175 km across and 800-to-1500 m deep and uncorrelated with geologic boundaries. Their shape and scale are inconsistent with impact, geoid deflection, or with dynamically supported topography. Isostatic thinning of Enceladus ice shell associated with upwellings (and tidally-driven ice melting) can plausibly account for the basins. Thinning implies upwarping of the base of the shell of 10-20 km beneath the depressions, depending on total shell thickness; loss of near-surface porosity due to enhanced heat flow may also contribute to basin lows. Alternatively, the basins may overly cold, inactive, and hence denser ice, but thermal isostasy alone requires thermal expansion more consistent with clathrate hydrate than water ice. In contrast to the basins, the south polar depression (SPD) is larger (350 wide) and shallower (0.4-to-0.8 km deep) and correlates with the area of tectonic deformation and active resurfacing. The SPD also differs in that the floor is relatively flat (i.e., conforms roughly to the global triaxial shape, or geoid) with broad, gently sloping flanks. The relative flatness across the SPD suggests that it is in or near isostatic equilibrium, and underlain by denser material, supporting the polar sea hypothesis of Collins and Goodman. Near flatness is also predicted by a crustal spreading origin for the "tiger stripes (McKinnon and Barr 2007, Barr 2008); the extraordinary, high CIRS heat flows imply half-spreading rates in excess of 10 cm/yr, a very young surface age (250,000 yr), and a rather thin lithosphere (hence modest thermal topography). Topographic rises in places along the outer margin of the SPD correlate with parallel ridges and deformation along the edge of the resurfaced terrain, consistent with a compressional, imbricate thrust origin for these ridges, driven by the spreading.

  17. Middle School-Aged Child Enjoyment of Food Tastings Predicted Interest in Nutrition Education on Osteoporosis Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Feon W.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background: "NEEDs for Bones" (NFB), based on the Health Belief Model, is a 4-lesson osteoporosis-prevention curriculum for 11- to 14-year-olds. This study examined the relationship between enjoyment of food tastings and interest in NFB. Methods:NFB was administered by teachers as part of standard practice and evaluated after the fourth…

  18. Recall of vegetable eating affects future predicted enjoyment and choice of vegetables in British University undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-10-01

    Predictions about enjoyment of future experiences are influenced by recalling similar past experiences. However, little is known about the relationship between hedonic memories of past eating episodes and future eating behavior. We investigated recall of previous experiences of eating vegetables and the effect of recall on future predicted liking for and consumption of vegetables. British University undergraduate students were asked to retrieve memories of previous occasions when they ate vegetables and were asked to rate how enjoyable those experiences were (Study 1, n=54). The effect of different types of memory recall (including vegetable eating recall) and visualization of someone else eating vegetables (to control for priming effects) on predicted likelihood of choosing vegetables and predicted enjoyment of eating vegetables was examined (Study 2, n=95). Finally, the effect of recalling vegetable eating memories on actual food choice from a buffet was assessed (Study 3, n=63). It is reported that people recall positive memories of past vegetable consumption (P<0.05) and that reminding people of these experiences results in higher predicted future liking for vegetables (P<0.05) and choice of a larger portion size of vegetables (P<0.05) compared with recall of a personal nonfood memory, a nonvegetable food memory, or visualization of someone else enjoying eating vegetables (increase of approximately 70% in vegetable portion size compared to controls). The results suggest that recall of previous eating experiences could be a potential strategy for altering food choices.

  19. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  20. Daily Social Enjoyment Interrupts the Cycle of Same-day and Next-day Fatigue in Women with Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Ellen W.; Davis, Mary C.; Aiken, Leona S.; Tennen, Howard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatigue is a debilitating symptom of fibromyalgia (FM) that has limited treatment options. Some evidence, however, has linked positive social engagement with reduced within-day fatigue. Purpose This study elaborated longitudinal within-day and across-day relations between FM fatigue and social enjoyment. Methods 176 women with FM completed 21-day automated diaries assessing morning and end-of-day fatigue, and both afternoon social enjoyment and stress within two social domains: non-spousal and spousal. Results In the non-spousal domain, analysis supported a mediational path from lower morning fatigue to higher afternoon social enjoyment, which predicted lower end-of-day fatigue, and subsequently, lower next-morning fatigue. Enjoyment exerted a greater impact on within-day fatigue than did stress. Patterns in the spousal domain were similar, but the mediated path was nonsignificant. Conclusions Positive social engagement offers relief from FM fatigue that carries over across days and may provide an additional target to enhance the effectiveness of current interventions. PMID:25380634

  1. Association of Enjoyable Childhood Mealtimes with Adult Eating Behaviors and Subjective Diet-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet Office in…

  2. Large-Scale Activity in the Bastille Day 2000 Solar Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, I. M.; Grechnev, V. V.

    2005-06-01

    We have analyzed dimmings, i.e., regions of temporarily reduced brightness, and manifestations of a coronal wave in the famous event of 14 July 2000 using images produced with the EUV telescope SOHO/EIT. Our analysis was inspired by a paper by Andrews (2001, Solar Phys. 204, 181 (Paper I)), in which this event was studied using running-difference EIT images at 195 Å formed by subtraction of a previous image from each current one. Such images emphasize changes of the brightness, location, and configuration of observed structures occurring during the 12-min interval between two subsequent heliograms. However, they distort the picture of large-scale disturbances caused by a CME, particularly, dimmings. A real picture of dimmings can be obtained from fixed-base difference ‘de-rotated’ images. The latter are formed in two stages: first, the solar rotation is compensated using three-dimensional rotation of all images (‘de-rotation’) to the time of a pre-event heliogram, here 10:00 UT, and then the base heliogram is subtracted from all others. We show real dimmings to be essentially different from those described by Andrews (Paper I). The restructuring of large-scale magnetic fields in the corona in connection with the CME was accompanied by the appearance and growth of two large dimmings. One of them was located along the central meridian, southward of the eruption center, at the place of the pre-eruption arcade. Another dimming occupied the space between the flare region and a remote western active region. Several smaller dimmings were observed virtually over the whole solar disk, especially, within the northwest quadrant. We have also revealed a propagating disturbance with properties of a coronal wave in the northern polar sector, where no dimmings were observed. This fact is discussed in the context of probable association between dimmings and coronal waves. Having suppressed the ‘snowstorm’ produced in the EIT images by energetic particles, we have

  3. Unraveling Kinase Activation Dynamics Using Kinase-Substrate Relationships from Temporal Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Studies.

    PubMed

    Domanova, Westa; Krycer, James; Chaudhuri, Rima; Yang, Pengyi; Vafaee, Fatemeh; Fazakerley, Daniel; Humphrey, Sean; James, David; Kuncic, Zdenka

    2016-01-01

    In response to stimuli, biological processes are tightly controlled by dynamic cellular signaling mechanisms. Reversible protein phosphorylation occurs on rapid time-scales (milliseconds to seconds), making it an ideal carrier of these signals. Advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have led to the identification of many tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites, yet for the majority of these the kinase is unknown and the underlying network topology of signaling networks therefore remains obscured. Identifying kinase substrate relationships (KSRs) is therefore an important goal in cell signaling research. Existing consensus sequence motif based prediction algorithms do not consider the biological context of KSRs, and are therefore insensitive to many other mechanisms guiding kinase-substrate recognition in cellular contexts. Here, we use temporal information to identify biologically relevant KSRs from Large-scale In Vivo Experiments (KSR-LIVE) in a data-dependent and automated fashion. First, we used available phosphorylation databases to construct a repository of existing experimentally-predicted KSRs. For each kinase in this database, we used time-resolved phosphoproteomics data to examine how its substrates changed in phosphorylation over time. Although substrates for a particular kinase clustered together, they often exhibited a different temporal pattern to the phosphorylation of the kinase. Therefore, although phosphorylation regulates kinase activity, our findings imply that substrate phosphorylation likely serve as a better proxy for kinase activity than kinase phosphorylation. KSR-LIVE can thereby infer which kinases are regulated within a biological context. Moreover, KSR-LIVE can also be used to automatically generate positive training sets for the subsequent prediction of novel KSRs using machine learning approaches. We demonstrate that this approach can distinguish between Akt and Rps6kb1, two kinases that share the same linear consensus motif

  4. Unraveling Kinase Activation Dynamics Using Kinase-Substrate Relationships from Temporal Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Rima; Yang, Pengyi; Vafaee, Fatemeh; Fazakerley, Daniel; Humphrey, Sean; James, David; Kuncic, Zdenka

    2016-01-01

    In response to stimuli, biological processes are tightly controlled by dynamic cellular signaling mechanisms. Reversible protein phosphorylation occurs on rapid time-scales (milliseconds to seconds), making it an ideal carrier of these signals. Advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have led to the identification of many tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites, yet for the majority of these the kinase is unknown and the underlying network topology of signaling networks therefore remains obscured. Identifying kinase substrate relationships (KSRs) is therefore an important goal in cell signaling research. Existing consensus sequence motif based prediction algorithms do not consider the biological context of KSRs, and are therefore insensitive to many other mechanisms guiding kinase-substrate recognition in cellular contexts. Here, we use temporal information to identify biologically relevant KSRs from Large-scale In Vivo Experiments (KSR-LIVE) in a data-dependent and automated fashion. First, we used available phosphorylation databases to construct a repository of existing experimentally-predicted KSRs. For each kinase in this database, we used time-resolved phosphoproteomics data to examine how its substrates changed in phosphorylation over time. Although substrates for a particular kinase clustered together, they often exhibited a different temporal pattern to the phosphorylation of the kinase. Therefore, although phosphorylation regulates kinase activity, our findings imply that substrate phosphorylation likely serve as a better proxy for kinase activity than kinase phosphorylation. KSR-LIVE can thereby infer which kinases are regulated within a biological context. Moreover, KSR-LIVE can also be used to automatically generate positive training sets for the subsequent prediction of novel KSRs using machine learning approaches. We demonstrate that this approach can distinguish between Akt and Rps6kb1, two kinases that share the same linear consensus motif

  5. Activity-dependent synaptic GRIP1 accumulation drives synaptic scaling up in response to action potential blockade

    PubMed Central

    Gainey, Melanie A.; Tatavarty, Vedakumar; Nahmani, Marc; Lin, Heather; Turrigiano, Gina G.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic scaling is a form of homeostatic plasticity that stabilizes neuronal firing in response to changes in synapse number and strength. Scaling up in response to action-potential blockade is accomplished through increased synaptic accumulation of GluA2-containing AMPA receptors (AMPAR), but the receptor trafficking steps that drive this process remain largely obscure. Here, we show that the AMPAR-binding protein glutamate receptor-interacting protein-1 (GRIP1) is essential for regulated synaptic AMPAR accumulation during scaling up. Synaptic abundance of GRIP1 was enhanced by activity deprivation, directly increasing synaptic GRIP1 abundance through overexpression increased the amplitude of AMPA miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), and shRNA-mediated GRIP1 knockdown prevented scaling up of AMPA mEPSCs. Furthermore, knockdown and replace experiments targeting either GRIP1 or GluA2 revealed that scaling up requires the interaction between GRIP1 and GluA2. Finally, GRIP1 synaptic accumulation during scaling up did not require GluA2 binding. Taken together, our data support a model in which activity-dependent trafficking of GRIP1 to synaptic sites drives the forward trafficking and enhanced synaptic accumulation of GluA2-containing AMPAR during synaptic scaling up. PMID:26109571

  6. Dpp Signaling Activity Requires Pentagone to Scale with Tissue Size in the Growing Drosophila Wing Imaginal Disc

    PubMed Central

    Pyrowolakis, George; Bergmann, Sven; Affolter, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The wing of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, with its simple, two-dimensional structure, is a model organ well suited for a systems biology approach. The wing arises from an epithelial sac referred to as the wing imaginal disc, which undergoes a phase of massive growth and concomitant patterning during larval stages. The Decapentaplegic (Dpp) morphogen plays a central role in wing formation with its ability to co-coordinately regulate patterning and growth. Here, we asked whether the Dpp signaling activity scales, i.e. expands proportionally, with the growing wing imaginal disc. Using new methods for spatial and temporal quantification of Dpp activity and its scaling properties, we found that the Dpp response scales with the size of the growing tissue. Notably, scaling is not perfect at all positions in the field and the scaling of target gene domains is ensured specifically where they define vein positions. We also found that the target gene domains are not defined at constant concentration thresholds of the downstream Dpp activity gradients P-Mad and Brinker. Most interestingly, Pentagone, an important secreted feedback regulator of the pathway, plays a central role in scaling and acts as an expander of the Dpp gradient during disc growth. PMID:22039350

  7. Dpp signaling activity requires Pentagone to scale with tissue size in the growing Drosophila wing imaginal disc.

    PubMed

    Hamaratoglu, Fisun; de Lachapelle, Aitana Morton; Pyrowolakis, George; Bergmann, Sven; Affolter, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The wing of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, with its simple, two-dimensional structure, is a model organ well suited for a systems biology approach. The wing arises from an epithelial sac referred to as the wing imaginal disc, which undergoes a phase of massive growth and concomitant patterning during larval stages. The Decapentaplegic (Dpp) morphogen plays a central role in wing formation with its ability to co-coordinately regulate patterning and growth. Here, we asked whether the Dpp signaling activity scales, i.e. expands proportionally, with the growing wing imaginal disc. Using new methods for spatial and temporal quantification of Dpp activity and its scaling properties, we found that the Dpp response scales with the size of the growing tissue. Notably, scaling is not perfect at all positions in the field and the scaling of target gene domains is ensured specifically where they define vein positions. We also found that the target gene domains are not defined at constant concentration thresholds of the downstream Dpp activity gradients P-Mad and Brinker. Most interestingly, Pentagone, an important secreted feedback regulator of the pathway, plays a central role in scaling and acts as an expander of the Dpp gradient during disc growth.

  8. Oscillations of solar activity - the main climate-forming factor in millennium scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorozov, S. V.; Budovy, V. I.; Medvedev, V. A.

    Here is advanced and substantiated the hypothesis of existence of the physical mechanism, by means of which alteration of solar activity leads to change of the "greenhouse effect". This hypothetical mechanism can be the following one. The increase of solar activity leads to considerable magnification of ultra-violet radiation in a solar spectrum and to increase of ion concentration in the upper stratums of an atmosphere (including upper troposphere). Accordingly, the rise of condensation kernels concentration (of water vapour) occurs, and, as a result, the transparency decrease of an atmosphere concerning infrared radiation of the Earth takes place. For checkout of the hypothesis the simplified physical-statistical model of energy-balance of atmosphere and hydrosphere is constructed. The modelling of the global temperatures and the temperature in the different regions of the North hemisphere was made. The effective coefficients of the model take into account, in particular, the features of ocean and atmosphere circulation. They were determined with use of step-by-step procedure of correction based on a Monte-Carlo method, under condition of achievement of the greatest correspondence between simulated and actual values of global temperature. The constructed model allows to explain (without attraction of the anthropogenous factor) modern global warming, and also known data about temperature oscillations during second millennium. The comparative analysis of model results with independently reconstructed regional temperatures, including Central England (1000-1659 years), China (1000-1990 years), Gulf of Alaska and Pacific Northwest (1752-1983 years), shows their good enough correspondence which allows to assume, that the solar activity oscillations really can be the main climate-forming factor in millennium scale. Moreover, there had been detected the close correlation between the rate of increase of CO2 concentration and the simulated temperature of the upper layer of

  9. Human activity under high pressure: A case study on fluctuation scaling of air traffic controller's communication behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanjun; Zhang, Qiqian; Zhu, Chenping; Hu, Minghua; Duong, Vu

    2016-01-01

    Recent human dynamics research has unmasked astonishing statistical characteristics such as scaling behaviors in human daily activities. However, less is known about the general mechanism that governs the task-specific activities. In particular, whether scaling law exists in human activities under high pressure remains an open question. In air traffic management system, safety is the most important factor to be concerned by air traffic controllers who always work under high pressure, which provides a unique platform to study human activity. Here we extend fluctuation scaling method to study air traffic controller's communication activity by investigating two empirical communication datasets. Taken the number of controlled flights as the size-like parameter, we show that the relationships between the average communication activity and its standard deviation in both datasets can be well described by Taylor's power law, with scaling exponent α ≈ 0.77 ± 0.01 for the real operational data and α ≈ 0.54 ± 0.01 for the real-time training data. The difference between the exponents suggests that human dynamics under pressure is more likely dominated by the exogenous force. Our findings may lead to further understanding of human behavior.

  10. Sensitivity of predicted scaling and permeability in Enhanced Geothermal Systems to Thermodynamic Data and Activity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingerl, Ferdinand F.; Wagner, Thomas; Kulik, Dmitrii A.; Kosakowski, Georg; Driesner, Thomas; Thomsen, Kaj

    2010-05-01

    A consortium of research groups from ETH Zurich, EPF Lausanne, the Paul Scherrer Institut and the University of Bonn collaborates in a comprehensive program of basic research on key aspects of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGSs). As part of this GEOTHERM project (www.geotherm.ethz.ch), we concentrate on the fundamental investigation of thermodynamic models suitable for describing fluid-rock interactions at geothermal conditions. Predictions of the fluid-rock interaction in EGS still face several major challenges. Slight variations in the input thermodynamic and kinetic parameters may result in significant differences in the predicted mineral solubilities and stable assemblage. Realistic modeling of mineral precipitation in turn has implications onto our understanding of the permeability evolution of the geothermal reservoir, as well as the scaling in technical installations. In order to reasonably model an EGS, thermodynamic databases and activity models must be tailored to geothermal conditions. We therefore implemented in GEMS code the Pitzer formalism, which is the standard model used for computing thermodynamic excess properties of brines at elevated temperatures and pressures. This model, however, depends on a vast amount of interaction parameters, which are to a substantial extend unknown. Furthermore, a high order polynomial temperature interpolation makes extrapolation unreliable if not impossible. As an alternative we additionally implemented the EUNIQUAC activity model. EUNIQUAC requires fewer empirical fit parameters (only binary interaction parameters needed) and uses simpler and more stable temperature and pressure extrapolations. This results in an increase in computation speed, which is of crucial importance when performing coupled long term simulations of geothermal reservoirs. To achieve better performance under geothermal conditions, we are currently partly reformulating EUNIQUAC and refitting the existing parameter set. First results of the

  11. Evidence of cosmic recurrent and lagged millennia-scale patterns and consequent forecasts: multi-scale responses of solar activity (SA) to planetary gravitational forcing (PGF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Sesma, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    Solar activity (SA) oscillations over the past millennia are analyzed and extrapolated based on reconstructed solar-related records. Here, simple recurrent models of SA signal are applied and tested. The consequent results strongly suggest the following: (a) the existence of multi-millennial ( ˜ 9500-year) scale solar patterns linked with planetary gravitational forcing (PGF), and (b) their persistence, over at least the last glacial-interglacial cycle, but possibly since the Miocene (10.5 Myr ago). This empirical modeling of solar recurrent patterns has also provided a consequent multi-millennial-scale experimental forecast, suggesting a solar decreasing trend toward grand (super) minimum conditions for the upcoming period, AD 2050-2250 (AD 3750-4450). Taking into account the importance of these estimated SA scenarios, a comparison is made with other SA forecasts. In Appendixes A and B, we provide further verification, testing and analysis of solar recurrent patterns since geological eras, and their potential gravitational forcing.

  12. Hurricane Activity and the Large-Scale Pattern of Spread of an Invasive Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Ganesh P.; Cronin, James T.

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances are a primary facilitator of the growth and spread of invasive species. However, the effects of large-scale disturbances, such as hurricanes and tropical storms, on the broad geographic patterns of invasive species growth and spread have not been investigated. We used historical aerial imagery to determine the growth rate of invasive Phragmites australis patches in wetlands along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. These were relatively undisturbed wetlands where P. australis had room for unrestricted growth. Over the past several decades, invasive P. australis stands expanded in size by 6–35% per year. Based on tropical storm and hurricane activity over that same time period, we found that the frequency of hurricane-force winds explained 81% of the variation in P. australis growth over this broad geographic range. The expansion of P. australis stands was strongly and positively correlated with hurricane frequency. In light of the many climatic models that predict an increase in the frequency and intensity of hurricanes over the next century, these results suggest a strong link between climate change and species invasion and a challenging future ahead for the management of invasive species. PMID:24878928

  13. Active vibration control of a full scale aircraft wing using a reconfigurable controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Shashikala; Renjith Kumar, T. G.; Raja, S.; Dwarakanathan, D.; Subramani, H.; Karthikeyan, C.

    2016-01-01

    This work highlights the design of a Reconfigurable Active Vibration Control (AVC) System for aircraft structures using adaptive techniques. The AVC system with a multichannel capability is realized using Filtered-X Least Mean Square algorithm (FxLMS) on Xilinx Virtex-4 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in Very High Speed Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language, (VHDL). The HDL design is made based on Finite State Machine (FSM) model with Floating point Intellectual Property (IP) cores for arithmetic operations. The use of FPGA facilitates to modify the system parameters even during runtime depending on the changes in user's requirements. The locations of the control actuators are optimized based on dynamic modal strain approach using genetic algorithm (GA). The developed system has been successfully deployed for the AVC testing of the full-scale wing of an all composite two seater transport aircraft. Several closed loop configurations like single channel and multi-channel control have been tested. The experimental results from the studies presented here are very encouraging. They demonstrate the usefulness of the system's reconfigurability for real time applications.

  14. ACTIVE LONGITUDES REVEALED BY LARGE-SCALE AND LONG-LIVED CORONAL STREAMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing

    2011-07-10

    We use time-series ultraviolet full sun images to construct limb-synoptic maps of the Sun. On these maps, large-scale, long-lived coronal streamers appear as repetitive sinusoid-like arcs projected over the polar regions. They are caused by high altitude plasma produced from sunspot-rich regions at latitudes generally far from the poles. The non-uniform longitudinal distribution of these streamers reveals four longitudinal zones at the surface of the Sun from which sunspots erupt preferentially over the 5 year observing interval (2006 January to 2011 April). Spots in these zones (or clusters) have individual lifetimes short compared to the lifetimes of the coronal features which they sustain, and they erupt at different times. The four sunspot clusters contain >75% of all numbered sunspots in this period. They occupy two distinct longitudinal zones separated by {approx}180{sup 0} and each spanning {approx}100{sup 0} in longitude. The rotation rates of the spot clusters are {approx}5% faster than the rates at both the surface and the bottom of the convection zone. While no convincing theoretical framework exists to interpret the sunspot clusters in the longitude-time space, their persistent and nonuniform distribution indicates long-lived, azimuthal structures beneath the surface, and are compatible with the existence of previously reported active longitudes on the Sun.

  15. PEPFAR support for the scaling up of collaborative TB/HIV activities.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrea A; Gasana, Michel; Getahun, Haileyesus; Harries, Anthony; Lawn, Stephen D; Miller, Bess; Nelson, Lisa; Sitienei, Joseph; Coggin, William L

    2012-08-15

    The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has supported a comprehensive package of care in which interventions to address HIV-related tuberculosis (TB) have received increased funding and support in recent years. PEPFAR's TB/HIV programming is based on the World Health Organization's 12-point policy for collaborative TB/HIV activities, which are integrated into PEPFAR annual guidance. PEPFAR implementing partners have provided crucial support to TB/HIV collaboration, and as a result, PEPFAR-supported countries in sub-Saharan Africa have made significant gains in HIV testing and counseling of TB patients and linkages to HIV care and treatment, intensified TB case finding, and TB infection control. PEPFAR's support of TB/HIV integration has also included significant investment in health systems, including improved laboratory services and educating and enlarging the workforce. The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy along with support of programs to increase HIV counseling and testing and improve linkage and retention in HIV care may have considerable impact on TB morbidity and mortality, if used synergistically with isoniazid preventive therapy, intensified case finding, and infection control. Issues to be addressed by future programming include accelerating implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy, increasing access and ensuring appropriate use of new TB diagnostics, supporting early initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected TB patients, and strengthening systems to monitor and evaluate program implementation.

  16. Nanometer Scale Titanium Surface Texturing Are Detected by Signaling Pathways Involving Transient FAK and Src Activations

    PubMed Central

    Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Bonfante, Estevam A.; Jimbo, Ryo; Hayashi, Mariko; Andersson, Martin; Alves, Gutemberg; Takamori, Esther R.; Beltrão, Paulo J.; Coelho, Paulo G.; Granjeiro, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that physico/chemical alterations on biomaterial surfaces have the capability to modulate cellular behavior, affecting early tissue repair. Such surface modifications are aimed to improve early healing response and, clinically, offer the possibility to shorten the time from implant placement to functional loading. Since FAK and Src are intracellular proteins able to predict the quality of osteoblast adhesion, this study evaluated the osteoblast behavior in response to nanometer scale titanium surface texturing by monitoring FAK and Src phosphorylations. Methodology Four engineered titanium surfaces were used for the study: machined (M), dual acid-etched (DAA), resorbable media microblasted and acid-etched (MBAA), and acid-etch microblasted (AAMB). Surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, interferometry, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thereafter, those 4 samples were used to evaluate their cytotoxicity and interference on FAK and Src phosphorylations. Both Src and FAK were investigated by using specific antibody against specific phosphorylation sites. Principal Findings The results showed that both FAK and Src activations were differently modulated as a function of titanium surfaces physico/chemical configuration and protein adsorption. Conclusions It can be suggested that signaling pathways involving both FAK and Src could provide biomarkers to predict osteoblast adhesion onto different surfaces. PMID:24999733

  17. Measurement Properties of the Low Back Activity Confidence Scale (LoBACS).

    PubMed

    Davenport, Todd E; Cleland, Joshua A; Yamada, Kimiko A; Kulig, Kornelia

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the measurement properties of the Low Back Activity Confidence Scale (LoBACS) in individuals with post-acute low back pain (LBP) receiving nonsurgical intervention, including construct validity, factorial validity, and internal consistency reliability. Data were analyzed from an existing randomized clinical trial involving 112 patients with LBP. Evidence for convergent validity was observed through significant correlations between LoBACS subscale scores and other function, pain, and psychobehavioral measures. LoBACS subscales accounted for 36% of the unique variance in dependent variable measurements, suggesting a satisfactory level of statistical divergence between the LoBACS and other psychobehavioral measurements in this study. Cronbach's α ranged from .88 to .92 for LoBACS subscales, and item-total correlations exceeded .6, indicating high internal consistency reliability. Principal axis factoring confirmed the hypothesized three-subscale structure by correctly classifying 14 of the 15 items. These findings indicate the LoBACS is valid and internally consistent to measure domain-specific self-efficacy beliefs. PMID:24686745

  18. Hurricane activity and the large-scale pattern of spread of an invasive plant species.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Ganesh P; Cronin, James T

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances are a primary facilitator of the growth and spread of invasive species. However, the effects of large-scale disturbances, such as hurricanes and tropical storms, on the broad geographic patterns of invasive species growth and spread have not been investigated. We used historical aerial imagery to determine the growth rate of invasive Phragmites australis patches in wetlands along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. These were relatively undisturbed wetlands where P. australis had room for unrestricted growth. Over the past several decades, invasive P. australis stands expanded in size by 6-35% per year. Based on tropical storm and hurricane activity over that same time period, we found that the frequency of hurricane-force winds explained 81% of the variation in P. australis growth over this broad geographic range. The expansion of P. australis stands was strongly and positively correlated with hurricane frequency. In light of the many climatic models that predict an increase in the frequency and intensity of hurricanes over the next century, these results suggest a strong link between climate change and species invasion and a challenging future ahead for the management of invasive species.

  19. Dynamics of large-scale brain activity in normal arousal states and epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Rennie, C. J.; Rowe, D. L.

    2002-04-01

    Links between electroencephalograms (EEGs) and underlying aspects of neurophysiology and anatomy are poorly understood. Here a nonlinear continuum model of large-scale brain electrical activity is used to analyze arousal states and their stability and nonlinear dynamics for physiologically realistic parameters. A simple ordered arousal sequence in a reduced parameter space is inferred and found to be consistent with experimentally determined parameters of waking states. Instabilities arise at spectral peaks of the major clinically observed EEG rhythms-mainly slow wave, delta, theta, alpha, and sleep spindle-with each instability zone lying near its most common experimental precursor arousal states in the reduced space. Theta, alpha, and spindle instabilities evolve toward low-dimensional nonlinear limit cycles that correspond closely to EEGs of petit mal seizures for theta instability, and grand mal seizures for the other types. Nonlinear stimulus-induced entrainment and seizures are also seen, EEG spectra and potentials evoked by stimuli are reproduced, and numerous other points of experimental agreement are found. Inverse modeling enables physiological parameters underlying observed EEGs to be determined by a new, noninvasive route. This model thus provides a single, powerful framework for quantitative understanding of a wide variety of brain phenomena.

  20. Data concerning the psychometric properties of the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation Scales for the Portuguese population.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Diana; Almeida, Fernando; Pinto, Marta; Segarra, Pilar; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    The behavioral inhibition/behavioral activation (BIS/BAS) scales (Carver & White, 1994), which allow rating the Gray's motivational systems, were translated and adapted into Portuguese. In this study, the authors present the procedure and the psychometric analyses of the Portuguese version of the scales, which included basic item and scales psychometric characteristics, as well as confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. After the psychometric analyses provided evidence for the quality of the Portuguese version of the scales, the normative data was provided by age and school grade. The confirmatory factor analysis of the BIS/BAS scales that the authors performed did not demonstrate satisfactory fit for the 2- or 4-factor solution. The authors also tested the more recent 5-factor model, but the fit indices remained inadequate. As fit indices were not satisfactory they proceeded with an exploratory factor analysis to examine the structure of the Portuguese scales. These psychometric analyses provided evidence of a successful translation of the original scales. Therefore these scales can now be used in future research with Portuguese or Brazilian population.

  1. Beaver Activity, Holocene Climate and Riparian Landscape Change Across Stream Scales in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, R.; Meyer, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Creek. On all GYE streams investigated, beaver have promoted deposition of a large volume of fine-grained organic-rich sediment, but valley-floor aggradation (vertical rise) due to beaver damming is limited to < 2.5 m, the maximum height of beaver dams, except in glacial depressions where filling occurs without damming. Initial beaver-stick deposit ages for CV streams show notable clustering ca. 5200-5000, 3800-3600, and 900-550 cal yr BP, in part consistent with other GYE sites, where ages tend to cluster in colder-wetter intervals. Beaver-stick deposits from 900-550 cal yr BP, however, overlap the drought-prone Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (~1050-650 cal yr BP), a time of major fire-related debris-flow activity in Yellowstone, and minimal beaver-pond sedimentation in smaller GYE streams. The presence of beaver-stick deposits during the MCA may indicate the importance of larger streams like Odell and Red Rock Creeks in maintaining riparian zones and beaver refugia in drought-prone episodes, a critical concern with current and future warming. Overall, the long-term perspective on beaver occupancy in the GYE across a variety of stream scales provides insight into the effects of climate on ecologically critical riparian zones.

  2. Evidence and AIDS activism: HIV scale-up and the contemporary politics of knowledge in global public health

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic is widely recognised as having prompted one of the most remarkable intersections ever of illness, science and activism. The production, circulation, use and evaluation of empirical scientific ‘evidence’ played a central part in activists’ engagement with AIDS science. Previous activist engagement with evidence focused on the social and biomedical responses to HIV in the global North as well as challenges around ensuring antiretroviral treatment (ART) was available in the global South. More recently, however, with the roll-out and scale-up of large public-sector ART programmes and new multi-dimensional prevention efforts, the relationships between evidence and activism have been changing. Scale-up of these large-scale treatment and prevention programmes represents an exciting new opportunity while bringing with it a host of new challenges. This paper examines what new forms of evidence and activism will be required to address the challenges of the scaling-up era of HIV treatment and prevention. It reviews some recent controversies around evidence and HIV scale-up and describes the different forms of evidence and activist strategies that will be necessary for a robust response to these new challenges. PMID:24498918

  3. Pubertal development, physical self-perception, and motivation toward physical activity in girls.

    PubMed

    Labbrozzi, Dina; Robazza, Claudio; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bucci, Ines; Bortoli, Laura

    2013-08-01

    We examined the differences in physical self-perception and motivation toward physical activity in early- and mid-adolescent girls. Body Mass Index (BMI) and pubertal status, assessed by means of the Tanner scale, were collected in 11-year-old (n=74) and 13-year-old girls (n=60). The assessment included six scales from the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale, and the Situational Intrinsic Motivation Scale. Age differences emerged, with older girls showing a poorer physical perception and lower scores in intrinsic motivation and enjoyment of physical activity. In the subsample of 11-year-olds, findings showed that more developed girls reported a poorer physical perception on the scales of body fat, global physical self-concept, and appearance, and a lower score in the PACES positive scale. Results underscore the need to promote interventions aimed at encouraging active lifestyles among children and adolescent girls, in order to prevent overweight prior to pubertal onset.

  4. Can the activities of the large scale cortical network be expressed by neural energy? A brief review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rubin; Zhu, Yating

    2016-02-01

    This paper mainly discusses and summarize that the changes of biological energy in the brain can be expressed by the biophysical energy we constructed. Different from the electrochemical energy, the biophysical energy proposed in the paper not only can be used to simulate the activity of neurons but also be used to simulate the neural activity of large scale cortical networks, so that the scientific nature of the neural energy coding was discussed.

  5. Numerical simulations of active region scale flux emergence: From spot formation to decay

    SciTech Connect

    Rempel, M.; Cheung, M. C. M.

    2014-04-20

    We present numerical simulations of active region scale flux emergence covering a time span of up to 6 days. Flux emergence is driven by a bottom boundary condition that advects a semi-torus of magnetic field with 1.7 × 10{sup 22} Mx flux into the computational domain. The simulations show that, even in the absence of twist, the magnetic flux is able the rise through the upper 15.5 Mm of the convection zone and emerge into the photosphere to form spots. We find that spot formation is sensitive to the persistence of upflows at the bottom boundary footpoints, i.e., a continuing upflow would prevent spot formation. In addition, the presence of a torus-aligned flow (such flow into the retrograde direction is expected from angular momentum conservation during the rise of flux ropes through the convection zone) leads to a significant asymmetry between the pair of spots, with the spot corresponding to the leading spot on the Sun being more axisymmetric and coherent, but also forming with a delay relative to the following spot. The spot formation phase transitions directly into a decay phase. Subsurface flows fragment the magnetic field and lead to intrusions of almost field free plasma underneath the photosphere. When such intrusions reach photospheric layers, the spot fragments. The timescale for spot decay is comparable to the longest convective timescales present in the simulation domain. We find that the dispersal of flux from a simulated spot in the first two days of the decay phase is consistent with self-similar decay by turbulent diffusion.

  6. Numerical Simulations of Active Region Scale Flux Emergence: From Spot Formation to Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, M.; Cheung, M. C. M.

    2014-04-01

    We present numerical simulations of active region scale flux emergence covering a time span of up to 6 days. Flux emergence is driven by a bottom boundary condition that advects a semi-torus of magnetic field with 1.7 × 1022 Mx flux into the computational domain. The simulations show that, even in the absence of twist, the magnetic flux is able the rise through the upper 15.5 Mm of the convection zone and emerge into the photosphere to form spots. We find that spot formation is sensitive to the persistence of upflows at the bottom boundary footpoints, i.e., a continuing upflow would prevent spot formation. In addition, the presence of a torus-aligned flow (such flow into the retrograde direction is expected from angular momentum conservation during the rise of flux ropes through the convection zone) leads to a significant asymmetry between the pair of spots, with the spot corresponding to the leading spot on the Sun being more axisymmetric and coherent, but also forming with a delay relative to the following spot. The spot formation phase transitions directly into a decay phase. Subsurface flows fragment the magnetic field and lead to intrusions of almost field free plasma underneath the photosphere. When such intrusions reach photospheric layers, the spot fragments. The timescale for spot decay is comparable to the longest convective timescales present in the simulation domain. We find that the dispersal of flux from a simulated spot in the first two days of the decay phase is consistent with self-similar decay by turbulent diffusion.

  7. Shelf-Scale Mapping of Fish Distribution Using Active and Passive Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Carrie C.

    Fish sound production has been associated with courtship and spawning behavior. Acoustic recordings of fish sounds can be used to identify distribution and behavior. Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) can record large amounts of acoustic data in a specific area for days to years. These data can be collected in remote locations under potentially unsafe seas throughout a 24-hour period providing datasets unattainable using observer-based methods. However, the instruments must withstand the caustic ocean environment and be retrieved to obtain the recorded data. This can prove difficult due to the risk of PAMs being lost, stolen or damaged, especially in highly active areas. In addition, point-source sound recordings are only one aspect of fish biogeography. Passive acoustic platforms that produce low self-generated noise, have high retrieval rates, and are equipped with a suite of environmental sensors are needed to relate patterns in fish sound production to concurrently collected oceanographic conditions on large, synoptic scales. The association of sound with reproduction further invokes the need for such non-invasive, near-real time datasets that can be used to enhance current management methods limited by survey bias, inaccurate fisher reports, and extensive delays between fisheries data collection and population assessment. Red grouper (Epinephelus morio) exhibit the distinctive behavior of digging holes and producing a unique sound during courtship. These behaviors can be used to identify red grouper distribution and potential spawning habitat over large spatial scales. The goal of this research was to provide a greater understanding of the temporal and spatial distribution of red grouper sound production and holes on the central West Florida Shelf (WFS) using active sonar and passive acoustic recorders. The technology demonstrated here establishes the necessary methods to map shelf-scale fish sound production. The results of this work could aid resource

  8. Rasch Calibration of Physical Activity Self-Efficacy and Social Support Scale for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Miyoung; Peterson, Jana J.; Dixon, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support for Activity for persons with Intellectual Disability (SE/SS-AID) scales developed by Peterson, Peterson, Lowe, & Nothwehr (2009). A total of 146 participants with intellectual disabilities completed 6 self-efficacy (SE) items and 18 social…

  9. A multi-scale model of the oxygen reduction reaction on highly active graphene nanosheets in alkaline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez-Arenas, Jorge; Ramos-Sanchez, Guadalupe; Franco, Alejandro A.

    2016-10-01

    A multi-scale model based on a mean field approach, is proposed to describe the ORR mechanism on N-GN catalysts in alkaline media. The model implements activation energies calculated with Density Functional Theory (DFT) at the atomistic level, and scales up them into a continuum framework describing the cathode/electrolyte interface at the mesoscale level. The model also considers mass and momentum transports arising in the region next to the rotating electrode for all ionic species and O2; correction of potential drop and electrochemical double-layer capacitance. Most fitted parameters describing the kinetics of ORR elementary reactions are sensitive in the multi-scale model, which results from the incorporation of activation energies using the mean field method, unlike single-scale modelling Errors in the deviations from activation energies are found to be moderate, except for the elementary step (2) related to the formation of O2ads, which can be assigned to the inherent DFT limitations. The consumption of O2ads to form OOHads is determined as the rate-determining step as a result of its highest energy barrier (163.10 kJ mol-1) in the system, the largest error obtained for the deviation from activation energy (28.15%), and high sensitivity. This finding is confirmed with the calculated surface concentration and coverage of electroactive species.

  10. County-Scale Spatial Distribution of Soil Enzyme Activities and Enzyme Activity Indices in Agricultural Land: Implications for Soil Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Baoni; Wang, Junxing; He, Wenxiang; Wang, Xudong; Wei, Gehong

    2014-01-01

    Here the spatial distribution of soil enzymatic properties in agricultural land was evaluated on a county-wide (567 km2) scale in Changwu, Shaanxi Province, China. The spatial variations in activities of five hydrolytic enzymes were examined using geostatistical methods. The relationships between soil enzyme activities and other soil properties were evaluated using both an integrated total enzyme activity index (TEI) and the geometric mean of enzyme activities (GME). At the county scale, soil invertase, phosphatase, and catalase activities were moderately spatially correlated, whereas urease and dehydrogenase activities were weakly spatially correlated. Correlation analysis showed that both TEI and GME were better correlated with selected soil physicochemical properties than single enzyme activities. Multivariate regression analysis showed that soil OM content had the strongest positive effect while soil pH had a negative effect on the two enzyme activity indices. In addition, total phosphorous content had a positive effect on TEI and GME in orchard soils, whereas alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available potassium contents, respectively, had negative and positive effects on these two enzyme indices in cropland soils. The results indicate that land use changes strongly affect soil enzyme activities in agricultural land, where TEI provides a sensitive biological indicator for soil quality. PMID:25610908

  11. County-scale spatial distribution of soil enzyme activities and enzyme activity indices in agricultural land: implications for soil quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiangping; Xie, Baoni; Wang, Junxing; He, Wenxiang; Wang, Xudong; Wei, Gehong

    2014-01-01

    Here the spatial distribution of soil enzymatic properties in agricultural land was evaluated on a county-wide (567 km(2)) scale in Changwu, Shaanxi Province, China. The spatial variations in activities of five hydrolytic enzymes were examined using geostatistical methods. The relationships between soil enzyme activities and other soil properties were evaluated using both an integrated total enzyme activity index (TEI) and the geometric mean of enzyme activities (GME). At the county scale, soil invertase, phosphatase, and catalase activities were moderately spatially correlated, whereas urease and dehydrogenase activities were weakly spatially correlated. Correlation analysis showed that both TEI and GME were better correlated with selected soil physicochemical properties than single enzyme activities. Multivariate regression analysis showed that soil OM content had the strongest positive effect while soil pH had a negative effect on the two enzyme activity indices. In addition, total phosphorous content had a positive effect on TEI and GME in orchard soils, whereas alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available potassium contents, respectively, had negative and positive effects on these two enzyme indices in cropland soils. The results indicate that land use changes strongly affect soil enzyme activities in agricultural land, where TEI provides a sensitive biological indicator for soil quality. PMID:25610908

  12. Factorial Validity of the Aiken-Dreger Mathematics Attitude Scale for Urban School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adwere-Boamah, Joseph; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The revised 20-item Aiken-Dreger Mathematics Attitude Scale was administered to 2538 urban minority students in grades 8 to 10. Results supported the existence of two underlying factors, enjoyment and fear. (GDC)

  13. Pediatric Online Evidence-Based Medicine Assignment Is a Novel Effective Enjoyable Undergraduate Medical Teaching Tool

    PubMed Central

    Kotb, Magd A.; Elmahdy, Hesham Nabeh; Khalifa, Nour El Deen Mahmoud; El-Deen, Mohamed Hamed Nasr; Lotfi, Mohamed Amr N.

    2015-01-01

    , of them 898 (81.48%) found e-educational experience satisfactory, 175 (15.88%) disagreed, and 29 (2.6%) could not decide. A total of 964 (87.47%) found single assignment educational, 913 (82.84%) found group assignment educational, and 794 (72.3%) enjoyed it. Web-based online interactive undergraduate EBM assignment was found effective in teaching medical students and assured individual student acquisition of concepts and skills of pediatric EMB. It was effective in mass education, data collection, and storage essential for system and student assessment. PMID:26200621

  14. Upscaling Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Experimental Study of Scaling Relationships for Smouldering Combustion to Remediate Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsman, L.; Gerhard, J.; Torero, J.; Scholes, G.; Murray, C.

    2013-12-01

    Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) is a relatively new remediation approach for soil contaminated with organic industrial liquids. This technology uses smouldering combustion, a controlled, self-sustaining burning reaction, to destroy nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and thereby render soil clean. While STAR has been proven at the bench scale, success at industrial scales requires the process to be scaled-up significantly. The objective of this study was to conduct an experimental investigation into how liquid smouldering combustion phenomena scale. A suite of detailed forward smouldering experiments were conducted in short (16 cm dia. x 22 cm high), intermediate (16 cm dia. x 127 cm high), and large (97 cm dia. x 300 cm high; a prototype ex-situ reactor) columns; this represents scaling of up to 530 times based on the volume treated. A range of fuels were investigated, with the majority of experiments conducted using crude oil sludge as well as canola oil as a non-toxic surrogate for hazardous contaminants. To provide directly comparable data sets and to isolate changes in the smouldering reaction which occurred solely due to scaling effects, sand grain size, contaminant type, contaminant concentration and air injection rates were controlled between the experimental scales. Several processes could not be controlled and were identified to be susceptible to changes in scale, including: mobility of the contaminant, heat losses, and buoyant flow effects. For each experiment, the propagation of the smouldering front was recorded using thermocouples and analyzed by way of temperature-time and temperature-distance plots. In combination with the measurement of continuous mass loss and gaseous emissions, these results were used to evaluate the fundamental differences in the way the reaction front propagates through the mixture of sand and fuel across the various scales. Key governing parameters were compared between the small, intermediate, and large

  15. The effects of temperature and activity on intraspecific scaling of metabolic rates in a lungless salamander.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Matthew E; Clay, Timothy A; Peterman, William E

    2013-04-01

    The scaling of metabolic rate with body mass holds substantial predictive power as many biological processes depend on energy. A significant body of theory has been developed based on the assumption that metabolic rate scales with body mass as a power function with an exponent of 0.75, and that this scaling relationship is independent of temperature. Here we test this hypothesis at the intraspecific level in a lungless salamander using data on both standard and maximal metabolic rates (SMR and MMR, respectively). We also address a recently proposed alternative explanation that predicts systematic variation in this mass-scaling exponent, the metabolic level boundaries hypothesis (MLB). Consistent with predictions of the metabolic theory of ecology the mass scaling of SMR and MMR were independent of temperature, however, we find evidence that the mass-scaling exponent for SMR and MMR differ significantly from 0.75. Further, our data do not provide strong support for MLB. Mass-scaling exponents for MMR generally exceed those for SMR, although these differences are rarely statistically significant.

  16. WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E; Timothy Jones, T; Tommy Edwards, T; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-03-20

    The primary objective of this task was to perform a variability study of the high activity waste (HAW) acidic feed to determine the impact of feed variability on the quality of the final grout and on the mixability of the salt solution into the dry powders. The HAW acidic feeds were processed through the neutralization/pH process, targeting a final pH of 12. These fluids were then blended with the dry materials to make the final waste forms. A secondary objective was to determine if elemental substitution for cost prohibitive or toxic elements in the simulant affects the mixing response, thus providing a more economical simulant for use in full scale tests. Though not an objective, the HAW simulant used in the full scale tests was also tested and compared to the results from this task. A statistically designed test matrix was developed based on the maximum molarity inputs used to make the acidic solutions. The maximum molarity inputs were: 7.39 HNO{sub 3}, 0.11618 gallium, 0.5423 silver, and 1.1032 'other' metals based on their NO{sub 3}{sup -} contribution. Substitution of the elements aluminum for gallium and copper for silver was also considered in this test matrix, resulting in a total of 40 tests. During the NaOH addition, the neutralization/pH adjustment process was controlled to a maximum temperature of 60 C. The neutralized/pH adjusted simulants were blended with Portland cement and zircon flour at a water to cement mass ratio of 0.30. The mass ratio of zircon flour to Portland cement was 1/12. The grout was made using a Hobart N-50 mixer running at low speed for two minutes to incorporate and properly wet the dry solids with liquid and at medium speed for five minutes for mixing. The resulting fresh grout was measured for three consecutive yield stress measurements. The cured grout was measured for set, bleed, and density. Given the conditions of preparing the grout in this task, all of the grouts were visually well mixed prior to preparing the grouts for

  17. Excellence in Physics Education Award: SCALE-UP, Student Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichner, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies (SCALE-UP) Project combines curricula and a specially-designed instructional space to enhance learning. SCALE-UP students practice communication and teamwork skills while performing activities that enhance their conceptual understanding and problem solving skills. This can be done with small or large classes and has been implemented at more than 250 institutions. Educational research indicates that students should collaborate on interesting tasks and be deeply involved with the material they are studying. SCALE-UP classtime is spent primarily on ``tangibles'' and ``ponderables''--hands-on measurements/observations and interesting questions. There are also computer simulations (called ``visibles'') and hypothesis-driven labs. Students sit at tables designed to facilitate group interactions. Instructors circulate and engage in Socratic dialogues. The setting looks like a banquet hall, with lively interactions nearly all the time. Impressive learning gains have been measured at institutions across the US and internationally. This talk describes today's students, how lecturing got started, what happens in a SCALE-UP classroom, and how the approach has spread. The SCALE-UP project has greatly benefitted from numerous Grants made by NSF and FIPSE to NCSU and other institutions.

  18. Scaling up of physical activity interventions in Brazil: how partnerships and research evidence contributed to policy action.

    PubMed

    Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Hallal, Pedro C; Reis, Rodrigo S; Simoes, Eduardo J; Malta, Deborah C; Pratt, Michael; Brownson, Ross C

    2013-12-01

    The global health burden due to physical inactivity is enormous and growing. There is a need to consider new ways of generating evidence and to identify the role of government in promoting physical activity at the population level. In this paper, we summarize key findings from a large-scale cross-national collaboration to understand physical activity promotion in Brazil. We describe the main aspects of the partnership of Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) that sustained the collaborative effort for eight years and describe how the evidence gathered from the collaboration triggered political action in Brazil to scale up a physical activity intervention at the national level. Project GUIA is a cross-national multidisciplinary research partnership designed to understand and evaluate current efforts for physical activity promotion at the community level in Latin America. This example of scaling up is unprecedented for promoting health in the region and is an example that must be followed and evaluated.

  19. Scaling up of physical activity interventions in Brazil: how partnerships and research evidence contributed to policy action

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Simoes, Eduardo J.; Malta, Deborah C.; Pratt, Michael; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    The global health burden due to physical inactivity is enormous and growing. There is a need to consider new ways of generating evidence and to identify the role of government in promoting physical activity at the population level. In this paper, we summarize key findings from a large-scale cross-national collaboration to understand physical activity promotion in Brazil. We describe the main aspects of the partnership of Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) that sustained the collaborative effort for eight years and describe how the evidence gathered from the collaboration triggered political action in Brazil to scale up a physical activity intervention at the national level. Project GUIA is a cross-national multidisciplinary research partnership designed to understand and evaluate current efforts for physical activity promotion at the community level in Latin America. This example of scaling up is unprecedented for promoting health in the region and is an example that must be followed and evaluated. PMID:24323944

  20. Mid-Holocene cluster of large-scale landslides revealed in the Southwestern Alps by 36Cl dating. Insight on an Alpine-scale landslide activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerathe, Swann; Lebourg, Thomas; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Although it is generally assumed that the internal structure of a slope (e.g. lithology and rock mass properties, inherited faults and heterogeneities, etc.) is preponderant for the progressive development of large-scale landslides, the ability to identify triggering factors responsible for final slope failures such as glacial debuttressing, seismic activities or climatic changes, especially when considering landslide cluster at an orogen-scale, is still debated. Highlighting in this study the spatial and temporal concordant clustering of deep-seated slope failures in the external Southwestern Alps, we discuss and review the possible causes for such wide-spread slope instabilities at both local and larger (Alpine) scale. High resolution field mapping coupled with electrical resistivity tomography first allows establishing an inventory of large landslides in the Southwestern Alps, determining their structural model, precising their depth limit (100-200 m) as well as the involved rock volumes (>107 m3). We show that they developed in the same geostructural context of thick mudstone layers overlain by faulted limestone and followed a block-spread model of deformation that could evolve in rock-collapse events. Cosmic ray exposure dating (CRE), using both 36Cl and 10Be in coexisting limestone and chert, respectively, has been carried out from the main scarps of six Deep Seated Landslides (DSL) and leads to landslide-failure CRE ages ranging from 3.7 to 4.7 ka. They highlighted: (i) mainly single and fast ruptures and (ii) a possible concomitant initiation with a main peak of activity between 3.3 and 5.1 ka, centered at ca 4.2 ka. Because this region was not affected by historical glaciations events, landslide triggering by glacial unloading can be excluded. The presented data combined with field observations preferentially suggest that these failures were climatically driven and were most likely controlled by high pressure changes in the karstic medium. In effect, the

  1. Effect of vibration on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities: Analysis of bone metabolism using goldfish scale as a model for bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, N.; Kitamura, K.; Nemoto, T.; Shimizu, N.; Wada, S.; Kondo, T.; Tabata, M. J.; Sodeyama, F.; Ijiri, K.; Hattori, A.

    In osteoclastic activity during space flight as well as hind limb unloading by tail suspension, inconsistent results have been reported in an in vivo study. The bone matrix plays an important role in the response to physical stress. However, there is no suitable in vitro co-culture system of osteoblasts and osteoclasts including bone matrix. On the other hand, fish scale is a calcified tissue that contains osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and bone matrix, all of which are similar to those found in human bones. Recently, we developed a new in vitro model system using goldfish scale. This system can detect the activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase as the respective markers and precisely analyze the co-relationship between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Using this system, we analyzed the bone metabolism under various degrees of acceleration (0.5-, 1-, 2-, 4-, and 6-G) by vibration with a G-load apparatus. After loading for 5 and 10 min, the scales were incubated for 6 and 24 h. The osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities were then measured. The osteoblastic activities gradually increased corresponding to 1-G to 6-G acceleration. In addition, ER mRNA expression was the highest under 6-G acceleration. On the other hand, the osteoclastic activity decreased at 24 h of incubation under low acceleration (0.5- and 1-G). This change coincided with TRAP mRNA expression. Under 2-G acceleration, the strength of suppression in osteoclastic activity was the highest. The strength of the inhibitory action under 4- and 6-G acceleration was lower than that under 2-G acceleration. In our co-culture system, osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the scale sensitively responded to several degrees of acceleration. Therefore, we strongly believe that our in vitro co-culture system is useful for the analysis of bone metabolism under loading or unloading.

  2. Transient flows of the solar wind associated with small-scale solar activity in solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Veselovsky, Igor; Kuzin, Sergey; Gburek, Szymon; Ulyanov, Artyom; Kirichenko, Alexey; Shugay, Yulia; Goryaev, Farid

    The data obtained by the modern high sensitive EUV-XUV telescopes and photometers such as CORONAS-Photon/TESIS and SPHINX, STEREO/EUVI, PROBA2/SWAP, SDO/AIA provide good possibilities for studying small-scale solar activity (SSA), which is supposed to play an important role in heating of the corona and producing transient flows of the solar wind. During the recent unusually weak solar minimum, a large number of SSA events, such as week solar flares, small CMEs and CME-like flows were observed and recorded in the databases of flares (STEREO, SWAP, SPHINX) and CMEs (LASCO, CACTUS). On the other hand, the solar wind data obtained in this period by ACE, Wind, STEREO contain signatures of transient ICME-like structures which have shorter duration (<10h), weaker magnetic field strength (<10 nT) and lower proton temperature than usual ICMEs. To verify the assumption that ICME-like transients may be associated with the SSA events we investigated the number of weak flares of C-class and lower detected by SPHINX in 2009 and STEREO/EUVI in 2010. The flares were classified on temperature and emission measure using the diagnostic means of SPHINX and Hinode/EIS and were confronted with the parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density, ion composition and temperature, magnetic field, pitch angle distribution of the suprathermal electrons). The outflows of plasma associated with the flares were identified by their coronal signatures - CMEs (only in few cases) and dimmings. It was found that the mean parameters of the solar wind projected to the source surface for the times of the studied flares were typical for the ICME-like transients. The results support the suggestion that weak flares can be indicators of sources of transient plasma flows contributing to the slow solar wind at solar minimum, although these flows may be too weak to be considered as separate CMEs and ICMEs. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme

  3. Disc Golf: Teaching a Lifetime Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastham, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Disc golf is a lifetime activity that can be enjoyed by students of varying skill levels and abilities. Disc golf follows the principles of ball golf but is generally easier for students to play and enjoy success. The object of disc golf is similar to ball golf and involves throwing a disc from the teeing area to the target in as few throws as…

  4. Seawater Polluted with Highly Concentrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Suppresses Osteoblastic Activity in the Scales of Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Sato, Masayuki; Nassar, Hossam F; Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Bassem, Samah M; Yachiguchi, Koji; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Endo, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Urata, Makoto; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Youhei; Oshima, Yuji; Hong, Chun-Sang; Makino, Fumiya; Tang, Ning; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2016-08-01

    We have developed an original in vitro bioassay using teleost scale, that has osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix as each marker: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for osteoclasts. Using this scale in vitro bioassay, we examined the effects of seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in the present study. Polluted seawater was collected from two sites (the Alexandria site on the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal site on the Red Sea). Total levels of PAHs in the seawater from the Alexandria and Suez Canal sites were 1364.59 and 992.56 ng/l, respectively. We were able to detect NPAHs in both seawater samples. Total levels of NPAHs were detected in the seawater of the Alexandria site (12.749 ng/l) and the Suez Canal site (3.914 ng/l). Each sample of polluted seawater was added to culture medium at dilution rates of 50, 100, and 500, and incubated with the goldfish scales for 6 hrs. Thereafter, ALP and TRAP activities were measured. ALP activity was significantly suppressed by both polluted seawater samples diluted at least 500 times, but TRAP activity did not change. In addition, mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers (ALP, osteocalcin, and the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand) decreased significantly, as did the ALP enzyme activity. In fact, ALP activity decreased on treatment with PAHs and NPAHs. We conclude that seawater polluted with highly concentrated PAHs and NPAHs influences bone metabolism in teleosts. PMID:27498800

  5. THE CLIMATE-AIR QUALITY SCALE CONTINUUM AND THE GLOBAL EMISSION INVENTORY ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA), a core program activity of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, develops data and other related information on key chemical emissions to the atmosphere and...

  6. Determination of factor X activator in the venom of the saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus).

    PubMed

    Stocker, K; Fischer, H; Brogli, M

    1986-01-01

    Factor X activator in Echis carinatus venom was determined by incubating the zymogen 'factor X' with venom, interrupting the activation process by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and measuring the generated proteinase 'factor Xa' by means of a synthetic chromogenic substrate. A comparison of factor X- and prothrombin-activating potencies in E. carinatus venoms of five different geographic origins revealed no correlation between these two procoagulant activities. PMID:3715901

  7. Updated activated sludge model number 1 parameter values for improved prediction of nitrogen removal in activated sludge processes: validation at 13 full-scale plants.

    PubMed

    Choubert, Jean-Marc; Stricker, Anne-Emmanuelle; Marquot, Aurélien; Racault, Yvan; Gillot, Sylvie; Héduit, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model number 1 (ASM1) is the main model used in simulation projects focusing on nitrogen removal. Recent laboratory-scale studies have found that the default values given 20 years ago for the decay rate of nitrifiers and for the heterotrophic biomass yield in anoxic conditions were inadequate. To verify the relevance of the revised parameter values at full scale, a series of simulations were carried out with ASM1 using the original and updated set of parameters at 20 degrees C and 10 degrees C. The simulation results were compared with data collected at 13 full-scale nitrifying-denitrifying municipal treatment plants. This work shows that simulations using the original ASM1 default parameters tend to overpredict the nitrification rate and underpredict the denitrification rate. The updated set of parameters allows more realistic predictions over a wide range of operating conditions. PMID:19860142

  8. 15 years of zooming in and zooming out: Developing a new single scale national active fault database of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, William; Langridge, Robert; Villamor, Pilar; Litchfield, Nicola; Van Dissen, Russ; Townsend, Dougal; Lee, Julie; Heron, David; Lukovic, Biljana

    2014-05-01

    In New Zealand, we are currently reconciling multiple digital coverages of mapped active faults into a national coverage at a single scale (1:250,000). This seems at first glance to be a relatively simple task. However, methods used to capture data, the scale of capture, and the initial purpose of the fault mapping, has produced datasets that have very different characteristics. The New Zealand digital active fault database (AFDB) was initially developed as a way of managing active fault locations and fault-related features within a computer-based spatial framework. The data contained within the AFDB comes from a wide range of studies, from plate tectonic (1:500,000) to cadastral (1:2,000) scale. The database was designed to allow capture of field observations and remotely sourced data without a loss in data resolution. This approach has worked well as a method for compiling a centralised database for fault information but not for providing a complete national coverage at a single scale. During the last 15 years other complementary projects have used and also contributed data to the AFDB, most notably the QMAP project (a national series of geological maps completed over 19 years that include coverage of active and inactive faults at 1:250,000). AFDB linework and attributes was incorporated into this series but simplification of linework and attributes has occurred to maintain map clarity at 1:250,000 scale. Also, during this period on-going mapping of active faults has improved upon these data. Other projects of note that have used data from the AFDB include the National Seismic Hazard Model of New Zealand and the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The main goal of the current project has been to provide the best digital spatial representation of a fault trace at 1:250,000 scale and combine this with the most up to date attributes. In some areas this has required a simplification of very fine detailed data and in some cases new mapping to provide a complete coverage

  9. Towards improved quantification of vegetation photosynthetic activity at global scale: the FLuorescence EXplorer (FLEX) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Jose

    2014-05-01

    The fluorescence signal, originated from the core complexes of the photosynthetic machinery, is a sensitive indicator of the actual photosynthesis in both healthy and physiologically stressed vegetation, which can be used as a powerful non-invasive marker to track the status, resilience, and recovery of photochemical processes. This is of particular interest for the improvements in the predictive capability of global carbon cycle models through new parameterizations for canopy photosynthesis and the corresponding exchange processes of energy, water and carbon between the surface and the atmosphere. The shape of the fluorescence emission spectrum consists of two peaks having broad bands with maxima around 685 nm and 740 nm. The variations in amplitude and shape of the emission reflect the efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport. The integral of the overall fluorescence emission provides information about actual photosynthetic light conversion. The shape of the emission spectrum provides additional information about the vegetation health status. While most of the information that has been acquired by remote sensing of the Earth's surface about vegetation conditions and photosynthetic activity has come from "reflected" light in the solar domain, the ESA's Earth Explorer candidate FLEX (Fluorescence EXplorer) mission is the first space mission focused on the estimation of fluorescence emission by terrestrial vegetation on a global scale with high spatial resolution and resolving the spectral shape of fluorescence emission. The FLEX mission also includes explicit measurement of photochemical changes in reflectance (i.e., PRI), canopy temperature measurements and all the relevant variables (chlorophyll content, Leaf Area Index, etc.) needed to asses the actual physiological status of vegetation and to provide quantitative estimates of photosynthetic rates and gross primary production. FLEX is one of two candidate Earth Explorer-8 missions currently under Phase A

  10. MOJAVE. X. PARSEC-SCALE JET ORIENTATION VARIATIONS AND SUPERLUMINAL MOTION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, M. L.; Richards, J. L.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Homan, D. C.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kovalev, Y. Y.

    2013-11-01

    We describe the parsec-scale kinematics of 200 active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets based on 15 GHz Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) data obtained between 1994 August 31 and 2011 May 1. We present new VLBA 15 GHz images of these and 59 additional AGNs from the MOJAVE and 2 cm Survey programs. Nearly all of the 60 most heavily observed jets show significant changes in their innermost position angle over a 12-16 yr interval, ranging from 10° to 150° on the sky, corresponding to intrinsic variations of ∼0.°5 to ∼2°. The BL Lac jets show smaller variations than quasars. Roughly half of the heavily observed jets show systematic position angle trends with time, and 20 show indications of oscillatory behavior. The time spans of the data sets are too short compared to the fitted periods (5-12 yr), however, to reliably establish periodicity. The rapid changes and large jumps in position angle seen in many cases suggest that the superluminal AGN jet features occupy only a portion of the entire jet cross section and may be energized portions of thin instability structures within the jet. We have derived vector proper motions for 887 moving features in 200 jets having at least five VLBA epochs. For 557 well-sampled features, there are sufficient data to additionally study possible accelerations. We find that the moving features are generally non-ballistic, with 70% of the well-sampled features showing either significant accelerations or non-radial motions. Inward motions are rare (2% of all features), are slow (<0.1 mas yr{sup –1}), are more prevalent in BL Lac jets, and are typically found within 1 mas of the unresolved core feature. There is a general trend of increasing apparent speed with distance down the jet for both radio galaxies and BL Lac objects. In most jets, the speeds of the features cluster around a characteristic value, yet there is a considerable dispersion in the distribution. Orientation variations within the jet cannot fully account for the

  11. MOJAVE. X. Parsec-scale Jet Orientation Variations and Superluminal Motion in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, M. L.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Homan, D. C.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Richards, J. L.; Ros, E.; Savolainen, T.

    2013-11-01

    We describe the parsec-scale kinematics of 200 active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets based on 15 GHz Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) data obtained between 1994 August 31 and 2011 May 1. We present new VLBA 15 GHz images of these and 59 additional AGNs from the MOJAVE and 2 cm Survey programs. Nearly all of the 60 most heavily observed jets show significant changes in their innermost position angle over a 12-16 yr interval, ranging from 10° to 150° on the sky, corresponding to intrinsic variations of ~0.°5 to ~2°. The BL Lac jets show smaller variations than quasars. Roughly half of the heavily observed jets show systematic position angle trends with time, and 20 show indications of oscillatory behavior. The time spans of the data sets are too short compared to the fitted periods (5-12 yr), however, to reliably establish periodicity. The rapid changes and large jumps in position angle seen in many cases suggest that the superluminal AGN jet features occupy only a portion of the entire jet cross section and may be energized portions of thin instability structures within the jet. We have derived vector proper motions for 887 moving features in 200 jets having at least five VLBA epochs. For 557 well-sampled features, there are sufficient data to additionally study possible accelerations. We find that the moving features are generally non-ballistic, with 70% of the well-sampled features showing either significant accelerations or non-radial motions. Inward motions are rare (2% of all features), are slow (<0.1 mas yr-1), are more prevalent in BL Lac jets, and are typically found within 1 mas of the unresolved core feature. There is a general trend of increasing apparent speed with distance down the jet for both radio galaxies and BL Lac objects. In most jets, the speeds of the features cluster around a characteristic value, yet there is a considerable dispersion in the distribution. Orientation variations within the jet cannot fully account for the dispersion, implying

  12. Introduction to SCALE-UP: Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment University Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beichner, Robert J.; Saul, Jeffery M.; Allain, Rhett J.; Deardorff, Duane L.; Abbott, David S.

    SCALE-UP is an extension of the highly successful IMPEC (Integrated Math, Physics, Engineering, and Chemistry) project, one of North Carolina State's curricular reform efforts undertaken as part of the SUCCEED coalition. The authors utilize the interactive, collaboratively based instruction that worked well in smaller class settings and find ways…

  13. Comparison of microbial communities of activated sludge and membrane biofilm in 10 full-scale membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sung Jun; Kwon, Hyeokpil; Jeong, So-Yeon; Lee, Chung-Hak; Kim, Tae Gwan

    2016-09-15

    Operation of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment is hampered by the membrane biofouling resulting from microbial activities. However, the knowledge of the microbial ecology of both biofilm and activated sludge in MBRs has not been sufficient. In this study, we scrutinized microbial communities of biofilm and activated sludge from 10 full-scale MBR plants. Overall, Flavobacterium, Dechloromonas and Nitrospira were abundant in order of abundance in biofilm, whereas Dechloromonas, Flavobacterium and Haliscomenobacter in activated sludge. Community structure was analyzed in either biofilm or activated sludge. Among MBRs, as expected, not only diversity of microbial community but also its composition was different from one another (p < 0.05). Between the biofilm and activated sludge, community composition made significant difference, but its diversity measures (i.e., alpha diversity, e.g., richness, diversity and evenness) did not (p > 0.05). Effects of ten environmental factors on community change were investigated using Spearman correlation. MLSS, HRT, F/M ratio and SADm explained the variation of microbial composition in the biofilm, whereas only MLSS did in the activated sludge. Microbial networks were constructed with the 10 environmental factors. The network results revealed that there were different topological characteristics between the biofilm and activated sludge networks, in which each of the 4 factors had different associations with microbial nodes. These results indicated that the different microbial associations were responsible for the variation of community composition between the biofilm and activated sludge.

  14. Large-scale isolation of flavonolignans from Silybum marianum extract affords new minor constituents and preliminary structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Sy-Cordero, Arlene; Graf, Tyler N; Nakanishi, Yuka; Wani, Mansukh C; Agarwal, Rajesh; Kroll, David J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2010-04-01

    The gram-scale isolation of the major flavonolignan diastereoisomers from milk thistle ( Silybum marianum) extract provided an entree into the isolation of two related analogues that are present in extremely minute quantities. The isolation and structure elucidation of these two new compounds, which we have termed isosilybin C and isosilybin D due to their structural similarities to isosilybin A and isosilybin B, respectively, afforded a preliminary analysis of structure-activity relationships toward prostate cancer growth, survival, and apoptotic endpoints.

  15. A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PERCEPTION OF MUSICAL PROCESSES AND THE ENJOYMENT OF MUSIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUERKSEN, GEORGE L.

    STUDENT RECOGNITION OF THEMES IN MUSIC THAT WERE REPEATED OR ALTERED THROUGHOUT 14 MUSICAL ITEMS WAS MEASURED BY USE OF AN AUDIOVISUAL TESTING DEVICE. AFFECTIVE RESPONSE TO THE THEMES WAS INDICATED, USING A SEVEN-POINT SCALE OF LIKE-DISLIKE. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN THE MEASURED RECOGNITION AND SUCH ITEMS AS MUSICAL EXPERIENCE, ACADEMIC APTITUDE, AND…

  16. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE): Validity and Reliability Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Norliana; Hairi, Farizah; Choo, Wan Yuen; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Peramalah, Devi; Bulgiba, Awang

    2015-11-01

    Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) is among the frequently used self-reported physical activity assessment for older adults. This study aims to assess the validity and reliability of a Malay version of this scale (PASE-M). A total of 408 community-dwelling older adults were enrolled. Concurrent validity was evaluated by Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between PASE with physical and psychosocial measures. Test-retest reliability was determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean PASE-M scores at baseline and follow-up were 94.96 (SD 62.82) and 92.19 (SD 64.02). Fair to moderate correlation were found between PASE-M and physical function scale, IADL (rs = 0.429, P < .001), walking speed (rs = 0.270, P < .001), grip strength (rs = 0.313-0.339, P < .001), and perceived health status (rs = -0.124, P = .016). Test-retest reliability was adequate (ICC = 0.493). The Malay version of PASE was shown to have acceptable validity and reliability. This tool is useful for assessing the physical activity level of elderly Malaysians.

  17. Activities of microorganisms and enzymes in water-restricted environments: biological activities in aqueous compartments at micron scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppert, Michael; Mlejnek, Klaus; Seiffert, Beatrix; Mayer, Frank

    1997-07-01

    In water-in-oil microemulsions, microdroplets of water, surrounded by a layer of surfactant molecules (reversed micelles), are dispersed in an organic solvent. Various microorganisms (unicellular algae and cyanobacteria) and isolated enzymes were dispersed in microemulsions without loss of biological activity. Each biological system needed a defined quantity of water in the microemulsion for maximum activity. Under optimum conditions, microbial enzymes for various sources (hydrogenases, dehydrogenases) exhibited, besides ten-fold increase in specific activity, a temperature optimum up to 16 degree(s)C higher as compared to aqueous solutions. These experimental findings, together with theoretical considerations, imply that water structure inside reversed micelles is very different from free water, but similar to water in narrow compartments with polar or ionic surfaces. These compartments may represent a model system for environments, where (liquid) water is not available in bulk amounts, but embedded in an anhydrous matrix.

  18. Assessment of quality of life enjoyment and satisfaction questionnaire-short form responder thresholds in generalized anxiety disorder and bipolar disorder studies.

    PubMed

    Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Harnam, Neesha; Revicki, Dennis A; Locklear, Julie C; Svedsater, Henrik; Endicott, Jean

    2011-05-01

    Interpretation of change over time in patient-reported outcomes requires appropriate responder definitions. This study compares responder definitions for the short-form version of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire [Q-LES-Q(SF)] in populations with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and bipolar disorder. A review of the Q-LES-Q(SF) literature published in English from 1993 through May 2009 identified publications using the Q-LES-Q(SF) in GAD or bipolar disorder clinical trials. In six relevant articles reporting Q-LES-Q(SF) responder definitions in GAD or bipolar disorder, two methods for defining responders emerged: (i) return to a score within 10% of community norms for the Q-LES-Q(SF); and (ii) a change score at or greater than the condition-specific mean change achieved by patients with minimal improvement on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) at study endpoint or a 1-point decrease on the CGI-Severity scale between baseline and study endpoint. The magnitude of the CGI-I based responder thresholds differed across mental health conditions. Use of the Q-LES-Q(SF) community norms as a responder definition is discouraged. A responder definition needs to be investigated within each condition or disease using appropriate anchors, and may not be generalizable from one condition or disease to another.

  19. Potentiometric bioimaging with a large-scale integration (LSI)-based electrochemical device for detection of enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Yusuke; Ino, Kosuke; Sakamoto, Chika; Inoue, Kumi Y; Matsudaira, Masahki; Suda, Atsushi; Kunikata, Ryota; Ishikawa, Tomohiro; Abe, Hiroya; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2016-03-15

    This paper describes potentiometric bioimaging for enzyme activity using a large-scale integration (LSI)-based electrochemical device with 400 sensors. Potentiometric detection is useful for bioimaging because redox species are not consumed or produced during the detection process; therefore, there is no effect on cell activity and the detectable signal is sustained. In this study, the potentiometer mode of the LSI-based device was applied for the detection of glucose oxidase (GOx) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. The enzyme activities were quantitatively detected within the concentration ranges of 25-250 μg/mL and 0.10-5.0 ng/mL. In addition, GOx activity in hydrogels and the ALP activity of embryoid bodies (EBs) from embryonic stem (ES) cells were successfully imaged based on detection of the open circuit potentials of individual sensors in real time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of potentiometric imaging using LSI-based electrochemical arrays to detect enzyme activity in ES cells. The LSI-based device is thus demonstrated to be a promising tool for bioimaging of enzyme activity.

  20. Measurement of inter- and intra-annual variability of landscape fire activity at a continental scale: the Australian case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Grant J.; Prior, Lynda D.; Jolly, W. Matt; Cochrane, Mark A.; Murphy, Brett P.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2016-03-01

    Climate dynamics at diurnal, seasonal and inter-annual scales shape global fire activity, although difficulties of assembling reliable fire and meteorological data with sufficient spatio-temporal resolution have frustrated quantification of this variability. Using Australia as a case study, we combine data from 4760 meteorological stations with 12 years of satellite-derived active fire detections to determine day and night time fire activity, fire season start and end dates, and inter-annual variability, across 61 objectively defined climate regions in three climate zones (monsoon tropics, arid and temperate). We show that geographic patterns of landscape burning (onset and duration) are related to fire weather, resulting in a latitudinal gradient from the monsoon tropics in winter, through the arid zone in all seasons except winter, and then to the temperate zone in summer and autumn. Peak fire activity precedes maximum lightning activity by several months in all regions, signalling the importance of human ignitions in shaping fire seasons. We determined median daily McArthur forest fire danger index (FFDI50) for days and nights when fires were detected: FFDI50 varied substantially between climate zones, reflecting effects of fire management in the temperate zone, fuel limitation in the arid zone and abundance of flammable grasses in the monsoon tropical zone. We found correlations between the proportion of days when FFDI exceeds FFDI50 and the Southern Oscillation index across the arid zone during spring and summer, and Indian Ocean dipole mode index across south-eastern Australia during summer. Our study demonstrates that Australia has a long fire weather season with high inter-annual variability relative to all other continents, making it difficult to detect long term trends. It also provides a way of establishing robust baselines to track changes to fire seasons, and supports a previous conceptual model highlighting multi-temporal scale effects of climate in

  1. Why not procrastinate? Development and validation of a new active procrastination scale.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Nam; Moran, Sarah V

    2009-04-01

    Procrastination has been studied as a dysfunctional, self-effacing behavior that ultimately results in undesirable outcomes. However, A. H. C. Chu and J. N. Choi (2005) found a different form of procrastination (i.e., active procrastination) that leads to desirable outcomes. The construct of active procrastination has a high potential to expand the time management literature and is likely to be adopted by researchers in multiple areas of psychology. To facilitate the research on this new construct and its further integration into the literature, the authors developed and validated a new, expanded measure of active procrastination that reliably assesses its four dimensions. Using this new measure of active procrastination, they further examined its nomological network. The new 16-item measure is a critical step toward further empirical investigation of active procrastination.

  2. Reach-scale channel sensitivity to multiple human activities and natural events: Lower Santa Clara River, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, Peter W.; Dusterhoff, Scott R.; Sears, William A.

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the cumulative impact of natural and human influences on the sensitivity of channel morphodynamics, a relative measure between the drivers for change and the magnitude of channel response, requires an approach that accommodates spatial and temporal variability in the suite of primary stressors. Multiple historical data sources were assembled to provide a reach-scale analysis of the lower Santa Clara River (LSCR) in Ventura County, California, USA. Sediment supply is naturally high due to tectonic activity, earthquake-generated landslides, wildfires, and high magnitude flow events during El Niño years. Somewhat typically for the region, the catchment has been subject to four reasonably distinct land use and resource management combinations since European-American settlement. When combined with analysis of channel morphological response (quantifiable since ca. 1930), reach-scale and temporal differences in channel sensitivity become apparent. Downstream reaches have incised on average 2.4 m and become narrower by almost 50% with changes focused in a period of highly sensitive response after about 1950 followed by forced insensitivity caused by structural flood embankments and a significant grade control structure. In contrast, the middle reaches have been responsive but are morphologically resilient, and the upstream reaches show a mildly sensitive aggradational trend. Superimposing the natural and human drivers for change reveals that large scale stressors (related to ranching and irrigation) have been replaced over time by a suite of stressors operating at multiple spatial scales. Lower reaches have been sensitive primarily to 'local' scale impacts (urban growth, flood control, and aggregate mining) whereas, upstream, catchment-scale influences still prevail (including flow regulation and climate-driven sediment supply factors). These factors illustrate the complexity inherent to cumulative impact assessment in fluvial systems, provide evidence for a

  3. Enjoy and Interpret Picture Books in a Child-Centered Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aerila, Juli-Anna; Rönkkö, Marja-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Literature supports children's literacy growth in many ways. It helps children extend their understanding and clarify different situations in their lives, recognize and deal with feelings, and be more empathetic. Hands-on activities based on stories support children in giving shape to their thoughts. These creative activities not only empower…

  4. Activity Determinants of Helical Antimicrobial Peptides: A Large-Scale Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    He, Yi; Lazaridis, Themis

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), produced by a wide range of organisms, have attracted attention due to their potential use as novel antibiotics. The majority of these peptides are cationic and are thought to function by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane, either by making pores or by dissolving it (‘carpet’ model). A key hypothesis in the literature is that antimicrobial and hemolytic activity correlate with binding affinity to anionic and zwitterionic membranes, respectively. Here we test this hypothesis by using binding free energy data collected from the literature and theoretical binding energies calculated from implicit membrane models for 53 helical AMPs. We indeed find a correlation between binding energy and biological activity, depending on membrane anionic content: antibacterial activity correlates best with transfer energy to membranes with anionic lipid fraction higher than 30% and hemolytic activity correlates best with transfer energy to a 10% anionic membrane. However, the correlations are weak, with correlation coefficient up to 0.4. Weak correlations of the biological activities have also been found with other physical descriptors of the peptides, such as surface area occupation, which correlates significantly with antibacterial activity; insertion depth, which correlates significantly with hemolytic activity; and structural fluctuation, which correlates significantly with both activities. The membrane surface coverage by many peptides at the MIC is estimated to be much lower than would be required for the ‘carpet’ mechanism. Those peptides that are active at low surface coverage tend to be those identified in the literature as pore-forming. The transfer energy from planar membrane to cylindrical and toroidal pores was also calculated for these peptides. The transfer energy to toroidal pores is negative in almost all cases while that to cylindrical pores is more favorable in neutral than in anionic membranes. The transfer energy to pores

  5. Superresolution microscopy reveals nanometer-scale reorganization of inhibitory natural killer cell receptors upon activation of NKG2D.

    PubMed

    Pageon, Sophie V; Cordoba, Shaun-Paul; Owen, Dylan M; Rothery, Stephen M; Oszmiana, Anna; Davis, Daniel M

    2013-07-23

    Natural killer (NK) cell responses are regulated by a dynamic equilibrium between activating and inhibitory receptor signals at the immune synapse (or interface) with target cells. Although the organization of receptors at the immune synapse is important for appropriate integration of these signals, there is little understanding of this in detail, because research has been hampered by the limited resolution of light microscopy. Through the use of superresolution single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to reveal the organization of the NK cell surface at the single-protein level, we report that the inhibitory receptor KIR2DL1 is organized in nanometer-scale clusters at the surface of human resting NK cells. Nanoclusters of KIR2DL1 became smaller and denser upon engagement of the activating receptor NKG2D, establishing an unexpected crosstalk between activating receptor signals and the positioning of inhibitory receptors. These rearrangements in the nanoscale organization of surface NK cell receptors were dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. Together, these data establish that NK cell activation involves a nanometer-scale reorganization of surface receptors, which in turn affects models for signal integration and thresholds that control NK cell effector functions and NK cell development. PMID:23882121

  6. Bacterial community dynamics in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant employing conventional activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kurumi; Matsuda, Masami; Inoue, Daisuke; Ike, Michihiko

    2014-07-01

    To elucidate the bacterial community dynamics in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the relatedness among bacterial communities in the influent, effluent and sludge, the structure and metabolic ability of the bacterial community throughout a full-scale WWTP employing a conventional activated sludge process was investigated during a period of 10 months. The bacterial community structure was analyzed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism targeting eubacterial 16S rRNA genes, while a Biolog assay was applied to assess the metabolic ability of the activated sludge. Influent bacterial community structure was generally stable. In contrast, the bacterial community structure in the effluent was similar to that in the influent in some cases, while in other cases it was unique and differed greatly from that in the influent and sludge. These results suggest that temporal variations of the effluent bacterial community may be useful to predict the wastewater treatment performance and settleability of activated sludge. The bacterial community structure in the sludge was relatively stable and was rarely impacted by the influent populations. Biolog assay also revealed that activated sludge maintained a remarkably similar metabolic potential of organic compounds over time due to functional redundancy, in which the minor populations played a significant role.

  7. Microbiological Analysis of an Active Pilot-Scale Mobile Bioreactor Treating Organic Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.

    1997-11-26

    Samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor (GAC-FBR). This GAC-FBR was in operation at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) Site in Augusta Georgia for in situ groundwater bioremediation of organics. The samples included contaminated site groundwater, GAC-FBR effluent, and biofilm coated granular activated carbon at 5, 9, and 13 feet within the GAC-FBR column. The objective of this analysis was to correlate contaminant removal with microbiological activity within the GAC-FBR.

  8. Pilot and full scale applications of sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process for nitrate removal from activated sludge process effluent.

    PubMed

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Kilic, Adem; Duygulu, Bahadir

    2014-09-01

    Sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification of nitrified activated sludge process effluent was studied in pilot and full scale column bioreactors. Three identical pilot scale column bioreactors packed with varying sulfur/lime-stone ratios (1/1-3/1) were setup in a local wastewater treatment plant and the performances were compared under varying loading conditions for long-term operation. Complete denitrification was obtained in all pilot bioreactors even at nitrate loading of 10 mg NO3(-)-N/(L.h). When the temperature decreased to 10 °C during the winter time at loading of 18 mg NO3(-)-N/(L.h), denitrification efficiency decreased to 60-70% and the bioreactor with S/L ratio of 1/1 gave slightly better performance. A full scale sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process with a S/L ratio of 1/1 was set up for the denitrification of an activated sludge process effluent with a flow rate of 40 m(3)/d. Almost complete denitrification was attained with a nitrate loading rate of 6.25 mg NO3(-)-N/(L.h). PMID:24862952

  9. Brain electromagnetic activity and lightning: potentially congruent scale-invariant quantitative properties

    PubMed Central

    Persinger, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The space-time characteristics of the axonal action potential are remarkably similar to the scaled equivalents of lightning. The energy and current densities from these transients within their respective volumes or cross-sectional areas are the same order of magnitude. Length–velocity ratios and temporal durations are nearly identical. There are similar chemical consequences such as the production of nitric oxide. Careful, quantitative examination of the characteristics of lightning may reveal analogous features of the action potential that could lead to a more accurate understanding of these powerful correlates of neurocognitive processes. PMID:22615688

  10. Genome-scale transcriptional activation by an engineered CRISPR-Cas9 complex.

    PubMed

    Konermann, Silvana; Brigham, Mark D; Trevino, Alexandro E; Joung, Julia; Abudayyeh, Omar O; Barcena, Clea; Hsu, Patrick D; Habib, Naomi; Gootenberg, Jonathan S; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Nureki, Osamu; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-29

    Systematic interrogation of gene function requires the ability to perturb gene expression in a robust and generalizable manner. Here we describe structure-guided engineering of a CRISPR-Cas9 complex to mediate efficient transcriptional activation at endogenous genomic loci. We used these engineered Cas9 activation complexes to investigate single-guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting rules for effective transcriptional activation, to demonstrate multiplexed activation of ten genes simultaneously, and to upregulate long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) transcripts. We also synthesized a library consisting of 70,290 guides targeting all human RefSeq coding isoforms to screen for genes that, upon activation, confer resistance to a BRAF inhibitor. The top hits included genes previously shown to be able to confer resistance, and novel candidates were validated using individual sgRNA and complementary DNA overexpression. A gene expression signature based on the top screening hits correlated with markers of BRAF inhibitor resistance in cell lines and patient-derived samples. These results collectively demonstrate the potential of Cas9-based activators as a powerful genetic perturbation technology.

  11. Multi-scale mechanical characterization of highly swollen photo-activated collagen hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Tronci, Giuseppe; Grant, Colin A; Thomson, Neil H; Russell, Stephen J; Wood, David J

    2015-01-01

    Biological hydrogels have been increasingly sought after as wound dressings or scaffolds for regenerative medicine, owing to their inherent biofunctionality in biological environments. Especially in moist wound healing, the ideal material should absorb large amounts of wound exudate while remaining mechanically competent in situ. Despite their large hydration, however, current biological hydrogels still leave much to be desired in terms of mechanical properties in physiological conditions. To address this challenge, a multi-scale approach is presented for the synthetic design of cyto-compatible collagen hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties (from the nano- up to the macro-scale), uniquely high swelling ratios and retained (more than 70%) triple helical features. Type I collagen was covalently functionalized with three different monomers, i.e. 4-vinylbenzyl chloride, glycidyl methacrylate and methacrylic anhydride, respectively. Backbone rigidity, hydrogen-bonding capability and degree of functionalization (F: 16 ± 12-91 ± 7 mol%) of introduced moieties governed the structure-property relationships in resulting collagen networks, so that the swelling ratio (SR: 707 ± 51-1996 ± 182 wt%), bulk compressive modulus (Ec: 30 ± 7-168 ± 40 kPa) and atomic force microscopy elastic modulus (EAFM: 16 ± 2-387 ± 66 kPa) were readily adjusted. Because of their remarkably high swelling and mechanical properties, these tunable collagen hydrogels may be further exploited for the design of advanced dressings for chronic wound care. PMID:25411409

  12. Morphotectonic evolution of passive margins undergoing active surface processes: large-scale experiments using numerical models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beucher, Romain; Huismans, Ritske S.

    2016-04-01

    Extension of the continental lithosphere can lead to the formation of a wide range of rifted margins styles with contrasting tectonic and geomorphological characteristics. It is now understood that many of these characteristics depend on the manner extension is distributed depending on (among others factors) rheology, structural inheritance, thermal structure and surface processes. The relative importance and the possible interactions of these controlling factors is still largely unknown. Here we investigate the feedbacks between tectonics and the transfers of material at the surface resulting from erosion, transport, and sedimentation. We use large-scale (1200 x 600 km) and high-resolution (~1km) numerical experiments coupling a 2D upper-mantle-scale thermo-mechanical model with a plan-form 2D surface processes model (SPM). We test the sensitivity of the coupled models to varying crust-lithosphere rheology and erosional efficiency ranging from no-erosion to very efficient erosion. We discuss how fast, when and how the topography of the continents evolves and how it can be compared to actual passive margins escarpment morphologies. We show that although tectonics is the main factor controlling the rift geometry, transfers of masses at the surface affect the timing of faulting and the initiation of sea-floor spreading. We discuss how such models may help to understand the evolution of high-elevated passive margins around the world.

  13. Multi-scale mechanical characterization of highly swollen photo-activated collagen hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Tronci, Giuseppe; Grant, Colin A.; Thomson, Neil H.; Russell, Stephen J.; Wood, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Biological hydrogels have been increasingly sought after as wound dressings or scaffolds for regenerative medicine, owing to their inherent biofunctionality in biological environments. Especially in moist wound healing, the ideal material should absorb large amounts of wound exudate while remaining mechanically competent in situ. Despite their large hydration, however, current biological hydrogels still leave much to be desired in terms of mechanical properties in physiological conditions. To address this challenge, a multi-scale approach is presented for the synthetic design of cyto-compatible collagen hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties (from the nano- up to the macro-scale), uniquely high swelling ratios and retained (more than 70%) triple helical features. Type I collagen was covalently functionalized with three different monomers, i.e. 4-vinylbenzyl chloride, glycidyl methacrylate and methacrylic anhydride, respectively. Backbone rigidity, hydrogen-bonding capability and degree of functionalization (F: 16 ± 12–91 ± 7 mol%) of introduced moieties governed the structure–property relationships in resulting collagen networks, so that the swelling ratio (SR: 707 ± 51–1996 ± 182 wt%), bulk compressive modulus (Ec: 30 ± 7–168 ± 40 kPa) and atomic force microscopy elastic modulus (EAFM: 16 ± 2–387 ± 66 kPa) were readily adjusted. Because of their remarkably high swelling and mechanical properties, these tunable collagen hydrogels may be further exploited for the design of advanced dressings for chronic wound care. PMID:25411409

  14. MICRO-SIGMOIDS AS PROGENITORS OF CORONAL JETS: IS ERUPTIVE ACTIVITY SELF-SIMILARLY MULTI-SCALED?

    SciTech Connect

    Raouafi, N.-E.; Rust, D. M.; Bernasconi, P. N.; Georgoulis, M. K.

    2010-08-01

    Observations from the X-ray telescope (XRT) on Hinode are used to study the nature of X-ray-bright points, sources of coronal jets. Several jet events in the coronal holes are found to erupt from small-scale, S-shaped bright regions. This finding suggests that coronal micro-sigmoids may well be progenitors of coronal jets. Moreover, the presence of these structures may explain numerous observed characteristics of jets such as helical structures, apparent transverse motions, and shapes. Analogous to large-scale sigmoids giving rise to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), a promising future task would perhaps be to investigate whether solar eruptive activity, from coronal jets to CMEs, is self-similar in terms of properties and instability mechanisms.

  15. Holographic fiber bundle system for patterned optogenetic activation of large-scale neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Farah, Nairouz; Levinsky, Alexandra; Brosh, Inbar; Kahn, Itamar; Shoham, Shy

    2015-10-01

    Optogenetic perturbation has become a fundamental tool in controlling activity in neurons. Used to control activity in cell cultures, slice preparations, anesthetized and awake behaving animals, optical control of cell-type specific activity enables the interrogation of complex systems. A remaining challenge in developing optical control tools is the ability to produce defined light patterns such that power-efficient, precise control of neuronal populations is obtained. Here, we describe a system for patterned stimulation that enables the generation of structured activity in neurons by transmitting optical patterns from computer-generated holograms through an optical fiber bundle. The system couples the optical system to versatile fiber bundle configurations, including coherent or incoherent bundles composed of hundreds of up to several meters long fibers. We describe the components of the system, a method for calibration, and a detailed power efficiency and spatial specificity quantification. Next, we use the system to precisely control single-cell activity as measured by extracellular electrophysiological recordings in ChR2-expressing cortical cell cultures. The described system complements recent descriptions of optical control systems, presenting a system suitable for high-resolution spatiotemporal optical control of wide-area neural networks in vitro and in vivo, yielding a tool for precise neural system interrogation. PMID:26793741

  16. Quantifying the impact of mosquitoes on quality of life and enjoyment yard and porch activities in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New Jersey, like many mid-Atlantic and southeastern states, has a persistent problem with the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus). This species and other mosquitoes reduce residents’ quality of life through discomfort and possible risk of disease transmission. To guide a comprehensive area-wide ...

  17. "The Outsiders" Is Still "In": Why This Old Novel Is So Popular with Teens, and Some Activities Students Enjoy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groot, Lauren; Story, Martha

    2002-01-01

    Presents middle-school student comments on why they like S. E. Hinton's novel "The Outsiders" so much. Notes that it is good reading, realistic, current and kid-oriented. Presents the Herber Exercise, an exercise that uses students' experiences to enhance reading comprehension. Applies the Herber Exercise to "The Outsiders." (SG)

  18. A laboratory-scale test of anaerobic digestion and methane production after phosphorus recovery from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Noboru; Kishino, Machiko; Kuroda, Akio; Kato, Junichi; Ohtake, Hisao

    2004-01-01

    In enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) processes, activated sludge microorganisms accumulate large quantities of polyphosphate (polyP) intracellularly. We previously discovered that nearly all of polyP could be released from waste activated sludge simply by heating it at 70 degrees C for about 1 h. We also demonstrated that this simple method was applicable to phosphorus (P) recovery from waste activated sludge in a pilot plant-scale EBPR process. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of this sludge processing (heat treatment followed by calcium phosphate precipitation) on anaerobic digestion in laboratory-scale experiments. The results suggested that the sludge processing for P recovery could improve digestive efficiency and methane productivity at both mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (53 degrees C) temperatures. In addition, heat-treated waste sludge released far less P into the digested sludge liquor than did untreated waste sludge. It is likely that the P recovery step prior to anaerobic digestion has a potential advantage for controlling struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) deposit problems in sludge handling processes. PMID:16233643

  19. NeuroCa: integrated framework for systematic analysis of spatiotemporal neuronal activity patterns from large-scale optical recording data

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min Jee; Nam, Yoonkey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Optical recording facilitates monitoring the activity of a large neural network at the cellular scale, but the analysis and interpretation of the collected data remain challenging. Here, we present a MATLAB-based toolbox, named NeuroCa, for the automated processing and quantitative analysis of large-scale calcium imaging data. Our tool includes several computational algorithms to extract the calcium spike trains of individual neurons from the calcium imaging data in an automatic fashion. Two algorithms were developed to decompose the imaging data into the activity of individual cells and subsequently detect calcium spikes from each neuronal signal. Applying our method to dense networks in dissociated cultures, we were able to obtain the calcium spike trains of ∼1000 neurons in a few minutes. Further analyses using these data permitted the quantification of neuronal responses to chemical stimuli as well as functional mapping of spatiotemporal patterns in neuronal firing within the spontaneous, synchronous activity of a large network. These results demonstrate that our method not only automates time-consuming, labor-intensive tasks in the analysis of neural data obtained using optical recording techniques but also provides a systematic way to visualize and quantify the collective dynamics of a network in terms of its cellular elements. PMID:26229973

  20. Preparation of activated carbon from coconut shell chars in pilot-scale microwave heating equipment at 60 kW

    SciTech Connect

    Li Wei; Peng Jinhui Zhang Libo; Yang Kunbin; Xia Hongying; Zhang Shimin; Guo Shenghui

    2009-02-15

    Experiments to prepare activated carbon by microwave heating indicated that microwave energy can decrease reaction temperature, save the energy and shorten processing time remarkably compared to conventional heating, owing to its internal and volumetric heating effects. The above results were based on the laboratory-scale experiments. It is desirable to develop a pilot-scale microwave heating equipment and investigate the parameters with the aim of technological industrialization. In the present study, the components and features of the self-invented equipment were introduced. The temperature rise curves of the chars were obtained. Iodine numbers of the activated carbons all exceed the state standard of China under the following conditions: 25 kg/h charging rate, 0.42 rev/min turning rate of ceramic tube, flow rate of steam at pressure of 0.01 MPa and 40 kW microwave heating power after 60 kW pre-activation for 30 min. Pore structure of the sample obtained at a time point of 46 h, which contained BET surface area, and pore size distributions of micropores and total pores, was tested by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K.

  1. Large-scale, dynamic transformations in fuel moisture drive wildfire activity across southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, R. H.; Boer, M. M.; Resco de Dios, V.; Caccamo, G.; Bradstock, R. A.

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of large, high-intensity wildfires requires plant biomass, or fuel, that is sufficiently dry to burn. This poses the question, what is "sufficiently dry"? Until recently, the ability to address this question has been constrained by the spatiotemporal scale of available methods to monitor the moisture contents of both dead and live fuels. Here we take advantage of recent developments in macroscale monitoring of fuel moisture through a combination of remote sensing and climatic modeling. We show there are clear thresholds of fuel moisture content associated with the occurrence of wildfires in forests and woodlands. Furthermore, we show that transformations in fuel moisture conditions across these thresholds can occur rapidly, within a month. Both the approach presented here, and our findings, can be immediately applied and may greatly improve fire risk assessments in forests and woodlands globally.

  2. Fitness, Fun and Friends through Participation in Preferred Physical Activities: Achievable for Children with Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyquist, Astrid; Moser, Thomas; Jahnsen, Reidun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the preferences for actual participation in and enjoyment of physical out-of-school activities in children with physical disabilities, including what particular activities they are actually participating in, how often, with whom, where, and how enjoyable they find these activities. The data are based on structured…

  3. Adolescents' Self-Efficacy to Overcome Barriers to Physical Activity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, John J. M.; Chulak, Tala; Maitland, Scott; Allison, Kenneth R.; Lysy, Daria C.; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Sheeshka, Judy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a revised measure of self-efficacy to overcome barriers to moderate and vigorous physical activity in a sample of 484 high school students in Toronto, Ontario. The students had a mean age of 15.3 years. Principal axis factoring with oblique rotation yielded five factors: self-efficacy to overcome internal, harassment, physical…

  4. Scaling and calibration of a core validation site for the soil moisture active passive mission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The calibration and validation of soil moisture remote sensing products is complicated due to the logistics of installing a long term soil moisture monitoring network in an active landscape. It is more efficient to locate these stations along agricultural field boundaries, but unfortunately this oft...

  5. A Local Baseline of the Black Hole Mass Scaling Relations for Active Galaxies. I. Methodology and Results of Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Auger, Matthew W.; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak; Malkan, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    We present high-quality Keck/LRIS long-slit spectroscopy of a pilot sample of 25 local active galaxies selected from the SDSS (0.02 <=z <= 0.1; M BH>107 M sun) to study the relations between black hole mass (M BH) and host-galaxy properties. We determine stellar kinematics of the host galaxy, deriving stellar-velocity dispersion profiles and rotation curves from three spectral regions (including CaH&K, MgIb triplet, and Ca II triplet). In addition, we perform surface photometry on SDSS images, using a newly developed code for joint multi-band analysis. BH masses are estimated from the width of the Hβ emission line and the host-galaxy free 5100 Å active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity. Combining results from spectroscopy and imaging allows us to study four M BH scaling relations: M BH-σ, M BH-L sph, M BH-M sph,sstarf, and M BH-M sph,dyn. We find the following results. First, stellar-velocity dispersions determined from aperture spectra (e.g., SDSS fiber spectra or unresolved data from distant galaxies) can be biased, depending on aperture size, AGN contamination, and host-galaxy morphology. However, such a bias cannot explain the offset seen in the M BH-σ relation at higher redshifts. Second, while the CaT region is the cleanest to determine stellar-velocity dispersions, both the MgIb region, corrected for Fe II emission, and the CaHK region, although often swamped by the AGN power-law continuum and emission lines, can give results accurate to within a few percent. Third, the M BH scaling relations of our pilot sample agree in slope and scatter with those of other local active and inactive galaxies. In the next papers of the series we will quantify the scaling relations, exploiting the full sample of ~100 objects.

  6. NON-THERMAL RADIATION FROM COLLISIONS OF COMPACT OBJECTS WITH INTERMEDIATE-SCALE JETS IN ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarek, W.; Banasiński, P.

    2015-07-10

    Massive black holes in active galaxies are immersed in huge concentrations of late-type stars in the galactic bulges and also early-type massive stars in the nuclear stellar clusters, which are additionally surrounded by quasi-spherical halos on a scale of several kpc that contain from a few hundred up to several thousand globular clusters (GCs). It is expected that significant numbers of red giant stars, massive stars, and also GCs can move through the jet expelled from the central engine of the active galaxy. We consider collisions of stars from the galactic bulge, nuclear cluster, and GCs with the jet plasma. As a result of such collisions, multiple shocks are expected to appear in the jet around these compact objects. Therefore, the plasma in the kpc-scale jet can be significantly disturbed. We show that particles can be accelerated on these shocks up to multi-TeV energies. TeV leptons emit synchrotron radiation, extending up to X-ray energies, and also comptonize radiation produced in a stellar cluster and also the microwave background radiation to TeV γ-ray energies. We show that such non-thermal radiation is likely to be detectable from the intermediate-scale jets of nearby active galaxies for a reasonable number of stars and GCs immersed within the jet. As an example, we calculate the expected non-thermal emission in X-ray and gamma-ray energies from the nearby radio galaxy Cen A, from which steady gamma-ray emission with a complex spectrum has recently been reported by Fermi and the HESS Observatories.

  7. Observing large-scale solar surface flows with GONG: Investigation of a key element in solar activity buildup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, John G.; Simon, George W.; Hathaway, David H.

    1996-01-01

    The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) solar telescope network has begun regular operations, and will provide continuous Doppler images of large-scale nearly-steady motions at the solar surface, primarily those due to supergranulation. Not only the Sun's well-known magnetic network, but also flux diffusion, dispersal, and concentration at the surface appear to be controlled by supergranulation. Through such magnetoconvective interactions, magnetic stresses develop, leading to solar activity. We show a Doppler movie made from a 45.5 hr time series obtained 1995 May 9-10 using data from three of the six GONG sites (Learmonth, Tenerife, Tucson), to demonstrate the capability of this system.

  8. The Effect of Retrieval on Post-Task Enjoyment of Studying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Daniel A.; Svinicki, Marilla

    2015-01-01

    Although active retrieval is an extremely effective study method, students continue to use less effective methods (Karpicke, "Journal of Experimental Psychology General," 138(4), 469-486, 2009; Hartwig and Dunlosky, "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review," 19(1), 126-134, 2012). There are likely many underlying reasons for using…

  9. The Responsible Use of Youth Fitness Testing to Enhance Student Motivation, Enjoyment, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiersma, Lenny D.; Sherman, Clay P.

    2008-01-01

    While physical fitness testing has the potential to invoke embarrassment and anxiety, strategies can be developed that can motivate students to exert maximal effort, provide positive feedback on skill improvement, and encourage students to set fitness goals that can be achieved through developmentally appropriate physical activities. The purpose…

  10. World First MarsLink Mission Participants Learn and Enjoy Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how students learn and experience the excitement of science by actively participating in the MarsLink Space Mission, an educational component of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Mars Missions. This Mission has been made possible by Space Explorers, Inc., in collaboration with NASA. In the…

  11. Medium-scale gravity wave activity in the thermosphere inferred from GOCE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Raphael F.; Bruinsma, Sean; Massarweh, Lotfi; Doornbos, Eelco

    2016-08-01

    This study is focused on the effect of solar flux conditions on the dynamics of gravity waves (GWs) in the thermosphere. Air density and crosswind in situ estimates from the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) accelerometers are analyzed for the whole mission duration. The analysis is performed in the Fourier spectral domain averaging spectral results over periods of 2 months close to solstices. A new GW marker (called Cf3) is introduced here to characterize GWs activity under low, medium, and high solar flux conditions, showing a clear solar damping effect on GW activity. Most GW signal is found in a spectral range above 8 mHz in GOCE data, meaning a maximum horizontal wavelength of around 1000 km. The level of GW activity at GOCE altitude is strongly decreasing with increasing solar flux. Furthermore, a shift in the dominant frequency with solar flux conditions has been noted, leading to larger horizontal wavelengths (from 200 to 500 km) during high solar flux conditions. The correlation between air density variability and GW marker allows to identify most of the large-amplitude perturbations below 67° latitudes as due to GWs. The influence of correlated error sources, between air density and crosswinds, is discussed. Consistency of the spectral domain results is verified in the time domain with a global mapping of high-frequency air density perturbations along the GOCE orbit. This analysis shows a clear dependence with geomagnetic latitude with strong perturbations at magnetic poles and an extension to lower latitudes favored by low solar activity conditions. These results are consistent with previous Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) data analysis and with general circulation models.

  12. Prediction of geomagnetic activity on time scales of one to ten years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.; Gu, X. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The long-term prediction of geomagnetic indices that characterize the state of the magnetosphere is discussed. While a prediction of the yearly average sunspot number is simultaneously a prediction of the yearly number of sudden-commencement storms, it is not a prediction of the number of disturbed or quiet half days. Knowledge of the sunspot cycle phase leads to a good estimate of the correlation expected between activity during one 27-day solar rotation period and the next.

  13. Web-based assessments of physical activity in youth: considerations for design and scale calibration.

    PubMed

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and methods involved in calibrating a Web-based self-report instrument to estimate physical activity behavior. The limitations of self-report measures are well known, but calibration methods enable the reported information to be equated to estimates obtained from objective data. This paper summarizes design considerations for effective development and calibration of physical activity self-report measures. Each of the design considerations is put into context and followed by a practical application based on our ongoing calibration research with a promising online self-report tool called the Youth Activity Profile (YAP). We first describe the overall concept of calibration and how this influences the selection of appropriate self-report tools for this population. We point out the advantages and disadvantages of different monitoring devices since the choice of the criterion measure and the strategies used to minimize error in the measure can dramatically improve the quality of the data. We summarize strategies to ensure quality control in data collection and discuss analytical considerations involved in group- vs individual-level inference. For cross-validation procedures, we describe the advantages of equivalence testing procedures that directly test and quantify agreement. Lastly, we introduce the unique challenges encountered when transitioning from paper to a Web-based tool. The Web offers considerable potential for broad adoption but an iterative calibration approach focused on continued refinement is needed to ensure that estimates are generalizable across individuals, regions, seasons and countries. PMID:25448192

  14. Web-Based Assessments of Physical Activity in Youth: Considerations for Design and Scale Calibration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and methods involved in calibrating a Web-based self-report instrument to estimate physical activity behavior. The limitations of self-report measures are well known, but calibration methods enable the reported information to be equated to estimates obtained from objective data. This paper summarizes design considerations for effective development and calibration of physical activity self-report measures. Each of the design considerations is put into context and followed by a practical application based on our ongoing calibration research with a promising online self-report tool called the Youth Activity Profile (YAP). We first describe the overall concept of calibration and how this influences the selection of appropriate self-report tools for this population. We point out the advantages and disadvantages of different monitoring devices since the choice of the criterion measure and the strategies used to minimize error in the measure can dramatically improve the quality of the data. We summarize strategies to ensure quality control in data collection and discuss analytical considerations involved in group- vs individual-level inference. For cross-validation procedures, we describe the advantages of equivalence testing procedures that directly test and quantify agreement. Lastly, we introduce the unique challenges encountered when transitioning from paper to a Web-based tool. The Web offers considerable potential for broad adoption but an iterative calibration approach focused on continued refinement is needed to ensure that estimates are generalizable across individuals, regions, seasons and countries. PMID:25448192

  15. Web-based assessments of physical activity in youth: considerations for design and scale calibration.

    PubMed

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and methods involved in calibrating a Web-based self-report instrument to estimate physical activity behavior. The limitations of self-report measures are well known, but calibration methods enable the reported information to be equated to estimates obtained from objective data. This paper summarizes design considerations for effective development and calibration of physical activity self-report measures. Each of the design considerations is put into context and followed by a practical application based on our ongoing calibration research with a promising online self-report tool called the Youth Activity Profile (YAP). We first describe the overall concept of calibration and how this influences the selection of appropriate self-report tools for this population. We point out the advantages and disadvantages of different monitoring devices since the choice of the criterion measure and the strategies used to minimize error in the measure can dramatically improve the quality of the data. We summarize strategies to ensure quality control in data collection and discuss analytical considerations involved in group- vs individual-level inference. For cross-validation procedures, we describe the advantages of equivalence testing procedures that directly test and quantify agreement. Lastly, we introduce the unique challenges encountered when transitioning from paper to a Web-based tool. The Web offers considerable potential for broad adoption but an iterative calibration approach focused on continued refinement is needed to ensure that estimates are generalizable across individuals, regions, seasons and countries.

  16. Travel determinants and multi-scale transferability of national activity patterns to local populations

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, Kriste M; Gou; ias, Konstadinos G

    2010-11-30

    The ability to transfer national travel patterns to a local population is of interest when attempting to model megaregions or areas that exceed metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries. At the core of this research are questions about the connection between travel behavior and land use, urban form, and accessibility. As a part of this process, a group of land use variables have been identified to define activity and travel patterns for individuals and households. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) participants are divided into categories comprised of a set of latent cluster models representing persons, travel, and land use. These are compared to two sets of cluster models constructed for two local travel surveys. Comparison of means statistical tests are used to assess differences among sociodemographic groups residing in localities with similar land uses. The results show that the NHTS and the local surveys share mean population activity and travel characteristics. However, these similarities mask behavioral heterogeneity that are shown when distributions of activity and travel behavior are examined. Therefore, data from a national household travel survey cannot be used to model local population travel characteristics if the goal to model the actual distributions and not mean travel behavior characteristics.

  17. Metal clad active fibres for power scaling and thermal management at kW power levels.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Jae M O; Simakov, Nikita; Hemming, Alexander; Clarkson, W Andrew; Haub, John

    2016-08-01

    We present a new approach to high power fibre laser design, consisting of a polymer-free all-glass optical fibre waveguide directly overclad with a high thermal conductivity metal coating. This metal clad active fibre allows a significant reduction in thermal resistance between the active fibre and the laser heat-sink as well as a significant increase in the operating temperature range. In this paper we show the results of a detailed thermal analysis of both polymer and metal coated active fibres under thermal loads typical of kW fibre laser systems. Through several different experiments we present the first demonstration of a cladding pumped aluminium-coated fibre laser and the first demonstration of efficient operation of a cladding-pumped fibre laser at temperatures of greater than 400 °C. Finally, we highlight the versatility of this approach through operation of a passively (radiatively) cooled ytterbium fibre laser head at an output power of 405 W in a compact and ultralight package weighing less than 100 g. PMID:27505822

  18. Large scale screening of commonly used Iranian traditional medicinal plants against urease activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study H. pylori infection is an important etiologic impetus usually leading to gastric disease and urease enzyme is the most crucial role is to protect the bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Then urease inhibitors would increase sensitivity of the bacteria in acidic medium. Methods 137 Iranian traditional medicinal plants were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 50% aqueous methanol. The more effective extracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined. Results 37 plants out of the 137 crude extracts revealed strong urease inhibitory activity (more than 70% inhibition against urease activity at 10 mg/ml concentration). Nine of the whole studied plants crude extracts were found as the most effective with IC50 values less than 500 μg/ml including; Rheum ribes, Sambucus ebulus, Pistachia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Areca catechu, Citrus aurantifolia, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Nicotiana tabacum. Conclusions The most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Sambucus ebulus and Rheum ribes extracts with IC50 values of 57 and 92 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:23351780

  19. Methods to actively modify the dynamic response of cm-scale FWMAV designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, H. J.; Goosen, J. F. L.; van Keulen, F.

    2016-05-01

    Lightweight vibrating structures (such as flapping wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) designs) often require some form of control. To achieve controllability, local structural property changes (e.g., damping and stiffness changes) might be induced in an active manner. The stroke-averaged lift force production of a FWMAV wing can be modified by changing the structural properties of that wing at carefully selected places (e.g., changing the properties of the elastic hinge at the wing root as studied in this work). To actively change the structural properties, we investigate three different methods which are based on: (1) piezoelectric polymers, (2) electrorheological fluids, and (3) electrostatic softening. This work aims to gain simple yet insightful ways to determine the potential of these methods without focusing on the precise modeling. Analytical models of FWMAV wing designs that include control approaches based on these three methods are used to calculate the achievable lift force modifications after activating these methods. The lift force production as a result of a wing flapping motion is determined using a quasi-steady aerodynamic model. Both piezoelectric polymers and electrostatic softening are found to be promising in changing the structural properties and, hence, the lift force production of FWMAV wings. For the control of lightweight FWMAV designs, numerical simulations reveal a promising roll maneuverability due to the induced lift force difference between a pair of opposite wings. Although applied to a specific FWMAV design, this work is relevant for control of small, lightweight, possible compliant, vibrating structures in general.

  20. Scaling down the size and increasing the throughput of glycosyltransferase assays: activity changes on stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shilpa A; Chandrasekaran, E V; Matta, Khushi L; Parikh, Abhirath; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2012-06-15

    Glycosyltransferases (glycoTs) catalyze the transfer of monosaccharides from nucleotide-sugars to carbohydrate-, lipid-, and protein-based acceptors. We examined strategies to scale down and increase the throughput of glycoT enzymatic assays because traditional methods require large reaction volumes and complex chromatography. Approaches tested used (i) microarray pin printing, an appropriate method when glycoT activity was high; (ii) microwells and microcentrifuge tubes, a suitable method for studies with cell lysates when enzyme activity was moderate; and (iii) C(18) pipette tips and solvent extraction, a method that enriched reaction product when the extent of reaction was low. In all cases, reverse-phase thin layer chromatography (RP-TLC) coupled with phosphorimaging quantified the reaction rate. Studies with mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) demonstrated an increase in overall β(1,3)galactosyltransferase and α(2,3)sialyltransferase activity and a decrease in α(1,3)fucosyltransferases when these cells differentiate toward cardiomyocytes. Enzymatic and lectin binding data suggest a transition from Lewis(x)-type structures in mESCs to sialylated Galβ1,3GalNAc-type glycans on differentiation, with more prominent changes in enzyme activity occurring at later stages when embryoid bodies differentiated toward cardiomyocytes. Overall, simple, rapid, quantitative, and scalable glycoT activity analysis methods are presented. These use a range of natural and synthetic acceptors for the analysis of complex biological specimens that have limited availability.

  1. The Cell-Type Specific Cortical Microcircuit: Relating Structure and Activity in a Full-Scale Spiking Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Potjans, Tobias C.; Diesmann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, the cell-type specific connectivity and activity of local cortical networks have been characterized experimentally to some detail. In parallel, modeling has been established as a tool to relate network structure to activity dynamics. While available comprehensive connectivity maps ( Thomson, West, et al. 2002; Binzegger et al. 2004) have been used in various computational studies, prominent features of the simulated activity such as the spontaneous firing rates do not match the experimental findings. Here, we analyze the properties of these maps to compile an integrated connectivity map, which additionally incorporates insights on the specific selection of target types. Based on this integrated map, we build a full-scale spiking network model of the local cortical microcircuit. The simulated spontaneous activity is asynchronous irregular and cell-type specific firing rates are in agreement with in vivo recordings in awake animals, including the low rate of layer 2/3 excitatory cells. The interplay of excitation and inhibition captures the flow of activity through cortical layers after transient thalamic stimulation. In conclusion, the integration of a large body of the available connectivity data enables us to expose the dynamical consequences of the cortical microcircuitry. PMID:23203991

  2. Evaluation of properties of the Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (Brazilian version) in an elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Natalia A.; Aratani, Mayra C.; Caovilla, Heloisa H.; Cohen, Helen S.; Ganança, Fernando F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL) is considered an important subjective assessment to evaluate patients suffering from dizziness and imbalance. Although frequently used, its metric characteristics still require further investigation. Objective This paper aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the VADL in an elderly population. Method The sample comprises patients (≥65 years old) with chronic dizziness resulting from vestibular disorders. For discriminant analysis, patients were compared to healthy subjects. All subjects answered the VADL-Brazil by interview. To examine the VADL validity, patients filled out the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and the ABC scale and were tested on the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI). To evaluate the VADL responsiveness, 20 patients were submitted to rehabilitation. Results Patients (n=140) had a VADL total score of 4.1±1.6 points. Healthy subjects scored significantly less than patients in all the subscales and in the VADL total score. The VADL-Brazil was weakly correlated with the DHI and moderately to the ABC scale and the DGI. Instead of the original 3 subscales, factor analysis resulted in 6 factors. The VADL was capable of detecting changes after rehabilitation, which means that the instrument has responsiveness. Conclusions This study provided more data about the psychometric properties and usefulness of the VADL-Brazil. The use of such a reliable and valid instrument increases the knowledge about disability in patients with vestibular disorders. PMID:24676704

  3. Formation of α-alumina scales in the Fe-Al(Cr) diffusion coating on China low activation martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Qin; Zhao, Weiwei; Yang, Hongguang; Hatano, Yuji; Yuan, Xiaoming; Nozaki, Teo; Zhu, Xinxin

    2015-09-01

    To study the formation mechanism of stable α-Al2O3 scales, the oxidation behavior of Fe-Al(Cr) diffusion coating on China low activation martensitic steel has been investigated under the oxygen partial pressure ranging from 1 to 20,000 Pa at 1253 K. A single, continuous Al2O3 scale with the maximum thickness of about 2000 nm was formed on the Fe-Al(Cr) diffusion layer. The phase transformation of alumina scales on the surface of Fe-Al(Cr) layer was studied at different oxidation times ranging from 3 to 180 min. With the increase in oxygen partial pressure, the phase transformation time of α-Al2O3 is decreased. The metastable γ-Al2O3 and transition α-(Al0.948Cr0.052)2O3 phases were formed in the earlier oxidation process and finally transformed to the stable α-Al2O3 phase, which were detected by grazing incidence angle X-ray diffraction and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. This implies that Cr shows the third element effect and serves as a template for the nucleation of the stable α-Al2O3.

  4. A new combination: scale-space filtering of projected brain activities.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Serap

    2009-04-01

    In the present study, well known scale-space filtering (SSF) algorithm is used in combination with a linear mapping approach (LMA) to obtain clear auditory evoked potential (EP) waveform. The proposed combination involves two sequential steps: At first, the EEG noise level is reduced from -5 to 0 dB owing to the LMA based on the singular-value-decomposition. In the secondary process, the EEG noise remaining on the projected data is removed by using the SSF. A small number of sweeps are composed as a raw matrix to project the data without using the ensemble averaging at the beginning of the proposed method. Then, single sweeps are individually filtered in wavelet domain by using the SSF in the secondary step. The experimental results show that the SSF can extract the clear single-sweep auditory EP waveform where the LMA is used as a primary filtering. As well, the results indicate that the EP signal and background EEG noise create different wavelet coefficients due to their different characteristics. However, this characteristic difference can be considered to distinguish the EP signal and the EEG noise when the Signal-to-Noise-Ratio is higher than 0 dB. PMID:19205770

  5. Evaluation of upgrading a full-scale activated sludge process integrated with floating biofilm carriers.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shijian; Zhu, Yunpeng; Qiu, Shuang; Yang, Xiong; Ma, Bin; Huang, Donghui; Peng, Yongzhen

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of a full-scale upgrade of an existing wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with the intermittent cyclic extended aeration system (ICEAS), located in Qingdao, China. The ICEAS system was not able to meet effluent standards; therefore, a series of modifications and control strategies were applied as follows: (1) floating plastic carriers were added to the tank to aid biofilm formation; (2) operation parameters such as mixing and aeration time, feeding rate, and settling time were adjusted and controlled with a real-time control system; (3) a sludge return system and submersible water impellers were added; (4) the aeration system was also improved to circulate carriers and prevent clogging. The modified ICEAS system exhibited efficient organic and nutrient removal, with high removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (89.57 ± 4.10%), NH4(+)-N (95.46 ± 3.80%), and total phosphorus (91.90 ± 4.36%). Moreover, an annual power reduction of 1.04 × 10(7) kW·h was realized as a result of these modifications.

  6. Evaluation of upgrading a full-scale activated sludge process integrated with floating biofilm carriers.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shijian; Zhu, Yunpeng; Qiu, Shuang; Yang, Xiong; Ma, Bin; Huang, Donghui; Peng, Yongzhen

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of a full-scale upgrade of an existing wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with the intermittent cyclic extended aeration system (ICEAS), located in Qingdao, China. The ICEAS system was not able to meet effluent standards; therefore, a series of modifications and control strategies were applied as follows: (1) floating plastic carriers were added to the tank to aid biofilm formation; (2) operation parameters such as mixing and aeration time, feeding rate, and settling time were adjusted and controlled with a real-time control system; (3) a sludge return system and submersible water impellers were added; (4) the aeration system was also improved to circulate carriers and prevent clogging. The modified ICEAS system exhibited efficient organic and nutrient removal, with high removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (89.57 ± 4.10%), NH4(+)-N (95.46 ± 3.80%), and total phosphorus (91.90 ± 4.36%). Moreover, an annual power reduction of 1.04 × 10(7) kW·h was realized as a result of these modifications. PMID:25429446

  7. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature.

  8. Enhanced reactivity of mechanically-activated nano-scale gasless reactive materials consolidated via the cold-spray technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciochini, Antoine; Radulescu, Matei; Meydanoglu, Onur; Charron-Tousignant, Yannick; van Dyke, Jason; Jodoin, Bertrand; Nganbe, Michel; Yandouzi, Mohamed; Lee, Julian J.

    2011-06-01

    It has been speculated that gasless reactive systems can sustain supersonic detonations waves, provided the local decomposition rate is sufficiently fast and the initial density is sufficiently close to the theoretical maximal density. The present study presents a novel method to prepare nano-scale energetic materials with high reactivity, vanishing porosity, structural integrity and arbitrary shape. The experiments have focused on the Ni-Al system. To increase the reactivity, an initial mechanical activation was achieved by the technique of ball milling. The consolidation of the materials used the supersonic cold gas spray technique, where the particles are accelerated to high speeds and consolidated via plastic deformation upon impact, forming activated nano-composites in arbitrary shapes with close to zero porosity. This technique permits to retain the micro-structures in the powders and prevents any reactions during the consolidation phase. Deflagration tests of the obtained samples showed an increase in the deflagration rate by up to two orders of magnitude.

  9. Enhanced reactivity of mechanically-activated nano-scale gasless reactive materials consolidated via the cold-spray technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciochini, Antoine; Radulescu, Matei I.; Charron-Tousignant, Yannick; Van Dyke, Jason; Jodoin, Bertrand; Nganbe, Michel; Yandouzi, Mohammed; Lee, Julian

    2012-03-01

    The present study presents a novel method to prepare nano-scale energetic materials with high reactivity, vanishing porosity, structural integrity and arbitrary shape. The experiments have focused on the Ni-Al system. To increase the reactivity, an initial mechanical activation was achieved by the ball milling technique. The consolidation of the materials used the supersonic cold gas spray technique, where the particles are accelerated to high speeds and consolidated via plastic deformation upon impact, forming activated nanocomposites in arbitrary shapes with close to zero porosity. This technique permits to retain the microstructures in the powders and prevents any reactions during the consolidation phase. The material reactivity is addressed through the flame propagation velocity, which showed an increase in the flame speed of the cold sprayed samples by up to one order of magnitude compared to their cold pressed counterparts.

  10. Monitoring soil water dynamics at 0.1-1000 m scales using active DTS: the MOISST experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayde, C.; Moreno, D.; Legrand, C.; Dong, J.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Ochsner, T. E.; Selker, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Actively Heated Fiber Optics (AHFO) method can measure soil water content at high temporal (<1hr) and spatial (every 0.25 m) resolutions along buried fiber optics (FO) cables multiple kilometers in length. As observed by Sayde et al. 2014, this unprecedented density of measurements captures soil water dynamics over four orders of magnitude in spatial scale (0.1-1000 m), bridging the gap between point scale measurements and large scale remote sensing. 4900 m of FO sensing cables were installed at the MOISST experimental site in Stillwater, Ok. The FO cables were deployed at 3 depths: 5, 10, and 15 cm. In this system the FO sensing system provides measurements of soil moisture at >39,000 locations simultaneously for each heat pulse. Six soil monitoring stations along the fiber optic path were installed to provide additional validation and calibration of the AHFO data. Gravimetric soil moisture and soil thermal samplings were performed periodically to provide additional distributed validation and calibration of the DTS data. In this work we present the preliminary results of this experiment. We will also address the experience learned from this large scale deployment of the AHFO method. In particular, we will present the in-situ soil moisture calibration method developed to tackle the calibration challenges associated with the high spatial heterogeneity of the soil physical and thermal properties. The material is based upon work supported by NASA under award NNX12AP58G, with equipment and assistance also provided by CTEMPs.org with support from the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1129003. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of NASA or the National Science Foundation. Sayde, C., J. Benitez Buelga, L. Rodriguez-Sinobas, L. El Khoury, M. English, N. van de Giesen, and J.S. Selker (2014). Mapping Variability of Soil Water Content and Flux

  11. Large scale study on measurement of respiration activity (AT(4)) by Sapromat and OxiTop.

    PubMed

    Binner, Erwin; Böhm, Katharina; Lechner, Peter

    2012-10-01

    In the run-up for amending the Austrian landfill ordinance, parameters were developed to assess the stability/reactivity of mechanically-biologically pretreated residual wastes. The Landfill Ordinance 2008 regulates limit values for Respiration Activity (="Atmungsaktivität") RA(4) (AT(4))<7mgO(2)*(g dry matter (DM))(-1), Gas Generation Sum GS(21)<20Nl*kgDM(-1) and alternatively Gas Evolution (="Gasbildung") GB(21)<20Nl*kgDM(-1). Methods for analysing these parameters were established by the Austrian Standards Institute (2004). As laboratory practice shows, these methods also are used for the assessment of other wastes (sewage sludge, commercial waste, material from abandoned sites, biowaste compost). For measurement of respiration activity in Austria mainly two methods are used: the Sapromat®-method and the OxiTop®-method. Whether respectively to what extent these two methods give same results, is discussed in this paper. Since 2009 at ABF-BOKU 169 respiration activity tests of samples taken from different stages of MBT - as well as biowaste composting processes, materials from landfills as well as abandoned sites and residues from anaerobic treatment plants were analysed parallel by Sapromat® and OxiTop®. The results manifest very strong correlation between the Sapromat® and OxiTop® method. The correlation coefficient is 0.993. As a very clear tendency OxiTop® gives lower amounts than Sapromat®. In average the lower values of OxiTop® are around 88%.

  12. A genome scale overexpression screen to reveal drug activity in human cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Target identification is a critical step in the lengthy and expensive process of drug development. Here, we describe a genome-wide screening platform that uses systematic overexpression of pooled human ORFs to understand drug mode-of-action and resistance mechanisms. We first calibrated our screen with the well-characterized drug methotrexate. We then identified new genes involved in the bioactivity of diverse drugs including antineoplastic agents and biologically active molecules. Finally, we focused on the transcription factor RHOXF2 whose overexpression conferred resistance to DNA damaging agents. This approach represents an orthogonal method for functional screening and, to our knowledge, has never been reported before. PMID:24944581

  13. Active and passive acoustic imaging inside a large-scale polyaxial hydraulic fracture test

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, S.D.; Dudley, J.W. II; Shlyapobersky, J.

    1999-07-01

    An automated laboratory hydraulic fracture experiment has been assembled to determine what rock and treatment parameters are crucial to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of field hydraulic fractures. To this end a large (460 mm cubic sample) polyaxial cell, with servo-controlled X,Y,Z, pore pressure, crack-mouth-opening-displacement, and bottom hole pressure, was built. Active imaging with embedded seismic diffraction arrays images the geometry of the fracture. Preliminary tests indicate fracture extent can be imaged to within 5%. Unique embeddible high-fidelity particle velocity AE sensors were designed and calibrated to allow determination of fracture source kinematics.

  14. Cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr) scale of pain assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bussotti, Edna Aparecida; Guinsburg, Ruth; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to perform the translation into Brazilian Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr) scale, with children under 18 years old, affected by cerebral palsy, presenting or not cognitive impairment and unable to report their pain. Method: methodological development study of translation into Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. After approval by the ethics committee, the process aimed at translation and back-translation, evaluation of translation and back-translation using the Delphi technique and assessment of cultural equivalence. The process included the five categories of the scale and the four application instructions, considering levels of agreement equal to or greater than 80%. Results: it was necessary three rounds of the Delphi technique to achieve consensus among experts. The agreement achieved for the five categories was: Face 95.5%, Legs 90%, Activity 94.4%, Cry 94.4% and Consolability 99.4%. The four instructions achieved the following consensus levels: 1st 99.1%, 2nd 99.2%, 3rd 99.1% and 4th 98.3%. Conclusion: the method enabled the translation and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. This is a study able to expand the knowledge of Brazilian professionals on pain assessment in children with CP PMID:26444167

  15. Large-scale clustering of broad-line Active Galactic Nuclei at low redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumpe, Mirko; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Coil, Alison; Husemann, Bernd; Fanidakis, Nikolaos; Aceves, Hector

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade, large area surveys (e.g., SDSS, 2dF, XMM-COSMOS) significantly improved AGN clustering measurements, which now provide tight constraints on the mass of the hosting dark matter halos (as a function of AGN luminosity, type, and redshift), the environment in which super massive black hole accretion takes place, and the co-evolution of galaxies and AGN.I will report on a series of papers in which we study the large-scale clustering of broad-line optical and X-ray AGN through cross-correlation measurements with SDSS galaxies. With three independent measurements, we cover a redshift range of z=0.07-0.50. We find an X-ray luminosity dependence in the clustering amplitude of X-ray selected broad-line AGN. X-ray and optically selected broad-line AGN do not show significant differences in the clustering strengths at low redshifts. We apply Halo Occupation Distribution modeling and determined constraints on the distribution of AGN among dark matter halos as a function of their mass. At z~0.3, the AGN fraction decreases with increasing DMH mass. I will also present our newest results on the origin of the X-ray luminosity dependence of broad-line AGN clustering. The mass of supermassive black holes drives the dependence, while no dependence on L/L_EDD is found. Thus, more massive black holes reside in more massive dark matter halos. We also compare our results to state-of-the-art cosmological simulations and find good agreement.

  16. Biogenic nano-scale silver particles by Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract and their inborn antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajitha, B.; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y.; Reddy, P. Sreedhara

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract. The biomolecules present in the leaf extract are responsible for the formation of Ag NPs and they found to play dual role of both reducing as well as capping agents. The high crystallinity of Ag NPs is evident from bright circular spot array of SAED pattern and diffraction peaks in XRD profile. The synthesized Ag NPs are found to be nearly spherical ones with size approximately ∼20 nm. FTIR spectrum evidences the presence of different functional groups of biomolecules participated in encapsulating Ag NPs and the possible mechanism of Ag NPs formation was also suggested. Appearance of yellow color and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 425 nm confirms the Ag NPs formation. PL spectra showed decrement in luminescence intensity at higher excitation wavelengths. Antimicrobial activity of Ag NPs showed better inhibitory activity towards Pseudomonas spp. and Penicillium spp. compared to other test pathogens using standard Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay.

  17. Hashing hyperplane queries to near points with applications to large-scale active learning.

    PubMed

    Vijayanarasimhan, Sudheendra; Jain, Prateek; Grauman, Kristen

    2014-02-01

    We consider the problem of retrieving the database points nearest to a given hyperplane query without exhaustively scanning the entire database. For this problem, we propose two hashing-based solutions. Our first approach maps the data to 2-bit binary keys that are locality sensitive for the angle between the hyperplane normal and a database point. Our second approach embeds the data into a vector space where the euclidean norm reflects the desired distance between the original points and hyperplane query. Both use hashing to retrieve near points in sublinear time. Our first method's preprocessing stage is more efficient, while the second has stronger accuracy guarantees. We apply both to pool-based active learning: Taking the current hyperplane classifier as a query, our algorithm identifies those points (approximately) satisfying the well-known minimal distance-to-hyperplane selection criterion. We empirically demonstrate our methods' tradeoffs and show that they make it practical to perform active selection with millions of unlabeled points.

  18. What kind of noise is brain noise: anomalous scaling behavior of the resting brain activity fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Fraiman, Daniel; Chialvo, Dante R.

    2012-01-01

    The study of spontaneous fluctuations of brain activity, often referred as brain noise, is getting increasing attention in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Despite important efforts, much of the statistical properties of such fluctuations remain largely unknown. This work scrutinizes these fluctuations looking at specific statistical properties which are relevant to clarify its dynamical origins. Here, three statistical features which clearly differentiate brain data from naive expectations for random processes are uncovered: First, the variance of the fMRI mean signal as a function of the number of averaged voxels remains constant across a wide range of observed clusters sizes. Second, the anomalous behavior of the variance is originated by bursts of synchronized activity across regions, regardless of their widely different sizes. Finally, the correlation length (i.e., the length at which the correlation strength between two regions vanishes) as well as mutual information diverges with the cluster's size considered, such that arbitrarily large clusters exhibit the same collective dynamics than smaller ones. These three properties are known to be exclusive of complex systems exhibiting critical dynamics, where the spatio-temporal dynamics show these peculiar type of fluctuations. Thus, these findings are fully consistent with previous reports of brain critical dynamics, and are relevant for the interpretation of the role of fluctuations and variability in brain function in health and disease. PMID:22934058

  19. Clinical-scale cultures of cord blood CD34(+) cells to amplify committed progenitors and maintain stem cell activity.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Zoran; Duchez, Pascale; Chevaleyre, Jean; Vlaski, Marija; Lafarge, Xavier; Dazey, Bernard; Robert-Richard, Elodie; Mazurier, Frédéric; Boiron, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    We developed a clinical-scale cord blood (CB) cell ex vivo procedure to enable an extensive expansion of committed progenitors--colony-forming cells (CFCs) without impairing very primitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). CD34(++) cells, selected from previously cryopreserved and thawed CB units, were cultured in two steps (diluted 1:4 after 6 days) in the presence of stem cell factor (SCF), fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt-3L), megakaryocyte growth and development factor (MGDF) (100 ng/ml each), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) (10 ng/ml) in HP01 serum-free medium. HSC activity was evaluated in a serial transplantation assay, by detection of human cells (CD45, CD33, CD19 and CFC of human origin) in bone marrow (BM) of primary and secondary recipient NOD/SCID mice 6-8 weeks after transplantation. A wide amplification of total cells (∼350-fold), CD34(+) cells (∼100-fold), and CFC (∼130-fold) without impairing the HSC activity was obtained. The activity of a particular HSC subpopulation (SRC(CFC)) was even enhanced.Thus, an extensive ex vivo expansion of CFCs is feasible without impairing the activity of HSCs. This result was enabled by associating antioxidant power of medium with an appropriate cytokine cocktail (i.e., mimicking physiologic effects of a weak oxygenation in hematopoietic environment). PMID:21294956

  20. Monitoring the performances of a real scale municipal solid waste composting and a biodrying facility using respiration activity indices.

    PubMed

    Evangelou, Alexandros; Gerassimidou, Spyridoula; Mavrakis, Nikitas; Komilis, Dimitrios

    2016-05-01

    Objective of the work was to monitor two full-scale commingled municipal solid waste (MSW) mechanical and biological pretreatment (MBT) facilities in Greece, namely a biodrying and a composting facility. Monitoring data from a 1.5-year sampling period is presented, whilst microbial respiration indices were used to monitor the decomposition process and the stability status of the wastes in both facilities during the process. Results showed that in the composting facility, the organic matter reduced by 35 % after 8 weeks of combined composting/curing. Material exiting the biocells had a moisture content of less than 30 % (wb) indicating a moisture limitation during the active composting process. The static respiration indexes indicated that some stabilization occurred during the process, but the final material could not be characterized as stable compost. In the biodrying facility, the initial and final moisture contents were 50 % and less than 20 % wb, respectively, and the biodrying index was equal to 4.1 indicating effective biodrying. Lower heating values at the inlet and outlet were approximately 5.5 and 10 MJ/wet kg, respectively. The organic matter was reduced by 20 % during the process and specifically from a range of 63-77 % dw (inlet) to a range of 61-70 % dw. A significant respiration activity reduction was observed for some of the biodrying samples. A statistically significant correlation among all three respiration activity indices was recorded, with the two oxygen related activity indices (CRI7 and SRI24) observing the highest correlation. PMID:27098520