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Sample records for activity eva astronauts

  1. Astronaut Thuot during extravehicular activity (EVA) training in CCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In Space Vehicle Mockup Facility, astronaut Pierre J. Thuot retrieves gear to rehearse a suit donning exercise on the middeck. Thuot's realistic environs are provided by the shuttle crew compartment trainer (CCT). Thuot, mission specialist, and four other NASA astronauts will spend two weeks in space aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia in March of 1994. He and astronaut Andrew M. Allen have been rehearsing contingency space walks. There is no scheduled extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-62 flight.

  2. Extravehicular Activity/Air Traffic Control (EVA/ATC) test report. [communication links to the astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomaro, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    During extravehicular activity (EVA), communications between the EVA astronaut and the space shuttle orbiter are maintained by means of transceiver installed in the environmental support system backpack. Onboard the orbiter, a transceiver line replaceable unit and its associated equipment performs the task of providing a communications link to the astronaut in the extravehicular activity/air traffic control (EVA/ATC) mode. Results of the acceptance tests that performed on the system designed and fabricated for EVA/ATC testing are discussed.

  3. STS-110 Astronaut Jerry Ross Performs Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. In this photograph, Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, anchored on the end of the Canadarm2, moves near the newly installed S0 truss. Astronaut Lee M. E. Morin, mission specialist, (out of frame), worked in tandem with Ross during this fourth and final scheduled session of EVA for the STS-110 mission. The final major task of the space walk was the installation of a beam, the Airlock Spur, between the Quest Airlock and the S0. The spur will be used by space walkers in the future as a path from the airlock to the truss.

  4. STS-61B Astronaut Spring During EASE Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Spring was working on the EASE during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  5. Testing and evaluation for astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) operability.

    PubMed

    Shields, N; King, L C

    1998-09-01

    Because it is the human component that defines space mission success, careful planning is required to ensure that hardware can be operated and maintained by crews on-orbit. Several methods exist to allow researchers and designers to better predict how hardware designs will behave under the harsh environment of low Earth orbit, and whether designs incorporate the necessary features for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) operability. Testing under conditions of simulated microgravity can occur during the design concept phase when verifying design operability, during mission training, or concurrently with on-orbit mission operations. The bulk of testing is focused on normal operations, but also includes evaluation of credible mission contingencies or "what would happen if" planning. The astronauts and cosmonauts who fly these space missions are well prepared and trained to survive and be productive in Earth's orbit. The engineers, designers, and training crews involved in space missions subject themselves to Earth based simulation techniques that also expose them to extreme environments. Aircraft falling ten thousand feet, alternating g-loads, underwater testing at 45 foot depth, enclosure in a vacuum chamber and subject to thermal extremes, each carries with it inherent risks to the humans preparing for space missions. PMID:12190075

  6. Astronaut Allen during extravehicular activity (EVA) training in CCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In the JSC Space Vehicle Mockup Facility, astronaut Andrew M. Allen retrieves gear to rehearse a suit-donning exercise on the middeck. Allen's very realistic environs are provided by the shuttle crew compartment trainer (CCT).

  7. Preparing for space - EVA training at the European Astronaut Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolender, Hans; Stevenin, Hervé; Bessone, Loredana; Torres, Antonio

    2006-11-01

    The European Astronaut Centre has developed an Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training course for ESA astronauts to bridge the gap between their scuba diving certification and the spacesuit qualification provided by NASA. ESA astronauts André Kuipers and Frank De Winne have already completed this "EVA Pre-Familiarisation Training Programme" before their training at NASA. In June 2006, an international crew of experienced EVA astronauts approved the course as good preparation for suited EVA training; they recommended that portions of it be used to help maintain EVA proficiency for astronauts.

  8. Astronauts Allen and Gemar during extravehicular activity (EVA) training in CCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts Charles D. (Sam) Gemar, and Andrew M. Allen participate in a training exercise at JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT), located in the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility. Gemar sits inside the airlock as Allen reviews procedures for EVA.

  9. Compiling a Comprehensive EVA Training Dataset for NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murry, J. D.; Lee, L. R.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Training for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) is considered hazardous duty for NASA astronauts. This activity places astronauts at risk for decompression sickness as well as various musculoskeletal disorders from working in the spacesuit. As a result, the operational and research communities over the years have requested access to EVA training data to supplement their studies.

  10. Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'for sale' sign. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV, who also participated in the two EVA's, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft.

  11. Astronaut Jack Lousma seen outside Skylab space station during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, is seen outside the Skylab space station in Earth orbit during the August 5, 1973 Skylab 3 extravehicular activity (EVA) in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the space station. Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, participated in the EVA with Lousma. During the EVA the two crewmen deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop.

  12. Dynamic analysis of astronaut motions in microgravity: Applications for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava J.

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of astronaut motions during extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks were performed using computational multibody dynamics methods. The application of computational dynamic simulation to EVA was prompted by the realization that physical microgravity simulators have inherent limitations: viscosity in neutral buoyancy tanks; friction in air bearing floors; short duration for parabolic aircraft; and inertia and friction in suspension mechanisms. These limitations can mask critical dynamic effects that later cause problems during actual EVA's performed in space. Methods of formulating dynamic equations of motion for multibody systems are discussed with emphasis on Kane's method, which forms the basis of the simulations presented herein. Formulation of the equations of motion for a two degree of freedom arm is presented as an explicit example. The four basic steps in creating the computational simulations were: system description, in which the geometry, mass properties, and interconnection of system bodies are input to the computer; equation formulation based on the system description; inverse kinematics, in which the angles, velocities, and accelerations of joints are calculated for prescribed motion of the endpoint (hand) of the arm; and inverse dynamics, in which joint torques are calculated for a prescribed motion. A graphical animation and data plotting program, EVADS (EVA Dynamics Simulation), was developed and used to analyze the results of the simulations that were performed on a Silicon Graphics Indigo2 computer. EVA tasks involving manipulation of the Spartan 204 free flying astronomy payload, as performed during Space Shuttle mission STS-63 (February 1995), served as the subject for two dynamic simulations. An EVA crewmember was modeled as a seven segment system with an eighth segment representing the massive payload attached to the hand. For both simulations, the initial configuration of the lower body (trunk, upper leg, and lower leg) was a neutral

  13. Astronaut Richard Gordon returns to hatch of spacecraft following EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., pilot for the Gemini 11 space flight, returns to the hatch of the spacecraft following extravehicular activity (EVA). This picture was taken over the Atlantic Ocean at approximately 160 nautical miles above the earth's surface.

  14. Astronauts Meade tests SAFER system during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Carl J. Meade tests the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system some 130 nautical miles above Earth. The end of the Remote Manipulator System's (RMS) robot arm, with an unoccupied foot restraint attached, is at frame's edge.

  15. Astronaut Alan Shepard walks toward MET during first EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., foreground, Apollo 14 commander, walks toward the Modularized Equipment Transporter (MET), out of view at right, during the first Apollo 14 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). An EVA checklist is attached to Shepard's left wrist. Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, is in the background working at a subpackage of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The cylindrical keg-like object directly under Mitchell's extended left hand is the Passive Seismic Experiment (PSE).

  16. Astronaut Richard Gordon practices attaching camera to film EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., prime crew pilot for the Gemini 11 space flight, practices attaching to a Gemini boilerplate a camera which will film his extravehicular activity (EVA) outside the spacecraft. The training exercise is being conducted in the Astronaut Training Building, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  17. Astronauts Readdy, Walz, and Newman in airlock after EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In Discovery's airlock, astronaut William F. Readdy, pilot, holds up a STS-51 slogan -- 'Ace HST Tool Testers' -- for still and video cameras to record. Readdy is flanked by astronauts Carl E. Walz (left) and James H. Newman, who had just shared a lengthy period of extravehicular activity (EVA) in and around Discovery's cargo bay.

  18. STS-112 Astronaut Wolf Participates in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, participates in the mission's second session of extravehicular activity (EVA), a six hour, four minute space walk, in which an exterior station television camera was installed outside of the Destiny Laboratory. Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three EVA sessions. Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  19. STS-112 Astronaut Wolf Participates in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Anchored to a foot restraint on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm2, astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, participates in the mission's first session of extravehicular activity (EVA). Wolf is carrying the Starboard One (S1) outboard nadir external camera which was installed on the end of the S1 Truss on the International Space Station (ISS). Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three EVAs. Its primary mission was to install the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  20. Astronaut Sellers Performs STS-112 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard Side Integrated Truss Structure (S1) and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. In this photograph, Astronaut Piers J. Sellers uses both a handrail on the Destiny Laboratory and a foot restraint on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System or Canadarm2 to remain stationary while performing work at the end of the STS-112 mission's second space walk. A cloud-covered Earth provides the backdrop for the scene.

  1. Astronaut Ronald Evans photographed during transearth coast EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Ronald E. Evans is photographed performing extravehicular activity (EVA) during the Apollo 17 spacecraft's transearth coast. During his EVA Command Module pilot Evans retrieved film cassettes from the Lunar Sounder, Mapping Camera, and Panoramic Camera. The cylindrical object at Evans left side is the mapping camera cassette. The total time for the transearth EVA was one hour seven minutes 19 seconds, starting at ground elapsed time of 257:25 (2:28 p.m.) amd ending at ground elapsed time of 258:42 (3:35 p.m.) on Sunday, December 17, 1972.

  2. Astronaut Ronald Evans photographed during transearth coast EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Ronald E. Evans is photographed performing extravehicular activity (EVA) during the Apollo 17 spacecraft's transearth coast. During his EVA Command Module pilot Evans retrieved film cassettes from the Lunar Sounder, Mapping Camera, and Panoramic Camera. The total time for the transearth EVA was one hour seven minutes 19 seconds, starting at ground elapsed time of 257:25 (2:28 p.m.) amd ending at ground elapsed time of 258:42 (3:35 p.m.) on Sunday, December 17, 1972.

  3. Astronaut Alan Bean with subpackages of the ALSEP during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, traverses with the two subpackages of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA). Bean deployed the ALSEP components 300 feet from the Lunar Module (LM). The LM and deployed erectable S-band antenna can be seen in the background.

  4. Television transmission of Astronaut Harrison Schmitt falling during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt loses his balance and heads for a fall during the second Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site, in this black and white reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot.

  5. Astronaut Thomas Mattingly performs EVA during Apollo 16 transearth coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, performs extravehicular activity (EVA) during the Apollo 16 transearth coast. mattingly is assisted by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Mattingly inspected the SIM bay of the Service Module, and retrieved film from the Mapping and Panoramic cameras. Mattingly is wearing the helmet of Astronaut John W. Young, commander. The helmet's lunar extravehicular visor assembly helped protect Mattingly's eyes frmo the bright sun. This view is a frame from motion picture film exposed by a 16mm Maurer camera.

  6. Compiling a Comprehensive EVA Training Dataset for NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Lee, L. R.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Training for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) is considered a hazardous duty for NASA astronauts. This places astronauts at risk for decompression sickness as well as various musculoskeletal disorders from working in the spacesuit. As a result, the operational and research communities over the years have requested access to EVA training data to supplement their studies. The purpose of this paper is to document the comprehensive EVA training data set that was compiled from multiple sources by the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) epidemiologists to investigate musculoskeletal injuries. The EVA training dataset does not contain any medical data, rather it only documents when EVA training was performed, by whom and other details about the session. The first activities practicing EVA maneuvers in water were performed at the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at the Marshall Spaceflight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. This facility opened in 1967 and was used for EVA training until the early Space Shuttle program days. Although several photographs show astronauts performing EVA training in the NBS, records detailing who performed the training and the frequency of training are unavailable. Paper training records were stored within the NBS after it was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1985 and closed in 1997, but significant resources would be needed to identify and secure these records, and at this time LSAH has not pursued acquisition of these early training records. Training in the NBS decreased when the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, opened the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) in 1980. Early training records from the WETF consist of 11 hand-written dive logbooks compiled by individual workers that were digitized at the request of LSAH. The WETF was integral in the training for Space Shuttle EVAs until its closure in 1998. The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the Sonny Carter Training Facility near JSC

  7. Shoulder Injuries in US Astronauts Related to EVA Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, R. A.; McCulloch, P.; Van Baalen, Mary; Minard, Charles; Watson, Richard; Blatt, T.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: For every one hour spent performing extravehicular activity (EVA) in space, astronauts in the US space program spend approximately six to ten hours training in the EVA spacesuit at NASA-Johnson Space Center's Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL). In 1997, NASA introduced the planar hard upper torso (HUT) EVA spacesuit which subsequently replaced the existing pivoted HUT. An extra joint in the pivoted shoulder allows increased mobility but also increased complexity. Over the next decade a number of astronauts developed shoulder problems requiring surgical intervention, many of whom performed EVA training in the NBL. This study investigated whether changing HUT designs led to shoulder injuries requiring surgical repair. Methods: US astronaut EVA training data and spacesuit design employed were analyzed from the NBL data. Shoulder surgery data was acquired from the medical record database, and causal mechanisms were obtained from personal interviews Analysis of the individual HUT designs was performed as it related to normal shoulder biomechanics. Results: To date, 23 US astronauts have required 25 shoulder surgeries. Approximately 48% (11/23) directly attributed their injury to training in the planar HUT, whereas none attributed their injury to training in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT design limits shoulder abduction to 90 degrees compared to approximately 120 degrees in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT also forces the shoulder into a forward flexed position requiring active retraction and extension to increase abduction beyond 90 degrees. Discussion: Multiple factors are associated with mechanisms leading to shoulder injury requiring surgical repair. Limitations to normal shoulder mechanics, suit fit, donning/doffing, body position, pre-existing injury, tool weight and configuration, age, in-suit activity, and HUT design have all been identified as potential sources of injury. Conclusion: Crewmembers with pre-existing or current shoulder injuries or certain

  8. Astronaut Jack Lousma seen outside Skylab space station during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, is seen outside the Skylab space station in Earth orbit during the August 5, 1973 Skylab 3 extravehicular activity (EVA) in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the space station. Lousma is at the Apollo Telescope Mount EVA work station assembling one of the two 55-foot long sectionalized poles for the twin pole solar shield which was deployed to help cool the Orbital Workshop. Part of the Airlock Module's thermal/meteoroid curtain is in the left foreground.

  9. STS-117 Astronauts Patrick Forrester and Steven Swanson During EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists Patrick Forrester and Steven Swanson (out of frame), participated in the second Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) as construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS). Among other tasks, the two removed all of the launch locks holding the 10 foot wide solar alpha rotary joint in place and began the solar array retraction. The primary mission objective was the installment of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4).

  10. Astronaut George Nelson uses one-G version of MMU to prepare for EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut George D. Nelson, 41-C mission specialist, uses a one-G version of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) to prepare for his upcoming extravehicular activity (EVA). The simulator is located in JSC's avionics systems laboratory.

  11. Astronaut Russell Schweickart photographed during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, stands in 'golden slippers' on the Lunar Module 3 porch during his extravehicular activity on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. This photograph was taken from inside the Lunar Module 'Spider'. The Command/Service Module and Lunar Module were docked. Schweickart is wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU).

  12. Underwater EVA training in the WETF with astronaut Robert L. Stewart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) training in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) with astronaut Robert L. Stewart. Stewart is simulating a planned EVA using the mobile foot restraint device and a one-G version of the Canadian-built remote manipulator system.

  13. Astronaut Joseph Kerwin during EVA at Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot, performs extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the station. Kerwin is just outside the Airlock Module. Kerwin assisted Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, during the successful EVA attempt to free the stuck solar array system wing on the Orbital Workshop.

  14. STS-118 Astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Clay Anderson Perform EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    As the construction continued on the International Space Station (ISS), STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist Rick Mastracchio was anchored on the foot restraint of the Canadarm2 as he participated in the third session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) for the mission. Assisting Mastracchio was Expedition 15 flight engineer Clay Anderson (out of frame). During the 5 hour, 28 minute space walk, the two relocated the S-band Antenna Sub-Assembly from the Port 6 (P6) truss to the Port 1 (P1) truss, installed a new transponder on P1 and retrieved the P6 transponder.

  15. STS-117 Astronauts John Olivas and Jim Reilly During EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists Jim Reilly (center frame), and John 'Danny' Olivas (bottom center), participated in the first Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) as construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS). Among other tasks, the two connected power, data, and cooling cables between trusses 1 (S1) and 3 (S3), released the launch restraints from and deployed the four solar array blanket boxes on S4, and released the cinches and winches holding the photovoltaic radiator on S4. The primary mission objective was the installment of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4).

  16. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys ALSEP during first Apollo 12 EVA on moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Apollo 12 lunar module pilot, deploys components of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the moon. The photo was made by Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Apollo 12 commander, using a 70mm handheld Haselblad camera modified for lunar surface usage.

  17. Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, participates in the August 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the striking reflection of the Earth in Lousma's helmet visor.

  18. Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, participates in the August 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and Astronauts Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the reflection of the Apollo Telescope Mount and the Earth in Lousma's helmet visor.

  19. Astronaut Owen Garriott participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, participates in the August 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and Astronaut Jack Lousma, Skylab pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the reflection of the solar shield in Garriett's helmet visor.

  20. Astronauts Carl Meade and Mark Lee test SAFER during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Backdropped against the darkness of space some 130 nautical miles above Earth, astronaut Mark C. Lee (red stripe on EVA suit) tests the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. Astronaut Carl J. Meade, tethered to Discovery, at bottom center, got his turn later using the new SAFER hardware. The scen was captured with a 70mm handheld Hasselblad camera operated by a fellow crew member in the shirt-sleeve environment of the Space Shuttle Discovery's cabin. Part of the hardware for the Lidar-In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) is in left foreground.

  1. STS-117 Astronauts John Olivas and Jim Reilly During EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists Jim Reilly (out of frame), and John 'Danny' Olivas (partially obscured, center), participated in the first Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) as construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS). Among other tasks, the two connected power, data, and cooling cables between trusses 1 (S1) and 3 (S3), released the launch restraints from and deployed the four solar array blanket boxes on S4, and released the cinches and winches holding the photovoltaic radiator on S4. The primary mission objective was the installment of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4). The horizon of Earth and a crescent moon are visible on the right.

  2. Astronaut Mark Lee floats free of tether during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Mark C. Lee tests the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system 130 nautical miles above Earth. The forward cargo bay is reflected in Lee's helmet visor in the 35mm frame, exposed through the Space Shuttle Discovery's aft flight deck windows. Part of the hardware for the LIDAR-in-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is in center foreground.

  3. Astronaut Mark Lee test SAFER system during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Backdropped against the blue and white Earth, 130 nautical miles below, astronaut Mark C. Lee test the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. The scen was captured with a 70mm handheld Hasselblad camera with a 30mm lens attached.

  4. Astronaut EVA exposure estimates from CAD model spacesuit geometry.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Anderson, Brooke M; Atwell, William; Nealy, John E; Qualls, Garry D; Wilson, John W

    2004-03-01

    Ongoing assembly and maintenance activities at the International Space Station (ISS) require much more extravehicular activity (EVA) than did the earlier U.S. Space Shuttle missions. It is thus desirable to determine and analyze, and possibly foresee, as accurately as possible what radiation exposures crew members involved in EVAs will experience in order to minimize risks and to establish exposure limits that must not to be exceeded. A detailed CAD model of the U.S. Space Shuttle EVA Spacesuit, developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), is used to represent the directional shielding of an astronaut; it has detailed helmet and backpack structures, hard upper torso, and multilayer space suit fabric material. The NASA Computerized Anatomical Male and Female (CAM and CAF) models are used in conjunction with the space suit CAD model for dose evaluation within the human body. The particle environments are taken from the orbit-averaged NASA AP8 and AE8 models at solar cycle maxima and minima. The transport of energetic particles through space suit materials and body tissue is calculated by using the NASA LaRC HZETRN code for hadrons and a recently developed deterministic transport code, ELTRN, for electrons. The doses within the CAM and CAF models are determined from energy deposition at given target points along 968 directional rays convergent on the points and are evaluated for several points on the skin and within the body. Dosimetric quantities include contributions from primary protons, light ions, and electrons, as well as from secondary brehmsstrahlung and target fragments. Directional dose patterns are displayed as rays and on spherical surfaces by the use of a color relative intensity representation. PMID:15133283

  5. Astronaut James Irwin gives salute beside U.S. flag during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, gives a military salute while standing beside the deployed U.S. flag during the Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Hadley-Apennine landing site. The flag was deployed toward the end of EVA-2. The Lunar Module 'Falcon' is partially visible on the right. Hadley Delta in the background rises approximately 4,000 meters (about 13,124 feet) above the plain. The base of the mountain is approximately 5 kilometers (about 3 statute miles) away. This photograph was taken by Astronaut David R. Scott, Apollo 15 commander.

  6. Astronaut David Scott gives salute beside U.S. flag during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut David R. Scott, commander, gives a military salute while standing beside the deployed U.S. flag during the Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Hadley-Apennine landing site. The flag was deployed toward the end of EVA-2. The Lunar Module 'Falcon' is partially visible on the right. Hadley Delta in the background rises approximately 4,000 meters (about 13,124 feet) above the plain. The base of the mountain is approximately 5 kilometers (about 3 statute miles) away. This photograph was taken by Astronaut James B. Irwin, Lunar Module pilot.

  7. Apollo 13 astronauts participate in walk-through of EVA timeline at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., commander of the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission, participates in a walk-through of the extravehicular activity (EVA) timeline at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Here, Lovell, using mock-ups, traverses with the two subpackages of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). Astronaut Fred W. Haise Jr., lunar Module Pilot, is standing in the left background (29672); Haise participates in a walk-through of the EVA timeline at KSC. Here, Haise uses an Apollo Lunar Surface Drill to dig a three-meter heat flow probe hole (29673).

  8. Astronaut John Young reaches for tools in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, reaches for tools in the Apollo lunar hand tool carrier at the aft end of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. This view is looking south from the base of Stone Mountain.

  9. Astronaut John Young replaces tools in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, replaces tools in the Apollo lunar hand tool carrier at the aft end of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Smoky Mountain, with the large Ravine crater on its flank, is in the left background. This view is looking northeast.

  10. Astronaut Story Musgrave during STS-6 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut F. Story Musgrave, STS-6 mission specialist, translates down the Challenger's payload bay door hinge line with a bag of latch tools. In the lower left foreground are three canisters containing three getaway special (GAS) experiments. Part of the starboard wing and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod are seen backdropped against the blackness of space. The gold-foil protected object on the right is the airborne support equipment for the now vacated inertial upper stage (IUS) which aided the deployment of the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS).

  11. A new method of measuring the stiffness of astronauts' EVA gloves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Mehdi; Appendino, Silvia; Battezzato, Alessandro; Bonanno, Alberto; Chen Chen, Fai; Crepaldi, Marco; Demarchi, Danilo; Favetto, Alain; Pescarmona, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Hand fatigue is one of the most important problems of astronauts during their missions to space. This fatigue is due to the stiffness of the astronauts' gloves known as Extravehicular Activity (EVA) gloves. The EVA glove has a multilayered, bulky structure and is pressurized against the vacuum of space. In order to evaluate the stiffness of EVA gloves, different methods have been proposed in the past. In particular, the effects of wearing an EVA glove on the performance of the hands have been published by many researchers to represent the stiffness of the EVA glove. In this paper, a new method for measuring the stiffness of EVA gloves is proposed. A tendon-actuated finger probe is designed and used as an alternative to the human index finger in order to be placed inside an EVA glove and measure its stiffness. The finger probe is equipped with accelerometers, which work as tilt sensors, to measure the angles of its phalanges. The phalanges are actuated by applying different amount of torque using the tendons of the finger probe. Moreover, a hypobaric glove box is designed and realized to simulate the actual operating pressure of the EVA glove and to measure its stiffness in both pressurized and non-pressurized conditions. In order to prove the right performance of the proposed finger probe, an Orlam-DM EVA glove is used to perform a number of tests. The equation of stiffness for the PIP joint of this glove is extracted from the results acquired from the tests. This equation presents the torque required to flex the middle phalanx of the glove. Then, the effect of pressurization on the stiffness is highlighted in the last section. This setup can be used to measure the stiffness of different kinds of EVA gloves and allows direct, numerical comparison of their stiffness.

  12. Astronaut David Wolf participates in training for contingency EVA in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf participates in training for contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-58 mission. The mission specialist was about to be submerged to a point of neutral buoyancy in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). In this view, Wolf is aided by technicians in donning the gloves for his extravehicular mobility unit (EMU).

  13. Astronaut William S. McArthur in training for contingency EVA in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut William S. McArthur, mission specialist, participates in training for contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-58 mission. He is wearing the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) minus his helmet. For simulation purposes, McArthur was about to be submerged to a point of neutral buoyancy in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF).

  14. Astronaut Shannon Lucid in training for contingency EVA for STS-58 in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Shannon W. Lucid participates in training for contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-58 mission. For simulation purposes, the mission specialist is about to be submerged to a point of neutral buoyancy in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF).

  15. Astronauts Carl Meade and Mark Lee test SAFER during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts Carl J. Meade and Mark C. Lee (red stripe on suit) test the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system some 130 nautical miles from Earth. The pair was actually performing an in-space rehearsal or demonstration of a contingency rescue using the never-before flown hardware. Meade, who here wears the small back-pack unit with its complementary chest-mounted control unit, and Lee, anchored to Discovery's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robot arm, took turns using the SAFER hardware during their shared space walk of September 16, 1994.

  16. Astronauts Meade and Lee test SAFER system during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts Carl J. Meade and Mark C. Lee (red strip on suit) test the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system some 130 nautical miles above Earth. The pair was actually performing an in-space rehearsal or demonstration of a contingency rescue using the never-before flown hardware. Meade, who here wears the small back-pack unit with its complementary chest-mounted control unit, and Lee (anchored to the Space Shuttle Discovery's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robot arm) took turns using the SAFER hardware during their shared space walk.

  17. Use of the Remote Access Virtual Environment Network (RAVEN) for coordinated IVA-EVA astronaut training and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cater, J P; Huffman, S D

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a unique virtual reality training and assessment tool developed under a NASA grant, "Research in Human Factors Aspects of Enhanced Virtual Environments for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Training and Simulation." The Remote Access Virtual Environment Network (RAVEN) was created to train and evaluate the verbal, mental and physical coordination required between the intravehicular (IVA) astronaut operating the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm and the EVA astronaut standing in foot restraints on the end of the RMS. The RAVEN system currently allows the EVA astronaut to approach the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) under control of the IVA astronaut and grasp, remove, and replace the Wide Field Planetary Camera drawer from its location in the HST. Two viewpoints, one stereoscopic and one monoscopic, were created all linked by Ethernet, that provided the two trainees with the appropriate training environments. PMID:11539288

  18. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 101: Constellation EVA Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Nicole C.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Why do we need space suits? 2) Protection From the Environment; 3) Primary Life Support System (PLSS); 4) Thermal Control; 5) Communications; 6) Helmet and Extravehicular Visor Assy; 7) Hard Upper Torso (HUT) and Arm Assy; 8) Display and Controls Module (DCM); 9) Gloves; 10) Lower Torso Assembly (LTA); 11) What Size Do You Need?; 12) Boot and Sizing Insert; 13) Boot Heel Clip and Foot Restraint; 14) Advanced and Crew Escape Suit; 15) Nominal & Off-Nominal Landing; 16) Gemini Program (mid-1960s); 17) Apollo EVA on Service Module; 18) A Bold Vision for Space Exploration, Authorized by Congress; 19) EVA System Missions; 20) Configurations; 21) Reduced Gravity Program; and 22) Other Opportunities.

  19. Astronaut John Young looks over a boulder at Station no. 13 during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, looks over a large boulder at Station No. 13 during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This was the site of the permanently shadowed soil sample which was taken from a hole extending under overhanging rock. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this photograph. Concerning Young's reaching under the big rock, Duke remarked: 'You do that in west Texas and you get a rattlesnake!'

  20. Astronaut David Wolf participates in training for contingency EVA in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf participates in training for contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-58 mission. The mission specialist was about to be submerged ito a point of neutral buoyancy in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). In this view, Wolf is displaying the flexibility of his training version of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) by lifting his arms above his head (31701); Wolf waves to the camera before he is submerged in the WETF (31702).

  1. Astronaut Jack Lousma hooks up cable for rate gyro six pack during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, hooks up a 23 ft. 2 in. connecting cable for the rate gyro six pack during extravehicular activity (EVA) on August 24, 1973, as senn in this photographic reproduction taken from a color television tranmsission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The rate gyros were mounted inside the Multiple Docking Adapter opposite the Apollo Telescope Mount control and display console.

  2. STS-57 astronauts Low and Wisoff perform DTO 1210 EVA in OV-105's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    During STS-57 extravehicular activity (EVA), Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low (foreground) and MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff work along the port side sill longeron in the payload bay (PLB) of the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Low will secure a portable foot restraint (PFR) (manipulator foot restraint (MFR)) to the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector (deployed behind the two astronauts) using a PFR attachment device (PAD). This EVA, designated Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 1210, included evaluation of procedures being developed to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on mission STS-61 in December 1993. Visible in OV-105's PLB are (front to back) the SPACEHAB-01 module (Commercial Middeck Augmentation Module (CMAM)), the Superhelium Onorbit Transfer (SHOOT) liquid helium dewar assembly, and the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) spacecraft. The scene is backdropped against the Earth's surface.

  3. STS-118 Astronaut Williams and Expedition 15 Engineer Anderson Perform EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    As the construction continued on the International Space Station (ISS), STS-118 Astronaut Dave Williams, representing the Canadian Space Agency, participated in the fourth and final session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). During the 5 hour space walk, Williams and Expedition 15 engineer Clay Anderson (out of frame) installed the External Wireless Instrumentation System Antenna, attached a stand for the shuttle robotic arm extension boom, and retrieved the two Materials International Space Station Experiments (MISSE) for return to Earth. MISSE collects information on how different materials weather in the environment of space.

  4. Astronaut Charles Duke near Lunar Roving Vehicle at Station no. 4 during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, stands near the Lunar Roving Vehicle at Station no. 4, near Stone Mountain, during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. Light rays from South Ray crater can be seen at upper left. The gnomon, which is used as a photographic reference to establish local vertical Sun angle, scale, and lunar color, is deployed in the center foreground. Note angularity of rocks in the area.

  5. Interviews with the Apollo lunar surface astronauts in support of planning for EVA systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.; Eppler, Dean B.; Morrow, Daniel G.

    1994-01-01

    Focused interviews were conducted with the Apollo astronauts who landed on the moon. The purpose of these interviews was to help define extravehicular activity (EVA) system requirements for future lunar and planetary missions. Information from the interviews was examined with particular attention to identifying areas of consensus, since some commonality of experience is necessary to aid in the design of advanced systems. Results are presented under the following categories: mission approach; mission structure; suits; portable life support systems; dust control; gloves; automation; information, displays, and controls; rovers and remotes; tools; operations; training; and general comments. Research recommendations are offered, along with supporting information.

  6. Astronaut John Young stands at ALSEP deployment site during first EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, stands at the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) deployment site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descartes landing site. The components of the ALSEP are in the background. The lunar surface drill is just behind and to the right of Young. The drill's rack and bore stems are to the left. The three sensor Lunar Surface Magnetometer is beyond the rack. The dark object in the right background is the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). Between the RTG and the drill is the Heat Flow Experiment. A part of the Central Station is at the right center edge of the picture. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot.

  7. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware & Operations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra; Marmolejo, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to: Define Extravehicular Activity (EVA), identify the reasons for conducting an EVA, and review the role that EVA has played in the space program; Identify the types of EVAs that may be performed; Describe some of the U.S. Space Station equipment and tools that are used during an EVA, such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER), the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock and Russian Docking Compartment 1 (DC-1), and EVA Tools & Equipment; Outline the methods and procedures of EVA Preparation, EVA, and Post-EVA operations; Describe the Russian spacesuit used to perform an EVA; Provide a comparison between U.S. and Russian spacesuit hardware and EVA support; and Define the roles that different training facilities play in EVA training.

  8. Active personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straume, Tore; Borak, Tom; Braby, L. A.; Lusby, Terry; Semones, Edward J.; Vazquez, Marcelo E.

    As astronauts return to the Moon-and this time, work for extended periods-there will be a critical need for crew personnel radiation monitoring as they operate lunar rovers or otherwise perform a myriad of extravehicular activities (EVAs). Our focus is on development of a small personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA that responds to the complex radiation quality and changing dose rates on the Moon. Of particular concern are active monitoring capabilities that provide both early warning and radiation dosimetry information during solar particle events (SPEs). To accomplish this, we are developing small detectors integrated with modern high speed, low power microelectronics to measure dose-rate and dose-mean lineal energy in real time. The monitor is designed to perform over the range of dose rates and LETs expected from both GCR and SPE radiations during lunar EVA missions. The monitor design provides simultaneous measurement of dose-equivalent rates at two tissue-equivalent depths simulating skin and marrow. The compact personal monitor is estimated to be the size of a cell phone and would fit on an EVA spacesuit (e.g., in backpack) or in a toolbox. The four-year development effort (which began December 2007) will result in a prototype radiation monitor field tested and characterized for the major radiations expected on the surface of the Moon. We acknowledge support from NSBRI through grants to NASA Ames Research Center (T. Straume, PI) and Colorado State University (T. Borak, PI).

  9. STS-64 Mission Photograph - Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Mark Lee floats freely as he tests the new backpack called the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. SAFER is designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  10. The astronaut and the banana peel: An EVA retriever scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Daniel G.

    1989-01-01

    To prepare for the problem of accidents in Space Station activities, the Extravehicular Activity Retriever (EVAR) robot is being constructed, whose purpose is to retrieve astronauts and tools that float free of the Space Station. Advanced Decision Systems is at the beginning of a project to develop research software capable of guiding EVAR through the retrieval process. This involves addressing problems in machine vision, dexterous manipulation, real time construction of programs via speech input, and reactive execution of plans despite the mishaps and unexpected conditions that arise in uncontrolled domains. The problem analysis phase of this work is presented. An EVAR scenario is used to elucidate major domain and technical problems. An overview of the technical approach to prototyping an EVAR system is also presented.

  11. Astronaut Story Musgrave in payload bay during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman is reflected in the helmet visor of F. Story Musgrave as he photographs the veteran astronaut during one of the pair's three shared spacewalks. Beside Musgrave is the Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC II).

  12. Active Solid State Dosimetry for Lunar EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Chen, Liang-Yu.

    2006-01-01

    The primary threat to astronauts from space radiation is high-energy charged particles, such as electrons, protons, alpha and heavier particles, originating from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs) and trapped radiation belts in Earth orbit. There is also the added threat of secondary neutrons generated as the space radiation interacts with atmosphere, soil and structural materials.[1] For Lunar exploration missions, the habitats and transfer vehicles are expected to provide shielding from standard background radiation. Unfortunately, the Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit is not expected to afford such shielding. Astronauts need to be aware of potentially hazardous conditions in their immediate area on EVA before a health and hardware risk arises. These conditions would include fluctuations of the local radiation field due to changes in the space radiation field and unknown variations in the local surface composition. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.[2

  13. Astronaut Linda Godwin during contingency EVA training in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Linda M. Godwin, payload commander, prepares to be submerged in a 25-feet deep pool at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). STS-59 crewmembers are using the WETF to train for contingency space walks for the shuttle Endeavour mission. Godwin is standing on the platform in the full extravehicular mobility unit (EMU).

  14. Astronaut Linda Godwin during contingency EVA training in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Linda M. Godwin, payload commander, prepares to donn her helmet before being submerged in a 25-feet deep pool at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). STS-59 crewmembers are using the WETF to train for contingency space walks for the shuttle Endeavour mission. Godwin is wearing the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), communication carrier assembly (CCA) but no helmet.

  15. STS-109 Astronaut Michael J. Massimino Peers Into Window of Shuttle During EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-109 Astronauts Michael J. Massimino and James H. Newman were making their second extravehicular activity (EVA) of their mission when astronaut Massimino, mission specialist, peered into Columbia's crew cabin during a brief break from work on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is latched down just a few feet behind him in Columbia's cargo bay. The Space Shuttle Columbia STS-109 mission lifted off March 1, 2002 with goals of repairing and upgrading the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). STS-109 upgrades to the HST included: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most powerful and sophisticated telescope ever built. Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  16. Evidence-Based Approach to the Analysis of Serious Decompression Sickness with Application to EVA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2001-01-01

    It is important to understand the risk of serious hypobaric decompression sickness (DCS) in order to develop procedures and treatment responses to mitigate the risk. Since it is not ethical to conduct prospective tests about serious DCS with humans, the necessary information was gathered from 73 published reports. We hypothesize that a 4-hr 100% oxygen (O2) prebreathe results in a very low risk of serious DCS, and test this through analysis. We evaluated 258 tests containing information from 79,366 exposures in attitude chambers. Serious DCS was documented in 918 men during the tests. Serious DCS are signs and symptoms broadly classified as Type II DCS. A risk function analysis with maximum likelihood optimization was performed to identify significant explanatory variables, and to create a predictive model for the probability of serious DCS [P(serious DCS)]. Useful variables were Tissue Ratio, the planned time spent at altitude (T(sub alt)), and whether or not repetitive exercise was performed at altitude. Tissue Ratio is P1N2/P2, where P1N2 is calculated nitrogen (N2) pressure in a compartment with a 180-min half-time for N2 pressure just before ascent, and P2 is ambient pressure after ascent. A prebreathe and decompression profile Shuttle astronauts use for extravehicular activity (EVA) includes a 4-hr prebreathe with 100% O2, an ascent to P2 = 4.3 lb per sq. in. absolute, and a T(sub alt) = 6 hr. The P(serious DCS) is: 0.0014 (0.00096 - 0.00196, 95% confidence interval) with exercise and 0.00025 (0.00016 - 0.00035) without exercise. Given 100 Shuttle EVAs to date and no report of serious DCS, the true risk is less than 0.03 with 95% confidence (Binomial Theorem). It is problematic to estimate the risk of serious DCS since it appears infrequently, even if the estimate is based on thousands of altitude chamber exposures. The true risk to astronauts may lie between the extremes of the confidence intervals (0.00016 - 0.00196) since the contribution of other factors

  17. Astronaut John Grunsfeld during EVA training in the WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut John M. Grunsfeld, STS-67 mission specialist, gives a salute as he is about to be submerged in a 25-feet deep pool in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). Wearing a special training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit and assisted by several JSC SCUBA-equipped divers, Grunsfeld was later using the pool to rehearse contingency space walk chores.

  18. STS-109 Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut James H. Newman, mission specialist, floats about in the Space Shuttle Columbia's cargo bay while working in tandem with astronaut Michael J. Massimino (out of frame),mission specialist, during the STS-109 mission's second day of extravehicular activity (EVA). Inside Columbia's cabin, astronaut Nancy J. Currie, mission specialist, controlled the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to assist the two in their work on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The RMS was used to capture the telescope and secure it into Columbia's cargo bay.Part of the giant telescope's base, latched down in the payload bay, can be seen behind Newman. The Space Shuttle Columbia STS-109 mission lifted off March 1, 2002 with goals of repairing and upgrading the HST. The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama had responsibility for the design, development, and contruction of the HST, which is the most powerful and sophisticated telescope ever built. STS-109 upgrades to the HST included: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  19. Astronaut Alan Bean steps from ladder of Lunar Module for EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, steps from the ladder of the Lunar Module to join Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander, in extravehicular activity on November 19, 1969. Astronaut Ricard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command/Service Modules in lunar orbit.

  20. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission astronaut Rex J. Walheim, accompanied by astronaut Steven L. Smith (out of frame) translates along the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS) during the third scheduled EVA session. The duo released the locking bolts on the Mobile Transporter and rewired the Station's robotic arm. The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future space walks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-Zero) Truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 truss weighing in at 27,000 pounds was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  1. STS-109 Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Inside the Space Shuttle Columbia's cabin, astronaut Nancy J. Currie, mission specialist, controlled the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) on the crew cabin's aft flight deck to assist fellow astronauts during the STS-109 mission Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA). The RMS was used to capture the telescope and secure it into Columbia's cargo bay. The Space Shuttle Columbia STS-109 mission lifted off March 1, 2002 with goals of repairing and upgrading the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most powerful and sophisticated telescope ever built. STS-109 upgrades to the HST included: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  2. STS-64 Mission Onboard Photograph - Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Mark Lee (red stripe on extravehicular activity suit) tests the new backpack called Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), a system designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The Lidar-In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is shown in the foreground. The LITE payload employs lidar, which stands for light detection and ranging, a type of optical radar using laser pulses instead of radio waves to study Earth's atmosphere. Unprecedented views were obtained of cloud structures, storm systems, dust clouds, pollutants, forest burning, and surface reflectance. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  3. Automatic antenna switching design for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randhawa, Manjit S.

    1987-01-01

    An Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) crewmember had two-way communications with the space station in the Ku-band frequency (12 to 18 GHz). The maximum range of the EVA communications link with the space station is approximately one kilometer for nominal values for transmitter power, antenna gains, and receiver noise figure. The EVA Communications System, that will continue to function regardless of the astronaut's position and orientation, requires an antenna system that has full spherical coverage. Three or more antennas that can be flush mounted on the astronaut's space suit (EMU) and/or his propulsive backpack (MMU), will be needed to provide the desired coverage. As the astronaut moves in the space station, the signal received by a given EVA antenna changes. An automatic antenna switching system is needed that will switch the communication system to the antenna with the largest signal strength. A design for automatic antenna switching is presented and discussed.

  4. Climbing the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Wall - Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuentes, Jose; Greene, Stacie

    2010-01-01

    The success of the EVA team, that includes the EVA project office, Crew Office, Mission Operations, Engineering and Safety, is assured by the full integration of all necessary disciplines. Safety participation in all activities from hardware development concepts, certification and crew training, provides for a strong partnership within the team. Early involvement of Safety on the EVA team has mitigated risk and produced a high degree of mission success.

  5. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission astronauts Steven L. Smith (right) and Rex J. Walheim work in tandem on the third scheduled EVA session in which they released the locking bolts on the Mobile Transporter and rewired the Station's robotic arm (out of frame). Part of the Destiny laboratory and a glimpse of the Earth's horizon are seen in the lower portion of this digital image. The STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) Truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 truss weighing in at 27,000 pounds was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  6. STS-110 Astronaut Morin Totes S0 Keel Pins During EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hovering in space some 240 miles above the blue and white Earth, STS-110 astronaut M.E. Morin participates in his first ever and second of four scheduled space walks for the STS-110 mission. He is seen toting one of the S0 (S-Zero) keel pins which were removed from their functional position on the truss and attached on the truss' exterior for long term stowage. The 43-foot-long, 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the International Space Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. The mission completed the installations and preparations of the S0 truss and the Mobile Transporter within four space walks. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  7. Astronaut David Scott on slope of Hadley Delta during Apollo 15 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut David R. Scott, mission commander, with tongs and gnomon in hand, studies a boulder on the slope of Hadley Delta during the Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity. The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) or Rover is in right foreground. View is looking slightly south of west. 'Bennett Hill' is at extreme right. Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, took this photograph.

  8. Effect of STS space suit on astronaut dominant upper limb EVA work performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenisen, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    The STS Space Suited and unsuited dominant upper limb performance was evaluated in order to quantify future EVA astronaut skeletal muscle upper limb performance expectations. Testing was performed with subjects standing in EVA STS foot restraints. Data was collected with a CYBEX Dynamometer enclosed in a waterproof container. Control data was taken in one g. During one g testing, weight of the Space Suit was relieved from the subject via an overhead crane with a special connection to the PLSS of the suit. Experimental data was acquired during simulated zero g, accomplished by neutral buoyancy in the Weightless Environment Training Facility. Unsuited subjects became neutrally buoyant via SCUBA BC vests. Actual zero g experimental data was collected during parabolic arc flights on board NASA's modified KC-135 aircraft. During all test conditions, subjects performed five EVA work tasks requiring dominant upper limb performance and ten individual joint articulation movements. Dynamometer velocities for each tested movement were 0 deg/sec, 30 or 60 deg/sec and 120 or 180 deg/sec, depending on the test, with three repetitions per test. Performance was measured in foot pounds of torque.

  9. EVA safety: Space suit system interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.; McBarron, J. W.; Abramov, L. P.; Zvezda, A. O.

    1995-01-01

    The results and the recommendations of the International Academy of Astronautics extravehicular activities (IAA EVA) Committee work are presented. The IAA EVA protocols and operation were analyzed for harmonization procedures and for the standardization of safety critical and operationally important interfaces. The key role of EVA and how to improve the situation based on the identified EVA space suit system interoperability deficiencies were considered.

  10. STS-57 astronauts Low and Wisoff perform DTO 1210 EVA in OV-105's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    During STS-57 extravehicular activity (EVA), Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low (foreground) secures portable foot restraint (PFR) (manipulator foot restraint (MFR)) to the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector using a PFR attachment device (PAD). MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff performs operations next to Low at the stowed European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA). This EVA, designated Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 1210, included evaluation of procedures being developed to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on mission STS-61 in December 1993. The scene is backdropped against the blackness of space with Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, payload bay (PLB) and payloads appearing in the foreground.

  11. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross and Lee M.E. Morin work in tandem on the fourth scheduled EVA session for the STS-110 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis. Ross is anchored on the mobile foot restraint on the International Space Station's (ISS) Canadarm2, while Morin works inside the S0 (S-zero) truss. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting a 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  12. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 mission specialist Lee M.E. Morin carries an affixed 35 mm camera to record work which is being performed on the International Space Station (ISS). Working with astronaut Jerry L. Ross (out of frame), the duo completed the structural attachment of the S0 (s-zero) truss, mating two large tripod legs of the 13 1/2 ton structure to the station's main laboratory during a 7-hour, 30-minute space walk. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  13. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  14. Astronaut Story Musgrave during first of five Hubble Space Telescope EVAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut F. Story Musgrave, holding to one of many strategically placed handrails on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is photographed during the first of five space walks on the STS-61 HST-servicing mission.

  15. Views of the extravehicular activity of Astronaut Stewart during STS 41-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Close up frontal view of Astronaut Robert L. Stewart, mission specialist, as he participates in a extravehicular activity (EVA), a few meters away from the cabin of the shuttle Challenger. The open payload bay is reflected in his helmet visor as he faces the camera. Stewart is wearing the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and one of the manned maneuvering units (MMU) developed for this mission.

  16. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  17. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Technology Development Status and Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in Fiscal Year (FY) 2011, Extravehicular activity (EVA) technology development became a technology foundational domain under a new program Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration. The goal of the EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA technology life and limited availability of the EMUs will become a critical issue eventually. The current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has vastly served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability could be an option for the future mission applications building off of the technology development over the last several years. Besides ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for

  18. EVA Physiology

    NASA Video Gallery

    An introduction to the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in astronauts during EVA. This will include an explanation of Prebreathe Protocols (PB), to affect nitrogen washout as a primary risk mit...

  19. Astronaut James Newman evaluates tether devices in Discovery's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut James H. Newman, mission specialist, uses a 35mm camera to take a picture of fellow astronaut Carl E. Walz (out of frame) in Discovery's cargo bay. The two were engaged in an extravehicular activity (EVA) to test equipment to be used on future EVA's. Newman is tethered to the starboard side, with the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod just behind him.

  20. Astronaut Jack Lousma During EVA to Deploy Twin Pole Sun Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Skylab-3 was the second marned mission in the skylab project. The crew spent 59 days in orbit. In this photo, Astronaut Jack Lousma deploys the Twin Pole Sun Shield created by Marshall Space Flight Center team members to replace the micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat. The shield was damaged during the Skylab-2 mission.

  1. 7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT IS $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Microbial Swab Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed spacecraft meet planetary protection requirements--and to protect our science from human contamination--we'll need to know whether micro-organisms are leaking/venting from our ships and spacesuits. This is easily done by swabbing external vents and surfaces for analysis, but there was no US EVA tool for that job. NASA engineers developed an EVA-compatible swab tool that can be used to collect data on current hardware, which will influence eventual Mars life support and EVA hardware designs.

  3. STS-57 astronauts Low and Wisoff perform DTO 1210 EVA in OV-105's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Peter J.K. Wisoff (bottom), wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), works with the antenna on the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) while MS and Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low, on the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm, hovers above. The two astronauts were conducting Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 1210 procedures in the payload bay of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Low, also suited in an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), is anchored to the RMS (RMS) via a portable foot restraint (PFR) (manipulator foot restraint (MFR)). The PFR is attached to the RMS end effector via a PFR attachment device (PAD). DTO 1210 results will assist in refining several procedures being developed to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on mission STS-61 in December 1993. Visible in OV-105's payload bay (PLB) are the open spacelab (SL) tunnel adapter EV hatch (foreground), SPACEHAB-01 (Commercial Middeck Augmentation Module (CMAM)) (foreground), and the t

  4. STS-61B Astronaut Ross During ACCESS Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction. In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross was working on the ACCESS experiment during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA).

  5. STS-61B Astronaut Ross During ACCESS Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), ACCESS and EASE were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross was working on the ACCESS experiment during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the ACCESS structural assembly concept for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  6. Results from an Investigation into Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Training Related Shoulder Injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Brian J.; Williams, David R.

    2004-01-01

    The number and complexity of extravehicular activities (EVAs) required for the completion and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS) is unprecedented. The training required to successfully complete this magnitude of space walks presents a real risk of overuse musculoskeletal injuries to the EVA crew population. There was mounting evidence raised by crewmembers, trainers, and physicians at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) between 1999 and 2002 that suggested a link between training in the Neutral - Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and the several reported cases of shoulder injuries. The short- and long-term health consequences of shoulder injury to astronauts in training as well as the potential mission impact associated with surgical intervention to assigned EVA crew point to this as a critical problem that must be mitigated. Thus, a multi-directorate tiger team was formed in December of 2002 led by the EVA Office and Astronaut Office at the JSC. The primary objectives of this Tiger Team were to evaluate the prevalence of these injuries and substantiate the relationship to training in the NBL with the crew person operating in the EVA Mobility Unit (EMU). Between December 2002 and June of 2003 the team collected data, surveyed crewmembers, consulted with a variety of physicians, and performed tests. The results of this effort were combined with the vast knowledge and experience of the Tiger Team members to formulate several findings and over fifty recommendations. This paper summarizes those findings and recommendations as well as the process by which these were determined. The Tiger Team concluded that training in the NBL was directly linked to several major and minor shoulder injuries that had occurred. With the assistance of JSC flight surgeons, outside consultants, and the lead crewmember/physician on the team, the mechanisms of injury were determined. These mechanisms were then linked to specific aspects of the hardware design, operational techniques, and the

  7. STS-57 astronauts Low and Wisoff, in EMUs, perform DTO 1210 EVA in OV-105's PLB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Backdropped against the blackness of space and upside down in relation to Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low and MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff, wearing extravehicular mobility units (EMUs), simulate handling of large components in space. Above OV-105's payload bay (PLB), Low, anchored by a portable foot restraint (PFR) (manipulator foot restraint (MFR)) on the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector, holds Wisoff and maneuvers him as if he were a large space component. This particular task was rehearsed with eyes toward the servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) or the assembly and maintenance of Space Station. This extravehicular activity (EVA), Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 1210, was conducted both with and without intentional disturbances from OV-105's thrusters and movements of the RMS. This phase of DTO 1210 will enable helpful evaluation for the HST wide field planetary camera (WFPC) during the STS-61 HST-serv

  8. STS-57 astronauts Low and Wisoff, in EMUs, perform DTO 1210 EVA in OV-105's PLB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Backdropped against the blue and white Earth, Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low and MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff, wearing extravehicular mobility units (EMUs), simulate handling of large components in space. Above Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, payload bay (PLB), Low, anchored by a portable foot restraint (PFR) (manipulator foot restraint (MFR)) on the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector, maneuvers Wisoff, representing the mass of a large space component. This particular task was rehearsed with eyes toward the servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) or the assembly and maintenance of Space Station. This extravehicular activity (EVA), Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 1210, was conducted both with and without intentional disturbances from OV-105's thrusters and movements of the RMS. This phase of DTO 1210 will enable helpful evaluation for the HST wide field planetary camera (WFPC) during the STS-61 HST-servicing mission. The SPACEHAB-01 (Com

  9. Development of a prototype regenerable carbon dioxide absorber for portable life support systems. [for astronaut EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.; Baker, B.

    1977-01-01

    The design and development of a prototype carbon dioxide absorber using potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is described. Absorbers are constructed of thin, porous sheets of supported K2CO3 that are spirally wound to form a cylindrical reactor. Axial gas passages are formed between the porous sheets by corrugated screen material. Carbon dioxide and water in an enclosed life support system atmosphere react with potassium carbonate to form potassium bicarbonate. The potassium carbonate is regenerated by heating the potassium bicarbonate to 150 C at ambient pressure. The extravehicular mission design conditions are for one man for 8 h. Results are shown for a subunit test module investigating the effects of heat release, length-to-diameter ratio, and active cooling upon performance. The most important effect upon carbon dioxide removal is the temperature of the potassium carbonate.

  10. Computer Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Exposure Hazard for Space Station Astronauts during Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Kelley, James S.; Panneton, Robert B.; Arndt, G. Dickey

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate the RF radiation hazards to astronauts and electronics equipment due to various Space Station transmitters, the electric fields around the various Space Station antennas are computed using the rigorous Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) techniques. The Method of Moments (MoM) was applied to the UHF and S-band low gain antennas. The Aperture Integration (AI) method and the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) method were used to compute the electric field intensities for the S- and Ku-band high gain antennas. As a result of this study, The regions in which the electric fields exceed the specified exposure levels for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) electronics equipment and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) astronaut are identified for various Space Station transmitters.

  11. 8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT OF SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  12. Astronauts Weitz and Conrad suit up during prelaunch activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, prime crew pilot of the first manned Skylab mission, is suited up in bldg 5 at JSC during prelaunch training activity. He is assisted by Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., prime crew commander. The man in the left background is wearing a face mask to insure that Conrad, Joseph Kerwin, and Weitz are not exposed to disease prior to launch.

  13. Shoulder Injury Incidence Rates in NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Foy, Millennia; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the astronaut shoulder injury rates began with an operational concern at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training. An astronaut suffered a shoulder injury during an NBL training run and commented that it was possibly due to a hardware issue. During the subsequent investigation, questions arose regarding the rate of shoulder injuries in recent years and over the entire history of the astronaut corps.

  14. Astronaut James Newman with latch hook for tether device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut James H. Newman, mission specialist, shows off a latch hook for a tether device used during the STS-51 extravehicular activity (EVA) on September 16, 1993. Newman, on Discovery's middeck, appears surrounded by sleep restraints.

  15. Astronaut Alan Bean works on Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, works at the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) on the Apollo 12 Lunar Module during the mission's first extravehicular activity, EVA-1, on November 19, 1969.

  16. Shuttle EVA description and design criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The STS extravehicular mobility unit, orbiter EVA provisions, EVA equipment, factors affecting employment of EVA, EVA mission integration, baselined extravehicular activity are discussed. Design requirements are also discussed.

  17. The role of EVA on Space Shuttle. [experimental support and maintenance activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the history of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) through the Skylab Program and to outline the expected tasks and equipment capabilities projected for the Space Shuttle Program. Advantages offered by EVA as a tool to extend payload capabilities and effectiveness and economic advantages of using EVA will be explored. The presentation will conclude with some guidelines and recommendations for consideration by payload investigators in establishing concepts and designs utilizing EVA support.

  18. Astronaut Michael Collins inspects camera during prelaunch activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Michael Collins (left), Gemini 10 prime crew pilot, inspects camera during prelaunch activity at Cape Kennedy, Florida. In center background is Dr. Donald K. Slayton, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Director of Flight Crew Operations.

  19. Wissler Simulations of a Liquid Cooled and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesterson, Matthew; Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis

    2006-01-01

    In order to provide effective cooling for astronauts during extravehicular activities (EVAs), a liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) is used to remove heat by a series off tubes through which cooling water is circulated. To better predict the effectiveness of the LCG and determine possible modifications to improve performance, computer simulations dealing with the interaction of the cooling garment with the human body have been run using the Wissler Human Model. Simulations have been conducted to predict the heat removal rate for various liquid cooled garment configurations. The current LCVG uses 48 cooling tubes woven into a fabric with cooling water flowing through the tubes. The purpose of the current project is to decrease the overall weight of the LCVG system. In order to achieve this weight reduction, advances in the garment heat removal rates need to be obtained. Currently, increasing the fabric s thermal conductivity along with also examining an increase in the cooling tube conductivity to more efficiently remove the excess heat generated during EVA is being simulated. Initial trials varied cooling water temperature, water flow rate, garment conductivity, tube conductivity, and total number of cooling tubes in the LCVG. Results indicate that the total number of cooling tubes could be reduced to 22 and still achieve the desired heat removal rate of 361 W. Further improvements are being made to the garment network used in the model to account for temperature gradients associated with the spacing of the cooling tubes over the surface of the garment

  20. One hundred US EVAs: a perspective on spacewalks.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Richard C; McBarron, James W; Manatt, Scott A; McMann, Harold J; Fullerton, Richard K

    2002-01-01

    In the 36 years between June 1965 and February 2001, the US human space flight program has conducted 100 spacewalks, or extravehicular activities (EVAs), as NASA officially calls them. EVA occurs when astronauts wearing spacesuits travel outside their protective spacecraft to perform tasks in the space vacuum environment. US EVA started with pioneering feasibility tests during the Gemini Program. The Apollo Program required sending astronauts to the moon and performing EVA to explore the lunar surface. EVA supported scientific mission objectives of the Skylab program, but may be best remembered for repairing launch damage to the vehicle and thus saving the program. EVA capability on Shuttle was initially planned to be a kit that could be flown at will, and was primarily intended for coping with vehicle return emergencies. The Skylab emergency and the pivotal role of EVA in salvaging that program quickly promoted Shuttle EVA to an essential element for achieving mission objectives, including retrieving satellites and developing techniques to assemble and maintain the International Space Station (ISS). Now, EVA is supporting assembly of ISS. This paper highlights development of US EVA capability within the context of the overarching mission objectives of the US human space flight program. PMID:12583391

  1. Lunar Roving Vehicle gets speed workout by Astronaut John Young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) gets a speed workout by Astronaut John W. Young in the 'Grand Prix' run during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This view is a frame from motion picture film exposed by a 16mm Maurer camera held by Astronaut Charels M. Duke Jr.

  2. Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the lunar module pilot.

  3. EVA Retriever Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The EVA retriever is demonstrated in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF). The retriever moves on the air bearing table 'searching' for its target, in this case tools 'dropped' by astronauts on orbit.

  4. Fusible heat sink materials - An identification of alternate candidates. [for astronaut thermoregulation in EVA portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Lomax, Curtis

    1991-01-01

    Fusible heat sinks are a possible source for thermal regulation of space suited astronauts. An extensive database search was undertaken to identify candidate materials with liquid solid transformations over the temperature range of -18 C to 5 C; and 1215 candidates were identified. Based on available data, 59 candidate materials with thermal storage capability, DeltaH values higher than that of water were identified. This paper presents the methodology utilized in the study, including the decision process used for materials selection.

  5. Extravehicular activities limitations study. Volume 2: Establishment of physiological and performance criteria for EVA gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John M.; Briganti, Michael; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

    1988-01-01

    One of the major probelms faced in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove development has been the absence of concise and reliable methods to measure the effects of EVA gloves on human hand capabilities. This report describes the development of a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six measurement domains: Range of Motion, Strength, Tactile Perception, Dexterity, Fatigue, and Comfort. Based on an assessment of general human hand functioning and EVA task requirements several tests within each measurement domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand as a baseline and the EVA glove at operating pressure. A test program was conducted to evaluate the tests using a representative EVA glove. Eleven test subjects participated in a repeated-measures design. The report presents the results of the tests in each capability domain.

  6. Eva Physiology, Systems, and Performance (EPSP) Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity performed by astronauts outside their space vehicle or habitat. EVA may be performed on orbit, such as outside the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station, or on a planetary surface such as Mars or on the moon. Astronauts wear a pressurized suit that provides environmental protection, mobility, life support, and communications while they work in the harsh conditions of a microgravity environment. Exploration missions to the moon and Mars may last many days and will include many types of EVAs; exploration, science, construction and maintenance. The effectiveness and success of these EVA-filled missions is dependent on the ability to perform tasks efficiently. The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) project will conduct a number of studies to understand human performance during EVA, from a molecular level to full-scale equipment and suit design aspects, with the aim of developing safe and efficient systems for Exploration missions and the Constellation Program. The EPSP project will 1) develop Exploration Mission EVA suit requirements for metabolic and thermal loading, optional center of gravity location, biomedical sensors, hydration, nutrition, and human biomedical interactions; 2) develop validated EVA prebreathe protocols that meet medical, vehicle, and habitat constraints while minimizing crew time and thus increasing EVA work efficiency; and 3) define exploration decompression sickness (DCS) risks, policy, and mission success statistics and develop a DCS risk definition report.

  7. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During a pre-launch Native American ceremony, Radmilla Cody, the 2001 Miss Navaho Nation, sings the 'Star Spangled Banner' in her native language. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  8. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Chickasaw Dance Troupe performs an Honor Dance during the Native American Ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  9. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Chickasaw Dance Troupe performs an Honor Dance for John Herrington's parents during the Native American Ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  10. Astronaut John Young photographed collecting lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples near North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Young is using the lunar surface rake and a set of tongs. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked in the field of large boulders in the background.

  11. Thermoregulation and heat exchange in a nonuniform thermal environment during simulated extended EVA. Extravehicular activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Leon, G. R.; Hubel, A.; Nelson, E. D.; Tranchida, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonuniform heating and cooling of the body, a possibility during extended duration extravehicular activities (EVA), was studied by means of a specially designed water circulating garment that independently heated or cooled the right and left sides of the body. The purpose was to assess whether there was a generalized reaction on the finger in extreme contradictory temperatures on the body surface, as a potential heat status controller. METHOD: Eight subjects, six men and two women, were studied while wearing a sagittally divided experimental garment with hands exposed in the following conditions: Stage 1 baseline--total body garment inlet water temperature at 33 degrees C; Stage 2--left side inlet water temperature heated to 45 degrees C; right side cooled to 8 degrees C; Stage 3--left side inlet water temperature cooled to 8 degrees C, right side heated to 45 degrees C. RESULTS: Temperatures on each side of the body surface as well as ear canal temperature (Tec) showed statistically significant Stage x Side interactions, demonstrating responsiveness to the thermal manipulations. Right and left finger temperatures (Tfing) were not significantly different across stages; their dynamic across time was similar. Rectal temperature (Tre) was not reactive to prevailing cold on the body surface, and therefore not informative. Subjective perception of heat and cold on the left and right sides of the body was consistent with actual temperature manipulations. CONCLUSIONS: Tec and Tre estimates of internal temperature do not provide accurate data for evaluating overall thermal status in nonuniform thermal conditions on the body surface. The use of Tfing has significant potential in providing more accurate information on thermal status and as a feedback method for more precise thermal regulation of the astronaut within the EVA space suit.

  12. Apollo 15 EVA panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Mosaic photographs which compose a 360-degree panoramic view of the Apollo 15 Hadley-Apennine landing site, taken near the close of the third lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) by Astronauts David Scott and James Irwin. This group of photographs was designated the Rover 'RIP' Pan because the Lunar Roving Vehicle was parked in its final position prior to the two crewmen returning to the Lunar Module. The astronaut taking the pan was standing 325 feet east of the Lunar Module (LM). The Rover was parked about 300 feet east of the LM. This mosaic covers a field of view from about north-northeast to about south. Visible on the horizon from left to right are: Mount Hadley; high peaks of the Apennine Mountains which are farther in the distance than either Mount Hadley or Hadley Delta Mountain; Silver Spur on the Apennine Front; and the eastern portion of Hadley Delta. Note Rover tracks in the foreground.

  13. Risk Management in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jonathan; Lutomski, M.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of risk management in Extravehicular Activities (EVA). The contents include: 1) EVA Office at NASA - JSC; 2) EVA Project Risk Management: Why and When; 3) EVA Office Risk Management: How; 4) Criteria for Closing a Risk; 5) Criteria for Accepting a Risk; 6) ISS IRMA Reference Card Data Entry Requirement s; 7) XA/ EVA Office Risk Activity Summary; 8) EVA Significant Change Summary; 9) Integrated Risk Management Application (XA) Matrix, March 31, 2004; 10) ISS Watch Item: 50XX Summary Report; and 11) EVA Project RM Usefulness

  14. Astronaut James Buchli wearing extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut James F. Buchli, wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), is about to be submerged in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) to simulate a contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for STS 61-A. In this portrait view, Buchli is wearing a communications carrier assembly (CCA).

  15. Astronaut Bonnie Dunbar wearing extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Bonnie J. Dunbar, wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), is about to be submerged in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) to simulate a contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for STS 61-A. In this portrait view, Dunbar is not wearing a helmet.

  16. EVA Wiki - Transforming Knowledge Management for EVA Flight Controllers and Instructors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Wiki was recently implemented as the primary knowledge database to retain critical knowledge and skills in the EVA Operations group at NASA's Johnson Space Center by ensuring that information is recorded in a common, searchable repository. Prior to the EVA Wiki, information required for EVA flight controllers and instructors was scattered across different sources, including multiple file share directories, SharePoint, individual computers, and paper archives. Many documents were outdated, and data was often difficult to find and distribute. In 2011, a team recognized that these knowledge management problems could be solved by creating an EVA Wiki using MediaWiki, a free and open-source software developed by the Wikimedia Foundation. The EVA Wiki developed into an EVA-specific Wikipedia on an internal NASA server. While the technical implementation of the wiki had many challenges, the one of the biggest hurdles came from a cultural shift. Like many enterprise organizations, the EVA Operations group was accustomed to hierarchical data structures and individually-owned documents. Instead of sorting files into various folders, the wiki searches content. Rather than having a single document owner, the wiki harmonized the efforts of many contributors and established an automated revision control system. As the group adapted to the wiki, the usefulness of this single portal for information became apparent. It transformed into a useful data mining tool for EVA flight controllers and instructors, and also for hundreds of other NASA and contract employees. Program managers, engineers, astronauts, flight directors, and flight controllers in differing disciplines now have an easier-to-use, searchable system to find EVA data. This paper presents the benefits the EVA Wiki has brought to NASA's EVA community, as well as the cultural challenges it had to overcome.

  17. Astronaut James Newman works with power ratchet tool in payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In Discovery's cargo bay, astronaut James H. Newman works with the power ratchet tool (PRT). Astronaut Carl E. Walz, who joined Newman for the lengthy period of extravehicular activity (EVA), is partially visible in the background. The two mission specialists devoted part of their EVA to evaluating tools and equipment expected to be used in the Hubble Space Telescope servicing. A desert area in Africa forms the backdrop for the 70mm scene.

  18. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Chickasaw Indian princesses pose with folk singer Buffy Saint- Marie (center) during a Native American ceremony held in the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. Several days of activities were held at KSC and in Orlando commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  19. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Chickasaw Indian princesses 'sign' the Lord's Prayer during a Native American Ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. The princesses are Crystal Underwood, Julie Underwood and Tamela Alexander. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  20. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Chickasaw Indian princesses seen here contributed to a pre-launch Native American ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex by leading a prayer. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  1. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - An elder of her Navaho tribe, Dorothy Cody shares the stage with her granddaughter Radmilla Cody (not shown), the 2001 Miss Navaho Nation, who is singing the 'Star Spangled Banner' in her native language during a pre-launch Native American ceremony. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  2. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During a pre-launch Native American ceremony, Radmilla Cody (right) , the 2001 Miss Navaho Nation, sings the 'Star Spangled Banner' in her native language. With her is her grandmother. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  3. A Human Machine Interface for EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, L.

    , the overlaid graphical information can be registered with the external world. For example, information about an object can be positioned on or beside the object. This wearable HMI supports many applications during EVA including robot teleoperation, procedure checklist usage, operation of virtual control panels and general information or documentation retrieval and presentation. Whether the robot end effector is a mobile platform for the EVA astronaut or is an assistant to the astronaut in an assembly or repair task, the astronaut can control the robot via a direct manipulation interface. Embedded in the suit or the astronaut's clothing, Shapetape can measure the user's arm/hand position and orientation which can be directly mapped into the workspace coordinate system of the robot. Motion of the users hand can generate corresponding motion of the robot end effector in order to reposition the EVA platform or to manipulate objects in the robot's grasp. Speech input can be used to execute commands and mode changes without the astronaut having to withdraw from the teleoperation task. Speech output from the system can provide feedback without affecting the user's visual attention. The procedure checklist guiding the astronaut's detailed activities can be presented on the HUD and manipulated (e.g., move, scale, annotate, mark tasks as done, consult prerequisite tasks) by spoken command. Virtual control panels for suit equipment, equipment being repaired or arbitrary equipment on the space station can be displayed on the HUD and can be operated by speech commands or by hand gestures. For example, an antenna being repaired could be pointed under the control of the EVA astronaut. Additionally arbitrary computer activities such as information retrieval and presentation can be carried out using similar interface techniques. Considering the risks, expense and physical challenges of EVA work, it is appropriate that EVA astronauts have considerable support from station crew and

  4. CETA truck and EVA restraint system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beals, David C.; Merson, Wayne R.

    1991-01-01

    The Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment is an extravehicular activity (EVA) Space Transportation System (STS) based flight experiment which will explore various modes of transporting astronauts and light equipment for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The basic elements of CETA are: (1) two 25 foot long sections of monorail, which will be EVA assembled in the STS cargo bay to become a single 50 ft. rail called the track; (2) a wheeled baseplate called the truck which rolls along the track and can accept three cart concepts; and (3) the three carts which are designated manual, electric, and mechanical. The three carts serve as the astronaut restraint and locomotive interfaces with the track. The manual cart is powered by the astronaut grasping the track's handrail and pulling himself along. The electric cart is operated by an astronaut turning a generator which powers the electric motor and drives the cart. The mechanical cart is driven by a Bendix type transmission and is similar in concept to a man-propelled railroad cart. During launch and landing, the truck is attached to the deployable track by means of EVA removable restraint bolts and held in position by a system of retractable shims. These shims are positioned on the exterior of the rail for launch and landing and rotate out of the way for the duration of the experiment. The shims are held in position by strips of Velcro nap, which rub against the sides of the shim and exert a tailored force. The amount of force required to rotate the shims was a major EVA concern, along with operational repeatability and extreme temperature effects. The restraint system was tested in a thermal-vac and vibration environment and was shown to meet all of the initial design requirements. Using design inputs from the astronauts who will perform the EVA, CETA evolved through an iterative design process and represented a cooperative effort.

  5. EVA dosimetry in manned spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Thomson, I

    1999-12-01

    Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) will become a large part of the astronaut's work on board the International Space Station (ISS). It is already well known that long duration space missions inside a spacecraft lead to radiation doses which are high enough to be a significant health risk to the crew. The doses received during EVA, however, have not been quantified to the same degree. This paper reviews the space radiation environment and the current dose limits to critical organs. Results of preliminary radiation dosimetry experiments on the external surface of the BION series of satellites indicate that EVA doses will vary considerably due to a number of factors such as EVA suit shielding, temporal fluctuations and spacecraft orbit and shielding. It is concluded that measurement of doses to crew members who engage in EVA should be done on board the spacecraft. An experiment is described which will lead the way to implementing this plan on the ISS. It is expected that results of this experiment will help future crew mitigate the risks of ionising radiation in space. PMID:10631334

  6. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Tactility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Shelby; Miranda, Mesloh; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to quantify finger tactility, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove. Subjects were fully suited in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Data was collected under three conditions: bare-handed, gloved at 0 psi, and gloved at 4.3 psi. In order to test tactility, a series of 30 tactile stimuli (bumps) were created that varied in both height and width. With the hand obscured, subjects applied pressure to each bump until detected tactilely. The amount of force needed to detect each bump was recorded using load cells located under a force-plate. The amount of force needed to detect a bump was positively related to width, but inversely related to height. In addition, as the psi of the glove increased, more force was needed to detect the bump. In terms of application, it was possible to determine the optimal width and height a bump needs to be for a specific amount of force applied for tactility.

  7. Astronaut Eugene Cernan salutes deployed U.S. flag on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 commander, salutes the deployed U.S. flag on the lunar surface during extravehicular activity (EVA) of NASA's final lunar landing mission in the Apollo series. The lunar module is at the left background and the lunar roving vehicle, also in background, is partially obscured. The photo was made by Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot.

  8. Astronaut Charles Duke examines surface of boulder at North Ray crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, examines the surface of a large boulder at North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut John W. Young, commander. Note the chest-mounted 70mm Hasselblad camera.

  9. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Seminole Native American Veterans serve as color guard during a pre-launch Native American ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. David Nunez, U.S. Navy, carries the State of Florida Flag; David Stephen Bowers, U.S. Army, carries the Flag of the United States of America; Charles Billie Hiers, U.S. Marine Corps., carries the Seminole Tribe of Florida Flag. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  10. Astronaut tool development: An orbital replaceable unit-portable handhold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, John W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A tool to be used during astronaut Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) replacement of spent or defective electrical/electronic component boxes is described. The generation of requirements and design philosophies are detailed, as well as specifics relating to mechanical development, interface verifications, testing, and astronaut feedback. Findings are presented in the form of: (1) a design which is universally applicable to spacecraft component replacement, and (2) guidelines that the designer of orbital replacement units might incorporate to enhance spacecraft on-orbit maintainability and EVA mission safety.

  11. Simulation of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) self-rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R.; Jacoby, Rick; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    Self-rescue during EVA is examined in terms of the use of a hand-held thruster that is similar to the hand-held maneuvering units HHMU developed for earlier programs. The problem of assessing velocity-increment requirements is addressed by means of examples of simulation technologies for studying EVA. The technologies evaluated include virtual reality systems such as the Virtual Interactive Environment Workstation (VIEW) and the Space Operations Simulator, and standard approaches like the air-bearing floor and the space shuttle. The VIEW is employed for a study of five trained NASA subjects that conduct a simulated return to a spacecraft with an HMMU under variable conditions. The study demonstrates the efficacy of VIEW for obtaining fuel-consumption values, and separation velocity is identified as the most significant determinant of the fuel and time requirements for a self-rescue operation.

  12. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  13. EVA Performance Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, Brian; Maida, James; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut physical performance capabilities in micro gravity EV A or on planetary surfaces when encumbered by a life support suit and debilitated by a long exposure to micro gravity will be less than unencumbered pre flight capabilities. The big question addressed by human factors engineers is: what can the astronaut be expected to do on EVA or when we arrive at a planetary surface? A second question is: what aids to performance will be needed to enhance the human physical capability? These questions are important for a number of reasons. First it is necessary to carry out accurate planning of human physical demands to ensure that time and energy critical tasks can be carried out with confidence. Second it is important that the crew members (and their ground or planetary base monitors) have a realistic picture of their own capabilities, as excessive fatigue can lead to catastrophic failure. Third it is important to design appropriate equipment to enhance human sensory capabilities, locomotion, materials handling and manipulation. The evidence from physiological research points to musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and neurovestibular degradation during long duration exposure to micro gravity . The evidence from the biomechanics laboratory (and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory) points to a reduction in range of motion, strength and stamina when encumbered by a pressurized suit. The evidence from a long history of EVAs is that crewmembers are indeed restricted in their physical capabilities. There is a wealth of evidence in the literature on the causes and effects of degraded human performance in the laboratory, in sports and athletics, in industry and in other physically demanding jobs. One approach to this challenge is through biomechanical and performance modeling. Such models must be based on thorough task analysis, reliable human performance data from controlled studies, and functional extrapolations validated in analog contexts. The task analyses currently carried

  14. Astronauts Hoffman and Musgrave pose in aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Two of Endeavour's busy team of astronauts share a rare moment of leisure in the aft flight deck captured by an Electronic Still Camera (ESC). Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman, left, and F. Story Musgrave also are sharing three of the mission's five planned sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA). Electronic still photography is a technology which provides the means for a handheld camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality.

  15. Lunar Roving Vehicle gets speed workout by Astronaut John Young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) gets a speed workout by Astronaut John W. Young in the 'Grand Prix' run during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. Note the front wheels of the LRV are off the ground. This view is a frame from motion picture film exposed by a 16mm Maurer camera held by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr.

  16. A human factors analysis of EVA time requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE), also known as Ergonomics, is a discipline whose goal is to engineer a safer, more efficient interface between humans and machines. HFE makes use of a wide range of tools and techniques to fulfill this goal. One of these tools is known as motion and time study, a technique used to develop time standards for given tasks. A human factors motion and time study was initiated with the goal of developing a database of EVA task times and a method of utilizing the database to predict how long an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) should take. Initial development relied on the EVA activities performed during the STS-61 mission (Hubble repair). The first step of the analysis was to become familiar with EVAs and with the previous studies and documents produced on EVAs. After reviewing these documents, an initial set of task primitives and task time modifiers was developed. Videotaped footage of STS-61 EVAs were analyzed using these primitives and task time modifiers. Data for two entire EVA missions and portions of several others, each with two EVA astronauts, was collected for analysis. Feedback from the analysis of the data will be used to further refine the primitives and task time modifiers used. Analysis of variance techniques for categorical data will be used to determine which factors may, individually or by interactions, effect the primitive times and how much of an effect they have.

  17. Studies Relating to EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JA1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: The Staged Decompression to the Hypobaric Atmosphere as a Prophylactic Measure Against Decompression Sickness During Repetitive EVA; A New Preoxygenation Procedure for Extravehicular Activity (EVA); Metabolic Assessments During Extra-Vehicular Activity; Evaluation of Safety of Hypobaric Decompressions and EVA From Positions of Probabilistic Theory; Fatty Acid Composition of Plasma Lipids and Erythrocyte Membranes During Simulation of Extravehicular Activity; Biomedical Studies Relating to Decompression Stress with Simulated EVA, Overview; The Joint Angle and Muscle Signature (JAMS) System - Current Uses and Future Applications; and Experimental Investigation of Cooperative Human-Robotic Roles in an EVA Work Site.

  18. Non-Invasive UWB Sensing of Astronauts' Breathing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Marco; Cerri, Graziano; Chiaraluce, Franco; Eusebi, Lorenzo; Russo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The use of a UWB system for sensing breathing activity of astronauts must account for many critical issues specific to the space environment. The aim of this paper is twofold. The first concerns the definition of design constraints about the pulse amplitude and waveform to transmit, as well as the immunity requirements of the receiver. The second issue concerns the assessment of the procedures and the characteristics of the algorithms to use for signal processing to retrieve the breathing frequency and respiration waveform. The algorithm has to work correctly in the presence of surrounding electromagnetic noise due to other sources in the environment. The highly reflecting walls increase the difficulty of the problem and the hostile scenario has to be accurately characterized. Examples of signal processing techniques able to recover breathing frequency in significant and realistic situations are shown and discussed. PMID:25558995

  19. Comparison Of Human Modelling Tools For Efficiency Of Prediction Of EVA Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.; Loughead, Tomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Construction of the International Space Station (ISS) will require extensive extravehicular activity (EVA, spacewalks), and estimates of the actual time needed continue to rise. As recently as September, 1996, the amount of time to be spent in EVA was believed to be about 400 hours, excluding spacewalks on the Russian segment. This estimate has recently risen to over 1100 hours, and it could go higher before assembly begins in the summer of 1998. These activities are extremely expensive and hazardous, so any design tools which help assure mission success and improve the efficiency of the astronaut in task completion can pay off in reduced design and EVA costs and increased astronaut safety. The tasks which astronauts can accomplish in EVA are limited by spacesuit mobility. They are therefore relatively simple, from an ergonomic standpoint, requiring gross movements rather than time motor skills. The actual tasks include driving bolts, mating and demating electric and fluid connectors, and actuating levers; the important characteristics to be considered in design improvement include the ability of the astronaut to see and reach the item to be manipulated and the clearance required to accomplish the manipulation. This makes the tasks amenable to simulation in a Computer-Assisted Design (CAD) environment. For EVA, the spacesuited astronaut must have his or her feet attached on a work platform called a foot restraint to obtain a purchase against which work forces may be actuated. An important component of the design is therefore the proper placement of foot restraints.

  20. Television transmission of Astronaut Eugene Cernan using Lunar Surface Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan operates the Apollo Lunar Surface Drill during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site, in this black and white reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Cernan is the commander of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission.

  1. EVA Training and Development Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Overview: Vast majority of US EVA (ExtraVehicular Activity) training and EVA hardware development occurs at JSC; EVA training facilities used to develop and refine procedures and improve skills; EVA hardware development facilities test hardware to evaluate performance and certify requirement compliance; Environmental chambers enable testing of hardware from as large as suits to as small as individual components in thermal vacuum conditions.

  2. Astronauts Truly and Engle engaged in on-board activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronaut Joe H. Engle, STS-2 Commander, enjoying in-space exercise session on a treadmill specially designed for astronauts in zero gravity. He is in the middeck area of the orbiter (39570); Engle prepares a beverage by using a space squirt-gun to fill a plastic, accordion-like receptacle while another one, already filled, floats around his left knee. He is wearing the onboard constant wear garment (39571); Astronaut Richard H. Truly, STS-2 Pilot, shaves in zero gravity atmosphere (39572); Engle shaves in zero gravity atmosphere. Behind him is a fire extinguisher and a picture of George Abbey (39573).

  3. Investigation of the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressures on human hand capabilities. A factorial experiment was performed in which three types of EVA gloves were tested at five pressure differentials. The independent variables tested in this experiment were gender, glove type, pressure differential, and glove make. Six subjects participated in an experiment where a number of dexterity measures, namely time to tie a rope, and the time to assemble a nut and bolt were recorded. Tactility was measured through a two point discrimination test. The results indicate that with EVA gloves strength is reduced by nearly 50 percent, there is a considerable reduction in dexterity, performance decrements increase with increasing pressure differential, and some interesting gender glove interactions were observed, some of which may have been due to the extent (or lack of) fit of the glove to the hand. The implications for the designer are discussed.

  4. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  5. Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, David S. F.; Trevino, Robert C.

    1997-01-01

    Spacewalkers enjoy a view of Earth once reserved for Apollo, Zeus, and other denizens of Mt. Olympus. During humanity's first extravehicular activity (EVA), Alexei Leonov floated above Gibraltar, the rock ancient seafarers saw as the gateway to the great unknown Atlantic. The symbolism was clear, Leonov stepped past a new Gibraltar when he stepped into space. More than 32 years and 154 EVAs later, Jerry Linenger conducted an EVA with Vladimir Tsibliyev as part of International Space Station Phase 1. They floated together above Gibraltar. Today the symbolism has new meaning: humanity is starting to think of stepping out of Earth orbit, space travel's new Gibraltar, and perhaps obtaining a new olympian view, a close-up look at Olympus Mons on Mars. Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology chronicles the 154 EVAs conducted from March 1965 to April 1997. It is intended to make clear the crucial role played by EVA in the history of spaceflight, as well as to chronicle the large body of EVA "lessons learned." Russia and the U.S. define EVA differently. Russian cosmonauts are said to perform EVA any time they are in vacuum in a space suit. A U.S. astronaut must have at least his head outside his spacecraft before he is said to perform an EVA. The difference is based in differing spacecraft design philoso- phies. Russian and Soviet spacecraft have always had a specialized airlock through which the EVA cosmonaut egressed, leaving the main habitable volume of the spacecraft pressurized. The U.S. Gemini and Apollo vehicles, on the other hand, depressurized their entire habitable volume for egress. In this document, we apply the Russian definition to Russian EVAS, and the U.S. definition to U.S. EVAS. Thus, for example, Gemini 4 Command Pilot James McDivitt does not share the honor of being first American spacewalker with Ed White, even though he was suited and in vacuum when White stepped out into space. Non-EVA spaceflights are listed in the chronology to provide context and to

  6. EVA and telerobot interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, Kelli F.

    1990-01-01

    We are about to enter into a new era - that of astronauts working hand in hand with telerobots in space. This has been done to some degree with astronauts and the Space Station Shuttle's Remote Manipulator Arm. However, for the Space Station Freedom, not only will astronauts be working with the RMS type system but also with smaller, more dexterous systems such as the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS). Because EVA time is a premium resource, the most effective use of the astronauts and the telerobot will be required. There may be some tasks for which it is most efficient to have both the EVA astronaut and the telerobot working together. This type of close integration has not occurred before and brings up many issues. Most of these issues are related to technology: communication must be infallible, new control systems and devices may be required, enhanced telerobot safety systems may be necessary. IVA operations may also be affected by the combined EVA telerobot tasks. There is also the issue of how the EVA astronaut and the telerobot work on separate tasks but at the same time. For both situations, research and development of at least some new technology is required; enhanced communication both by voice and data, sophisticated collision detection systems, more responsive controls and displays. These new systems or system enhancements may require knowledge base systems for their operation. Some of the important issues, types of tasks, the FTS capabilities, the technology that is needed to address those issues, and the possible impact on Space Station Freedom are reviewed.

  7. The Potential of Wearable Sensor Technology for EVA Glove Ergonomic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane; Norcross, Jason R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). Many of these injuries refer to the gloves worn during EVA as the root cause. While pressurized, the bladder and outer material of these gloves restrict movement and create pressure points while performing tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally a more severe injury, onycholysis (fingernail delamination). The most common injury causes are glove contact (pressure point/rubbing), ill-fitting gloves, and/or performing EVA tasks in pressurized gloves. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals over 57% of the total injuries to the upper extremities during EVA training occurred either to the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, fingernail, or the fingertip. Twenty-five of these injuries resulted in a diagnosis of onycholysis

  8. The Potential of Wearable Sensor Technology for EVA Glove Ergonomic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Norcross, Jason R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). Many of these injuries refer to the gloves worn during EVA as the root cause. While pressurized, the bladder and outer material of these gloves restrict movement and create pressure points while performing tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally a more severe injury, onycholysis (fingernail delamination). The most common injury causes are glove contact (pressure point/rubbing), ill-fitting gloves, and/or performing EVA tasks in pressurized gloves. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals over 57% of the total injuries to the upper extremities during EVA training occurred either to the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, fingernail, or the fingertip. Twenty-five of these injuries resulted in a diagnosis of onycholysis.

  9. STS-109 Onboard Photo of Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is an onboard photo of Astronaut John M. Grunsfield, STS-109 payload commander, participating in the third of five spacewalks to perform work on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). On this particular walk, Grunsfield, joined by Astronaut Richard M. Lirnehan, turned off the telescope in order to replace its power control unit (PCU), the heart of the HST's power system. The telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay using Columbia's robotic arm, where crew members completed system upgrades to the HST. Included in those upgrades were: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. Launched March 1, 2002 the STS-109 HST servicing mission lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. It was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  10. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Chickasaw Dance troupe member Tim Harjo (second from left) leads Joyce and James Herrington in a dance honoring their son, STS-113 Mission Specialist John Herrington. The dance was part of a Native American ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex commemorating Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission.

  11. STS-109 Onboard Photo of Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is an onboard photo of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power control unit (PCU), the heart of the HST's power system. STS-109 payload commander John M. Grunsfeld, joined by Astronaut Richard M. Lirnehan, turned off the telescope in order to replace its PCU while participating in the third of five spacewalks dedicated to servicing and upgrading the HST. Other upgrades performed were: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay using Columbia's robotic arm, where crew members completed the system upgrades. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. Launched March 1, 2002 the STS-109 HST servicing mission lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. It was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  12. Exploration EVA System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearney, Lara

    2004-01-01

    In January 2004, the President announced a new Vision for Space Exploration. NASA's Office of Exploration Systems has identified Extravehicular Activity (EVA) as a critical capability for supporting the Vision for Space Exploration. EVA is required for all phases of the Vision, both in-space and planetary. Supporting the human outside the protective environment of the vehicle or habitat and allow ing him/her to perform efficient and effective work requires an integrated EVA "System of systems." The EVA System includes EVA suits, airlocks, tools and mobility aids, and human rovers. At the core of the EVA System is the highly technical EVA suit, which is comprised mainly of a life support system and a pressure/environmental protection garment. The EVA suit, in essence, is a miniature spacecraft, which combines together many different sub-systems such as life support, power, communications, avionics, robotics, pressure systems and thermal systems, into a single autonomous unit. Development of a new EVA suit requires technology advancements similar to those required in the development of a new space vehicle. A majority of the technologies necessary to develop advanced EVA systems are currently at a low Technology Readiness Level of 1-3. This is particularly true for the long-pole technologies of the life support system.

  13. Design, development and evaluation of Stanford/Ames EVA prehensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, Larry J.; Aldrich, J.; Leblanc, M.; Sabelman, E.; Schwandt, D.

    1988-01-01

    Space Station operations and maintenance are expected to make unprecedented demands on astronaut EVA. With Space Station expected to operate with an 8 to 10 psi atmosphere (4 psi for Shuttle operations), the effectivness of pressurized gloves is called into doubt at the same time that EVA activity levels are to be increased. To address the need for more frequent and complex EVA missions and also to extend the dexterity, duration, and safety of EVA astronauts, NASA Ames and Stanford University have an ongoing cooperative agreement to explore and compare alternatives. This is the final Stanford/Ames report on manually powered Prehensors, each of which consists of a shroud forming a pressure enclosure around the astronaut's hand, and a linkage system to transfer the motions and forces of the hand to mechanical digits attached to the shroud. All prehensors are intended for attachment to a standard wrist coupling, as found on the AX-5 hard suit prototype, so that realistic tests can be performed under normal and reduced gravity as simulated by water flotation.

  14. EVA Roadmap: New Space Suit for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yowell, Robert

    1998-01-01

    New spacesuit design considerations for the extra vehicular activity (EVA) of a manned Martian exploration mission are discussed. Considerations of the design includes:(1) regenerable CO2 removal, (2) a portable life support system (PLSS) which would include cryogenic oxygen produced from in-situ manufacture, (3) a power supply for the EVA, (4) the thermal control systems, (5) systems engineering, (5) space suit systems (materials, and mobility), (6) human considerations, such as improved biomedical sensors and astronaut comfort, (7) displays and controls, and robotic interfaces, such as rovers, and telerobotic commands.

  15. Effects of EVA spacesuit glove on grasping and pinching tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appendino, Silvia; Battezzato, Alessandro; Chen Chen, Fai; Favetto, Alain; Mousavi, Mehdi; Pescarmona, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    The human hand has a wide range of degrees of freedom, allowing a great variety of movements, and is also one of the most sensitive parts of the human body. Due to these characteristics, it is the most important tool for astronauts to perform extravehicular activities (EVA). However, astronauts must wear mandatory EVA equipment to be protected from the harsh conditions in space and this strongly reduces hand performance, in particular as regards dexterity, tactile perception, mobility and fatigue. Several studies have been conducted to determine the influence of the EVA glove on manual capabilities, both in the past and more recently. This study presents experimental data regarding the performance decline occurring in terms of force and fatigue in the execution of grasping and pinching tasks when wearing an EVA glove, in pressurized and unpressurized conditions, compared with barehanded potential. Results show that wearing the unpressurized EVA glove hinders grip and lateral pinch performances, dropping exerted forces to about 50-70%, while it barely affects two- and three-finger pinch performances. On the other hand, wearing the pressurized glove worsens performances in all cases, reducing forces to about 10-30% of barehanded potential. The results are presented and compared with the previous literature.

  16. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During an administrator's briefing at the IMAX 2 theatre, Lt. Gov. Jefferson Keel of the Chickasaw Nation (far left) presents a blanket with the seal of the Chickasaw Nation to NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe (second from right). Next to O'Keefe is Chickasaw Gov. Bill Anoatubby. Next to Gov. Keel is Mrs. Laura O'Keefe. STS-113 Mission Specialist John Herrington is a tribally enrolled Chickasaw and the world's first Native American astronaut. Kennedy Space Center hosted more than 350 Native Americans in STS-113 prelaunch events surrounding the historic mission assignment of Herrington.

  17. View of the Lunar Portable Magnetometer on the LRV photographed during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    View of the Lunar Portable Magnetometer mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) which was parked at Station 2 on the Descartes lunar landing site. It was photographed by the Apollo 16 crew during their second extravehicular activity (EVA-2). Note the shadow of the astronaut taking the photograph in the left foreground.

  18. Astronaut John Young leaps from lunar surface as he salutes U.S. flag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, leaps from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. flag during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) on the Moon, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color transmission made by the color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, is standing in the background.

  19. Astronaut John Young drives Lunar Roving Vehicle to final parking place

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, drives the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) to its final parking place near the end of the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this photograph looking southward. The flank of Stone Mountain can be seen on the horizon at left.

  20. Onboard photo: Astronauts at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia's (STS-87) first ever Extravehicular Activity (EVA), astronaut Takao Doi works with a 156-pound crane carried onboard for the first time. The crane's inclusion and the work with it are part of a continuing preparation effort for future work on the International Space Station (ISS). The ongoing project allows for evaluation of tools and operating methods to be applied to the construction of the Space Station. This crane device is designed to aid future space walkers in transporting Orbital Replacement Units (ORU), with a mass up to 600 pounds (like the simulated battery pictured here), from translating carts on the exterior of ISS to various worksites on the truss structure. Earlier Doi, an international mission specialist representing Japan, and astronaut Winston E. Scott, mission specialist, had installed the crane in a socket along the middle port side of Columbia's cargo bay for the evaluation. The two began the crane operations after completing a contingency EVA to snag the free-flying Spartan 201 and berth it in the payload bay (visible in the background).

  1. Apollo 16 lunar module 'Orion' photographed from distance during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is photographed from a distance by Astronaut Chares M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, aboard the moving Lunar Roving Vehicle. Astronauts Duke and John W. Young, commander, were returning from the excursion to Stone Mountain during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2). The RCA color television camera mounted on the LRV is in the foreground. A portion of the LRV's high-gain antenna is at top left. Smoky Mountain rises behind the LM in this north-looking view at the Descartes landing site.

  2. EVA assembly of large space structure element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bush, H. G.; Heard, W. L., Jr.; Stokes, J. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a test program to assess the potential of manned extravehicular activity (EVA) assembly of erectable space trusses are described. Seventeen tests were conducted in which six "space-weight" columns were assembled into a regular tetrahedral cell by a team of two "space"-suited test subjects. This cell represents the fundamental "element" of a tetrahedral truss structure. The tests were conducted under simulated zero-gravity conditions. Both manual and simulated remote manipulator system modes were evaluated. Articulation limits of the pressure suit and zero gravity could be accommodated by work stations with foot restraints. The results of this study have confirmed that astronaut EVA assembly of large, erectable space structures is well within man's capabilities.

  3. Alterations in the heart rate and activity rhythms of three orbital astronauts on a space mission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhizhen; Wan, Yufeng; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Yu; Lv, Ke; Li, Yinghui; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Xiaoping; Chen, Shanguang; Guo, Jinhu

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors in space are dramatically different from those on Earth. The spaceflight environment has been known to influence human physiology and behavior on orbital missions. In this study, we investigated alterations in the diurnal rhythms of activity and heart rate of three Chinese astronauts on a space mission. An analysis of the heart rate data showed a significant decrease in heart rate amplitudes during flight in all three subjects. The heart rate amplitudes of all the three astronauts were significantly dampened during flight, and the minimum as well as the maximum value of heart rate increased after flight. A phase shift in heart rate was observed in one of the three astronauts after flight. These results demonstrate the influence of spaceflight on heart physiology and function. In addition, a significant decrease in body trunk activity and rhythmicity occurred during flight, demonstrating that the spaceflight environment disturbs motion adaptation and diurnal activity rhythms. PMID:26177621

  4. Astronauts Joseph Allen rides cherry picker over stowage area/work station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Joseph P. Allen rides a cherry picker over to a stowage area/work station to wrap up extravehicular activity (EVA) duties above Earth. The cherry picker is a union of the mobile foot restraint and the remote manipulator system (RMS), controlled from inside Discovery's cabin. The Westar VI/PAM-D satellite is pictured secured in Discovery's cargo bay.

  5. Astronauts Newman and Walz evaluate tools for use on HST servicing mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts Carl E. Walz (foreground) and James H. Newman evaluate some important gear. Walz reaches for the power ratchet tool (PRT) while Newman checks out mobility on the portable foot restraint (PFR) near Discovery's starboard orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod. The tools and equipment will be used during future extravehicular activities (EVA's).

  6. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt next to deployed U.S. flag on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, is photographed next to the U.S. flag during extravehicular activity (EVA) of NASA's final lunar landing mission in the Apollo series. The photo was taken at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. The highest part of the flag appears to point toward our planet earth in the distant background.

  7. Apollo 12 astronaut stands beside United States flag after is was unfurled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    One of the Apollo 12 astronaut stands beside the United States flag after is was unfurled on the lunar surface during the first extravehicular activity (EVA-1), on Nov. 19, 1969. Several footprints made by the crew can be seen in the photograph.

  8. Human-Centric Teaming in a Multi-Agent EVA Assembly Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Currie, Nancy; Ambrose, Robert O.; Culbert, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight program depends heavily on spacewalks performed by pairs of suited human astronauts. These Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) are severely restricted in both duration and scope by consumables and available manpower.An expanded multi-agent EVA team combining the information-gathering and problem-solving skills of human astronauts with the survivability and physical capabilities of highly dexterous space robots is proposed. A 1-g test featuring two NASA/DARPA Robonaut systems working side-by-side with a suited human subject is conducted to evaluate human-robot teaming strategies in the context of a simulated EVA assembly task based on the STS-61B ACCESS flight experiment.

  9. Your Students Can Be Rocket Scientists! A Galaxy of Great Activities about Astronauts, Gravity, and Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Lynne

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities for a springtime Space Day that can teach students about astronauts, gravity, and motion. Activities include creating a paper bag spacecraft to study liftoff and having students simulate gravity's effects by walking in various manners and recording pulse rates. A list of resources is included. (SM)

  10. Astronaut John Young leaps from lunar surface to salute flag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, leaps from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. Flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this picture. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' is on the left. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked beside the LM. The object behind Young in the shade of the LM is the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph. Stone Mountain dominates the background in this lunar scene.

  11. Conceptual design of an astronaut hand anthropometry device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Robert

    1993-01-01

    In a microgravity environment, fluid equalizes throughout the body, causing the upper body to swell. This causes the hands to swell which can cause problems for astronauts trying to do work in pressurized EVA (extravehicular activity) gloves. To better design these gloves, accurate measurements of the astronauts swollen hands are needed. Five concepts were developed in this report from an original field of 972 possible concepts. These five concepts were based on mold impression, ultrasound, laser topography, white light photography, and video imaging. From a decision matrix based on nine weighted criteria, the video imaging technique was found to be the best design to pursue.

  12. Television transmission of Astronauts Cernan and Schmitt sending greetings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan (on left) and Harrison H. Schmitt pay their respects and send their best wishes to the members of the International Youth Science Tour, who were visiting the Manned Spacecraft Center, in brief ceremonies near the close of the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture is a reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle.

  13. Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Facius, Rainer; Fuglesang, Christer; Reiter, Thomas; Damann, Volker; Tognini, Michel

    2010-04-01

    Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to astronauts and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during spaceflight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. Highly energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei ("alpha particles") and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, as well as protons and electrons trapped in the Earth's radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a spaceflight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well-being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astronauts and cosmonauts health, including those aiming to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program of the International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction to the current measures used for radiation monitoring and protection of astronauts and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as the operational procedures that are applied, are described.

  14. Space Shuttle Underside Astronaut Communications Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Kroll, Quin D.; Sham, Catherine C.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Ultra High Frequency (UHF) communications system is planned to provide Radio Frequency (RF) coverage for astronauts working underside of the Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO) for thermal tile inspection and repairing. This study is to assess the Space Shuttle UHF communication performance for astronauts in the shadow region without line-of-sight (LOS) to the Space Shuttle and Space Station UHF antennas. To insure the RF coverage performance at anticipated astronaut worksites, the link margin between the UHF antennas and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Astronauts with significant vehicle structure blockage was analyzed. A series of near-field measurements were performed using the NASA/JSC Anechoic Chamber Antenna test facilities. Computational investigations were also performed using the electromagnetic modeling techniques. The computer simulation tool based on the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) was used to compute the signal strengths. The signal strength was obtained by computing the reflected and diffracted fields along the propagation paths between the transmitting and receiving antennas. Based on the results obtained in this study, RF coverage for UHF communication links was determined for the anticipated astronaut worksite in the shadow region underneath the Space Shuttle.

  15. US space flight experience. Physical exertion and metabolic demand of extravehicular activity: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas P.

    1989-01-01

    A review of physical exertion and metabolic demands of extravehicular activity (EVA) on U.S. astronauts is given. Information is given on EVA during Gemini, Apollo and Skylab missions. It is noted that nominal EVA's should not be overstressful from a cardiovascular standpoint; that manual-intensive EVA's such as are planned for the construction phase of the Space Station can and will be demanding from a muscular standpoint, primarily for the upper extremities; that off-nominal unplanned EVA's can be physically demanding both from an endurance and from a muscular standpoint; and that crewmembers should be physically prepared and capable of performing these EVA's at any time during the mission.

  16. Human Space Exploration and Radiation Exposure from EVA: 1981-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, A. R.; Saganti, S. P.; Erickson, G. M.; Saganti, P. B.

    2011-12-01

    There are several risks for any human space exploration endeavor. One such inevitable risk is exposure to the space radiation environment of which extra vehicular activity (EVA) demands more challenges due to limited amount of protection from space suit shielding. We recently compiled all EVA data comprising low-earth orbit (LEO) from Space Shuttle (STS) flights, International Space Station (ISS) expeditions, and Shuttle-Mir missions. Assessment of such radiation risk is very important, particularly for the anticipated long-term, deep-space human explorations in the near future. We present our assessment of anticipated radiation exposure and space radiation dose contribution to each crew member from a listing of 350 different EVA events resulting in more than 1000+ hrs of total EVA time. As of July 12, 2011, 197 astronauts have made spacewalks (out of 520 people who have gone into Earth orbit). Only 11 women have been on spacewalks.

  17. Space shuttle EVA opportunities. [a technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, D. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A technology assessment is presented on space extravehicular activities (EVA) that will be possible when the space shuttle orbiter is completed and launched. The use of EVA in payload systems design is discussed. Also discussed is space crew training. The role of EVA in connection with the Large Space Telescope and Skylab are described. The value of EVA in constructing structures in space and orbital assembly is examined. Excellent color illustrations are provided which show the proposed EVA functions that were described.

  18. EVA-SCRAM operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanigan, Lee A.; Tamir, David; Weeks, Jack L.; Mcclure, Sidney R.; Kimbrough, Andrew G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper wrestles with the on-orbit operational challenges introduced by the proposed Space Construction, Repair, and Maintenance (SCRAM) tool kit for Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). SCRAM undertakes a new challenging series of on-orbit tasks in support of the near-term Hubble Space Telescope, Extended Duration Orbiter, Long Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, other orbital platforms, and even the future manned Lunar/Mars missions. These new EVA tasks involve welding, brazing, cutting, coating, heat-treating, and cleaning operations. Anticipated near-term EVA-SCRAM applications include construction of fluid lines and structural members, repair of punctures by orbital debris, refurbishment of surfaces eroded by atomic oxygen, and cleaning of optical, solar panel, and high emissivity radiator surfaces which have been degraded by contaminants. Future EVA-SCRAM applications are also examined, involving mass production tasks automated with robotics and artificial intelligence, for construction of large truss, aerobrake, and reactor shadow shield structures. Realistically achieving EVA-SCRAM is examined by addressing manual, teleoperated, semi-automated, and fully-automated operation modes. The operational challenges posed by EVA-SCRAM tasks are reviewed with respect to capabilities of existing and upcoming EVA systems, such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit, the Shuttle Remote Manipulating System, the Dexterous End Effector, and the Servicing Aid Tool.

  19. Some psychological and engineering aspects of the extravehicular activity of astronauts.

    PubMed

    Khrunov, E V

    1973-01-01

    One of the main in-flight problems being fulfilled by astronauts is the preparation for and realization of egress into open space for the purpose of different kinds of extravehicular activity, such as, the performance of scientific experiments, repairing and dismantling operations etc. The astronaut's activity outside the space vehicle is the most difficult item of the space flight programme, which is complicated by a number of space factors affecting a man, viz. dynamic weightlessness, work in a space suit under conditions of excessive pressure, difficulties of space orientation etc. The peculiarities mentioned require special training of the cosmonaut. The physical training involves a series of exercises forming the body-control habits necessary for work in a state of weightlessness. In a new kind of training use is made of equipment simulating the state of weightlessness. From analysis of the available data and the results of my own investigations during ground training and the Soyuz 4 and 5 flights one can establish the following peculiarities of the astronaut's extravehicular activity: (1) Operator response lag in the planned algorithm; (ii) systematic appearance of some stereotype errors in the mounting and dismantling of the outer equipment and in scientific-technical experiments; (iii) a high degree of emotional strain and 30-35% decrease in in-flight working capacity of the astronaut compared with the ground training data; (iv) a positive influence of space adaptation on the cosmonaut and the efficiency of his work in open space; (v) the necessity for further engineering and psychological analysis of the astronaut's activity under conditions of the long space flight of the multi-purpose orbital station. One of the main reasons for the above peculiarities is the violation of the control-coordination functions of the astronaut in the course of the dynamical operations. The paper analyses the extravehicular activity of the astronaut and presents some

  20. A Glimpse from the Inside of a Space Suit: What Is It Really Like to Train for an EVA?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, Matthew A.; Moore, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    The beauty of the view from the office of a spacewalking astronaut gives the impression of simplicity, but few beyond the astronauts, and those who train them, know what it really takes to get there. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training is an intense process that utilizes NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) to develop a very specific skill set needed to safely construct and maintain the orbiting International Space Station. To qualify for flight assignments, astronauts must demonstrate the ability to work safely and efficiently in the physically demanding environment of the spacesuit, possess an acute ability to resolve unforeseen problems, and implement proper tool protocols to ensure no tools will be lost in space. Through the insights and the lessons learned by actual EVA astronauts and EVA instructors, this paper twill take you on a journey through an astronaut's earliest experiences working in the spacesuit. termed the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), in the underwater training environment of the NBL. This work details an actual Suit Qualification NBL training event, outlines the numerous challenges the astronauts face throughout their initial training, and the various ways they adapt their own abilities to overcome them. The goal of this paper is to give everyone a small glimpse into what it is really like to work in a spacesuit.

  1. A glimpse from the inside of a space suit: What is it really like to train for an EVA?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gast, Matthew A.; Moore, Sandra K.

    2011-01-01

    The beauty of the view from the office of a spacewalking astronaut gives the impression of simplicity, but few beyond the astronauts, and those who train them, know what it really takes to get there. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training is an intense process that utilizes NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) to develop a very specific skill set needed to safely construct and maintain the orbiting International Space Station. To qualify for flight assignments, astronauts must demonstrate the ability to work safely and efficiently in the physically demanding environment of the space suit, possess an acute ability to resolve unforeseen problems, and implement proper tool protocols to ensure no tools will be lost in space. Through the insights and the lessons learned by actual EVA astronauts and EVA instructors, this paper will take you on a journey through an astronaut's earliest experiences working in the space suit, termed the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), in the underwater training environment of the NBL. This work details an actual Suit Qualification NBL training event, outlines the numerous challenges the astronauts face throughout their initial training, and the various ways they adapt their own abilities to overcome them. The goal of this paper is to give everyone a small glimpse into what it is really like to work in a space suit.

  2. A Human Factors Analysis of EVA Time Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate, Dennis W.

    1997-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is a discipline whose goal is to engineer a safer, more efficient interface between humans and machines. HFE makes use of a wide range of tools and techniques to fulfill this goal. One of these tools is known as motion and time study, a technique used to develop time standards for given tasks. During the summer of 1995, a human factors motion and time study was initiated with the goals of developing a database of EVA task times and developing a method of utilizing the database to predict how long an EVA should take. Initial development relied on the EVA activities performed during the STS-61 (Hubble) mission. The first step of the study was to become familiar with EVA's, the previous task-time studies, and documents produced on EVA's. After reviewing these documents, an initial set of task primitives and task-time modifiers was developed. Data was collected from videotaped footage of two entire STS-61 EVA missions and portions of several others, each with two EVA astronauts. Feedback from the analysis of the data was used to further refine the primitives and modifiers used. The project was continued during the summer of 1996, during which data on human errors was also collected and analyzed. Additional data from the STS-71 mission was also collected. Analysis of variance techniques for categorical data was used to determine which factors may affect the primitive times and how much of an effect they have. Probability distributions for the various task were also generated. Further analysis of the modifiers and interactions is planned.

  3. Force-endurance capabilities of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressure levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The human hand is a very useful multipurpose tool in all environments. However, performance capabilities are compromised considerably when gloves are donned. This is especially true to extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves. The primary intent was to answer the question of how long a person can perform tasks requiring certain levels of exertion. The objective was to develop grip force-endurance relations. Six subjects participated in a factorial experiment involving three hand conditions, three pressure differentials, and four levels of force exertion. The results indicate that, while the force that could be exerted depended on the glove, pressure differential, and the level of exertion, the endurance time at any exertion level depended just on the level of exertion expressed as a percentage of maximum exertion possible at that condition. The impact of these findings for practitioners as well as theoreticians is discussed.

  4. STS-49 INTELSAT VI-R WETF exercise with astronauts Musgrave, Clifford, Voss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) VI-R simulation at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 was conducted with extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited astronauts F. Story Musgrave, Michael R. U. Clifford, and James S. Voss. Astronauts practiced a three person extravehicular activity (EVA) procedure for INTELSAT capture. Ground based exercises were conducted after five failed INTELSAT capture attempts during the STS-49 mission. In this underwater group portrait, eleven SCUBA-equipped divers pose with the three trouble shooting astronauts. Astronauts are (left to right) Clifford, Musgrave, and Voss. Test results provided input for orbiting STS-49 crewmembers on possible alternate INTELSAT capture procedures. Three OV-105 astronauts will attempt to capture the INTELSAT again on 05-13-92. Portrait made by NASA JSC contract photographer Scott A. Wickes.

  5. Astronaut Charles M. Duke, Jr., in shadow of Lunar Module behind ultraviolet camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke, Jr., lunar module pilot, stands in the shadow of the Lunar Module (LM) behind the ultraviolet (UV) camera which is in operation. This photograph was taken by astronaut John W. Young, mission commander, during the mission's second extravehicular activity (EVA-2). The UV camera's gold surface is designed to maintain the correct temperature. The astronauts set the prescribed angles of azimuth and elevation (here 14 degrees for photography of the large Magellanic Cloud) and pointed the camera. Over 180 photographs and spectra in far-ultraviolet light were obtained showing clouds of hydrogen and other gases and several thousand stars. The United States flag and Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) are in the left background. While astronauts Young and Duke descended in the Apollo 16 Lunar Module (lm) 'Orion' to explore the Descartes highlands landing site on the Moon, astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (csm) 'Casper' in lunar orbit.

  6. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  7. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  8. Evaluation of an Anthropometric Human Body Model for Simulated EVA Task Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etter, Brad

    1996-01-01

    One of the more mission-critical tasks performed in space is extravehicular activity (EVA) which requires the astronaut to be external to the station or spacecraft, and subsequently at risk from the many threats posed by space. These threats include, but are not limited to: no significant atmosphere, harmful electromagnetic radiation, micrometeoroids, and space debris. To protect the astronaut from this environment, a special EVA suit is worn which is designed to maintain a sustainable atmosphere (at 1/3 atmosphere) and provide protection against the hazards of space. While the EVA suit serves these functions well, it does impose limitations on the astronaut as a consequence of the safety it provides. Since the astronaut is in a virtual vacuum, any atmospheric pressure inside the suit serves to pressurize the suit and restricts mobility of flexible joints (such as fabric). Although some of the EVA suit joints are fixed, rotary-style joints, most of the mobility is achieved by the simple flexibility of the fabric. There are multiple layers of fabric, each of which serves a special purpose in the safety of the astronaut. These multiple layers add to the restriction of motion the astronaut experiences in the space environment. Ground-based testing is implemented to evaluate the capability of EVA-suited astronauts to perform the various tasks in space. In addition to the restriction of motion imposed by the EVA suit, most EVA activity is performed in a micro-gravity (weight less) environment. To simulate weightlessness EVA-suited testing is performed in a neutral buoyancy simulator (NBS). The NBS is composed of a large container of water (pool) in which a weightless environment can be simulated. A subject is normally buoyant in the pressurized suit; however he/she can be made neutrally buoyant with the addition of weights. In addition, most objects the astronaut must interface with in the NBS sink in water and flotation must be added to render them "weightless". The

  9. Overview of Umbilical Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Interfaces in Life Support Systems on Spacecraft Vehicles and Applications for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie J.; Jordan, Nicole C.; Barido, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) for manned spacecraft vehicles have been performed for contingencies and nominal operations numerous times throughout history. This paper will investigate how previous U.S. manned spacecraft vehicles provided life support to crewmembers performing the EVA. Specifically defined are umbilical interfaces with respect to crewmember cooling, drinking water, air (or oxygen), humidity control, and carbon dioxide removal. As historical data is available, the need for planned versus contingency EVAs in previous vehicles as well as details for a nominal EVA day versus a contingency EVA day will be discussed. The hardware used to provide the cooling, drinking water, air (or oxygen), humidity control, and carbon dioxide removal, and the general functions of that hardware, will also be detailed, as information is available. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV or Orion) EVA interfaces will be generically discussed to provide a glimpse of how similar they are to the EVA interfaces in previous vehicles. Conclusions on strategies that should be used for CEV based on previous spacecraft EVA interfaces will be made in the form of questions and recommendations.

  10. Investigation of the effects of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) and Launch and Entry (LES) gloves on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.

    1992-01-01

    Human capabilities such as dexterity, manipulability, and tactile perception are unique and render the hand as a very versatile, effective and a multipurpose tool. This is especially true for unknown environments such as the EVA environment. In the microgravity environment interfaces, procedures, and activities are too complex, diverse, and defy advance definition. Under these conditions the hand becomes the primary means of locomotion, restraint, and material handling. Facilitation of these activities, with simultaneous protection from the cruel EVA environment are the two, often conflicting, objectives of glove design. The objectives of this study was (1) to assess the effects of EVA gloves at different pressures on human hand capabilities, (2) to devise a protocol for evaluating EVA gloves, (3) to develop force time relations for a number of EVA glove pressure combinations, and (4) to evaluate two types of launch and entry suit gloves. The objectives were achieved through three experiments. The experiments for achieving objectives 1, 2, and 3 were performed in the glove box in building 34. In experiment 1 three types of EVA gloves were tested at five pressure differentials. A number of performance measures were recorded. In experiment 2 the same gloves as in experiment 1 were evaluated in a reduced number of pressure conditions. The performance measure was endurance time. Six subjects participated in both the experiments. In experiment 3 two types of launch and entry suit gloves were evaluated using a paradigm similar to experiment 1. Currently the data is being analyzed. However for this report some summary analyses have been performed. The results indicate that a) With EVA gloves strength is reduced by nearly 50 percent, b) performance decrements increase with increasing pressure differential, c) TMG effects are not consistent across the three gloves tested, d) some interesting gender glove interactions were observed, some of which may have been due to the

  11. An Interactive Astronaut-Robot System with Gesture Control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinguo; Luo, Yifan; Ju, Zhaojie

    2016-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) plays an important role in future planetary exploration mission, where astronauts with extravehicular activities (EVA) have to communicate with robot assistants by speech-type or gesture-type user interfaces embedded in their space suits. This paper presents an interactive astronaut-robot system integrating a data-glove with a space suit for the astronaut to use hand gestures to control a snake-like robot. Support vector machine (SVM) is employed to recognize hand gestures and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of SVM to further improve its recognition accuracy. Various hand gestures from American Sign Language (ASL) have been selected and used to test and validate the performance of the proposed system. PMID:27190503

  12. An Interactive Astronaut-Robot System with Gesture Control

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinguo; Luo, Yifan; Ju, Zhaojie

    2016-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) plays an important role in future planetary exploration mission, where astronauts with extravehicular activities (EVA) have to communicate with robot assistants by speech-type or gesture-type user interfaces embedded in their space suits. This paper presents an interactive astronaut-robot system integrating a data-glove with a space suit for the astronaut to use hand gestures to control a snake-like robot. Support vector machine (SVM) is employed to recognize hand gestures and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of SVM to further improve its recognition accuracy. Various hand gestures from American Sign Language (ASL) have been selected and used to test and validate the performance of the proposed system. PMID:27190503

  13. An anthropomorphic hand exoskeleton to prevent astronaut hand fatigue during extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Shields, B L; Main, J A; Peterson, S W; Strauss, A M

    1997-09-01

    This correspondence presents a prototype of a powered hand exoskeleton that is designed to fit over the gloved hand of an astronaut and offset the stiffness of the pressurized space suit. This will keep the productive time spent in extravehicular activity from being constrained by hand fatigue. The exoskeleton has a three-finger design, the third and fourth fingers being combined to lighten and simplify the assembly. The motions of the hand are monitored by an array of pressure sensors mounted between the exoskeleton and the hand. Controller commands are determined by a state-of-the-art programmable microcontroller using pressure sensor input. These commands are applied to a PWM driven dc motor array which provides the motive power to move the exoskeleton fingers. The resultant motion of the exoskeleton allows the astronaut to perform both precision grasping tasks with the thumb and forefinger, as well as a power grasp with the entire hand. PMID:11541130

  14. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the Space Station Advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related extravehicular activity (EVA) support equipment were defined and established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as opertional, procedures, and training issues were considered.

  15. Extravehicular Activity Testing in Analog Environments: Evaluating the Effects of Center of Gravity and Environment on Human Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steve P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Center of gravity (CG) is likely to be an important variable in astronaut performance during partial gravity extravehicular activity (EVA). The Apollo Lunar EVA experience revealed challenges with suit stability and control. The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance Project (EPSP) in conjunction with the Constellation EVA Systems Project Office have developed plans to systematically understand the role of suit weight, CG and suit pressure on astronaut performance in partial gravity environments. This presentation based upon CG studies seeks to understand the impact of varied CG on human performance in lunar gravity.

  16. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi with EVA coordinator Laws participates in the CEIT for his mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi , Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, participates in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Glenda Laws, the extravehicular activity (EVA) coordinator, Johnson Space Center, stands behind Dr. Doi. The CEIT gives astronauts an opportunity to get a hands-on look at the payloads with which they will be working on-orbit. STS-87 will be the fourth United States Microgravity Payload and flight of the Spartan-201 deployable satellite. During the mission, Dr. Doi will be the first Japanese astronaut to perform a spacewalk. STS- 87 is scheduled for a Nov. 19 liftoff from KSC.

  17. View of javelin and golf ball on lunar surface during Apollo 14 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    View shows the javelin and golf ball used by Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., Apollo 14 commander, during the mission's second extravehicular activity (EVA-2) on Feb. 6, 1971. Just to the left of center lies the javelin, with the golf ball just below it, almost perpendicular to it. Dark colored trails are the results of tracks made by the lunar overshoes of the astronauts and the wheels of the Modularized Equipment Transporter (MET). This photograph was made through the right window of the Lunar Module, looking northwest.

  18. Commercial Spacewalking: Designing an EVA Qualification Program for Space Tourism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    In the near future, accessibility to space will be opened to anyone with the means and the desire to experience the weightlessness of microgravity, and to look out upon both the curvature of the Earth and the blackness of space, from the protected, shirt-sleeved environment of a commercial spacecraft. Initial forays will be short-duration, suborbital flights, but the experience and expertise of half a century of spaceflight will soon produce commercial vehicles capable of achieving low Earth orbit. Even with the commercial space industry still in its infancy, and manned orbital flight a number of years away, there is little doubt that there will one day be a feasible and viable market for those courageous enough to venture outside the vehicle and into the void, wearing nothing but a spacesuit, armed with nothing but preflight training. What that Extravehicular Activity (EVA) preflight training entails, however, is something that has yet to be defined. A number of significant factors will influence the composition of a commercial EVA training program, but a fundamental question remains: 'what minimum training guidelines must be met to ensure a safe and successful commercial spacewalk?' Utilizing the experience gained through the development of NASA's Skills program - designed to qualify NASA and International Partner astronauts for EVA aboard the International Space Station - this paper identifies the attributes and training objectives essential to the safe conduct of an EVA, and attempts to conceptually design a comprehensive training methodology meant to represent an acceptable qualification standard.

  19. Effective Presentation of Metabolic Rate Information for Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackin, Michael A.; Gonia, Philip; Lombay-Gonzalez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    During human exploration of the lunar surface, a suited crewmember needs effective and accurate information about consumable levels remaining in their life support system. The information must be presented in a manner that supports real-time consumable monitoring and route planning. Since consumable usage is closely tied to metabolic rate, the lunar suit must estimate metabolic rate from life support sensors, such as oxygen tank pressures, carbon dioxide partial pressure, and cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures. To provide adequate warnings that account for traverse time for a crewmember to return to a safe haven, accurate forecasts of consumable depletion rates are required. The forecasts must be presented to the crewmember in a straightforward, effective manner. In order to evaluate methods for displaying consumable forecasts, a desktop-based simulation of a lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has been developed for the Constellation lunar suite s life-support system. The program was used to compare the effectiveness of several different data presentation methods.

  20. H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new concept of operations will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Boeing Delta IV Heavy (DIV-H). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

  1. H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Blome, Elizabeth; Tetsuya, Sakashita

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new operations concept will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA s) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

  2. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesloh, Miranda; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Thompson, Shelby; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize hand strength, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Three types of data were collected: hand grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch, wider three different conditions: bare-handed, gloved with no Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG), and glove with TMG. In addition, during the gloved conditions, subjects were tested when unpressurized and pressurized (43 psi). As a percentage of bare-hand strength, the TMG condition showed reduction in grip strength to 55% unpressurized and 46% pressurized. Without the TMG, grip strength increased to 66% unpressurized and 58% pressurized of bare-hand strength. For lateral pinch strength, the reduction in strength was the same for both pressure conditions and with and without the TMG, about 8.5% of bare-hand Pulp-2 pinch strength with no TMG showed an increase to 122% unpressurized and 115% pressurized of bare-hand strength. While wearing the TMG, pulp-2 pinch strength was 115% of bare-hand strength for both pressure conditions.

  3. Study to evaluate the effect of EVA on payload systems. Volume 1: Executive summary. [project planning of space missions employing extravehicular activity as a means of cost reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, J. W.; Kraly, E. F.

    1975-01-01

    Programmatic benefits to payloads are examined which can result from the routine use of extravehicular activity (EVA) during space missions. Design and operations costs were compared for 13 representative baseline payloads to the costs of those payloads adapted for EVA operations. The EVA-oriented concepts developed in the study were derived from these baseline concepts and maintained mission and program objectives as well as basic configurations. This permitted isolation of cost saving factors associated specifically with incorporation of EVA in a variety of payload designs and operations. The study results were extrapolated to a total of 74 payload programs. Using appropriate complexity and learning factors, net EVA savings were extrapolated to over $551M for NASA and U.S. civil payloads for routine operations. Adding DOD and ESRO payloads increases the net estimated savings of $776M. Planned maintenance by EVA indicated an estimated $168M savings due to elimination of automated service equipment. Contingency problems of payloads were also analyzed to establish expected failure rates for shuttle payloads. The failure information resulted in an estimated potential for EVA savings of $1.9 B.

  4. Underwater views of STS-5 crewmen Lenoir and Allen during EVA training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Underwater views of STS-5 crewmen Lenoir and Allen during EVA training. Mission Specialist/Astronaut Joseph P. Allen, wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and weighted down to achieve neutral buoyancy, uses a communication system to talk with fellow Mission Specialist/Astronaut William B. Lenoir (out of frame) during underwater simulation of STS-5 extravehicular activity (EVA) (35899); Both mission specialists coordinate their efforts on a chore near the airlock hatch during training. Lenoir is facing the camera. Their background is a full-scale mock-up of the shuttle payload bay (35900); Lenoir works underwater with a portable foot restraint during training underwater. Allen's backpack or mockup for a portable life support system (PLSS) is seen in one corner of the frame (35901).

  5. EVA Glove Research Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Alvin M.; Peterson, Steven W.; Main, John A.; Dickenson, Rueben D.; Shields, Bobby L.; Lorenz, Christine H.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the basic research portion of the extravehicular activity (EVA) glove research program is to gain a greater understanding of the kinematics of the hand, the characteristics of the pressurized EVA glove, and the interaction of the two. Examination of the literature showed that there existed no acceptable, non-invasive method of obtaining accurate biomechanical data on the hand. For this reason a project was initiated to develop magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for biomechanical data acquisition and visualization. Literature reviews also revealed a lack of practical modeling methods for fabric structures, so a basic science research program was also initiated in this area.

  6. Astronaut Aldrin is photographed by Astronaut Armstrong on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The deployment of the early Apollo scientific experiments package is photographed by Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong during the Apollo 11 EVA. Here, Astronaut Aldrin is deploying the passive seismic experiments package. Already deployed is the Lunar ranging retro- reflector, which can be seen to the left and farther in the background. In the right background is the Lunar Module (LM). A flag of the United States is deployed near the LM. In the far left background is the deployed black and white lunar surface television camera. Armstrong took this picture with the 70mm lunar surface camera.

  7. Dust Tolerant EVA-Compatible Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I., III

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop connectors (quick disconnects and umbilical systems) that can be repetitively and reliably mated and de-mated during Lunar surface extra-vehicular activities. These standardized interfaces will be required for structural integrity and commodities transfer between linked surface elements. QD's fittings are needed for EVA spacesuit Primary Life Support Systems as well as liquid cooled garment circulation and suit heat rejection. Umbilical electro-mechanical systems (connectors) are needed between discrete surface systems for transfer of air, power, fluid (water), and data must be capable of being operated by extra vehicular astronaut crew members and/or robotic assistants. There exists an urgent need to prevent electro-statically charged dust and debris from clogging and degrading the interface seals and causing leakage and spills of hazardous commodities, contaminating the flowstream, and degrading the mechanisms needed for umbilical connection. Other challenges include modularity, standardization, autonomous operation, and lifetime sealing issues.

  8. EVA Wiki - Transforming Knowledge Management for EVA Flight Controllers and Instructors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Stephanie S.; Alpert, Brian K.; Montalvo, Edwin James; Welsh, Lawrence Daren; Wray, Scott; Mavridis, Costa

    2016-01-01

    The EVA Wiki was recently implemented as the primary knowledge database to retain critical knowledge and skills in the EVA Operations group at NASA's Johnson Space Center by ensuring that information is recorded in a common, easy to search repository. Prior to the EVA Wiki, information required for EVA flight controllers and instructors was scattered across different sources, including multiple file share directories, SharePoint, individual computers, and paper archives. Many documents were outdated, and data was often difficult to find and distribute. In 2011, a team recognized that these knowledge management problems could be solved by creating an EVA Wiki using MediaWiki, a free and open-source software developed by the Wikimedia Foundation. The EVA Wiki developed into an EVA-specific Wikipedia on an internal NASA server. While the technical implementation of the wiki had many challenges, one of the biggest hurdles came from a cultural shift. Like many enterprise organizations, the EVA Operations group was accustomed to hierarchical data structures and individually-owned documents. Instead of sorting files into various folders, the wiki searches content. Rather than having a single document owner, the wiki harmonized the efforts of many contributors and established an automated revision controlled system. As the group adapted to the wiki, the usefulness of this single portal for information became apparent. It transformed into a useful data mining tool for EVA flight controllers and instructors, as well as hundreds of others that support the EVA. Program managers, engineers, astronauts, flight directors, and flight controllers in differing disciplines now have an easier-to-use, searchable system to find EVA data. This paper presents the benefits the EVA Wiki has brought to NASA's EVA community, as well as the cultural challenges it had to overcome.

  9. EVA Wiki - Transforming Knowledge Management for EVA Flight Controllers and Instructors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Stephanie S.; Alpert, Brian K.; Montalvo, Edwin James; Welsh, Lawrence Daren; Wray, Scott; Mavridis, Costa

    2016-01-01

    The EVA Wiki was recently implemented as the primary knowledge database to retain critical knowledge and skills in the EVA Operations group at NASA's Johnson Space Center by ensuring that information is recorded in a common, easy to search repository. Prior to the EVA Wiki, information required for EVA flight controllers and instructors was scattered across different sources, including multiple file share directories, SharePoint, individual computers, and paper archives. Many documents were outdated, and data was often difficult to find and distribute. In 2011, a team recognized that these knowledge management problems could be solved by creating an EVA Wiki using MediaWiki, a free and open-source software developed by the Wikimedia Foundation. The EVA Wiki developed into an EVA-specific Wikipedia on an internal NASA server. While the technical implementation of the wiki had many challenges, one of the biggest hurdles came from a cultural shift. Like many enterprise organizations, the EVA Operations group was accustomed to hierarchical data structures and individually-owned documents. Instead of sorting files into various folders, the wiki searches content. Rather than having a single document owner, the wiki harmonized the efforts of many contributors and established an automated revision controlled system. As the group adapted to the wiki, the usefulness of this single portal for information became apparent. It transformed into a useful data mining tool for EVA flight controllers and instructors, as well as hundreds of others that support EVA. Program managers, engineers, astronauts, flight directors, and flight controllers in differing disciplines now have an easier-to-use, searchable system to find EVA data. This paper presents the benefits the EVA Wiki has brought to NASA's EVA community, as well as the cultural challenges it had to overcome.

  10. EAC: The European Astronauts Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripoll, Andres

    The newly established European Astronauts Centre (EAC) in Cologne represents the European Astronauts Home Base and will become a centre of expertise on European astronauts activities. The paper gives an overview of the European approach to man-in-space, describes the European Astronauts Policy and presents the major EAC roles and responsibilities including the management of selection, recruitment and flight assignment of astronauts; the astronauts support and medical surveillance; the supervision of the astronauts' non-flight assignments; crew safety; the definition of the overall astronauts training programme; the scheduling and supervision of the training facilities; the implementation of Basic Training; the recruitment, training and certification of instructors, and the interface to NASA in the framework of the Space Station Freedom programme. An overview is given on the organisation of EAC, and on the European candidate astronauts selection performed in 1991.

  11. First flight test results of the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Carl J.

    1995-01-01

    The Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) is a small, self-contained, propulsive-backpack system that provides free-flying mobility for an astronaut engaged in a space walk, also known as extravehicular activity (EVA.) SAFER contains no redundant systems and is intended for contingency use only. In essence, it is a small, simplified version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) last flown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1985. The operational SAFER unit will only be used to return an adrift EVA astronaut to the spacecraft. Currently, if an EVA crew member inadvertently becomes separated from the Space Shuttle, the Orbiter will maneuver to within the crew member's reach envelope, allowing the astronaut to regain contact with the Orbiter. However, with the advent of operations aboard the Russian MIR Space Station and the International Space Station, the Space Shuttle will not be available to effect a timely rescue. Under these conditions, a SAFER unit would be worn by each EVA crew member. Flight test of the pre-production model of SAFER occurred in September 1994. The crew of Space Shuttle Mission STS-64 flew a 6.9 hour test flight which included performance, flying qualities, systems, and operational utility evaluations. We found that the unit offers adequate propellant and control authority to stabilize and enable the return of a tumbling/separating crew member. With certain modifications, production model of SAFER can provide self-rescue capability to a separated crew member. This paper will present the program background, explain the flight test results and provide some insight into the complex operations of flight test in space.

  12. Do Astronauts Havbe a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions Than a Cohort of Working Professionals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Young, M.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Tarver, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated [1], but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  13. Antarctica EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stan

    2013-01-01

    NASA astronaut Stan Love shared his experiences with the Antarctic Search for Meteorites (ANSMET), an annual expedition to the southern continent to collect valuable samples for research in planetary science. ANSMET teams operate from isolated, remote field camps on the polar plateau, where windchill factors often reach -40? F. Several astronaut participants have noted ANSMET's similarity to a space mission. Some of the operational concepts, tools, and equipment employed by ANSMET teams may offer valuable insights to designers of future planetary surface exploration hardware.

  14. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; England, Scott; Benson, Liz

    2009-01-01

    With the new vision of space travel aimed at traveling back to the Moon and eventually to Mars, NASA is designing a new spacesuit glove. The purpose of this study was to baseline hand strength while wearing the current Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove, the Phase VI. By varying the pressure in the glove, hand strength could be characterized as a function of spacesuit pressure. This finding is of extreme importance when evaluating missions that require varying suit pressures associated with different operations within NASA's current human spaceflight program, Constellation. This characterization fed directly into the derivation of requirements for the next EVA glove. This study captured three types of maximum hand strength: grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch. All three strengths were measured under varying pressures and compared to a bare-hand condition. The resulting standardized data was reported as a percentage of the bare-hand strength. The first wave of tests was performed while the subjects, four female and four male, were wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit supported by a suit stand. This portion of the test collected data from the barehand, suited unpressurized, and suited pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions. In addition, the effects of the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) on hand strength were examined, with the suited unpressurized and pressurized cases tested with and without a TMG. It was found that, when pressurized and with the TMG, the Phase VI glove reduced applied grip strength to a little more than half of the subject s bare-hand strength. The lateral pinch strength remained relatively constant while the pulp-2 pinch strength actually increased with pressure. The TMG was found to decrease maximum applied grip strength by an additional 10% for both pressurized and unpressurized cases, while the pinch strengths saw little to no change. In developing requirements based on human subjects, it is important to attempt to derive

  15. Cooperative EVA/Telerobotic Surface Operations in Support of Exploration Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, David L.

    2001-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Planetary Surface Robotics; 2) EVA Difficulties from Apollo; 3) Robotic Capabilities for EVA Support; 4) Astronaut Support Vehicle; 5) Three ASV Preliminary Designs; 6) Small Single-arm Assistant; 7) Dual-arm Assistant; 8) Large EVA Assistant; 9) Lessons Learned-Preliminary Designs; 10) Rover Design Assumptions; 11) Design Requirements-Terrain; 12) Design Requirements; 13) Science Payload; 14) Manipulator Arm; 15) EVA Multiple Robot Cooperation; 16) SSL Rover Body Concept; 17) Advanced EVA Support Rover Concept; 18) Robotic Access to Restricted Sites; 19) Robotic Rescue of EVA crew; and 19) Why Do We Need Humans? This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  16. Miniature Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter dosimeter for active personal radiation monitoring of astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson Huber, Aubrey

    The accurate measurement of spaceflight crew radiation exposure is of utmost importance. If onboard instrumentation shows that the pre-determined limit for radiation exposure has been met or exceeded during a mission, that mission can be greatly affected by the implementation of precautionary measures, or, in more extreme cases, the crew's health being negatively affected. Large active regional monitors determine real-time radiation risks of the crew during spaceflight, while small passive personal badges detect individual astronaut total exposure levels upon their return to Earth. At present, there are no personal active radiation dosimeters that can assess the continuous radiation risk to individual astronauts during spaceflight. Personal active radiation devices would be ideal for current operations in low-Earth orbit (LEO), as well as upcoming extravehicular activities on the Moon, Mars, or other planetary bodies. This project focused on the miniaturization of the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPCs) presently being utilized on the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Shuttle, enabling them to become personal crew dosimeters. The miniaturized TEPC prototype design has dimensions of 7.6 x 10.1 x 2.54 cm (3 x 4 x 1 in). It is composed of a 3 x 4 array of 1.27 cm (0.5 in) spherical detectors for measurements equivalent to a 4.39 cm (1.73 in) spherical detector, with an additional standalone sphere of diameter 1.27 cm (0.5 in) for taking measurements in high-flux environments. The detector simulates a tissue-equivalent diameter of 2 microns, is sensitive to lineal energies of 0.3 -- 1000 keV/micron, and can measure charged particles and neutrons ranging from 0.01 -- 100 mGy/hr.

  17. STS-116 Astronauts Curbeam and Fuglesang Perform Space Walk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    STS-116 astronaut and mission specialist, Robert Curbeam, along with the European Space Agency's (ESA) Christer Fuglesang (partially out of the frame), are anchored to the International Space Station's Canadarm2 foot restraints. The two were working on the port overhead solar array wing on the Station's P6 truss during the mission's fourth session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). For 6 hours and 38 minutes, the space walkers used specially prepared, tape insulated tools to guide the array wing neatly inside its blanket box.

  18. Television transmission of Astronaut Harrison Schmitt with geophone module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is seen anchoring the geophone module with a flag during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site, in this black and white reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The geophone module is part of the Lunar Seismic profiling Experiment (S-203), a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP).

  19. EVA Skills Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Parazynski and a colleague from Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Robotics, & Crew Systems Operations (DX) worked closely to build the EVA Skills Training Program, and for the first time, defined the gold standards of EVA performance, allowing crewmembers to increase their performance significantly. As part of the program, individuals had the opportunity to learn at their own rate, taking additional water time as required, to achieve that level of performance. This focus on training to one's strengths and weaknesses to bolster them enabled the Crew Office and DX to field a much larger group of spacewalkers for the daunting "wall of EVA" required for the building and maintenance of the ISS. Parazynski also stressed the need for designers to understand the capabilities and the limitations of a human in a spacesuit, as well as opportunities to improve future generations of space. He shared lessons learned (how the Crew Office engaged in these endeavors) and illustrated the need to work as a team to develop these complex systems.

  20. Development of an air-bearing fan for space extravehicular activity (EVA) suit ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukumoto, Paul; Allen, Norman; Stonesifer, Greg

    1992-01-01

    A high-speed/variable flow fan has been developed for EVA suit ventilation which combines air bearings with a two-pole, toothless permanent-magnet motor. The fan has demonstrated quiet and vibration-free operation and a 2:1 range in flow rate variation. System weight is 0.9 kg, and input powers range from 12.4 to 42 W.

  1. Interoperability Trends in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Space Operations for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Gerald E.

    1999-01-01

    No other space operations in the 21 st century more comprehensively embody the challenges and dependencies of interoperability than EVA. This discipline is already functioning at an W1paralleled level of interagency, inter-organizational and international cooperation. This trend will only increase as space programs endeavor to expand in the face of shrinking budgets. Among the topics examined in this paper are hardware-oriented issues. Differences in design standards among various space participants dictate differences in the EVA tools that must be manufactured, flown and maintained on-orbit. Presently only two types of functional space suits exist in the world. However, three versions of functional airlocks are in operation. Of the three airlocks, only the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock can accommodate both types of suits. Due to functional differences in the suits, completely different operating protocols are required for each. Should additional space suit or airlock designs become available, the complexity will increase. The lessons learned as a result of designing and operating within such a system are explored. This paper also examines the non-hardware challenges presented by interoperability for a discipline that is as uniquely dependent upon the individual as EVA. Operation of space suits (essentially single-person spacecrafts) by persons whose native language is not that of the suits' designers is explored. The intricacies of shared mission planning, shared control and shared execution of joint EVA's are explained. For example, once ISS is fully functional, the potential exists for two crewmembers of different nationality to be wearing suits manufactured and controlled by a third nation, while operating within an airlock manufactured and controlled by a fourth nation, in an effort to perform tasks upon hardware belonging to a fifth nation. Everything from training issues, to procedures development and writing, to real-time operations is

  2. Shuttle Astronauts Play Chess

    NASA Video Gallery

    STS-134 astronauts Greg Johnson and Greg Chamitoff ponder their next move for the Earth vs. Space chess match. The shuttle crew members also discuss their activities aboard the International Space ...

  3. Post-Shuttle EVA Operations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William; Witt, Vincent; Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    The expected retirement of the NASA Space Transportation System (also known as the Space Shuttle ) by 2011 will pose a significant challenge to Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The EVA hardware currently used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed assuming that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for refurbishment, or if necessary for failure investigation. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support hardware and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2015, and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, the EVA 2010 Project was jointly initiated by NASA and the One EVA contractor team. The challenges addressed were to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, to secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, to protect for EMU hardware operability on-orbit, and to determine the source of high water purity to support recharge of PLSSs (no longer available via Shuttle). EVA 2010 Project includes the following tasks: the development of a launch fixture that would allow the EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to be launched on-board alternate vehicles; extension of the EMU hardware maintenance interval from 3 years (current certification) to a minimum of 6 years (to extend to 2015); testing of recycled ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) water for use in the EMU cooling system in lieu of water resupplied by International Partner (IP) vehicles; development of techniques to remove & replace critical components in the PLSS on-orbit (not routine); extension of on-orbit certification of EVA tools; and development of an EVA hardware logistical plan to support the ISS without the Space Shuttle. Assumptions for the EVA 2010 Project included no more

  4. EVA Development and Verification Testing at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jairala, Juniper C.; Durkin, Robert; Marak, Ralph J.; Sipila, Stepahnie A.; Ney, Zane A.; Parazynski, Scott E.; Thomason, Arthur H.

    2012-01-01

    As an early step in the preparation for future Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), astronauts perform neutral buoyancy testing to develop and verify EVA hardware and operations. Neutral buoyancy demonstrations at NASA Johnson Space Center's Sonny Carter Training Facility to date have primarily evaluated assembly and maintenance tasks associated with several elements of the International Space Station (ISS). With the retirement of the Shuttle, completion of ISS assembly, and introduction of commercial players for human transportation to space, evaluations at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) will take on a new focus. Test objectives are selected for their criticality, lack of previous testing, or design changes that justify retesting. Assembly tasks investigated are performed using procedures developed by the flight hardware providers and the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD). Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) maintenance tasks are performed using a more systematic set of procedures, EVA Concept of Operations for the International Space Station (JSC-33408), also developed by the MOD. This paper describes the requirements and process for performing a neutral buoyancy test, including typical hardware and support equipment requirements, personnel and administrative resource requirements, examples of ISS systems and operations that are evaluated, and typical operational objectives that are evaluated.

  5. Economic value analysis of the return from the Korean astronaut program and the science culture diffusion activity in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Soyeon; Jang, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Hyo Suk; Yu, Jong-Phil; Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Joohee; Hur, Hee-Young

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we analyze the economic effects from the Korean Astronaut Program (KAP) and the subsequent Science Culture Diffusion Activity (SCDA). Korea has had a huge practical effect on the development of science and technology and has increased international awareness of Korea by producing Korea's first astronaut. There has also been a large, ripple effect on space related industries. In addition, the KAP has exercised a far-reaching influence on Korean society and culture by boosting all science and engineering and inspiring national pride. After the KAP, astronauts' outreach activities, such as lectures for the general public; interviews on television, newspapers and magazines; participating in children's science camps; and distributing publications and DVDs about astronaut program for general public, were instituted for diffusing science culture. Thus, positive effects such as the promotion of Korea's level of technology, student interest in science and engineering fields, and the expansion of the industrial base were reinforced after the KAP. This study is aimed at evaluating the economic significance and the value of return through analyzing the effects of the KAP and the subsequent Science Culture Diffusion Activity.

  6. Preflight and In-Flight Exercise Conditions for Astronauts on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guilliams, Mark E.; Nieschwitz, Bruce; Hoellen, David; Loehr, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The physiological demands of spaceflight require astronauts to have certain physical abilities. They must be able to perform routine and off-nominal physical work during flight and upon re-entry into a gravity environment to ensure mission success, such as an Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) or emergency egress. To prepare the astronauts for their mission, a Wyle Astronaut Strength Conditioning and Rehabilitation specialist (ASCR) works individually with the astronauts to prescribe preflight strength and conditioning programs and in-flight exercise, utilizing Countermeasure Systems (CMS) exercise hardware. PURPOSE: To describe the preflight and in-flight exercise programs for ISS crewmembers. METHODS: Approximately 2 years before a scheduled launch, an ASCR is assigned to each astronaut and physical training (PT) is routinely scheduled. Preflight PT of astronauts consists of carrying out strength, aerobic and general conditioning, employing the principles of periodization. Exercise programs are prescribed to the astronauts to account for their individual fitness levels, planned mission-specific tasks, areas of concern, and travel schedules. Additionally, astronauts receive instruction on how to operate CMS exercise hardware and receive training for microgravity-specific conditions. For example, astronauts are scheduled training sessions for the International Space Station (ISS) treadmill (TVIS) and cycle ergometer (CEVIS), as well as the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). In-flight programs are designed to maintain or even improve the astronauts pre-flight levels of fitness, bone health, muscle strength, power and aerobic capacity. In-flight countermeasure sessions are scheduled in 2.5 h blocks, six days a week, which includes 1.5 h for resistive training and 1 h for aerobic exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Crewmembers reported the need for more scheduled time for preflight training. During flight, crewmembers have indicated that the in-flight exercise is sufficient

  7. A fusible heat sink concept for extravehicular activity /EVA/ thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary design and analysis of a heat sink system, utilizing a phase change slurry material, to be used for astronaut and equipment cooling during manned space missions. During normal use, excess heat in the liquid cooling garment (LCG) coolant is transferred to a regenerable fusible heat sink. Recharge is accomplished by disconnecting the heat sink from the liquid cooling garment and placing it in an onboard freezer for simultaneous slurry refreeze and power supply recharge.

  8. What's NEXT for EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, R. K.

    The NASA Exploration Team (NEXT) promotes a vision of new capabilities through an ongoing, integrated and prioritized investment in leap ahead concepts and technologies. The wise marriage of robotic and human work systems is a key element of this vision. To enable a wide array of future destinations and applications, it is important to develop and implement systems which are scalable, environmentally adaptable, reliable and efficiently productive. This paper highlights a few of the recently envisioned customers and applications for advanced extravehicular activity (EVA) systems. It also summarizes recent conceptual and practical studies to define the features and options of such a system. More importantly, it communicates the need and progress of knowledge capture, clearly defined performance targets, credible decision making tools, tangible benefits and creative leverage. With this integrated long range approach, space exploration and EVA can accelerate and enable the future for all generations.

  9. A Noninvasive Miniaturized-Wireless Laser-Doppler Fiber-Optic Sensor for Understanding Distal Fingertip Injuries in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Pollonini, Luca; Rodriquez, Mikael; Opperman, Roedolph; Hochstein, Jason

    2009-01-01

    During extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or spacewalks astronauts over use their fingertips under pressure inside the confined spaces of gloves/space suits. The repetitive hand motion is a probable cause for discomfort and injuries to the fingertips. We describe a new wireless fiber-optic probe that can be integrated inside the astronaut glove for noninvasive blood perfusion measurements in distal fingertips. In this preliminary study, we present blood perfusion measurements while performing hand-grip exercises simulating the use of space tools.

  10. A non-invasive miniaturized-wireless laser-Doppler fiber optic sensor for understanding distal fingertip injuries in astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Pollonini, Luca; Rodriguez, Mikael; Opperman, Roedolph; Hochstein, Jason

    2009-02-01

    During extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or space walks astronauts over use their fingertips under pressure inside the confined spaces of gloves/space-suite. The repetitive hand motion is a probable cause for discomfort and injuries to the finger-tips. We describe a new wireless fiber-optic probe that can be integrated inside the astronaut glove for non-invasive blood perfusion measurements in distal finger tips. In this preliminary study, we present blood perfusion measurements while performing hand-grip exercises simulating the use of space tools.

  11. Information Flow Model of Human Extravehicular Activity Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Matthew J.; McGuire, Kerry M.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Future human spaceflight missions will face the complex challenge of performing human extravehicular activity (EVA) beyond the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Astronauts will become increasingly isolated from Earth-based mission support and thus will rely heavily on their own decision-making capabilities and onboard tools to accomplish proposed EVA mission objectives. To better address time delay communication issues, EVA characters, e.g. flight controllers, astronauts, etc., and their respective work practices and roles need to be better characterized and understood. This paper presents the results of a study examining the EVA work domain and the personnel that operate within it. The goal is to characterize current and historical roles of ground support, intravehicular (IV) crew and EV crew, their communication patterns and information needs. This work provides a description of EVA operations and identifies issues to be used as a basis for future investigation.

  12. Evaluation of an Anthropometric Human Body Model for Simulated EVA Task Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etter, Brad

    1996-01-01

    One of the more mission-critical tasks performed in space is extravehicular activity (EVA) which requires the astronaut to be external to the station or spacecraft, and subsequently at risk from the many threats posed by space. These threats include, but are not limited to: no significant atmosphere, harmful electromagnetic radiation, micrometeoroids, and space debris. To protect the astronaut from this environment, a special EVA suit is worn which is designed to maintain a sustainable atmosphere (at 1/3 atmosphere) and provide protection against the hazards of space. While the EVA suit serves these functions well, it does impose limitations on the astronaut as a consequence of the safety it provides. Since the astronaut is in a virtual vacuum, any atmospheric pressure inside the suit serves to pressurize the suit and restricts mobility of flexible joints (such as fabric). Although some of the EVA suit joints are fixed, rotary-style joints, most of the mobility is achieved by the simple flexibility of the fabric. There are multiple layers of fabric, each of which serves a special purpose in the safety of the astronaut. These multiple layers add to the restriction of motion the astronaut experiences in the space environment. Ground-based testing is implemented to evaluate the capability of EVA-suited astronauts to perform the various tasks in space. In addition to the restriction of motion imposed by the EVA suit, most EVA activity is performed in a micro-gravity (weight less) environment. To simulate weightlessness EVA-suited testing is performed in a neutral buoyancy simulator (NBS). The NBS is composed of a large container of water (pool) in which a weightless environment can be simulated. A subject is normally buoyant in the pressurized suit; however he/she can be made neutrally buoyant with the addition of weights. In addition, most objects the astronaut must interface with in the NBS sink in water and flotation must be added to render them "weightless". The

  13. Evaluation of Hardware and Procedures for Astronaut Assembly and Repair of Large Precision Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Watson, Judith J.; Collins, Timothy J.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed procedure is presented that enables astronauts in extravehicular activity (EVA) to efficiently assemble and repair large (i.e., greater than 10m-diameter) segmented reflectors, supported by a truss, for space-based optical or radio-frequency science instruments. The procedure, estimated timelines, and reflector hardware performance are verified in simulated 0-g (neutral buoyancy) assembly tests of a 14m-diameter, offset-focus, reflector test article. The test article includes a near-flight-quality, 315-member, doubly curved support truss and 7 mockup reflector panels (roughly 2m in diameter) representing a portion of the 37 total panels needed to fully populate the reflector. Data from the tests indicate that a flight version of the design (including all reflector panels) could be assembled in less than 5 hours - less than the 6 hours normally permitted for a single EVA. This assembly rate essentially matches pre-test predictions that were based on a vast amount of historical data on EVA assembly of structures produced by NASA Langley Research Center. Furthermore, procedures and a tool for the removal and replacement of a damaged reflector panel were evaluated, and it was shown that EVA repair of this type of reflector is feasible with the use of appropriate EVA crew aids.

  14. Probabilistic Assessment of Radiation Risk for Astronauts in Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; DeAngelis, Giovanni; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate predictions of the health risks to astronauts from space radiation exposure are necessary for enabling future lunar and Mars missions. Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons, (less than 100 MeV); and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which include protons and heavy ions of higher energies. While the expected frequency of SPEs is strongly influenced by the solar activity cycle, SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature. A solar modulation model has been developed for the temporal characterization of the GCR environment, which is represented by the deceleration potential, phi. The risk of radiation exposure from SPEs during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded vehicles is a major concern for radiation protection, including determining the shielding and operational requirements for astronauts and hardware. To support the probabilistic risk assessment for EVAs, which would be up to 15% of crew time on lunar missions, we estimated the probability of SPE occurrence as a function of time within a solar cycle using a nonhomogeneous Poisson model to fit the historical database of measurements of protons with energy > 30 MeV, (phi)30. The resultant organ doses and dose equivalents, as well as effective whole body doses for acute and cancer risk estimations are analyzed for a conceptual habitat module and a lunar rover during defined space mission periods. This probabilistic approach to radiation risk assessment from SPE and GCR is in support of mission design and operational planning to manage radiation risks for space exploration.

  15. Advanced EVA system design requirements study: EVAS/space station system interface requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1985-01-01

    The definition of the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems interface requirements and accomodations for effective integration of a production EVA capability into the space station are contained. A description of the EVA systems for which the space station must provide the various interfaces and accomodations are provided. The discussion and analyses of the various space station areas in which the EVA interfaces are required and/or from which implications for EVA system design requirements are derived, are included. The rationale is provided for all EVAS mechanical, fluid, electrical, communications, and data system interfaces as well as exterior and interior requirements necessary to facilitate EVA operations. Results of the studies supporting these discussions are presented in the appendix.

  16. STS-49 INTELSAT VI-R WETF exercise with astronauts Musgrave, Clifford, Voss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) VI-R simulation at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 was conducted with extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited astronauts F. Story Musgrave, Michael R. U. Clifford, and James S. Voss. Astronauts practiced a three person extravehicular activity (EVA) procedure for INTELSAT capture and climbing into the airlock mockup. No apparent problems were identified in placing three astronauts in the airlock at one time. Ground based exercises were conducted after five failed INTELSAT capture attempts during the STS-49 mission. Left to right are, Clifford, Musgrave, and Voss. With Musgrave on the remote manipulator system (RMS) manipulator foot restraint (MFR) and Clifford on a portable foot restraint mounted on the payload bay sill longeron, and Voss on a PFR mounted on a strut with the PFR Attachment Device (PAD), the capture bar is maneuvered under the INT

  17. Lunar Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA)-Planting U.S. Flag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11, first moon landing mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon, while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew set up experiments, collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, planted the U.S. Flag, and left a message for all mankind. In this photograph Armstrong and Aldrin are seen implanting the U. S. flag on the lunar surface. Armstrong is standing at the flag's staff, on the left, and Aldrin is on the right.

  18. Lunar Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA)-Planting U.S. Flag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The first manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon, while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew set up experiments, collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, planted the U.S. Flag, and left a message for all mankind. In this photograph, Armstrong and Aldrin are seen implanting the U. S. flag on the lunar surface. Armstrong is standing at the flag's staff, on the left, and Aldrin is on the right.

  19. Leisure time activities in space: A survey of astronauts and cosmonauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Alan D.; Kanas, Nick

    Questionnaires were returned from 54 astronauts and cosmonauts which addressed preferences for media and media-generated subjects that could be used to occupy leisure time in space. Ninety-three percent of the respondents had access to records or audio cassettes, and cosmonauts had greater access than astronauts to multiple media. Cosmonauts and long-duration space travelers reported that they missed various media more than their astronaut and short-duration counterparts. Media subjects that related to international events, national events and historical topics were rated as most preferable by all respondents and by several of the respondent groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for occupying free time during future long-duration manned space missions.

  20. EVA 2010: Preparing for International Space Station EVA Operations Post-Space Shuttle Retirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; West, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The expected retirement of the NASA Space Transportation System (also known as the Space Shuttle ) by 2011 will pose a significant challenge to Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The EVA hardware currently used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed assuming that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for refurbishment, or if necessary for failure investigation. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support hardware and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2015, and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, the EVA 2010 Project was jointly initiated by NASA and the OneEVA contractor team. The challenges addressed were to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, to secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, to protect for EMU hardware operability on-orbit, and to determine the source of high water purity to support recharge of PLSSs (no longer available via Shuttle). EVA 2010 Project includes the following tasks: the development of a launch fixture that would allow the EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to be launched on-board alternate vehicles; extension of the EMU hardware maintenance interval from 3 years (current certification) to a minimum of 6 years (to extend to 2015); testing of recycled ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) water for use in the EMU cooling system in lieu of water resupplied by International Partner (IP) vehicles; development of techniques to remove & replace critical components in the PLSS on-orbit (not routine); extension of on-orbit certification of EVA tools; and development of an EVA hardware logistical plan to support the ISS without the Space Shuttle. Assumptions for the EVA 2010 Project included no more than

  1. STS-37 crewmembers work with CETA during EVA training in JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross and MS Jerome Apt operate crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart during training session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing extravehicular mobility units (EMUs), Ross and Apt practice a extravehicular activity (EVA) spacewalk they will perform in OV-104's payload bay during STS-37. CETA is a type of railroad hand cart planned as a spacewalker's transportation system along the truss of Space Station Freedom (SSF). Apt is pulling Ross along to test the cart's ability to carry a person plus cargo. SCUBA divers monitor astronauts' underwater activity.

  2. STS-49 crew captures INTELSAT VI above OV-105's payload bay (PLB) during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 crewmembers complete successful capture of the International Telecommunications Organization Satellite (INTELSAT) VI during their third extravehicular activity (EVA) into Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, payload bay (PLB). Left to right Mission Specialist (MS) Richard J. Hieb, MS Thomas D. Akers, and MS Pierre J. Thuot, positioned on the remote manipulator system (RMS), have handholds on the satellite and prepare to attach capture bar (tethered to Hieb). Mexico is seen on the Earth below including an area from Hermosillo, Sonara to Los Mochis in the state of Sinaloa. In the foreground is the Assembly of Station by EVA Methods (ASEM) multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS). Behind the three astronauts is the vertical perigee stage which will be attached to the INTELSAT VI prior to its release from the PLB.

  3. STS-49 crew captures INTELSAT VI above OV-105's payload bay (PLB) during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 crewmembers hold onto the 4.5 ton International Telecommunications Organization Satellite (INTELSAT) VI after a six-handed 'capture' was made minutes earlier during the mission's third extravehicular activity (EVA) into Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, payload bay (PLB). Left to right are Mission Specialist (MS) Richard J. Hieb, MS Thomas D. Akers, and MS Pierre J. Thuot. The three prepare to attach the capture bar which is tethered to Hieb. Thuot is positioned on the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm, from which he had made two earlier unsuccessful grapple attempts on two-person EVA sessions. Ground controllers and crewmembers agreed that a third attempt, using three mission specialists in the PLB, was the effort needed to accomplish the capture feat. Behind the three astronauts is the vertical perigee stage which will be attached to the INTELSAT VI prior to its release from the PLB.

  4. Advanced EVA system design requirements study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the space station advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related EVA support equipment were established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as operational, procedures and training issues were considered.

  5. Female Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Astronauts Dr. N. Jan Davis (left) and Dr. Mae C. Jemison (right) were mission specialists on board the STS-47 mission. Born on November 1, 1953 in Cocoa Beach, Florida, Dr. N. Jan Davis received a Master degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1983 followed by a Doctorate in Engineering from the University of Alabama in Huntsville in 1985. In 1979 she joined NASA Marshall Space Flight Center as an aerospace engineer. A veteran of three space flights, Dr. Davis has logged over 678 hours in space since becoming an astronaut in 1987. She flew as a mission specialist on STS-47 in 1992 and STS-60 in 1994, and was the payload commander on STS-85 in 1997. In July 1999, she transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center, where she became Director of Flight Projects. Dr. Mae C. Jemison, the first African-American woman in space, was born on October 17, 1956 in Decatur, Alabama but considers Chicago, Illinois her hometown. She received a Bachelor degree in Chemical Engineering (and completed the requirements for a Bachelor degree in African and Afro-American studies) at Stanford University in 1977, and a Doctorate degree in medicine from Cornell University in 1981. After receiving her doctorate, she worked as a General Practitioner while attending graduate engineering classes in Los Angeles. She was named an astronaut candidate in 1987, and flew her first flight as a science mission specialists on STS-47, Spacelab-J, in September 1992, logging 190 hours, 30 minutes, 23 seconds in space. In March 1993, Dr. Jemison resigned from NASA, thought she still resides in Houston, Texas. She went on to publish her memoirs, Find Where the Wind Goes: Moments from My Life, in 2001. The astronauts are shown preparing to deploy the lower body negative pressure (LBNP) apparatus in this 35mm frame taken in the science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavor. Fellow astronauts Robert L. Gibson (Commander), Curtis L. Brown (Junior Pilot), Mark C. Lee (Payload Commander), Jay Apt

  6. Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham

    2012-12-01

    During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved

  7. Summary of astronaut inputs concerning automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, David J.

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the potential for increased productivity on Space Station Freedom through advanced automation and robotics was recently completed. Sponsored by the Office of Space Station, the study involved reviews of on-orbit operations experience documentation, interviews with 23 current and former astronauts/payload specialists as well as other NASA and contractor personnel, and a survey of 32 astronauts and payload specialists. Assessed areas of related on-orbit experience included Skylab, space shuttle, Spacelab, and the Soviet space program, as well as the U.S. nuclear submarine program and Antarctic research stations analogs. The survey questionnaire asked the respondents to rate the desirability of advanced automation, EVA robotics, and IVA robotics. They were also asked to rate safety impacts of automated fault diagnosis, isolation, and recovery (FDIR); automated exception reporting and alarm filtering; and an EVA retriever. The respondents were also asked to evaluate 26 specific applications of advanced automation and robotics related to perceived impact on productivity.

  8. Simulation and preparation of surface EVA in reduced gravity at the Marseilles Bay subsea analogue sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, P.; Gardette, B.; Chirié, B.; Collina-Girard, J.; Delauze, H. G.

    2012-12-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts during space missions is simulated nowadays underwater in neutral buoyancy facilities. Certain aspects of weightlessness can be reproduced underwater by adding buoyancy to a diver-astronaut, therefore exposing the subject to the difficulties of working without gravity. Such tests were done at the COMEX' test pool in Marseilles in the 1980s to train for a French-Russian mission to the MIR station, for the development of the European HERMES shuttle and the COLUMBUS laboratory. However, space agencies are currently studying missions to other destinations than the International Space Station in orbit, such as the return to the Moon, NEO (near-Earth objects) or Mars. All these objects expose different gravities: Moon has one sixth of Earth's gravity, Mars has a third of Earth's gravity and asteroids have virtually no surface gravity; the astronaut "floats" above the ground. The preparation of such missions calls for a new concept in neutral buoyancy training, not on man-made structures, but on natural terrain, underwater, to simulate EVA operations such as sampling, locomotion or even anchoring in low gravity. Underwater sites can be used not only to simulate the reduced gravity that astronauts will experience during their field trips, also human factors like stress are more realistically reproduced in such environment. The Bay of Marseille hosts several underwater sites that can be used to simulate various geologic morphologies, such as sink-holes which can be used to simulate astronaut descends into craters, caves where explorations of lava tubes can be trained or monolithic rock structures that can be used to test anchoring devices (e.g., near Earth objects). Marseilles with its aerospace and maritime/offshore heritage hosts the necessary logistics and expertise that is needed to perform such simulations underwater in a safe manner (training of astronaut-divers in local test pools, research vessels, subsea robots and

  9. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to identify specific criteria regarding space station extravehicular activity system (EVAS) hardware requirements. Key EVA design issues include maintainability, technology readiness, LSS volume vs. EVA time available, suit pressure/cabin pressure relationship and productivity effects, crew autonomy, integration of EVA as a program resource, and standardization of task interfaces. A variety of DOD EVA systems issues were taken into consideration. Recommendations include: (1) crew limitations, not hardware limitations; (2) capability to perform all of 15 generic missions; (3) 90 days on-orbit maintainability with 50 percent duty cycle as minimum; and (4) use by payload sponsors of JSC document 10615A plus a Generic Tool Kit and Specialized Tool Kit description. EVA baseline design requirements and criteria, including requirements of various subsystems, are outlined. Space station/EVA system interface requirements and EVA accommodations are discussed in the areas of atmosphere composition and pressure, communications, data management, logistics, safe haven, SS exterior and interior requirements, and SS airlock.

  10. Interplanetary proton flux and solar wind conditions for different solar activities interacting with spacecraft and astronauts in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejat, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to determine the interplanetary proton flux and solar wind conditions by using data from several satellites such as Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) in particular GOES 9, GOES 11, GOES 12, GOES 13, and Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) to determine proton flux in different solar wind conditions. The data from above satellites were used to determine space weather conditions in which the goals are to evaluate proton fluxes for four periods of solar cycle activity: a solar cycle 23/24 minimum (2008), close to a solar cycle 22/23 minimum (1997), with intermediate activity (2011) and for about maximum activity for the cycle 23 (2003), to compare data of two period of solar cycle in 2003 and 2008 (Max vs. Min), to compare data of two period of solar cycle in 1997 and 2008 (Min vs. Min), to compare soft X-ray flux from SOHO with proton 1-10 MeV flux from GOES 9 for strong flare in 1997. To conclude the above evaluations are being used to determine the interaction between the space weather conditions and the following consequences of these conditions important for astronautics and everyday human activity: 1- Satellite and Spacecraft charging, 2-Dangerous conditions for onboard electronics and astronauts during strong solar flare events, and 3- Total Electron Content (TEC), Global Positioning System (GPS), and radio communication problems related to solar activity.

  11. Expedition 16 Flight Engineer Tani Performs EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Astronaut Daniel Tani (top center), Expedition 16 flight engineer, participates in the second of five scheduled sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction continues on the International Space Station (ISS). During the 6-hour and 33-minute space walk, Tani and STS-120 mission specialist Scott Parazynski (out of frame), worked in tandem to disconnect cables from the P6 truss, allowing it to be removed from the Z1 truss. Tani also visually inspected the station's starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) and gathered samples of 'shavings' he found under the joint's multilayer insulation covers. The space walkers also outfitted the Harmony module, mated the power and data grapple fixture and reconfigured connectors on the starboard 1 (S1) truss that will allow the radiator on S1 to be deployed from the ground later. The moon is visible at lower center. The STS-120 mission launched from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A at 11:38:19 a.m. (EDT) on October 23, 2007.

  12. STS-65 Mission Specialist Chiao in EMU prepares for WETF contingency EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Mission Specialist Leroy Chiao, fully suited in an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and helmet, stands on a platform suspended via an overhead crane as he is lowered into a 25-feet deep pool at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Chiao prepares to be immersed in the pool to practice door and latch contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) procedures. Although no spacewalk is planned for the STS-65 International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission, NASA always trains some of each mission's crewmembers to perform in-space tasks that would be required in the event of remote system failure. For 14 years, the WETF pool has been used to train astronauts for spacewalks and to evaluate certain hardware and procedures. Chiao's EMU is weighted to enable the astronaut to achieve neutral buoyancy once in the tank. SCUBA-equipped divers already in the pool guide the platform into the water.

  13. Initial Incidence of White Matter Hyperintensities on MRI in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason; Sherman, Paul; McGuire, Steve; Kochunov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Previous literature has described the increase in white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden associated with hypobaric exposure in the U-2 and altitude chamber operating personnel. Although astronauts have similar hypobaric exposure pressures to the U2 pilot population, astronauts have far fewer exposures and each exposure would be associated with a much lower level of decompression stress due to rigorous countermeasures to prevent decompression sickness. Therefore, we postulated that the WMH burden in the astronaut population would be less than in U2 pilots. Methods: Twenty-one post-flight de-identified astronaut MRIs (5 mm slice thickness FLAIR sequences) were evaluated for WMH count and volume. The only additional data provided was an age range of the astronauts (43-57) and if they had ever performed an EVA (13 yes, 8 no). Results: WMH count in these 21 astronaut MRI was 21.0 +/- 24.8 (mean+/- SD) and volume was 0.382 +/- 0.602 ml, which was significantly higher than previously published results for the U2 pilots. No significant differences between EVA and no EVA groups existed. Age range of astronaut population is not directly comparable to the U2 population. Discussion: With significantly less frequent (sometimes none) and less stressful hypobaric exposures, yet a much higher incidence of increased WMH, this indicates the possibility of additional mechanisms beyond hypobaric exposure. This increase unlikely to be attributable just to the differences in age between astronauts and U2 pilots. Forward work includes continuing review of post-flight MRI and evaluation of pre to post flight MRI changes if available. Data mining for potential WMH risk factors includes collection of age, sex, spaceflight experience, EVA hours, other hypobaric exposures, hyperoxic exposures, radiation, high performance aircraft experience and past medical history. Finally, neurocognitive and vision/eye results will be evaluated for any evidence of impairment linked to

  14. Minimizing EVA Airlock Time and Depress Gas Losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis A.; Lafuse, Sharon A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the need and solution for minimizing EVA airlock time and depress gas losses using a new method that minimizes EVA out-the-door time for a suited astronaut and reclaims most of the airlock depress gas. This method consists of one or more related concepts that use an evacuated reservoir tank to store and reclaim the airlock depress gas. The evacuated tank can be an inflatable tank, a spent fuel tank from a lunar lander descent stage, or a backup airlock. During EVA airlock operations, the airlock and reservoir would be equalized at some low pressure, and through proper selection of reservoir size, most of the depress gas would be stored in the reservoir for later reclamation. The benefit of this method is directly applicable to long duration lunar and Mars missions that require multiple EVA missions (up to 100, two-person lunar EVAs) and conservation of consumables, including depress pump power and depress gas. The current ISS airlock gas reclamation method requires approximately 45 minutes of the astronaut s time in the airlock and 1 KW in electrical power. The proposed method would decrease the astronaut s time in the airlock because the depress gas is being temporarily stored in a reservoir tank for later recovery. Once the EVA crew is conducting the EVA, the volume in the reservoir would be pumped back to the cabin at a slow rate. Various trades were conducted to optimize this method, which include time to equalize the airlock with the evacuated reservoir versus reservoir size, pump power to reclaim depress gas versus time allotted, inflatable reservoir pros and cons (weight, volume, complexity), and feasibility of spent lunar nitrogen and oxygen tanks as reservoirs.

  15. Next-Generation Maneuvering System with Control-Moment Gyroscopes for Extravehicular Activities Near Low-Gravity Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Michele; Jackson, Kimberly; Cohanim, Babak; Duda, Kevin R.; Rize, Jared; Dopart, Celena; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Curiel, Pedro; Studak, Joseph; Ponica, Dina; RochlisZumbado, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Looking ahead to the human exploration of Mars, NASA is planning for exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the Martian moons. Performing tasks near the surface of such low-gravity objects will likely require the use of an updated version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) since the surface gravity is not high enough to allow astronauts to walk, or have sufficient resistance to counter reaction forces and torques during movements. The extravehicular activity (EVA) Jetpack device currently under development is based on the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) unit and has maneuvering capabilities to assist EVA astronauts with their tasks. This maneuvering unit has gas thrusters for attitude control and translation. When EVA astronauts are performing tasks that require ne motor control such as sample collection and equipment placement, the current control system will re thrusters to compensate for the resulting changes in center-of-mass location and moments of inertia, adversely affecting task performance. The proposed design of a next-generation maneuvering and stability system incorporates control concepts optimized to support astronaut tasks and adds control-moment gyroscopes (CMGs) to the current Jetpack system. This design aims to reduce fuel consumption, as well as improve task performance for astronauts by providing a sti er work platform. The high-level control architecture for an EVA maneuvering system using both thrusters and CMGs considers an initial assessment of tasks to be performed by an astronaut and an evaluation of the corresponding human-system dynamics. For a scenario in which the astronaut orbits an asteroid, simulation results from the current EVA maneuvering system are compared to those from a simulation of the same system augmented with CMGs, demonstrating that the forces and torques on an astronaut can be significantly reduced with the new control system actuation while conserving onboard fuel.

  16. Wearing a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, astronaut Mario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-77 TRAINING VIEW --- Wearing a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, astronaut Mario Runco, mission specialist, prepares to participate in an underwater rehearsal of a contingency Extravehicular Activity (EVA). This type of training routinely takes place in the 25-feet deep pool of the Johnson Space Centers (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Center (WET-F). The training prepares at least two crew members on each flight for procedures to follow outside the spacecraft in event of failure of remote methods to perform various chores.

  17. Do Astronauts have a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions than a Cohort of Working Professionals?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Young, Millenia; Wear, Mary L.; Tarver, W. J.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. NASA has implemented several occupational health initiatives during the past 20 years to decrease the number and severity of injuries, but the individual success rate is unknown. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated, but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. The purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  18. EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance [EPSP] Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the biomedical and technological challenges of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The topics covered include: 1) Prebreathe Protocols; 2) Lunar Suit Testing and Development; and 3) Lunar Electric Rover and Exploration Operations Concepts.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope EVA Power Ratchet Tool redesign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Paul W.; Park, Chan; Brown, Lee

    The Power Ratchet Tool (PRT) is a self contained, power-driven, 3/8 inch drive ratchet wrench which will be used by astronauts during Extravehicular Activities (EVA). This battery-powered tool is controlled by a dedicated electonic controller. The PRT was flown during the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Deployment Mission STS-31 to deploy the solar arrays if the automatic mechanisms failed. The PRT is currently intended for use during the first HST Servicing Mission STS-61 as a general purpose power tool. The PRT consists of three major components; the wrench, the controller, and the battery module. Fourteen discrete combinations of torque, turns, and speed may be programmed into the controller before the EVA. The crewmember selects the desired parameter profile by a switch mounted on the controller. The tool may also be used in the manual mode as a non-powered ratchet wrench. The power is provided by a silver-zinc battery module, which fits into the controller and is replaceable during an EVA. The original PRT did not meet the design specification of torque output and hours of operation. To increase efficiency and reliability the PRT underwent a redesign effort. The majority of this effort focused on the wrench. The original PRT drive train consisted of a low torque, high speed brushless DC motor, a face gear set, and a planocentric gear assembly. The total gear reduction was 300:1. The new PRT wrench consists of a low speed, high torque brushless DC motor, two planetary gear sets and a bevel gear set. The total gear reduction is now 75:1. A spline clutch has also been added to disengage the drive train in the manual mode. The design changes to the controller will consist of only those modifications necessary to accomodate the redesigned wrench.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope EVA Power Ratchet Tool redesign. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Paul W.; Park, Chan; Brown, Lee

    1993-01-01

    The Power Ratchet Tool (PRT) is a self contained, power-driven, 3/8 inch drive ratchet wrench which will be used by astronauts during Extravehicular Activities (EVA). This battery-powered tool is controlled by a dedicated electonic controller. The PRT was flown during the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Deployment Mission STS-31 to deploy the solar arrays if the automatic mechanisms failed. The PRT is currently intended for use during the first HST Servicing Mission STS-61 as a general purpose power tool. The PRT consists of three major components; the wrench, the controller, and the battery module. Fourteen discrete combinations of torque, turns, and speed may be programmed into the controller before the EVA. The crewmember selects the desired parameter profile by a switch mounted on the controller. The tool may also be used in the manual mode as a non-powered ratchet wrench. The power is provided by a silver-zinc battery module, which fits into the controller and is replaceable during an EVA. The original PRT did not meet the design specification of torque output and hours of operation. To increase efficiency and reliability the PRT underwent a redesign effort. The majority of this effort focused on the wrench. The original PRT drive train consisted of a low torque, high speed brushless DC motor, a face gear set, and a planocentric gear assembly. The total gear reduction was 300:1. The new PRT wrench consists of a low speed, high torque brushless DC motor, two planetary gear sets and a bevel gear set. The total gear reduction is now 75:1. A spline clutch has also been added to disengage the drive train in the manual mode. The design changes to the controller will consist of only those modifications necessary to accomodate the redesigned wrench. The battery design will be unaffected.

  1. EVA Suit Microbial Leakage Investigation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, Jay; Baker, Christopher; Clayton, Ronald; Rucker, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to collect microbial samples from various EVA suits to determine how much microbial contamination is typically released during simulated planetary exploration activities. Data will be released to the planetary protection and science communities, and advanced EVA system designers. In the best case scenario, we will discover that very little microbial contamination leaks from our current or prototype suit designs, in the worst case scenario, we will identify leak paths, learn more about what affects leakage--and we'll have a new, flight-certified swab tool for our EVA toolbox.

  2. Software For Integration Of EVA And Telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, Michael L.; Smith, Jeffrey H.; Estus, Jay M.; Heneghan, Cate; Zimmerman, Wayne; Fiorini, Paolo; Schenker, Paul S.; Mcaffee, Douglas A.

    1991-01-01

    Telerobotics/EVA Joint Analysis Systems (TEJAS) computer program is hypermedia information software system using object-oriented programming to bridge gap between crew-EVA and telerobotics activities. TEJAS Version 1.0 contains 20 HyperCard stacks using visual, customizable interface of icon buttons, pop-up menus, and relational commands to store, link, and standardize related information about primitives, technologies, tasks, assumptions, and open issues involved in space-telerobot or crew-EVA tasks. Runs on any Apple MacIntosh personal computer.

  3. EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This "EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit" presentation covers several topics related to the medical implications and physiological effects of suited operations in space from the perspective of a physician with considerable first-hand Extravehicular Activity (EVA) experience. Key themes include EVA physiology working in a pressure suit in the vacuum of space, basic EVA life support and work support, Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspections and repairs, and discussions of the physical challenges of an EVA. Parazynski covers the common injuries and significant risks during EVAs, as well as physical training required to prepare for EVAs. He also shares overall suit physiological and medical knowledge with the next generation of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) system designers.

  4. STS-49 Astronaut By Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure (MPESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49, the first flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, lifted off from launch pad 39B on May 7, 1992 at 6:40 pm CDT. The STS-49 mission was the first U.S. orbital flight to feature 4 extravehicular activities (EVAs), and the first flight to involve 3 crew members working simultaneously outside of the spacecraft. The primary objective was the capture and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3), a communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization, which was stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. In this onboard photo, astronaut Thomas Akers is positioned near the Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure (MPESS) in the cargo bay. The MPESS, developed by Marshall Space Flight Center, was used to support experiments.

  5. Astronaut John Young on rim of Plum crater gathering lunar rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, stands on the rim of Plum crater while collecting lunar rock samples at Station No.1 during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descartes landing site. This scene, looking eastward, was photographed by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. The small boulder in the center foreground was chip sampled by the crewmen. Plum crater is 40 meters in diameter and 10 meters deep. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked on the far rim of the crater. The gnomon, which is used as a photographic reference to establish local vertical sun angle, scale, and lunar color, is deployed in the center of the picture. Young holds a geological hammer in his right hand.

  6. Television transmission at end of second extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, Apollo 14 lunar module pilot, can be seen throwing a 'javelin' left handed during a television transmission near the close of the second extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Apollo 14 Fra Mauro landing site. Mitchell used the staff of the Solar Wind Composition experiment as the 'javelin'. Behind Mitchell is Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander. Also visible in the picture are the erectable S-Band antenna (left foreground) and Lunar Module (left background) (20783); Shepard can be seen preparing to swing at a golf ball during television transmission at end of EVA-2 (20784).

  7. Probabilistic Assessment of Cancer Risk for Astronauts on Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    During future lunar missions, exposure to solar particle events (SPEs) is a major safety concern for crew members during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) on the lunar surface or Earth-to-moon transit. NASA s new lunar program anticipates that up to 15% of crew time may be on EVA, with minimal radiation shielding. For the operational challenge to respond to events of unknown size and duration, a probabilistic risk assessment approach is essential for mission planning and design. Using the historical database of proton measurements during the past 5 solar cycles, a typical hazard function for SPE occurrence was defined using a non-homogeneous Poisson model as a function of time within a non-specific future solar cycle of 4000 days duration. Distributions ranging from the 5th to 95th percentile of particle fluences for a specified mission period were simulated. Organ doses corresponding to particle fluences at the median and at the 95th percentile for a specified mission period were assessed using NASA s baryon transport model, BRYNTRN. The cancer fatality risk for astronauts as functions of age, gender, and solar cycle activity were then analyzed. The probability of exceeding the NASA 30- day limit of blood forming organ (BFO) dose inside a typical spacecraft was calculated. Future work will involve using this probabilistic risk assessment approach to SPE forecasting, combined with a probabilistic approach to the radiobiological factors that contribute to the uncertainties in projecting cancer risks.

  8. Probabilistic assessment of radiation risk for astronauts in space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; De Angelis, Giovanni; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-04-01

    Accurate estimations of the health risks to astronauts due to space radiation exposure are necessary for future lunar and Mars missions. Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons (less than several hundred MeV); and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which include high-energy protons and heavy ions. While the frequency distribution of SPEs depends strongly upon the phase within the solar activity cycle, the individual SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature. A solar modulation model has been developed for the temporal characterization of the GCR environment, which is represented by the deceleration potential, ϕ. The risk of radiation exposure to astronauts as well as to hardware from SPEs during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded vehicles is a major concern for radiation protection. To support the probabilistic risk assessment for EVAs, which could be up to 15% of crew time on lunar missions, we estimated the probability of SPE occurrence as a function of solar cycle phase using a non-homogeneous Poisson model [1] to fit the historical database of measurements of protons with energy>30 MeV, Φ30. The resultant organ doses and dose equivalents, as well as effective whole body doses, for acute and cancer risk estimations are analyzed for a conceptual habitat module and for a lunar rover during space missions of defined durations. This probabilistic approach to radiation risk assessment from SPE and GCR is in support of mission design and operational planning for future manned space exploration missions. Internal documentation of NASA Constellation Trade Study (F.A. Cucinotta, personal communication).

  9. A unique exercise facility for simulating orbital extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Rebecca C.; Sharer, Peter J.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    A unique exercise facility has been developed and used to simulate orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The device incorporates an arm ergometer into a mechanism which places the subject in the zero-g neutral body posture. The intent of this configuration is to elicit muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses similar to those observed during orbital EVA. Experiments done with this facility will help characterize the astronaut's dynamic heat balance during EVA and will eventually lead to the development of an automated thermal control system which would more effectively maintain thermal comfort.

  10. A unique exercise facility for simulating orbital extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Rebecca C.; Sharer, Peter J.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    1993-01-01

    A unique exercise facility has been developed and used to simulate orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The device incorporates an arm ergometer into a mechanism which places the subject in the zero-g neutral body posture. The intent of this configuration is to elicit muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses similar to those observed during orbital EVA. Experiments done with this facility will help characterize the astronaut's dynamic heat balance during EVA and will eventually lead to the development of an automated thermal control system which would more effectively maintain thermal comfort.

  11. Astronauts Exercising in Space Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    To minimize the effects of weightlessness and partial gravity, astronauts use several counter measures to maintain health and fitness. One counter measure is exercise to help reduce or eliminate muscle atrophy and bone loss, and to improve altered cardiovascular function. This video shows astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) using the stationary Cycle/ Ergometer Vibration Isolation System (CVIS), the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS), and the resistance exercise device. These technologies and activities will be crucial to keeping astronauts healthy and productive during the long missions to the Moon. Mars, and beyond.

  12. Heart Rhythm Monitoring in the Constellation Lunar and Launch/Landing EVA Suit: Recommendations from an Expert Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Hamilton, D.; Jones, J. A.; Alexander, D.

    2008-01-01

    Currently there are several physiological monitoring requirements for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) in the Human-Systems Interface Requirements (HSIR) document, including continuous heart rhythm monitoring. However, it is not known whether heart rhythm monitoring in the lunar surface space suit is a necessary capability for lunar surface operations or in launch/landing suit the event of a cabin depressurization enroute to or from the moon. Methods: Current US astronaut corps demographic information was provided to an expert panel of cardiovascular medicine experts, including specialists in electrophysiology, exercise physiology, interventional cardiology and arrhythmia. This information included averages for male/female age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, cholesterol, inflammatory markers, echocardiogram, ranges for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores for long duration astronauts, and ranges for heart rate (HR) and metabolic (MET) rates obtained during microgravity and lunar EVA. Results: The panel determined that no uncontrolled hazard was likely to occur in the suit during lunar surface or contingency microgravity ops that would require ECG monitoring in the highly screened US astronaut population. However having the capability for rhythm monitoring inside the vehicle (IVA) was considered critical to manage an astronaut in distress. Discussion: Heart rate (HR) monitoring alone allows effective monitoring of astronaut health and function. Consequently, electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring capability as a clinical tool is not essential in the lunar or launch/landing space suit. However, the panel considered that rhythm monitoring could be useful in certain clinical situations, it was not considered required for safe operations. Also, lunar vehicles should be required to have ECG monitoring capability with a minimum of 5-lead ECG (derived 12- lead) for IVA medical assessments.

  13. EVA Radio DRATS 2011 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, Aaron J.; Bakula, Casey J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Fall of 2011, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) participated in the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field experiments held near Flagstaff, Arizona. The objective of the DRATS outing is to provide analog mission testing of candidate technologies for space exploration, especially those technologies applicable to human exploration of extra- terrestrial rocky bodies. These activities are performed at locations with similarities to extra-terrestrial conditions. This report describes the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Dual-Band Radio Communication System which was demonstrated during the 2011 outing. The EVA radio system is designed to transport both voice and telemetry data through a mobile ad hoc wireless network and employs a dual-band radio configuration. Some key characteristics of this system include: 1. Dual-band radio configuration. 2. Intelligent switching between two different capability wireless networks. 3. Self-healing network. 4. Simultaneous data and voice communication.

  14. The use of an extended ventilation tube as a countermeasure for EVA-associated upper extremity medical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. A.; Hoffman, R. B.; Buckland, D. A.; Harvey, C. M.; Bowen, C. K.; Hudy, C. E.; Strauss, S.; Novak, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.

    Introduction: Onycholysis due to repetitive activity in the space suit glove during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training and during spaceflight extravehicular activity (EVA) is a common observation. Moisture accumulates in gloves during EVA task performance and may contribute to the development of pain and damage to the fingernails experienced by many astronauts. The study evaluated the use of a long ventilation tube to determine if improved gas circulation into the hand area could reduce hand moisture and thereby decrease the associated symptoms. Methods: The current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was configured with a ventilation tube that extended down a single arm of the crew member (E) and compared with the unventilated arm (C). Skin surface moisture was measured on both hands immediately after glove removal and a questionnaire administered to determine subjective measures. Astronauts ( n=6) were examined pre- and post-run. Results: There were consistent trends in the reduction of relative hydration ratios at dorsum ( C=3.34, E=2.11) and first ring finger joint ( C=2.46, E=1.96) when the ventilation tube was employed. Ventilation appeared more effective on the left versus the right hand, implying an interaction with hand anthropometry and glove fit. Symptom score was lower on the hand that had the long ventilation tube relative to the control hand in 2/6 EVA crew members. Conclusions: Increased ventilation to the hand was effective in reducing the risks of hand and nail discomfort symptoms from moderate to low in one-third of the subjects. Improved design in the ventilation capability of EVA spacesuits is expected to improve efficiency of air flow distribution.

  15. Refinement of Optimal Work Envelope for Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Suit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaramillo, Marcos A.; Angermiller, Bonnie L.; Morency, Richard M.; Rajululu, Sudhakar L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Work Envelope study is to determine and revise the work envelope defined in NSTS 07700 "System Description and Design Data - Extravehicular Activities" [1], arising from an action item as a result of the Shoulder Injury Tiger Team findings. The aim of this study is to determine a common work envelope that will encompass a majority of the crew population while minimizing the possibility of shoulder and upper arm injuries. There will be approximately two phases of testing: arm sweep analysis to be performed in the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF), and torso lean testing to be performed on the Precision Air Bearing Facility (PABF). NSTS 07700 defines the preferred work envelope arm reach in terms of maximum reach, and defines the preferred work envelope torso flexibility of a crewmember to be a net 45 degree backwards lean [1]. This test served two functions: to investigate the validity of the standard discussed in NSTS 07700, and to provide recommendations to update this standard if necessary.

  16. Astronaut training manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    Scientific information from previous space flights, space medicine, exercise physiology, and sports medicine was used to prepare a physical fitness manual suitable for use by members of the NASA astronaut population. A variety of scientifically valid exercise programs and activities suitable for the development of physical fitness are provided. Programs, activities, and supportive scientific data are presented in a concise, easy to read format so as to permit the user to select his or her mode of training with confidence and devote time previously spent experimenting with training routines to preparation for space flight. The programs and activities included were tested and shown to be effective and enjoyable.

  17. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  18. Multiphoton tomography of astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Weinigel, Martin; Pietruszka, Anna; Bückle, Rainer; Gerlach, Nicole; Heinrich, Ulrike

    2015-03-01

    Weightlessness may impair the astronaut's health conditions. Skin impairments belong to the most frequent health problems during space missions. Within the Skin B project, skin physiological changes during long duration space flights are currently investigated on three European astronauts that work for nearly half a year at the ISS. Measurements on the hydration, the transepidermal water loss, the surface structure, elasticity and the tissue density by ultrasound are conducted. Furthermore, high-resolution in vivo histology is performed by multiphoton tomography with 300 nm spatial and 200 ps temporal resolution. The mobile certified medical tomograph with a flexible 360° scan head attached to a mechano-optical arm is employed to measure two-photon autofluorescence and SHG in the volar forearm of the astronauts. Modification of the tissue architecture and of the fluorescent biomolecules NAD(P)H, keratin, melanin and elastin are detected as well as of SHG-active collagen. Thinning of the vital epidermis, a decrease of the autofluoresence intensity, an increase in the long fluorescence lifetime, and a reduced skin ageing index SAAID based on an increased collagen level in the upper dermis have been found. Current studies focus on recovery effects.

  19. Shoulder Injuries in US Astronauts Related to EVA Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Rick; McCulloch, Pat; Van Baalen, Mary; Watson, Richard; Bowen, Steve; Blatt, Terri

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors associated with the mechanism of injury that leads to shoulder injury requiring surgical repair. Despite the injury prevention measures taken from the 2003 Shoulder Tiger Team recommendations, shoulder injuries and subsequent shoulder surgeries remain relatively unchanged.

  20. EVA - Don't Leave Earth Without It

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, J. Scott; Smith, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Modern manned space programs come in two categories: those that need Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and those that will need EVA. This paper discusses major milestones in the Shuttle Program where EVA was used to save payloads, enhance on-orbit capabilities, and build structures in order to ensure success of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions. In conjunction, the Extravehicular Mobility Unit s (EMU) design, and hence, its capabilities evolved as its mission evolved. It is the intent that lessons can be drawn from these case studies so that EVA compatibility is designed into future vehicles and payloads.

  1. A mobile transporter concept for EVA assembly of future spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Judith J.; Bush, Harold G.; Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Lake, Mark S.; Jensen, J. Kermit

    1990-01-01

    This paper details the ground test program for the NASA Langley Research Center Mobile Transporter concept. The Mobile Transporter would assist EVA astronauts in the assembly of the Space Station Freedom. 1-g and simulated O-g (neutral buoyancy) tests were conducted to evaluate the use of the Mobile Transporter. A three-bay (44 struts) orthogonal tetrahedral truss configuration with a 15-foot-square cross section was repeatedly assembled by a single pair of pressure suited test subjects working from the Mobile Transporter astronaut positioning devices. The average unit assembly time was 28 seconds/strut. The results of these tests indicate that the use of a Mobile Transporter for EVA assembly of Space Station size structure is viable and practical. Additionally, the Mobile Transporter could be used to construct other spacecraft such as the submillimeter astronomical laboratory, space crane, and interplanetary (i.e., Mars and lunar) spacecraft.

  2. STS-33 EVA Prep and Post with Gregory, Blaha, Carter, Thorton, and Musgrave in FFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This video shows the crew in the airlock of the FFT, talking with technicians about the extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment. Thornton and Carter put on EVA suits and enter the airlock as the other crew members help with checklists.

  3. Astronaut Virgil Grissom and Astronaut John Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil Grissom chats with Astronaut John Glenn prior to entering the Liberty Bell 7 capsule for the MR-4 Mission. The MR-4 mission was the second manned suborbital flight using the Mercury-Redstone booster, which was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. Injury Risk Assessment of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Phase VI and Series 4000 Gloves During Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hand Manipulation Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilby, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Functional Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) with high precision gloves are essential for the success of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Previous research done at NASA has shown that total strength capabilities and performance are reduced when wearing a pressurized EMU. The goal of this project was to characterize the human-space suit glove interaction and assess the risk of injury during common EVA hand manipulation tasks, including pushing, pinching and gripping objects. A custom third generation sensor garment was designed to incorporate a combination of sensors, including force sensitive resistors, strain gauge sensors, and shear force sensors. The combination of sensors was used to measure the forces acting on the finger nails, finger pads, finger tips, as well as the knuckle joints. In addition to measuring the forces, data was collected on the temperature, humidity, skin conductance, and blood perfusion of the hands. Testing compared both the Phase VI and Series 4000 glove against an ungloved condition. The ungloved test was performed wearing the sensor garment only. The project outcomes identified critical landmarks that experienced higher workloads and are more likely to suffer injuries. These critical landmarks varied as a function of space suit glove and task performed. The results showed that less forces were acting on the hands while wearing the Phase VI glove as compared to wearing the Series 4000 glove. Based on our findings, the engineering division can utilize these methods for optimizing the current space suit glove and designing next generation gloves to prevent injuries and optimize hand mobility and comfort.

  5. Astronaut John H. Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MA-6 mission, boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, was the first manned orbital launch by the United States, and carried Astronaut Glenn aboard the Friendship 7 spacecraft to orbit the Earth.

  6. Feasibility Assessment of an EVA Glove Sensing Platform to Evaluate Potential Hand Injury Risk Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane M.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). When the gloves are pressurized, they restrict movement and create pressure points during tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally more severe injuries such as onycholysis. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals that 58% of total astronaut hand and arm injuries from NBL training between 1993 and 2010 occurred either to the fingernail, MCP, or fingertip. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of using small sensors to measure force acting on the fingers and hand within pressurized gloves and other variables such as blood perfusion, skin temperature, humidity, fingernail strain, skin moisture, among others. Tasks were performed gloved and ungloved in a pressurizable glove box. The test demonstrated that fingernails saw greater transverse strain levels for tension or compression than for longitudinal strain, even during axial fingertip loading. Blood perfusion peaked and dropped as the finger deformed during finger presses, indicating an initial dispersion and decrease of blood perfusion levels. Force sensitive resistors to force plate comparisons showed similar force curve patterns as fingers were depressed, indicating suitable functionality for future testing. Strategies for proper placement and protection of these sensors for ideal data collection and longevity through the test session were developed and will be implemented going forward for future testing.

  7. Power assist EVA glove development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1992-01-01

    The design of the EVA glove is examined, emphasizing the development of a more flexible metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint for the EVA glove. The analysis of the EVA glove MCP joint is reviewed and the glove design process is recapitulated. Experimental tests of the glove are summarized.

  8. Radiological health risks to astronauts from space activities and medical procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Leif E.; Nachtwey, D. Stuart

    1990-01-01

    Radiation protection standards for space activities differ substantially from those applied to terrestrial working situations. The levels of radiation and subsequent hazards to which space workers are exposed are quite unlike anything found on Earth. The new more highly refined system of risk management involves assessing the risk to each space worker from all sources of radiation (occupational and non-occupational) at the organ level. The risk coefficients were applied to previous space and medical exposures (diagnostic x ray and nuclear medicine procedures) in order to estimate the radiation-induced lifetime cancer incidence and mortality risk. At present, the risk from medical procedures when compared to space activities is 14 times higher for cancer incidence and 13 times higher for cancer mortality; however, this will change as the per capita dose during Space Station Freedom and interplanetary missions increases and more is known about the risks from exposure to high-LET radiation.

  9. Radiological health risks to astronauts from space activities and medical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, L.E.; Nachtwey, D.S.

    1990-08-01

    Radiation protection standards for space activities differ substantially from those applied to terrestrial working situations. The levels of radiation and subsequent hazards to which space workers are exposed are quite unlike anything found on Earth. The new more highly refined system of risk management involves assessing the risk to each space worker from all sources of radiation (occupational and non-occupational) at the organ level. The risk coefficients were applied to previous space and medical exposures (diagnostic x ray and nuclear medicine procedures) in order to estimate the radiation-induced lifetime cancer incidence and mortality risk. At present, the risk from medical procedures when compared to space activities is 14 times higher for cancer incidence and 13 times higher for cancer mortality; however, this will change as the per capita dose during Space Station Freedom and interplanetary missions increases and more is known about the risks from exposure to high-LET radiation.

  10. Designing Interfaces for Astronaut Autonomy in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillenius, Steve

    2015-01-01

    As we move towards human deep space missions, astronauts will no longer be able to say, Houston, we have a problem. The restricted contact with mission control because of the incredible distance from Earth will require astronauts to make autonomous decisions. How will astronauts take on the roles of mission control? This is an area of active research that has far reaching implications for the future of distant spaceflight. Come to this talk to hear how we are using design and user research to come up with innovative solutions for astronauts to effectively explore the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

  11. Exploration EVA Purge Flow Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    An advanced future spacesuit will require properly sized suit and helmet purge flow rates in order to sustain a crew member with a failed Portable Life Support System (PLSS) during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). A computational fluid dynamics evaluation was performed to estimate the helmet purge flow rate required to washout carbon dioxide and to prevent the condensing ("fogging") of water vapor on the helmet visor. An additional investigation predicted the suit purge flow rate required to provide sufficient convective cooling to keep the crew member comfortable. This paper summarizes the results of these evaluations.

  12. Exploration EVA Purge Flow Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Campbell, Colin

    2011-01-01

    An advanced future spacesuit will require properly sized suit and helmet purge flow rates in order to sustain a crew member with a failed Portable Life Support System (PLSS) during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). A computational fluid dynamics evaluation was performed to estimate the helmet purge flow rate required to washout carbon dioxide and to prevent the condensing ("fogging") of water vapor on the helmet visor. An additional investigation predicted the suit purge flow rate required to provide sufficient convective cooling to keep the crew member comfortable. This paper summarizes the results of these evaluations.

  13. Crew/Robot Coordinated Planetary EVA Operations at a Lunar Base Analog Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Bluethmann, W. J.; Delgado, F. J.; Herrera, E.; Kosmo, J. J.; Janoiko, B. A.; Wilcox, B. H.; Townsend, J. A.; Matthews, J. B.; Fong, T. W.; Bualat, M. G.; Lee, S. Y.; Dorsey, J. T.; Doggett, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Under the direction of NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program, robots and space suited subjects from several NASA centers recently completed a very successful demonstration of coordinated activities indicative of base camp operations on the lunar surface. For these activities, NASA chose a site near Meteor Crater, Arizona close to where Apollo Astronauts previously trained. The main scenario demonstrated crew returning from a planetary EVA (extra-vehicular activity) to a temporary base camp and entering a pressurized rover compartment while robots performed tasks in preparation for the next EVA. Scenario tasks included: rover operations under direct human control and autonomous modes, crew ingress and egress activities, autonomous robotic payload removal and stowage operations under both local control and remote control from Houston, and autonomous robotic navigation and inspection. In addition to the main scenario, participants had an opportunity to explore additional robotic operations: hill climbing, maneuvering heaving loads, gathering geo-logical samples, drilling, and tether operations. In this analog environment, the suited subjects and robots experienced high levels of dust, rough terrain, and harsh lighting.

  14. Emergency vehicle alert system (EVAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Bill; Crump, Roger; Harper, Warren; Myneni, Krishna

    1995-01-01

    The Emergency Vehicle Alert System (EVAS) program is sponsored by the NASA/MSFC Technology Utilization (TU) office. The program was conceived to support the needs of hearing impaired drivers. The objective of the program is to develop a low-cost, small device which can be located in a personal vehicle and warn the driver, via a visual means, of the approach of an emergency vehicle. Many different technologies might be developed for this purpose and each has its own advantages and drawbacks. The requirements for an acoustic detection system, appear to be pretty stringent and may not allow the development of a reliable, low-cost device in the near future. The problems include variations in the sirens between various types of emergency vehicles, distortions due to wind and surrounding objects, competing background noise, sophisticated signal processing requirements, and omni-directional coverage requirements. Another approach is to use a Radio Frequency (RF) signal between the Emergency Vehicle (EV) and the Personal Vehicle (PV). This approach requires a transmitter on each EV and a receiver in each PV, however it is virtually assured that a system can be developed which works. With this approach, the real technology issue is how to make a system work as inexpensively as possible. This report gives a brief summary of the EVAS program from its inception and concentrates on describing the activities that occurred during Phase 4. References 1-3 describe activities under Phases 1-3. In the fourth phase of the program, the major effort to be expended was in development of the microcontroller system for the PV, refinement of some system elements and packaging for demonstration purposes. An EVAS system was developed and demonstrated which used standard spread spectrum modems with minor modifications.

  15. COSM: A Space Station EVAS test challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullo, Frank A.; Beardsley, Anthony C.

    The authors present the requirements that must be addressed to develop equipment that will perform the checkout, servicing, and maintenance (COSM) of the extravehicular activity system (EVAS) for manned space on the proposed US Space Station. An overview is presented of COSM operational requirements, and their relationship to an automatic COSM system. The Space Station environment, routine EVA sorties, and singular mission objectives and tasks are examined with respect to system design. The COSM system architecture and the technical approach taken are also examined.

  16. Astronaut Richard Richards looks out of Discovery's flight deck window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Richard N. Richards, mission commander, looks through one of the Space Shuttle Discovery's overhead flight deck windows to view the space walk activities of astronauts Carl J. Meade, who took this picture, and Mark C. Lee.

  17. Astronaut Thomas Stafford and Snoopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the Apollo 10 lunar orbit mission, takes time out from his preflight training activities to have his picture made with Snoopy, the character from Charles Schulz's syndicated comic strip, 'Peanuts'. During the Apollo 10 lunar orbit operations the Lunar Module will be called Snoopy when it is separated from the Command/Service Modules.

  18. Data Mining Activity for Bone Discipline: Calculating a Factor of Risk for Hip Fracture in Long-Duration Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellman, R.; Sibonga, J. D.; Bouxsein, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The factor-of-risk (Phi), defined as the ratio of applied load to bone strength, is a biomechanical approach to hip fracture risk assessment that may be used to identify subjects who are at increased risk for fracture. The purpose of this project was to calculate the factor of risk in long duration astronauts after return from a mission on the International Space Station (ISS), which is typically 6 months in duration. The load applied to the hip was calculated for a sideways fall from standing height based on the individual height and weight of the astronauts. The soft tissue thickness overlying the greater trochanter was measured from the DXA whole body scans and used to estimate attenuation of the impact force provided by soft tissues overlying the hip. Femoral strength was estimated from femoral areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which were performed between 5-32 days of landing. All long-duration NASA astronauts from Expedition 1 to 18 were included in this study, where repeat flyers were treated as separate subjects. Male astronauts (n=20) had a significantly higher factor of risk for hip fracture Phi than females (n=5), with preflight values of 0.83+/-0.11 and 0.36+/-0.07, respectively, but there was no significant difference between preflight and postflight Phi (Figure 1). Femoral aBMD measurements were not found to be significantly different between men and women. Three men and no women exceeded the theoretical fracture threshold of Phi=1 immediately postflight, indicating that they would likely suffer a hip fracture if they were to experience a sideways fall with impact to the greater trochanter. These data suggest that male astronauts may be at greater risk for hip fracture than women following spaceflight, primarily due to relatively less soft tissue thickness and subsequently greater impact force.

  19. Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 1: EVA Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Editor); Vykukal, H. C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    An overview is presented of extravehicular activity (EVA) research and development activities at Ames. The majority of the program was devoted to presentations by the three contractors working in parallel on the EVA System Phase A Study, focusing on Implications for Man-Systems Design. Overhead visuals are included for a mission results summary, space station EVA requirements and interface accommodations summary, human productivity study cross-task coordination, and advanced EVAS Phase A study implications for man-systems design. Articles are also included on subsea approach to work systems development and advanced EVA system design requirements.

  20. NASA Astronaut Occupational Surveillance Program and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, LSAH, Astronaut Exposures and Risk in the Terrestrial and Spaceflight Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keprta, Sean R.; Tarver, William; Van Baalen, Mary; McCoy, Torin

    2015-01-01

    United States Astronauts have a very unique occupational exposure profile. In order to understand these risks and properly address them, the National Aeronautics and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, originally created the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health, LSAH. The first LSAH was designed to address a variety of needs regarding astronaut health and included a 3 to 1 terrestrial control population in order to compare United States "earth normal" disease and aging to that of a microgravity exposed astronaut. Over the years that program has been modified, now termed Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, still LSAH. Astronaut spaceflight exposures have also changed, with the move from short duration shuttle flights to long duration stays on international space station and considerable terrestrial training activities. This new LSAH incorporates more of an occupational health and medicine model to the study of occupationally exposed astronauts. The presentation outlines the baseline exposures and monitoring of the astronaut population to exposures, both terrestrial, and in space.

  1. Development of an EVA systems cost model. Volume 3: EVA systems cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The EVA systems cost model presented is based on proposed EVA equipment for the space shuttle program. General information on EVA crewman requirements in a weightless environment and an EVA capabilities overview are provided.

  2. Effective Teamwork: The EVA NBL Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, Lori

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the experience of improving the operation of the ExtraVehiclar Activity (EVA) Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory as a team of NASA employees and contractors. It reviews specific recommendations to use in turning a struggling organization around as a NASA/contractor team

  3. Creating a Lunar EVA Work Envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Howard, Robert; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Smitherman, David

    2009-01-01

    A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks. For weightless operations, this process is well developed, but planetary EVA is different and no work envelope has been defined. The primary difference between weightless and planetary work envelopes is gravity. It influences anthropometry, horizontal and vertical mobility, and reaction load paths and introduces effort into doing "overhead" work. Additionally, the use of spacesuits other than the EMU, and their impacts on range of motion, must be taken into account. This paper presents the analysis leading to a concept for a planetary EVA work envelope with emphasis on lunar operations. There is some urgency in creating this concept because NASA has begun building and testing development hardware for the lunar surface, including rovers, habitats and cargo off-loading equipment. Just as with microgravity operations, a lunar EVA work envelope is needed to guide designers in the formative stages of the program with the objective of avoiding difficult and costly rework.

  4. Testing of an Ammonia EVA Vent Tool for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Stanewich, Brett J.; Wilhelm, Sheri Munekata

    2000-01-01

    When components of the International Space Station ammonia External Active Thermal Control System are replaced on-orbit, they must be vented immediately after removal from the system. Venting ensures that the component is not hard packed with liquid and thus does not pose a hazard. An extravehicular activity (EVA) vent tool has been developed to perform this function. However, there were concerns that the tool could whip, posing a hazard to the EVA astronaut, or would freeze. The ammonia vent tool was recently tested in a thermal/vacuum chamber to demonstrate that it would operate safely and would not freeze during venting. During the test, ammonia mimicking the venting conditions for six different heat exchanger initial conditions was passed through representative test articles. In the present work, the model that was used to develop the ammonia state and flow for the test points is discussed and the test setup and operation is described. The qualitative whipping and freezing results of the test are discussed and vent plume pressure measurements are described and interpreted.

  5. The exercise and environmental physiology of extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowell, Stephenie A.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, David G.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA), i.e., exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is indispensable for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. From 1965-1996 an average of 20 h x yr(-1) were spent performing EVA. International Space Station (ISS) assembly will require 135 h x yr(-1) of EVA, and 138 h x yr(-1) is planned for post-construction maintenance. The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), used to protect astronauts during EVA, has a decreased pressure of 4.3 psi that could increase astronauts' risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Exercise in and repeated exposure to this hypobaria may increase the incidence of DCS, although weightlessness may attenuate this risk. Exercise thermoregulation within the EMU is poorly understood; the liquid cooling garment (LCG), worn next to the skin and designed to handle thermal stress, is manually controlled. Astronauts may become dehydrated (by up to 2.6% of body weight) during a 5-h EVA, further exacerbating the thermoregulatory challenge. The EVA is performed mainly with upper body muscles; but astronauts usually exercise at only 26-32% of their upper body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). For a given ground-based work task in air (as opposed to water), the submaximal VO2 is greater while VO2max and metabolic efficiency are lower during ground-based arm exercise as compared with leg exercise, and cardiovascular responses to exercise and training are also different for arms and legs. Preflight testing and training, whether conducted in air or water, must account for these differences if ground-based data are extrapolated for flight requirements. Astronauts experience deconditioning during microgravity resulting in a 10-20% loss in arm strength, a 20-30% loss in thigh strength, and decreased lower-body aerobic exercise capacity. Data from ground-based simulations of weightlessness such as bed rest induce a 6-8% decrease in upper-body strength, a 10-16% loss in thigh extensor

  6. The exercise and environmental physiology of extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Cowell, Stephenie A; Stocks, Jodie M; Evans, David G; Simonson, Shawn R; Greenleaf, John E

    2002-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA), i.e., exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is indispensable for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. From 1965-1996 an average of 20 h x yr(-1) were spent performing EVA. International Space Station (ISS) assembly will require 135 h x yr(-1) of EVA, and 138 h x yr(-1) is planned for post-construction maintenance. The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), used to protect astronauts during EVA, has a decreased pressure of 4.3 psi that could increase astronauts' risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Exercise in and repeated exposure to this hypobaria may increase the incidence of DCS, although weightlessness may attenuate this risk. Exercise thermoregulation within the EMU is poorly understood; the liquid cooling garment (LCG), worn next to the skin and designed to handle thermal stress, is manually controlled. Astronauts may become dehydrated (by up to 2.6% of body weight) during a 5-h EVA, further exacerbating the thermoregulatory challenge. The EVA is performed mainly with upper body muscles; but astronauts usually exercise at only 26-32% of their upper body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). For a given ground-based work task in air (as opposed to water), the submaximal VO2 is greater while VO2max and metabolic efficiency are lower during ground-based arm exercise as compared with leg exercise, and cardiovascular responses to exercise and training are also different for arms and legs. Preflight testing and training, whether conducted in air or water, must account for these differences if ground-based data are extrapolated for flight requirements. Astronauts experience deconditioning during microgravity resulting in a 10-20% loss in arm strength, a 20-30% loss in thigh strength, and decreased lower-body aerobic exercise capacity. Data from ground-based simulations of weightlessness such as bed rest induce a 6-8% decrease in upper-body strength, a 10-16% loss in thigh extensor

  7. Use MACES IVA Suit for EVA Mobility Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) environment. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) has been modified (MACES) to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion MPCV spacecraft will not have mass available to carry an EVA specific suit so any EVA required will have to be performed by the MACES. Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or if a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, carrying tools, body stabilization, equipment handling, and use of tools. Hardware configurations included with and without TMG, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on ISS mockups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstration of the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determination of critical sizing factors, and need for adjustment of suit work envelop. The early testing has demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission specific modifications for umbilical management or PLSS integration, safety tether attachment, and tool interfaces. These evaluations are continuing through calendar year 2014.

  8. Safeguarding the Health of the NASA Astronaut Community: the Need for Expanded Medical Monitoring for Former NASA Astronauts Under the Astronaut Occupational Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, Meredith; Lee, Lesley; Wear, Mary; Van Baalen, Mary; Rhodes, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The astronaut community is unique, and may be disproportionately exposed to occupational hazards not commonly seen in other communities. The extent to which the demands of the astronaut occupation and exposure to spaceflight-related hazards affect the health of the astronaut population over the life course is not completely known. Provision of health screening services to active and former astronauts ensures individual, mission, and community health and safety. Currently, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) provides extensive medical monitoring to active astronauts throughout their careers. Upon retirement, astronauts may voluntarily return to the JSC FMC for an annual preventive exam. However, current retiree monitoring includes only selected screening tests, representing an opportunity for augmentation. The potential latent health effects of spaceflight demand an expanded framework of testing for former astronauts. The need is two-fold: screening tests widely recommended for other aging communities are necessary for astronauts to rule out conditions resulting from the natural aging process (e.g., colonoscopy, mammography), as opposed to conditions resulting directly from the astronaut occupation; and increased breadth of monitoring services will improve the understanding of occupational health risks and longitudinal health of the astronaut community, past, present, and future. To meet this need, NASA has begun an extensive exploration of the overall approach, cost, and policy implications of expanding existing medical monitoring under the Astronaut Occupational Health program for former NASA astronauts.

  9. Experiments with an EVA Assistant Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burridge, Robert R.; Graham, Jeffrey; Shillcutt, Kim; Hirsh, Robert; Kortenkamp, David

    2003-01-01

    Human missions to the Moon or Mars will likely be accompanied by many useful robots that will assist in all aspects of the mission, from construction to maintenance to surface exploration. Such robots might scout terrain, carry tools, take pictures, curate samples, or provide status information during a traverse. At NASA/JSC, the EVA Robotic Assistant (ERA) project has developed a robot testbed for exploring the issues of astronaut-robot interaction. Together with JSC's Advanced Spacesuit Lab, the ERA team has been developing robot capabilities and testing them with space-suited test subjects at planetary surface analog sites. In this paper, we describe the current state of the ERA testbed and two weeks of remote field tests in Arizona in September 2002. A number of teams with a broad range of interests participated in these experiments to explore different aspects of what must be done to develop a program for robotic assistance to surface EVA. Technologies explored in the field experiments included a fuel cell, new mobility platform and manipulator, novel software and communications infrastructure for multi-agent modeling and planning, a mobile science lab, an "InfoPak" for monitoring the spacesuit, and delayed satellite communication to a remote operations team. In this paper, we will describe this latest round of field tests in detail.

  10. NUNDO: a numerical model of a human torso phantom and its application to effective dose equivalent calculations for astronauts at the ISS.

    PubMed

    Puchalska, Monika; Bilski, Pawel; Berger, Thomas; Hajek, Michael; Horwacik, Tomasz; Körner, Christine; Olko, Pawel; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Reitz, Günther

    2014-11-01

    The health effects of cosmic radiation on astronauts need to be precisely quantified and controlled. This task is important not only in perspective of the increasing human presence at the International Space Station (ISS), but also for the preparation of safe human missions beyond low earth orbit. From a radiation protection point of view, the baseline quantity for radiation risk assessment in space is the effective dose equivalent. The present work reports the first successful attempt of the experimental determination of the effective dose equivalent in space, both for extra-vehicular activity (EVA) and intra-vehicular activity (IVA). This was achieved using the anthropomorphic torso phantom RANDO(®) equipped with more than 6,000 passive thermoluminescent detectors and plastic nuclear track detectors, which have been exposed to cosmic radiation inside the European Space Agency MATROSHKA facility both outside and inside the ISS. In order to calculate the effective dose equivalent, a numerical model of the RANDO(®) phantom, based on computer tomography scans of the actual phantom, was developed. It was found that the effective dose equivalent rate during an EVA approaches 700 μSv/d, while during an IVA about 20 % lower values were observed. It is shown that the individual dose based on a personal dosimeter reading for an astronaut during IVA results in an overestimate of the effective dose equivalent of about 15 %, whereas under an EVA conditions the overestimate is more than 200 %. A personal dosemeter can therefore deliver quite good exposure records during IVA, but may overestimate the effective dose equivalent received during an EVA considerably. PMID:25119442

  11. Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. 'Gus' Grissom, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MR-4 mission, boosted by the Mercury-Redstone vehicle, made the second marned suborbital flight. The capsule, Liberty Bell 7, sank into the sea after the splashdown.

  12. Colonoscopy Screening in the US Astronaut Corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masterova, K.; Van Baalen, M.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J.; Schaefer, C.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, colonoscopy screenings for astronauts have been conducted to ensure that astronauts are in good health for space missions. This data has been identified as being useful for determining appropriate occupational surveillance targets and requirements. Colonoscopies in the astronaut corps can be used for: (a) Assessing overall colon health, (b) A point of reference for future tests in current and former astronauts, (c) Following-up and tracking rates of colorectal cancer and polyps; and (d) Comparison to military and other terrestrial populations. In 2003, medical screening requirements for the active astronaut corps changed to require less frequent colonoscopies. Polyp removal during a colonoscopy is an intervention that prevents the polyp from potentially developing into cancer and decreases the individual's risk for colon cancer.

  13. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benosn, E.; England, S.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during extravehicular activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. It is because of this high frequency usage that hand- and arm-related injuries and discomfort are known to occur during training in the NBL and while conducting EVAs. Hand-related injuries and discomforts have been occurring to crewmembers since the days of Apollo. While there have been numerous engineering changes to the glove design, hand-related issues still persist. The primary objectives of this study are therefore to: 1) document all known EVA glove-related injuries and the circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend ergonomic mitigations or design strategies that can be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigator team conducted an initial set of literature reviews, data mining of Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) databases, and data distribution analyses to understand the ergonomic issues related to glove-related injuries and discomforts. The investigation focused on the injuries and discomforts of U.S. crewmembers who had worn pressurized suits and experienced glove-related incidents during the 1980 to 2010 time frame, either during training or on-orbit EVA. In addition to data mining of the LSAH database, the other objective of the study was to find complimentary sources of information such as training experience, EVA experience, suit-related sizing data, and hand-arm anthropometric data to be tied to the injury data from LSAH. RESULTS: Past studies indicated that the hand was the most frequently injured part of the body during both EVA and NBL training. This study effort thus focused primarily on crew training data in the NBL between 2002 and 2010. Of the 87 recorded training incidents, 19 occurred to women and 68 to men. While crew ages ranged from

  14. Space Shuttle/Orbiter EVA and EVA provisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    EVA objectives, procedures, and equipment for the Shuttle are reviewed. The EVA will occur as a planned excursion, to complete a mission objective, or on a contingency basis as support for the mission or to effect repairs to the Orbiter or its payload. Configurations for the placement of the airlock for EVA with and without Spacelab payloads are discussed, along with the various EVA tasks which could be expected as necessary for mission completion. Handholds have been placed in strategic positions on the RMS and along the payload doors, and a safety tether has been incorporated with line extension out to 25 ft. Off-the-shelf tools such as needlenose pliers, forceps, diagonal cutters, etc. are carried as standard equipment for the repair of malfunctioning equipment and doorlatches. Finally, attention is given to EVA lighting, communication, life-support, and work station restraint systems.

  15. EVA manipulation and assembly of space structure columns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughead, T. E.; Pruett, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    Assembly techniques and hardware configurations used in assembly of the basic tetrahedral cell by A7LB pressure-suited subjects in a neutral bouyancy simulator were studied. Eleven subjects participated in assembly procedures which investigated two types of structural members and two configurations of attachment hardware. The assembly was accomplished through extra-vehicular activity (EVA) only, EVA with simulated manned maneuvering unit (MMU), and EVA with simulated MMU and simulated remote manipulator system (RMS). Assembly times as low as 10.20 minutes per tetrahedron were achieved. Task element data, as well as assembly procedures, are included.

  16. EVA Design, Verification, and On-Orbit Operations Support Using Worksite Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagale, Thomas J.; Price, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) design is a very large and complex orbiting structure with thousands of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) worksites. These worksites are used to assemble and maintain the ISS. The challenge facing EVA designers was how to design, verify, and operationally support such a large number of worksites within cost and schedule. This has been solved through the practical use of computer aided design (CAD) graphical techniques that have been developed and used with a high degree of success over the past decade. The EVA design process allows analysts to work concurrently with hardware designers so that EVA equipment can be incorporated and structures configured to allow for EVA access and manipulation. Compliance with EVA requirements is strictly enforced during the design process. These techniques and procedures, coupled with neutral buoyancy underwater testing, have proven most valuable in the development, verification, and on-orbit support of planned or contingency EVA worksites.

  17. ISS Update: NASA Astronaut Mike Fincke

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Rob Navias talks with NASA Astronaut Mike Fincke inside the Mission Control Center at Johnson Space Center. They discuss the current activities taking place aboard the I...

  18. Astronaut Virgil Grissom during water egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. (Gus) Grissom, wearing the new Mercury Space Suit, stands outside of a mock-up of the Mercury capsule on the deck of a ship taking him to emergency water egress training activities.

  19. Astronauts' menu problem.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesso, W. G.; Kenyon, E.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of the problems involved in choosing appropriate menus for astronauts carrying out SKYLAB missions lasting up to eight weeks. The problem of planning balanced menus on the basis of prepackaged food items within limitations on the intake of calories, protein, and certain elements is noted, as well as a number of other restrictions of both physical and arbitrary nature. The tailoring of a set of menus for each astronaut on the basis of subjective rankings of each food by the astronaut in terms of a 'measure of pleasure' is described, and a computer solution to this problem by means of a mixed integer programming code is presented.

  20. EVA Development and Verification Testing at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jairala, Juniper; Durkin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    As an early step in preparing for future EVAs, astronauts perform neutral buoyancy testing to develop and verify EVA hardware and operations. To date, neutral buoyancy demonstrations at NASA JSC’s Sonny Carter Training Facility have primarily evaluated assembly and maintenance tasks associated with several elements of the ISS. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, completion of ISS assembly, and introduction of commercial participants for human transportation into space, evaluations at the NBL will take on a new focus. In this session, Juniper Jairala briefly discussed the design of the NBL and, in more detail, described the requirements and process for performing a neutral buoyancy test, including typical hardware and support equipment requirements, personnel and administrative resource requirements, examples of ISS systems and operations that are evaluated, and typical operational objectives that are evaluated. Robert Durkin discussed the new and potential types of uses for the NBL, including those by non-NASA external customers.

  1. EVA Development and Verification Testing at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jairala, Juniper; Durkin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    As an early step in preparing for future EVAs, astronauts perform neutral buoyancy testing to develop and verify EVA hardware and operations. To date, neutral buoyancy demonstrations at NASA JSC's Sonny Carter Training Facility have primarily evaluated assembly and maintenance tasks associated with several elements of the ISS. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, completion of ISS assembly, and introduction of commercial participants for human transportation into space, evaluations at the NBL will take on a new focus. In this session, Juniper Jairala briefly discussed the design of the NBL and, in more detail, described the requirements and process for performing a neutral buoyancy test, including typical hardware and support equipment requirements, personnel and administrative resource requirements, examples of ISS systems and operations that are evaluated, and typical operational objectives that are evaluated. Robert Durkin discussed the new and potential types of uses for the NBL, including those by non-NASA external customers.

  2. Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Spichkov, A. N.; Filipenkov, S. N.

    Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha'(ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO 2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

  3. Study of space shuttle EVA/IVA support requirements. Volume 2: EVA/IVA tasks, guidelines, and constraints definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, B. W.; Copeland, R. J.; Wood, P. W., Jr.; Cox, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The guidelines for EVA and IVA tasks to be performed on the space shuttle are defined. In deriving tasks, guidelines, and constraints, payloads were first identified from the mission model. Payload requirements, together with man and manipulator capabilities, vehicle characteristics and operation, and safety considerations led to a definition of candidate tasks. Guidelines and constraints were also established from these considerations. Scenarios were established, and screening criteria, such as commonality of EVA and IVA activities, were applied to derive representative planned and unplanned tasks. The whole spectrum of credible contingency situations with a potential requirement for EVA/IVA was analyzed.

  4. Advanced Thermal Status Control of Crews in EVA and Escape Suits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Coca, A.; Leon, G. R.

    Over the course of the manned space program, there has been an accumulation of experience on methods to control the thermal status of astronauts in open space. However, there remains a significant need for a simple method to monitor the astronaut's level of heat exchange during EVA, particularly in an emergency period, or during crew escape. The liquid cooling/warming tubing system that covers the body surface creates considerable complexity for evaluating the body's overall thermal response. Moreover, the methods used to monitor core temperature (Tc) are problematic in regard to their invasiveness and accuracy. NASA is currently attempting to develop a unified methodology for protection during EVA and crew escape that would necessarily include the control of astronaut thermal status. The findings from our research program have significant implications for solving this still-vexing problem. Our experimental paradigm centers on the assessment of thermodynamic processes with subjects donned in a specially designed symmetrically divided multi-compartment liquid cooling/warming garment consisting of 16 zones, 8 on each side of the body (hands, forearms, shoulders, torso, head, thighs, calves and feet). This garment configuration enables the study of heat exchange under nonuniform temperatures on the body surface by systematically varying the proportions of nonuniform temperatures (warm/cold) in different experimental conditions. Tc was assessed by rectal (Tr), esophageal (Tes), and ear canal temperature (Tec). Skin temperature (Tsk) was measured by a total of 26 sensors placed symmetrically on the left and right sides of the body, the main magistral vessels (carotid, brachial, femoral), and local vessel networks. We paid particular attention to the thermal status of the fingers by measuring blood perfusion, temperature (Tfing), heat flux, and thermal/comfort perception. The monitoring of Tfing and heat flux in different experimental conditions was highly informative

  5. Building An Astronaut Core

    NASA Video Gallery

    Train to improve the strength in your abdominal and back muscles by performing the "Commander Crunch" and "Pilot Plank" exercises. The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of explora...

  6. ISS Update: Astronaut's Perspective

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews veteran NASA astronaut Cady Coleman about what it's like to receive visitors on the International Space Station as well as her other experience...

  7. Astronauts Practice Station Spacewalk

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Cady Coleman and Suni Williams conduct an underwater practice spacewalk session at Johnson Space Center’s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. The session was used to help International Space St...

  8. Astronaut John Young's Career

    NASA Video Gallery

    John Young served as a NASA astronaut for over four decades, flying on Gemini, Apollo and the Space Shuttle. He walked on the moon during Apollo 16 in 1972 and commanded the first shuttle mission, ...

  9. Boudreaux the Robot (a.k.a. EVA Robotic Assistant)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillcutt, Kimberly; Burridge, Robert; Graham, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The EVA Robotic Assistant is a prototype for an autonomous rover designed to assist human astronauts. The primary focus of the research is to explore the interaction between humans and robots, particularly in extreme environments, and to develop a software infrastructure that could be applied to any type of assistant robot, whether for planetary exploration or orbital missions. This paper describes the background and current status of the project, the types of scenarios addressed in field demonstrations, the hardware and software that comprise the current prototype, and future research plans.

  10. ChEVAS: Combining Suprarenal EVAS with Chimney Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Torella, Francesco; Chan, Tze Y. Shaikh, Usman; England, Andrew; Fisher, Robert K.; McWilliams, Richard G.

    2015-10-15

    Endovascular sealing with the Nellix{sup ®} endoprosthesis (EVAS) is a new technique to treat infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. We describe the use of endovascular sealing in conjunction with chimney stents for the renal arteries (chEVAS) in two patients, one with a refractory type Ia endoleak and an expanding aneurysm, and one with a large juxtarenal aneurysm unsuitable for fenestrated endovascular repair (EVAR). Both aneurysms were successfully excluded. Our report confirms the utility of chEVAS in challenging cases, where suprarenal seal is necessary. We suggest that, due to lack of knowledge on its durability, chEVAS should only been considered when more conventional treatment modalities (open repair and fenestrated EVAR) are deemed difficult or unfeasible.

  11. ChEVAS: Combining Suprarenal EVAS with Chimney Technique.

    PubMed

    Torella, Francesco; Chan, Tze Y; Shaikh, Usman; England, Andrew; Fisher, Robert K; McWilliams, Richard G

    2015-10-01

    Endovascular sealing with the Nellix(®) endoprosthesis (EVAS) is a new technique to treat infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. We describe the use of endovascular sealing in conjunction with chimney stents for the renal arteries (chEVAS) in two patients, one with a refractory type Ia endoleak and an expanding aneurysm, and one with a large juxtarenal aneurysm unsuitable for fenestrated endovascular repair (EVAR). Both aneurysms were successfully excluded. Our report confirms the utility of chEVAS in challenging cases, where suprarenal seal is necessary. We suggest that, due to lack of knowledge on its durability, chEVAS should only been considered when more conventional treatment modalities (open repair and fenestrated EVAR) are deemed difficult or unfeasible. PMID:26202393

  12. EVA-Compatible Microbial Swab Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed spacecraft meet planetary protection requirements—and to protect our science from human contamination—we'll need to know whether micro-organisms are leaking/venting from our ships and spacesuits. This is easily done by swabbing external vents and suit surfaces for analysis, but requires a specialized tool for the job. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible swab tool that can be used to sample current space suits and life support systems. Data collected now will influence Mars life support and EVA hardware early in the planning process, before design changes become difficult and expensive.NASA’s EVA swab tool pairs a Space Shuttle-era tool handle with a commercially available swab tip mounted into a custom-designed end effector. A glove-compatible release mechanism allows the handle to quickly switch between swab tips, much like a shaving razor handle can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. Swab tips are stowed inside individual sterile containers, each fitted with a microbial filter that allows the container to equalize atmospheric pressure, but prevents cabin contaminants from rushing into the container when passing from the EVA environment into a pressurized cabin. A bank of containers arrayed inside a tool caddy allows up to six individual samples to be collected during a given spacewalk.NASA plans to use the tool in 2016 to collect samples from various spacesuits during ground testing to determine what (if any) human-borne microbial contamination leaks from the suit under simulated thermal vacuum conditions. Next, the tool will be used on board the International Space Station to assess the types of microbial contaminants found on external environmental control and life support system vents. Data will support

  13. STS-49 ASEM activities illustrated with PLAID computer graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Assembly of Station by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Methods (ASEM) activities are illustrated with PLAID computer graphics. The multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS) grappled by the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector is positioned over OV-105's payload bay (PLB) as extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited crewmembers attach MPESS to ASEM truss structure with 'legs'. One astronaut, floating, works near the top of the structure while the second astronaut works at a payload retention latch assembly (PLRA) on the starboard sill. The empty INTELSAT perigee stage cradle structure is seen in the aft PLB.

  14. Evolution of EVA capabilities for space station construction and maintenance: Soviet and American experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Cathy D.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of both Soviet and American Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is discussed. A qualitative review evaluates each EVA with respect to risk, criticality, complexity, and duration. Graphics summarizing increase and rate of increase in productivity emphasize related advancements in the space suits, EVA tools, and equipment technology. Specifics that demonstrated ingenuity in accomplishing unplanned activities which required man's direct manipulation of large payloads and structures are presented. Accumulated EVA successes allow an effective, flexible, recommended approach for construction and maintenance of Space Station to be given in conclusion.

  15. Assessments of astronaut effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Robert M.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Fogg, Louis; Mcfadden, Terry J.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and convergent validity of three methods of peer and supervisory ratings of the effectiveness of individual NASA astronauts and their relationships with flight assignments. These two techniques were found to be reliable and relatively convergent. Seniority and a peer-rated Performance and Competence factor proved to be most closely associated with flight assignments, while supervisor ratings and a peer-rated Group Living and Personality factor were found to be unrelated. Results have implications for the selection and training of astronauts.

  16. From Model Rockets to Spacewalks: an Astronaut Physician’s Journey and the Science of the United States’ Space Program*

    PubMed Central

    Parazynski, Scott E

    2006-01-01

    From simple childhood dreams to their fulfillment, this presentation chronicles the author’s life journey from young model rocketteer through his medical training and eventual career as a NASA astronaut. Over the course of four Space Shuttle flights and a cumulative 6 weeks in space, including 20 hours of Extravehicular Activity (EVA, or spacewalking), this article describes a wide range of activities and scientific payloads that are representative of the unique and valuable science that can be accomplished in the microgravity of space. NASA’s efforts to develop inspection and repair capabilities in the aftermath of the Columbia tragedy are also covered, as are the nation’s plans for returning to the Moon and continuing on to Mars as part of the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). PMID:18528479

  17. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, Anne; Clowdsley, Martha; Qualls, Garry; Blattnig, Steve; Lee, Kerry; Fry, Dan; Stoffle, Nicholas; Simonsen, Lisa; Slaba, Tony; Walker, Steven; Zapp, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large Solar Particle Event (SPE). Longer duration missions have both SPE and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) risks. SPE exposure can contribute significantly toward cancer induction in combination with GCR. As mission duration increases, mitigation strategies must address the combined risks from SPE and GCR exposure. In this paper, full mission exposure assessments were performed for the proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, previously developed radiation shielding models for a proposed lunar habitat and rover were utilized. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for the proposed timelines. Mission exposure results, assessed in terms of effective dose, are presented for the proposed timelines and recommendations are made for improved astronaut shielding and safer operational practices.

  18. Astronaut Conrad tweaks Astronaut Cooper's beard for the cameramen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr. tweaks Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper's eight-day growth of beard for the cameramen while onboard the prime recovery vessel after their Gemini 5 flight. The NASA Headquarter alternative photo number is 65-H-680.

  19. Quantifying Astronaut Tasks: Robotic Technology and Future Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava

    2003-01-01

    The primary aim of this research effort was to advance the current understanding of astronauts' capabilities and limitations in space-suited EVA by developing models of the constitutive and compatibility relations of a space suit, based on experimental data gained from human test subjects as well as a 12 degree-of-freedom human-sized robot, and utilizing these fundamental relations to estimate a human factors performance metric for space suited EVA work. The three specific objectives are to: 1) Compile a detailed database of torques required to bend the joints of a space suit, using realistic, multi- joint human motions. 2) Develop a mathematical model of the constitutive relations between space suit joint torques and joint angular positions, based on experimental data and compare other investigators' physics-based models to experimental data. 3) Estimate the work envelope of a space suited astronaut, using the constitutive and compatibility relations of the space suit. The body of work that makes up this report includes experimentation, empirical and physics-based modeling, and model applications. A detailed space suit joint torque-angle database was compiled with a novel experimental approach that used space-suited human test subjects to generate realistic, multi-joint motions and an instrumented robot to measure the torques required to accomplish these motions in a space suit. Based on the experimental data, a mathematical model is developed to predict joint torque from the joint angle history. Two physics-based models of pressurized fabric cylinder bending are compared to experimental data, yielding design insights. The mathematical model is applied to EVA operations in an inverse kinematic analysis coupled to the space suit model to calculate the volume in which space-suited astronauts can work with their hands, demonstrating that operational human factors metrics can be predicted from fundamental space suit information.

  20. Anomalous Cases of Astronaut Helmet Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolph, Chester; Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Woodell, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    An astronaut's helmet is an invariant, rigid image element that is well suited for identification and tracking using current machine vision technology. Future space exploration will benefit from the development of astronaut detection software for search and rescue missions based on EVA helmet identification. However, helmets are solid white, except for metal brackets to attach accessories such as supplementary lights. We compared the performance of a widely used machine vision pipeline on a standard-issue NASA helmet with and without affixed experimental feature-rich patterns. Performance on the patterned helmet was far more robust. We found that four different feature-rich patterns are sufficient to identify a helmet and determine orientation as it is rotated about the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. During helmet rotation the field of view changes to frames containing parts of two or more feature-rich patterns. We took reference images in these locations to fill in detection gaps. These multiple feature-rich patterns references added substantial benefit to detection, however, they generated the majority of the anomalous cases. In these few instances, our algorithm keys in on one feature-rich pattern of the multiple feature-rich pattern reference and makes an incorrect prediction of the location of the other feature-rich patterns. We describe and make recommendations on ways to mitigate anomalous cases in which detection of one or more feature-rich patterns fails. While the number of cases is only a small percentage of the tested helmet orientations, they illustrate important design considerations for future spacesuits. In addition to our four successful feature-rich patterns, we present unsuccessful patterns and discuss the cause of their poor performance from a machine vision perspective. Future helmets designed with these considerations will enable automated astronaut detection and thereby enhance mission operations and extraterrestrial search and rescue.

  1. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  2. Next Generation Life Support: High Performance EVA Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Sarah K.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the High Performance EVA Glove task are to develop advanced EVA gloves for future human space exploration missions and generate corresponding standards by which progress may be quantitatively assessed. New technologies and manufacturing techniques will be incorporated into the new gloves to address finger and hand mobility, injury reduction and durability in nonpristine environments. Three prototypes will be developed, each focusing on different technological advances. A robotic assist glove will integrate a powered grasping system into the current EVA glove design to reduce astronaut hand fatigue and hand injuries. A mechanical counter pressure (MCP) glove will be developed to further explore the potential of MCP technology and assess its capability for countering the effects of vacuum or low pressure environments on the body by using compression fabrics or materials to apply the necessary pressure. A gas pressurized glove, incorporating new technologies, will be the most flight-like of the three prototypes. Advancements include the development and integration of aerogel insulation, damage sensing components, dust-repellant coatings, and dust tolerant bearings.

  3. Power assist EVA glove development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1992-01-01

    Structural modeling of the EVA glove indicates that flexibility in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint can be improved by selectively lowering the elasticity of the glove fabric. Two strategies are used to accomplish this. One method uses coil springs on the back of the glove to carry the tension in the glove skin due to pressurization. These springs carry the loads normally borne by the glove fabric, but are more easily deformed. An active system was also designed for the same purpose and uses gas filled bladders attached to the back of the EVA glove that change the dimensions of the back of the glove and allow the glove to bend at the MCP joint, thus providing greater flexibility at this joint. A threshold control scheme was devised to control the action of the joint actuators. Input to the controller was provided by thin resistive pressure sensors placed between the hand and the pressurized glove. The pressure sensors consist of a layer of polyester film that has a thin layer of ink screened on the surface. The resistivity of the ink is pressure dependent, so an extremely thin pressure sensor can be fabricated by covering the ink patch with another layer of polyester film and measuring the changing resistance of the ink with a bridge circuit. In order to sense the force between the hand and the glove at the MCP joint, a sensor was placed on the palmar face of the middle finger. The resultant signal was used by the controller to decide whether to fill or exhaust the bladder actuators on the back of the glove. The information from the sensor can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a given control scheme or glove design since the magnitude of the measured pressures gives some idea of the torque required to bend a glove finger at the MCP joint. Tests of this actuator, sensor, and control system were conducted in an 57.2 kPa glove box by performing a series of 90 degree finger bends with a glove without an MCP joint assembly, a glove with the coil spring

  4. Biomedical Support of U.S. Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Dervay, J. P.; Gillis, D.; McMann, H. J.; Thomas, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    The world's first extravehicular activity (EVA) was performed by A. A. Leonov on March 18, 1965 during the Russian Voskhod-2 mission. The first US EVA was executed by Gemini IV astronaut Ed White on June 3, 1965, with an umbilical tether that included communications and an oxygen supply. A hand-held maneuvering unit (HHMU) also was used to test maneuverability during the brief EVA; however the somewhat stiff umbilical limited controlled movement. That constraint, plus difficulty returning through the vehicle hatch, highlighted the need for increased thermal control and improved EVA ergonomics. Clearly, requirements for a useful EVA were interrelated with the vehicle design. The early Gemini EVAs generated requirements for suits providing micro-meteor protection, adequate visual field and eye protection from solar visual and infrared radiation, gloves optimized for dexterity while pressurized, and thermal systems capable of protecting the astronaut while rejecting metabolic heat during high workloads. Subsequent Gemini EVAs built upon this early experience and included development of a portable environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) and an astronaut maneuvering unit. The ECLSS provided a pressure vessel and controller with functional control over suit pressure, oxygen flow, carbon dioxide removal, humidity, and temperature control. Gemini EVA experience also identified the usefulness of underwater neutral buoyancy and altitude chamber task training, and the importance of developing reliable task timelines. Improved thermal management and carbon dioxide control also were required for high workload tasks. With the Apollo project, EVA activity was primarily on the lunar surface; and suit durability, integrated liquid cooling garments, and low suit operating pressures (3.75 pounds per square inch absolute [psia] or 25.8 kilopascal [kPa],) were required to facilitate longer EVAs with ambulation and significant physical workloads with average metabolic

  5. Astronaut Stephen Oswald and fellow crew members on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Stephen S. Oswald (center), STS-67 mission commander, is seen with two of his fellow crew members and an experiment which required a great deal of his time on the middeck of the Earth orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. Astronaut John M. Grunsfeld inputs mission data on a computer while listening to a cassette. Astronaut William G. Gregory (right edge of frame), pilot, consults a check list. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), not in use here, can be seen in upper center.

  6. Astronauts James Lovell and Frank Borman during preflight physical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Dr. Charles A. Berry, Chief of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Medical Programs, checks Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., Gemini 7 prime crew pilot, follwoing workout on exercise machine. Results will be compared with those obtained during space flight for evaluation (60602); Astronaut Frank Borman, Gemini 7 command pilot, sits as two scalp electrodes are attached to his head. The electrodes will allow doctors to record electrical activity of the astronaut's cerebral cortex during periods of weightlessness (60603).

  7. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Qualls, Garry D.; Blattnig, Steve B.; Lee, Kerry T.; Fry, Dan J.; Stoffle, Nicholas N.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Slaba, Tony C.; Walker, Steven A.; Zapp, Edward N.

    2010-01-01

    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. Both galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) environments pose a risk to astronauts for missions beyond LEO. The GCR environment, which is made up of protons and heavier ions covering a broad energy spectrum, is ever present but varies in intensity with the solar cycle, while SPEs are sporadic events, consisting primarily of protons moving outward through the solar system from the sun. The GCR environment is more penetrating and is more difficult to shield than SPE environments, but lacks the intensity to induce acute effects. Large SPEs are rare, but they could result in a lethal dose, if adequate shielding is not provided. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large SPE. Longer missions also require planning for large SPEs; adequate shielding must be provided and operational constraints must allow astronauts to move quickly to shielded locations. The dominant risk for longer missions, however, is GCR exposure, which accumulates over time and can lead to late effects such as cancer. SPE exposure, even low level SPE exposure received in heavily shielded locations, will increase this risk. In addition to GCR and SPE environments, the lunar neutron albedo resulting mainly from the interaction of GCRs with regolith will also contribute to astronaut risk. Full mission exposure assessments were performed for proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, radiation shielding models were developed for a proposed lunar habitat and rover. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for

  8. View of 'Shadow Rock' taken during third extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Apollo 16 lunar module pilot, exposed this view of 'Shadow Rock' with his 70mm Hasselblad camera during the mission's third and final extravehicular activity (EVA-3), on April 23, 1972. This particular stop was referenced as Station #13. The scoop, a geological hand tool, leans against the rock and helps give an idea of the size. Station #13 is a little southeast of the North Ray crater at the Descartes area.

  9. Results of EVA/mobile transporter space station truss assembly tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Judith J.; Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Bush, Harold G.; Lake, M. S.; Jensen, J. K.; Wallsom, R. E.; Phelps, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Underwater neutral buoyance tests were conducted to evaluate the use of a Mobile Transporter concept in conjunction with EVA astronauts to construct the Space Station Freedom truss structure. A three-bay orthogonal tetrahedral truss configuration with a 15 foot square cross section was repeatedly assembled by a single pair of pressure suited test subjects working from the Mobile Transporter astronaut positioning devices (mobile foot restraints). The average unit assembly time (which included integrated installation of utility trays) was 27.6 s/strut, or 6 min/bay. The results of these tests indicate that EVA assembly of space station size structures can be significantly enhanced when using a Mobile Transporter equipped with astronaut positioning devices. Rapid assembly time can be expected and are dependent primarily on the rate of translation permissible for on-orbit operations. The concept used to demonstate integrated installation of utility trays requires minimal EVA handling and consequentially, as the results show, has little impact on overall assembly time.

  10. Post-Shuttle EVA Operations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Bill; Witt, Vincent; Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    The EVA hardware used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed with the assumption that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for ground processing, refurbishment, or failure investigation (if necessary). With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (EMU, Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support equipment and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2016 and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, NASA and the One EVA contractor team jointly initiated the EVA 2010 Project. Challenges were addressed to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, and protect EMU hardware operability on orbit for long durations.

  11. Application of shuttle EVA systems to payloads. Volume 1: EVA systems and operational modes description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Descriptions of the EVA system baselined for the space shuttle program were provided, as well as a compendium of data on available EVA operational modes for payload and orbiter servicing. Operational concepts and techniques to accomplish representative EVA payload tasks are proposed. Some of the subjects discussed include: extravehicular mobility unit, remote manipulator system, airlock, EVA translation aids, restraints, workstations, tools and support equipment.

  12. Application of Shuttle EVA Systems to Payloads. Volume 2: Payload EVA Task Completion Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Candidate payload tasks for EVA application were identified and selected, based on an analysis of four representative space shuttle payloads, and typical EVA scenarios with supporting crew timelines and procedures were developed. The EVA preparations and post EVA operations, as well as the timelines emphasizing concurrent payload support functions, were also summarized.

  13. Astronaut Administrator Richard Truly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Astronaut Richard H. Truly, pilot of the Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-2 and Commander of Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-8, became NASA's eighth Administrator on July 1, 1989. One day earlier he concluded a 30 year Naval career retiring as a Vice Admiral. He was the first astronaut to head the nation's civilian space agency. Truly became Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Flight on February 20, 1986. In this position, he led the painstaking rebuilding of the Space Shuttle program less than one month after the Challenger disaster. This was highlighted by the much heralded 'Return to Flight' on September 29, 1988 with the launch of Shuttle Discovery, 32 months after Challenger's final flight. On February 12th, 1992 Richard Truly resigned as NASA Administrator at the request of President George Bush.

  14. Mission Specialist (MS) Musgrave works at PLB forward bulkhead during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Closeup documents extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited Mission Specialist (MS) Musgrave, designated EV1, working with payload bay (PLB) forward bulkhead safety tether system during extravehicular activity (EVA). Foot restraint boom attached to handrail appears above his helmet. Peterson, also participating in the EVA, exposed this frame with a 35mm camera while other crewmembers remained in the cabin.

  15. Mobile Agents: A Distributed Voice-Commanded Sensory and Robotic System for Surface EVA Assistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Alena, Rick; Crawford, Sekou; Dowding, John; Graham, Jeff; Kaskiris, Charis; Tyree, Kim S.; vanHoof, Ronnie

    2003-01-01

    A model-based, distributed architecture integrates diverse components in a system designed for lunar and planetary surface operations: spacesuit biosensors, cameras, GPS, and a robotic assistant. The system transmits data and assists communication between the extra-vehicular activity (EVA) astronauts, the crew in a local habitat, and a remote mission support team. Software processes ("agents"), implemented in a system called Brahms, run on multiple, mobile platforms, including the spacesuit backpacks, all-terrain vehicles, and robot. These "mobile agents" interpret and transform available data to help people and robotic systems coordinate their actions to make operations more safe and efficient. Different types of agents relate platforms to each other ("proxy agents"), devices to software ("comm agents"), and people to the system ("personal agents"). A state-of-the-art spoken dialogue interface enables people to communicate with their personal agents, supporting a speech-driven navigation and scheduling tool, field observation record, and rover command system. An important aspect of the engineering methodology involves first simulating the entire hardware and software system in Brahms, and then configuring the agents into a runtime system. Design of mobile agent functionality has been based on ethnographic observation of scientists working in Mars analog settings in the High Canadian Arctic on Devon Island and the southeast Utah desert. The Mobile Agents system is developed iteratively in the context of use, with people doing authentic work. This paper provides a brief introduction to the architecture and emphasizes the method of empirical requirements analysis, through which observation, modeling, design, and testing are integrated in simulated EVA operations.

  16. EVA crew workstation provisions for Skylab and Space Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.; Saenger, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A synopsis of scheduled extravehicular activities (EVA) for a nominal Skylab mission is presented with an overview of EV workstation equipment developed for the program. Also included are the unprogrammed extravehicular activities and supporting equipment that was quickly developed and retrofitted in a series of successful operations to salvage the crippled Skylab Cluster during the Skylab 1 Mission. Because EVA appears to be a requirement for the Space Shuttle Program, candidate EV workstations are discussed in terms of effective and economical Shuttle payload servicing and maintenance. Several such concepts, which could provide a versatile, portable EV support system, are presented.

  17. Astronaut Charles Conrad trims hair of Astronaut Paul Weitz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, trims the hair of Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, Skylab 2 pilot, during the 28-day Skylab 2 mission in Earth orbit. They are in the crew quarters wardroom of the Orbital Workshop of the Skylab 1 and 2 space station. Weitz is holding a vacuum hose in his right hand. This picture was taken by Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot.

  18. The Education of Eva Hoffman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proefriedt, William

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the autobiography of Eva Hoffman, "Lost in Translation: A Life in a New Language" (Dutton, 1989). Hoffman, whose family left Poland in the 1950s, offers a consciously bicultural view of the immigrant experience, in contrast to many autobiographies of those who forsake the old world for the new. (DM)

  19. STS-35: Astronaut Departure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-35 mission was the round-the-clock observations of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X ray astronomy with ASTRO-1. The mission was commanded by Vance D. Brand. The crew consisted of the pilot Guy S. Gardner, the mission Specialists Jeffery Hoffman, John Lounge, and Robert Parker, and the payload specialists Samuel Durrance, and Ronald Parise. This videotape shows the astronauts leaving the Kennedy Space Center after one of the attempts to launch the mission was scrubbed due to hydrogen leaks aboard the shuttle Columbia.

  20. Manned exploration and exploitation of solar system: Passive and active shielding for protecting astronauts from ionizing radiation-A short overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillantini, Piero

    2014-11-01

    In deep space manned missions for the exploration and exploitation of celestial bodies of Solar System astronauts are not shielded by the terrestrial magnetic field and must be protected against the action of Solar Cosmic Rays (SCRs) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs). SCRs are sporadically emitted, and in very rare but possible events, their fluence can be so high to be lethal to a unprotected crew. Their relatively low energy allows us to conceive fully passive shields, also if active systems can somewhat reduce the needed mass penalty. GCRs continuously flow without intensity peaks, and are dangerous to the health and operability of the crew in long duration (>1year) missions. Their very high energy excludes the possible use of passive systems, so that recourse must be made to electromagnetic fields for preventing ionizing particles to reach the habitat where astronauts spend most of their living and working time. A short overview is presented of the many ideas developed in last decades of last century; ideas are mainly based on very intense electrostatic shields, flowing plasma bubbles, or enormous superconducting coil systems for producing high magnetic fields. In the first decade of this century the problem began to be afforded in more realistic scenarios, taking into account the present and foreseeable possibilities of launchers (payload mass, diameter and length of the shroud of the rocket, etc.) and of assembling and/or inflating structures in space. Driving parameters are the volume of the habitat to be protected and the level of mitigation of the radiation dose to be guaranteed to the crew. Superconducting magnet systems based on multi-solenoid complexes or on one huge magnetic torus surrounding the habitat are being evaluated for defining the needed parameters: masses, mechanical structures for supporting the huge magnetic forces, needed equipments and safety systems. Technological tests are in preparation or planned for improving density of the current

  1. Medical, Psychophysiological, and Human Performance Problems During Extended EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: New Developments in the Assessment of the Risk of Decompression Sickness in Null Gravity During Extravehicular Activity; The Dynamic of Physiological Reactions of Cosmonauts Under the Influence of Repeated EVA Workouts, The Russian Experience; Medical Emergencies in Space; The Evolution from 'Physiological Adequacy' to 'Physiological Tuning'; Five Zones of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Conflicting Temperatures on the Human Body, Physiological Consequences; Human Performance and Subjective Perception in Nonuniform Thermal Conditions; The Hand as a Control System, Implications for Hand-Finger Dexterity During Extended EVA; and Understanding the Skill of Extravehicular Mass Handling.

  2. Electrostatic Discharge Issues in International Space Station Program EVAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.

    2009-01-01

    EVA activity in the ISS program encounters several dangerous ESD conditions. The ISS program has been aggressive for many years to find ways to mitigate or to eliminate the associated risks. Investments have included: (1) Major mods to EVA tools, suit connectors & analytical tools (2) Floating Potential Measurement Unit (3) Plasma Contactor Units (4) Certification of new ISS flight attitudes (5) Teraflops of computation (6) Thousands of hours of work by scores of specialists (7) Monthly management attention at the highest program levels. The risks are now mitigated to a level that is orders of magnitude safer than prior operations

  3. Crosscutting Development- EVA Tools and Geology Sample Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    Exploration to all destinations has at one time or another involved the acquisition and return of samples and context data. Gathered at the summit of the highest mountain, the floor of the deepest sea, or the ice of a polar surface, samples and their value (both scientific and symbolic) have been a mainstay of Earthly exploration. In manned spaceflight exploration, the gathering of samples and their contextual information has continued. With the extension of collecting activities to spaceflight destinations comes the need for geology tools and equipment uniquely designed for use by suited crew members in radically different environments from conventional field geology. Beginning with the first Apollo Lunar Surface Extravehicular Activity (EVA), EVA Geology Tools were successfully used to enable the exploration and scientific sample gathering objectives of the lunar crew members. These early designs were a step in the evolution of Field Geology equipment, and the evolution continues today. Contemporary efforts seek to build upon and extend the knowledge gained in not only the Apollo program but a wealth of terrestrial field geology methods and hardware that have continued to evolve since the last lunar surface EVA. This paper is presented with intentional focus on documenting the continuing evolution and growing body of knowledge for both engineering and science team members seeking to further the development of EVA Geology. Recent engineering development and field testing efforts of EVA Geology equipment for surface EVA applications are presented, including the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATs) field trial. An executive summary of findings will also be presented, detailing efforts recommended for exotic sample acquisition and pre-return curation development regardless of planetary or microgravity destination.

  4. Neuropsychological Testing of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Christopher; Vander Ark, Steve; Eksuzian, Daniel; Sipes, Walter; Kane, Robert; Vanderploeg, Rodney; Retzlaff, Paul; Elsmore, Tim; Moore, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    The Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a computer program that administers a battery of five timed neuro-cognitive tests. WinSCAT was developed to give astronauts an objective and automated means of assessing their cognitive functioning during space flight, as compared with their own baseline performances measured during similar prior testing on the ground. WinSCAT is also intended for use by flight surgeons to assess cognitive impairment after exposure of astronauts to such cognitive assaults as head trauma, decompression sickness, and exposure to toxic gas. The tests were selected from among a group of tests, denoted the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, that were created by the United States Navy and Army for use in evaluating the cognitive impairment of military personnel who have been subjected to medication or are suspected to have sustained brain injuries. These tests have been validated in a variety of clinical settings and are now in the public domain. The tests are presented in a Microsoft Windows shell that facilitates administration and enables immediate reporting of test scores in numerical and graphical forms.

  5. An Experimental Investigation of Dextrous Robots Using EVA Tools and Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert; Culbert, Christopher; Rehnmark, Frederik

    2001-01-01

    This investigation of robot capabilities with extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment looks at how improvements in dexterity are enabling robots to perform tasks once thought to be beyond machines. The approach is qualitative, using the Robonaut system at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), performing task trials that offer a quick look at this system's high degree of dexterity and the demands of EVA. Specific EVA tools attempted include tether hooks, power torque tools, and rock scoops, as well as conventional tools like scissors, wire strippers, forceps, and wrenches. More complex EVA equipment was also studied, with more complete tasks that mix tools, EVA hand rails, tethers, tools boxes, PIP pins, and EVA electrical connectors. These task trials have been ongoing over an 18 month period, as the Robonaut system evolved to its current 43 degree of freedom (DOF) configuration, soon to expand to over 50. In each case, the number of teleoperators is reported, with rough numbers of attempts and their experience level, with a subjective difficulty rating assigned to each piece of EVA equipment and function. JSC' s Robonaut system was successful with all attempted EVA hardware, suggesting new options for human and robot teams working together in space.

  6. Astronaut Aldrin is photographed by Astronaut Armstrong on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Onboard Film -- The deployment of scientific experiments by Astronaut Edwin Aldrin Jr. is photographed by Astronaut Neil Armstrong. Man's first landing on the Moon occurred today at 4:17 p.m. as Lunar Module 'Eagle' touched down gently on the Sea of Tranquility on the east side of the Moon.

  7. Astronaut Owen Garriott trims hair of Astronaut Alan Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, trims the hair of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, in this on-board photograph from the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS). Bean holds a vacuum hose to gather in loose hair.

  8. Astronaut Virgil Grissom with Astronaut Walter Schirra in ready room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom (right), the command pilot of the Gemini-Titan 3 three-orbit mission, is shown with Astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr., in the ready room at Pad 16. The GT-3 was launched from Pad 19 the same day. Schirra was the command pilot of the backup crew.

  9. Astronaut Bruce McCandless tests astronaut maneuvering unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Bruce McCandless II, backup pilot for Skylab 2, tests the balance and control of an astronaut maneuvering unit (AMU) test model at Martin Marietta Corporation's Denver division. The jet-powered backpack can fly for 30 minutes and can be worn over normal clothing or space suit.

  10. Utilization of ISS to Develop and Test Operational Concepts and Hardware for Low-Gravity Terrestrial EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA has considerable experience in two areas of Extravehicular Activities (EVA). The first can be defined as microgravity, orbital EVAs. This consists of everything done in low Earth orbit (LEO), from the early, proof of concept EVAs conducted during the Gemini program of the 1960s, to the complex International Space Station (ISS) assembly tasks of the first decade of the 21st century. The second area of expertise is comprised of those EVAs conducted on the lunar surface, under a gravitational force one-sixth that of Earth. This EVA expertise encapsulates two extremes - microgravity and Earthlike gravitation - but is insufficient as humans expand their exploration purview, most notably with respect to spacewalks conducted on very low-gravity bodies, such as near- Earth objects (NEO) and the moons of Mars. The operational and technical challenges of this category of EVA have yet to be significantly examined, and as such, only a small number of operational concepts have been proposed thus far. To ensure mission success, however, EVA techniques must be developed and vetted to allow the selection of operational concepts that can be utilized across an assortment of destinations whose physical characteristics vary. This paper examines the utilization of ISS-based EVAs to test operational concepts and hardware in preparation for a low-gravity terrestrial EVA. While the ISS cannot mimic some of the fundamental challenges of a low-gravity terrestrial EVA - such as rotation rate and surface composition - it may be the most effective test bed available.

  11. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronauts Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the research completed during 2011 for the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) project. The research is motivated by the desire to safely send humans in deep space missions and to keep radiation exposures within permitted limits. To this end current material shielding, developed for low earth orbit missions, is not a viable option due to payload and cost penalties. The active radiation shielding is the path forward for such missions. To achieve active space radiation shielding innovative large lightweight gossamer space structures are used. The goal is to deflect enough positive ions without attracting negatively charged plasma and to investigate if a charged Gossamer structure can perform charge deflections without significant structural instabilities occurring. In this study different innovative configurations are explored to design an optimum active shielding. In addition, to establish technological feasibility experiments are performed with up to 10kV of membrane charging, and an electron flux source with up to 5keV of energy and 5mA of current. While these charge flux energy levels are much less than those encountered in space, the fundamental coupled interaction of charged Gossamer structures with the ambient charge flux can be experimentally investigated. Of interest are, will the EIMS remain inflated during the charge deflections, and are there visible charge flux interactions. Aluminum coated Mylar membrane prototype structures are created to test their inflation capability using electrostatic charging. To simulate the charge flux, a 5keV electron emitter is utilized. The remaining charge flux at the end of the test chamber is measured with a Faraday cup mounted on a movable boom. A range of experiments with this electron emitter and detector were performed within a 30x60cm vacuum chamber with vacuum environment capability of 10-7 Torr. Experiments are performed with the charge flux aimed at the electrostatically inflated

  12. The Extravehicular Suit Impact Load Attenuation Study for Use in Astronaut Bone Fracture Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Gilkey, Kelly M.; Sulkowski, Christina M.; Samorezov, Sergey; Myers, Jerry G.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Integrated Medical Model (IMM) assesses the risk, including likelihood and impact of occurrence, of all credible in-flight medical conditions. Fracture of the proximal femur is a traumatic injury that would likely result in loss of mission if it were to happen during spaceflight. The low gravity exposure causes decreases in bone mineral density which heightens the concern. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center have quantified bone fracture probability during spaceflight with a probabilistic model. It was assumed that a pressurized extravehicular activity (EVA) suit would attenuate load during a fall, but no supporting data was available. The suit impact load attenuation study was performed to collect analogous data. METHODS: A pressurized EVA suit analog test bed was used to study how the offset, defined as the gap between the suit and the astronaut s body, impact load magnitude and suit operating pressure affects the attenuation of impact load. The attenuation data was incorporated into the probabilistic model of bone fracture as a function of these factors, replacing a load attenuation value based on commercial hip protectors. RESULTS: Load attenuation was more dependent on offset than on pressurization or load magnitude, especially at small offsets. Load attenuation factors for offsets between 0.1 - 1.5 cm were 0.69 +/- 0.15, 0.49 +/- 0.22 and 0.35 +/- 0.18 for mean impact forces of 4827, 6400 and 8467 N, respectively. Load attenuation factors for offsets of 2.8 - 5.3 cm were 0.93 +/- 0.2, 0.94 +/- 0.1 and 0.84 +/- 0.5, for the same mean impact forces. Reductions were observed in the 95th percentile confidence interval of the bone fracture probability predictions. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in uncertainty and improved confidence in bone fracture predictions increased the fidelity and credibility of the fracture risk model and its benefit to mission design and operational decisions.

  13. EVA Task Timing and Timeline Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looper, Christopher A.; Ney, Zane A.

    2007-01-01

    EVA timeline development occurs using task execution data generated through underwater training and simulation. This project collected task time data during final training events for several Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions and compared like task time data collected during on-orbit execution. Analysis was performed to compare types of activities and times required for each looking specifically for how activities can be accurately trained from a timeline planning perspective. The data revealed two significant aspects of flight timeline planning; Zero-g task times will match training times for activities that can be accurately simulated with appropriate fidelity hardware; and not all activities can be simulated sufficiently to produce training task times that will reflect required zero-g times. An approach for timeline planning utilizing this knowledge is also presented.

  14. Interfacing with an EVA Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy

    2011-01-01

    A NASA spacesuit under the EVA Technology Domain consists of a suit system; a PLSS; and a Power, Avionics, and Software (PAS) system. Ross described the basic functions, components, and interfaces of the PLSS, which consists of oxygen, ventilation, and thermal control subsystems; electronics; and interfaces. Design challenges were reviewed from a packaging perspective. Ross also discussed the development of the PLSS over the last two decades.

  15. Educating Astronauts About Conservation Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the training of astronauts in the interdisciplinary work of conservation biology. The primary responsibility of the conservation biologist at NASA is directing and supporting the photography of the Earth and maintaining the complete database of the photographs. In order to perform this work, the astronauts who take the pictures must be educated in ecological issues.

  16. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  17. Space Shuttle Era: Astronaut Support Personnel

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts rely on other astronauts on launch day to help them get rady for liftoff and the misison ahead. The helpful cadre are known formally as Astronaut Support Personnel but are called ASPs or...

  18. Skylab-3 Mission Onboard Photograph - Astronaut Bean on Ergometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This Skylab-3 onboard photograph shows Astronaut Allen Bean on the ergometer, breathing into the metabolic analyzer. Skylab's Metabolic Activity experiment (M171), a medical evaluation facility, was designed to measure astronauts' metabolic changes while on long-term space missions. The experiment obtained information on astronauts' physiological capabilities and limitations and provided data useful in the design of future spacecraft and work programs. Physiological responses to physical activity was deduced by analyzing inhaled and exhaled air, pulse rate, blood pressure, and other selected variables of the crew while they performed controlled amounts of physical work with a bicycle ergometer.

  19. EVA Systems Flight Controller Talks With Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, EVA Systems Flight Controller Sandy Fletcher participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Northtowne Ele...

  20. Characterization of the Radiation Shielding Properties of US andRussian EVA Suits

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, E.R.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

    2001-10-26

    Reported herein are results from the Eril Research, Inc.(ERI) participationin the NASA Johnson Space Center sponsored studycharacterizing the radiation shielding properties of the two types ofspace suit that astronauts are wearing during the EVA on-orbit assemblyof the International Space Station (ISS). Measurements using passivedetectors were carried out to assess the shielding properties of the USEMU Suit and the Russian Orlan-M suit during irradiations of the suitsand a tissue equivalent phantom to monoenergetic proton and electronbeams at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). Duringirradiations of 6 MeV electrons and 60 MeV protons, absorbed dose as afunction of depth was measured using TLDs exposed behind swatches of thetwo suit materials and inside the two EVA helmets. Considerable reductionin electron dosewas measured behind all suit materials in exposures to 6MeV electrons. Slowing of the proton beam in the suit materials led to anincrease in dose measured in exposures to 60 MeV protons. During 232 MeVproton irradiations, measurements were made with TLDs and CR-39 PNTDs atfive organ locations inside a tissue equivalent phantom, exposed bothwith and without the two EVA suits. The EVA helmets produce a 13 to 27percent reduction in total dose and a 0 to 25 percent reduction in doseequivalent when compared to measurements made in the phantom head alone.Differences in dose and dose equivalent between the suit and non-suitirradiations forthe lower portions of the two EVA suits tended to besmaller. Proton-induced target fragmentation was found to be asignificant source of increased dose equivalent, especially within thetwo EVA helmets, and average quality factor inside the EMU and Orlan-Mhelmets was 2 to 14 percent greater than that measured in the barephantom head.

  1. Evaluation of a Hybrid Elastic EVA Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Akin, David

    2002-01-01

    The hybrid elastic design is based upon an American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) glove designed by at the Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) in 1985. This design uses an elastic restraint layer instead of convolute joints to achieve greater dexterity and mobility during EVA (extravehicular activity). Two pilot studies and a main study were conducted using the hybrid elastic glove and 4000-series EMU (extravehicular activity unit) glove. Data on dexterity performance, joint range of motion, grip strength and perceived exertion was assessed for the EMU and hybrid elastic gloves with correlations to a barehanded condition. During this study, 30 test subjects performed multiple test sessions using a hybrid elastic glove and a 4000- series shuttle glove in a 4.3psid pressure environment. Test results to date indicate that the hybrid elastic glove performance is approximately similar to the performance of the 4000-series glove.

  2. Advanced EVA Suit Camera System Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mock, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a new extra-vehicular activity (EVA) suit known as the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit. All of the improvements to the EVA Suit provide the opportunity to update the technology of the video imagery. My summer internship project involved improving the video streaming capabilities of the cameras that will be used on the Z2 Suit for data acquisition. To accomplish this, I familiarized myself with the architecture of the camera that is currently being tested to be able to make improvements on the design. Because there is a lot of benefit to saving space, power, and weight on the EVA suit, my job was to use Altium Design to start designing a much smaller and simplified interface board for the camera's microprocessor and external components. This involved checking datasheets of various components and checking signal connections to ensure that this architecture could be used for both the Z2 suit and potentially other future projects. The Orion spacecraft is a specific project that may benefit from this condensed camera interface design. The camera's physical placement on the suit also needed to be determined and tested so that image resolution can be maximized. Many of the options of the camera placement may be tested along with other future suit testing. There are multiple teams that work on different parts of the suit, so the camera's placement could directly affect their research or design. For this reason, a big part of my project was initiating contact with other branches and setting up multiple meetings to learn more about the pros and cons of the potential camera placements we are analyzing. Collaboration with the multiple teams working on the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit is absolutely necessary and these comparisons will be used as further progress is made for the overall suit design. This prototype will not be finished in time for the scheduled Z2 Suit testing, so my time was

  3. Is Autonomic Modulation Different between European and Chinese Astronauts?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiexin; Li, Yongzhi; Verheyden, Bart; Chen, Shanguang; Chen, Zhanghuang; Gai, Yuqing; Liu, Jianzhong; Gao, Jianyi; Xie, Qiong; Yuan, Ming; Li, Qin; Li, Li; Aubert, André E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective was to investigate autonomic control in groups of European and Chinese astronauts and to identify similarities and differences. Methods Beat-to-beat heart rate and finger blood pressure, brachial blood pressure, and respiratory frequency were measured from 10 astronauts (five European taking part in three different space missions and five Chinese astronauts taking part in two different space missions). Data recording was performed in the supine and standing positions at least 10 days before launch, and 1, 3, and 10 days after return. Cross-correlation analysis of heart rate and systolic pressure was used to assess cardiac baroreflex modulation. A fixed breathing protocol was performed to measure respiratory sinus arrhythmia and low-frequency power of systolic blood pressure variability. Results Although baseline cardiovascular parameters before spaceflight were similar in all astronauts in the supine position, a significant increase in sympathetic activity and a decrease in vagal modulation occurred in the European astronauts when standing; spaceflight resulted in a remarkable vagal decrease in European astronauts only. Similar baseline supine and standing values for heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and respiratory frequency were shown in both groups. Standing autonomic control was based on a balance of higher vagal and sympathetic modulation in European astronauts. Conclusion Post-spaceflight orthostatic tachycardia was observed in all European astronauts, whereas post-spaceflight orthostatic tachycardia was significantly reduced in Chinese astronauts. The basis for orthostatic intolerance is not apparent; however, many possibilities can be considered and need to be further investigated, such as genetic diversities between races, astronaut selection, training, and nutrition, etc. PMID:25799561

  4. The main results of EVA medical support on the Mir Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katuntsev, V. P.; Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Barer, A. S.; Gnoevaya, N. K.; Tarasenkov, G. G.

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the main results of medical support of 78 two-person extravehicular activities (EVAs) which have been conducted in the Mir Space Program. Thirty-six male crewmembers participated in these EVAs. Maximum length of a space walk was equal to 7 h 14 min. The total duration of all space walks reached 717.1 man-hours. The maximum frequency of EVA's execution was 10 per year. Most of the EVAs (67) have been performed at mission elapsed time ranging from 31 to 180 days. The oxygen atmosphere of the Orlan space suit with a pressure of 40 kPa in combination with the normobaric cabin environment and a short (30 min) oxygen prebreathe protocol have minimized the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). There has been no incidence of DCS during performed EVAs. At the peak activity, metabolic rates and heart rates increased up to 9.9- 13 kcal/ min and 150- 174 min-1, respectively. The medical problems have centred on feeling of moderate overcooling during a rest period in a shadow after the high physical loads, episodes with tachycardia accompanied by cardiac rhythm disorders at the moments of emotional stress, pains in the muscles and general fatigue after the end of a hard EVA. All of the EVAs have been completed safely.

  5. Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Challenge was developed in 2011 to encourage proper exercise and nutrition at an early age by teaching young people to live and eat like space explorers. The strong correlation between an unhealthy childhood diet and adolescent fitness, and the onset of chronic diseases as an adult is the catalyst for Mission X. Mission X is dedicated to assisting people on a global scale to live healthier lifestyles and learn about human space exploration. The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut 2015 (MX15) International Challenge hosted almost 40,000 children on 800 teams, 28 countries affiliated with 12 space agencies. The MX15 website included 17 languages. MX15, the fifth annual international fitness challenges sponsored by the NASA Human Research Program worked with the European Space Agency and other space agencies from around the world. In comparison to MX14, MX15 expanded to include four additional new countries, increased the number of students by approximately 68% and the number of teams by 29%. Chile' and South Korea participated in the new fall Astro Charlie Walk Around the Earth Challenge. Pre-challenge training materials were made more readily available from the website. South Korea completed a prospective assessment of the usability of the MX content for improving health and fitness in 212 preschool children and their families. Mission X is fortunate to have the support of the NASA, ESA and JAXA astronaut corps. In MX15, they participated in the opening and closing events as well as while on-board the International Space Station. Italian Astronaut Samantha Cristoretti participated as the MX15 Astronaut Ambassador for health and fitness providing the opening video and other videos from ISS. United Kingdom Astronaut Tim Peake and US Astronaut Kate Rubins have agreed to be the MX Ambassadors for 2016 and 2017 respectively. The MX15 International Working Group Face-to-Face meeting and Closing Event were held at the Agenzia Spaziale

  6. Astronaut Paul Weitz gets physical examination from Astronaut Joseph Kerwin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, Skylab 2 pilot, gets a physical examination by a fellow crewman during the 28-day Skylab 2 mission. Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot and a doctor of medicine, uses a stethoscope to check the Weitz's heartbeat. They are in the Orbital Workshop crew quarters of the Skylab 1 and 2 space station in Earth orbit. This photograph was taken by Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander.

  7. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the forward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped in to the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). This ASMU exerperiment is being done in shirt sleeves. The dome area where the experiment is conducted is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  8. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the foreward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped in to the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). This ASMU exerperiment is being done in shirt sleeves. The dome area where the experiment is conducted is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  9. Astronaut Joseph Kerwin takes blood sample from Astronaut Charles Conrad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin (right), Skylab 2 science pilot and a doctor of medicine, takes a blood sample from Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Sylab 2 commander, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. The blood sampling was part of the Skylab Hematology and Immunology Experiment M110 series.

  10. Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

  11. Dose limits for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, W. K.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation exposures to individuals in space can greatly exceed natural radiation exposure on Earth and possibly normal occupational radiation exposures as well. Consequently, procedures limiting exposures would be necessary. Limitations were proposed by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council in 1970. This panel recommended short-term limits to avoid deterministic effects and a single career limit (of 4 Sv) based on a doubling of the cancer risk in men aged 35 to 55. Later, when risk estimates for cancer had increased and were recognized to be age and sex dependent, the NCRP, in Report No. 98 in 1989, recommended a range of career limits based on age and sex from 1 to 4 Sv. NCRP is again in the process of revising recommendations for astronaut exposure, partly because risk estimates have increased further and partly to recognize trends in limiting radiation exposure occupationally on the ground. The result of these considerations is likely to be similar short-term limits for deterministic effects but modified career limits.

  12. Astronauts Working in Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie captures astronaut Jan Davis and her fellow crew members working in the Spacelab, a versatile laboratory carried in the Space Shuttle's cargo bay for special research flights. Its various elements can be combined to accommodate the many types of scientific research that can best be performed in space. Spacelab consisted of an enclosed, pressurized laboratory module and open U-shaped pallets located at the rear of the laboratory module. The laboratory module contained utilities, computers, work benches, and instrument racks to conduct scientific experiments in astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and engineering. Equipment, such as telescopes, antennas, and sensors, is mounted on pallets for direct exposure to space. A 1-meter (3.3-ft.) diameter aluminum tunnel, resembling a z-shaped tube, connected the crew compartment (mid deck) to the module. The reusable Spacelab allowed scientists to bring experiment samples back to Earth for post-flight analysis. Spacelab was a cooperative venture of the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA. ESA was responsible for funding, developing, and building Spacelab, while NASA was responsible for the launch and operational use of Spacelab. Spacelab missions were cooperative efforts between scientists and engineers from around the world. Teams from NASA centers, universities, private industry, government agencies and international space organizations designed the experiments. The Marshall Space Flight Center was NASA's lead center for monitoring the development of Spacelab and managing the program.

  13. Polarization Processes of Nanocomposite Silicate-EVA and PP Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Gian Carlo; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Testa, Luigi; Motori, Antonio; Saccani, Andrea; Patuelli, Francesca

    Recent works indicate that polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA) filled by nanosilicates may present low content of space charge and high electric strength. Investigations are being made to explain nanocomposite behaviour and characterize their electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. In this paper, the results of broad-band dielectric spectroscopy performed on EVA and PP filled by layered nanosized silicates are reported. Isochronal and isothermal curves of complex permittivity, as well as activation energies of the relaxation processes, are presented and discussed. Nanostructuration gives rise to substantial changes in the polarisation and dielectric loss behaviour. While the relaxation process of EVA, associated with glass transition of the material amorphous phase, results unchanged from base to nanostructured material, nanocomposites EVA and PP have shown the rise of a new process at higher temperatures respect to the typical host material processes, as well as a different distribution of relaxation processes. Changes in space charge accumulation in relation to the effectiveness of the purification process performed upon nanostructured materials are also reported: while the dispersion of the clean clays leads to a reduction of the space charge, especially at high fields, an unclean filler gives rise to significant homo-charge accumulation and interfacial polarisation phenomena.

  14. Evaluation of safety of hypobaric decompressions and EVA from positions of probabilistic theory.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, V P

    1998-01-01

    Formation and subsequent evolution of gas bubbles in blood and tissues of subjects exposed to decompression are casual processes in their nature. Such character of bubbling processes in a body predetermines probabilistic character of decompression sickness (DCS) incidence in divers, aviators and astronauts. Our original probabilistic theory of decompression safety is based on stochastic models of these processes and on the concept of critical volume of a free gas phase in body tissues. From positions of this theory, the probability of DCS incidence during single-stage decompressions and during hypobaric decompressions under EVA in particular, is defined by the distribution of possible values of nucleation efficiency in "pain" tissues and by its critical significance depended on the parameters of a concrete decompression. In the present study the following is shown: 1) the dimensionless index of critical nucleation efficiency for "pain" body tissues is a more adequate index of decompression stress in comparison with Tissue Ratio, TR; 2) a priory the decompression under EVA performed according to the Russian protocol is more safe than decompression under EVA performed in accordance with the U.S. protocol; 3) the Russian space suit operated at a higher pressure and having a higher "rigidity" induces a stronger inhibition of mechanisms of cavitation and gas bubbles formation in tissues of a subject located in it, and by that provides a more considerable reduction of the DCS risk during real EVA performance. PMID:11541599

  15. Dynamics, control and sensor issues pertinent to robotic hands for the EVA retriever system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclauchlan, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Basic dynamics, sensor, control, and related artificial intelligence issues pertinent to smart robotic hands for the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever system are summarized and discussed. These smart hands are to be used as end effectors on arms attached to manned maneuvering units (MMU). The Retriever robotic systems comprised of MMU, arm and smart hands, are being developed to aid crewmen in the performance of routine EVA tasks including tool and object retrieval. The ultimate goal is to enhance the effectiveness of EVA crewmen.

  16. Techniques for Improving the Performance of Future EVA Maneuvering Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor W.

    1995-01-01

    this box was such that two of the SAFER jets plume it. A second complication was that the EVA astronaut will sometimes be transporting a massive experiment package. This will not only alter the overall mass properties significantly, but can itself also be plumed.

  17. Astronaut Steve Swanson Visits Goddard

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Tuesday, 3 March 2015, a special guest visited NASA Goddard Space Flight Center during his time back on Earth. Steven Swanson, NASA astronaut, intrigued the audience by highlighting his adventur...

  18. Astronauts Practice Station Spacewalk Underwater

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Robert Satcher Jr. and Rick Sturckow conduct an underwater practice spacewalk session at Johnson Space Center’s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. The session was used to help International Sp...

  19. Advanced EVA Capabilities: A Study for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concept Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study carried out as part of NASA s Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts Program examining the future technology needs of extravehicular activities (EVAs). The intent of this study is to produce a comprehensive report that identifies various design concepts for human-related advanced EVA systems necessary to achieve the goals of supporting future space exploration and development customers in free space and on planetary surfaces for space missions in the post-2020 timeframe. The design concepts studied and evaluated are not limited to anthropomorphic space suits, but include a wide range of human-enhancing EVA technologies as well as consideration of coordination and integration with advanced robotics. The goal of the study effort is to establish a baseline technology "road map" that identifies and describes an investment and technical development strategy, including recommendations that will lead to future enhanced synergistic human/robot EVA operations. The eventual use of this study effort is to focus evolving performance capabilities of various EVA system elements toward the goal of providing high performance human operational capabilities for a multitude of future space applications and destinations. The data collected for this study indicate a rich and diverse history of systems that have been developed to perform a variety of EVA tasks, indicating what is possible. However, the data gathered for this study also indicate a paucity of new concepts and technologies for advanced EVA missions - at least any that researchers are willing to discuss in this type of forum.

  20. Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, TCS, EVA Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don

    2011-01-01

    Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration then the Human Exploration Framework Teams (HEFT and HEFT2) evaluated potential exploration missions and the infrastructure and technology needs for those missions. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed by the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to, and then inhabit and explore, the moon. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), Thermal Control (TCS), and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems.

  1. Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, EVA, TCS Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don; Lawrence, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed in the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to and then inhabit and explore the moon. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration and identified many options for how to conduct human spaceflight in the future. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) and Thermal Control System (TCS) Systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each architecture and options are presented.

  2. Train Like an Astronaut Educational Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Yamil L.; Lloyd, Charles; Reeves, Katherine M.; Abadie, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the incidence of childhood obesity, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), capitalizing on the theme of human spaceflight developed two educational outreach programs for children ages 8-12. To motivate young "fit explorers," the Train Like an Astronaut National (TLA) program and the Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut International Fitness Challenge (MX) were created. Based on the astronauts' physical training, these programs consist of activities developed by educators and experts in the areas of space life sciences and fitness. These Activities address components of physical fitness. The educational content hopes to promote students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. At the national level, in partnership with First Lady Michelle Obama's Let?s Move! Initiative, the TLA program consists of 10 physical and 2 educational activities. The program encourages families, schools, and communities to work collaboratively in order to reinforce in children and their families the importance of healthy lifestyle habits In contrast, the MX challenge is a cooperative outreach program involving numerous space agencies and other international partner institutions. During the six-week period, teams of students from around the world are challenged to improve their physical fitness and collectively accumulate points by completing 18 core activities. During the 2011 pilot year, a t otal of 137 teams and more than 4,000 students from 12 countries participated in the event. MX will be implemented within 24 countries during the 2012 challenge. It is projected that 7,000 children will "train like an astronaut".

  3. Design of a reusable kinetic energy absorber for an astronaut safety tether to be used during extravehicular activities on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borthwick, Dawn E.; Cronch, Daniel F.; Nixon, Glen R.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this project is to design a reusable safety device for a waist tether which will absorb the kinetic energy of an astronaut drifting away from the Space Station. The safety device must limit the tension of the tether line in order to prevent damage to the astronaut's space suit or to the structure of the spacecraft. The tether currently used on shuttle missions must be replaced after the safety feature has been developed. A reusable tether for the Space Station would eliminate the need for replacement tethers, conserving space and mass. This report presents background information, scope and limitations, methods of research and development, alternative designs, a final design solution and its evaluation, and recommendations for further work.

  4. Use of Traditional and Novel Methods to Evaluate the Influence of an EVA Glove on Hand Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Elizabeth A.; England, Scott A.; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; ajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The gloved hand is one of an astronaut s primary means of interacting with the environment, and any restrictions imposed by the glove can strongly affect performance during extravehicular activity (EVA). Glove restrictions have been the subject of study for decades, yet previous studies have generally been unsuccessful in quantifying glove mobility and tactility. Past studies have tended to focus on the dexterity, strength, and functional performance of the gloved hand; this provides only a circumspect analysis of the impact of each type of restriction on the glove s overall capability. The aim of this study was to develop novel capabilities to provide metrics for mobility and tactility that can be used to assess the performance of a glove in a way that could enable designers and engineers to improve their current designs. A series of evaluations were performed to compare unpressurized and pressurized (4.3 psi) gloved conditions with the ungloved condition. A second series of evaluations were performed with the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) removed. This series of tests provided interesting insight into how much of an effect the TMG has on gloved mobility - in some cases, the presence of the TMG restricted glove mobility as much as pressurization did. Previous hypotheses had assumed that the TMG would have a much lower impact on mobility, but these results suggest that an improvement in the design of the TMG could have a significant impact on glove performance. Tactility testing illustrated the effect of glove pressurization, provided insight into the design of hardware that interfaces with the glove, and highlighted areas of concern. The metrics developed in this study served to benchmark the Phase VI EVA glove and to develop requirements for the next-generation glove for the Constellation program.

  5. CLCA2 Interactor EVA1 Is Required for Mammary Epithelial Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ramena, Grace; Yin, Yufang; Yu, Yang; Walia, Vijay; Elble, Randolph C.

    2016-01-01

    CLCA2 is a p53-, p63-inducible transmembrane protein that is frequently downregulated in breast cancer. It is induced during differentiation of human mammary epithelial cells, and its knockdown causes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). To determine how CLCA2 promotes epithelial differentiation, we searched for interactors using membrane dihybrid screening. We discovered a strong interaction with the cell junctional protein EVA1 (Epithelial V-like Antigen 1) and confirmed it by co-immunoprecipitation. Like CLCA2, EVA1 is a type I transmembrane protein that is regulated by p53 and p63. It is thought to mediate homophilic cell-cell adhesion in diverse epithelial tissues. We found that EVA1 is frequently downregulated in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines, especially those of mesenchymal phenotype. Moreover, knockdown of EVA1 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) caused EMT, implying that EVA1 is essential for epithelial differentiation. Both EVA1 and CLCA2 co-localized with E-cadherin at cell-cell junctions. The interacting domains were delimited by deletion analysis, revealing the site of interaction to be the transmembrane segment (TMS). The primary sequence of the CLCA2 TMS was found to be conserved in CLCA2 orthologs throughout mammals, suggesting that its interaction with EVA1 co-evolved with the mammary gland. A screen for other junctional interactors revealed that CLCA2 was involved in two different complexes, one with EVA1 and ZO-1, the other with beta catenin. Overexpression of CLCA2 caused downregulation of beta catenin and beta catenin-activated genes. Thus, CLCA2 links a junctional adhesion molecule to cytosolic signaling proteins that modulate proliferation and differentiation. These results may explain how attenuation of CLCA2 causes EMT and why CLCA2 and EVA1 are frequently downregulated in metastatic breast cancer cell lines. PMID:26930581

  6. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanco, Raul A.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Watson, Richard D.; Sipila, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability for Orion. The EVAs will involve a two-person crew for approximately four hours. Currently, two EVAs are planned with one contingency EVA in reserve. Providing this EVA capability is very challenging due to system level constraints and a new and unknown environment. The goal of the EVA architecture for ARCM is one that builds upon previously developed technologies and lessons learned, and that accomplishes the ARCM mission while providing a stepping stone to future missions and destinations. The primary system level constraints are to 1) minimize system mass and volume and 2) minimize the interfacing impacts to the baseline Orion design. In order to minimize the interfacing impacts and to not perturb the baseline Orion schedule, the concept of adding "kits" to the baseline system is proposed. These kits consist of: an EVA kit (converts LEA suit to EVA suit), EVA Servicing and Recharge Kit (provides suit consumables), the EVA Tools, Translation Aids & Sample Container Kit (the tools and mobility aids to complete the tasks), the EVA Communications Kit (interface between the EVA radio and the MPCV), and the Cabin Repress Kit (represses the MPCV between EVAs). This paper will focus on the trade space, analysis, and testing regarding the space suit (pressure garment and life support system). Historical approaches and lessons learned from all past EVA operations were researched. Previous and current, successfully operated EVA hardware and high technology readiness level (TRL) hardware were evaluated, and a trade study was conducted for all possible pressure garment and life support options. Testing and analysis was conducted and a recommended EVA system architecture was proposed. Pressure garment options that were considered for this mission include the currently in-use ISS EVA Mobility Unit (EMU), all variations of

  7. Astronaut John W. Young during water egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, prime crew command pilot for the Gemini 10 space flight, sits in Static Article 5 during water egress training activity on board the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever. The SA-5 will be placed in the water and he and Astronaut Michael Collins, will then practice egress and water survival techniques. At right is Gordon Harvey, Spacecraft Operations Branch, Flight Crew Support Division.

  8. Astronaut Charles Duke photographed collecting lunar samples at Station 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples at Station no. 1 during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity at the Descartes landing site. This picture, looking eastward, was taken by Astronaut John W. Young, commander. Duke is standing at the rim of Plum crater, which is 40 meters in diameter and 10 meters deep. The parked Lunar Roving Vehicle can be seen in the left background.

  9. A Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Presently, the Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) conducted from the Quest Joint Airlock on the International Space Station use high pressure, high purity oxygen that is delivered to the Space Station by the Space Shuttle. When the Space Shuttle retires, a new method of delivering high pressure, high purity oxygen to the High Pressure Gas Tanks (HPGTs) is needed. One method is to use a cabin air separator to sweep oxygen from the cabin air, generate a low pressure/high purity oxygen stream, and compress the oxygen with a multistage mechanical compressor. A main advantage to this type of system is that the existing low pressure oxygen supply infrastructure can be used as the source of cabin oxygen. ISS has two water electrolysis systems that deliver low pressure oxygen to the cabin, as well as chlorate candles and compressed gas tanks on cargo vehicles. Each of these systems can feed low pressure oxygen into the cabin, and any low pressure oxygen source can be used as an on-board source of oxygen. Three different oxygen separator systems were evaluated, and a two stage Pressure Swing Adsorption system was selected for reasons of technical maturity. Two different compressor designs were subjected to long term testing, and the compressor with better life performance and more favorable oxygen safety characteristics was selected. These technologies have been used as the basis of a design for a flight system located in Equipment Lock, and taken to Preliminary Design Review level of maturity. This paper describes the Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen (CASEO) concept, describes the separator and compressor technology trades, highlights key technology risks, and describes the flight hardware concept as presented at Preliminary Design Review (PDR)

  10. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the Apollo/Saturn V Center, some of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) take a close look at the Saturn V rocket on display. The U.S. candidates include Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and international candidates Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes. The class is at KSC for training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, SSME Processing Facility, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center and the crew headquarters.

  11. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Some of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) take a close look at displays in the Apollo/Saturn V Center at KSC. The U.S. candidates include Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and international candidates Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes. The class is at KSC for training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, SSME Processing Facility, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center and the crew headquarters.

  12. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the Apollo/Saturn V Center, some of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) line up for a photo while standing under the engines of the Saturn V rocket on display. The U.S. candidates include Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and international candidates Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes. The class is at KSC for training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, SSME Processing Facility, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center and the crew headquarters.

  13. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the Apollo/Saturn V Center, some of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) line up for a photo during a tour of facilities at KSC. The U.S. candidates include Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and international candidates Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes. The class is at KSC for training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, SSME Processing Facility, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF and the crew headquarters.

  14. Extravehicular mobility unit training and astronaut injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Samuel; Krog, Ralph L.; Feiveson, Alan H.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronaut spacewalk training can result in a variety of symptom complaints and possible injuries. This study quantified and characterized signs, symptoms, and injuries resulting from extravehicular activity spacesuit training at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, immersion facility. METHODS: We identified the frequency and incidence of symptoms by location, mechanisms of injury, and effective countermeasures. Recommendations were made to improve injury prevention, astronaut training, test preparation, and training hardware. At the end of each test, a questionnaire was completed documenting signs and symptoms, mechanisms of injury, and countermeasures. RESULTS: Of the 770 tests, there were 190 in which suit symptoms were reported (24.6%). There were a total of 352 reported suit symptom comments. Of those symptoms, 166 were in the hands (47.16%), 73 were in the shoulders (20.7%), and 40 were in the feet (11.4%). Others ranged from 6.0% to 0.28%, respectively, from the legs, arms, neck, trunk, groin, and head. Causal mechanisms for the hands included moisture and hard glove contacts resulting in fingernail injuries; in the shoulders, hard contact with suit components and strain mechanisms; and in the feet, hard boot contact. The severity of symptoms was highest in the shoulders, hands, and feet. CONCLUSIONS: Most signs and symptoms were mild, self-limited, of brief duration, and were well controlled by available countermeasures. Some represented the potential for significant injury with consequences affecting astronaut health and performance. Correction of extravehicular activity training-related injuries requires a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

  15. Astronautics and psychology. Recommendations for the psychological training of astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, Gerhard F.

    The methods presently applied in the psychological training of astronauts are based on the principle of ensuring maximum performance of astronauts during missions. The shortcomings are obvious since those undergoing training provide nothing but the best ability to cope with Earth problem situations and add simply an experience of space problem situations as they are presently conceived. Earth attitudes and Earth behaviour remain and are simply modified. Through the utilization of interdisciplinary space knowledge a much higher degree of problem anticipation could be achieved and the astronaut be psychologically transformed into a space-being. This would at the same time stimulate interdisciplinary space research. The interdisciplinary space knowledge already available suggests that space requires not only physical and mental adjustments, but a profoundly new relationship with life.

  16. Philosophy on astronaut protection: Perspective of an astronaut

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.

    1997-04-30

    There are significant differences in the risks during the launch of a spacecraft, its journey, and its subsequent return to earth, as contrasted to the risks of latent cancers that may develop as a result of the associated radiation exposures. Once the spacecraft has landed, following a successful mission, the risks of accidental death are over. The risks of latent cancers, however, will remain with the astronauts for the rest of their lives. The same may be true for many of the effects of the space environment, including microgravity. Compounding the problem with respect to radiation are the large uncertainties accompanying the estimates of the associated latent cancer risks. In addition to radiation doses received as a result of being exposed in space, astronauts have received significant does of radiation in conjunction with medical examinations and experiments conducted to obtain data on the effects of the space environment on humans. The experiments were considered to be a part of the {open_quotes}job{close_quotes} of being an astronaut, and the resulting doses were included in the medical records. Following this approach, the accompanying doses were counted against the career limits being imposed on each astronaut. As a result, volunteering for such experiments could cause an earlier termination of the career of an astronaut than would otherwise have occurred and add to the total radiation exposure, thereby increasing one`s risk of subsequent illness. Through cooperative efforts, these does have been significantly reduced in recent years. In fact, one of the outcomes of these efforts has been the incorporation of the ALARA concept into the radiation protection program for the astronauts. The fact that a space mission has a range of risks, including some that are relatively large, is no justification for failing to reduce the accompanying radiation risk.

  17. Underwater views of STS-5 crewmen Lenoir and Allen during EVA training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Underwater views of STS-5 crewmen Lenoir and Allen during EVA training. In this view, Mission Specialist/Astronaut Joseph P. Allen is in the foreground and Mission Specialist/Astronaut William B. Lenoir is at the top of the photography. Both men are wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) space suits and are weighted down to achieve neutral buoyancy in the 25-ft. deep pool. The background is a full-scale mockup of the Space Shuttle's cargo bay area. Divers assist in the training (35894); Allen goes through a simulation exercise with divers all around (35985); Divers assist the fully suited and tethered Lenoir as he simulates work to be done in the shuttle cargo bay (35986); Lenoir anchors himself to a full-scale mockup of the shuttle orbiter's cargo bay and holds onto a restraining device (35987).

  18. Colonoscopy Screening in the US Astronaut Corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masterova, K.; Van Baalen, M.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J.; Schaefer, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Historically, colonoscopy screenings for astronauts have been conducted to ensure that astronauts are in good health for space missions. Recently this historical data has been identified as being useful for developing an occupational surveillance requirement. It can be used to assess overall colon health and to have a point of reference for future tests in current and former astronauts, as well as to follow-up and track rates of colorectal cancer and polyps. These rates can be compared to military and other terrestrial populations. In 2003, the active astronaut colonoscopy requirements changed to require less frequent colonoscopies. Since polyp removal during a colonoscopy is an intervention that prevents the polyp from potentially developing into cancer, the procedure decreases the individual's risk for colon cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possible effect of increased follow-up times between colonoscopies on the number and severity of polyps identified during the procedures among both current and former NASA astronauts. Initial results and forward work regarding astronaut colonoscopy screenings will be presented. METHODS: A retrospective study of all colonoscopy procedures performed on NASA astronauts between 1962 and 2015 (both during active career and retirement) was conducted by review of the JSC Clinic Electronic Medical Record and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) database for colonoscopy screening procedures and pathology reports. The timeframe of interest was from the time of selection into the Astronaut Corps through May 2015 or death. For each colonoscopy report, the following data were captured: date of procedure, age at time of procedure, reason for procedure, quality of bowel prep, completion of procedure and/or reason for termination of procedure, findings of procedure, subsequent treatment (if any), recommended follow-up interval, actual follow up interval, family history of polyps or colon cancer

  19. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the foreward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped in to the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). He is wearing a pressure suit for this run of the M509 experiment, but other ASMU tests are done in shirt sleeves. The dome area where the experiment is conducted is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  20. The slit receptor EVA-1 coactivates a SAX-3/Robo mediated guidance signal in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Kazuko; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Culotti, Joseph G

    2007-09-28

    The SAX-3/roundabout (Robo) receptor has SLT-1/Slit-dependent and -independent functions in guiding cell and axon migrations. We identified enhancer of ventral-axon guidance defects of unc-40 mutants (EVA-1) as a Caenorhabditis elegans transmembrane receptor for SLT-1. EVA-1 has two predicted galactose-binding ectodomains, acts cell-autonomously for SLT-1/Slit-dependent axon migration functions of SAX-3/Robo, binds to SLT-1 and SAX-3, colocalizes with SAX-3 on cells, and provides cell specificity to the activation of SAX-3 signaling by SLT-1. Double mutants of eva-1 or slt-1 with sax-3 mutations suggest that SAX-3 can (when slt-1 or eva-1 function is reduced) inhibit a parallel-acting guidance mechanism, which involves UNC-40/deleted in colorectal cancer. PMID:17901337

  1. The micro conical system: Lessons learned from a successful EVA/robot-compatible mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gittleman, Mark; Johnston, Alistair

    1996-01-01

    The Micro Conical System (MCS) is a three-part, multi-purpose mechanical interface system used for acquiring and manipulating masses on-orbit by either extravehicular activity (EVA) or telerobotic means. The three components of the system are the micro conical fitting (MCF), the EVA micro tool (EMCT), and the Robot Micro Conical Tool (RMCT). The MCS was developed and refined over a four-year period. This period culminated with the delivery of 358 Class 1 and Class 2 micro conical fittings for the International Space Station and with its first use in space to handle a 1272 kg (2800 lbm) Spartan satellite (11000 times greater than the MCF mass) during an EVA aboard STS-63 in February, 1995. The micro conical system is the first successful EVA/robot-compatible mechanism to be demonstrated in the external environment aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle.

  2. Injury Surveillance Among NASA Astronauts Using the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, J. D.; Laughlin, M. S.; Eudy, D. L.; Wear, M. L.; VanBaalen, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts perform physically demanding tasks and risk incurring musculoskeletal injuries during both groundbased training and missions. Increased injury rates throughout the history of the U.S. space program have been attributed to numerous factors, including an aging astronaut corps, increased Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training to construct the International Space Station, and improved clinical operations that promote injury prevention and reporting. With NASA program changes through the years (including retirement of the Shuttle program) and an improved training environment (including a new astronaut gym), there is no surveillance program to systematically track injury rates. A limited number of research projects have been conducted over the past 20 years to evaluate musculoskeletal injuries: (1) to evaluate orthopedic injuries from 1987 to 1995, (2) to describe upper extremity injuries, (3) to evaluate EVA spacesuit training related injuries, and (4) to evaluate in-flight musculoskeletal injuries. Nevertheless, there has been no consistently performed comprehensive assessment of musculoskeletal injuries among astronauts. The Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix was introduced at the 2001 meeting of the International Collaborative Effort (ICE) on Injury Statistics. The Matrix proposes a standardized method of classifying body region by nature of injury. Diagnoses are coded using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) coding system. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness and complexity of the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix to classify and track musculoskeletal injuries among NASA astronauts.

  3. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, Jonathan T.; Kelly, Cody; Buffington, Jesse; Watson, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment that was selected, for both functions, is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The proposed architecture was found to meet the mission constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the required suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the rest of the tools and equipment required to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations have been completed in the NBL and interfacing options have been prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. For NBL EVA simulations, in 2013, components were procured to allow in-house build up for four new suits with mobility enhancements built into the arms. Boots outfitted with clips that fit into foot restraints have also been added to the suit and analyzed for possible loads. Major suit objectives accomplished this year in testing include: evaluation of mobility enhancements, ingress/egress of foot restraint, use of foot restraint for worksite stability, ingress/egress of Orion hatch with PLSS mockup, and testing with two crew members in the water at one time to evaluate the crew's ability to help one another. Major tool objectives accomplished this year include using various other methods for worksite stability, testing new methods for asteroid geologic sampling and improving the fidelity of the mockups and crew equipment. These tests were completed on a medium fidelity capsule mockup, asteroid vehicle mockup, and asteroid mockups that were more accurate for an asteroid type EVA than previous tests. Another focus was the

  4. EVA1A/TMEM166 Regulates Embryonic Neurogenesis by Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengtao; Lu, Guang; Hu, Jia; Shen, Xue; Ju, Jiabao; Gao, Yuanxu; Qu, Liujing; Xia, Yan; Chen, Yingyu; Bai, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Summary Self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells is essential for embryonic neurogenesis, which is associated with cell autophagy. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates neurogenesis remains undefined. Here, we show that Eva1a/Tmem166, an autophagy-related gene, regulates neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Eva1a depletion impaired the generation of newborn neurons, both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, overexpression of EVA1A enhanced newborn neuron generation and maturation. Moreover, Eva1a depletion activated the PIK3CA-AKT axis, leading to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and the subsequent inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, addition of methylpyruvate to the culture during neural stem cell differentiation rescued the defective embryonic neurogenesis induced by Eva1a depletion, suggesting that energy availability is a significant factor in embryonic neurogenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrated that EVA1A regulates embryonic neurogenesis by modulating autophagy. Our results have potential implications for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by autophagy dysregulation. PMID:26905199

  5. EVA1A/TMEM166 Regulates Embryonic Neurogenesis by Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengtao; Lu, Guang; Hu, Jia; Shen, Xue; Ju, Jiabao; Gao, Yuanxu; Qu, Liujing; Xia, Yan; Chen, Yingyu; Bai, Yun

    2016-03-01

    Self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells is essential for embryonic neurogenesis, which is associated with cell autophagy. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates neurogenesis remains undefined. Here, we show that Eva1a/Tmem166, an autophagy-related gene, regulates neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Eva1a depletion impaired the generation of newborn neurons, both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, overexpression of EVA1A enhanced newborn neuron generation and maturation. Moreover, Eva1a depletion activated the PIK3CA-AKT axis, leading to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and the subsequent inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, addition of methylpyruvate to the culture during neural stem cell differentiation rescued the defective embryonic neurogenesis induced by Eva1a depletion, suggesting that energy availability is a significant factor in embryonic neurogenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrated that EVA1A regulates embryonic neurogenesis by modulating autophagy. Our results have potential implications for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by autophagy dysregulation. PMID:26905199

  6. Tactile Data Entry for Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron B.; Hannaford, Blake; Sands, O Scott

    2012-01-01

    In the task-saturated environment of extravehicular activity (EVA), an astronaut's ability to leverage suit-integrated information systems is limited by a lack of options for data entry. In particular, bulky gloves inhibit the ability to interact with standard computing interfaces such as a mouse or keyboard. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation into a system that permits the space suit gloves themselves to be used as data entry devices. Hand motion tracking is combined with simple finger gesture recognition to enable use of a virtual keyboard, while tactile feedback provides touch-based context to the graphical user interface (GUI) and positive confirmation of keystroke events. In human subject trials, conducted with twenty participants using a prototype system, participants entered text significantly faster with tactile feedback than without (p = 0.02). The results support incorporation of vibrotactile information in a future system that will enable full touch typing and general mouse interactions using instrumented EVA gloves.

  7. Study of EVA operations associated with satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. O.; Wilde, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) factors associated with satellite servicing activities are identified and the EMU improvements necessary to enhance satellite servicing operations are outlined. Areas of EMU capabilities, equipment and structural interfaces, time lines, EMU modifications for satellite servicing, environmental hazards, and crew training are vital to manned Eva/satellite services and as such are detailed. Evaluation of EMU capabilities indicates that the EMU can be used in performing near term, basic satellite servicing tasks; however, satellite servicing is greatly enhanced by incorporating key modifications into the EMU. The servicing missions involved in contamination sensitive payload repair are illustrated. EVA procedures and equipment can be standardized, reducing both crew training time and in orbit operations time. By standardizing and coordinating procedures, mission cumulative time lines fall well within the EMU capability.

  8. EVA results of Shuttle Mission STS-37

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitsett, C. E.; Gall, Lisa A.; Trevino, Luis A.

    1992-07-01

    The paper summarizes EVA results of the STS-37 mission that flew in April 1991, with emphasis on the unscheduled EVA to free the Compton GRO antenna. The EVA Development Flight Experiment (EDFE) objectives and equipment description are also presented. The EDFE consisted of three experiments conducted during STS-37 to evaluate both designs of crew translation equipment and loads imparted by crew members while performing typical EVA work site tasks for Space Station Freedom. The experiments were used to evaluate static and dynamic loads and ease of operation of four separate translation systems operating on a fixed track. Various measures of performance of the crew equipment and translation aids are discussed. The rates and accelerations experienced during translation aided by the manipulator foot restraint and remote manipulator system were found to be comfortable.

  9. Maturing Pump Technology for EVA Applications in a Collaborative Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, Edward; Dionne, Steven; Gervais, Edward; Anchondo, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The transition from low earth orbit Extravehicular Activity (EVA) for construction and maintenance activities to planetary surface EVA on asteroids, moons, and, ultimately, Mars demands a new spacesuit system. NASA's development of that system has resulted in dramatically different pumping requirements from those in the current spacesuit system. Hamilton Sundstrand, Cascon, and NASA are collaborating to develop and mature a pump that will reliably meet those new requirements in space environments and within the design constraints imposed by spacesuit system integration. That collaboration, which began in the NASA purchase of a pump prototype for test evaluation, is now entering a new phase of development. A second generation pump reflecting the lessons learned in NASA's testing of the original prototype will be developed under Hamilton Sundstrand internal research funding and ultimately tested in an integrated Advanced Portable Life Support System (APLSS) in NASA laboratories at the Johnson Space Center. This partnership is providing benefit to both industry and NASA by supplying a custom component for EVA integrated testing at no cost to the government while providing test data for industry that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to duplicate in industry laboratories. This paper discusses the evolving collaborative process, component requirements and design development based on early NASA test experience, component stand alone test results, and near term plans for integrated testing at JSCs.

  10. Overview of EVA PRA for TPS Repair for Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark; Duncan, Gary; Roeschel, Eduardo; Canga, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Following the Columbia accident in 2003, NASA developed techniques to repair the Thermal Protection System (TPS) in the event of damage to the TPS as one of several actions to reduce the risk to future flights from ascent debris, micro-meteoroid and/or orbital debris (MMOD). Other actions to help reduce the risk include improved inspection techniques, reduced shedding of debris from the External Tank and ability to rescue the crew with a launch on need vehicle. For the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission the crew rescue capability was limited by the inability to safe haven on the International Space Station (ISS), resulting in a greater reliance on the repair capability. Therefore it was desirable to have an idea of the risk associated with conducting a repair, where the repair would have to be conducted using an Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Previously, focused analyses had been conducted to quantify the risk associated with certain aspects of an EVA, for example the EVA Mobility Unit (EMU) or Space Suit; however, the analyses were somewhat limited in scope. A complete integrated model of an EVA which could quantify the risk associated with all of the major components of an EVA had never been done before. It was desired to have a complete integrated model to be able to assess the risks associated with an EVA to support the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) in making risk informed decisions. In the case of the HST Servicing Mission, this model was developed to assess specifically the risks associated with performing a TPS repair EVA. This paper provides an overview of the model that was developed to support the HST mission in the event of TPS damage. The HST Servicing Mission was successfully completed on May 24th 2009 with no critical TPS damage; therefore the model was not required for real-time mission support. However, it laid the foundation upon which future EVA quantitative risk assessments could be based.

  11. Efficacy of Wrist/Palm Warming as an EVA Countermeasure to Maintain Finger Comfort in Cold Conditions During EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Trevino, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of local wrist/palm warming as a potential countermeasure for providing finger comfort during extended duration EVA. Methods: Six subjects (5 males and 1 female) were evaluated in a sagitally divided liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) with modified liquid cooling/warming (LCW) gloves in three different experimental conditions. Condition 1: Stage 1- no LCWG; chamber adaptation with LCW glove inlet water temperature 33 C; Stage 2-LCW glove inlet water temperature cooled to 8 C; Stage 3-LCW glove inlet water temperature warmed to 45 C; Condition 2: Stage1-LCWG and LCW glove inlet water temperature 33 C; Stage 2-LCWG inlet temperature cooled to 31 C, LCW gloves, 8 C; Stage 3-LCWG inlet water temperature remains at 31 C, LCW glove inlet water temperature warmed to 45 C; Condition 3: Stage l -LCWG and LCW gloves 33 C; Stage 2-LCWG inlet water temperature cooled to 28 C, LCW gloves, 8 C; Stage 3-LCWG remains at 28 C, LCW glove water temperature warmed to 45 C. Results: Wrist/palm area warming significantly increased finger temperature (Tfing) and blood perfusion in Stage 3 compared to Stage 2. The LCW gloves were most effective in increasing Stage 3 Tfing in Condition 1; and in increasing blood perfusion in Conditions 1 and 2 compared to Condition 3. Ratings of subjective perception of heat in the hand and overall body heat were higher at Stage 3 than Stage 2, with no significant differences across Conditions. Conclusions: Local wrist/palm warming was effective in increasing blood circulation to the distal extremities, suggesting the potential usefulness of this technique for increasing astronaut thermal comfort during EVA while decreasing power requirements. The LCW gloves were effective in heating the highly cooled fingers when the overall body was in a mild heat deficit.

  12. Extra dose due to extravehicular activity during the NASA4 mission measured by an on-board TLD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Hejja, I.; Lang, E.; Feher, I.

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET.

  13. Extra dose due to extravehicular activity during the NASA4 mission measured by an on-board TLD system.

    PubMed

    Deme, S; Apathy, I; Hejja, I; Lang, E; Feher, I

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET. PMID:11542227

  14. Onboard photo: Astronauts at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-87) mid-deck, Leonid Kadenyuk, Ukrainian payload specialist, works with the Brassica rapa plants being grown for the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment (CUE). Kadenyuk joined five astronauts for 16-days in Earth-orbit in support of the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) mission.

  15. Liquid pump for astronaut cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo portable life support system water-recirculation pump used for astronaut cooling is described. The problems associated with an early centrifugal pump and how these problems were overcome by the use of a new diaphragm pump are discussed. Performance comparisons of the two pump designs are given. Developmental problems and flight results with the diaphragm pump are discussed.

  16. Astronaut Gordon Cooper After Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut Gordon Cooper leaves the Faith 7 (MA-9) spacecraft after a successful recovery operation. The MA-9 mission, the last flight of the Mercury Project, was launched on May 15, 1963, orbited the Earth 22 times, and lasted for 1-1/2 days.

  17. Origins of astronautics in Switzerland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadlis, A.

    1977-01-01

    Swiss contributions to astronautics are recounted. Scientists mentioned include: Bernoulli and Euler for their early theoretical contributions; the balloonist, Auguste Piccard; J. Ackeret, for his contributions to the study of aerodynamics; the rocket propulsion pioneer, Josef Stemmer; and the Swiss space scientists, Eugster, Stettbacker, Zwicky, and Schurch.

  18. Astronaut space suit communication antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, J. F., III; Nason, G. H.

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut space suit communication antenna consists of a spring steel monopole in a blade-type configuration. This antenna is mounted in a copper cup filled with a potting compound that is recessed in the center to facilitate bending the blade flat for stowing when not in use.

  19. Astronaut Curbeam in Quest Airlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Astronaut Robert L. Curbeam, Jr., STS-116 mission specialist, smiles for the camera in the Quest Airlock of the International Space Station (ISS). Curbeam had just completed the mission's first space walk in which the P6 truss installation was conducted.

  20. Train Like an Astronaut

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson is a physical and inquiry-based approach to human health and fitness on Earth and in space. Students can participate in physical activities modeled after the real-life physical requirem...

  1. Effects of microgravity on tissue perfusion and the efficacy of astronaut denitrogenation for EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerth, Wayne A.; Vann, Richard D.; Leatherman, Nelson E.; Feezor, Michael D.

    1987-01-01

    A potentially flight-applicable, breath-by-breath method for measuring N2 elimination from human subjects breathing 100 percent O2 for 2-3 hr periods has been developed. The present report describes this development with particular emphasis on required methodological accuracy and its achievement in view of certain properties of mass spectrometer performance. A method for the breath-by-breath analysis of errors in measured N2 elimination profiles is also described.

  2. Interviews with Apollo Lunar Surface Astronauts in Support of EVA Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean

    2010-01-01

    A 3-person team interviewed 8 of the 11 surviving Apollo crewmembers in a series of focused interviews to discuss their experiences on the lunar surface. Eppler presented the results of these interviews, along with recommendations for the design of future lunar surface systems.

  3. Revolutionary Design for Astronaut Exploration — Beyond the Bio-Suit System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Dava J.; Canina, Marita; Trotti, Guillermo L.

    2007-01-01

    The Bio-Suit System is designed to revolutionize human space exploration by providing enhanced astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) locomotion and performance based on the concepts of a `second skin' capability. The novel Bio-Suit concept provides an overall exploration system realized through symbiotic relationships between a suite of advanced technologies, creative design, human modeling and analysis, and new mission operations techniques. By working at the intersection of engineering, design, life sciences and operations, new emergent capabilities and interrelationships result for applications to space missions, medical rehabilitation, and extreme sports activities. In many respects, the Bio-Suit System mimics Nature (biomimetics). For example, the second skin is capable of augmenting our biological skin by providing mechanical counter-pressure. We have designed and tested prototypes that prove mechanical counter-pressure feasibility. The `epidermis' of our second skin suit is patterned from 3D laser scans that incorporate human skin strain field maps for maximum mobility and natural movements, while requiring minimum energy expenditure for exploration tasks. We provide a technology roadmap for future design, pressure production and technology investments for the Bio-Suit System. Woven into the second skin are active materials to enhance human performance as well as to provide necessary performance metrics (i.e., energy expenditure). Wearable technologies will be embedded throughout the Bio-Suit System to place the explorer in an information-rich environment enabling real-time mission planning, prediction, and visualization. The Bio-Suit System concept augments human capabilities by coupling human and robotic abilities into a hybrid of the two, to the point where the explorer is hardly aware of the boundary between innate human performance and robotic activities.

  4. Hall Opens Doors to Astronaut Heroes

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle astronauts Bonnie Dunbar, Curt Brown and Eileen Collins joined an elite group of American space heroes as they were inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame on April 20, during a...

  5. Official portrait of astronaut Charles J. Precourt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Official portrait of astronaut Charles J. Precourt. Precourt, a member of Astronaut Class 13 and United States Air Force (USAF), wears blue flight suit and poses with space shuttle orbiter model with a United States flag creating the backdrop.

  6. Astronaut Virgil Grissom preparing for centrifuge training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. (Gus) Grissom, wearing the new Mercury pressure suit, is preparing for centrifuge training. He is talking with Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper and two others before the training session.

  7. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benson, E.; England, S.; Charvat, J.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. Because of this high frequency usage, hand and arm related injuries are known to occur during EVA and EVA training in the NBL. The primary objectives of this investigation were to: 1) document all known EVA glove related injuries and circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend interventions where possible that could be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigation focused on the discomforts and injuries of U.S. crewmembers who had worn the pressurized Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit and experienced 4000 Series or Phase VI glove related incidents during 1981 to 2010 for either EVA ground training or in-orbit flight. We conducted an observational retrospective case-control investigation using 1) a literature review of known injuries, 2) data mining of crew injury, glove sizing, and hand anthropometry databases, 3) descriptive statistical analyses, and finally 4) statistical risk correlation and predictor analyses to better understand injury prevalence and potential causation. Specific predictor statistical analyses included use of principal component analyses (PCA), multiple logistic regression, and survival analyses (Cox proportional hazards regression). Results of these analyses were computed risk variables in the forms of odds ratios (likelihood of an injury occurring given the magnitude of a risk variable) and hazard ratios (likelihood of time to injury occurrence). Due to the exploratory nature of this investigation, we selected predictor variables significant at p=0.15. RESULTS: Through 2010, there have been a total of 330 NASA crewmembers, from which 96 crewmembers performed 322 EVAs during 1981-2010, resulting in 50 crewmembers being injured inflight and 44

  8. Enhanced Controlled Transdermal Delivery of Ambroxol from the EVA Matrix.

    PubMed

    Cho, C W; Kim, D B; Cho, H W; Shin, S C

    2012-03-01

    To avoid the systemic adverse effects that might occur after oral administration, transdermal delivery of ambroxol was studied as a method for maintaining proper blood levels for an extended period. Release of ambroxol according to concentration and temperature was determined, and permeation of drug through rat skin was studied using two chamber-diffusion cells. The solubility according to PEG 400 volume fraction was highest at 40% PEG 400. The rate of drug release from the EVA matrix increased with increased temperature and drug loading doses. A linear relationship existed between the release rate and the square root of loading rate. The activation energy (Ea) was measured from the slope of the plot of log P versus 1000/T and was found to be 10.71, 10.39, 10.33 and 9.87 kcal/mol for 2, 3, 4 and 5% loading dose from the EVA matrix, respectively. To increase the permeation rate of ambroxol across rat skin from the EVA matrix, various penetration enhancers such as fatty acids (saturated, unsaturated), propylene glycols, glycerides, pyrrolidones, and non-ionic surfactants were used. The enhancing effects of the incorporated enhancers on the skin permeation of ambroxol were evaluated using Franz diffusion cells fitted with intact excised rat skin at 37° using 40% PEG 400 solution as a receptor medium. Among the enhancers used, polyoxyethylene-2-oleyl ether increased the permeation rate by 4.25-fold. In conclusion, EVA matrix containing plasticizer and permeation enhancer could be developed for enhanced transdermal delivery of ambroxol. PMID:23325993

  9. Enhanced Controlled Transdermal Delivery of Ambroxol from the EVA Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Cho, C. W.; Kim, D. B.; Cho, H. W.; Shin, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    To avoid the systemic adverse effects that might occur after oral administration, transdermal delivery of ambroxol was studied as a method for maintaining proper blood levels for an extended period. Release of ambroxol according to concentration and temperature was determined, and permeation of drug through rat skin was studied using two chamber-diffusion cells. The solubility according to PEG 400 volume fraction was highest at 40% PEG 400. The rate of drug release from the EVA matrix increased with increased temperature and drug loading doses. A linear relationship existed between the release rate and the square root of loading rate. The activation energy (Ea) was measured from the slope of the plot of log P versus 1000/T and was found to be 10.71, 10.39, 10.33 and 9.87 kcal/mol for 2, 3, 4 and 5% loading dose from the EVA matrix, respectively. To increase the permeation rate of ambroxol across rat skin from the EVA matrix, various penetration enhancers such as fatty acids (saturated, unsaturated), propylene glycols, glycerides, pyrrolidones, and non-ionic surfactants were used. The enhancing effects of the incorporated enhancers on the skin permeation of ambroxol were evaluated using Franz diffusion cells fitted with intact excised rat skin at 37° using 40% PEG 400 solution as a receptor medium. Among the enhancers used, polyoxyethylene-2-oleyl ether increased the permeation rate by 4.25-fold. In conclusion, EVA matrix containing plasticizer and permeation enhancer could be developed for enhanced transdermal delivery of ambroxol. PMID:23325993

  10. TMEM166/EVA1A interacts with ATG16L1 and induces autophagosome formation and cell death.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Li, Ge; Qu, Liujing; Li, Ning; Liu, Wei; Xia, Dan; Hongdu, Beiqi; Lin, Xin; Xu, Chentong; Lou, Yaxin; He, Qihua; Ma, Dalong; Chen, Yingyu

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the autophagosome is controlled by an orderly action of ATG proteins. However, how these proteins are recruited to autophagic membranes remain poorly clarified. In this study, we have provided a line of evidence confirming that EVA1A (eva-1 homolog A)/TMEM166 (transmembrane protein 166) is associated with autophagosomal membrane development. This notion is based on dotted EVA1A structures that colocalize with ZFYVE1, ATG9, LC3B, ATG16L1, ATG5, STX17, RAB7 and LAMP1, which represent different stages of the autophagic process. It is required for autophagosome formation as this phenotype was significantly decreased in EVA1A-silenced cells and Eva1a KO MEFs. EVA1A-induced autophagy is independent of the BECN1-PIK3C3 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 3) complex but requires ATG7 activity and the ATG12-ATG5/ATG16L1 complex. Here, we present a molecular mechanism by which EVA1A interacts with the WD repeats of ATG16L1 through its C-terminal and promotes ATG12-ATG5/ATG16L1 complex recruitment to the autophagic membrane and enhances the formation of the autophagosome. We also found that both autophagic and apoptotic mechanisms contributed to EVA1A-induced cell death while inhibition of autophagy and apoptosis attenuated EVA1A-induced cell death. Overall, these findings provide a comprehensive view to our understanding of the pathways involved in the role of EVA1A in autophagy and programmed cell death. PMID:27490928

  11. The Exercise and Environmental Physiology of Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowell, S. A.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, D. G.; Simonson, S. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Over the history of human expansion into space, extravehicular activity (EVA) has become indispensable for both daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. The physiological factors involved in the performance of extensive EVA, necessary for construction and maintenance of the International Space Station and during future human interplanetary missions, require further examination. An understanding of the physiological aspects of exercise and thermoregulation in the EVA environment will help to insure the health, safety, and efficiency of working astronauts. To that end, this review will focus on the interaction of the exercise and environmental aspects of EVA, as well as exercise during spaceflight and ground-based simulations such as bed-rest deconditioning. It will examine inflight exercise thermoregulation, and exercise, muscular strength, supine vs. seated exercise, exercise thermoregulation, and exercise in a hypobaric environment. Due to the paucity of data from controlled human research in this area, it is clear that more scientific studies are needed to insure safe and efficient extravehicular activity.

  12. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, Jonathan; Buffington, Jesse; Hood, Drew; Kelly, Cody; Naids, Adam; Watson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment selected for both functions is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS) currently under development for Advanced Exploration Systems (AES). The proposed architecture meets the ARCM constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the tools and equipment necessary to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations were completed in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and interfacing options were prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. This paper discusses the work done over the last year on the MACES enhancements, the use of tools while using the suit, and the integration of the PLSS with the MACES.

  13. Applications of EVA guidelines and design criteria. Volume 3: EVA systems cost model formating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a model for estimating the impact of manned EVA costs on future payloads is discussed. Basic information on the EV crewman requirements, equipment, physical and operational characteristics, and vehicle interfaces is provided. The cost model is being designed to allow system designers to quantify the impact of EVA on vehicle and payload systems.

  14. Skylab-2 Mission Onboard Photograph - Astronaut Kerwin With Sleep Monitoring Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This photograph is of Astronaut Kerwin wearing the Sleep Monitoring cap (Experiment M133) taken during the Skylab-2 mission. The Sleep Monitoring Experiment was a medical evaluation designed to objectively determine the amount and quality of crew members' inflight sleep. The experiment monitored and recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrooculographic (EOG) activity during astronauts' sleep periods. One of the astronauts was selected for this experiment and wore a fitted cap during his sleep periods.

  15. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin poses for photograph beside deployed U.S. flag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, poses for a photograph beside the deployed United States flag during Apollo 11 extravehicular activity on the lunar surface. The Lunar Module 'Eagle' is on the left. The footprints of the astronauts are clearly visible in the soil of the moon. This picture was taken by Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

  16. EVA Robotic Assistant Project: Platform Attitude Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickels, Kevin M.

    2003-01-01

    The Robotic Systems Technology Branch is currently working on the development of an EVA Robotic Assistant under the sponsorship of the Surface Systems Thrust of the NASA Cross Enterprise Technology Development Program (CETDP). This will be a mobile robot that can follow a field geologist during planetary surface exploration, carry his tools and the samples that he collects, and provide video coverage of his activity. Prior experiments have shown that for such a robot to be useful it must be able to follow the geologist at walking speed over any terrain of interest. Geologically interesting terrain tends to be rough rather than smooth. The commercial mobile robot that was recently purchased as an initial testbed for the EVA Robotic Assistant Project, an ATRV Jr., is capable of faster than walking speed outside but it has no suspension. Its wheels with inflated rubber tires are attached to axles that are connected directly to the robot body. Any angular motion of the robot produced by driving over rough terrain will directly affect the pointing of the on-board stereo cameras. The resulting image motion is expected to make tracking of the geologist more difficult. This will either require the tracker to search a larger part of the image to find the target from frame to frame or to search mechanically in pan and tilt whenever the image motion is large enough to put the target outside the image in the next frame. This project consists of the design and implementation of a Kalman filter that combines the output of the angular rate sensors and linear accelerometers on the robot to estimate the motion of the robot base. The motion of the stereo camera pair mounted on the robot that results from this motion as the robot drives over rough terrain is then straightforward to compute. The estimates may then be used, for example, to command the robot s on-board pan-tilt unit to compensate for the camera motion induced by the base movement. This has been accomplished in two ways

  17. Robonaut 2 - IVA Experiments On-Board ISS and Development Towards EVA Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, Myron; Hulse, Aaron; Badger, Julia; Thackston, Allison; Rogers, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Robonaut 2 (R2) has completed its fixed base activities on-board the ISS and is scheduled to receive its climbing legs in early 2014. In its continuing line of firsts, the R2 torso finished up its on-orbit activities on its stanchion with the manipulation of space blanket materials and performed multiple tasks under teleoperation control by IVA astronauts. The successful completion of these two IVA experiments is a key step in Robonaut's progression towards an EVA capability. Integration with the legs and climbing inside the ISS will provide another important part of the experience that R2 will need prior to performing tasks on the outside of ISS. In support of these on-orbit activities, R2 has been traversing across handrails in simulated zero-g environments and working with EVA tools and equipment on the ground to determine manipulation strategies for an EVA Robonaut. R2 made significant advances in robotic manipulation of deformable materials in space while working with its softgoods task panel. This panel features quarter turn latches that secure a space blanket to the task panel structure. The space blanket covers two cloth cubes that are attached with Velcro to the structure. R2 was able to open and close the latches, pull back the blanket, and remove the cube underneath. R2 simulated cleaning up an EVA worksite as well, by replacing the cube and reattaching the blanket. In order to interact with the softgoods panel, R2 has both autonomously and with a human in the loop identified and localized these deformable objects. Using stereo color cameras, R2 identified characteristic elements on the softgoods panel then extracted the location and orientation of the object in its field of view using stereo disparity and kinematic transforms. R2 used both vision processing and supervisory control to successfully accomplish this important task. Teleoperation is a key capability for Robonaut's effectiveness as an EVA system. To build proficiency, crewmembers have

  18. Neutral buoyancy methodology for studying satellite servicing EVA crewmember interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnby, Mary E.; Griffin, Thomas J.; Lewis, Ruthan

    1989-01-01

    Current economic constraints indicate the need for incorporating the satellite servicing philosophy of commonality within the design of spacecraft subsytems. This philosophy is essential for conserving resources including hardware/software development and implementation costs, on-orbit and ground-based manpower, crew training/testing time, and documentation. In addition, spacecraft subsystem commonality may be coupled with standardization of operation procedures, and test and verification techniques for spacecraft design. Several spacecraft have adopted this practice, including Hubble Space Telescope, Space Station Freedom, and the Explorer Platform. As these and other programs continue and if effective crew interfaces and procedures are clearly and consistently defined, crew retraining for similar spacecraft subsystems will lessen, and procurement efforts will diminish. A relatively high fidelity zero-gravity simulation using water immersion is available to establish crew interfaces economically. The flexibility and utility of this space simulation medium for planning and assisting on-orbit operations was exemplified by astronaut evaluations of potential EVA electrical connectors. The testing was conducted at a NASA underwater neutral buoyancy training facility.

  19. Astronaut Office Scheduling System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Estevancio

    2010-01-01

    AOSS is a highly efficient scheduling application that uses various tools to schedule astronauts weekly appointment information. This program represents an integration of many technologies into a single application to facilitate schedule sharing and management. It is a Windows-based application developed in Visual Basic. Because the NASA standard office automation load environment is Microsoft-based, Visual Basic provides AO SS developers with the ability to interact with Windows collaboration components by accessing objects models from applications like Outlook and Excel. This also gives developers the ability to create newly customizable components that perform specialized tasks pertaining to scheduling reporting inside the application. With this capability, AOSS can perform various asynchronous tasks, such as gathering/ sending/ managing astronauts schedule information directly to their Outlook calendars at any time.

  20. Latent Herpes Viruses Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight has many adverse effects on human physiology. Changes in multiple systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems have occurred (12, 32, 38, 39). Alterations in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (12), nutritional needs (31), renal stone formation (40), and microbial flora (2) have also been reported. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of some changes may increase with time in space. A variety of changes in immunity have been reported during both short (.16 days) and long (>30 days) space missions. However, it is difficult to determine the medical significance of these immunological changes in astronauts. Astronauts are in excellent health and in superb physical condition. Illnesses in astronauts during space flight are not common, are generally mild, and rarely affect mission objectives. In an attempt to clarify this issue, we identified the latent herpes viruses as medically important indicators of the effects of space flight on immunity. This chapter demonstrates that space flight leads to asymptomatic reactivation of latent herpes viruses, and proposes that this results from marked changes in neuroendocrine function and immunity caused by the inherent stressfullness of human space flight. Astronauts experience uniquely stressful environments during space flight. Potential stressors include confinement in an unfamiliar, crowded environment, isolation, separation from family, anxiety, fear, sleep deprivation, psychosocial issues, physical exertion, noise, variable acceleration forces, increased radiation, and others. Many of these are intermittent and variable in duration and intensity, but variable gravity forces (including transitions from launch acceleration to microgravity and from microgravity to planetary gravity) and variable radiation levels are part of each mission and contribute to a stressful environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth. Radiation outside the Earth

  1. Pharmacological Issues for Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia E.

    2010-01-01

    Medication-induced side effects, called untoward effects by pharmacologists, can be a problem with any medication. Few therapies are perfectly specific for the desired physiological activity; rather they act on multiple biological targets and result in multiple physiological effects. There are several strategies that are employed to prevent, alleviate or counteract medication-induced side effects. The administered dose may be optimized to the lowest possible amount that provides the desired therapeutic effect, with the expectation that untoward effects will be minimized by a lower dose. Empirical trials of different therapies for a particular medical problem may be used in the hopes of finding a drug with minimal side effects for a particular patient, or at least of finding a set of side effects that the patient considers tolerable. If these two strategies have been exhausted, it may be possible to administer another medication to block or ameliorate side effects. A recent search of published scientific literature has revealed that there are medications used in spaceflight that seem to be associated with a significant number of reports of untoward effects. To prevent future medical problems and to improve the well-being and productivity of crew members, it would be best to eliminate (or at least reduce) untoward effects. Reports from the literature will be examined, with the aim of identifying a strategy for reducing untoward effects.

  2. 21st Century Extravehicular Activities: Synergizing Past and Present Training Methods for Future Spacewalking Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the the spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first space walk in June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill-set and subsequently the training methods, changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the Skylab, Space Shuttle; and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  3. 21st Century extravehicular activities: Synergizing past and present training methods for future spacewalking success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-10-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind" were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the true spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first spacewalk in the June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill set and subsequently the training methods changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the SkyLab, Space Shuttle, and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA's success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  4. Infrared On-Orbit RCC Inspection With the EVA IR Camera: Development of Flight Hardware From a COTS System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazanik, Michael; Johnson, Dave; Kist, Ed; Novak, Frank; Antill, Charles; Haakenson, David; Howell, Patricia; Jenkins, Rusty; Yates, Rusty; Stephan, Ryan; Hawk, Doug; Amoroso, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In November 2004, NASA's Space Shuttle Program approved the development of the Extravehicular (EVA) Infrared (IR) Camera to test the application of infrared thermography to on-orbit reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) damage detection. A multi-center team composed of members from NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was formed to develop the camera system and plan a flight test. The initial development schedule called for the delivery of the system in time to support STS-115 in late 2005. At the request of Shuttle Program managers and the flight crews, the team accelerated its schedule and delivered a certified EVA IR Camera system in time to support STS-114 in July 2005 as a contingency. The development of the camera system, led by LaRC, was based on the Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) FLIR S65 handheld infrared camera. An assessment of the S65 system in regards to space-flight operation was critical to the project. This paper discusses the space-flight assessment and describes the significant modifications required for EVA use by the astronaut crew. The on-orbit inspection technique will be demonstrated during the third EVA of STS-121 in September 2005 by imaging damaged RCC samples mounted in a box in the Shuttle's cargo bay.

  5. Teacher-Astronaut out to Lift Academic Sights of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The space shuttle Endeavour, slated to begin an 11-day mission August 7, will carry an educational payload that includes two "growth chambers" loaded with basil and lettuce seeds, and a list of activities to be led by teacher-turned-astronaut Barbara R. Morgan. The activities targeted to K-12 students are add-ons to the shuttle crew's primary…

  6. Biosensors for EVA: Muscle Oxygen and pH During Walking, Running and Simulated Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Ellerby, G.; Scott, P.; Stroud, L.; Norcross, J.; Pesholov, B.; Zou, F.; Gernhardt, M.; Soller, B.

    2009-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI-funded project is looking to extend this methodology to examine activities which more appropriately represent EVA activities, such as walking and running and to better understand factors that determine the metabolic cost of exercise in both normal and lunar gravity. Our 4 year project specifically addresses risk: ExMC 4.18: Lack of adequate biomedical monitoring capability for Constellation EVA Suits and EPSP risk: Risk of compromised EVA performance and crew health due to inadequate EVA suit systems.

  7. Evaluation of a Human Modeling Software Tool in the Prediction of Extra Vehicular Activity Tasks for an International Space Station Assembly Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, H. Charles; Loughead, Tomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The difficulty of accomplishing work in extravehicular activity (EVA) is well documented. It arises as a result of motion constraints imposed by a pressurized spacesuit in a near-vacuum and of the frictionless environment induced in microgravity. The appropriate placement of foot restraints is crucial to ensuring that astronauts can remove and drive bolts, mate and demate connectors, and actuate levers. The location on structural members of the foot restraint sockets, to which the portable foot restraint is attached, must provide for an orientation of the restraint that affords the astronaut adequate visual and reach envelopes. Previously, the initial location of these sockets was dependent upon the experienced designer's ability to estimate placement. The design was tested in a simulated zero-gravity environment; spacesuited astronauts performed the tasks with mockups while submerged in water. Crew evaluation of the tasks based on these designs often indicated the bolt or other structure to which force needed to be applied was not within an acceptable work envelope, resulting in redesign. The development of improved methods for location of crew aids prior to testing would result in savings to the design effort for EVA hardware. Such an effort to streamline EVA design is especially relevant to International Space Station construction and maintenance. Assembly operations alone are expected to require in excess of four hundred hours of EVA. Thus, techniques which conserve design resources for assembly missions can have significant impact. We describe an effort to implement a human modelling application in the design effort for an International Space Station Assembly Mission. On Assembly Flight 6A, the Canadian-built Space Station Remote Manipulator System will be delivered to the U.S. Laboratory. It will be released from its launch restraints by astronauts in EVA. The design of the placement of foot restraint sockets was carried out using the human model Jack, and

  8. Astronauts Alan Bean and Charles Conrad on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn Five launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Their lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. In this photograph, one of the astronauts on the Moon's surface is holding a container of lunar soil. The other astronaut is seen reflected in his helmet. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  9. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study. Phase 2: Extravehicular activity at a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Valerie; Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Schulze, Arthur E.

    1988-01-01

    The focus is on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems requirements definition for an advanced space mission: remote-from-main base EVA on the Moon. The lunar environment, biomedical considerations, appropriate hardware design criteria, hardware and interface requirements, and key technical issues for advanced lunar EVA were examined. Six remote EVA scenarios (three nominal operations and three contingency situations) were developed in considerable detail.

  10. Skylab Astronauts' Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    After the end of the Apollo missions, NASA's next adventure into space was the marned spaceflight of Skylab. Using an S-IVB stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle, Skylab was a two-story orbiting laboratory, one floor being living quarters and the other a work room. The objectives of Skylab were to enrich our scientific knowledge of the Earth, the Sun, the stars, and cosmic space; to study the effects of weightlessness on living organisms, including man; to study the effects of the processing and manufacturing of materials utilizing the absence of gravity; and to conduct Earth resource observations. At the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), astronauts and engineers spent hundreds of hours in an MSFC Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) rehearsing procedures to be used during the Skylab mission, developing techniques, and detecting and correcting potential problems. The NBS was a 40-foot deep water tank that simulated the weightlessness environment of space. This photograph shows astronaut Ed Gibbon (a prime crew member of the Skylab-4 mission) during the neutral buoyancy Skylab extravehicular activity training at the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) mockup. One of Skylab's major components, the ATM was the most powerful astronomical observatory ever put into orbit to date.

  11. The Role of the International Astronautical Federation in Building Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Marilyn

    The International Astronautical Federation (IAF) is an international non-governmental and non-profit organisation. The Federation was founded in London in the framework of the Second International Astronautical Congress (IAC). The Federation encourages the advancement of knowledge about space and the development and application of space assets for the benefit of humanity. It plays an important role in disseminating information, and in providing a significant worldwide network of experts in the development and utilisation of space. The IAF has 155 Members from 45 different countries. Members include: Astronautical societies and other professional societies, space agencies and international organisations, Space industries and companies, universities and research institutes, non-profit organisations with interests in space matters. Through its various Congresses, Workshops and Committees, the IAF offers emerging space nations at all levels of development a rich spectrum of opportunities to network, exchange information and enhance awareness awareness and interest in global space activities among students and young professionals.

  12. An Astronaut's View of Jewel-toned Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronauts onboard the International Space Station often observe small, otherwise unnoticed water bodies on the ground due to their unusual colors. For example, the Little Blue Run Dam and reservoir is located in western Pennsylvania, just south of the Ohio River. It is owned by Pennsylvania Power Company and used for industrial sludge impoundment. The materials suspended in the water give it a striking, turquoise color. Another lake with color linked commercial activity is Lake Gribben, just southeast of Palmer in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Iron ore is extracted from New Richmond Mine visible just north of the lake. Images ISS004-E-10472 (Little Blue Run, April 4, 2002) and ISS004-E-10319 (Gribben, April 22, 2002) were provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

  13. Exercise-training protocols for astronauts in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bulbulian, R.; Bernauer, E. M.; Haskell, W. L.; Moore, T.

    1989-01-01

    Based on physical working requirements for astronauts during intra- and extravehicular activity and on the findings from bed-rest studies that utilized exercise training as a countermeasure for the reduction of aerobic power, deterioration of muscular strength and endurance, decrements in mood and cognitive performance, and possibly for bone loss, two exercise protocols are proposed. One assumes that, during microgravity, astronaut exercise physiological functions should be maintained at 100 percent of ground-based levels. The other assumes that maximal aerobic power in flight can be reduced by 10 percent of the ground-based level.

  14. Telecast of Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin by the Lunar Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (in center) commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. (on right), lunar module pilot, are seen standing near their Lunar Module in this black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface television camera during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. This picture was made from a televised image received at the Deep Space Network tracking station at Goldstone, California. President Richard M. Nixon had just spoken to the two astronauts by radio and Aldrin, a colonel in the U.S. Air Force, is saluting the president.

  15. Astronaut Story Musgrave in EMU in thermal vacuum chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut F. Story Musgrave, wearing a training version of the extravehicular activity unit (EMU), particpates in a dry run for tests in thermal vacuum chamber. The test, conducted in Chamber B ofthe Space Environment and Simulation Laboratory at JSC, verified that the tools being designed for the mission will work in the cold vacuum of space. Others pictured, from the left, are Andrea Tullar and Donna Fender, test directors; Leonard S. Nicholson, acting Director of engineering; and Astronauts Thomas D. Akers and Kathryn C. Thornton, STS-61 mission specialists, along with Musgrave.

  16. Astronautics and Aeronautics: A Chronology, 2001-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivey, William Noel; Lewis, Marieke

    2010-01-01

    This report is a chronological compilation of narrative summaries of news reports and government documents highlighting significant events and developments in U.S. and foreign aeronautics and astronautics. It covers the years 2001 through 2005. These summaries provide a day-by-day recounting of major activities, such as administrative developments, awards, launches, scientific discoveries, corporate and government research results, and other events in countries with aeronautics and astronautics programs. Researchers used the archives and files housed in the NASA History Division, as well as reports and databases on the NASA Web site.

  17. Astronautics and Aeronautics: A Chronology, 1996-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Marieke; Swanson, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    This report is a chronological compilation of narrative summaries of news reports and government documents highlighting significant events and developments in United States and foreign aeronautics and astronautics. It covers the years 1996 through 2000. These summaries provide a day-by-day recounting of major activities, such as administrative developments, awards, launches, scientific discoveries, corporate and government research results, and other events in countries with aeronautics and astronautics programs. Researchers used the archives and files housed in the NASA History Division, as well as reports and databases on the NASA Web site.

  18. EVA tools and equipment reference book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fullerton, R. K.

    1993-01-01

    This document contains a mixture of tools and equipment used throughout the space shuttle-based extravehicular activity (EVA) program. Promising items which have reached the prototype stage of development are also included, but should not be considered certified ready for flight. Each item is described with a photo, a written discussion, technical specifications, dimensional drawings, and points of contact for additional information. Numbers on the upper left-hand corner of each photo may be used to order specific pictures from NASA and contractor photo libraries. Points of contact were classified as either operational or technical. An operational contact is an engineer from JSC Mission Operations Directorate who is familiar with the basic function and on-orbit use of the tool. A technical contact would be the best source of detailed technical specifications and is typically the NASA subsystem manager. The technical information table for each item uses the following terms to describe the availability or status of each hardware item: Standard - Flown on every mission as standard manifest; Flight specific - Potentially available for flight, not flown every mission (flight certification cannot be guaranteed and recertification may be required); Reference only - Item no longer in active inventory or not recommended for future use, some items may be too application-specific for general use; and Developmental - In the prototype stage only and not yet available for flight. The current availability and certification of any flight-specific tool should be verified with the technical point of contact. Those tools built and fit checked for Hubble Space Telescope maintenance are program dedicated and are not available to other customers. Other customers may have identical tools built from the existing, already certified designs as an optional service.

  19. Astronaut Thermal Exposure: Re-Entry After Low Earth Orbit Rescue Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, David B.; Hamilton, Douglas; Ilcus, Stana; Stepaniak, Phil; Son, Chang; Bue, Grant

    2009-01-01

    The STS-125 mission, launched May 11, 2009, is the final servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope. The repair mission's EVA tasks are described, including: installing a new wide field camera; installing the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph; repairing the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph; installing a new outer blanket layer; adding a Soft Capture and Rendezvous System for eventual controlled deorbit in about 2014; replacing the 'A' side Science Instrument Command and Data Handling module; repairing the Advanced Camera for surveys; and, replacing the rate sensor unit gyroscopes, fine guidance sensors and 3 batteries. Additionally, the Shuttle crew cabin thermal environment is described. A CFD model of per person CO2 demonstrates a discrepancy between crew breathing volume and general mid-deck levels of CO2. A follow-on CFD analysis of the mid-deck temperature distribution is provided. Procedural and engineering mitigation plans are presented to counteract thermal exposure upon reentry to the Earth atmosphere. Some of the procedures include: full cold soak the night prior to deorbit; modifying deck stowage to reduce interference with air flow; and early securing of avionics post-landing to reduce cabin thermal load prior to hatch opening. Engineering mitigation activities include modifying the location of the aft starboard ICUs, eliminating the X3 stack and eliminating ICU exhaust air directed onto astronauts; improved engineering data of ICU performance; and, verifying the adequacy of mid-deck temperature control using CFD models in addition to lumped parameter models. Post-mitigation CFD models of mid-deck temperature profiles and distribution are provided.

  20. Astronaut Health Participant Summary Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kathy; Krog, Ralph; Rodriguez, Seth; Wear, Mary; Volpe, Robert; Trevino, Gina; Eudy, Deborah; Parisian, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Participant Summary software captures data based on a custom information model designed to gather all relevant, discrete medical events for its study participants. This software provides a summarized view of the study participant s entire medical record. The manual collapsing of all the data in a participant s medical record into a summarized form eliminates redundancy, and allows for the capture of entire medical events. The coding tool could be incorporated into commercial electronic medical record software for use in areas like public health surveillance, hospital systems, clinics, and medical research programs.