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Sample records for activity eva suits

  1. EVA safety: Space suit system interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.; McBarron, J. W.; Abramov, L. P.; Zvezda, A. O.

    1995-01-01

    The results and the recommendations of the International Academy of Astronautics extravehicular activities (IAA EVA) Committee work are presented. The IAA EVA protocols and operation were analyzed for harmonization procedures and for the standardization of safety critical and operationally important interfaces. The key role of EVA and how to improve the situation based on the identified EVA space suit system interoperability deficiencies were considered.

  2. EVA Suit Microbial Leakage Investigation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, Jay; Baker, Christopher; Clayton, Ronald; Rucker, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to collect microbial samples from various EVA suits to determine how much microbial contamination is typically released during simulated planetary exploration activities. Data will be released to the planetary protection and science communities, and advanced EVA system designers. In the best case scenario, we will discover that very little microbial contamination leaks from our current or prototype suit designs, in the worst case scenario, we will identify leak paths, learn more about what affects leakage--and we'll have a new, flight-certified swab tool for our EVA toolbox.

  3. Interfacing with an EVA Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy

    2011-01-01

    A NASA spacesuit under the EVA Technology Domain consists of a suit system; a PLSS; and a Power, Avionics, and Software (PAS) system. Ross described the basic functions, components, and interfaces of the PLSS, which consists of oxygen, ventilation, and thermal control subsystems; electronics; and interfaces. Design challenges were reviewed from a packaging perspective. Ross also discussed the development of the PLSS over the last two decades.

  4. EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This "EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit" presentation covers several topics related to the medical implications and physiological effects of suited operations in space from the perspective of a physician with considerable first-hand Extravehicular Activity (EVA) experience. Key themes include EVA physiology working in a pressure suit in the vacuum of space, basic EVA life support and work support, Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspections and repairs, and discussions of the physical challenges of an EVA. Parazynski covers the common injuries and significant risks during EVAs, as well as physical training required to prepare for EVAs. He also shares overall suit physiological and medical knowledge with the next generation of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) system designers.

  5. Development of an air-bearing fan for space extravehicular activity (EVA) suit ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukumoto, Paul; Allen, Norman; Stonesifer, Greg

    1992-01-01

    A high-speed/variable flow fan has been developed for EVA suit ventilation which combines air bearings with a two-pole, toothless permanent-magnet motor. The fan has demonstrated quiet and vibration-free operation and a 2:1 range in flow rate variation. System weight is 0.9 kg, and input powers range from 12.4 to 42 W.

  6. Use MACES IVA Suit for EVA Mobility Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) environment. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) has been modified (MACES) to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion MPCV spacecraft will not have mass available to carry an EVA specific suit so any EVA required will have to be performed by the MACES. Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or if a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, carrying tools, body stabilization, equipment handling, and use of tools. Hardware configurations included with and without TMG, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on ISS mockups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstration of the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determination of critical sizing factors, and need for adjustment of suit work envelop. The early testing has demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission specific modifications for umbilical management or PLSS integration, safety tether attachment, and tool interfaces. These evaluations are continuing through calendar year 2014.

  7. Advanced EVA Suit Camera System Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mock, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a new extra-vehicular activity (EVA) suit known as the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit. All of the improvements to the EVA Suit provide the opportunity to update the technology of the video imagery. My summer internship project involved improving the video streaming capabilities of the cameras that will be used on the Z2 Suit for data acquisition. To accomplish this, I familiarized myself with the architecture of the camera that is currently being tested to be able to make improvements on the design. Because there is a lot of benefit to saving space, power, and weight on the EVA suit, my job was to use Altium Design to start designing a much smaller and simplified interface board for the camera's microprocessor and external components. This involved checking datasheets of various components and checking signal connections to ensure that this architecture could be used for both the Z2 suit and potentially other future projects. The Orion spacecraft is a specific project that may benefit from this condensed camera interface design. The camera's physical placement on the suit also needed to be determined and tested so that image resolution can be maximized. Many of the options of the camera placement may be tested along with other future suit testing. There are multiple teams that work on different parts of the suit, so the camera's placement could directly affect their research or design. For this reason, a big part of my project was initiating contact with other branches and setting up multiple meetings to learn more about the pros and cons of the potential camera placements we are analyzing. Collaboration with the multiple teams working on the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit is absolutely necessary and these comparisons will be used as further progress is made for the overall suit design. This prototype will not be finished in time for the scheduled Z2 Suit testing, so my time was

  8. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 101: Constellation EVA Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Nicole C.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Why do we need space suits? 2) Protection From the Environment; 3) Primary Life Support System (PLSS); 4) Thermal Control; 5) Communications; 6) Helmet and Extravehicular Visor Assy; 7) Hard Upper Torso (HUT) and Arm Assy; 8) Display and Controls Module (DCM); 9) Gloves; 10) Lower Torso Assembly (LTA); 11) What Size Do You Need?; 12) Boot and Sizing Insert; 13) Boot Heel Clip and Foot Restraint; 14) Advanced and Crew Escape Suit; 15) Nominal & Off-Nominal Landing; 16) Gemini Program (mid-1960s); 17) Apollo EVA on Service Module; 18) A Bold Vision for Space Exploration, Authorized by Congress; 19) EVA System Missions; 20) Configurations; 21) Reduced Gravity Program; and 22) Other Opportunities.

  9. EVA Roadmap: New Space Suit for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yowell, Robert

    1998-01-01

    New spacesuit design considerations for the extra vehicular activity (EVA) of a manned Martian exploration mission are discussed. Considerations of the design includes:(1) regenerable CO2 removal, (2) a portable life support system (PLSS) which would include cryogenic oxygen produced from in-situ manufacture, (3) a power supply for the EVA, (4) the thermal control systems, (5) systems engineering, (5) space suit systems (materials, and mobility), (6) human considerations, such as improved biomedical sensors and astronaut comfort, (7) displays and controls, and robotic interfaces, such as rovers, and telerobotic commands.

  10. Shoulder Injuries in US Astronauts Related to EVA Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, R. A.; McCulloch, P.; Van Baalen, Mary; Minard, Charles; Watson, Richard; Blatt, T.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: For every one hour spent performing extravehicular activity (EVA) in space, astronauts in the US space program spend approximately six to ten hours training in the EVA spacesuit at NASA-Johnson Space Center's Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL). In 1997, NASA introduced the planar hard upper torso (HUT) EVA spacesuit which subsequently replaced the existing pivoted HUT. An extra joint in the pivoted shoulder allows increased mobility but also increased complexity. Over the next decade a number of astronauts developed shoulder problems requiring surgical intervention, many of whom performed EVA training in the NBL. This study investigated whether changing HUT designs led to shoulder injuries requiring surgical repair. Methods: US astronaut EVA training data and spacesuit design employed were analyzed from the NBL data. Shoulder surgery data was acquired from the medical record database, and causal mechanisms were obtained from personal interviews Analysis of the individual HUT designs was performed as it related to normal shoulder biomechanics. Results: To date, 23 US astronauts have required 25 shoulder surgeries. Approximately 48% (11/23) directly attributed their injury to training in the planar HUT, whereas none attributed their injury to training in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT design limits shoulder abduction to 90 degrees compared to approximately 120 degrees in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT also forces the shoulder into a forward flexed position requiring active retraction and extension to increase abduction beyond 90 degrees. Discussion: Multiple factors are associated with mechanisms leading to shoulder injury requiring surgical repair. Limitations to normal shoulder mechanics, suit fit, donning/doffing, body position, pre-existing injury, tool weight and configuration, age, in-suit activity, and HUT design have all been identified as potential sources of injury. Conclusion: Crewmembers with pre-existing or current shoulder injuries or certain

  11. Refinement of Optimal Work Envelope for Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Suit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaramillo, Marcos A.; Angermiller, Bonnie L.; Morency, Richard M.; Rajululu, Sudhakar L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Work Envelope study is to determine and revise the work envelope defined in NSTS 07700 "System Description and Design Data - Extravehicular Activities" [1], arising from an action item as a result of the Shoulder Injury Tiger Team findings. The aim of this study is to determine a common work envelope that will encompass a majority of the crew population while minimizing the possibility of shoulder and upper arm injuries. There will be approximately two phases of testing: arm sweep analysis to be performed in the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF), and torso lean testing to be performed on the Precision Air Bearing Facility (PABF). NSTS 07700 defines the preferred work envelope arm reach in terms of maximum reach, and defines the preferred work envelope torso flexibility of a crewmember to be a net 45 degree backwards lean [1]. This test served two functions: to investigate the validity of the standard discussed in NSTS 07700, and to provide recommendations to update this standard if necessary.

  12. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, Jonathan T.; Kelly, Cody; Buffington, Jesse; Watson, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment that was selected, for both functions, is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The proposed architecture was found to meet the mission constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the required suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the rest of the tools and equipment required to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations have been completed in the NBL and interfacing options have been prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. For NBL EVA simulations, in 2013, components were procured to allow in-house build up for four new suits with mobility enhancements built into the arms. Boots outfitted with clips that fit into foot restraints have also been added to the suit and analyzed for possible loads. Major suit objectives accomplished this year in testing include: evaluation of mobility enhancements, ingress/egress of foot restraint, use of foot restraint for worksite stability, ingress/egress of Orion hatch with PLSS mockup, and testing with two crew members in the water at one time to evaluate the crew's ability to help one another. Major tool objectives accomplished this year include using various other methods for worksite stability, testing new methods for asteroid geologic sampling and improving the fidelity of the mockups and crew equipment. These tests were completed on a medium fidelity capsule mockup, asteroid vehicle mockup, and asteroid mockups that were more accurate for an asteroid type EVA than previous tests. Another focus was the

  13. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, Jonathan; Buffington, Jesse; Hood, Drew; Kelly, Cody; Naids, Adam; Watson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment selected for both functions is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS) currently under development for Advanced Exploration Systems (AES). The proposed architecture meets the ARCM constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the tools and equipment necessary to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations were completed in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and interfacing options were prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. This paper discusses the work done over the last year on the MACES enhancements, the use of tools while using the suit, and the integration of the PLSS with the MACES.

  14. An air bearing fan for EVA suit ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murry, Roger P.

    1990-01-01

    The portable life-support system (PLSS) ventilation requirements are outlined, along with the application of a high-speed axial fan technology for extravehicular-activity (EVA) space-suit ventilation. Focus is placed on a mechanical design employing high-speed gas bearings, permanent magnet rotor, and current-fed chopper/inverter electronics. The operational characteristics of the fan unit and its applicability for use in a pure-oxygen environment are discussed. It delivers a nominal 0.17 cu m/min at 1.24 kPa pressure rise using 13.8 w of input power. It is shown that the overall selection of materials for all major component meets the NASA requirements.

  15. Terrestrial EVA Suit = Fire Fighter's Protective Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Tico; Brown, Robert G.; Burrell, Eddie; DelRosso, Dominic; Krishen, Kumar; Moffitt, Harold; Orndoff, Evelyne; Santos, Beatrice; Butzer, Melissa; Dasgupta, Rajib

    1999-01-01

    Firefighters want to go to work, do their job well, and go home alive and uninjured. For their most important job, saving lives, firefighters want protective equipment that will allow more extended and effective time at fire scenes in order to perform victim search and rescue. A team, including engineers at NASA JSC and firefighters from Houston, has developed a list of problem areas for which NASA technology and know-how can recommend improvements for firefighter suits and gear. Prototypes for solutions have been developed and are being evaluated. This effort will spin back to NASA as improvements for lunar and planetary suits.

  16. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanco, Raul A.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Watson, Richard D.; Sipila, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability for Orion. The EVAs will involve a two-person crew for approximately four hours. Currently, two EVAs are planned with one contingency EVA in reserve. Providing this EVA capability is very challenging due to system level constraints and a new and unknown environment. The goal of the EVA architecture for ARCM is one that builds upon previously developed technologies and lessons learned, and that accomplishes the ARCM mission while providing a stepping stone to future missions and destinations. The primary system level constraints are to 1) minimize system mass and volume and 2) minimize the interfacing impacts to the baseline Orion design. In order to minimize the interfacing impacts and to not perturb the baseline Orion schedule, the concept of adding "kits" to the baseline system is proposed. These kits consist of: an EVA kit (converts LEA suit to EVA suit), EVA Servicing and Recharge Kit (provides suit consumables), the EVA Tools, Translation Aids & Sample Container Kit (the tools and mobility aids to complete the tasks), the EVA Communications Kit (interface between the EVA radio and the MPCV), and the Cabin Repress Kit (represses the MPCV between EVAs). This paper will focus on the trade space, analysis, and testing regarding the space suit (pressure garment and life support system). Historical approaches and lessons learned from all past EVA operations were researched. Previous and current, successfully operated EVA hardware and high technology readiness level (TRL) hardware were evaluated, and a trade study was conducted for all possible pressure garment and life support options. Testing and analysis was conducted and a recommended EVA system architecture was proposed. Pressure garment options that were considered for this mission include the currently in-use ISS EVA Mobility Unit (EMU), all variations of

  17. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at sub-atmospheric pressures that simulate a PLSS ventilation loop environment. Head/flow performance and maximum efficiency point data were used to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment, and produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSE ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm, consuming only 9 W of electric power using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power regenerative blower can meet the performance requirements for future space suit life support systems.

  18. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at low pressures that simulate a PLSS environment. We obtained head/flow performance curves over a range of operating speeds, identified the maximum efficiency point for the blower, and used these results to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We designed a compact motor that can drive the blower under all anticipated operating requirements and operate with high efficiency during normal operation. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment. We produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSS ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm and consuming only 9 W of electric power and using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power blower can meet the performance requirements for future PLSSs.

  19. 7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT IS $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  20. Non-Venting Thermal and Humidity Control for EVA Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Future EVA suits need processes and systems to control internal temperature and humidity without venting water to the environment. This paper describes an absorption-based cooling and dehumidification system as well as laboratory demonstrations of the key processes. There are two main components in the system: an evaporation cooling and dehumidification garment (ECDG) that removes both sensible heat and latent heat from the pressure garment, and an absorber radiator that absorbs moisture and rejects heat to space by thermal radiation. This paper discusses the overall design of both components, and presents recent data demonstrating their operation. We developed a design and fabrication approach to produce prototypical heat/water absorbing elements for the ECDG, and demonstrated by test that these elements could absorb heat and moisture at a high flux. Proof-of-concept tests showed that an ECDG prototype absorbs heat and moisture at a rate of 85 W/ft under conditions that simulate operation in an EVA suit. The heat absorption was primarily due to direct absorption of water vapor. It is possible to construct large, flexible, durable cooling patches that can be incorporated into a cooling garment with this system. The proof-of-concept test data was scaled to calculate area needed for full metabolic loads, thus showing that it is feasible to use this technology in an EVA suit. Full-scale, lightweight absorber/radiator modules have also been built and tested. They can reject heat at a flux of 33 W/ft while maintaining ECDG operation at conditions that will provide a cool and dry environment inside the EVA suit.

  1. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware & Operations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra; Marmolejo, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to: Define Extravehicular Activity (EVA), identify the reasons for conducting an EVA, and review the role that EVA has played in the space program; Identify the types of EVAs that may be performed; Describe some of the U.S. Space Station equipment and tools that are used during an EVA, such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER), the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock and Russian Docking Compartment 1 (DC-1), and EVA Tools & Equipment; Outline the methods and procedures of EVA Preparation, EVA, and Post-EVA operations; Describe the Russian spacesuit used to perform an EVA; Provide a comparison between U.S. and Russian spacesuit hardware and EVA support; and Define the roles that different training facilities play in EVA training.

  2. Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were badly abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub -layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This Paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, and shares the results and conclusions of the testing.

  3. Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were severely abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub-layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, shares the results of the testing, and provides recommendations for future work.

  4. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  5. Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit Intravehicular Activity Suit for Extravehicular Activity Mobility Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of an intravehicular activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) environment at the Sonny Carter Training Facility near NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit was modified to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle will not have mass available to carry an EVA-specific suit; therefore, any EVA required will have to be performed by the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES). Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or whether a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects, including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, tool carrying, body stabilization, equipment handling, and tool usage. Hardware configurations included with and without Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on International Space Station mock-ups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstrating the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determining critical sizing factors, and need for adjusting suit work envelope. Early testing demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight-like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission-specific modifications for umbilical management or Primary Life Support System integration

  6. EVA Suit R and D for Performance Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, Matthew S.; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Designing a planetary suit is very complex and often requires difficult trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. To verify that new suit designs meet requirements, full prototypes must be built and tested with human subjects. However, numerous design iterations will occur before the hardware meets those requirements. Traditional draw-prototype-test paradigms for R&D are prohibitively expensive with today's shrinking Government budgets. Personnel at NASA are developing modern simulation techniques which focus on human-centric designs by creating virtual prototype simulations and fully adjustable physical prototypes of suit hardware. During the R&D design phase, these easily modifiable representations of an EVA suit's hard components will allow designers to think creatively and exhaust design possibilities before they build and test working prototypes with human subjects. It allows scientists to comprehensively benchmark current suit capabilities and limitations for existing suit sizes and sizes that do not exist. This is extremely advantageous and enables comprehensive design down-selections to be made early in the design process, enables the use of human performance as design criteria, and enables designs to target specific populations

  7. Main problems of the Russian Orlan-M space suit utilization for EVAs on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, I. P.; Pozdnyakov, S. S.; Severin, G. I.; Stoklitsky, A. Yu.

    2001-03-01

    In the recent years the Russian Orlan-M space suits have been improved as applied to their operational requirements for the ISS. A special attention is paid to enhancement of EVA crew efficiency and safety. The paper considers the main problems regarding specific features of the Russian space suit operation in the ISS, and analyses measures on their solution. In particular, the problems associated with the following are considered: enhancement of the anthropometric range for the EVA crewmembers; use of some US EMU elements and unified NASA equipment elements; Orlan-M operation support in the wide range of the ISS thermal conditions; use of Simplified Aid For Extravehicular activity Rescue (SAFER) designed as a self-rescue device, which will be used for an EVA crewmember return in the event that he (she) breaks away inadvertently from the ISS surface. The paper states the main space suit differences with reference to solution of the above problems. The paper presents briefly the design of space suit arms developed for crewmembers with small anthropometric parameters, as well as peculiarities and test results for the gloves with enhanced thermal protection. Measures on further space suit development with the purpose to improve its performances are considered.

  8. Advanced Design Heat PumpRadiator for EVA Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Passow, Christian; Phillips, Scott; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Absorption cooling using a LiCl/water heat pump can enable lightweight and effective thermal control for EVA suits without venting water to the environment. The key components in the system are an absorber/radiator that rejects heat to space and a flexible evaporation cooling garment that absorbs heat from the crew member. This paper describes progress in the design, development, and testing of the absorber/radiator and evaporation cooling garment. New design concepts and fabrication approaches will significantly reduce the mass of the absorber/radiator. We have also identified materials and demonstrated fabrication approaches for production of a flexible evaporation cooling garment. Data from tests of the absorber/radiator s modular components have validated the design models and allowed predictions of the size and weight of a complete system.

  9. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, Jonathan; Buffington, Jesse; Hood, Drew; Kelly, Cody; Naids, Adam; Watson, Richard; Blanco, Raul; Sipila, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment selected for both functions is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS) currently under development for Advanced Exploration Systems (AES). The proposed architecture meets the ARCM constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the tools and equipment necessary to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations were completed in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and interfacing options were prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. This paper discusses the work done over the last year on the MACES enhancements, the use of tools while using the suit, and the integration of the PLSS with the MACES.

  10. As assessment of habitat pressure, oxygen fraction, and EVA suit design for space operations.

    PubMed

    Morgenthaler, G W; Fester, D A; Cooley, C G

    1994-01-01

    At high cabin pressure [e.g. 1013 hPa (14.7 psi) 21% O2] there are serious issues relative to specification of suit pressure and the need for prebreathing. A high pressure suit will be costly but use of the existing, flexible suit requires up to 6 h of prebreathing. Or one could use a cabin pressure of 700 hPa (10.2 psi) prior to extravehicular activity (EVA) in order to use the existing suit with only 1 h of prebreathing. If these normal cabin pressures and O2 levels are utilized, existing physiological and medical databases apply, providing a known basis for evaluating effects of long duration space missions. If a 345 hPa (5 psi), 70-100% O2 atmosphere is adopted the existing suit can be used with no prebreathing required. However, there is no reference database on physiological effects under the conditions of lower pressure and higher O2 concentration. This paper considers the major issues involved in defining habitat pressure, O2 fraction, and EVA suit design for operations in space. A preliminary model for evaluating habitat/suit pressure and O2% strategies is presented. PMID:11541018

  11. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  12. 8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT OF SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  13. Characterization of the Radiation Shielding Properties of US andRussian EVA Suits

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, E.R.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

    2001-10-26

    Reported herein are results from the Eril Research, Inc.(ERI) participationin the NASA Johnson Space Center sponsored studycharacterizing the radiation shielding properties of the two types ofspace suit that astronauts are wearing during the EVA on-orbit assemblyof the International Space Station (ISS). Measurements using passivedetectors were carried out to assess the shielding properties of the USEMU Suit and the Russian Orlan-M suit during irradiations of the suitsand a tissue equivalent phantom to monoenergetic proton and electronbeams at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). Duringirradiations of 6 MeV electrons and 60 MeV protons, absorbed dose as afunction of depth was measured using TLDs exposed behind swatches of thetwo suit materials and inside the two EVA helmets. Considerable reductionin electron dosewas measured behind all suit materials in exposures to 6MeV electrons. Slowing of the proton beam in the suit materials led to anincrease in dose measured in exposures to 60 MeV protons. During 232 MeVproton irradiations, measurements were made with TLDs and CR-39 PNTDs atfive organ locations inside a tissue equivalent phantom, exposed bothwith and without the two EVA suits. The EVA helmets produce a 13 to 27percent reduction in total dose and a 0 to 25 percent reduction in doseequivalent when compared to measurements made in the phantom head alone.Differences in dose and dose equivalent between the suit and non-suitirradiations forthe lower portions of the two EVA suits tended to besmaller. Proton-induced target fragmentation was found to be asignificant source of increased dose equivalent, especially within thetwo EVA helmets, and average quality factor inside the EMU and Orlan-Mhelmets was 2 to 14 percent greater than that measured in the barephantom head.

  14. Climbing the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Wall - Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuentes, Jose; Greene, Stacie

    2010-01-01

    The success of the EVA team, that includes the EVA project office, Crew Office, Mission Operations, Engineering and Safety, is assured by the full integration of all necessary disciplines. Safety participation in all activities from hardware development concepts, certification and crew training, provides for a strong partnership within the team. Early involvement of Safety on the EVA team has mitigated risk and produced a high degree of mission success.

  15. Understanding Skill in EVA Mass Handling. Volume 4; An Integrated Methodology for Evaluating Space Suit Mobility and Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, P. Vernon; Newman, Dava

    1999-01-01

    The empirical investigation of extravehicular activity (EVA) mass handling conducted on NASA's Precision Air-Bearing Floor led to a Phase I SBIR from JSC. The purpose of the SBIR was to design an innovative system for evaluating space suit mobility and stability in conditions that simulate EVA on the surface of the Moon or Mars. The approach we used to satisfy the Phase I objectives was based on a structured methodology for the development of human-systems technology. Accordingly the project was broken down into a number of tasks and subtasks. In sequence, the major tasks were: 1) Identify missions and tasks that will involve EVA and resulting mobility requirements in the near and long term; 2) Assess possible methods for evaluating mobility of space suits during field-based EVA tests; 3) Identify requirements for behavioral evaluation by interacting with NASA stakeholders;.4) Identify necessary and sufficient technology for implementation of a mobility evaluation system; and 5) Prioritize and select technology solutions. The work conducted in these tasks is described in this final volume of the series on EVA mass handling. While prior volumes in the series focus on novel data-analytic techniques, this volume addresses technology that is necessary for minimally intrusive data collection and near-real-time data analysis and display.

  16. Active Solid State Dosimetry for Lunar EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Chen, Liang-Yu.

    2006-01-01

    The primary threat to astronauts from space radiation is high-energy charged particles, such as electrons, protons, alpha and heavier particles, originating from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs) and trapped radiation belts in Earth orbit. There is also the added threat of secondary neutrons generated as the space radiation interacts with atmosphere, soil and structural materials.[1] For Lunar exploration missions, the habitats and transfer vehicles are expected to provide shielding from standard background radiation. Unfortunately, the Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit is not expected to afford such shielding. Astronauts need to be aware of potentially hazardous conditions in their immediate area on EVA before a health and hardware risk arises. These conditions would include fluctuations of the local radiation field due to changes in the space radiation field and unknown variations in the local surface composition. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.[2

  17. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, Jonathan T.; Blanco, Raul A.; Watson, Richard D.; Kelly, Cody; Buffington, Jesse; Sipila, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) space suit and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) architecture trade study and the current state of the work to mature the requirements and products to the mission concept review level. The mission requirements and the resulting concept of operations will be discussed. A historical context will be presented as to present the similarities and differences from previous NASA missions. That will set the stage for the trade study where all options for both pressure garment and life support were considered. The rationale for the architecture decisions will then be presented. Since the trade study did identity risks, the subsequent tests and analyses that mitigated the risks will be discussed. Lastly, the current state of the effort will be provided.

  18. A glimpse from the inside of a space suit: What is it really like to train for an EVA?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gast, Matthew A.; Moore, Sandra K.

    2011-01-01

    The beauty of the view from the office of a spacewalking astronaut gives the impression of simplicity, but few beyond the astronauts, and those who train them, know what it really takes to get there. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training is an intense process that utilizes NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) to develop a very specific skill set needed to safely construct and maintain the orbiting International Space Station. To qualify for flight assignments, astronauts must demonstrate the ability to work safely and efficiently in the physically demanding environment of the space suit, possess an acute ability to resolve unforeseen problems, and implement proper tool protocols to ensure no tools will be lost in space. Through the insights and the lessons learned by actual EVA astronauts and EVA instructors, this paper will take you on a journey through an astronaut's earliest experiences working in the space suit, termed the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), in the underwater training environment of the NBL. This work details an actual Suit Qualification NBL training event, outlines the numerous challenges the astronauts face throughout their initial training, and the various ways they adapt their own abilities to overcome them. The goal of this paper is to give everyone a small glimpse into what it is really like to work in a space suit.

  19. STS-64 Mission Onboard Photograph - Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Mark Lee (red stripe on extravehicular activity suit) tests the new backpack called Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), a system designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The Lidar-In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is shown in the foreground. The LITE payload employs lidar, which stands for light detection and ranging, a type of optical radar using laser pulses instead of radio waves to study Earth's atmosphere. Unprecedented views were obtained of cloud structures, storm systems, dust clouds, pollutants, forest burning, and surface reflectance. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  20. EVA Training and Development Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Overview: Vast majority of US EVA (ExtraVehicular Activity) training and EVA hardware development occurs at JSC; EVA training facilities used to develop and refine procedures and improve skills; EVA hardware development facilities test hardware to evaluate performance and certify requirement compliance; Environmental chambers enable testing of hardware from as large as suits to as small as individual components in thermal vacuum conditions.

  1. Astronaut Thuot during extravehicular activity (EVA) training in CCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In Space Vehicle Mockup Facility, astronaut Pierre J. Thuot retrieves gear to rehearse a suit donning exercise on the middeck. Thuot's realistic environs are provided by the shuttle crew compartment trainer (CCT). Thuot, mission specialist, and four other NASA astronauts will spend two weeks in space aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia in March of 1994. He and astronaut Andrew M. Allen have been rehearsing contingency space walks. There is no scheduled extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-62 flight.

  2. EVA space suit Evaporative Cooling/Heating Glove System (ECHGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coss, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    A new astronaut glove, the Evaporative Cooling/Heating Glove System (ECHGS), was designed and developed to allow the handling of objects between -200 F and +200 F. Active heating elements, positioned at each finger pad, provide additional heat to the finger pads from the rest of the finger. A water evaporative cooling system provides cooling by the injection of water to the finger areas and the subsequent direct evaporation to space. Thin, flexible insulation has been developed for the finger areas to limit thermal conductivity. Component and full glove tests have shown that the glove meets and exceeds the requirements to hold a 11/2 inch diameter bar at + or - 200 F for three minutes within comfort limits. The ECHGS is flexible, lightweight and comfortable. Tactility is reasonable and small objects can be identified especially by the fingertips beyond the one half width active elements.

  3. Effect of STS space suit on astronaut dominant upper limb EVA work performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenisen, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    The STS Space Suited and unsuited dominant upper limb performance was evaluated in order to quantify future EVA astronaut skeletal muscle upper limb performance expectations. Testing was performed with subjects standing in EVA STS foot restraints. Data was collected with a CYBEX Dynamometer enclosed in a waterproof container. Control data was taken in one g. During one g testing, weight of the Space Suit was relieved from the subject via an overhead crane with a special connection to the PLSS of the suit. Experimental data was acquired during simulated zero g, accomplished by neutral buoyancy in the Weightless Environment Training Facility. Unsuited subjects became neutrally buoyant via SCUBA BC vests. Actual zero g experimental data was collected during parabolic arc flights on board NASA's modified KC-135 aircraft. During all test conditions, subjects performed five EVA work tasks requiring dominant upper limb performance and ten individual joint articulation movements. Dynamometer velocities for each tested movement were 0 deg/sec, 30 or 60 deg/sec and 120 or 180 deg/sec, depending on the test, with three repetitions per test. Performance was measured in foot pounds of torque.

  4. Active personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straume, Tore; Borak, Tom; Braby, L. A.; Lusby, Terry; Semones, Edward J.; Vazquez, Marcelo E.

    As astronauts return to the Moon-and this time, work for extended periods-there will be a critical need for crew personnel radiation monitoring as they operate lunar rovers or otherwise perform a myriad of extravehicular activities (EVAs). Our focus is on development of a small personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA that responds to the complex radiation quality and changing dose rates on the Moon. Of particular concern are active monitoring capabilities that provide both early warning and radiation dosimetry information during solar particle events (SPEs). To accomplish this, we are developing small detectors integrated with modern high speed, low power microelectronics to measure dose-rate and dose-mean lineal energy in real time. The monitor is designed to perform over the range of dose rates and LETs expected from both GCR and SPE radiations during lunar EVA missions. The monitor design provides simultaneous measurement of dose-equivalent rates at two tissue-equivalent depths simulating skin and marrow. The compact personal monitor is estimated to be the size of a cell phone and would fit on an EVA spacesuit (e.g., in backpack) or in a toolbox. The four-year development effort (which began December 2007) will result in a prototype radiation monitor field tested and characterized for the major radiations expected on the surface of the Moon. We acknowledge support from NSBRI through grants to NASA Ames Research Center (T. Straume, PI) and Colorado State University (T. Borak, PI).

  5. A Glimpse from the Inside of a Space Suit: What Is It Really Like to Train for an EVA?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, Matthew A.; Moore, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    The beauty of the view from the office of a spacewalking astronaut gives the impression of simplicity, but few beyond the astronauts, and those who train them, know what it really takes to get there. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training is an intense process that utilizes NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) to develop a very specific skill set needed to safely construct and maintain the orbiting International Space Station. To qualify for flight assignments, astronauts must demonstrate the ability to work safely and efficiently in the physically demanding environment of the spacesuit, possess an acute ability to resolve unforeseen problems, and implement proper tool protocols to ensure no tools will be lost in space. Through the insights and the lessons learned by actual EVA astronauts and EVA instructors, this paper twill take you on a journey through an astronaut's earliest experiences working in the spacesuit. termed the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), in the underwater training environment of the NBL. This work details an actual Suit Qualification NBL training event, outlines the numerous challenges the astronauts face throughout their initial training, and the various ways they adapt their own abilities to overcome them. The goal of this paper is to give everyone a small glimpse into what it is really like to work in a spacesuit.

  6. Space suit bioenergetics: framework and analysis of unsuited and suited activity.

    PubMed

    Carr, Christopher E; Newman, Dava J

    2007-11-01

    Metabolic costs limit the duration and intensity of extravehicular activity (EVA), an essential component of future human missions to the Moon and Mars. Energetics Framework: We present a framework for comparison of energetics data across and between studies. This framework, applied to locomotion, differentiates between muscle efficiency and energy recovery, two concepts often confused in the literature. The human run-walk transition in Earth gravity occurs at the point for which energy recovery is approximately the same for walking and running, suggesting a possible role for recovery in gait transitions. Muscular Energetics: Muscle physiology limits the overall efficiency by which chemical energy is converted through metabolism to useful work. Unsuited Locomotion: Walking and running use different methods of energy storage and release. These differences contribute to the relative changes in the metabolic cost of walking and running as gravity is varied, with the metabolic cost of locomoting at a given velocity changing in proportion to gravity for running and less than in proportion for walking. Space Suits: Major factors affecting the energetic cost of suited movement include suit pressurization, gravity, velocity, surface slope, and space suit configuration. Apollo lunar surface EVA traverse metabolic rates, while unexpectedly low, were higher than other activity categories. The Lunar Roving Vehicle facilitated even lower metabolic rates, thus longer duration EVAs. Muscles and tendons act like springs during running; similarly, longitudinal pressure forces in gas pressure space suits allow spring-like storage and release of energy when suits are self-supporting. PMID:18018432

  7. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission astronauts Steven L. Smith (right) and Rex J. Walheim work in tandem on the third scheduled EVA session in which they released the locking bolts on the Mobile Transporter and rewired the Station's robotic arm (out of frame). Part of the Destiny laboratory and a glimpse of the Earth's horizon are seen in the lower portion of this digital image. The STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) Truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 truss weighing in at 27,000 pounds was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  8. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission astronaut Rex J. Walheim, accompanied by astronaut Steven L. Smith (out of frame) translates along the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS) during the third scheduled EVA session. The duo released the locking bolts on the Mobile Transporter and rewired the Station's robotic arm. The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future space walks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-Zero) Truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 truss weighing in at 27,000 pounds was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  9. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross and Lee M.E. Morin work in tandem on the fourth scheduled EVA session for the STS-110 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis. Ross is anchored on the mobile foot restraint on the International Space Station's (ISS) Canadarm2, while Morin works inside the S0 (S-zero) truss. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting a 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  10. Benefits of advanced space suits for supporting routine extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alton, L. R.; Bauer, E. H.; Patrick, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Technology is available to produce space suits providing a quick-reaction, safe, much more mobile extravehicular activity (EVA) capability than before. Such a capability may be needed during the shuttle era because the great variety of missions and payloads complicates the development of totally automated methods of conducting operations and maintenance and resolving contingencies. Routine EVA now promises to become a cost-effective tool as less complex, serviceable, lower-cost payload designs utilizing this capability become feasible. Adoption of certain advanced space suit technologies is encouraged for reasons of economics as well as performance.

  11. Advanced Thermal Status Control of Crews in EVA and Escape Suits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Coca, A.; Leon, G. R.

    controlling the thermal status of astronauts while donned in protective suits during liftoff, EVA,

  12. Human factors in space station architecture 2. EVA access facility: A comparative analysis of 4 concepts for on-orbit space suit servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Bussolari, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Four concepts for on-orbit spacesuit donning, doffing, servicing, check-out, egress and ingress are presented. These are: the Space Transportation System (STS) Type (shuttle system enlarged), the Transit Airlock (Shuttle Airlock with suit servicing removed from the pump-down chamber), the Suitport (a rear-entry suit mates to a port in the airlock wall), and the Crewlock (a small, individual, conformal airlock). Each of these four concepts is compared through a series of seven steps representing a typical Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) mission: (1) Predonning suit preparation; (2) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) preparation; (3) Suit Donning and Final Check; (4) Egress/Ingress; (5) Mid-EVA rest period; (6) Post-EVA Securing; (7) Non-Routine Maintenance. The different characteristics of each concept are articulated through this step-by-step approach. Recommendations concerning an approach for further evaluations of airlock geometry, anthropometrics, ergonomics, and functional efficiency are made. The key recommendation is that before any particular airlock can be designed, the full range of spacesuit servicing functions must be considered, including timelines that are most supportive of EVA human productivity.

  13. Heart Rhythm Monitoring in the Constellation Lunar and Launch/Landing EVA Suit: Recommendations from an Expert Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Hamilton, D.; Jones, J. A.; Alexander, D.

    2008-01-01

    Currently there are several physiological monitoring requirements for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) in the Human-Systems Interface Requirements (HSIR) document, including continuous heart rhythm monitoring. However, it is not known whether heart rhythm monitoring in the lunar surface space suit is a necessary capability for lunar surface operations or in launch/landing suit the event of a cabin depressurization enroute to or from the moon. Methods: Current US astronaut corps demographic information was provided to an expert panel of cardiovascular medicine experts, including specialists in electrophysiology, exercise physiology, interventional cardiology and arrhythmia. This information included averages for male/female age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, cholesterol, inflammatory markers, echocardiogram, ranges for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores for long duration astronauts, and ranges for heart rate (HR) and metabolic (MET) rates obtained during microgravity and lunar EVA. Results: The panel determined that no uncontrolled hazard was likely to occur in the suit during lunar surface or contingency microgravity ops that would require ECG monitoring in the highly screened US astronaut population. However having the capability for rhythm monitoring inside the vehicle (IVA) was considered critical to manage an astronaut in distress. Discussion: Heart rate (HR) monitoring alone allows effective monitoring of astronaut health and function. Consequently, electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring capability as a clinical tool is not essential in the lunar or launch/landing space suit. However, the panel considered that rhythm monitoring could be useful in certain clinical situations, it was not considered required for safe operations. Also, lunar vehicles should be required to have ECG monitoring capability with a minimum of 5-lead ECG (derived 12- lead) for IVA medical assessments.

  14. Exploration EVA System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearney, Lara

    2004-01-01

    In January 2004, the President announced a new Vision for Space Exploration. NASA's Office of Exploration Systems has identified Extravehicular Activity (EVA) as a critical capability for supporting the Vision for Space Exploration. EVA is required for all phases of the Vision, both in-space and planetary. Supporting the human outside the protective environment of the vehicle or habitat and allow ing him/her to perform efficient and effective work requires an integrated EVA "System of systems." The EVA System includes EVA suits, airlocks, tools and mobility aids, and human rovers. At the core of the EVA System is the highly technical EVA suit, which is comprised mainly of a life support system and a pressure/environmental protection garment. The EVA suit, in essence, is a miniature spacecraft, which combines together many different sub-systems such as life support, power, communications, avionics, robotics, pressure systems and thermal systems, into a single autonomous unit. Development of a new EVA suit requires technology advancements similar to those required in the development of a new space vehicle. A majority of the technologies necessary to develop advanced EVA systems are currently at a low Technology Readiness Level of 1-3. This is particularly true for the long-pole technologies of the life support system.

  15. Suited for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the basic functions of space suits for EVA astronauts. Space suits are also described from the past, present and future space missions. The contents include: 1) Why Do You Need A Space Suit?; 2) Generic EVA System Requirements; 3) Apollo Lunar Surface Cycling Certification; 4) EVA Operating Cycles for Mars Surface Missions; 5) Mars Surface EVA Mission Cycle Requirements; 6) Robustness Durability Requirements Comparison; 7) Carry-Weight Capabilities; 8) EVA System Challenges (Mars); 9) Human Planetary Surface Exploration Experience; 10) NASA Johnson Space Center Planetary Analog Activities; 11) Why Perform Remote Field Tests; and 12) Other Reasons Why We Perform Remote Field Tests.

  16. Automatic antenna switching design for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randhawa, Manjit S.

    1987-01-01

    An Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) crewmember had two-way communications with the space station in the Ku-band frequency (12 to 18 GHz). The maximum range of the EVA communications link with the space station is approximately one kilometer for nominal values for transmitter power, antenna gains, and receiver noise figure. The EVA Communications System, that will continue to function regardless of the astronaut's position and orientation, requires an antenna system that has full spherical coverage. Three or more antennas that can be flush mounted on the astronaut's space suit (EMU) and/or his propulsive backpack (MMU), will be needed to provide the desired coverage. As the astronaut moves in the space station, the signal received by a given EVA antenna changes. An automatic antenna switching system is needed that will switch the communication system to the antenna with the largest signal strength. A design for automatic antenna switching is presented and discussed.

  17. STS-64 Mission Photograph - Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Mark Lee floats freely as he tests the new backpack called the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. SAFER is designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  18. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Technology Development Status and Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in Fiscal Year (FY) 2011, Extravehicular activity (EVA) technology development became a technology foundational domain under a new program Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration. The goal of the EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA technology life and limited availability of the EMUs will become a critical issue eventually. The current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has vastly served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability could be an option for the future mission applications building off of the technology development over the last several years. Besides ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for

  19. STS-109 Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut James H. Newman, mission specialist, floats about in the Space Shuttle Columbia's cargo bay while working in tandem with astronaut Michael J. Massimino (out of frame),mission specialist, during the STS-109 mission's second day of extravehicular activity (EVA). Inside Columbia's cabin, astronaut Nancy J. Currie, mission specialist, controlled the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to assist the two in their work on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The RMS was used to capture the telescope and secure it into Columbia's cargo bay.Part of the giant telescope's base, latched down in the payload bay, can be seen behind Newman. The Space Shuttle Columbia STS-109 mission lifted off March 1, 2002 with goals of repairing and upgrading the HST. The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama had responsibility for the design, development, and contruction of the HST, which is the most powerful and sophisticated telescope ever built. STS-109 upgrades to the HST included: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  20. STS-109 Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Inside the Space Shuttle Columbia's cabin, astronaut Nancy J. Currie, mission specialist, controlled the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) on the crew cabin's aft flight deck to assist fellow astronauts during the STS-109 mission Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA). The RMS was used to capture the telescope and secure it into Columbia's cargo bay. The Space Shuttle Columbia STS-109 mission lifted off March 1, 2002 with goals of repairing and upgrading the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most powerful and sophisticated telescope ever built. STS-109 upgrades to the HST included: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  1. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Microbial Swab Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed spacecraft meet planetary protection requirements--and to protect our science from human contamination--we'll need to know whether micro-organisms are leaking/venting from our ships and spacesuits. This is easily done by swabbing external vents and surfaces for analysis, but there was no US EVA tool for that job. NASA engineers developed an EVA-compatible swab tool that can be used to collect data on current hardware, which will influence eventual Mars life support and EVA hardware designs.

  2. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Tactility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Shelby; Miranda, Mesloh; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to quantify finger tactility, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove. Subjects were fully suited in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Data was collected under three conditions: bare-handed, gloved at 0 psi, and gloved at 4.3 psi. In order to test tactility, a series of 30 tactile stimuli (bumps) were created that varied in both height and width. With the hand obscured, subjects applied pressure to each bump until detected tactilely. The amount of force needed to detect each bump was recorded using load cells located under a force-plate. The amount of force needed to detect a bump was positively related to width, but inversely related to height. In addition, as the psi of the glove increased, more force was needed to detect the bump. In terms of application, it was possible to determine the optimal width and height a bump needs to be for a specific amount of force applied for tactility.

  3. Fuel Oxidizer Reaction Products (FORP) Contamination of Service Module (SM) and Release of N-nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA)in a Humid Environment from Crew EVA Suits Contaminated with FORP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidl, William; Mikatarian, Ron; Lam, Chiu-Wing; West, Bil; Buchanan, Vanessa; Dee, Louis; Baker, David; Koontz, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The Service Module (SM) is an element of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station (ISS). One of the functions of the SM is to provide attitude control for the ISS using thrusters when the U.S. Control Moment Gyros (CMG's) must be desaturated. Prior to an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) on the Russian Segment, the Docking Compartment (DC1) is depressurized, as it is used as an airlock. When the DC1 is depressurized, the CMG's margin of momentum is insufficient and the SM attitude control thrusters need to fire to desaturate the CMG's. SM roll thruster firings induce contamination onto adjacent surfaces with Fuel Oxidizer Reaction Products (FORP). FORP is composed of both volatile and non-volatile components. One of the components of FORP is the potent carcinogen N-nitrosdimethylamine (NDMA). Since the EVA crewmembers often enter the area surrounding the thrusters for tasks on the aft end of the SM and when translating to other areas of the Russian Segment, the presence of FORP is a concern. This paper will discuss FORP contamination of the SM surfaces, the release of NDMA in a humid environment from crew EVA suits, if they happen to be contaminated with FORP, and the toxicological risk associated with the NDMA release.

  4. Space Suit CO2 Washout During Intravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustine, Phillip M.; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Sargusingh, Miriam M.

    2010-01-01

    Space suit carbon dioxide (CO2) washout refers to the removal of CO2 gas from the oral-nasal area of a suited astronaut's (or crewmember's) helmet using the suit's ventilation system. Inadequate washout of gases can result in diminished mental/cognitive abilities as well as headaches and light headedness. In addition to general discomfort, these ailments can impair an astronaut s ability to perform mission-critical tasks ranging from flying the space vehicle to performing lunar extravehicular activities (EVAs). During design development for NASA s Constellation Program (CxP), conflicting requirements arose between the volume of air flow that the new Orion manned space vehicle is allocated to provide to the suited crewmember and the amount of air required to achieve CO2 washout in a space suit. Historically, space suits receive 6.0 actual cubic feet per minute (acfm) of air flow, which has adequately washed out CO2 for EVAs. For CxP, the Orion vehicle will provide 4.5 acfm of air flow to the suit. A group of subject matter experts (SM Es) among the EVA Systems community came to an early consensus that 4.5 acfm may be acceptable for low metabolic rate activities. However, this value appears very risky for high metabolic rates, hence the need for further analysis and testing. An analysis was performed to validate the 4.5 acfm value and to determine if adequate CO2 washout can be achieved with the new suit helmet design concepts. The analysis included computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling cases, which modeled the air flow and breathing characteristics of a human wearing suit helmets. Helmet testing was performed at the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to provide a gross-level validation of the CFD models. Although there was not a direct data correlation between the helmet testing and the CFD modeling, the testing data showed trends that are very similar to the CFD modeling. Overall, the analysis yielded

  5. Improvement of the extravehicular activity suit for the MIR orbiting station program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severin, G.; Abramov, I.; Svertshek, V.; Stoklitsky, A.

    1996-09-01

    Since 1977, EVA suits of the semi-rigid type have been used to support sorties from Russian orbiting stations. Currently, within the MIR station program, the Orlan-DMA, the latest modification of the Orlan semi-rigid EVA suit is used by crewmembers. Quite some experience has been gained by Russia in operations of the Orlan type suits. It has proved the advantages of the EVA suit of a semi-rigid configuration, featuring donning/doffing through a hinged backpack door with a built-in life support system. Meanwhile there were some wishes and comments from the crewmembers addressed to the enclosure design and some LSS components. Currently a number of ways and methods are being developed to improve operational characteristics of the suit as well as to enhance its reliability and lifetime. The forthcoming EVAs to be performed by the STS-MIR crewmembers and future EVAs from the common airlock of the International Space Station Alpha make implementation of the planned improvements even more consistent. The paper analyzes the experience gained in the Orlan-DMA operation and discusses planned improvements in light of the forthcoming activities. In particular the Orlan enhancement program is aimed to make the donning/doffing easier, enhance enclosure mobility, improve the condensate removal unit, increase the CCC (Contamination Control Cartridge) operation time and simplify the onboard subsystem design concept.

  6. Heart Rhythm Monitoring in the Constellation Lunar and Launch/Landing EVA Suit: Recommendations from an Expert Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Hamilton, Doug; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Alexander, David

    2009-01-01

    There are currently several physiological monitoring requirements for EVA in the Human-Systems Interface Requirements (HSIR) document. There are questions as to whether the capability to monitor heart rhythm in the lunar surface space suit is a necessary capability for lunar surface operations. Similarly, there are questions as to whether the capability to monitor heart rhythm during a cabin depressurization scenario in the launch/landing space suit is necessary. This presentation seeks to inform space medicine personnel of recommendations made by an expert panel of cardiovascular medicine specialists regarding in-suit ECG heart rhythm monitoring requirements during lunar surface operations. After a review of demographic information and clinical cases and panel discussion, the panel recommended that ECG monitoring capability as a clinical tool was not essential in the lunar space suit; ECG monitoring was not essential in the launch/landing space suit for contingency scenarios; the current hear rate monitoring capability requirement for both launch/landing and lunar space suits should be maintained; lunar vehicles should be required to have ECG monitoring capability with a minimum of 5-lead ECG for IVA medical assessments; and, exercise stress testing for astronaut selection and retention should be changed from the current 85% maximum heart rate limit to maximal, exhaustive 'symptom-limited' testing to maximize diagnostic utility as a screening tool for evaluating the functional capacity of astronauts and their cardiovascular health.

  7. Use of Variable Pressure Suits, Intermittent Recompression and Nitrox Breathing Mixtures during Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Abercromby, Andrew F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of variable pressure suits, intermittent recompression and Nitrox breathing mixtures to allow for multiple short extravehicular activities (EVAs) at different locations in a day. This new operational concept of multiple short EVAs requires short purge times and shorter prebreathes to assure rapid egress with a minimal loss of the vehicular air. Preliminary analysis has begun to evaluate the potential benefits of the intermittent recompression, and Nitrox breathing mixtures when used with variable pressure suits to enable reduce purges and prebreathe durations.

  8. Extravehicular Activity/Air Traffic Control (EVA/ATC) test report. [communication links to the astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomaro, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    During extravehicular activity (EVA), communications between the EVA astronaut and the space shuttle orbiter are maintained by means of transceiver installed in the environmental support system backpack. Onboard the orbiter, a transceiver line replaceable unit and its associated equipment performs the task of providing a communications link to the astronaut in the extravehicular activity/air traffic control (EVA/ATC) mode. Results of the acceptance tests that performed on the system designed and fabricated for EVA/ATC testing are discussed.

  9. Shuttle EVA description and design criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The STS extravehicular mobility unit, orbiter EVA provisions, EVA equipment, factors affecting employment of EVA, EVA mission integration, baselined extravehicular activity are discussed. Design requirements are also discussed.

  10. The role of EVA on Space Shuttle. [experimental support and maintenance activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the history of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) through the Skylab Program and to outline the expected tasks and equipment capabilities projected for the Space Shuttle Program. Advantages offered by EVA as a tool to extend payload capabilities and effectiveness and economic advantages of using EVA will be explored. The presentation will conclude with some guidelines and recommendations for consideration by payload investigators in establishing concepts and designs utilizing EVA support.

  11. STS-33 EVA Prep and Post with Gregory, Blaha, Carter, Thorton, and Musgrave in FFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This video shows the crew in the airlock of the FFT, talking with technicians about the extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment. Thornton and Carter put on EVA suits and enter the airlock as the other crew members help with checklists.

  12. Design and Development of a Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Hill, Roger W.; Phillips, Scott D.; Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Ventilation subsystems in future space suits require a dedicated ventilation fan. The unique requirements for the ventilation fan - including stringent safety requirements and the ability to increase output to operate in buddy mode - combine to make a regenerative blower an attractive choice. This paper describes progress in the design, development, and testing of a regenerative blower designed to meet requirements for ventilation subsystems in future space suits. We have developed analysis methods for the blower s complex, internal flows and identified impeller geometries that enable significant improvements in blower efficiency. We verified these predictions by test, measuring aerodynamic efficiencies of 45% at operating conditions that correspond to the ventilation fan s design point. We have developed a compact motor/controller to drive the blower efficiently at low rotating speed (4500 rpm). Finally, we have assembled a low-pressure oxygen test loop to demonstrate the blower s reliability under prototypical conditions.

  13. Performance and Life Tests of a Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; McCormick, John; Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2012-01-01

    Ventilation fans for future space suits must meet demanding performance specifications, satisfy stringent safety requirements for operation in an oxygen atmosphere, and be able to increase output to operate in buddy mode. A regenerative blower is an attractive choice due to its ability to meet these requirements at low operating speed. This paper describes progress in the development and testing of a regenerative blower designed to meet requirements for ventilation subsystems in future space suits. The blower includes a custom-designed motor that has significantly improved its efficiency. We have measured the blower s head/flow performance and power consumption under conditions that simulate both the normal and buddy mode operating points. We have operated the blower for TBD hours and demonstrated safe operation in an oxygen test loop at prototypical pressures. We also demonstrated operation with simulated lunar dust.

  14. Performance and Life Tests of a Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2011-01-01

    Ventilation fans for future space suits must meet demanding performance specifications, satisfy stringent safety requirements for operation in an oxygen atmosphere, and be able to increase output to operate in buddy mode. A regenerative blower is an attractive choice due to its ability to meet these requirements at low operating speed. This paper describes progress in the development and testing of a regenerative blower designed to meet requirements for ventilation subsystems in a future space suit Portable Life Support Systems (PLSS). The blower assembly includes a custom-designed motor that has significantly improved in efficiency during this development effort. The blower was tested at both nominal and buddy mode operating points and head/flow performance and power consumption were measured. The blower was operated for over 1000 hours to demonstrate safe operation in an oxygen test loop at prototypical pressures. In addition, the blower demonstrated operation with the introduction of simulated lunar dust.

  15. EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance [EPSP] Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the biomedical and technological challenges of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The topics covered include: 1) Prebreathe Protocols; 2) Lunar Suit Testing and Development; and 3) Lunar Electric Rover and Exploration Operations Concepts.

  16. Investigation of the effects of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) and Launch and Entry (LES) gloves on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.

    1992-01-01

    Human capabilities such as dexterity, manipulability, and tactile perception are unique and render the hand as a very versatile, effective and a multipurpose tool. This is especially true for unknown environments such as the EVA environment. In the microgravity environment interfaces, procedures, and activities are too complex, diverse, and defy advance definition. Under these conditions the hand becomes the primary means of locomotion, restraint, and material handling. Facilitation of these activities, with simultaneous protection from the cruel EVA environment are the two, often conflicting, objectives of glove design. The objectives of this study was (1) to assess the effects of EVA gloves at different pressures on human hand capabilities, (2) to devise a protocol for evaluating EVA gloves, (3) to develop force time relations for a number of EVA glove pressure combinations, and (4) to evaluate two types of launch and entry suit gloves. The objectives were achieved through three experiments. The experiments for achieving objectives 1, 2, and 3 were performed in the glove box in building 34. In experiment 1 three types of EVA gloves were tested at five pressure differentials. A number of performance measures were recorded. In experiment 2 the same gloves as in experiment 1 were evaluated in a reduced number of pressure conditions. The performance measure was endurance time. Six subjects participated in both the experiments. In experiment 3 two types of launch and entry suit gloves were evaluated using a paradigm similar to experiment 1. Currently the data is being analyzed. However for this report some summary analyses have been performed. The results indicate that a) With EVA gloves strength is reduced by nearly 50 percent, b) performance decrements increase with increasing pressure differential, c) TMG effects are not consistent across the three gloves tested, d) some interesting gender glove interactions were observed, some of which may have been due to the

  17. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  18. Metabolic Assessment of Suited Mobility Using Functional Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for evaluating extravehicular activity (EVA) suit mobility have typically focused on isolated joint range of motion or torque, but these techniques have little to do with how well a crewmember functionally performs in an EVA suit. To evaluate suited mobility at the system level through measuring metabolic cost (MC) of functional tasks.

  19. Extravehicular activities limitations study. Volume 2: Establishment of physiological and performance criteria for EVA gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John M.; Briganti, Michael; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

    1988-01-01

    One of the major probelms faced in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove development has been the absence of concise and reliable methods to measure the effects of EVA gloves on human hand capabilities. This report describes the development of a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six measurement domains: Range of Motion, Strength, Tactile Perception, Dexterity, Fatigue, and Comfort. Based on an assessment of general human hand functioning and EVA task requirements several tests within each measurement domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand as a baseline and the EVA glove at operating pressure. A test program was conducted to evaluate the tests using a representative EVA glove. Eleven test subjects participated in a repeated-measures design. The report presents the results of the tests in each capability domain.

  20. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  1. Preparing for space - EVA training at the European Astronaut Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolender, Hans; Stevenin, Hervé; Bessone, Loredana; Torres, Antonio

    2006-11-01

    The European Astronaut Centre has developed an Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training course for ESA astronauts to bridge the gap between their scuba diving certification and the spacesuit qualification provided by NASA. ESA astronauts André Kuipers and Frank De Winne have already completed this "EVA Pre-Familiarisation Training Programme" before their training at NASA. In June 2006, an international crew of experienced EVA astronauts approved the course as good preparation for suited EVA training; they recommended that portions of it be used to help maintain EVA proficiency for astronauts.

  2. Development of a space activity suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annis, J. F.; Webb, P.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a series of prototype space activity suit (SAS) assemblies is discussed. The SAS is a new type of pressure suit designed especially for extravehicular activity. It consists of a set of carefully tailored elastic fabric garments which have been engineered to supply sufficient counterpressure to the body to permit subjects to breath O2 at pressures up to 200 mm Hg without circulatory difficulty. A closed, positive pressure breathing system (PPBS) and a full bubble helmet were also developed to complete the system. The ultimate goal of the SAS is to improve the range of activity and decrease the energy cost of work associated with wearing conventional gas filled pressure suits. Results are presented from both laboratory (1 atmosphere) and altitude chamber tests with subjects wearing various SAS assemblies. In laboratory tests lasting up to three hours, the SAS was worn while subjects breathed O2 at pressures up to 170 mm Hg without developing physiological problems. The only physiological symptoms apparent were a moderate tachycardia related to breathing pressures above 130 mm Hg, and a small collection of edema fluid in the hands. Both problems were considered to be related to areas of under-pressurization by the garments. These problems, it is suggested, can ultimately be corrected by the development of new elastic fabrics and tailoring techniques. Energy cost of activity, and mobility and dexterity of subjects in the SAS, were found to be superior to those in comparable tests on subjects in full pressure suits.

  3. STS-110 Astronaut Jerry Ross Performs Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. In this photograph, Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, anchored on the end of the Canadarm2, moves near the newly installed S0 truss. Astronaut Lee M. E. Morin, mission specialist, (out of frame), worked in tandem with Ross during this fourth and final scheduled session of EVA for the STS-110 mission. The final major task of the space walk was the installation of a beam, the Airlock Spur, between the Quest Airlock and the S0. The spur will be used by space walkers in the future as a path from the airlock to the truss.

  4. Risk Management in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jonathan; Lutomski, M.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of risk management in Extravehicular Activities (EVA). The contents include: 1) EVA Office at NASA - JSC; 2) EVA Project Risk Management: Why and When; 3) EVA Office Risk Management: How; 4) Criteria for Closing a Risk; 5) Criteria for Accepting a Risk; 6) ISS IRMA Reference Card Data Entry Requirement s; 7) XA/ EVA Office Risk Activity Summary; 8) EVA Significant Change Summary; 9) Integrated Risk Management Application (XA) Matrix, March 31, 2004; 10) ISS Watch Item: 50XX Summary Report; and 11) EVA Project RM Usefulness

  5. Effective Presentation of Metabolic Rate Information for Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackin, Michael A.; Gonia, Philip; Lombay-Gonzalez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    During human exploration of the lunar surface, a suited crewmember needs effective and accurate information about consumable levels remaining in their life support system. The information must be presented in a manner that supports real-time consumable monitoring and route planning. Since consumable usage is closely tied to metabolic rate, the lunar suit must estimate metabolic rate from life support sensors, such as oxygen tank pressures, carbon dioxide partial pressure, and cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures. To provide adequate warnings that account for traverse time for a crewmember to return to a safe haven, accurate forecasts of consumable depletion rates are required. The forecasts must be presented to the crewmember in a straightforward, effective manner. In order to evaluate methods for displaying consumable forecasts, a desktop-based simulation of a lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has been developed for the Constellation lunar suite s life-support system. The program was used to compare the effectiveness of several different data presentation methods.

  6. STS-61B Astronaut Spring During EASE Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Spring was working on the EASE during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  7. Effects of Varying Surface Inclines and Suit Pressure: Implications on Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowers, Kurt; Clark, Timothy; Harvill, Lauren; Morency, Richard; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    Suited human performance studies in reduced gravity environments to date include limited observations from Apollo Lunar surface Extravehicular Activities (EVA) and from previous studies conducted in partial gravity simulation environments. The Constellation Program EVA Systems Project office has initiated tests to develop design requirements for the next generation Lunar EVA suit. Theses studies were conducted in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility (SVMF) at Johnson Space Center from which the results provided recommendations for suit weight, mass, center of gravity, pressure, and suit kinematic constraints that optimize human performance in partial gravity environments.

  8. Testing and evaluation for astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) operability.

    PubMed

    Shields, N; King, L C

    1998-09-01

    Because it is the human component that defines space mission success, careful planning is required to ensure that hardware can be operated and maintained by crews on-orbit. Several methods exist to allow researchers and designers to better predict how hardware designs will behave under the harsh environment of low Earth orbit, and whether designs incorporate the necessary features for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) operability. Testing under conditions of simulated microgravity can occur during the design concept phase when verifying design operability, during mission training, or concurrently with on-orbit mission operations. The bulk of testing is focused on normal operations, but also includes evaluation of credible mission contingencies or "what would happen if" planning. The astronauts and cosmonauts who fly these space missions are well prepared and trained to survive and be productive in Earth's orbit. The engineers, designers, and training crews involved in space missions subject themselves to Earth based simulation techniques that also expose them to extreme environments. Aircraft falling ten thousand feet, alternating g-loads, underwater testing at 45 foot depth, enclosure in a vacuum chamber and subject to thermal extremes, each carries with it inherent risks to the humans preparing for space missions. PMID:12190075

  9. Eva Physiology, Systems, and Performance (EPSP) Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity performed by astronauts outside their space vehicle or habitat. EVA may be performed on orbit, such as outside the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station, or on a planetary surface such as Mars or on the moon. Astronauts wear a pressurized suit that provides environmental protection, mobility, life support, and communications while they work in the harsh conditions of a microgravity environment. Exploration missions to the moon and Mars may last many days and will include many types of EVAs; exploration, science, construction and maintenance. The effectiveness and success of these EVA-filled missions is dependent on the ability to perform tasks efficiently. The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) project will conduct a number of studies to understand human performance during EVA, from a molecular level to full-scale equipment and suit design aspects, with the aim of developing safe and efficient systems for Exploration missions and the Constellation Program. The EPSP project will 1) develop Exploration Mission EVA suit requirements for metabolic and thermal loading, optional center of gravity location, biomedical sensors, hydration, nutrition, and human biomedical interactions; 2) develop validated EVA prebreathe protocols that meet medical, vehicle, and habitat constraints while minimizing crew time and thus increasing EVA work efficiency; and 3) define exploration decompression sickness (DCS) risks, policy, and mission success statistics and develop a DCS risk definition report.

  10. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; England, Scott; Benson, Liz

    2009-01-01

    With the new vision of space travel aimed at traveling back to the Moon and eventually to Mars, NASA is designing a new spacesuit glove. The purpose of this study was to baseline hand strength while wearing the current Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove, the Phase VI. By varying the pressure in the glove, hand strength could be characterized as a function of spacesuit pressure. This finding is of extreme importance when evaluating missions that require varying suit pressures associated with different operations within NASA's current human spaceflight program, Constellation. This characterization fed directly into the derivation of requirements for the next EVA glove. This study captured three types of maximum hand strength: grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch. All three strengths were measured under varying pressures and compared to a bare-hand condition. The resulting standardized data was reported as a percentage of the bare-hand strength. The first wave of tests was performed while the subjects, four female and four male, were wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit supported by a suit stand. This portion of the test collected data from the barehand, suited unpressurized, and suited pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions. In addition, the effects of the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) on hand strength were examined, with the suited unpressurized and pressurized cases tested with and without a TMG. It was found that, when pressurized and with the TMG, the Phase VI glove reduced applied grip strength to a little more than half of the subject s bare-hand strength. The lateral pinch strength remained relatively constant while the pulp-2 pinch strength actually increased with pressure. The TMG was found to decrease maximum applied grip strength by an additional 10% for both pressurized and unpressurized cases, while the pinch strengths saw little to no change. In developing requirements based on human subjects, it is important to attempt to derive

  11. Thermoregulation and heat exchange in a nonuniform thermal environment during simulated extended EVA. Extravehicular activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Leon, G. R.; Hubel, A.; Nelson, E. D.; Tranchida, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonuniform heating and cooling of the body, a possibility during extended duration extravehicular activities (EVA), was studied by means of a specially designed water circulating garment that independently heated or cooled the right and left sides of the body. The purpose was to assess whether there was a generalized reaction on the finger in extreme contradictory temperatures on the body surface, as a potential heat status controller. METHOD: Eight subjects, six men and two women, were studied while wearing a sagittally divided experimental garment with hands exposed in the following conditions: Stage 1 baseline--total body garment inlet water temperature at 33 degrees C; Stage 2--left side inlet water temperature heated to 45 degrees C; right side cooled to 8 degrees C; Stage 3--left side inlet water temperature cooled to 8 degrees C, right side heated to 45 degrees C. RESULTS: Temperatures on each side of the body surface as well as ear canal temperature (Tec) showed statistically significant Stage x Side interactions, demonstrating responsiveness to the thermal manipulations. Right and left finger temperatures (Tfing) were not significantly different across stages; their dynamic across time was similar. Rectal temperature (Tre) was not reactive to prevailing cold on the body surface, and therefore not informative. Subjective perception of heat and cold on the left and right sides of the body was consistent with actual temperature manipulations. CONCLUSIONS: Tec and Tre estimates of internal temperature do not provide accurate data for evaluating overall thermal status in nonuniform thermal conditions on the body surface. The use of Tfing has significant potential in providing more accurate information on thermal status and as a feedback method for more precise thermal regulation of the astronaut within the EVA space suit.

  12. Interoperability Trends in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Space Operations for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Gerald E.

    1999-01-01

    No other space operations in the 21 st century more comprehensively embody the challenges and dependencies of interoperability than EVA. This discipline is already functioning at an W1paralleled level of interagency, inter-organizational and international cooperation. This trend will only increase as space programs endeavor to expand in the face of shrinking budgets. Among the topics examined in this paper are hardware-oriented issues. Differences in design standards among various space participants dictate differences in the EVA tools that must be manufactured, flown and maintained on-orbit. Presently only two types of functional space suits exist in the world. However, three versions of functional airlocks are in operation. Of the three airlocks, only the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock can accommodate both types of suits. Due to functional differences in the suits, completely different operating protocols are required for each. Should additional space suit or airlock designs become available, the complexity will increase. The lessons learned as a result of designing and operating within such a system are explored. This paper also examines the non-hardware challenges presented by interoperability for a discipline that is as uniquely dependent upon the individual as EVA. Operation of space suits (essentially single-person spacecrafts) by persons whose native language is not that of the suits' designers is explored. The intricacies of shared mission planning, shared control and shared execution of joint EVA's are explained. For example, once ISS is fully functional, the potential exists for two crewmembers of different nationality to be wearing suits manufactured and controlled by a third nation, while operating within an airlock manufactured and controlled by a fourth nation, in an effort to perform tasks upon hardware belonging to a fifth nation. Everything from training issues, to procedures development and writing, to real-time operations is

  13. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to identify specific criteria regarding space station extravehicular activity system (EVAS) hardware requirements. Key EVA design issues include maintainability, technology readiness, LSS volume vs. EVA time available, suit pressure/cabin pressure relationship and productivity effects, crew autonomy, integration of EVA as a program resource, and standardization of task interfaces. A variety of DOD EVA systems issues were taken into consideration. Recommendations include: (1) crew limitations, not hardware limitations; (2) capability to perform all of 15 generic missions; (3) 90 days on-orbit maintainability with 50 percent duty cycle as minimum; and (4) use by payload sponsors of JSC document 10615A plus a Generic Tool Kit and Specialized Tool Kit description. EVA baseline design requirements and criteria, including requirements of various subsystems, are outlined. Space station/EVA system interface requirements and EVA accommodations are discussed in the areas of atmosphere composition and pressure, communications, data management, logistics, safe haven, SS exterior and interior requirements, and SS airlock.

  14. Identifying Initial Suit-Body Contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernal, Yaritza

    2016-01-01

    Extravehicular Activity EVA suits like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit EMU are the key component used by the crew to perform EVA operations. The crew is trained extensively in the EMU to be able to perform their EVA's effectively. This extensive training can cause problems and even lead to injury if any abnormal forces are used. In the case of a bad design, if the humans movement exceeds the suits design parameters it can result in unusual wear and tear of the suit components, or may result in failed tasks when the human is not able to perform a task the necessary way. This study is intended to quantify suit-body contact and suited range of upper extremity motions while wearing a pressurized EMU suit as compared to their unsuited trials. This study also compares the effect in mobility of the suited subject in free standing versus constrained standing for upper extremity movements.

  15. Simulation of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) self-rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R.; Jacoby, Rick; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    Self-rescue during EVA is examined in terms of the use of a hand-held thruster that is similar to the hand-held maneuvering units HHMU developed for earlier programs. The problem of assessing velocity-increment requirements is addressed by means of examples of simulation technologies for studying EVA. The technologies evaluated include virtual reality systems such as the Virtual Interactive Environment Workstation (VIEW) and the Space Operations Simulator, and standard approaches like the air-bearing floor and the space shuttle. The VIEW is employed for a study of five trained NASA subjects that conduct a simulated return to a spacecraft with an HMMU under variable conditions. The study demonstrates the efficacy of VIEW for obtaining fuel-consumption values, and separation velocity is identified as the most significant determinant of the fuel and time requirements for a self-rescue operation.

  16. Studies Relating to EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JA1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: The Staged Decompression to the Hypobaric Atmosphere as a Prophylactic Measure Against Decompression Sickness During Repetitive EVA; A New Preoxygenation Procedure for Extravehicular Activity (EVA); Metabolic Assessments During Extra-Vehicular Activity; Evaluation of Safety of Hypobaric Decompressions and EVA From Positions of Probabilistic Theory; Fatty Acid Composition of Plasma Lipids and Erythrocyte Membranes During Simulation of Extravehicular Activity; Biomedical Studies Relating to Decompression Stress with Simulated EVA, Overview; The Joint Angle and Muscle Signature (JAMS) System - Current Uses and Future Applications; and Experimental Investigation of Cooperative Human-Robotic Roles in an EVA Work Site.

  17. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesloh, Miranda; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Thompson, Shelby; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize hand strength, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Three types of data were collected: hand grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch, wider three different conditions: bare-handed, gloved with no Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG), and glove with TMG. In addition, during the gloved conditions, subjects were tested when unpressurized and pressurized (43 psi). As a percentage of bare-hand strength, the TMG condition showed reduction in grip strength to 55% unpressurized and 46% pressurized. Without the TMG, grip strength increased to 66% unpressurized and 58% pressurized of bare-hand strength. For lateral pinch strength, the reduction in strength was the same for both pressure conditions and with and without the TMG, about 8.5% of bare-hand Pulp-2 pinch strength with no TMG showed an increase to 122% unpressurized and 115% pressurized of bare-hand strength. While wearing the TMG, pulp-2 pinch strength was 115% of bare-hand strength for both pressure conditions.

  18. EVA dosimetry in manned spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Thomson, I

    1999-12-01

    Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) will become a large part of the astronaut's work on board the International Space Station (ISS). It is already well known that long duration space missions inside a spacecraft lead to radiation doses which are high enough to be a significant health risk to the crew. The doses received during EVA, however, have not been quantified to the same degree. This paper reviews the space radiation environment and the current dose limits to critical organs. Results of preliminary radiation dosimetry experiments on the external surface of the BION series of satellites indicate that EVA doses will vary considerably due to a number of factors such as EVA suit shielding, temporal fluctuations and spacecraft orbit and shielding. It is concluded that measurement of doses to crew members who engage in EVA should be done on board the spacecraft. An experiment is described which will lead the way to implementing this plan on the ISS. It is expected that results of this experiment will help future crew mitigate the risks of ionising radiation in space. PMID:10631334

  19. Investigation of the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressures on human hand capabilities. A factorial experiment was performed in which three types of EVA gloves were tested at five pressure differentials. The independent variables tested in this experiment were gender, glove type, pressure differential, and glove make. Six subjects participated in an experiment where a number of dexterity measures, namely time to tie a rope, and the time to assemble a nut and bolt were recorded. Tactility was measured through a two point discrimination test. The results indicate that with EVA gloves strength is reduced by nearly 50 percent, there is a considerable reduction in dexterity, performance decrements increase with increasing pressure differential, and some interesting gender glove interactions were observed, some of which may have been due to the extent (or lack of) fit of the glove to the hand. The implications for the designer are discussed.

  20. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  1. Astronaut Allen during extravehicular activity (EVA) training in CCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In the JSC Space Vehicle Mockup Facility, astronaut Andrew M. Allen retrieves gear to rehearse a suit-donning exercise on the middeck. Allen's very realistic environs are provided by the shuttle crew compartment trainer (CCT).

  2. Exploration EVA Purge Flow Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    An advanced future spacesuit will require properly sized suit and helmet purge flow rates in order to sustain a crew member with a failed Portable Life Support System (PLSS) during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). A computational fluid dynamics evaluation was performed to estimate the helmet purge flow rate required to washout carbon dioxide and to prevent the condensing ("fogging") of water vapor on the helmet visor. An additional investigation predicted the suit purge flow rate required to provide sufficient convective cooling to keep the crew member comfortable. This paper summarizes the results of these evaluations.

  3. Exploration EVA Purge Flow Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Campbell, Colin

    2011-01-01

    An advanced future spacesuit will require properly sized suit and helmet purge flow rates in order to sustain a crew member with a failed Portable Life Support System (PLSS) during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). A computational fluid dynamics evaluation was performed to estimate the helmet purge flow rate required to washout carbon dioxide and to prevent the condensing ("fogging") of water vapor on the helmet visor. An additional investigation predicted the suit purge flow rate required to provide sufficient convective cooling to keep the crew member comfortable. This paper summarizes the results of these evaluations.

  4. Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, David S. F.; Trevino, Robert C.

    1997-01-01

    Spacewalkers enjoy a view of Earth once reserved for Apollo, Zeus, and other denizens of Mt. Olympus. During humanity's first extravehicular activity (EVA), Alexei Leonov floated above Gibraltar, the rock ancient seafarers saw as the gateway to the great unknown Atlantic. The symbolism was clear, Leonov stepped past a new Gibraltar when he stepped into space. More than 32 years and 154 EVAs later, Jerry Linenger conducted an EVA with Vladimir Tsibliyev as part of International Space Station Phase 1. They floated together above Gibraltar. Today the symbolism has new meaning: humanity is starting to think of stepping out of Earth orbit, space travel's new Gibraltar, and perhaps obtaining a new olympian view, a close-up look at Olympus Mons on Mars. Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology chronicles the 154 EVAs conducted from March 1965 to April 1997. It is intended to make clear the crucial role played by EVA in the history of spaceflight, as well as to chronicle the large body of EVA "lessons learned." Russia and the U.S. define EVA differently. Russian cosmonauts are said to perform EVA any time they are in vacuum in a space suit. A U.S. astronaut must have at least his head outside his spacecraft before he is said to perform an EVA. The difference is based in differing spacecraft design philoso- phies. Russian and Soviet spacecraft have always had a specialized airlock through which the EVA cosmonaut egressed, leaving the main habitable volume of the spacecraft pressurized. The U.S. Gemini and Apollo vehicles, on the other hand, depressurized their entire habitable volume for egress. In this document, we apply the Russian definition to Russian EVAS, and the U.S. definition to U.S. EVAS. Thus, for example, Gemini 4 Command Pilot James McDivitt does not share the honor of being first American spacewalker with Ed White, even though he was suited and in vacuum when White stepped out into space. Non-EVA spaceflights are listed in the chronology to provide context and to

  5. Mission Specialist (MS) Musgrave works at PLB forward bulkhead during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Closeup documents extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited Mission Specialist (MS) Musgrave, designated EV1, working with payload bay (PLB) forward bulkhead safety tether system during extravehicular activity (EVA). Foot restraint boom attached to handrail appears above his helmet. Peterson, also participating in the EVA, exposed this frame with a 35mm camera while other crewmembers remained in the cabin.

  6. Evolution of EVA capabilities for space station construction and maintenance: Soviet and American experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Cathy D.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of both Soviet and American Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is discussed. A qualitative review evaluates each EVA with respect to risk, criticality, complexity, and duration. Graphics summarizing increase and rate of increase in productivity emphasize related advancements in the space suits, EVA tools, and equipment technology. Specifics that demonstrated ingenuity in accomplishing unplanned activities which required man's direct manipulation of large payloads and structures are presented. Accumulated EVA successes allow an effective, flexible, recommended approach for construction and maintenance of Space Station to be given in conclusion.

  7. EVA manipulation and assembly of space structure columns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughead, T. E.; Pruett, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    Assembly techniques and hardware configurations used in assembly of the basic tetrahedral cell by A7LB pressure-suited subjects in a neutral bouyancy simulator were studied. Eleven subjects participated in assembly procedures which investigated two types of structural members and two configurations of attachment hardware. The assembly was accomplished through extra-vehicular activity (EVA) only, EVA with simulated manned maneuvering unit (MMU), and EVA with simulated MMU and simulated remote manipulator system (RMS). Assembly times as low as 10.20 minutes per tetrahedron were achieved. Task element data, as well as assembly procedures, are included.

  8. Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) glove evaluation test protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman-Sweeney, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most critical components of a space suit is the gloves, yet gloves have traditionally presented significant design challenges. With continued efforts at glove development, a method for evaluating glove performance is needed. This paper presents a pressure-glove evaluation protocol. A description of this evaluation protocol, and its development is provided. The protocol allows comparison of one glove design to another, or any one design to bare-handed performance. Gloves for higher pressure suits may be evaluated at current and future design pressures to drive out differences in performance due to pressure effects. Using this protocol, gloves may be evaluated during design to drive out design problems and determine areas for improvement, or fully mature designs may be evaluated with respect to mission requirements. Several different test configurations are presented to handle these cases. This protocol was run on a prototype glove. The prototype was evaluated at two operating pressures and in the unpressurized state, with results compared to bare-handed performance. Results and analysis from this test series are provided, as is a description of the configuration used for this test.

  9. EVA Performance Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, Brian; Maida, James; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut physical performance capabilities in micro gravity EV A or on planetary surfaces when encumbered by a life support suit and debilitated by a long exposure to micro gravity will be less than unencumbered pre flight capabilities. The big question addressed by human factors engineers is: what can the astronaut be expected to do on EVA or when we arrive at a planetary surface? A second question is: what aids to performance will be needed to enhance the human physical capability? These questions are important for a number of reasons. First it is necessary to carry out accurate planning of human physical demands to ensure that time and energy critical tasks can be carried out with confidence. Second it is important that the crew members (and their ground or planetary base monitors) have a realistic picture of their own capabilities, as excessive fatigue can lead to catastrophic failure. Third it is important to design appropriate equipment to enhance human sensory capabilities, locomotion, materials handling and manipulation. The evidence from physiological research points to musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and neurovestibular degradation during long duration exposure to micro gravity . The evidence from the biomechanics laboratory (and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory) points to a reduction in range of motion, strength and stamina when encumbered by a pressurized suit. The evidence from a long history of EVAs is that crewmembers are indeed restricted in their physical capabilities. There is a wealth of evidence in the literature on the causes and effects of degraded human performance in the laboratory, in sports and athletics, in industry and in other physically demanding jobs. One approach to this challenge is through biomechanical and performance modeling. Such models must be based on thorough task analysis, reliable human performance data from controlled studies, and functional extrapolations validated in analog contexts. The task analyses currently carried

  10. Results from an Investigation into Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Training Related Shoulder Injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Brian J.; Williams, David R.

    2004-01-01

    The number and complexity of extravehicular activities (EVAs) required for the completion and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS) is unprecedented. The training required to successfully complete this magnitude of space walks presents a real risk of overuse musculoskeletal injuries to the EVA crew population. There was mounting evidence raised by crewmembers, trainers, and physicians at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) between 1999 and 2002 that suggested a link between training in the Neutral - Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and the several reported cases of shoulder injuries. The short- and long-term health consequences of shoulder injury to astronauts in training as well as the potential mission impact associated with surgical intervention to assigned EVA crew point to this as a critical problem that must be mitigated. Thus, a multi-directorate tiger team was formed in December of 2002 led by the EVA Office and Astronaut Office at the JSC. The primary objectives of this Tiger Team were to evaluate the prevalence of these injuries and substantiate the relationship to training in the NBL with the crew person operating in the EVA Mobility Unit (EMU). Between December 2002 and June of 2003 the team collected data, surveyed crewmembers, consulted with a variety of physicians, and performed tests. The results of this effort were combined with the vast knowledge and experience of the Tiger Team members to formulate several findings and over fifty recommendations. This paper summarizes those findings and recommendations as well as the process by which these were determined. The Tiger Team concluded that training in the NBL was directly linked to several major and minor shoulder injuries that had occurred. With the assistance of JSC flight surgeons, outside consultants, and the lead crewmember/physician on the team, the mechanisms of injury were determined. These mechanisms were then linked to specific aspects of the hardware design, operational techniques, and the

  11. Injury Risk Assessment of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Phase VI and Series 4000 Gloves During Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hand Manipulation Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilby, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Functional Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) with high precision gloves are essential for the success of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Previous research done at NASA has shown that total strength capabilities and performance are reduced when wearing a pressurized EMU. The goal of this project was to characterize the human-space suit glove interaction and assess the risk of injury during common EVA hand manipulation tasks, including pushing, pinching and gripping objects. A custom third generation sensor garment was designed to incorporate a combination of sensors, including force sensitive resistors, strain gauge sensors, and shear force sensors. The combination of sensors was used to measure the forces acting on the finger nails, finger pads, finger tips, as well as the knuckle joints. In addition to measuring the forces, data was collected on the temperature, humidity, skin conductance, and blood perfusion of the hands. Testing compared both the Phase VI and Series 4000 glove against an ungloved condition. The ungloved test was performed wearing the sensor garment only. The project outcomes identified critical landmarks that experienced higher workloads and are more likely to suffer injuries. These critical landmarks varied as a function of space suit glove and task performed. The results showed that less forces were acting on the hands while wearing the Phase VI glove as compared to wearing the Series 4000 glove. Based on our findings, the engineering division can utilize these methods for optimizing the current space suit glove and designing next generation gloves to prevent injuries and optimize hand mobility and comfort.

  12. Characterization of the Radiation Shielding Properties of U.S. and Russian Extravehicular Activity Suits. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    2003-01-01

    Reported herein are results from the Eril Research, Inc. (ERI) participation in the JSC-sponsored study characterizing the radiation shielding properties of the two types of space suit that astronauts are wearing during the EVA on-orbit assembly of ISS. Measurements using passive detectors were carried out to assess the shielding properties of the U.S. EMU Suit and the Russian Orlan-M suit during irradiations of the suits and a tissue-equivalent phantom to monoenergetic proton and electron beams at LLUMC. During irradiations of 6 MeV electrons and 60 MeV protons, absorbed dose as a function of depth was measured using TLDs exposed behind swatches of the two suit materials and inside the two EVA helmets. Considerable reduction in electron dose was measured behind all suit materials in exposures to 6 MeV electrons. Slowing of the proton beam in the suit materials led to an increase in dose measured in exposures to 60 MeV protons. During 232 MeV proton irradiations, measurements were made with TLDs and CR-39 PNTDs at five organ locations inside a tissue-equivalent phantom, exposed both with and without the two EVA suits. The EVA helmets produce a 13% to 27% reduction in total dose and a 0% to 25% reduction in dose equivalent when compared to measurements made in the phantom head alone. Differences in dose and dose equivalent between the suit and non-suit irradiations for the lower portions of the two EVA suits tended to be smaller. Proton-induced target fragmentation was found to be a significant source of increased dose equivalent, especially within the two EVA helmets, and average quality factor inside the EMU and Orlan-M helmets was 2% to 14% greater than that measured in the bare phantom head.

  13. Physiological and technological considerations for Mars mission extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, James M.; Sedej, Melaine M.

    1986-01-01

    The nature of the suit is a function of the needs of human physiology, the ambient environment outside the suit, and the type of activity to be accomplished while in the suit. The physiological requirements that must be provided for in the Martian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit will be reviewed. The influence of the Martian environment on the EVA suit and EVA capabilities is elaborated, and the Martian environment is compared with the lunar environment. The differences that may influence the EVA design are noted. The type, nature, and duration of activities to be done in transit to Mars and on the Martian surface will be evaluated and the impact of these activities on the requirements for EVA systems will be discussed. Furthermore, the interaction between Martian surface transportation systems and EVA systems will be covered. Finally, options other than EVA will be considered such as robotics, nonanthropometric suits, and vehicles with anthropometric extremities or robotic end effectors.

  14. Skylab 2 prime crew suit up during prelaunch training activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, prime crew pilot of the first manned Skylab mission, is suited up in bldg 5 at JSC during prelaunch training activity. He is assisted by Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., prime crew commander. The man in the left background is wearing a face mask to insure that Conrad, Joseph Kerwin, and Weitz are not exposed to disease prior to launch (25399); Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin (on left), and Weitz assist each other in suiting up in bldg 5 at JSC during pre-launch training activity (25400).

  15. Proton and Electron Threshold Energy Measurements for Extravehicular Activity Space Suits. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. D.; Saganti, P. B.

    2003-01-01

    Construction of ISS will require more than 1000 hours of EVA. Outside of ISS during EVA, astronauts and cosmonauts are likely to be exposed to a large fluence of electrons and protons. Development of radiation protection guidelines requires the determination of the minimum energy of electrons and protons that penetrate the suits at various locations. Measurements of the water-equivalent thickness of both US. and Russian EVA suits were obtained by performing CT scans. Specific regions of interest of the suits were further evaluated using a differential range shift technique. This technique involved measuring thickness ionization curves for 6-MeV electron and 155-MeV proton beams with ionization chambers using a constant source-to-detector distance. The thicknesses were obtained by stacking polystyrene slabs immediately upstream of the detector. The thicknesses of the 50% ionizations relative to the maximum ionizations were determined. The detectors were then placed within the suit and the stack thickness adjusted until the 50% ionization was reestablished. The difference in thickness between the 50% thicknesses was then used with standard range-energy tables to determine the threshold energy for penetration. This report provides a detailed description of the experimental arrangement and results.

  16. Creating a Lunar EVA Work Envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Howard, Robert; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Smitherman, David

    2009-01-01

    A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks. For weightless operations, this process is well developed, but planetary EVA is different and no work envelope has been defined. The primary difference between weightless and planetary work envelopes is gravity. It influences anthropometry, horizontal and vertical mobility, and reaction load paths and introduces effort into doing "overhead" work. Additionally, the use of spacesuits other than the EMU, and their impacts on range of motion, must be taken into account. This paper presents the analysis leading to a concept for a planetary EVA work envelope with emphasis on lunar operations. There is some urgency in creating this concept because NASA has begun building and testing development hardware for the lunar surface, including rovers, habitats and cargo off-loading equipment. Just as with microgravity operations, a lunar EVA work envelope is needed to guide designers in the formative stages of the program with the objective of avoiding difficult and costly rework.

  17. Compiling a Comprehensive EVA Training Dataset for NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Lee, L. R.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Training for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) is considered a hazardous duty for NASA astronauts. This places astronauts at risk for decompression sickness as well as various musculoskeletal disorders from working in the spacesuit. As a result, the operational and research communities over the years have requested access to EVA training data to supplement their studies. The purpose of this paper is to document the comprehensive EVA training data set that was compiled from multiple sources by the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) epidemiologists to investigate musculoskeletal injuries. The EVA training dataset does not contain any medical data, rather it only documents when EVA training was performed, by whom and other details about the session. The first activities practicing EVA maneuvers in water were performed at the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at the Marshall Spaceflight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. This facility opened in 1967 and was used for EVA training until the early Space Shuttle program days. Although several photographs show astronauts performing EVA training in the NBS, records detailing who performed the training and the frequency of training are unavailable. Paper training records were stored within the NBS after it was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1985 and closed in 1997, but significant resources would be needed to identify and secure these records, and at this time LSAH has not pursued acquisition of these early training records. Training in the NBS decreased when the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, opened the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) in 1980. Early training records from the WETF consist of 11 hand-written dive logbooks compiled by individual workers that were digitized at the request of LSAH. The WETF was integral in the training for Space Shuttle EVAs until its closure in 1998. The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the Sonny Carter Training Facility near JSC

  18. Astronauts Weitz and Conrad suit up during prelaunch activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, prime crew pilot of the first manned Skylab mission, is suited up in bldg 5 at JSC during prelaunch training activity. He is assisted by Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., prime crew commander. The man in the left background is wearing a face mask to insure that Conrad, Joseph Kerwin, and Weitz are not exposed to disease prior to launch.

  19. Dynamic analysis of astronaut motions in microgravity: Applications for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava J.

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of astronaut motions during extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks were performed using computational multibody dynamics methods. The application of computational dynamic simulation to EVA was prompted by the realization that physical microgravity simulators have inherent limitations: viscosity in neutral buoyancy tanks; friction in air bearing floors; short duration for parabolic aircraft; and inertia and friction in suspension mechanisms. These limitations can mask critical dynamic effects that later cause problems during actual EVA's performed in space. Methods of formulating dynamic equations of motion for multibody systems are discussed with emphasis on Kane's method, which forms the basis of the simulations presented herein. Formulation of the equations of motion for a two degree of freedom arm is presented as an explicit example. The four basic steps in creating the computational simulations were: system description, in which the geometry, mass properties, and interconnection of system bodies are input to the computer; equation formulation based on the system description; inverse kinematics, in which the angles, velocities, and accelerations of joints are calculated for prescribed motion of the endpoint (hand) of the arm; and inverse dynamics, in which joint torques are calculated for a prescribed motion. A graphical animation and data plotting program, EVADS (EVA Dynamics Simulation), was developed and used to analyze the results of the simulations that were performed on a Silicon Graphics Indigo2 computer. EVA tasks involving manipulation of the Spartan 204 free flying astronomy payload, as performed during Space Shuttle mission STS-63 (February 1995), served as the subject for two dynamic simulations. An EVA crewmember was modeled as a seven segment system with an eighth segment representing the massive payload attached to the hand. For both simulations, the initial configuration of the lower body (trunk, upper leg, and lower leg) was a neutral

  20. EVA assembly of large space structure element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bush, H. G.; Heard, W. L., Jr.; Stokes, J. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a test program to assess the potential of manned extravehicular activity (EVA) assembly of erectable space trusses are described. Seventeen tests were conducted in which six "space-weight" columns were assembled into a regular tetrahedral cell by a team of two "space"-suited test subjects. This cell represents the fundamental "element" of a tetrahedral truss structure. The tests were conducted under simulated zero-gravity conditions. Both manual and simulated remote manipulator system modes were evaluated. Articulation limits of the pressure suit and zero gravity could be accommodated by work stations with foot restraints. The results of this study have confirmed that astronaut EVA assembly of large, erectable space structures is well within man's capabilities.

  1. Constellation Space Suit System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Aitchison, Lindsay; Daniel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation Program has initiated the first new flight suit development project since the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed for the Space Shuttle Program in the 1970s. The Constellation suit system represents a significant challenge to designers in that the system is required to address all space suit functions needed through all missions and mission phases. This is in marked contrast to the EMU, which was designed specifically for micro-gravity space walks. The Constellation suit system must serve in all of the following scenarios: launch, entry and abort crew survival; micro-gravity extravehicular activity (EVA); and lunar (1/6th-gravity) surface EVA. This paper discusses technical efforts performed from May 2006 through February 2007 for the Constellation space suit system pressure garment.

  2. Space shuttle EVA opportunities. [a technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, D. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A technology assessment is presented on space extravehicular activities (EVA) that will be possible when the space shuttle orbiter is completed and launched. The use of EVA in payload systems design is discussed. Also discussed is space crew training. The role of EVA in connection with the Large Space Telescope and Skylab are described. The value of EVA in constructing structures in space and orbital assembly is examined. Excellent color illustrations are provided which show the proposed EVA functions that were described.

  3. EVA-SCRAM operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanigan, Lee A.; Tamir, David; Weeks, Jack L.; Mcclure, Sidney R.; Kimbrough, Andrew G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper wrestles with the on-orbit operational challenges introduced by the proposed Space Construction, Repair, and Maintenance (SCRAM) tool kit for Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). SCRAM undertakes a new challenging series of on-orbit tasks in support of the near-term Hubble Space Telescope, Extended Duration Orbiter, Long Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, other orbital platforms, and even the future manned Lunar/Mars missions. These new EVA tasks involve welding, brazing, cutting, coating, heat-treating, and cleaning operations. Anticipated near-term EVA-SCRAM applications include construction of fluid lines and structural members, repair of punctures by orbital debris, refurbishment of surfaces eroded by atomic oxygen, and cleaning of optical, solar panel, and high emissivity radiator surfaces which have been degraded by contaminants. Future EVA-SCRAM applications are also examined, involving mass production tasks automated with robotics and artificial intelligence, for construction of large truss, aerobrake, and reactor shadow shield structures. Realistically achieving EVA-SCRAM is examined by addressing manual, teleoperated, semi-automated, and fully-automated operation modes. The operational challenges posed by EVA-SCRAM tasks are reviewed with respect to capabilities of existing and upcoming EVA systems, such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit, the Shuttle Remote Manipulating System, the Dexterous End Effector, and the Servicing Aid Tool.

  4. Wissler Simulations of a Liquid Cooled and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesterson, Matthew; Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis

    2006-01-01

    In order to provide effective cooling for astronauts during extravehicular activities (EVAs), a liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) is used to remove heat by a series off tubes through which cooling water is circulated. To better predict the effectiveness of the LCG and determine possible modifications to improve performance, computer simulations dealing with the interaction of the cooling garment with the human body have been run using the Wissler Human Model. Simulations have been conducted to predict the heat removal rate for various liquid cooled garment configurations. The current LCVG uses 48 cooling tubes woven into a fabric with cooling water flowing through the tubes. The purpose of the current project is to decrease the overall weight of the LCVG system. In order to achieve this weight reduction, advances in the garment heat removal rates need to be obtained. Currently, increasing the fabric s thermal conductivity along with also examining an increase in the cooling tube conductivity to more efficiently remove the excess heat generated during EVA is being simulated. Initial trials varied cooling water temperature, water flow rate, garment conductivity, tube conductivity, and total number of cooling tubes in the LCVG. Results indicate that the total number of cooling tubes could be reduced to 22 and still achieve the desired heat removal rate of 361 W. Further improvements are being made to the garment network used in the model to account for temperature gradients associated with the spacing of the cooling tubes over the surface of the garment

  5. A Human Machine Interface for EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, L.

    , the overlaid graphical information can be registered with the external world. For example, information about an object can be positioned on or beside the object. This wearable HMI supports many applications during EVA including robot teleoperation, procedure checklist usage, operation of virtual control panels and general information or documentation retrieval and presentation. Whether the robot end effector is a mobile platform for the EVA astronaut or is an assistant to the astronaut in an assembly or repair task, the astronaut can control the robot via a direct manipulation interface. Embedded in the suit or the astronaut's clothing, Shapetape can measure the user's arm/hand position and orientation which can be directly mapped into the workspace coordinate system of the robot. Motion of the users hand can generate corresponding motion of the robot end effector in order to reposition the EVA platform or to manipulate objects in the robot's grasp. Speech input can be used to execute commands and mode changes without the astronaut having to withdraw from the teleoperation task. Speech output from the system can provide feedback without affecting the user's visual attention. The procedure checklist guiding the astronaut's detailed activities can be presented on the HUD and manipulated (e.g., move, scale, annotate, mark tasks as done, consult prerequisite tasks) by spoken command. Virtual control panels for suit equipment, equipment being repaired or arbitrary equipment on the space station can be displayed on the HUD and can be operated by speech commands or by hand gestures. For example, an antenna being repaired could be pointed under the control of the EVA astronaut. Additionally arbitrary computer activities such as information retrieval and presentation can be carried out using similar interface techniques. Considering the risks, expense and physical challenges of EVA work, it is appropriate that EVA astronauts have considerable support from station crew and

  6. Force-endurance capabilities of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressure levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The human hand is a very useful multipurpose tool in all environments. However, performance capabilities are compromised considerably when gloves are donned. This is especially true to extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves. The primary intent was to answer the question of how long a person can perform tasks requiring certain levels of exertion. The objective was to develop grip force-endurance relations. Six subjects participated in a factorial experiment involving three hand conditions, three pressure differentials, and four levels of force exertion. The results indicate that, while the force that could be exerted depended on the glove, pressure differential, and the level of exertion, the endurance time at any exertion level depended just on the level of exertion expressed as a percentage of maximum exertion possible at that condition. The impact of these findings for practitioners as well as theoreticians is discussed.

  7. EVA-Compatible Microbial Swab Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed spacecraft meet planetary protection requirements—and to protect our science from human contamination—we'll need to know whether micro-organisms are leaking/venting from our ships and spacesuits. This is easily done by swabbing external vents and suit surfaces for analysis, but requires a specialized tool for the job. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible swab tool that can be used to sample current space suits and life support systems. Data collected now will influence Mars life support and EVA hardware early in the planning process, before design changes become difficult and expensive.NASA’s EVA swab tool pairs a Space Shuttle-era tool handle with a commercially available swab tip mounted into a custom-designed end effector. A glove-compatible release mechanism allows the handle to quickly switch between swab tips, much like a shaving razor handle can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. Swab tips are stowed inside individual sterile containers, each fitted with a microbial filter that allows the container to equalize atmospheric pressure, but prevents cabin contaminants from rushing into the container when passing from the EVA environment into a pressurized cabin. A bank of containers arrayed inside a tool caddy allows up to six individual samples to be collected during a given spacewalk.NASA plans to use the tool in 2016 to collect samples from various spacesuits during ground testing to determine what (if any) human-borne microbial contamination leaks from the suit under simulated thermal vacuum conditions. Next, the tool will be used on board the International Space Station to assess the types of microbial contaminants found on external environmental control and life support system vents. Data will support

  8. EVA Physiology

    NASA Video Gallery

    An introduction to the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in astronauts during EVA. This will include an explanation of Prebreathe Protocols (PB), to affect nitrogen washout as a primary risk mit...

  9. Electrostatic Discharge Issues in International Space Station Program EVAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.

    2009-01-01

    EVA activity in the ISS program encounters several dangerous ESD conditions. The ISS program has been aggressive for many years to find ways to mitigate or to eliminate the associated risks. Investments have included: (1) Major mods to EVA tools, suit connectors & analytical tools (2) Floating Potential Measurement Unit (3) Plasma Contactor Units (4) Certification of new ISS flight attitudes (5) Teraflops of computation (6) Thousands of hours of work by scores of specialists (7) Monthly management attention at the highest program levels. The risks are now mitigated to a level that is orders of magnitude safer than prior operations

  10. Overview of Umbilical Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Interfaces in Life Support Systems on Spacecraft Vehicles and Applications for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie J.; Jordan, Nicole C.; Barido, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) for manned spacecraft vehicles have been performed for contingencies and nominal operations numerous times throughout history. This paper will investigate how previous U.S. manned spacecraft vehicles provided life support to crewmembers performing the EVA. Specifically defined are umbilical interfaces with respect to crewmember cooling, drinking water, air (or oxygen), humidity control, and carbon dioxide removal. As historical data is available, the need for planned versus contingency EVAs in previous vehicles as well as details for a nominal EVA day versus a contingency EVA day will be discussed. The hardware used to provide the cooling, drinking water, air (or oxygen), humidity control, and carbon dioxide removal, and the general functions of that hardware, will also be detailed, as information is available. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV or Orion) EVA interfaces will be generically discussed to provide a glimpse of how similar they are to the EVA interfaces in previous vehicles. Conclusions on strategies that should be used for CEV based on previous spacecraft EVA interfaces will be made in the form of questions and recommendations.

  11. Astronauts Allen and Gemar during extravehicular activity (EVA) training in CCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts Charles D. (Sam) Gemar, and Andrew M. Allen participate in a training exercise at JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT), located in the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility. Gemar sits inside the airlock as Allen reviews procedures for EVA.

  12. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the Space Station Advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related extravehicular activity (EVA) support equipment were defined and established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as opertional, procedures, and training issues were considered.

  13. H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new concept of operations will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Boeing Delta IV Heavy (DIV-H). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

  14. H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Blome, Elizabeth; Tetsuya, Sakashita

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new operations concept will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA s) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

  15. Study to evaluate the effect of EVA on payload systems. Volume 1: Executive summary. [project planning of space missions employing extravehicular activity as a means of cost reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, J. W.; Kraly, E. F.

    1975-01-01

    Programmatic benefits to payloads are examined which can result from the routine use of extravehicular activity (EVA) during space missions. Design and operations costs were compared for 13 representative baseline payloads to the costs of those payloads adapted for EVA operations. The EVA-oriented concepts developed in the study were derived from these baseline concepts and maintained mission and program objectives as well as basic configurations. This permitted isolation of cost saving factors associated specifically with incorporation of EVA in a variety of payload designs and operations. The study results were extrapolated to a total of 74 payload programs. Using appropriate complexity and learning factors, net EVA savings were extrapolated to over $551M for NASA and U.S. civil payloads for routine operations. Adding DOD and ESRO payloads increases the net estimated savings of $776M. Planned maintenance by EVA indicated an estimated $168M savings due to elimination of automated service equipment. Contingency problems of payloads were also analyzed to establish expected failure rates for shuttle payloads. The failure information resulted in an estimated potential for EVA savings of $1.9 B.

  16. Metabolic and Subjective Results Review of the Integrated Suit Test Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J.R.; Stroud, L.C.; Klein, J.; Desantis, L.; Gernhardt, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Crewmembers will perform a variety of exploration and construction activities on the lunar surface. These activities will be performed while inside an extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit. In most cases, human performance is compromised while inside an EVA suit as compared to a crewmember s unsuited performance baseline. Subjects completed different EVA type tasks, ranging from ambulation to geology and construction activities, in different lunar analog environments including overhead suspension, underwater and 1-g lunar-like terrain, in both suited and unsuited conditions. In the suited condition, the Mark III (MKIII) EVA technology demonstrator suit was used and suit pressure and suit weight were parameters tested. In the unsuited conditions, weight, mass, center of gravity (CG), terrain type and navigation were the parameters. To the extent possible, one parameter was varied while all others were held constant. Tests were not fully crossed, but rather one parameter was varied while all others were left in the most nominal setting. Oxygen consumption (VO2), modified Cooper-Harper (CH) ratings of operator compensation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for each trial. For each variable, a lower value correlates to more efficient task performance. Due to a low sample size, statistical significance was not attainable. Initial findings indicate that suit weight, CG and the operational environment can have a large impact on human performance during EVA. Systematic, prospective testing series such as those performed to date will enable a better understanding of the crucial interactions of the human and the EVA suit system and their environment. However, work remains to be done to confirm these findings. These data have been collected using only unsuited subjects and one EVA suit prototype that is known to fit poorly on a large demographic of the astronaut population. Key findings need to be retested using an EVA suit prototype better suited to a

  17. EVA Glove Research Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Alvin M.; Peterson, Steven W.; Main, John A.; Dickenson, Rueben D.; Shields, Bobby L.; Lorenz, Christine H.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the basic research portion of the extravehicular activity (EVA) glove research program is to gain a greater understanding of the kinematics of the hand, the characteristics of the pressurized EVA glove, and the interaction of the two. Examination of the literature showed that there existed no acceptable, non-invasive method of obtaining accurate biomechanical data on the hand. For this reason a project was initiated to develop magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for biomechanical data acquisition and visualization. Literature reviews also revealed a lack of practical modeling methods for fabric structures, so a basic science research program was also initiated in this area.

  18. The main results of EVA medical support on the Mir Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katuntsev, V. P.; Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Barer, A. S.; Gnoevaya, N. K.; Tarasenkov, G. G.

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the main results of medical support of 78 two-person extravehicular activities (EVAs) which have been conducted in the Mir Space Program. Thirty-six male crewmembers participated in these EVAs. Maximum length of a space walk was equal to 7 h 14 min. The total duration of all space walks reached 717.1 man-hours. The maximum frequency of EVA's execution was 10 per year. Most of the EVAs (67) have been performed at mission elapsed time ranging from 31 to 180 days. The oxygen atmosphere of the Orlan space suit with a pressure of 40 kPa in combination with the normobaric cabin environment and a short (30 min) oxygen prebreathe protocol have minimized the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). There has been no incidence of DCS during performed EVAs. At the peak activity, metabolic rates and heart rates increased up to 9.9- 13 kcal/ min and 150- 174 min-1, respectively. The medical problems have centred on feeling of moderate overcooling during a rest period in a shadow after the high physical loads, episodes with tachycardia accompanied by cardiac rhythm disorders at the moments of emotional stress, pains in the muscles and general fatigue after the end of a hard EVA. All of the EVAs have been completed safely.

  19. Potential techniques and development activities in diver suit heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlosinger, A. P.

    1972-01-01

    A prototype compact reactor suitable for combustion of propane with oxygen under shallow as well as submerged deep submergence diving conditions is reported. The device is used to heat the circulating water in a water tube-type diving suit.

  20. Biosensors for EVA: Muscle Oxygen and pH During Walking, Running and Simulated Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Ellerby, G.; Scott, P.; Stroud, L.; Norcross, J.; Pesholov, B.; Zou, F.; Gernhardt, M.; Soller, B.

    2009-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI-funded project is looking to extend this methodology to examine activities which more appropriately represent EVA activities, such as walking and running and to better understand factors that determine the metabolic cost of exercise in both normal and lunar gravity. Our 4 year project specifically addresses risk: ExMC 4.18: Lack of adequate biomedical monitoring capability for Constellation EVA Suits and EPSP risk: Risk of compromised EVA performance and crew health due to inadequate EVA suit systems.

  1. Simplified Abrasion Test Methodology for Candidate EVA Glove Lay-Ups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabel, Emily; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, space suit outer-layer fabrics were badly abraded after performing just a few extravehicular activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots that penetrated the outer-layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than 8 hrs of surface operations. Current plans for the exploration planetary space suits require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on a lunar or Martian surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last 40 years and improve on the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo Program. Over the past 25 years the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division has focused on tumble testing as means of simulating wear on the outer layer of the space suit fabric. Most recently, in 2009, testing was performed on 4 different candidate outer layers to gather baseline data for future use in design of planetary space suit outer layers. In support of the High Performance EVA Glove Element of the Next Generation Life Support Project, testing a new configuration was recently attempted in which require 10% of the fabric per replicate of that need in 2009. The smaller fabric samples allowed for reduced per sample cost and flexibility to test small samples from manufacturers without the overhead to have a production run completed. Data collected from this iteration was compared to that taken in 2009 to validate the new test method. In addition the method also evaluated the fabrics and fabric layups used in a prototype thermal micrometeoroid garment (TMG) developed for EVA gloves under the NASA High Performance EVA Glove Project. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, results of the validation study, and results of the TMG testing.

  2. Human Space Exploration and Radiation Exposure from EVA: 1981-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, A. R.; Saganti, S. P.; Erickson, G. M.; Saganti, P. B.

    2011-12-01

    There are several risks for any human space exploration endeavor. One such inevitable risk is exposure to the space radiation environment of which extra vehicular activity (EVA) demands more challenges due to limited amount of protection from space suit shielding. We recently compiled all EVA data comprising low-earth orbit (LEO) from Space Shuttle (STS) flights, International Space Station (ISS) expeditions, and Shuttle-Mir missions. Assessment of such radiation risk is very important, particularly for the anticipated long-term, deep-space human explorations in the near future. We present our assessment of anticipated radiation exposure and space radiation dose contribution to each crew member from a listing of 350 different EVA events resulting in more than 1000+ hrs of total EVA time. As of July 12, 2011, 197 astronauts have made spacewalks (out of 520 people who have gone into Earth orbit). Only 11 women have been on spacewalks.

  3. Advanced EVA Capabilities: A Study for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concept Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study carried out as part of NASA s Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts Program examining the future technology needs of extravehicular activities (EVAs). The intent of this study is to produce a comprehensive report that identifies various design concepts for human-related advanced EVA systems necessary to achieve the goals of supporting future space exploration and development customers in free space and on planetary surfaces for space missions in the post-2020 timeframe. The design concepts studied and evaluated are not limited to anthropomorphic space suits, but include a wide range of human-enhancing EVA technologies as well as consideration of coordination and integration with advanced robotics. The goal of the study effort is to establish a baseline technology "road map" that identifies and describes an investment and technical development strategy, including recommendations that will lead to future enhanced synergistic human/robot EVA operations. The eventual use of this study effort is to focus evolving performance capabilities of various EVA system elements toward the goal of providing high performance human operational capabilities for a multitude of future space applications and destinations. The data collected for this study indicate a rich and diverse history of systems that have been developed to perform a variety of EVA tasks, indicating what is possible. However, the data gathered for this study also indicate a paucity of new concepts and technologies for advanced EVA missions - at least any that researchers are willing to discuss in this type of forum.

  4. EVA Skills Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Parazynski and a colleague from Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Robotics, & Crew Systems Operations (DX) worked closely to build the EVA Skills Training Program, and for the first time, defined the gold standards of EVA performance, allowing crewmembers to increase their performance significantly. As part of the program, individuals had the opportunity to learn at their own rate, taking additional water time as required, to achieve that level of performance. This focus on training to one's strengths and weaknesses to bolster them enabled the Crew Office and DX to field a much larger group of spacewalkers for the daunting "wall of EVA" required for the building and maintenance of the ISS. Parazynski also stressed the need for designers to understand the capabilities and the limitations of a human in a spacesuit, as well as opportunities to improve future generations of space. He shared lessons learned (how the Crew Office engaged in these endeavors) and illustrated the need to work as a team to develop these complex systems.

  5. Space shuttle EVA/IVA support equipment requirements study. Volume 1: Final summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the support equipment requirements for space shuttle intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The subjects investigated are; (1) EVA/IVA task identification and analysis,. (2) primary life support system, (3) emergency life support system, (4) pressure suit assembly, (5) restraints, (6) work site provision, (7) emergency internal vehicular emergencies, and (8) vehicular interfaces.

  6. Human-Centric Teaming in a Multi-Agent EVA Assembly Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Currie, Nancy; Ambrose, Robert O.; Culbert, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight program depends heavily on spacewalks performed by pairs of suited human astronauts. These Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) are severely restricted in both duration and scope by consumables and available manpower.An expanded multi-agent EVA team combining the information-gathering and problem-solving skills of human astronauts with the survivability and physical capabilities of highly dexterous space robots is proposed. A 1-g test featuring two NASA/DARPA Robonaut systems working side-by-side with a suited human subject is conducted to evaluate human-robot teaming strategies in the context of a simulated EVA assembly task based on the STS-61B ACCESS flight experiment.

  7. Crosscutting Development- EVA Tools and Geology Sample Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    Exploration to all destinations has at one time or another involved the acquisition and return of samples and context data. Gathered at the summit of the highest mountain, the floor of the deepest sea, or the ice of a polar surface, samples and their value (both scientific and symbolic) have been a mainstay of Earthly exploration. In manned spaceflight exploration, the gathering of samples and their contextual information has continued. With the extension of collecting activities to spaceflight destinations comes the need for geology tools and equipment uniquely designed for use by suited crew members in radically different environments from conventional field geology. Beginning with the first Apollo Lunar Surface Extravehicular Activity (EVA), EVA Geology Tools were successfully used to enable the exploration and scientific sample gathering objectives of the lunar crew members. These early designs were a step in the evolution of Field Geology equipment, and the evolution continues today. Contemporary efforts seek to build upon and extend the knowledge gained in not only the Apollo program but a wealth of terrestrial field geology methods and hardware that have continued to evolve since the last lunar surface EVA. This paper is presented with intentional focus on documenting the continuing evolution and growing body of knowledge for both engineering and science team members seeking to further the development of EVA Geology. Recent engineering development and field testing efforts of EVA Geology equipment for surface EVA applications are presented, including the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATs) field trial. An executive summary of findings will also be presented, detailing efforts recommended for exotic sample acquisition and pre-return curation development regardless of planetary or microgravity destination.

  8. Evaluation of an Anthropometric Human Body Model for Simulated EVA Task Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etter, Brad

    1996-01-01

    One of the more mission-critical tasks performed in space is extravehicular activity (EVA) which requires the astronaut to be external to the station or spacecraft, and subsequently at risk from the many threats posed by space. These threats include, but are not limited to: no significant atmosphere, harmful electromagnetic radiation, micrometeoroids, and space debris. To protect the astronaut from this environment, a special EVA suit is worn which is designed to maintain a sustainable atmosphere (at 1/3 atmosphere) and provide protection against the hazards of space. While the EVA suit serves these functions well, it does impose limitations on the astronaut as a consequence of the safety it provides. Since the astronaut is in a virtual vacuum, any atmospheric pressure inside the suit serves to pressurize the suit and restricts mobility of flexible joints (such as fabric). Although some of the EVA suit joints are fixed, rotary-style joints, most of the mobility is achieved by the simple flexibility of the fabric. There are multiple layers of fabric, each of which serves a special purpose in the safety of the astronaut. These multiple layers add to the restriction of motion the astronaut experiences in the space environment. Ground-based testing is implemented to evaluate the capability of EVA-suited astronauts to perform the various tasks in space. In addition to the restriction of motion imposed by the EVA suit, most EVA activity is performed in a micro-gravity (weight less) environment. To simulate weightlessness EVA-suited testing is performed in a neutral buoyancy simulator (NBS). The NBS is composed of a large container of water (pool) in which a weightless environment can be simulated. A subject is normally buoyant in the pressurized suit; however he/she can be made neutrally buoyant with the addition of weights. In addition, most objects the astronaut must interface with in the NBS sink in water and flotation must be added to render them "weightless". The

  9. Post-Shuttle EVA Operations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William; Witt, Vincent; Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    The expected retirement of the NASA Space Transportation System (also known as the Space Shuttle ) by 2011 will pose a significant challenge to Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The EVA hardware currently used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed assuming that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for refurbishment, or if necessary for failure investigation. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support hardware and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2015, and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, the EVA 2010 Project was jointly initiated by NASA and the One EVA contractor team. The challenges addressed were to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, to secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, to protect for EMU hardware operability on-orbit, and to determine the source of high water purity to support recharge of PLSSs (no longer available via Shuttle). EVA 2010 Project includes the following tasks: the development of a launch fixture that would allow the EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to be launched on-board alternate vehicles; extension of the EMU hardware maintenance interval from 3 years (current certification) to a minimum of 6 years (to extend to 2015); testing of recycled ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) water for use in the EMU cooling system in lieu of water resupplied by International Partner (IP) vehicles; development of techniques to remove & replace critical components in the PLSS on-orbit (not routine); extension of on-orbit certification of EVA tools; and development of an EVA hardware logistical plan to support the ISS without the Space Shuttle. Assumptions for the EVA 2010 Project included no more

  10. An Integrated Extravehicular Activity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Book is already performed annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: Benchmarking; Anthropometry and Suit Fit; Sensors; Human-Suit

  11. What's NEXT for EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, R. K.

    The NASA Exploration Team (NEXT) promotes a vision of new capabilities through an ongoing, integrated and prioritized investment in leap ahead concepts and technologies. The wise marriage of robotic and human work systems is a key element of this vision. To enable a wide array of future destinations and applications, it is important to develop and implement systems which are scalable, environmentally adaptable, reliable and efficiently productive. This paper highlights a few of the recently envisioned customers and applications for advanced extravehicular activity (EVA) systems. It also summarizes recent conceptual and practical studies to define the features and options of such a system. More importantly, it communicates the need and progress of knowledge capture, clearly defined performance targets, credible decision making tools, tangible benefits and creative leverage. With this integrated long range approach, space exploration and EVA can accelerate and enable the future for all generations.

  12. Design, development and evaluation of Stanford/Ames EVA prehensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, Larry J.; Aldrich, J.; Leblanc, M.; Sabelman, E.; Schwandt, D.

    1988-01-01

    Space Station operations and maintenance are expected to make unprecedented demands on astronaut EVA. With Space Station expected to operate with an 8 to 10 psi atmosphere (4 psi for Shuttle operations), the effectivness of pressurized gloves is called into doubt at the same time that EVA activity levels are to be increased. To address the need for more frequent and complex EVA missions and also to extend the dexterity, duration, and safety of EVA astronauts, NASA Ames and Stanford University have an ongoing cooperative agreement to explore and compare alternatives. This is the final Stanford/Ames report on manually powered Prehensors, each of which consists of a shroud forming a pressure enclosure around the astronaut's hand, and a linkage system to transfer the motions and forces of the hand to mechanical digits attached to the shroud. All prehensors are intended for attachment to a standard wrist coupling, as found on the AX-5 hard suit prototype, so that realistic tests can be performed under normal and reduced gravity as simulated by water flotation.

  13. Advanced EVA system design requirements study: EVAS/space station system interface requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1985-01-01

    The definition of the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems interface requirements and accomodations for effective integration of a production EVA capability into the space station are contained. A description of the EVA systems for which the space station must provide the various interfaces and accomodations are provided. The discussion and analyses of the various space station areas in which the EVA interfaces are required and/or from which implications for EVA system design requirements are derived, are included. The rationale is provided for all EVAS mechanical, fluid, electrical, communications, and data system interfaces as well as exterior and interior requirements necessary to facilitate EVA operations. Results of the studies supporting these discussions are presented in the appendix.

  14. STS-37 MS Apt tests CETA cart during EVA in OV-104's payload bay (PLB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Jerome Apt, suited in extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), tests Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart during extravehicular activity (EVA) in Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, payload bay (PLB). Apt works his way along the CETA deployable track mounted on OV-104's PLB port side. The ascent particle monitor (APM) is visible on the starboard side in the foreground. In the background are the aft PLB bulkhead and the vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods. Crewmembers spent several hours evaluating means of performing future EVA chores, transporting tools and crewmembers, etc. on Space Station Freedom (SSF).

  15. Overview of EVA PRA for TPS Repair for Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark; Duncan, Gary; Roeschel, Eduardo; Canga, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Following the Columbia accident in 2003, NASA developed techniques to repair the Thermal Protection System (TPS) in the event of damage to the TPS as one of several actions to reduce the risk to future flights from ascent debris, micro-meteoroid and/or orbital debris (MMOD). Other actions to help reduce the risk include improved inspection techniques, reduced shedding of debris from the External Tank and ability to rescue the crew with a launch on need vehicle. For the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission the crew rescue capability was limited by the inability to safe haven on the International Space Station (ISS), resulting in a greater reliance on the repair capability. Therefore it was desirable to have an idea of the risk associated with conducting a repair, where the repair would have to be conducted using an Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Previously, focused analyses had been conducted to quantify the risk associated with certain aspects of an EVA, for example the EVA Mobility Unit (EMU) or Space Suit; however, the analyses were somewhat limited in scope. A complete integrated model of an EVA which could quantify the risk associated with all of the major components of an EVA had never been done before. It was desired to have a complete integrated model to be able to assess the risks associated with an EVA to support the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) in making risk informed decisions. In the case of the HST Servicing Mission, this model was developed to assess specifically the risks associated with performing a TPS repair EVA. This paper provides an overview of the model that was developed to support the HST mission in the event of TPS damage. The HST Servicing Mission was successfully completed on May 24th 2009 with no critical TPS damage; therefore the model was not required for real-time mission support. However, it laid the foundation upon which future EVA quantitative risk assessments could be based.

  16. Extravehicular Activity Testing in Analog Environments: Evaluating the Effects of Center of Gravity and Environment on Human Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steve P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Center of gravity (CG) is likely to be an important variable in astronaut performance during partial gravity extravehicular activity (EVA). The Apollo Lunar EVA experience revealed challenges with suit stability and control. The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance Project (EPSP) in conjunction with the Constellation EVA Systems Project Office have developed plans to systematically understand the role of suit weight, CG and suit pressure on astronaut performance in partial gravity environments. This presentation based upon CG studies seeks to understand the impact of varied CG on human performance in lunar gravity.

  17. Suited for spacewalking: A teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Manning, Cheryl A. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is an activity guide for teachers on spacesuits and spacewalking. It uses the intensive interest many children have in space exploration as a launching point for hands-on-opportunities. The guide begins with brief discussions of the space environment, the history of space walking, the Space Shuttle spacesuit, and working in space. These are followed by a series of activities that enable children to explore the space environment as well as the science and technology behind the functions of spacesuits. The activities are not rated for specific grade levels because they can be adapted for students of many ages. The guide concludes with a brief glossary as well as references and resources.

  18. EVA 2010: Preparing for International Space Station EVA Operations Post-Space Shuttle Retirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; West, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The expected retirement of the NASA Space Transportation System (also known as the Space Shuttle ) by 2011 will pose a significant challenge to Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The EVA hardware currently used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed assuming that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for refurbishment, or if necessary for failure investigation. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support hardware and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2015, and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, the EVA 2010 Project was jointly initiated by NASA and the OneEVA contractor team. The challenges addressed were to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, to secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, to protect for EMU hardware operability on-orbit, and to determine the source of high water purity to support recharge of PLSSs (no longer available via Shuttle). EVA 2010 Project includes the following tasks: the development of a launch fixture that would allow the EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to be launched on-board alternate vehicles; extension of the EMU hardware maintenance interval from 3 years (current certification) to a minimum of 6 years (to extend to 2015); testing of recycled ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) water for use in the EMU cooling system in lieu of water resupplied by International Partner (IP) vehicles; development of techniques to remove & replace critical components in the PLSS on-orbit (not routine); extension of on-orbit certification of EVA tools; and development of an EVA hardware logistical plan to support the ISS without the Space Shuttle. Assumptions for the EVA 2010 Project included no more than

  19. EMU Suit Performance Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, Matthew S.; Benson, Elizabeth; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Designing a planetary suit is very complex and often requires difficult trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. To verify that new suit designs meet requirements, full prototypes must be built and tested with human subjects. However, numerous design iterations will occur before the hardware meets those requirements. Traditional draw-prototype-test paradigms for research and development are prohibitively expensive with today's shrinking Government budgets. Personnel at NASA are developing modern simulation techniques that focus on a human-centric design paradigm. These new techniques make use of virtual prototype simulations and fully adjustable physical prototypes of suit hardware. This is extremely advantageous and enables comprehensive design down-selections to be made early in the design process. Objectives: The primary objective was to test modern simulation techniques for evaluating the human performance component of two EMU suit concepts, pivoted and planar style hard upper torso (HUT). Methods: This project simulated variations in EVA suit shoulder joint design and subject anthropometry and then measured the differences in shoulder mobility caused by the modifications. These estimations were compared to human-in-the-loop test data gathered during past suited testing using four subjects (two large males, two small females). Results: Results demonstrated that EVA suit modeling and simulation are feasible design tools for evaluating and optimizing suit design based on simulated performance. The suit simulation model was found to be advantageous in its ability to visually represent complex motions and volumetric reach zones in three dimensions, giving designers a faster and deeper comprehension of suit component performance vs. human performance. Suit models were able to discern differing movement capabilities between EMU HUT configurations, generic suit fit concerns, and specific suit fit concerns for crewmembers based

  20. Design, development and evaluation of Stanford/Ames Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) prehensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, Larry J.; Jameson, J.; Leblanc, M.; Wilson, D.; Sabelman, E.; Schwandt, D.

    1987-01-01

    A summary is given of progress to date on work proposed in 1983 and continued in 1985, including design iterations on three different types of manually powered prehensors, construction of functional mockups of each and culminating in detailed drawings and specifications for suit-compatible sealed units for testing under realistic conditions.

  1. Advanced EVA system design requirements study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the space station advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related EVA support equipment were established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as operational, procedures and training issues were considered.

  2. In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) Prebreathe Protocol Peer Review Assessment. Part 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Timothy K.; Polk, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of extravehicular activity (EVA) by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts involves the risk of decompression sickness. This risk has been mitigated by the use of oxygen "prebreathe" to effectively wash out tissue nitrogen prior to each EVA. Now that the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) is being retired, high-pressure oxygen will become a limited resource. The In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) Prebreathe Protocol offers several potential benefits including its potential to save 6 pounds of oxygen per EVA. At the request of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center, the peer review convened on October 14, 2010. The major recommendation of the Review Committee was that the ISLE protocol was acceptable for operational use as a prebreathe option prior to EVA. The appendices to Volume I of the report are contained in this document.

  3. In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) Prebreathe Protocol Peer Review Assessment. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Timothy K.; Polk, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of extravehicular activity (EVA) by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts involves the risk of decompression sickness. This risk has been mitigated by the use of oxygen "prebreathe" to effectively wash out tissue nitrogen prior to each EVA. Now that the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) is being retired, high-pressure oxygen will become a limited resource. The In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) Prebreathe Protocol offers several potential benefits including its potential to save 6 pounds of oxygen per EVA. At the request of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center, the peer review convened on October 14, 2010. The major recommendation of the Review Committee was that the ISLE protocol was acceptable for operational use as a prebreathe option prior to EVA. The results from the peer review are contained in this document.

  4. Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham

    2012-12-01

    During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved

  5. Dust Tolerant EVA-Compatible Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I., III

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop connectors (quick disconnects and umbilical systems) that can be repetitively and reliably mated and de-mated during Lunar surface extra-vehicular activities. These standardized interfaces will be required for structural integrity and commodities transfer between linked surface elements. QD's fittings are needed for EVA spacesuit Primary Life Support Systems as well as liquid cooled garment circulation and suit heat rejection. Umbilical electro-mechanical systems (connectors) are needed between discrete surface systems for transfer of air, power, fluid (water), and data must be capable of being operated by extra vehicular astronaut crew members and/or robotic assistants. There exists an urgent need to prevent electro-statically charged dust and debris from clogging and degrading the interface seals and causing leakage and spills of hazardous commodities, contaminating the flowstream, and degrading the mechanisms needed for umbilical connection. Other challenges include modularity, standardization, autonomous operation, and lifetime sealing issues.

  6. Human performance profiles for planetary analog extra-vehicular activities: 120 day and 30 day analog missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarmer, Tiffany M.

    Understanding performance factors for future planetary missions is critical for ensuring safe and successful planetary extra-vehicular activities (EVAs). The goal of this study was to gain operational knowledge of analog EVAs and develop biometric profiles for specific EVA types. Data was collected for a 120 and 30 day analog planetary exploration simulation focusing on EVA type, pre and post EVA conditions, and performance ratings. From this five main types of EVAs were performed: maintenance, science, survey/exploratory, public relations, and emergency. Each EVA type has unique characteristics and performance ratings showing specific factors in chronological components, environmental conditions, and EVA systems that have an impact on performance. Pre and post biometrics were collected to heart rate, blood pressure, and SpO2. Additional data about issues and specific EVA difficulties provide some EVA trends illustrating how tasks and suit comfort can negatively affect performance ratings. Performance decreases were noted for 1st quarter and 3rd quarter EVAs, survey/exploratory type EVAs, and EVAs requiring increased fine and gross motor function. Stress during the simulation is typically higher before the EVA and decreases once the crew has returned to the habitat. Stress also decreases as the simulation nears the end with the 3rd and 4th quarters showing a decrease in stress levels. Operational components and studies have numerous variable and components that effect overall performance, by increasing the knowledge available we may be able to better prepare future crews for the extreme environments and exploration of another planet.

  7. Plastic toy shark drifts through airlock in front of EMU suited MS Lenoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Plastic toy shark drifts through airlock and around fully extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited Mission Specialist (MS) Lenoir. Lenoir watches as shark drifts pass his left hand. Lenoir donned the EMU in preparation for a scheduled extravehicular activity (EVA) which was cancelled due to EMU problems.

  8. Astronaut EVA exposure estimates from CAD model spacesuit geometry.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Anderson, Brooke M; Atwell, William; Nealy, John E; Qualls, Garry D; Wilson, John W

    2004-03-01

    Ongoing assembly and maintenance activities at the International Space Station (ISS) require much more extravehicular activity (EVA) than did the earlier U.S. Space Shuttle missions. It is thus desirable to determine and analyze, and possibly foresee, as accurately as possible what radiation exposures crew members involved in EVAs will experience in order to minimize risks and to establish exposure limits that must not to be exceeded. A detailed CAD model of the U.S. Space Shuttle EVA Spacesuit, developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), is used to represent the directional shielding of an astronaut; it has detailed helmet and backpack structures, hard upper torso, and multilayer space suit fabric material. The NASA Computerized Anatomical Male and Female (CAM and CAF) models are used in conjunction with the space suit CAD model for dose evaluation within the human body. The particle environments are taken from the orbit-averaged NASA AP8 and AE8 models at solar cycle maxima and minima. The transport of energetic particles through space suit materials and body tissue is calculated by using the NASA LaRC HZETRN code for hadrons and a recently developed deterministic transport code, ELTRN, for electrons. The doses within the CAM and CAF models are determined from energy deposition at given target points along 968 directional rays convergent on the points and are evaluated for several points on the skin and within the body. Dosimetric quantities include contributions from primary protons, light ions, and electrons, as well as from secondary brehmsstrahlung and target fragments. Directional dose patterns are displayed as rays and on spherical surfaces by the use of a color relative intensity representation. PMID:15133283

  9. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  10. Suited versus unsuited analog astronaut performance using the Aouda.X space suit simulator: the DELTA experiment of MARS2013.

    PubMed

    Soucek, Alexander; Ostkamp, Lutz; Paternesi, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Space suit simulators are used for extravehicular activities (EVAs) during Mars analog missions. Flight planning and EVA productivity require accurate time estimates of activities to be performed with such simulators, such as experiment execution or traverse walking. We present a benchmarking methodology for the Aouda.X space suit simulator of the Austrian Space Forum. By measuring and comparing the times needed to perform a set of 10 test activities with and without Aouda.X, an average time delay was derived in the form of a multiplicative factor. This statistical value (a second-over-second time ratio) is 1.30 and shows that operations in Aouda.X take on average a third longer than the same operations without the suit. We also show that activities predominantly requiring fine motor skills are associated with larger time delays (between 1.17 and 1.59) than those requiring short-distance locomotion or short-term muscle strain (between 1.10 and 1.16). The results of the DELTA experiment performed during the MARS2013 field mission increase analog mission planning reliability and thus EVA efficiency and productivity when using Aouda.X. PMID:25811713

  11. EVA Wiki - Transforming Knowledge Management for EVA Flight Controllers and Instructors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Wiki was recently implemented as the primary knowledge database to retain critical knowledge and skills in the EVA Operations group at NASA's Johnson Space Center by ensuring that information is recorded in a common, searchable repository. Prior to the EVA Wiki, information required for EVA flight controllers and instructors was scattered across different sources, including multiple file share directories, SharePoint, individual computers, and paper archives. Many documents were outdated, and data was often difficult to find and distribute. In 2011, a team recognized that these knowledge management problems could be solved by creating an EVA Wiki using MediaWiki, a free and open-source software developed by the Wikimedia Foundation. The EVA Wiki developed into an EVA-specific Wikipedia on an internal NASA server. While the technical implementation of the wiki had many challenges, the one of the biggest hurdles came from a cultural shift. Like many enterprise organizations, the EVA Operations group was accustomed to hierarchical data structures and individually-owned documents. Instead of sorting files into various folders, the wiki searches content. Rather than having a single document owner, the wiki harmonized the efforts of many contributors and established an automated revision control system. As the group adapted to the wiki, the usefulness of this single portal for information became apparent. It transformed into a useful data mining tool for EVA flight controllers and instructors, and also for hundreds of other NASA and contract employees. Program managers, engineers, astronauts, flight directors, and flight controllers in differing disciplines now have an easier-to-use, searchable system to find EVA data. This paper presents the benefits the EVA Wiki has brought to NASA's EVA community, as well as the cultural challenges it had to overcome.

  12. STS-57 MS2 Sherlock in EMU is lowered into JSC's WETF pool for EVA simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-57 Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Nancy J. Sherlock, fully suited in an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and helmet and standing on a platform, is lowered into the 25 foot deep pool of JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Once underwater, Sherlock will participate in an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation. SCUBA-equipped divers already in the pool guide the platform into the water.

  13. STS-57 MS3 Wisoff in EMU is lowered into JSC's WETF pool for EVA simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-57 Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Peter J.K. Wisoff, fully suited in an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and helmet and standing on a platform, is lowered into the 25 foot deep pool of JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Once underwater, Wisoff will participate in an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation. A SCUBA-equipped diver already in the pool guides the platform into the water.

  14. Software For Integration Of EVA And Telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, Michael L.; Smith, Jeffrey H.; Estus, Jay M.; Heneghan, Cate; Zimmerman, Wayne; Fiorini, Paolo; Schenker, Paul S.; Mcaffee, Douglas A.

    1991-01-01

    Telerobotics/EVA Joint Analysis Systems (TEJAS) computer program is hypermedia information software system using object-oriented programming to bridge gap between crew-EVA and telerobotics activities. TEJAS Version 1.0 contains 20 HyperCard stacks using visual, customizable interface of icon buttons, pop-up menus, and relational commands to store, link, and standardize related information about primitives, technologies, tasks, assumptions, and open issues involved in space-telerobot or crew-EVA tasks. Runs on any Apple MacIntosh personal computer.

  15. Requirements for extravehicular activities on the lunar and Martian surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Mariann F.; Schentrup, Susan M.

    1990-01-01

    Basic design reference requirements pertinent to EVA equipment on lunar and martian surfaces are provided. Environmental factors affecting surface EVA are analyzed including gravity, dust, atmospheric conditions, thermal gradients, lightning conditions, and radiation effects, and activities associated with surface EVA are outlined. Environmental and activity effects on EVA equipment are assessed, and emphasis is placed on planetary surface portable life support systems (PLSS), suit development, protection from micrometeoroids, dust, and radiation, food and water supplies, and the extravehicular mobility-unit thermal-control system. Environmental and activity impacts on PLSS design are studied, with focus on base self-sufficiency and reduction in resupply logistics.

  16. Apollo 15 EVA panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Mosaic photographs which compose a 360-degree panoramic view of the Apollo 15 Hadley-Apennine landing site, taken near the close of the third lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) by Astronauts David Scott and James Irwin. This group of photographs was designated the Rover 'RIP' Pan because the Lunar Roving Vehicle was parked in its final position prior to the two crewmen returning to the Lunar Module. The astronaut taking the pan was standing 325 feet east of the Lunar Module (LM). The Rover was parked about 300 feet east of the LM. This mosaic covers a field of view from about north-northeast to about south. Visible on the horizon from left to right are: Mount Hadley; high peaks of the Apennine Mountains which are farther in the distance than either Mount Hadley or Hadley Delta Mountain; Silver Spur on the Apennine Front; and the eastern portion of Hadley Delta. Note Rover tracks in the foreground.

  17. Suited Occupant Injury Potential During Dynamic Spacecraft Flight Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dub, Mark O.; McFarland, Shane M.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Constellation Space Suit Element [CSSE], a new space-suit architecture will be created for support of Launch, Entry, Abort, Microgravity Extra- Vehicular Activity [EVA], and post-landing crew operations, safety and, under emergency conditions, survival. The space suit is unique in comparison to previous launch, entry, and abort [LEA] suit architectures in that it utilizes rigid mobility elements in the scye (i.e., shoulder) and the upper arm regions. The suit architecture also utilizes rigid thigh disconnect elements to create a quick disconnect approximately located above the knee. This feature allows commonality of the lower portion of the suit (from the thigh disconnect down), making the lower legs common across two suit configurations. This suit must interface with the Orion vehicle seat subsystem, which includes seat components, lateral supports, and restraints. Due to the unique configuration of spacesuit mobility elements, combined with the need to provide occupant protection during dynamic vehicle events, risks have been identified with potential injury due to the suit characteristics described above. To address the risk concerns, a test series has been developed in coordination with the Injury Biomechanics Research Laboratory [IBRL] to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of these potential issues. Testing includes use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices [ATDs; vernacularly referred to as "crash test dummies"], Post Mortem Human Subjects [PMHS], and representative seat/suit hardware in combination with high linear acceleration events. The ensuing treatment focuses on test purpose and objectives; test hardware, facility, and setup; and preliminary results.

  18. EVA Radio DRATS 2011 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, Aaron J.; Bakula, Casey J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Fall of 2011, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) participated in the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field experiments held near Flagstaff, Arizona. The objective of the DRATS outing is to provide analog mission testing of candidate technologies for space exploration, especially those technologies applicable to human exploration of extra- terrestrial rocky bodies. These activities are performed at locations with similarities to extra-terrestrial conditions. This report describes the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Dual-Band Radio Communication System which was demonstrated during the 2011 outing. The EVA radio system is designed to transport both voice and telemetry data through a mobile ad hoc wireless network and employs a dual-band radio configuration. Some key characteristics of this system include: 1. Dual-band radio configuration. 2. Intelligent switching between two different capability wireless networks. 3. Self-healing network. 4. Simultaneous data and voice communication.

  19. Health and Safety Benefits of Small Pressurized Suitport Rovers as EVA Surface Support Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Pressurized safe-haven providing SPE protection and decompression sickness (DCS) treatment capabilities within 20 mins at all times. Up to 50% reduction in time spent in EVA suits (vs. Unpressurized Rovers) for equal or greater Boots-on-Surface EVA exploration time. Reduces suit-induced trauma and provides improved options for nutrition, hydration, and waste-management. Time spent inside SPR during long translations may be spent performing resistive and cardiovascular exercise. Multiple shorter EVAs versus single 8 hr EVAs increases DCS safety and decreases prebreathe requirements. SPRs also offer many potential operational, engineering and exploration benefits not addressed here.

  20. Initial Work Toward a Robotically Assisted EVA Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J.; Peters, B.; McBryan, E.; Laske, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Space Suit RoboGlove is a device designed to provide additional grasp strength or endurance for an EVA crew member since gloved hand performance is a fraction of what the unencumbered human hand can achieve. There have been past efforts to approach this problem by employing novel materials and construction techniques to the glove design, as well as integrating powered assistance devices. This application of the NASA/GM RoboGlove technology uses a unique approach to integrate the robotic actuators and sensors into a Phase VI EVA glove. This design provides grasp augmentation to the glove user while active, but can also function as a normal glove when disabled. Care was taken to avoid adding excessive bulk to the glove or affecting tactility by choosing low-profile sensors and extrinsically locating the actuators. Conduits are used to guide robotic tendons from linear actuators, across the wrist, and to the fingers. The second generation of the SSRG includes updated electronics, sensors, and actuators to improve performance. The following discusses the electromechanical design, softgoods integration, and control system of the SSRG. It also presents test results from the first integration of a powered mobility element onto a space suit, the NASA Mark III. Early results show that sensor integration did not impact tactile feedback in the glove and the actuators show potential for reduction in grasp fatigue over time.

  1. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipila, Stephanie A.; Scoville, Zebulon C.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Buffington, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenging primary objectives associated with NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is to demonstrate deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools and to obtain asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Prior Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from engineered EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as behavior of the asteroid capture mechanism will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint, and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) suit. This paper will summarize the overall operational concepts for conducting EVAs for the ARCM mission including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, and the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks.

  2. One hundred US EVAs: a perspective on spacewalks.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Richard C; McBarron, James W; Manatt, Scott A; McMann, Harold J; Fullerton, Richard K

    2002-01-01

    In the 36 years between June 1965 and February 2001, the US human space flight program has conducted 100 spacewalks, or extravehicular activities (EVAs), as NASA officially calls them. EVA occurs when astronauts wearing spacesuits travel outside their protective spacecraft to perform tasks in the space vacuum environment. US EVA started with pioneering feasibility tests during the Gemini Program. The Apollo Program required sending astronauts to the moon and performing EVA to explore the lunar surface. EVA supported scientific mission objectives of the Skylab program, but may be best remembered for repairing launch damage to the vehicle and thus saving the program. EVA capability on Shuttle was initially planned to be a kit that could be flown at will, and was primarily intended for coping with vehicle return emergencies. The Skylab emergency and the pivotal role of EVA in salvaging that program quickly promoted Shuttle EVA to an essential element for achieving mission objectives, including retrieving satellites and developing techniques to assemble and maintain the International Space Station (ISS). Now, EVA is supporting assembly of ISS. This paper highlights development of US EVA capability within the context of the overarching mission objectives of the US human space flight program. PMID:12583391

  3. EVA Retriever Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The EVA retriever is demonstrated in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF). The retriever moves on the air bearing table 'searching' for its target, in this case tools 'dropped' by astronauts on orbit.

  4. Modeling Active Region Evolution - A New LWS TR and T Strategic Capability Model Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNeice, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In 2006 the LWS TR&T Program funded us to develop a strategic capability model of slowly evolving coronal active regions. In this poster we report on the overall design, and status of our new modeling suite. Our design features two coronal field models, a non-linear force free field model and a global 3D MHD code. The suite includes supporting tools and a user friendly GUI which will enable users to query the web for relevant magnetograms, download them, process them to synthesize a sequence of photospheric magnetograms and associated photospheric flow field which can then be applied to drive the coronal model innner boundary, run the coronal models and finally visualize the results.

  5. Analysis of a Radiation Model of the Shuttle Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Qualls, Garry D.; Wilson, John W.

    2003-01-01

    The extravehicular activity (EVA) required to assemble the International Space Station (ISS) will take approximately 1500 hours with 400 hours of EVA per year in operations and maintenance. With the Space Station at an inclination of 51.6 deg the radiation environment is highly variable with solar activity being of great concern. Thus, it is important to study the dose gradients about the body during an EVA to help determine the cancer risk associated with the different environments the ISS will encounter. In this paper we are concerned only with the trapped radiation (electrons and protons). Two different scenarios are looked at: the first is the quiet geomagnetic periods in low Earth orbit (LEO) and the second is during a large solar particle event in the deep space environment. This study includes a description of how the space suit's computer aided design (CAD) model was developed along with a description of the human model. Also included is a brief description of the transport codes used to determine the total integrated dose at several locations within the body. Finally, the results of the transport codes when applied to the space suit and human model and a brief description of the results are presented.

  6. The performance of field scientists undertaking observations of early life fossils while in simulated space suit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, D.; Rask, J. C.; George, S. C.; de Leon, P.; Bonaccorsi, R.; Blank, J.; Slocombe, J.; Silburn, K.; Steele, H.; Gargarno, M.; McKay, C. P.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted simulated Apollo Extravehicular Activity's (EVA) at the 3.45 Ga Australian 'Pilbara Dawn of life' (Western Australia) trail with field and non-field scientists using the University of North Dakota's NDX-1 pressurizable space suit to overview the effectiveness of scientist astronauts employing their field observation skills while looking for stromatolite fossil evidence. Off-world scientist astronauts will be faced with space suit limitations in vision, human sense perception, mobility, dexterity, the space suit fit, time limitations, and the psychological fear of death from accidents, causing physical fatigue reducing field science performance. Finding evidence of visible biosignatures for past life such as stromatolite fossils, on Mars, is a very significant discovery. Our preliminary overview trials showed that when in simulated EVAs, 25% stromatolite fossil evidence is missed with more incorrect identifications compared to ground truth surveys but providing quality characterization descriptions becomes less affected by simulated EVA limitations as the science importance of the features increases. Field scientists focused more on capturing high value characterization detail from the rock features whereas non-field scientists focused more on finding many features. We identified technologies and training to improve off-world field science performance. The data collected is also useful for NASA's "EVA performance and crew health" research program requirements but further work will be required to confirm the conclusions.

  7. Astronaut Jack Lousma seen outside Skylab space station during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, is seen outside the Skylab space station in Earth orbit during the August 5, 1973 Skylab 3 extravehicular activity (EVA) in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the space station. Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, participated in the EVA with Lousma. During the EVA the two crewmen deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop.

  8. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup 2008 Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles S.; Litaker, Harry L.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the LER is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G LER mockup and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the aft bulkhead mockup test results from Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. Refer to 39th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) for test results of the EU. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the LER cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the LER cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  9. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup Test Results and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Small Pressurized Rover (SPR) is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the SPR is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G SPR mockup and a functional and pressurizable engineering unit. This paper focuses on the test results and lessons learned on the aft bulkhead mockup. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the SPR cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the SPR cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  10. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Report is will also continue at a frequency determined by HRP management. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of

  11. Compiling a Comprehensive EVA Training Dataset for NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murry, J. D.; Lee, L. R.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Training for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) is considered hazardous duty for NASA astronauts. This activity places astronauts at risk for decompression sickness as well as various musculoskeletal disorders from working in the spacesuit. As a result, the operational and research communities over the years have requested access to EVA training data to supplement their studies.

  12. EVA - Don't Leave Earth Without It

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, J. Scott; Smith, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Modern manned space programs come in two categories: those that need Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and those that will need EVA. This paper discusses major milestones in the Shuttle Program where EVA was used to save payloads, enhance on-orbit capabilities, and build structures in order to ensure success of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions. In conjunction, the Extravehicular Mobility Unit s (EMU) design, and hence, its capabilities evolved as its mission evolved. It is the intent that lessons can be drawn from these case studies so that EVA compatibility is designed into future vehicles and payloads.

  13. Suite of Activity-Based Probes for Cellulose-Degrading Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Weaver, Holly M.; Brown, Joseph N.; Koech, Phillip K.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hofstad, Beth A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2012-12-19

    Microbial glycoside hydrolases play a dominant role in the biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to high-value biofuels. Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are capable of producing multicomplex catalytic subunits containing cell-adherent cellulases, hemicellulases, xylanases, and other glycoside hydrolases to facilitate the degradation of highly recalcitrant cellulose and other related plant cell wall polysaccharides. Clostridium thermocellum is a cellulosome producing bacterium that couples rapid reproduction rates to highly efficient degradation of crystalline cellulose. Herein, we have developed and applied a suite of difluoromethylphenyl aglycone, N-halogenated glycosylamine, and 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglycoside activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probes to the direct labeling of the C. thermocellum cellulosomal secretome. These activity-based probes (ABPs) were synthesized with alkynes to harness the utility and multimodal possibilities of click chemistry, and to increase enzyme active site inclusion for LC-MS analysis. We directly analyzed ABP-labeled and unlabeled global MS data, revealing ABP selectivity for glycoside hydrolase (GH) enzymes in addition to a large collection of integral cellulosome-containing proteins. By identifying reactivity and selectivity profiles for each ABP, we demonstrate our ability to widely profile the functional cellulose degrading machinery of the bacterium. Derivatization of the ABPs, including reactive groups, acetylation of the glycoside binding groups, and mono- and disaccharide binding groups, resulted in considerable variability in protein labeling. Our probe suite is applicable to aerobic and anaerobic cellulose degrading systems, and facilitates a greater understanding of the organismal role associated within biofuel development.

  14. A Suite of Activity-Based Probes for Cellulose Degrading Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Chauvigné-Hines, Lacie M.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Weaver, Holly M.; Brown, Joseph N.; Koech, Phillip K.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hofstad, Beth A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial glycoside hydrolases play a dominant role in the biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to high-value biofuels. Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are capable of producing multicomplex catalytic subunits containing cell-adherent cellulases, hemicellulases, xylanases, and other glycoside hydrolases to facilitate the degradation of highly recalcitrant cellulose and other related plant cell wall polysaccharides. Clostridium thermocellum is a cellulosome producing bacterium that couples rapid reproduction rates to highly efficient degradation of crystalline cellulose. Herein, we have developed and applied a suite of difluoromethylphenyl aglycone, N-halogenated glycosylamine, and 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglycoside activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probes to the direct labeling of the C. thermocellum cellulosomal secretome. These activity-based probes (ABPs) were synthesized with alkynes to harness the utility and multimodal possibilities of click chemistry, and to increase enzyme active site inclusion for LC-MS analysis. We directly analyzed ABP-labeled and unlabeled global MS data, revealing ABP selectivity for glycoside hydrolase (GH) enzymes, in addition to a large collection of integral cellulosome-containing proteins. By identifying reactivity and selectivity profiles for each ABP, we demonstrate our ability to widely profile the functional cellulose degrading machinery of the bacterium. Derivatization of the ABPs, including reactive groups, acetylation of the glycoside binding groups, and mono- and disaccharide binding groups, resulted in considerable variability in protein labeling. Our probe suite is applicable to aerobic and anaerobic microbial cellulose degrading systems, and facilitates a greater understanding of the organismal role associated with biofuel development. PMID:23176123

  15. Evaluation of an Anthropometric Human Body Model for Simulated EVA Task Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etter, Brad

    1996-01-01

    One of the more mission-critical tasks performed in space is extravehicular activity (EVA) which requires the astronaut to be external to the station or spacecraft, and subsequently at risk from the many threats posed by space. These threats include, but are not limited to: no significant atmosphere, harmful electromagnetic radiation, micrometeoroids, and space debris. To protect the astronaut from this environment, a special EVA suit is worn which is designed to maintain a sustainable atmosphere (at 1/3 atmosphere) and provide protection against the hazards of space. While the EVA suit serves these functions well, it does impose limitations on the astronaut as a consequence of the safety it provides. Since the astronaut is in a virtual vacuum, any atmospheric pressure inside the suit serves to pressurize the suit and restricts mobility of flexible joints (such as fabric). Although some of the EVA suit joints are fixed, rotary-style joints, most of the mobility is achieved by the simple flexibility of the fabric. There are multiple layers of fabric, each of which serves a special purpose in the safety of the astronaut. These multiple layers add to the restriction of motion the astronaut experiences in the space environment. Ground-based testing is implemented to evaluate the capability of EVA-suited astronauts to perform the various tasks in space. In addition to the restriction of motion imposed by the EVA suit, most EVA activity is performed in a micro-gravity (weight less) environment. To simulate weightlessness EVA-suited testing is performed in a neutral buoyancy simulator (NBS). The NBS is composed of a large container of water (pool) in which a weightless environment can be simulated. A subject is normally buoyant in the pressurized suit; however he/she can be made neutrally buoyant with the addition of weights. In addition, most objects the astronaut must interface with in the NBS sink in water and flotation must be added to render them "weightless". The

  16. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity: Apollo Skylab Through STS-135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to conduct an EVA over-tasked the crewmember and exceeded the capabilities of vehicle and space suit life support systems. Energy expenditure was closely evaluated through the Apollo lunar surface EVAs, resulting in modifications to space suit design and EVA operations. After the Apollo lunar surface missions were completed, the United States shifted its focus to long duration human space flight, to study the human response to living and working in a microgravity environment. This paper summarizes the energy expenditure during EVA from Apollo Skylab through STS-135.

  17. Power assist EVA glove development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1992-01-01

    The design of the EVA glove is examined, emphasizing the development of a more flexible metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint for the EVA glove. The analysis of the EVA glove MCP joint is reviewed and the glove design process is recapitulated. Experimental tests of the glove are summarized.

  18. Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'for sale' sign. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV, who also participated in the two EVA's, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft.

  19. Suite of activity-based probes for cellulose-degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Chauvigné-Hines, Lacie M; Anderson, Lindsey N; Weaver, Holly M; Brown, Joseph N; Koech, Phillip K; Nicora, Carrie D; Hofstad, Beth A; Smith, Richard D; Wilkins, Michael J; Callister, Stephen J; Wright, Aaron T

    2012-12-19

    Microbial glycoside hydrolases play a dominant role in the biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to high-value biofuels. Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are capable of producing multicomplex catalytic subunits containing cell-adherent cellulases, hemicellulases, xylanases, and other glycoside hydrolases to facilitate the degradation of highly recalcitrant cellulose and other related plant cell wall polysaccharides. Clostridium thermocellum is a cellulosome-producing bacterium that couples rapid reproduction rates to highly efficient degradation of crystalline cellulose. Herein, we have developed and applied a suite of difluoromethylphenyl aglycone, N-halogenated glycosylamine, and 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglycoside activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probes to the direct labeling of the C. thermocellum cellulosomal secretome. These activity-based probes (ABPs) were synthesized with alkynes to harness the utility and multimodal possibilities of click chemistry and to increase enzyme active site inclusion for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. We directly analyzed ABP-labeled and unlabeled global MS data, revealing ABP selectivity for glycoside hydrolase (GH) enzymes, in addition to a large collection of integral cellulosome-containing proteins. By identifying reactivity and selectivity profiles for each ABP, we demonstrate our ability to widely profile the functional cellulose-degrading machinery of the bacterium. Derivatization of the ABPs, including reactive groups, acetylation of the glycoside binding groups, and mono- and disaccharide binding groups, resulted in considerable variability in protein labeling. Our probe suite is applicable to aerobic and anaerobic microbial cellulose-degrading systems and facilitates a greater understanding of the organismal role associated with biofuel development. PMID:23176123

  20. Predicting Strength and Fatigue for Suited and Unsuited Conditions from Empirical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maida, James C.; Gonzalez, L. J.; Rajulu, S.; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The need for longer and more labor-intensive extra-vehicular activities (EVA) is required for construction and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS). Issues pertaining to human performance while wearing a space suit (EMU) for prolonged periods have become more important. This project was conducted to investigate how a pressurized Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) affects human upper body joint strength and fatigue and how to predict it from computer models based on the data collected.

  1. The Evolution of Extravehicular Activity Operations to Lunar Exploration Based on Operational Lessons Learned During 2009 NASA Desert RATS Field Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Ernest R., Jr.; Welsh, Daren; Coan, Dave; Johnson, Kieth; Ney, Zane; McDaniel, Randall; Looper, Chris; Guirgis, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present options to evolutionary changes in several philosophical areas of extravehicular activity (EVA) operations. These areas will include single person verses team EVAs; various loss of communications scenarios (with Mission Control, between suited crew, suited crew to rover crew, and rover crew A to rover crew B); EVA termination and abort time requirements; incapacitated crew ingress time requirements; autonomous crew operations during loss of signal periods including crew decisions on EVA execution (including decision for single verses team EVA). Additionally, suggestions as to the evolution of the make-up of the EVA flight control team from the current standard will be presented. With respect to the flight control team, the major areas of EVA flight control, EVA Systems and EVA Tasks, will be reviewed, and suggested evolutions of each will be presented. Currently both areas receive real-time information, and provide immediate feedback during EVAs as well as spacesuit (extravehicular mobility unit - EMU) maintenance and servicing periods. With respect to the tasks being performed, either EMU servicing and maintenance, or the specific EVA tasks, daily revising of plans will need to be able to be smoothly implemented to account for unforeseen situations and findings. Many of the presented ideas are a result of lessons learned by the NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Operations Directorate operations team support during the 2009 NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS). It is important that the philosophy of both EVA crew operations and flight control be examined now, so that, where required, adjustments can be made to a next generation EMU and EVA equipment that will complement the anticipated needs of both the EVA flight control team and the crews.

  2. Emergency vehicle alert system (EVAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Bill; Crump, Roger; Harper, Warren; Myneni, Krishna

    1995-01-01

    The Emergency Vehicle Alert System (EVAS) program is sponsored by the NASA/MSFC Technology Utilization (TU) office. The program was conceived to support the needs of hearing impaired drivers. The objective of the program is to develop a low-cost, small device which can be located in a personal vehicle and warn the driver, via a visual means, of the approach of an emergency vehicle. Many different technologies might be developed for this purpose and each has its own advantages and drawbacks. The requirements for an acoustic detection system, appear to be pretty stringent and may not allow the development of a reliable, low-cost device in the near future. The problems include variations in the sirens between various types of emergency vehicles, distortions due to wind and surrounding objects, competing background noise, sophisticated signal processing requirements, and omni-directional coverage requirements. Another approach is to use a Radio Frequency (RF) signal between the Emergency Vehicle (EV) and the Personal Vehicle (PV). This approach requires a transmitter on each EV and a receiver in each PV, however it is virtually assured that a system can be developed which works. With this approach, the real technology issue is how to make a system work as inexpensively as possible. This report gives a brief summary of the EVAS program from its inception and concentrates on describing the activities that occurred during Phase 4. References 1-3 describe activities under Phases 1-3. In the fourth phase of the program, the major effort to be expended was in development of the microcontroller system for the PV, refinement of some system elements and packaging for demonstration purposes. An EVAS system was developed and demonstrated which used standard spread spectrum modems with minor modifications.

  3. The Soviet-Russian space suits a historical overview of the 1960's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; Abramov, Isaac P.; Stoklitsky, Anatoly Y.; Doodnik, Michail N.

    2002-07-01

    The development of protective suits for space use started with the Vostok-suit SK-1, first used by Yu. Gagarin on April 12, 1961, and then used on all subsequent Vostok-flights. The technical background for the design of these suits was the work on full pressure protective suits for military pilots and stratospheric flights in the 1930's through 50's. The Soviet-Russian space programme contains a large number of 'firsts', and one of the most well known is the first EVA by Leonov in 1965. This event is also the starting point for a long series of space suit development for Extravehicular Activities over the last 35 years. The next step to come was the transfer in void space of crew members between the two spacecraft Soyuz 4 and 5 in 1969. As has later become known this was an essential element in the planned Soviet lunar exploration programme, which in itself required a new space suit After the termination of the lunar programme in 1972, the space suit development concentrated on suits applicable to zero-gravity work around the manned space stations Salyut 6, Salyut 7 and MIR. These suits have become known as the ORLAN-family of suits, and an advanced version of this suit (ORLAN-M) will be used on the International Space Station together with the American EMU. This paper covers the space suit development in the Soviet Union in the 1960's and the experience used from the pre-space era.

  4. A human factors analysis of EVA time requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE), also known as Ergonomics, is a discipline whose goal is to engineer a safer, more efficient interface between humans and machines. HFE makes use of a wide range of tools and techniques to fulfill this goal. One of these tools is known as motion and time study, a technique used to develop time standards for given tasks. A human factors motion and time study was initiated with the goal of developing a database of EVA task times and a method of utilizing the database to predict how long an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) should take. Initial development relied on the EVA activities performed during the STS-61 mission (Hubble repair). The first step of the analysis was to become familiar with EVAs and with the previous studies and documents produced on EVAs. After reviewing these documents, an initial set of task primitives and task time modifiers was developed. Videotaped footage of STS-61 EVAs were analyzed using these primitives and task time modifiers. Data for two entire EVA missions and portions of several others, each with two EVA astronauts, was collected for analysis. Feedback from the analysis of the data will be used to further refine the primitives and task time modifiers used. Analysis of variance techniques for categorical data will be used to determine which factors may, individually or by interactions, effect the primitive times and how much of an effect they have.

  5. STS-104 MS Reilly suits up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-104 Pilot Charles O. Hobaugh gets help donning his launch and entry suit before heading to the launch pad. This launch will be his first space flight. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-104 is targeted for 5:04 a.m., July 12, from Launch Pad 39B. The primary payload on the mission is the joint airlock module, which will be added to the International Space Station. The airlock will be the primary path for Space Station spacewalk entry and departure for U.S. spacesuits, and will also support the Russian Orlan spacesuit for EVA activity.

  6. STS-104 MS Kavandi suits up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-104 Mission Specialist Janet Lynn Kavandi adjusts her helmet as she dons her launch and entry suit before heading to the launch pad. This launch will be her third space flight. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-104 is targeted for 5:04 a.m., July 12, from Launch Pad 39B. The primary payload on the mission is the joint airlock module, which will be added to the International Space Station. The airlock will be the primary path for Space Station spacewalk entry and departure for U.S. spacesuits, and will also support the Russian Orlan spacesuit for EVA activity.

  7. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory A.; Paul, Heather L.; Vogel, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energy-efficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  8. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Vogel, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energyefficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24-volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  9. A method of evaluating efficiency during space-suited work in a neutral buoyancy environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenisen, Michael C.; West, Phillip; Newton, Frederick K.; Gilbert, John H.; Squires, William G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate efficiency as related to the work transmission and the metabolic cost of various extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks during simulated microgravity (whole body water immersion) using three space suits. Two new prototype space station suits, AX-5 and MKIII, are pressurized at 57.2 kPa and were tested concurrently with the operationally used 29.6 kPa shuttle suit. Four male astronauts were asked to perform a fatigue trial on four upper extremity exercises during which metabolic rate and work output were measured and efficiency was calculated in each suit. The activities were selected to simulate actual EVA tasks. The test article was an underwater dynamometry system to which the astronauts were secured by foot restraints. All metabolic data was acquired, calculated, and stored using a computerized indirect calorimetry system connected to the suit ventilation/gas supply control console. During the efficiency testing, steady state metabolic rate could be evaluated as well as work transmitted to the dynamometer. Mechanical efficiency could then be calculated for each astronaut in each suit performing each movement.

  10. COSM: A Space Station EVAS test challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullo, Frank A.; Beardsley, Anthony C.

    The authors present the requirements that must be addressed to develop equipment that will perform the checkout, servicing, and maintenance (COSM) of the extravehicular activity system (EVAS) for manned space on the proposed US Space Station. An overview is presented of COSM operational requirements, and their relationship to an automatic COSM system. The Space Station environment, routine EVA sorties, and singular mission objectives and tasks are examined with respect to system design. The COSM system architecture and the technical approach taken are also examined.

  11. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benosn, E.; England, S.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during extravehicular activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. It is because of this high frequency usage that hand- and arm-related injuries and discomfort are known to occur during training in the NBL and while conducting EVAs. Hand-related injuries and discomforts have been occurring to crewmembers since the days of Apollo. While there have been numerous engineering changes to the glove design, hand-related issues still persist. The primary objectives of this study are therefore to: 1) document all known EVA glove-related injuries and the circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend ergonomic mitigations or design strategies that can be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigator team conducted an initial set of literature reviews, data mining of Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) databases, and data distribution analyses to understand the ergonomic issues related to glove-related injuries and discomforts. The investigation focused on the injuries and discomforts of U.S. crewmembers who had worn pressurized suits and experienced glove-related incidents during the 1980 to 2010 time frame, either during training or on-orbit EVA. In addition to data mining of the LSAH database, the other objective of the study was to find complimentary sources of information such as training experience, EVA experience, suit-related sizing data, and hand-arm anthropometric data to be tied to the injury data from LSAH. RESULTS: Past studies indicated that the hand was the most frequently injured part of the body during both EVA and NBL training. This study effort thus focused primarily on crew training data in the NBL between 2002 and 2010. Of the 87 recorded training incidents, 19 occurred to women and 68 to men. While crew ages ranged from

  12. Interviews with the Apollo lunar surface astronauts in support of planning for EVA systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.; Eppler, Dean B.; Morrow, Daniel G.

    1994-01-01

    Focused interviews were conducted with the Apollo astronauts who landed on the moon. The purpose of these interviews was to help define extravehicular activity (EVA) system requirements for future lunar and planetary missions. Information from the interviews was examined with particular attention to identifying areas of consensus, since some commonality of experience is necessary to aid in the design of advanced systems. Results are presented under the following categories: mission approach; mission structure; suits; portable life support systems; dust control; gloves; automation; information, displays, and controls; rovers and remotes; tools; operations; training; and general comments. Research recommendations are offered, along with supporting information.

  13. STS-65 Mission Specialist Chiao in EMU prepares for WETF contingency EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Mission Specialist Leroy Chiao, fully suited in an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and helmet, prepares to be lowered into a 25-feet deep pool at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Chiao will practice door and latch contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) procedures once underwater. Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas will join Chiao in the simulation. The two crewmates will be submerged and made to be neutrally buoyant in order to rehearse the contingency tasks that would require a spacewalk. No spacewalks are scheduled for the STS-65 International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission.

  14. STS-65 Mission Specialist Chiao in EMU prepares for WETF contingency EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Mission Specialist Leroy Chiao, fully suited in an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and helmet, stands on a platform and prepares to be lowered into a 25-feet deep pool at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Chiao will practice door and latch contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) procedures once underwater. Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas will join Chiao in the simulation. The two crewmates will be submerged and made to be neutrally buoyant in order to rehearse the contingency tasks that would require a spacewalk. No spacewalks are scheduled for the STS-65 International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission.

  15. Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 1: EVA Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Editor); Vykukal, H. C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    An overview is presented of extravehicular activity (EVA) research and development activities at Ames. The majority of the program was devoted to presentations by the three contractors working in parallel on the EVA System Phase A Study, focusing on Implications for Man-Systems Design. Overhead visuals are included for a mission results summary, space station EVA requirements and interface accommodations summary, human productivity study cross-task coordination, and advanced EVAS Phase A study implications for man-systems design. Articles are also included on subsea approach to work systems development and advanced EVA system design requirements.

  16. Development of an EVA systems cost model. Volume 3: EVA systems cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The EVA systems cost model presented is based on proposed EVA equipment for the space shuttle program. General information on EVA crewman requirements in a weightless environment and an EVA capabilities overview are provided.

  17. Effective Teamwork: The EVA NBL Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, Lori

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the experience of improving the operation of the ExtraVehiclar Activity (EVA) Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory as a team of NASA employees and contractors. It reviews specific recommendations to use in turning a struggling organization around as a NASA/contractor team

  18. EVA and telerobot interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, Kelli F.

    1990-01-01

    We are about to enter into a new era - that of astronauts working hand in hand with telerobots in space. This has been done to some degree with astronauts and the Space Station Shuttle's Remote Manipulator Arm. However, for the Space Station Freedom, not only will astronauts be working with the RMS type system but also with smaller, more dexterous systems such as the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS). Because EVA time is a premium resource, the most effective use of the astronauts and the telerobot will be required. There may be some tasks for which it is most efficient to have both the EVA astronaut and the telerobot working together. This type of close integration has not occurred before and brings up many issues. Most of these issues are related to technology: communication must be infallible, new control systems and devices may be required, enhanced telerobot safety systems may be necessary. IVA operations may also be affected by the combined EVA telerobot tasks. There is also the issue of how the EVA astronaut and the telerobot work on separate tasks but at the same time. For both situations, research and development of at least some new technology is required; enhanced communication both by voice and data, sophisticated collision detection systems, more responsive controls and displays. These new systems or system enhancements may require knowledge base systems for their operation. Some of the important issues, types of tasks, the FTS capabilities, the technology that is needed to address those issues, and the possible impact on Space Station Freedom are reviewed.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission Four (HST SM4) EVA Challenges for Safe Execution of STS-125

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dedalis, Robert P.; Hill, William H.; Rice, Karin Bergh; Cooter, Ann M.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2009, the world-renowned Hubble Space Telescope (HST) received a suite of new instruments and a refurbished bus to enable science for many years to come. The restoration was conducted on-orbit by four space-walkers on five carefully scripted Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) days. Assuring the safety of the space-walkers and their crew-mates required careful attention to tool development, detailed procedures for every activity and many rehearsals with engineers and crew to ensure that everything worked together. Additionally, evolution of EVA requirements since the last servicing mission in 2002, and the broad scope of the mission demanded a much higher degree of safety participation in hardware design and risk acceptance than for previous servicing missions.

  20. Crew/Robot Coordinated Planetary EVA Operations at a Lunar Base Analog Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Bluethmann, W. J.; Delgado, F. J.; Herrera, E.; Kosmo, J. J.; Janoiko, B. A.; Wilcox, B. H.; Townsend, J. A.; Matthews, J. B.; Fong, T. W.; Bualat, M. G.; Lee, S. Y.; Dorsey, J. T.; Doggett, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Under the direction of NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program, robots and space suited subjects from several NASA centers recently completed a very successful demonstration of coordinated activities indicative of base camp operations on the lunar surface. For these activities, NASA chose a site near Meteor Crater, Arizona close to where Apollo Astronauts previously trained. The main scenario demonstrated crew returning from a planetary EVA (extra-vehicular activity) to a temporary base camp and entering a pressurized rover compartment while robots performed tasks in preparation for the next EVA. Scenario tasks included: rover operations under direct human control and autonomous modes, crew ingress and egress activities, autonomous robotic payload removal and stowage operations under both local control and remote control from Houston, and autonomous robotic navigation and inspection. In addition to the main scenario, participants had an opportunity to explore additional robotic operations: hill climbing, maneuvering heaving loads, gathering geo-logical samples, drilling, and tether operations. In this analog environment, the suited subjects and robots experienced high levels of dust, rough terrain, and harsh lighting.

  1. Astronauts Carl Meade and Mark Lee test SAFER during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Backdropped against the darkness of space some 130 nautical miles above Earth, astronaut Mark C. Lee (red stripe on EVA suit) tests the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. Astronaut Carl J. Meade, tethered to Discovery, at bottom center, got his turn later using the new SAFER hardware. The scen was captured with a 70mm handheld Hasselblad camera operated by a fellow crew member in the shirt-sleeve environment of the Space Shuttle Discovery's cabin. Part of the hardware for the Lidar-In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) is in left foreground.

  2. Astronaut Richard Gordon returns to hatch of spacecraft following EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., pilot for the Gemini 11 space flight, returns to the hatch of the spacecraft following extravehicular activity (EVA). This picture was taken over the Atlantic Ocean at approximately 160 nautical miles above the earth's surface.

  3. Interaction of Space Suits with Windblown Soil: Preliminary Mars Wind Tunnel Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J.; Bratton, C.; Kosmo, J.; Trevino, R.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments in the Mars Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center show that under Mars conditions, spacesuit materials are highly susceptible to dust contamination when exposed to windblown soil. This effect was suspected from knowledge of the interaction of electrostatically adhesive dust with solid surfaces in general. However, it is important to evaluate the respective roles of materials, meteorological and radiation effects, and the character of the soil. The tunnel permits evaluation of dust contamination and sand abrasion of space suits by simulating both pressure and wind conditions on Mars. The long-term function of space suits on Mars will be primarily threatened by dust contamination. Lunar EVA activities caused heavy contamination of space suits, but the problem was never seriously manifest because of the brief utilization of the suits, and the suits were never reused. Electrostatically adhering dust grains have various detrimental effects: (1) penetration and subsequent wear of suit fabrics, (2) viewing obscuration through visors and scratching/pitting of visor surfaces, (3) penetration, wear, and subsequent seizing-up of mechanical suit joints, (4) changes in albedo and therefore of radiation properties of external heat-exchanger systems, (5) changes in electrical conductivity of suit surfaces which may affect tribocharging of suits and create spurious discharge effects detrimental to suit electronics/radio systems. Additional information is contained in the original.

  4. Space Shuttle/Orbiter EVA and EVA provisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    EVA objectives, procedures, and equipment for the Shuttle are reviewed. The EVA will occur as a planned excursion, to complete a mission objective, or on a contingency basis as support for the mission or to effect repairs to the Orbiter or its payload. Configurations for the placement of the airlock for EVA with and without Spacelab payloads are discussed, along with the various EVA tasks which could be expected as necessary for mission completion. Handholds have been placed in strategic positions on the RMS and along the payload doors, and a safety tether has been incorporated with line extension out to 25 ft. Off-the-shelf tools such as needlenose pliers, forceps, diagonal cutters, etc. are carried as standard equipment for the repair of malfunctioning equipment and doorlatches. Finally, attention is given to EVA lighting, communication, life-support, and work station restraint systems.

  5. Water Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design, fabricate, and test a preflight prototype pump for use in the Extravehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump will accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting noncondensable gas without becoming "air locked." The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the preflight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES will simulate the vacuum environment in which the flight pump will operate. Testing will verify that the pump meets design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure rise, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, and restart capability. Pump testing is currently

  6. Astronaut Ronald Evans photographed during transearth coast EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Ronald E. Evans is photographed performing extravehicular activity (EVA) during the Apollo 17 spacecraft's transearth coast. During his EVA Command Module pilot Evans retrieved film cassettes from the Lunar Sounder, Mapping Camera, and Panoramic Camera. The cylindrical object at Evans left side is the mapping camera cassette. The total time for the transearth EVA was one hour seven minutes 19 seconds, starting at ground elapsed time of 257:25 (2:28 p.m.) amd ending at ground elapsed time of 258:42 (3:35 p.m.) on Sunday, December 17, 1972.

  7. Astronaut Ronald Evans photographed during transearth coast EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Ronald E. Evans is photographed performing extravehicular activity (EVA) during the Apollo 17 spacecraft's transearth coast. During his EVA Command Module pilot Evans retrieved film cassettes from the Lunar Sounder, Mapping Camera, and Panoramic Camera. The total time for the transearth EVA was one hour seven minutes 19 seconds, starting at ground elapsed time of 257:25 (2:28 p.m.) amd ending at ground elapsed time of 258:42 (3:35 p.m.) on Sunday, December 17, 1972.

  8. EVA Design, Verification, and On-Orbit Operations Support Using Worksite Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagale, Thomas J.; Price, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) design is a very large and complex orbiting structure with thousands of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) worksites. These worksites are used to assemble and maintain the ISS. The challenge facing EVA designers was how to design, verify, and operationally support such a large number of worksites within cost and schedule. This has been solved through the practical use of computer aided design (CAD) graphical techniques that have been developed and used with a high degree of success over the past decade. The EVA design process allows analysts to work concurrently with hardware designers so that EVA equipment can be incorporated and structures configured to allow for EVA access and manipulation. Compliance with EVA requirements is strictly enforced during the design process. These techniques and procedures, coupled with neutral buoyancy underwater testing, have proven most valuable in the development, verification, and on-orbit support of planned or contingency EVA worksites.

  9. Shoulder Injuries in US Astronauts Related to EVA Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Rick; McCulloch, Pat; Van Baalen, Mary; Watson, Richard; Bowen, Steve; Blatt, Terri

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors associated with the mechanism of injury that leads to shoulder injury requiring surgical repair. Despite the injury prevention measures taken from the 2003 Shoulder Tiger Team recommendations, shoulder injuries and subsequent shoulder surgeries remain relatively unchanged.

  10. Study of space shuttle EVA/IVA support requirements. Volume 2: EVA/IVA tasks, guidelines, and constraints definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, B. W.; Copeland, R. J.; Wood, P. W., Jr.; Cox, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The guidelines for EVA and IVA tasks to be performed on the space shuttle are defined. In deriving tasks, guidelines, and constraints, payloads were first identified from the mission model. Payload requirements, together with man and manipulator capabilities, vehicle characteristics and operation, and safety considerations led to a definition of candidate tasks. Guidelines and constraints were also established from these considerations. Scenarios were established, and screening criteria, such as commonality of EVA and IVA activities, were applied to derive representative planned and unplanned tasks. The whole spectrum of credible contingency situations with a potential requirement for EVA/IVA was analyzed.

  11. CETA truck and EVA restraint system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beals, David C.; Merson, Wayne R.

    1991-01-01

    The Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment is an extravehicular activity (EVA) Space Transportation System (STS) based flight experiment which will explore various modes of transporting astronauts and light equipment for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The basic elements of CETA are: (1) two 25 foot long sections of monorail, which will be EVA assembled in the STS cargo bay to become a single 50 ft. rail called the track; (2) a wheeled baseplate called the truck which rolls along the track and can accept three cart concepts; and (3) the three carts which are designated manual, electric, and mechanical. The three carts serve as the astronaut restraint and locomotive interfaces with the track. The manual cart is powered by the astronaut grasping the track's handrail and pulling himself along. The electric cart is operated by an astronaut turning a generator which powers the electric motor and drives the cart. The mechanical cart is driven by a Bendix type transmission and is similar in concept to a man-propelled railroad cart. During launch and landing, the truck is attached to the deployable track by means of EVA removable restraint bolts and held in position by a system of retractable shims. These shims are positioned on the exterior of the rail for launch and landing and rotate out of the way for the duration of the experiment. The shims are held in position by strips of Velcro nap, which rub against the sides of the shim and exert a tailored force. The amount of force required to rotate the shims was a major EVA concern, along with operational repeatability and extreme temperature effects. The restraint system was tested in a thermal-vac and vibration environment and was shown to meet all of the initial design requirements. Using design inputs from the astronauts who will perform the EVA, CETA evolved through an iterative design process and represented a cooperative effort.

  12. STS-92 Meal - Suit up - Depart O&C - Launch Discovery On Orbit - Landing - Crew Egress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The video begins with the introduction of the crew of Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-92, at their customary pre-flight meal. The crew consists of Commander Brian Duffy, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists Leroy Chiao, William McArthur, Peter "Jeff" Wisoff, Michael Lopez-Alegria, and Koichi Wakata. The introduction and suit-up of the astronauts, and their departure in the Astrovan are shown at a quick pace. The video shows in detail the seating of the crew and each astronaut's final preparations in the White Room prior to boarding. Views of Discovery's night launch include: SLF Convoy, Beach Tracker, VAB, Pad Perimeter, Tower-1, UCS-15, Press Site, UCS-23, OTV-61, OTV-70, OTV-71, and the In-Cabin Ascent Camera. While in orbit, the Discovery orbiter docks with the International Space Station (ISS). The docking is shown in a series of still images. The video includes clips from four extravehicular activities (EVAs). The crew members who performed the EVAs comment on them while speaking to Mission Control. During the EVAs, the Z1 Truss and an antenna are attached to the ISS. The crew members on the fourth EVA test jet packs. Views of landing include: TV-1, TV-2, TV-3, LRO-1, and HUD.

  13. Minimizing EVA Airlock Time and Depress Gas Losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis A.; Lafuse, Sharon A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the need and solution for minimizing EVA airlock time and depress gas losses using a new method that minimizes EVA out-the-door time for a suited astronaut and reclaims most of the airlock depress gas. This method consists of one or more related concepts that use an evacuated reservoir tank to store and reclaim the airlock depress gas. The evacuated tank can be an inflatable tank, a spent fuel tank from a lunar lander descent stage, or a backup airlock. During EVA airlock operations, the airlock and reservoir would be equalized at some low pressure, and through proper selection of reservoir size, most of the depress gas would be stored in the reservoir for later reclamation. The benefit of this method is directly applicable to long duration lunar and Mars missions that require multiple EVA missions (up to 100, two-person lunar EVAs) and conservation of consumables, including depress pump power and depress gas. The current ISS airlock gas reclamation method requires approximately 45 minutes of the astronaut s time in the airlock and 1 KW in electrical power. The proposed method would decrease the astronaut s time in the airlock because the depress gas is being temporarily stored in a reservoir tank for later recovery. Once the EVA crew is conducting the EVA, the volume in the reservoir would be pumped back to the cabin at a slow rate. Various trades were conducted to optimize this method, which include time to equalize the airlock with the evacuated reservoir versus reservoir size, pump power to reclaim depress gas versus time allotted, inflatable reservoir pros and cons (weight, volume, complexity), and feasibility of spent lunar nitrogen and oxygen tanks as reservoirs.

  14. A simulation system for Space Station extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmolejo, Jose A.; Shepherd, Chip

    1993-01-01

    America's next major step into space will be the construction of a permanently manned Space Station which is currently under development and scheduled for full operation in the mid-1990's. Most of the construction of the Space Station will be performed over several flights by suited crew members during an extravehicular activity (EVA) from the Space Shuttle. Once fully operational, EVA's will be performed from the Space Station on a routine basis to provide, among other services, maintenance and repair operations of satellites currently in Earth orbit. Both voice recognition and helmet-mounted display technologies can improve the productivity of workers in space by potentially reducing the time, risk, and cost involved in performing EVA. NASA has recognized this potential and is currently developing a voice-controlled information system for Space Station EVA. Two bench-model helmet-mounted displays and an EVA simulation program have been developed to demonstrate the functionality and practicality of the system.

  15. Development of a Fan for Future Space Suit Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul. Heather L.; Converse, David; Dionne, Steven; Moser, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    NASA's next generation space suit system will place new demands on the fan used to circulate breathing gas through the ventilation loop of the portable life support system. Long duration missions with frequent extravehicular activities (EVAs), the requirement for significant increases in reliability and durability, and a mission profile that imposes strict limits on weight, volume and power create the basis for a set of requirements that demand more performance than is available from existing fan designs. This paper describes the development of a new fan to meet these needs. A centrifugal fan was designed with a normal operating speed of approximately 39,400 rpm to meet the ventilation flow requirements while also meeting the aggressive minimal packaging, weight and power requirements. The prototype fan also operates at 56,000 rpm to satisfy a second operating condition associated with a single fan providing ventilation flow to two spacesuits connected in series. This fan incorporates a novel nonmetallic "can" to keep the oxygen flow separate from the motor electronics, thus eliminating ignition potential. The nonmetallic can enables a small package size and low power consumption. To keep cost and schedule within project bounds a commercial motor controller was used. The fan design has been detailed and implemented using materials and approaches selected to address anticipated mission needs. Test data is presented to show how this fan performs relative to anticipated ventilation requirements for the EVA portable life support system. Additionally, data is presented to show tolerance to anticipated environmental factors such as acoustics, shock, and vibration. Recommendations for forward work to progress the technology readiness level and prepare the fan for the next EVA space suit system are also discussed.

  16. Astronaut Alan Shepard walks toward MET during first EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., foreground, Apollo 14 commander, walks toward the Modularized Equipment Transporter (MET), out of view at right, during the first Apollo 14 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). An EVA checklist is attached to Shepard's left wrist. Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, is in the background working at a subpackage of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The cylindrical keg-like object directly under Mitchell's extended left hand is the Passive Seismic Experiment (PSE).

  17. Compression under a mechanical counter pressure space suit glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldie, James M A.; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Tourbier, Dietmar; Webb, Paul; Jarvis, Christine W.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Current gas-pressurized space suits are bulky stiff shells severely limiting astronaut function and capability. A mechanical counter pressure (MCP) space suit in the form of a tight elastic garment could dramatically improve extravehicular activity (EVA) dexterity, but also be advantageous in safety, cost, mass and volume. The purpose of this study was to verify that a prototype MCP glove exerts the design compression of 200 mmHg, a pressure similar to the current NASA EVA suit. Methods: Seven male subjects donned a pressure measurement array and MCP glove on the right hand, which was placed into a partial vacuum chamber. Average compression was recorded on the palm, the bottom of the middle finger, the top of the middle finger and the dorsum of the hand at pressures of 760 (ambient), 660 and 580 mmHg. The vacuum chamber was used to simulate the pressure difference between the low breathing pressure of the current NASA space suits (approximately 200 mmHg) and an unprotected hand in space. Results: At ambient conditions, the MCP glove compressed the dorsum of the hand at 203.5 +/- 22.7 mmHg, the bottom of the middle finger at 179.4 +/- 16.0 mmHg, and the top of the middle finger at 183.8 +/- 22.6 mmHg. The palm compression was significantly lower (59.6 +/- 18.8 mmHg, p<0.001). There was no significant change in glove compression with the chamber pressure reductions. Conclusions: The MCP glove compressed the dorsum of the hand and middle finger at the design pressure.

  18. ChEVAS: Combining Suprarenal EVAS with Chimney Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Torella, Francesco; Chan, Tze Y. Shaikh, Usman; England, Andrew; Fisher, Robert K.; McWilliams, Richard G.

    2015-10-15

    Endovascular sealing with the Nellix{sup ®} endoprosthesis (EVAS) is a new technique to treat infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. We describe the use of endovascular sealing in conjunction with chimney stents for the renal arteries (chEVAS) in two patients, one with a refractory type Ia endoleak and an expanding aneurysm, and one with a large juxtarenal aneurysm unsuitable for fenestrated endovascular repair (EVAR). Both aneurysms were successfully excluded. Our report confirms the utility of chEVAS in challenging cases, where suprarenal seal is necessary. We suggest that, due to lack of knowledge on its durability, chEVAS should only been considered when more conventional treatment modalities (open repair and fenestrated EVAR) are deemed difficult or unfeasible.

  19. ChEVAS: Combining Suprarenal EVAS with Chimney Technique.

    PubMed

    Torella, Francesco; Chan, Tze Y; Shaikh, Usman; England, Andrew; Fisher, Robert K; McWilliams, Richard G

    2015-10-01

    Endovascular sealing with the Nellix(®) endoprosthesis (EVAS) is a new technique to treat infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. We describe the use of endovascular sealing in conjunction with chimney stents for the renal arteries (chEVAS) in two patients, one with a refractory type Ia endoleak and an expanding aneurysm, and one with a large juxtarenal aneurysm unsuitable for fenestrated endovascular repair (EVAR). Both aneurysms were successfully excluded. Our report confirms the utility of chEVAS in challenging cases, where suprarenal seal is necessary. We suggest that, due to lack of knowledge on its durability, chEVAS should only been considered when more conventional treatment modalities (open repair and fenestrated EVAR) are deemed difficult or unfeasible. PMID:26202393

  20. Space suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, L. F.; Durney, G. P.; Case, M. C.; Kenneway, A. J., III; Wise, R. C.; Rinehart, D.; Bessette, R. J.; Pulling, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A pressure suit for high altitude flights, particularly space missions is reported. The suit is designed for astronauts in the Apollo space program and may be worn both inside and outside a space vehicle, as well as on the lunar surface. It comprises an integrated assembly of inner comfort liner, intermediate pressure garment, and outer thermal protective garment with removable helmet, and gloves. The pressure garment comprises an inner convoluted sealing bladder and outer fabric restraint to which are attached a plurality of cable restraint assemblies. It provides versitility in combination with improved sealing and increased mobility for internal pressures suitable for life support in the near vacuum of outer space.

  1. Pulmonary gas exchange is not impaired 24 h after extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Prisk, G Kim; Fine, Janelle M; Cooper, Trevor K; West, John B

    2005-12-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) during spaceflight involves a significant decompression stress. Previous studies have shown an increase in the inhomogeneity of ventilation-perfusion ratio (VA/Q) after some underwater dives, presumably through the embolic effects of venous gas microemboli in the lung. Ground-based chamber studies simulating EVA have shown that venous gas microemboli occur in a large percentage of the subjects undergoing decompression, despite the use of prebreathe protocols to reduce dissolved N(2) in the tissues. We studied eight crewmembers (7 male, 1 female) of the International Space Station who performed 15 EVAs (initial cabin pressure 748 mmHg, final suit pressure either approximately 295 or approximately 220 mmHg depending on the suit used) and who followed the denitrogenation procedures approved for EVA from the International Space Station. The intrabreath VA/Q slope was calculated from the alveolar Po(2) and Pco(2) in a prolonged exhalation maneuver on the day after EVA and compared with measurements made in microgravity on days well separated from the EVA. There were no significant changes in intrabreath VA/Q slope as a result of EVA, although there was a slight increase in metabolic rate and ventilation (approximately 9%) on the day after EVA. Vital capacity and other measures of pulmonary function were largely unaltered by EVA. Because measurements could only be performed on the day after EVA because of logistical constraints, we were unable to determine an acute effect of EVA on VA/Q inequality. The results suggest that current denitrogenation protocols do not result in any major lasting alteration to gas exchange in the lung. PMID:16123205

  2. Experiments with an EVA Assistant Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burridge, Robert R.; Graham, Jeffrey; Shillcutt, Kim; Hirsh, Robert; Kortenkamp, David

    2003-01-01

    Human missions to the Moon or Mars will likely be accompanied by many useful robots that will assist in all aspects of the mission, from construction to maintenance to surface exploration. Such robots might scout terrain, carry tools, take pictures, curate samples, or provide status information during a traverse. At NASA/JSC, the EVA Robotic Assistant (ERA) project has developed a robot testbed for exploring the issues of astronaut-robot interaction. Together with JSC's Advanced Spacesuit Lab, the ERA team has been developing robot capabilities and testing them with space-suited test subjects at planetary surface analog sites. In this paper, we describe the current state of the ERA testbed and two weeks of remote field tests in Arizona in September 2002. A number of teams with a broad range of interests participated in these experiments to explore different aspects of what must be done to develop a program for robotic assistance to surface EVA. Technologies explored in the field experiments included a fuel cell, new mobility platform and manipulator, novel software and communications infrastructure for multi-agent modeling and planning, a mobile science lab, an "InfoPak" for monitoring the spacesuit, and delayed satellite communication to a remote operations team. In this paper, we will describe this latest round of field tests in detail.

  3. The SPoCA-suite: Software for extraction, characterization, and tracking of active regions and coronal holes on EUV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeeck, C.; Delouille, V.; Mampaey, B.; De Visscher, R.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Precise localization and characterization of active regions (AR) and coronal holes (CH) as observed by extreme ultra violet (EUV) imagers are crucial for a wide range of solar and helio-physics studies. Aims: We introduce a set of segmentation procedures (known as the SPoCA-suite) that allows one to retrieve AR and CH properties on EUV images taken from SOHO-EIT, STEREO-EUVI, PROBA2-SWAP, and SDO-AIA. Methods: We build upon our previous work on the Spatial Possibilistic Clustering Algorithm (SPoCA), that we have improved substantially in several ways. Results: We apply our algorithm on the synoptic EIT archive from 1997 to 2011 and decompose this dataset into regions that can clearly be identified as AR, quiet Sun, and CH. An antiphase between AR and CH filling factor is observed, as expected. The SPoCA-suite is next applied to datasets from EUVI, SWAP, and AIA. The time series pertaining to ARs or CHs are presented. Conclusions: The SPoCA-suite enables the extraction of several long time series of AR and CH properties from the data files of EUV imagers and also allows tracking individual ARs or CHs over time. For AIA images, AR and CH catalogs are available in near-real time from the Heliophysics Events Knowledgebase. The full code, which allows processing any EUV images, is available upon request to the authors.

  4. Power assist EVA glove development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1992-01-01

    Structural modeling of the EVA glove indicates that flexibility in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint can be improved by selectively lowering the elasticity of the glove fabric. Two strategies are used to accomplish this. One method uses coil springs on the back of the glove to carry the tension in the glove skin due to pressurization. These springs carry the loads normally borne by the glove fabric, but are more easily deformed. An active system was also designed for the same purpose and uses gas filled bladders attached to the back of the EVA glove that change the dimensions of the back of the glove and allow the glove to bend at the MCP joint, thus providing greater flexibility at this joint. A threshold control scheme was devised to control the action of the joint actuators. Input to the controller was provided by thin resistive pressure sensors placed between the hand and the pressurized glove. The pressure sensors consist of a layer of polyester film that has a thin layer of ink screened on the surface. The resistivity of the ink is pressure dependent, so an extremely thin pressure sensor can be fabricated by covering the ink patch with another layer of polyester film and measuring the changing resistance of the ink with a bridge circuit. In order to sense the force between the hand and the glove at the MCP joint, a sensor was placed on the palmar face of the middle finger. The resultant signal was used by the controller to decide whether to fill or exhaust the bladder actuators on the back of the glove. The information from the sensor can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a given control scheme or glove design since the magnitude of the measured pressures gives some idea of the torque required to bend a glove finger at the MCP joint. Tests of this actuator, sensor, and control system were conducted in an 57.2 kPa glove box by performing a series of 90 degree finger bends with a glove without an MCP joint assembly, a glove with the coil spring

  5. Reach Envelope and Field of Vision Quantification in Mark III Space Suit using Delaunay Triangulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Thaxton, Sherry S.; Onady, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2006-01-01

    The Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) project is focused on the development of a rover vehicle that can be utilized by two crewmembers during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) on the moon and Mars. The current SCOUT vehicle can transport two suited astronauts riding in open cockpit seats. Among the aspects currently being developed is the cockpit design and layout. This process includes the identification of possible locations for a socket to which a crewmember could connect a portable life support system (PLSS) for recharging power, air, and cooling while seated in the vehicle. The spaces in which controls and connectors may be situated within the vehicle are constrained by the reach and vision capabilities of the suited crewmembers. Accordingly, quantification of the volumes within which suited crewmembers can both see and reach relative to the vehicle represents important information during the design process.

  6. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoville, Zebulon; Sipila, Stephanie; Bowie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is challenged with primary mission objectives of demonstrating deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools, and obtaining asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Although the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) is used for the EVAs, it has limited mobility which increases fatigue and decreases the crews' capability to perform EVA tasks. Furthermore, previous Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, some vehicle interfaces and tools can leverage heritage designs and experience. However, when the crew ventures onto an asteroid capture bag to explore the asteroid and collect rock samples, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as bunching of the fabric bag will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the MACES suit. The proposed concept utilizes expandable booms and integrated features of the asteroid capture bag to position and restrain the crew at the asteroid worksite. These methods enable the capability to perform both finesse, and high load tasks necessary to collect samples for scientific characterization of the asteroid. This paper will explore the design trade space and options that were examined for EVA, the

  7. Orbit Software Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osgood, Cathy; Williams, Kevin; Gentry, Philip; Brownfield, Dana; Hallstrom, John; Stuit, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Orbit Software Suite is used to support a variety of NASA/DM (Dependable Multiprocessor) mission planning and analysis activities on the IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) platform. The suite of Orbit software tools (Orbit Design and Orbit Dynamics) resides on IPS/Linux workstations, and is used to perform mission design and analysis tasks corresponding to trajectory/ launch window, rendezvous, and proximity operations flight segments. A list of tools in Orbit Software Suite represents tool versions established during/after the Equipment Rehost-3 Project.

  8. The use of an extended ventilation tube as a countermeasure for EVA-associated upper extremity medical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. A.; Hoffman, R. B.; Buckland, D. A.; Harvey, C. M.; Bowen, C. K.; Hudy, C. E.; Strauss, S.; Novak, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.

    Introduction: Onycholysis due to repetitive activity in the space suit glove during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training and during spaceflight extravehicular activity (EVA) is a common observation. Moisture accumulates in gloves during EVA task performance and may contribute to the development of pain and damage to the fingernails experienced by many astronauts. The study evaluated the use of a long ventilation tube to determine if improved gas circulation into the hand area could reduce hand moisture and thereby decrease the associated symptoms. Methods: The current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was configured with a ventilation tube that extended down a single arm of the crew member (E) and compared with the unventilated arm (C). Skin surface moisture was measured on both hands immediately after glove removal and a questionnaire administered to determine subjective measures. Astronauts ( n=6) were examined pre- and post-run. Results: There were consistent trends in the reduction of relative hydration ratios at dorsum ( C=3.34, E=2.11) and first ring finger joint ( C=2.46, E=1.96) when the ventilation tube was employed. Ventilation appeared more effective on the left versus the right hand, implying an interaction with hand anthropometry and glove fit. Symptom score was lower on the hand that had the long ventilation tube relative to the control hand in 2/6 EVA crew members. Conclusions: Increased ventilation to the hand was effective in reducing the risks of hand and nail discomfort symptoms from moderate to low in one-third of the subjects. Improved design in the ventilation capability of EVA spacesuits is expected to improve efficiency of air flow distribution.

  9. PDock Suite

    2007-03-01

    The PDock suite is a software package for performing molecular docking simulations. PDock was designed to bea modular and extensible software package that interfaces easily with third party codes to quickly evaluate and test different methods for moleuclar docking simulations. Docking calculations start with three dimensional atomistic models of two molecules (usually a protein and small molecule) and predict how they will bind to each other. This problem can be broken down into 2 mainmore » steps: 1) predicting various orientation/conformation combinations (called 'poses') of one molecule to "dock" into the other one and 2) scoring each possible pose. The best scoring pose is predicted to be the biological one. PDock has two main algoritms for performing the first step of docking. The first performs a biased search of poses using its own implementation of the published DOCK algorithm. The second is an evolutionary search algorithm. PDock uses a force-field based scoring scheme with an option of perform a more computationally expensive solvation correction. The PDock suite includes the following programs : PDock (main program); PGrid: for pre-processing input files; ProteinPDock (simplified main ()and input file for special case of protein-protein docking); and CombiPDock (simpliefied main() and input file for special case of combinatorial libraries).« less

  10. A Freezable Heat Exchanger for Space Suit Radiator Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabity, James A.; Mason, Georgia R.; Copeland, Robert J.; Trevino, Luis a.

    2008-01-01

    During an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA), both the heat generated by the astronaut s metabolism and that produced by the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) must be rejected to space. The heat sources include the heat of adsorption of metabolic CO2, the heat of condensation of water, the heat removed from the body by the liquid cooling garment and the load from the electrical components. Although the sublimator hardware to reject this load weighs only 1.58 kg (3.48 lbm), an additional 3.6 kg (8 lbm) of water are loaded into the unit, most of which is sublimated and lost to space, thus becoming the single largest expendable during an eight-hour EVA. Using a radiator to reject heat from the astronaut during an EVA can reduce the amount of expendable water consumed in the sublimator. Radiators have no moving parts and are thus highly reliable. Past freezable radiators have been too heavy, but the weight can be greatly reduced by placing a small and freeze tolerant heat exchanger between the astronaut and radiator, instead of making the very large radiator freeze tolerant. Therefore, the key technological innovation to improve space suit radiator performance was the development of a lightweight and freezable heat exchanger that accommodates the variable heat load generated by the astronaut. Herein, we present the heat transfer performance of a newly designed heat exchanger that endured several freeze / thaw cycles without any apparent damage. The heat exchanger was also able to continuously turn down or turn up the heat rejection to follow the variable load.

  11. Space Suit Portable Life Support System Rapid Cycle Amine Repackaging and Sub-Scale Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Rivera, Fatonia L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies to meet requirements for an extravehicular activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for exploration. The PLSS Ventilation Subsystem transports clean, conditioned oxygen to the pressure garment for space suit pressurization and human consumption, and recycles the ventilation gas, removing carbon dioxide, humidity, and trace contaminants. This paper provides an overview of the development efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center to redesign the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) canister and valve assembly into a radial flow, cylindrical package for carbon dioxide and humidity control of the PLSS ventilation loop. Future work is also discussed.

  12. Wearing a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, astronaut Mario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-77 TRAINING VIEW --- Wearing a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, astronaut Mario Runco, mission specialist, prepares to participate in an underwater rehearsal of a contingency Extravehicular Activity (EVA). This type of training routinely takes place in the 25-feet deep pool of the Johnson Space Centers (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Center (WET-F). The training prepares at least two crew members on each flight for procedures to follow outside the spacecraft in event of failure of remote methods to perform various chores.

  13. Suited Contingency Ops Food - 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, J. W.; Leong, M. L.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The contingency scenario for an emergency cabin depressurization event may require crewmembers to subsist in a pressurized suit for up to 144 hours. This scenario requires the capability for safe nutrition delivery through a helmet feed port against a 4 psi pressure differential to enable crewmembers to maintain strength and cognition to perform critical tasks. Two nutritional delivery prototypes were developed and analyzed for compatibility with the helmet feed port interface and for operational effectiveness against the pressure differential. The bag-in-bag (BiB) prototype, designed to equalize the suit pressure with the beverage pouch and enable a crewmember to drink normally, delivered water successfully to three different subjects in suits pressurized to 4 psi. The Boa restrainer pouch, designed to provide mechanical leverage to overcome the pressure differential, did not operate sufficiently. Guidelines were developed and compiled for contingency beverages that provide macro-nutritional requirements, a minimum one-year shelf life, and compatibility with the delivery hardware. Evaluation results and food product parameters have the potential to be used to improve future prototype designs and develop complete nutritional beverages for contingency events. These feeding capabilities would have additional use on extended surface mission EVAs, where the current in-suit drinking device may be insufficient.

  14. Post-Shuttle EVA Operations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Bill; Witt, Vincent; Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    The EVA hardware used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed with the assumption that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for ground processing, refurbishment, or failure investigation (if necessary). With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (EMU, Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support equipment and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2016 and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, NASA and the One EVA contractor team jointly initiated the EVA 2010 Project. Challenges were addressed to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, and protect EMU hardware operability on orbit for long durations.

  15. Application of shuttle EVA systems to payloads. Volume 1: EVA systems and operational modes description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Descriptions of the EVA system baselined for the space shuttle program were provided, as well as a compendium of data on available EVA operational modes for payload and orbiter servicing. Operational concepts and techniques to accomplish representative EVA payload tasks are proposed. Some of the subjects discussed include: extravehicular mobility unit, remote manipulator system, airlock, EVA translation aids, restraints, workstations, tools and support equipment.

  16. Application of Shuttle EVA Systems to Payloads. Volume 2: Payload EVA Task Completion Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Candidate payload tasks for EVA application were identified and selected, based on an analysis of four representative space shuttle payloads, and typical EVA scenarios with supporting crew timelines and procedures were developed. The EVA preparations and post EVA operations, as well as the timelines emphasizing concurrent payload support functions, were also summarized.

  17. Democracy to Come: Active Forums as Indicator Suites for e-Participation and e-Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodan, Debbie; Balnaves, Mark

    There is in modern industrial societies a ‘civic deficit’ Civic engagement in the traditional sense of community values and civic participation is declining (Putman 2000). What has not been examined is the ways in which various media including new media may provide real options for participatory cultures and participatory democracy now and in the future. Undoubtedly there are differences between participatory cultures that are considered a ‘genuine’ contribution to representational democracy and those that are not. This paper, based on initial research into Internet activism, will examine GetUp! as a specific example of an active forum that the authors argue enable participatory citizenship through media participation. While there are very few examples of active forums that might be considered a ‘genuine’ contribution to representational democracy there are clear signals that activism through active forums is maturing into a potent democratic force.

  18. Integration of the ProActive Suite and the semantic-oriented monitoring tool SemMon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funika, Wlodzimierz; Caromel, Denis; Koperek, Pawel; Kupisz, Mateusz

    In this paper we present our semantic-based approach to the monitoring of distributed applications built with the ProActive Parallel Suite framework. It is based on a semantic description of what is to be monitored, it's measurable capabilities, and related operations. We explore the ability to adapt a semantic-oriented monitoring tool, SemMon to ProActive. The latter provides a stable environment for development of parallel applications, while SemMon is aimed at semantic-oriented performance monitoring support, originally designed for distributed Java applications. We introduce a uniform monitoring environment model which describes the resources provided by ProActive and supports JMX-based notifications. A sample monitoring session is provided as well as plans for further research.

  19. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 mission specialist Lee M.E. Morin carries an affixed 35 mm camera to record work which is being performed on the International Space Station (ISS). Working with astronaut Jerry L. Ross (out of frame), the duo completed the structural attachment of the S0 (s-zero) truss, mating two large tripod legs of the 13 1/2 ton structure to the station's main laboratory during a 7-hour, 30-minute space walk. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  20. Effect of antigravity suit inflation on cardiovascular, PRA, and PVP responses in humans. [Plasma Renin Activity and Plasma VasoPressin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravik, S. E.; Keil, L. C.; Geelen, G.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of lower body and abdominal pressure, produced by antigravity suit inflation, on blood pressure, pulse rate, fluid and electrolyte shift, plasma vasopressin and plasma renin activity in humans in upright postures were studied. Five men and two women stood upright for 3 hr with the suit being either inflated or uninflated. In the control tests, the suit was inflated only during the latter part of the trials. Monitoring was carried out with a sphygnomanometer, with sensors for pulse rates, and using a photometer and osmometer to measure blood serum characteristics. The tests confirmed earlier findings that the anti-g suit eliminates increases in plasma renin activity. Also, the headward redistribution of blood obtained in the tests commends the anti-g suit as an alternative to water immersion or bed rest for initial weightlessness studies.

  1. A Human Factors Analysis of EVA Time Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate, Dennis W.

    1997-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is a discipline whose goal is to engineer a safer, more efficient interface between humans and machines. HFE makes use of a wide range of tools and techniques to fulfill this goal. One of these tools is known as motion and time study, a technique used to develop time standards for given tasks. During the summer of 1995, a human factors motion and time study was initiated with the goals of developing a database of EVA task times and developing a method of utilizing the database to predict how long an EVA should take. Initial development relied on the EVA activities performed during the STS-61 (Hubble) mission. The first step of the study was to become familiar with EVA's, the previous task-time studies, and documents produced on EVA's. After reviewing these documents, an initial set of task primitives and task-time modifiers was developed. Data was collected from videotaped footage of two entire STS-61 EVA missions and portions of several others, each with two EVA astronauts. Feedback from the analysis of the data was used to further refine the primitives and modifiers used. The project was continued during the summer of 1996, during which data on human errors was also collected and analyzed. Additional data from the STS-71 mission was also collected. Analysis of variance techniques for categorical data was used to determine which factors may affect the primitive times and how much of an effect they have. Probability distributions for the various task were also generated. Further analysis of the modifiers and interactions is planned.

  2. Suited for spacewalking: Teacher's guide with activities for physical and life science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Manning, Cheryl A.; Rosenberg, Carla B.

    1994-01-01

    Space walking has captured the imagination of generations of children and adults since science-fiction authors first placed their characters on the Moon. This publication is an activity guide for teachers interested in using the intense interest many children have in space exploration as a launching point for exciting hands-on learning opportunities. The guide begins with brief discussions of the space environment, the history of space walking, the Space Shuttle spacesuit, and working in space. These are followed by a series of activities that enable children to explore the space environment as well as the science and technology behind the functions of spacesuits. The activities are not rated for specific grade levels because they can be adapted for students of many ages. The chart on curriculum application at the back of the book is designed to help teachers incorporate activities into various subject areas.

  3. Quantifying Astronaut Tasks: Robotic Technology and Future Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava

    2003-01-01

    The primary aim of this research effort was to advance the current understanding of astronauts' capabilities and limitations in space-suited EVA by developing models of the constitutive and compatibility relations of a space suit, based on experimental data gained from human test subjects as well as a 12 degree-of-freedom human-sized robot, and utilizing these fundamental relations to estimate a human factors performance metric for space suited EVA work. The three specific objectives are to: 1) Compile a detailed database of torques required to bend the joints of a space suit, using realistic, multi- joint human motions. 2) Develop a mathematical model of the constitutive relations between space suit joint torques and joint angular positions, based on experimental data and compare other investigators' physics-based models to experimental data. 3) Estimate the work envelope of a space suited astronaut, using the constitutive and compatibility relations of the space suit. The body of work that makes up this report includes experimentation, empirical and physics-based modeling, and model applications. A detailed space suit joint torque-angle database was compiled with a novel experimental approach that used space-suited human test subjects to generate realistic, multi-joint motions and an instrumented robot to measure the torques required to accomplish these motions in a space suit. Based on the experimental data, a mathematical model is developed to predict joint torque from the joint angle history. Two physics-based models of pressurized fabric cylinder bending are compared to experimental data, yielding design insights. The mathematical model is applied to EVA operations in an inverse kinematic analysis coupled to the space suit model to calculate the volume in which space-suited astronauts can work with their hands, demonstrating that operational human factors metrics can be predicted from fundamental space suit information.

  4. Underwater EVA training in the WETF with astronaut Robert L. Stewart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) training in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) with astronaut Robert L. Stewart. Stewart is simulating a planned EVA using the mobile foot restraint device and a one-G version of the Canadian-built remote manipulator system.

  5. A suite of methods for representing activity space in a healthcare accessibility study

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Jill E; Spencer, John; Preisser, John S; Gesler, Wilbert M; Arcury, Thomas A

    2005-01-01

    Background "Activity space" has been used to examine how people's habitual movements interact with their environment, and can be used to examine accessibility to healthcare opportunities. Traditionally, the standard deviational ellipse (SDE), a Euclidean measure, has been used to represent activity space. We describe the construction and application of the SDE at one and two standard deviations, and three additional network-based measures of activity space using common tools in GIS: the road network buffer (RNB), the 30-minute standard travel time polygon (STT), and the relative travel time polygon (RTT). We compare the theoretical and methodological assumptions of each measure, and evaluate the measures by examining access to primary care services, using data from western North Carolina. Results Individual accessibility is defined as the availability of healthcare opportunities within that individual's activity space. Access is influenced by the shape and area of an individual's activity space, the spatial distribution of opportunities, and by the spatial structures that constrain and direct movement through space; the shape and area of the activity space is partly a product of how it is conceptualized and measured. Network-derived measures improve upon the SDE by incorporating the spatial structures (roads) that channel movement. The area of the STT is primarily influenced by the location of a respondent's residence within the road network hierarchy, with residents living near primary roads having the largest activity spaces. The RNB was most descriptive of actual opportunities and can be used to examine bypassing. The area of the RTT had the strongest correlation with a healthcare destination being located inside the activity space. Conclusion The availability of geospatial technologies and data create multiple options for representing and operationalizing the construct of activity space. Each approach has its strengths and limitations, and presents a different

  6. EVA crew workstation provisions for Skylab and Space Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.; Saenger, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A synopsis of scheduled extravehicular activities (EVA) for a nominal Skylab mission is presented with an overview of EV workstation equipment developed for the program. Also included are the unprogrammed extravehicular activities and supporting equipment that was quickly developed and retrofitted in a series of successful operations to salvage the crippled Skylab Cluster during the Skylab 1 Mission. Because EVA appears to be a requirement for the Space Shuttle Program, candidate EV workstations are discussed in terms of effective and economical Shuttle payload servicing and maintenance. Several such concepts, which could provide a versatile, portable EV support system, are presented.

  7. Suited for Spacewalking. Teacher's Guide with Activities for Physical and Life Science. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.

    This activity guide for teachers interested in using the intense interest many children have in space exploration as a launching point for exciting hands-on learning opportunities begins with brief discussions of the space environment, the history of spacewalking, the Space Shuttle spacesuit, and working in space. These are followed by a series of…

  8. Suited for Spacewalking: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Technology Education, Mathematics, and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; George, Jane A. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Technology Education, Mathematics, and Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of Human Resources and Education Education Division Washington, DC Education Working Group NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas This publication is in the Public Domain and is not protected by copyright. Permission is not required for duplication.

  9. A mobile transporter concept for EVA assembly of future spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Judith J.; Bush, Harold G.; Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Lake, Mark S.; Jensen, J. Kermit

    1990-01-01

    This paper details the ground test program for the NASA Langley Research Center Mobile Transporter concept. The Mobile Transporter would assist EVA astronauts in the assembly of the Space Station Freedom. 1-g and simulated O-g (neutral buoyancy) tests were conducted to evaluate the use of the Mobile Transporter. A three-bay (44 struts) orthogonal tetrahedral truss configuration with a 15-foot-square cross section was repeatedly assembled by a single pair of pressure suited test subjects working from the Mobile Transporter astronaut positioning devices. The average unit assembly time was 28 seconds/strut. The results of these tests indicate that the use of a Mobile Transporter for EVA assembly of Space Station size structure is viable and practical. Additionally, the Mobile Transporter could be used to construct other spacecraft such as the submillimeter astronomical laboratory, space crane, and interplanetary (i.e., Mars and lunar) spacecraft.

  10. Effects of EVA spacesuit glove on grasping and pinching tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appendino, Silvia; Battezzato, Alessandro; Chen Chen, Fai; Favetto, Alain; Mousavi, Mehdi; Pescarmona, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    The human hand has a wide range of degrees of freedom, allowing a great variety of movements, and is also one of the most sensitive parts of the human body. Due to these characteristics, it is the most important tool for astronauts to perform extravehicular activities (EVA). However, astronauts must wear mandatory EVA equipment to be protected from the harsh conditions in space and this strongly reduces hand performance, in particular as regards dexterity, tactile perception, mobility and fatigue. Several studies have been conducted to determine the influence of the EVA glove on manual capabilities, both in the past and more recently. This study presents experimental data regarding the performance decline occurring in terms of force and fatigue in the execution of grasping and pinching tasks when wearing an EVA glove, in pressurized and unpressurized conditions, compared with barehanded potential. Results show that wearing the unpressurized EVA glove hinders grip and lateral pinch performances, dropping exerted forces to about 50-70%, while it barely affects two- and three-finger pinch performances. On the other hand, wearing the pressurized glove worsens performances in all cases, reducing forces to about 10-30% of barehanded potential. The results are presented and compared with the previous literature.

  11. The Education of Eva Hoffman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proefriedt, William

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the autobiography of Eva Hoffman, "Lost in Translation: A Life in a New Language" (Dutton, 1989). Hoffman, whose family left Poland in the 1950s, offers a consciously bicultural view of the immigrant experience, in contrast to many autobiographies of those who forsake the old world for the new. (DM)

  12. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; Korona, F. Adam; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars [1] left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will address the space suit system architecture and technologies required based upon human exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) destinations, and describe how they should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program.1, 2, 3 In looking forward to future US space exploration to a space suit architecture with maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, a series of exercises and analyses have provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program (CxP) space suit architecture is postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions4. The destination environmental analysis presented in this paper demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit (LEO). Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and non-environmental design drivers that will become increasingly important the farther away from Earth humans venture. This paper demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, independent of any particular program, and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of need dates for any particular crewed flight program in the future. The approach to space suit design and interface definition discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with

  13. Crew Systems for Asteroid Exploration: Concepts for Lightweight & Low Volume EVA Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob; Calle, Carlos; Mantovani, James

    2013-01-01

    This RFI response is targeting Area 5. Crew Systems for Asteroid Exploration: concepts for lightweight and low volume robotic and extra-vehicular activity (EVA) systems, such as space suits, tools, translation aids, stowage containers, and other equipment. The NASA KSC Surface Systems Office, Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab and the Electrostatics & Surface Physics Lab (ESPL) are dedicated to developing technologies for operating in regolith environments on target body surfaces. We have identified two technologies in our current portfolio that are highly relevant and useful for crews that will visit a re-directed asteroid in Cis-Lunar Space. Both technologies are at a high TRL of 5/6 and could be rapidly implemented in time for an ARM mission in this decade.

  14. The Effects of Lunar Dust on EVA Systems During the Apollo Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Mission documents from the six Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface have been studied in order to catalog the effects of lunar dust on Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) systems, primarily the Apollo surface space suit. It was found that the effects could be sorted into nine categories: vision obscuration, false instrument readings, dust coating and contamination, loss of traction, clogging of mechanisms, abrasion, thermal control problems, seal failures, and inhalation and irritation. Although simple dust mitigation measures were sufficient to mitigate some of the problems (i.e., loss of traction) it was found that these measures were ineffective to mitigate many of the more serious problems (i.e., clogging, abrasion, diminished heat rejection). The severity of the dust problems were consistently underestimated by ground tests, indicating a need to develop better simulation facilities and procedures.

  15. The Effects of Lunar Dust on EVA Systems During the Apollo Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Mission documents from the six Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface have been studied in order to catalog the effects of lunar dust on Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) systems, primarily the Apollo surface space suit. It was found that the effects could be sorted into nine categories: vision obscuration, false instrument readings, dust coating and contamination, loss of traction, clogging of mechanisms, abrasion, thermal control problems, seal failures, and inhalation and irritation. Although simple dust mitigation measures were sufficient to mitigate some of the problems (i.e., loss of traction) it was found that these measures were ineffective to mitigate many of the more serious problems (i.e., clogging, abrasion, diminished heat rejection). The severity of the dust problems were consistently underestimated by ground tests, indicating a need to develop better simulation facilities and procedures.

  16. STS-65 Mission Specialist Chiao in EMU prepares for WETF contingency EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Mission Specialist Leroy Chiao, fully suited in an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and helmet, stands on a platform suspended via an overhead crane as he is lowered into a 25-feet deep pool at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Chiao prepares to be immersed in the pool to practice door and latch contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) procedures. Although no spacewalk is planned for the STS-65 International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission, NASA always trains some of each mission's crewmembers to perform in-space tasks that would be required in the event of remote system failure. For 14 years, the WETF pool has been used to train astronauts for spacewalks and to evaluate certain hardware and procedures. Chiao's EMU is weighted to enable the astronaut to achieve neutral buoyancy once in the tank. SCUBA-equipped divers already in the pool guide the platform into the water.

  17. Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Spichkov, A. N.; Filipenkov, S. N.

    Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha'(ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO 2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Control System for a Mars Space Suit Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan; Copeland, Robert; Parker, Amanda; Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) control during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) on Mars will be challenging. Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canisters have impractical logistics penalties, and regenerable metal oxide (MetOx) canisters weigh too much. Cycling bed systems and permeable membranes that are regenerable in space vacuum cannot vent on Mars due to the high partial pressure of CO2 in the atmosphere. Although sweep gas regeneration is under investigation, the feasibility, logistics penalties, and failure modes associated with this technique have not been fully determined. TDA Research, Inc. is developing a durable, high-capacity regenerable adsorbent that can remove CO2 from the space suit ventilation loop. The system design allows sorbent regeneration at or above 6 torr, eliminating the potential for Martian atmosphere to leak into the regeneration bed and into the ventilation loop. Regeneration during EVA minimizes the amount of consumables to be brought from Earth and makes the mission more affordable, while providing great operational flexibility during EVA. The feasibility of the concept has been demonstrated in a series of bench-scale experiments and a preliminary system analysis. This paper presents the latest results from these sorbent and system development efforts.

  19. Loads produced by a suited subject performing tool tasks without the use of foot restraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Poliner, Jeffrey; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    With an increase in the frequency of extravehicular activities (EVA's) aboard the Space Shuttle, NASA is interested in determining the capabilities of suited astronauts while performing manual tasks during an EVA, in particular the situations in which portable foot restraints are not used to stabilize the astronauts. Efforts were made to document the forces that are transmitted to spacecraft while pushing and pulling an object as well as while operating a standard wrench and an automatic power tool. The six subjects studied aboard the KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft were asked to exert a maximum torque and to maintain a constant level of torque with a wrench, to push and pull an EVA handrail, and to operate a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power tool. The results give an estimate of the forces and moments that an operator will transmit to the handrail as well as to the supporting structure. In general, it was more effective to use the tool inwardly toward the body rather than away from the body. There were no differences in terms of strength capabilities between right and left hands. The power tool was difficult to use. It is suggested that ergonomic redesigning of the power tool may increase the efficiency of power tool use.

  20. Medical, Psychophysiological, and Human Performance Problems During Extended EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: New Developments in the Assessment of the Risk of Decompression Sickness in Null Gravity During Extravehicular Activity; The Dynamic of Physiological Reactions of Cosmonauts Under the Influence of Repeated EVA Workouts, The Russian Experience; Medical Emergencies in Space; The Evolution from 'Physiological Adequacy' to 'Physiological Tuning'; Five Zones of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Conflicting Temperatures on the Human Body, Physiological Consequences; Human Performance and Subjective Perception in Nonuniform Thermal Conditions; The Hand as a Control System, Implications for Hand-Finger Dexterity During Extended EVA; and Understanding the Skill of Extravehicular Mass Handling.

  1. Astronaut Jack Lousma seen outside Skylab space station during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, is seen outside the Skylab space station in Earth orbit during the August 5, 1973 Skylab 3 extravehicular activity (EVA) in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the space station. Lousma is at the Apollo Telescope Mount EVA work station assembling one of the two 55-foot long sectionalized poles for the twin pole solar shield which was deployed to help cool the Orbital Workshop. Part of the Airlock Module's thermal/meteoroid curtain is in the left foreground.

  2. An MBSE Approach to Space Suit Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, Lauren; Kovich, Christine; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    The EVA/Space Suit Development Office (ESSD) Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) team has utilized MBSE in multiple programs. After developing operational and architectural models, the MBSE framework was expanded to link the requirements space to the system models through functional analysis and interfaces definitions. By documenting all the connections within the technical baseline, ESSD experienced significant efficiency improvements in analysis and identification of change impacts. One of the biggest challenges presented to the MBSE structure was a program transition and restructuring effort, which was completed successfully in 4 months culminating in the approval of a new EVA Technical Baseline. During this time three requirements sets spanning multiple DRMs were streamlined into one NASA-owned Systems Requirement Document (SRD) that successfully identified requirements relevant to the current hardware development effort while remaining extensible to support future hardware developments. A capability-based hierarchy was established to provide a more flexible framework for future space suit development that can support multiple programs with minimal rework of basic EVA/Space Suit requirements. This MBSE approach was most recently applied for generation of an EMU Demonstrator technical baseline being developed for an ISS DTO. The relatively quick turnaround of operational concepts, architecture definition, and requirements for this new suit development has allowed us to test and evolve the MBSE process and framework in an extremely different setting while still offering extensibility and traceability throughout ESSD projects. The ESSD MBSE framework continues to be evolved in order to support integration of all products associated with the SE&I engine.

  3. An Experimental Investigation of Dextrous Robots Using EVA Tools and Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert; Culbert, Christopher; Rehnmark, Frederik

    2001-01-01

    This investigation of robot capabilities with extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment looks at how improvements in dexterity are enabling robots to perform tasks once thought to be beyond machines. The approach is qualitative, using the Robonaut system at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), performing task trials that offer a quick look at this system's high degree of dexterity and the demands of EVA. Specific EVA tools attempted include tether hooks, power torque tools, and rock scoops, as well as conventional tools like scissors, wire strippers, forceps, and wrenches. More complex EVA equipment was also studied, with more complete tasks that mix tools, EVA hand rails, tethers, tools boxes, PIP pins, and EVA electrical connectors. These task trials have been ongoing over an 18 month period, as the Robonaut system evolved to its current 43 degree of freedom (DOF) configuration, soon to expand to over 50. In each case, the number of teleoperators is reported, with rough numbers of attempts and their experience level, with a subjective difficulty rating assigned to each piece of EVA equipment and function. JSC' s Robonaut system was successful with all attempted EVA hardware, suggesting new options for human and robot teams working together in space.

  4. STS-112 Astronaut Wolf Participates in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, participates in the mission's second session of extravehicular activity (EVA), a six hour, four minute space walk, in which an exterior station television camera was installed outside of the Destiny Laboratory. Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three EVA sessions. Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  5. STS-112 Astronaut Wolf Participates in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Anchored to a foot restraint on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm2, astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, participates in the mission's first session of extravehicular activity (EVA). Wolf is carrying the Starboard One (S1) outboard nadir external camera which was installed on the end of the S1 Truss on the International Space Station (ISS). Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three EVAs. Its primary mission was to install the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  6. Utilization of ISS to Develop and Test Operational Concepts and Hardware for Low-Gravity Terrestrial EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA has considerable experience in two areas of Extravehicular Activities (EVA). The first can be defined as microgravity, orbital EVAs. This consists of everything done in low Earth orbit (LEO), from the early, proof of concept EVAs conducted during the Gemini program of the 1960s, to the complex International Space Station (ISS) assembly tasks of the first decade of the 21st century. The second area of expertise is comprised of those EVAs conducted on the lunar surface, under a gravitational force one-sixth that of Earth. This EVA expertise encapsulates two extremes - microgravity and Earthlike gravitation - but is insufficient as humans expand their exploration purview, most notably with respect to spacewalks conducted on very low-gravity bodies, such as near- Earth objects (NEO) and the moons of Mars. The operational and technical challenges of this category of EVA have yet to be significantly examined, and as such, only a small number of operational concepts have been proposed thus far. To ensure mission success, however, EVA techniques must be developed and vetted to allow the selection of operational concepts that can be utilized across an assortment of destinations whose physical characteristics vary. This paper examines the utilization of ISS-based EVAs to test operational concepts and hardware in preparation for a low-gravity terrestrial EVA. While the ISS cannot mimic some of the fundamental challenges of a low-gravity terrestrial EVA - such as rotation rate and surface composition - it may be the most effective test bed available.

  7. Revolutionary Design for Astronaut Exploration — Beyond the Bio-Suit System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Dava J.; Canina, Marita; Trotti, Guillermo L.

    2007-01-01

    The Bio-Suit System is designed to revolutionize human space exploration by providing enhanced astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) locomotion and performance based on the concepts of a `second skin' capability. The novel Bio-Suit concept provides an overall exploration system realized through symbiotic relationships between a suite of advanced technologies, creative design, human modeling and analysis, and new mission operations techniques. By working at the intersection of engineering, design, life sciences and operations, new emergent capabilities and interrelationships result for applications to space missions, medical rehabilitation, and extreme sports activities. In many respects, the Bio-Suit System mimics Nature (biomimetics). For example, the second skin is capable of augmenting our biological skin by providing mechanical counter-pressure. We have designed and tested prototypes that prove mechanical counter-pressure feasibility. The `epidermis' of our second skin suit is patterned from 3D laser scans that incorporate human skin strain field maps for maximum mobility and natural movements, while requiring minimum energy expenditure for exploration tasks. We provide a technology roadmap for future design, pressure production and technology investments for the Bio-Suit System. Woven into the second skin are active materials to enhance human performance as well as to provide necessary performance metrics (i.e., energy expenditure). Wearable technologies will be embedded throughout the Bio-Suit System to place the explorer in an information-rich environment enabling real-time mission planning, prediction, and visualization. The Bio-Suit System concept augments human capabilities by coupling human and robotic abilities into a hybrid of the two, to the point where the explorer is hardly aware of the boundary between innate human performance and robotic activities.

  8. The Extravehicular Suit Impact Load Attenuation Study for Use in Astronaut Bone Fracture Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Gilkey, Kelly M.; Sulkowski, Christina M.; Samorezov, Sergey; Myers, Jerry G.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Integrated Medical Model (IMM) assesses the risk, including likelihood and impact of occurrence, of all credible in-flight medical conditions. Fracture of the proximal femur is a traumatic injury that would likely result in loss of mission if it were to happen during spaceflight. The low gravity exposure causes decreases in bone mineral density which heightens the concern. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center have quantified bone fracture probability during spaceflight with a probabilistic model. It was assumed that a pressurized extravehicular activity (EVA) suit would attenuate load during a fall, but no supporting data was available. The suit impact load attenuation study was performed to collect analogous data. METHODS: A pressurized EVA suit analog test bed was used to study how the offset, defined as the gap between the suit and the astronaut s body, impact load magnitude and suit operating pressure affects the attenuation of impact load. The attenuation data was incorporated into the probabilistic model of bone fracture as a function of these factors, replacing a load attenuation value based on commercial hip protectors. RESULTS: Load attenuation was more dependent on offset than on pressurization or load magnitude, especially at small offsets. Load attenuation factors for offsets between 0.1 - 1.5 cm were 0.69 +/- 0.15, 0.49 +/- 0.22 and 0.35 +/- 0.18 for mean impact forces of 4827, 6400 and 8467 N, respectively. Load attenuation factors for offsets of 2.8 - 5.3 cm were 0.93 +/- 0.2, 0.94 +/- 0.1 and 0.84 +/- 0.5, for the same mean impact forces. Reductions were observed in the 95th percentile confidence interval of the bone fracture probability predictions. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in uncertainty and improved confidence in bone fracture predictions increased the fidelity and credibility of the fracture risk model and its benefit to mission design and operational decisions.

  9. Characterization of dynamic thermal control schemes and heat transfer pathways for incorporating variable emissivity electrochromic materials into a space suit heat rejection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massina, Christopher James

    The feasibility of conducting long duration human spaceflight missions is largely dependent on the provision of consumables such as oxygen, water, and food. In addition to meeting crew metabolic needs, water sublimation has long served as the primary heat rejection mechanism in space suits during extravehicular activity (EVA). During a single eight hour EVA, approximately 3.6 kg (8 lbm) of water is lost from the current suit. Reducing the amount of expended water during EVA is a long standing goal of space suit life support systems designers; but to date, no alternate thermal control mechanism has demonstrated the ability to completely eliminate the loss. One proposed concept is to convert the majority of a space suit's surface area into a radiator such that the local environment can be used as a radiative thermal sink for rejecting heat without mass loss. Due to natural variations in both internal (metabolic) loads and external (environmental) sink temperatures, radiative transport must be actively modulated in order to maintain an acceptable thermal balance. Here, variable emissivity electrochromic devices are examined as the primary mechanism for enabling variable heat rejection. This dissertation focuses on theoretical and empirical evaluations performed to determine the feasibility of using a full suit, variable emissivity radiator architecture for space suit thermal control. Operational envelopes are described that show where a given environment and/or metabolic load combination may or may not be supported by the evaluated thermal architecture. Key integration considerations and guidelines include determining allowable thermal environments, defining skin-to-radiator heat transfer properties, and evaluating required electrochromic performance properties. Analysis also considered the impacts of dynamic environmental changes and the architecture's extensibility to EVA on the Martian surface. At the conclusion of this work, the full suit, variable emissivity

  10. Astronaut Richard Gordon practices attaching camera to film EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., prime crew pilot for the Gemini 11 space flight, practices attaching to a Gemini boilerplate a camera which will film his extravehicular activity (EVA) outside the spacecraft. The training exercise is being conducted in the Astronaut Training Building, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  11. Astronaut Alan Bean with subpackages of the ALSEP during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, traverses with the two subpackages of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA). Bean deployed the ALSEP components 300 feet from the Lunar Module (LM). The LM and deployed erectable S-band antenna can be seen in the background.

  12. Television transmission of Astronaut Harrison Schmitt falling during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt loses his balance and heads for a fall during the second Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site, in this black and white reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot.

  13. Astronauts Readdy, Walz, and Newman in airlock after EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In Discovery's airlock, astronaut William F. Readdy, pilot, holds up a STS-51 slogan -- 'Ace HST Tool Testers' -- for still and video cameras to record. Readdy is flanked by astronauts Carl E. Walz (left) and James H. Newman, who had just shared a lengthy period of extravehicular activity (EVA) in and around Discovery's cargo bay.

  14. EVA Task Timing and Timeline Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looper, Christopher A.; Ney, Zane A.

    2007-01-01

    EVA timeline development occurs using task execution data generated through underwater training and simulation. This project collected task time data during final training events for several Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions and compared like task time data collected during on-orbit execution. Analysis was performed to compare types of activities and times required for each looking specifically for how activities can be accurately trained from a timeline planning perspective. The data revealed two significant aspects of flight timeline planning; Zero-g task times will match training times for activities that can be accurately simulated with appropriate fidelity hardware; and not all activities can be simulated sufficiently to produce training task times that will reflect required zero-g times. An approach for timeline planning utilizing this knowledge is also presented.

  15. DSN Data Visualization Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Bach X.; Malhotra, Mark R.; Kim, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    The DSN Data Visualization Suite is a set of computer programs and reusable Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that assist in the visualization and analysis of Deep Space Network (DSN) spacecraft-tracking data, which can include predicted and actual values of downlink frequencies, uplink frequencies, and antenna-pointing angles in various formats that can include tables of values and polynomial coefficients. The data can also include lists of antenna-pointing events, lists of antenna- limit events, and schedules of tracking activities. To date, analysis and correlation of these intricately related data before and after tracking have been difficult and time-consuming. The DSN Data Visualization Suite enables operators to quickly diagnose tracking-data problems before, during, and after tracking. The Suite provides interpolation on demand and plotting of DSN tracking data, correlation of all data on a given temporal point, and display of data with color coding configurable by users. The suite thereby enables rapid analysis of the data prior to transmission of the data to DSN control centers. At the control centers, the same suite enables operators to validate the data before committing the data to DSN subsystems. This software is also Web-enabled to afford its capabilities to international space agencies.

  16. Astronauts Carl Meade and Mark Lee test SAFER during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts Carl J. Meade and Mark C. Lee (red stripe on suit) test the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system some 130 nautical miles from Earth. The pair was actually performing an in-space rehearsal or demonstration of a contingency rescue using the never-before flown hardware. Meade, who here wears the small back-pack unit with its complementary chest-mounted control unit, and Lee, anchored to Discovery's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robot arm, took turns using the SAFER hardware during their shared space walk of September 16, 1994.

  17. Astronauts Meade and Lee test SAFER system during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts Carl J. Meade and Mark C. Lee (red strip on suit) test the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system some 130 nautical miles above Earth. The pair was actually performing an in-space rehearsal or demonstration of a contingency rescue using the never-before flown hardware. Meade, who here wears the small back-pack unit with its complementary chest-mounted control unit, and Lee (anchored to the Space Shuttle Discovery's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robot arm) took turns using the SAFER hardware during their shared space walk.

  18. Determining a bends-preventing pressure for a space suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krutz, R. W., Jr.; Webb, J. T.; Dixon, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    Research conducted to determine the proper pressure for preventing bends during EVA without preoxygenation is examined. Male and female subjects with different breathing gas mixtures and pressures are studied in order to define the pressure. Visual and auditory Doppler ultrasonic signals are utilized to monitor intravascular gas bubbles. The workload, which simulates EVA, consists of a handturned bicycle ergometer, a torque wrench operation, and a rope pull. The experimental data reveal that the minimum space suit pressure needed to prevent decompression sickness is 9.5 psi.

  19. A new method of measuring the stiffness of astronauts' EVA gloves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Mehdi; Appendino, Silvia; Battezzato, Alessandro; Bonanno, Alberto; Chen Chen, Fai; Crepaldi, Marco; Demarchi, Danilo; Favetto, Alain; Pescarmona, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Hand fatigue is one of the most important problems of astronauts during their missions to space. This fatigue is due to the stiffness of the astronauts' gloves known as Extravehicular Activity (EVA) gloves. The EVA glove has a multilayered, bulky structure and is pressurized against the vacuum of space. In order to evaluate the stiffness of EVA gloves, different methods have been proposed in the past. In particular, the effects of wearing an EVA glove on the performance of the hands have been published by many researchers to represent the stiffness of the EVA glove. In this paper, a new method for measuring the stiffness of EVA gloves is proposed. A tendon-actuated finger probe is designed and used as an alternative to the human index finger in order to be placed inside an EVA glove and measure its stiffness. The finger probe is equipped with accelerometers, which work as tilt sensors, to measure the angles of its phalanges. The phalanges are actuated by applying different amount of torque using the tendons of the finger probe. Moreover, a hypobaric glove box is designed and realized to simulate the actual operating pressure of the EVA glove and to measure its stiffness in both pressurized and non-pressurized conditions. In order to prove the right performance of the proposed finger probe, an Orlam-DM EVA glove is used to perform a number of tests. The equation of stiffness for the PIP joint of this glove is extracted from the results acquired from the tests. This equation presents the torque required to flex the middle phalanx of the glove. Then, the effect of pressurization on the stiffness is highlighted in the last section. This setup can be used to measure the stiffness of different kinds of EVA gloves and allows direct, numerical comparison of their stiffness.

  20. EVA Systems Flight Controller Talks With Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, EVA Systems Flight Controller Sandy Fletcher participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Northtowne Ele...

  1. Evaluation of a Hybrid Elastic EVA Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Akin, David

    2002-01-01

    The hybrid elastic design is based upon an American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) glove designed by at the Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) in 1985. This design uses an elastic restraint layer instead of convolute joints to achieve greater dexterity and mobility during EVA (extravehicular activity). Two pilot studies and a main study were conducted using the hybrid elastic glove and 4000-series EMU (extravehicular activity unit) glove. Data on dexterity performance, joint range of motion, grip strength and perceived exertion was assessed for the EMU and hybrid elastic gloves with correlations to a barehanded condition. During this study, 30 test subjects performed multiple test sessions using a hybrid elastic glove and a 4000- series shuttle glove in a 4.3psid pressure environment. Test results to date indicate that the hybrid elastic glove performance is approximately similar to the performance of the 4000-series glove.

  2. Astronaut George Nelson uses one-G version of MMU to prepare for EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut George D. Nelson, 41-C mission specialist, uses a one-G version of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) to prepare for his upcoming extravehicular activity (EVA). The simulator is located in JSC's avionics systems laboratory.

  3. Active fires from the Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite: Product status and first evaluation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csiszar, Ivan; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Giglio, Louis; Ellicott, Evan; Vadrevu, Krishna P.; Justice, Christopher O.; Wind, Brad

    2014-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite incorporates fire-sensitive channels, including a dual-gain high-saturation temperature 4 µm channel, enabling active fire detection and characterization. The active fire product, based on the 750 m moderate resolution "M" bands of VIIRS, is one of the standard operational products generated by the Interface Data Processing Segment of the S-NPP ground system. The product builds on an earlier "Collection 4" version of the algorithm used for processing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Following postlaunch quality assessments and corrections in the input VIIRS Sensor Data Record data processing, an initial low detection bias was removed and the product achieved Beta quality in April 2012. Daily spurious detections along-scan lines were also significantly reduced as a result of further processing improvements in October 2012. Direct product comparison with MODIS over 4 months of data in 2013 has shown that VIIRS produces approximately 26% more detections than MODIS within the central 3 pixel VIIRS aggregation zone of approximately ±31° scan angle range and 70% more detections outside of that zone, mainly as a result of the superior VIIRS scanning and sampling characteristics. Further development is in progress to ensure high-quality VIIRS fire products that continue the MODIS data record and better serve the user community by delivering a full image classification product and fire radiative power retrievals. Research is also underway to take advantage of the radiometric signal from the 375 m VIIRS imager "I" bands.

  4. Flexible Packaging Concept for a Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Gretchen; Dillon, Paul; Oliver, Joe; Zapata, Felipe

    2009-01-01

    Neither the Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the space suit currently used for space shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) missions, nor the Apollo EMU, the space suit successfully used on previous lunar missions, will satisfy the requirements for the next generation Constellation Program (CxP) lunar suit. The CxP system or Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) must be able to tolerate more severe environmental and use conditions than any previous system. These conditions include missions to the severely cold lunar poles and up to 100 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) excursions without ground maintenance. Much effort is focused on decreasing the mass and volume of the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) over previous suit designs in order to accommodate the required increase in functionality. This paper documents the progress of a conceptual packaging effort of a flexible backpack for the CSSE PLSS. The flexible backpack concept relies on a foam protection system to absorb, distribute, and dissipate the energy from falls on the lunar surface. Testing and analysis of the foam protection system concept that was conducted during this effort indicates that this method of system packaging is a viable solution.

  5. Polarization Processes of Nanocomposite Silicate-EVA and PP Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Gian Carlo; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Testa, Luigi; Motori, Antonio; Saccani, Andrea; Patuelli, Francesca

    Recent works indicate that polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA) filled by nanosilicates may present low content of space charge and high electric strength. Investigations are being made to explain nanocomposite behaviour and characterize their electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. In this paper, the results of broad-band dielectric spectroscopy performed on EVA and PP filled by layered nanosized silicates are reported. Isochronal and isothermal curves of complex permittivity, as well as activation energies of the relaxation processes, are presented and discussed. Nanostructuration gives rise to substantial changes in the polarisation and dielectric loss behaviour. While the relaxation process of EVA, associated with glass transition of the material amorphous phase, results unchanged from base to nanostructured material, nanocomposites EVA and PP have shown the rise of a new process at higher temperatures respect to the typical host material processes, as well as a different distribution of relaxation processes. Changes in space charge accumulation in relation to the effectiveness of the purification process performed upon nanostructured materials are also reported: while the dispersion of the clean clays leads to a reduction of the space charge, especially at high fields, an unclean filler gives rise to significant homo-charge accumulation and interfacial polarisation phenomena.

  6. Commercial Spacewalking: Designing an EVA Qualification Program for Space Tourism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    In the near future, accessibility to space will be opened to anyone with the means and the desire to experience the weightlessness of microgravity, and to look out upon both the curvature of the Earth and the blackness of space, from the protected, shirt-sleeved environment of a commercial spacecraft. Initial forays will be short-duration, suborbital flights, but the experience and expertise of half a century of spaceflight will soon produce commercial vehicles capable of achieving low Earth orbit. Even with the commercial space industry still in its infancy, and manned orbital flight a number of years away, there is little doubt that there will one day be a feasible and viable market for those courageous enough to venture outside the vehicle and into the void, wearing nothing but a spacesuit, armed with nothing but preflight training. What that Extravehicular Activity (EVA) preflight training entails, however, is something that has yet to be defined. A number of significant factors will influence the composition of a commercial EVA training program, but a fundamental question remains: 'what minimum training guidelines must be met to ensure a safe and successful commercial spacewalk?' Utilizing the experience gained through the development of NASA's Skills program - designed to qualify NASA and International Partner astronauts for EVA aboard the International Space Station - this paper identifies the attributes and training objectives essential to the safe conduct of an EVA, and attempts to conceptually design a comprehensive training methodology meant to represent an acceptable qualification standard.

  7. Custom Unit Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Little, Frank; Oinuma, Ryoji; Larsen, Ben; Goldman, Jeff; Reinis, Filip; Trevino, Luis

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design and test a pre-flight prototype pump for use in the Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump must accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting non-condensable gas without becoming air locked. The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, seal-less, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES verified that the pump meets the design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure drop, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, gas ingestion, and restart capability under both ambient and vacuum conditions. The pump operated at 40 to 240 lbm/hr flow rate, 35 to 100 oF pump temperature, and 5 to 10 psid pressure rise. Power consumption of the pump controller at the nominal operating point in both ambient and vacuum conditions was 9.5 W, which was less than the 12 W predicted. Gas ingestion capabilities were tested by injecting 100 cc of air into the fluid line; the pump operated normally throughout this test.

  8. Dynamics, control and sensor issues pertinent to robotic hands for the EVA retriever system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclauchlan, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Basic dynamics, sensor, control, and related artificial intelligence issues pertinent to smart robotic hands for the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever system are summarized and discussed. These smart hands are to be used as end effectors on arms attached to manned maneuvering units (MMU). The Retriever robotic systems comprised of MMU, arm and smart hands, are being developed to aid crewmen in the performance of routine EVA tasks including tool and object retrieval. The ultimate goal is to enhance the effectiveness of EVA crewmen.

  9. Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, TCS, EVA Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don

    2011-01-01

    Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration then the Human Exploration Framework Teams (HEFT and HEFT2) evaluated potential exploration missions and the infrastructure and technology needs for those missions. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed by the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to, and then inhabit and explore, the moon. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), Thermal Control (TCS), and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems.

  10. Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, EVA, TCS Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don; Lawrence, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed in the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to and then inhabit and explore the moon. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration and identified many options for how to conduct human spaceflight in the future. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) and Thermal Control System (TCS) Systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each architecture and options are presented.

  11. CLCA2 Interactor EVA1 Is Required for Mammary Epithelial Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ramena, Grace; Yin, Yufang; Yu, Yang; Walia, Vijay; Elble, Randolph C.

    2016-01-01

    CLCA2 is a p53-, p63-inducible transmembrane protein that is frequently downregulated in breast cancer. It is induced during differentiation of human mammary epithelial cells, and its knockdown causes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). To determine how CLCA2 promotes epithelial differentiation, we searched for interactors using membrane dihybrid screening. We discovered a strong interaction with the cell junctional protein EVA1 (Epithelial V-like Antigen 1) and confirmed it by co-immunoprecipitation. Like CLCA2, EVA1 is a type I transmembrane protein that is regulated by p53 and p63. It is thought to mediate homophilic cell-cell adhesion in diverse epithelial tissues. We found that EVA1 is frequently downregulated in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines, especially those of mesenchymal phenotype. Moreover, knockdown of EVA1 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) caused EMT, implying that EVA1 is essential for epithelial differentiation. Both EVA1 and CLCA2 co-localized with E-cadherin at cell-cell junctions. The interacting domains were delimited by deletion analysis, revealing the site of interaction to be the transmembrane segment (TMS). The primary sequence of the CLCA2 TMS was found to be conserved in CLCA2 orthologs throughout mammals, suggesting that its interaction with EVA1 co-evolved with the mammary gland. A screen for other junctional interactors revealed that CLCA2 was involved in two different complexes, one with EVA1 and ZO-1, the other with beta catenin. Overexpression of CLCA2 caused downregulation of beta catenin and beta catenin-activated genes. Thus, CLCA2 links a junctional adhesion molecule to cytosolic signaling proteins that modulate proliferation and differentiation. These results may explain how attenuation of CLCA2 causes EMT and why CLCA2 and EVA1 are frequently downregulated in metastatic breast cancer cell lines. PMID:26930581

  12. STS-49 ASEM activities illustrated with PLAID computer graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Assembly of Station by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Methods (ASEM) activities are illustrated with PLAID computer graphics. Two extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited crewmembers work on multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS) (with legs attached) grappled by remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector and positioned in the over-the-nose location (above OV-105's crew compartment). This position has been designated as the assembly area for Space Station Freedom (SSF). This procedure will evaluate the ability to use the RMS to position MPESS carrier and EVA crewmembers forward and above the PLB.

  13. NASA Research Announcement Phase 1 Report and Phase 2 Proposal for the Development of a Power Assisted Space Suit Glove Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadogan, Dave; Lingo, Bob

    1996-01-01

    In July of 1996, ILC Dover was awarded Phase 1 of a contract for NASA to develop a prototype Power Assisted Space Suit glove to enhance the performance of astronauts during Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). This report summarizes the work performed to date on Phase 1, and details the work to be conducted on Phase 2 of the program. Phase 1 of the program consisted of research and review of related technical sources, concept brainstorming, baseline design development, modeling and analysis, component mock-up testing, and test data analysis. ILC worked in conjunction with the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) to develop the power assisted glove. Phase 2 activities will focus on the design maturation and the manufacture of a working prototype system. The prototype will be tested and evaluated in conjunction with existing space suit glove technology to determine the performance enhancement anticipated with the implementation of the power assisted joint technology in space suit gloves.

  14. Suitport Feasibility: Development and Test of a Suitport and Space Suit for Human Pressurized Space Suit Donning Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert M.; Mitchell, Kathryn; Allton, Charles; Ju, Hsing

    2012-01-01

    The suitport concept has been recently implemented as part of the small pressurized lunar rover (Currently the Space Exploration vehicle, or SEV) and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) concept demonstrator vehicle. Suitport replaces or augments the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress and egress of a space suit while the space suit remains outside of the pressurized volume of the spacecraft. This presents significant new opportunities to EVA exploration in both microgravity and surface environments. The suitport concept will enable three main improvements in EVA by providing reductions in: pre-EVA time from hours to less than thirty minutes; airlock consumables; contamination returned to the cabin with the EVA crewmember. To date, the first generation suitport has been tested with mockup suits on the rover cabins and pressurized on a bench top engineering unit. The work on the rover cabin has helped define the operational concepts and timelines, and has demonstrated the potential of suitport to save significant amounts of crew time before and after EVAs. The work with the engineering unit has successfully demonstrated the pressurizable seal concept including the ability to seal after the introduction and removal of contamination to the sealing surfaces. Using this experience, a second generation suitport was designed. This second generation suitport has been tested with a space suit prototype on the second generation MMSEV cabin, and testing is planned using the pressure differentials of the spacecraft. Pressurized testing will be performed using the JSC B32 Chamber B, a human rated vacuum chamber. This test will include human rated suitports, a suitport compatible prototype suit, and chamber modifications. This test will bring these three elements together in the first ever pressurized donning of a rear entry suit through a suitport. This paper presents

  15. A Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Presently, the Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) conducted from the Quest Joint Airlock on the International Space Station use high pressure, high purity oxygen that is delivered to the Space Station by the Space Shuttle. When the Space Shuttle retires, a new method of delivering high pressure, high purity oxygen to the High Pressure Gas Tanks (HPGTs) is needed. One method is to use a cabin air separator to sweep oxygen from the cabin air, generate a low pressure/high purity oxygen stream, and compress the oxygen with a multistage mechanical compressor. A main advantage to this type of system is that the existing low pressure oxygen supply infrastructure can be used as the source of cabin oxygen. ISS has two water electrolysis systems that deliver low pressure oxygen to the cabin, as well as chlorate candles and compressed gas tanks on cargo vehicles. Each of these systems can feed low pressure oxygen into the cabin, and any low pressure oxygen source can be used as an on-board source of oxygen. Three different oxygen separator systems were evaluated, and a two stage Pressure Swing Adsorption system was selected for reasons of technical maturity. Two different compressor designs were subjected to long term testing, and the compressor with better life performance and more favorable oxygen safety characteristics was selected. These technologies have been used as the basis of a design for a flight system located in Equipment Lock, and taken to Preliminary Design Review level of maturity. This paper describes the Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen (CASEO) concept, describes the separator and compressor technology trades, highlights key technology risks, and describes the flight hardware concept as presented at Preliminary Design Review (PDR)

  16. Astronaut Joseph Kerwin during EVA at Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot, performs extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the station. Kerwin is just outside the Airlock Module. Kerwin assisted Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, during the successful EVA attempt to free the stuck solar array system wing on the Orbital Workshop.

  17. EVA Wiki - Transforming Knowledge Management for EVA Flight Controllers and Instructors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Stephanie S.; Alpert, Brian K.; Montalvo, Edwin James; Welsh, Lawrence Daren; Wray, Scott; Mavridis, Costa

    2016-01-01

    The EVA Wiki was recently implemented as the primary knowledge database to retain critical knowledge and skills in the EVA Operations group at NASA's Johnson Space Center by ensuring that information is recorded in a common, easy to search repository. Prior to the EVA Wiki, information required for EVA flight controllers and instructors was scattered across different sources, including multiple file share directories, SharePoint, individual computers, and paper archives. Many documents were outdated, and data was often difficult to find and distribute. In 2011, a team recognized that these knowledge management problems could be solved by creating an EVA Wiki using MediaWiki, a free and open-source software developed by the Wikimedia Foundation. The EVA Wiki developed into an EVA-specific Wikipedia on an internal NASA server. While the technical implementation of the wiki had many challenges, one of the biggest hurdles came from a cultural shift. Like many enterprise organizations, the EVA Operations group was accustomed to hierarchical data structures and individually-owned documents. Instead of sorting files into various folders, the wiki searches content. Rather than having a single document owner, the wiki harmonized the efforts of many contributors and established an automated revision controlled system. As the group adapted to the wiki, the usefulness of this single portal for information became apparent. It transformed into a useful data mining tool for EVA flight controllers and instructors, as well as hundreds of others that support the EVA. Program managers, engineers, astronauts, flight directors, and flight controllers in differing disciplines now have an easier-to-use, searchable system to find EVA data. This paper presents the benefits the EVA Wiki has brought to NASA's EVA community, as well as the cultural challenges it had to overcome.

  18. EVA Wiki - Transforming Knowledge Management for EVA Flight Controllers and Instructors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Stephanie S.; Alpert, Brian K.; Montalvo, Edwin James; Welsh, Lawrence Daren; Wray, Scott; Mavridis, Costa

    2016-01-01

    The EVA Wiki was recently implemented as the primary knowledge database to retain critical knowledge and skills in the EVA Operations group at NASA's Johnson Space Center by ensuring that information is recorded in a common, easy to search repository. Prior to the EVA Wiki, information required for EVA flight controllers and instructors was scattered across different sources, including multiple file share directories, SharePoint, individual computers, and paper archives. Many documents were outdated, and data was often difficult to find and distribute. In 2011, a team recognized that these knowledge management problems could be solved by creating an EVA Wiki using MediaWiki, a free and open-source software developed by the Wikimedia Foundation. The EVA Wiki developed into an EVA-specific Wikipedia on an internal NASA server. While the technical implementation of the wiki had many challenges, one of the biggest hurdles came from a cultural shift. Like many enterprise organizations, the EVA Operations group was accustomed to hierarchical data structures and individually-owned documents. Instead of sorting files into various folders, the wiki searches content. Rather than having a single document owner, the wiki harmonized the efforts of many contributors and established an automated revision controlled system. As the group adapted to the wiki, the usefulness of this single portal for information became apparent. It transformed into a useful data mining tool for EVA flight controllers and instructors, as well as hundreds of others that support EVA. Program managers, engineers, astronauts, flight directors, and flight controllers in differing disciplines now have an easier-to-use, searchable system to find EVA data. This paper presents the benefits the EVA Wiki has brought to NASA's EVA community, as well as the cultural challenges it had to overcome.

  19. Evaluation of hole sizes in structures requiring EVA services as a means to prevent gloved-hand finger entrapment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    One of the concerns of Space Station designers was making sure that the suited crewmembers' gloved fingers are not trapped in the holes that may be present in the structures during EVA activities. A study was conducted on 11 subjects to determine the minimum and maximum possible hole sizes that would eliminate the possibility of finger entrapment. Subjects wore pressurized gloves and attempted to insert their fingers into holes of various sizes. Based on the experimental results, it is recommended that the smallest diameter should be less than 13.0 mm and the largest diameter should be greater than 35.0 mm in order to eliminate the possibility of finger entrapment while wearing gloves. It is also recommended that the current requirements specified by the MSIS-STD-3000 (Section 6.3.3.4) should be modified accordingly.

  20. Study of space shuttle EVA/IVA support requirements. Volume 1: Technical summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, R. J.; Wood, P. W., Jr.; Cox, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Results are summarized which were obtained for equipment requirements for the space shuttle EVA/IVA pressure suit, life support system, mobility aids, vehicle support provisions, and energy 4 support. An initial study of tasks, guidelines, and constraints and a special task on the impact of a 10 psia orbiter cabin atmosphere are included. Supporting studies not related exclusively to any one group of equipment requirements are also summarized. Representative EVA/IVA task scenarios were defined based on an evaluation of missions and payloads. Analysis of the scenarios resulted in a total of 788 EVA/IVA's in the 1979-1990 time frame, for an average of 1.3 per shuttle flight. Duration was estimated to be under 4 hours on 98% of the EVA/IVA's, and distance from the airlock was determined to be 70 feet or less 96% of the time. Payload water vapor sensitivity was estimated to be significant on 9%-17% of the flights. Further analysis of the scenarios was carried out to determine specific equipment characteristics, such as suit cycle and mobility requirements.

  1. STS-2 suit preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Flight crew equipment specialists perform a checkout of an astronaut flight suit to be worn during STS-2 on Columbia. This particular suit is an Ejection Escape Suit (EES). Technician is examining the cuffs and sleeves (38928); equipment specialist installs prescription eyeglasses into the helmet of an astronaut flight suit (38929).

  2. Feasibility of Suited 10-km Ambulation "Walkback" on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason; Lee, Lesley; DeWitt, John K.; Klein, Jill; Wessell, James; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews a study that examined the feasibility of having astronauts walk about 10 kilometers to the base in the event of a breakdown of the lunar rover. This was done in part to examine the possibility of having a single rover on the lunar exploration missions. Other objectives of the study are to: (1) Understand specific biomedical and human performance limitations of the suit compared to matched shirt-sleeve controls; (2) Collect metabolic and ground-reaction force data to develop an EVA simulator for use on future prebr eathe protocol verification tests (3) Provide data to estimate consum ables usage for input to suit and portable life support system (PLSS) design (4) Assess the cardiovascular and resistance exercise associa ted with partialgravity EVA for planning appropriate exploration exer cise countermeasures

  3. STAYSL PNNL Suite

    2013-04-12

    The STAYSL PNNL Suite of software provides a set of tools for working with neutron activation rates measured in a nuclear fission reactor, an accelerator-based neutron source, or any neutron field to determine the neutron flux spectrum through a generalized least-squares approach. This process is referred to as neutron spectral adjustment since the preferred approach is to use measured data to adjust neutron spectra provided by neutron physics calculations. The input data consist of themore » reaction rates based on measured activities, an initial estimate of the neutron flux spectrum, neutron activation cross sections and their associated uncertainties (covariances), and relevant correction factors. The output consists of the adjusted neutron flux spectrum and associated covariance matrix, which is useful for neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations. The software suite consists of the STAYSL PNNL, SHIELD, BCF, and NJpp Fortran codes and the SigPhi Calculator spreadsheet tool. In addition, the development of this software suite and associated data libraries used the third-party NJOY99 Fortran code (http://t2.lanl.gov/nis/codes/njoy99/). The NJOY99 and NJpp codes are used to assemble cross section and covariance input data libraries (for both SHIELD and STAYSL PNNL) from the International Reactor Dosimetry File of 2002 (IRDF-2002; http://www-nds.iaea.org/irdf2002/) developed by the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna, Austria). The BCF, SigPhi Calculator, and SHIELD software tools are used to calculate corrected activation rates and neutron self-shielding correction factors, which are inputs to the STAYSL PNNL code.« less

  4. STAYSL PNNL Suite

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-12

    The STAYSL PNNL Suite of software provides a set of tools for working with neutron activation rates measured in a nuclear fission reactor, an accelerator-based neutron source, or any neutron field to determine the neutron flux spectrum through a generalized least-squares approach. This process is referred to as neutron spectral adjustment since the preferred approach is to use measured data to adjust neutron spectra provided by neutron physics calculations. The input data consist of the reaction rates based on measured activities, an initial estimate of the neutron flux spectrum, neutron activation cross sections and their associated uncertainties (covariances), and relevant correction factors. The output consists of the adjusted neutron flux spectrum and associated covariance matrix, which is useful for neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations. The software suite consists of the STAYSL PNNL, SHIELD, BCF, and NJpp Fortran codes and the SigPhi Calculator spreadsheet tool. In addition, the development of this software suite and associated data libraries used the third-party NJOY99 Fortran code (http://t2.lanl.gov/nis/codes/njoy99/). The NJOY99 and NJpp codes are used to assemble cross section and covariance input data libraries (for both SHIELD and STAYSL PNNL) from the International Reactor Dosimetry File of 2002 (IRDF-2002; http://www-nds.iaea.org/irdf2002/) developed by the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna, Austria). The BCF, SigPhi Calculator, and SHIELD software tools are used to calculate corrected activation rates and neutron self-shielding correction factors, which are inputs to the STAYSL PNNL code.

  5. The Potential of Wearable Sensor Technology for EVA Glove Ergonomic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane; Norcross, Jason R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). Many of these injuries refer to the gloves worn during EVA as the root cause. While pressurized, the bladder and outer material of these gloves restrict movement and create pressure points while performing tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally a more severe injury, onycholysis (fingernail delamination). The most common injury causes are glove contact (pressure point/rubbing), ill-fitting gloves, and/or performing EVA tasks in pressurized gloves. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals over 57% of the total injuries to the upper extremities during EVA training occurred either to the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, fingernail, or the fingertip. Twenty-five of these injuries resulted in a diagnosis of onycholysis

  6. The Potential of Wearable Sensor Technology for EVA Glove Ergonomic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Norcross, Jason R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). Many of these injuries refer to the gloves worn during EVA as the root cause. While pressurized, the bladder and outer material of these gloves restrict movement and create pressure points while performing tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally a more severe injury, onycholysis (fingernail delamination). The most common injury causes are glove contact (pressure point/rubbing), ill-fitting gloves, and/or performing EVA tasks in pressurized gloves. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals over 57% of the total injuries to the upper extremities during EVA training occurred either to the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, fingernail, or the fingertip. Twenty-five of these injuries resulted in a diagnosis of onycholysis.

  7. The slit receptor EVA-1 coactivates a SAX-3/Robo mediated guidance signal in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Kazuko; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Culotti, Joseph G

    2007-09-28

    The SAX-3/roundabout (Robo) receptor has SLT-1/Slit-dependent and -independent functions in guiding cell and axon migrations. We identified enhancer of ventral-axon guidance defects of unc-40 mutants (EVA-1) as a Caenorhabditis elegans transmembrane receptor for SLT-1. EVA-1 has two predicted galactose-binding ectodomains, acts cell-autonomously for SLT-1/Slit-dependent axon migration functions of SAX-3/Robo, binds to SLT-1 and SAX-3, colocalizes with SAX-3 on cells, and provides cell specificity to the activation of SAX-3 signaling by SLT-1. Double mutants of eva-1 or slt-1 with sax-3 mutations suggest that SAX-3 can (when slt-1 or eva-1 function is reduced) inhibit a parallel-acting guidance mechanism, which involves UNC-40/deleted in colorectal cancer. PMID:17901337

  8. The micro conical system: Lessons learned from a successful EVA/robot-compatible mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gittleman, Mark; Johnston, Alistair

    1996-01-01

    The Micro Conical System (MCS) is a three-part, multi-purpose mechanical interface system used for acquiring and manipulating masses on-orbit by either extravehicular activity (EVA) or telerobotic means. The three components of the system are the micro conical fitting (MCF), the EVA micro tool (EMCT), and the Robot Micro Conical Tool (RMCT). The MCS was developed and refined over a four-year period. This period culminated with the delivery of 358 Class 1 and Class 2 micro conical fittings for the International Space Station and with its first use in space to handle a 1272 kg (2800 lbm) Spartan satellite (11000 times greater than the MCF mass) during an EVA aboard STS-63 in February, 1995. The micro conical system is the first successful EVA/robot-compatible mechanism to be demonstrated in the external environment aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle.

  9. Shuttle Space Suit: Fabric/LCVG Model Validation. Chapter 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Tweed, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Ware, J.; Persans, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed space suit computational model is being developed at the Langley Research Center for radiation exposure evaluation studies. The details of the construction of the space suit are critical to estimation of exposures and assessing the risk to the astronaut on EVA. Past evaluations of space suit shielding properties assumed the basic fabric layup (Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, fabric restraints, and pressure envelope) and LCVG could be homogenized as a single layer overestimating the protective properties over 60 percent of the fabric area. The present space suit model represents the inhomogeneous distributions of LCVG materials (mainly the water filled cooling tubes). An experimental test is performed using a 34-MeV proton beam and high-resolution detectors to compare with model-predicted transmission factors. Some suggestions are made on possible improved construction methods to improve the space suit s protection properties.

  10. STS-117 Astronauts Patrick Forrester and Steven Swanson During EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists Patrick Forrester and Steven Swanson (out of frame), participated in the second Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) as construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS). Among other tasks, the two removed all of the launch locks holding the 10 foot wide solar alpha rotary joint in place and began the solar array retraction. The primary mission objective was the installment of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4).

  11. First-order feasibility analysis of a space suit radiator concept based on estimation of water mass sublimation using Apollo mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metts, Jonathan G.; Klaus, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal control of a space suit during extravehicular activity (EVA) is typically accomplished by sublimating water to provide system cooling. Spacecraft, on the other hand, primarily rely on radiators to dissipate heat. Integrating a radiator into a space suit has been proposed as an alternative design that does not require mass consumption for heat transfer. While providing cooling without water loss offers potential benefits for EVA application, it is not currently practical to rely on a directional, fixed-emissivity radiator to maintain thermal equilibrium of a spacesuit where the radiator orientation, environmental temperature, and crew member metabolic heat load fluctuate unpredictably. One approach that might make this feasible, however, is the use of electrochromic devices that are capable of infrared emissivity modulation and can be actively controlled across the entire suit surface to regulate net heat flux for the system. Integrating these devices onto the irregular, compliant space suit material requires that they be fabricated on a flexible substrate, such as Kapton film. An initial assessment of whether or not this candidate technology presents a feasible design option was conducted by first characterizing the mass of water loss from sublimation that could theoretically be saved if an electrochromic suit radiator was employed for thermal control. This is particularly important for lunar surface exploration, where the expense of transporting water from Earth is excessive, but the technology is potentially beneficial for other space missions as well. In order to define a baseline for this analysis by comparison to actual data, historical documents from the Apollo missions were mined for comprehensive, detailed metabolic data from each lunar surface outing, and related data from NASA's more recent "Advanced Lunar Walkback" tests were also analyzed. This metabolic database was then used to validate estimates for sublimator water consumption during surface

  12. EVA1A/TMEM166 Regulates Embryonic Neurogenesis by Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengtao; Lu, Guang; Hu, Jia; Shen, Xue; Ju, Jiabao; Gao, Yuanxu; Qu, Liujing; Xia, Yan; Chen, Yingyu; Bai, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Summary Self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells is essential for embryonic neurogenesis, which is associated with cell autophagy. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates neurogenesis remains undefined. Here, we show that Eva1a/Tmem166, an autophagy-related gene, regulates neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Eva1a depletion impaired the generation of newborn neurons, both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, overexpression of EVA1A enhanced newborn neuron generation and maturation. Moreover, Eva1a depletion activated the PIK3CA-AKT axis, leading to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and the subsequent inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, addition of methylpyruvate to the culture during neural stem cell differentiation rescued the defective embryonic neurogenesis induced by Eva1a depletion, suggesting that energy availability is a significant factor in embryonic neurogenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrated that EVA1A regulates embryonic neurogenesis by modulating autophagy. Our results have potential implications for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by autophagy dysregulation. PMID:26905199

  13. EVA1A/TMEM166 Regulates Embryonic Neurogenesis by Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengtao; Lu, Guang; Hu, Jia; Shen, Xue; Ju, Jiabao; Gao, Yuanxu; Qu, Liujing; Xia, Yan; Chen, Yingyu; Bai, Yun

    2016-03-01

    Self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells is essential for embryonic neurogenesis, which is associated with cell autophagy. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates neurogenesis remains undefined. Here, we show that Eva1a/Tmem166, an autophagy-related gene, regulates neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Eva1a depletion impaired the generation of newborn neurons, both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, overexpression of EVA1A enhanced newborn neuron generation and maturation. Moreover, Eva1a depletion activated the PIK3CA-AKT axis, leading to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and the subsequent inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, addition of methylpyruvate to the culture during neural stem cell differentiation rescued the defective embryonic neurogenesis induced by Eva1a depletion, suggesting that energy availability is a significant factor in embryonic neurogenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrated that EVA1A regulates embryonic neurogenesis by modulating autophagy. Our results have potential implications for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by autophagy dysregulation. PMID:26905199

  14. Study of EVA operations associated with satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. O.; Wilde, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) factors associated with satellite servicing activities are identified and the EMU improvements necessary to enhance satellite servicing operations are outlined. Areas of EMU capabilities, equipment and structural interfaces, time lines, EMU modifications for satellite servicing, environmental hazards, and crew training are vital to manned Eva/satellite services and as such are detailed. Evaluation of EMU capabilities indicates that the EMU can be used in performing near term, basic satellite servicing tasks; however, satellite servicing is greatly enhanced by incorporating key modifications into the EMU. The servicing missions involved in contamination sensitive payload repair are illustrated. EVA procedures and equipment can be standardized, reducing both crew training time and in orbit operations time. By standardizing and coordinating procedures, mission cumulative time lines fall well within the EMU capability.

  15. EVA results of Shuttle Mission STS-37

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitsett, C. E.; Gall, Lisa A.; Trevino, Luis A.

    1992-07-01

    The paper summarizes EVA results of the STS-37 mission that flew in April 1991, with emphasis on the unscheduled EVA to free the Compton GRO antenna. The EVA Development Flight Experiment (EDFE) objectives and equipment description are also presented. The EDFE consisted of three experiments conducted during STS-37 to evaluate both designs of crew translation equipment and loads imparted by crew members while performing typical EVA work site tasks for Space Station Freedom. The experiments were used to evaluate static and dynamic loads and ease of operation of four separate translation systems operating on a fixed track. Various measures of performance of the crew equipment and translation aids are discussed. The rates and accelerations experienced during translation aided by the manipulator foot restraint and remote manipulator system were found to be comfortable.

  16. Astronauts Meade tests SAFER system during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Carl J. Meade tests the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system some 130 nautical miles above Earth. The end of the Remote Manipulator System's (RMS) robot arm, with an unoccupied foot restraint attached, is at frame's edge.

  17. Maturing Pump Technology for EVA Applications in a Collaborative Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, Edward; Dionne, Steven; Gervais, Edward; Anchondo, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The transition from low earth orbit Extravehicular Activity (EVA) for construction and maintenance activities to planetary surface EVA on asteroids, moons, and, ultimately, Mars demands a new spacesuit system. NASA's development of that system has resulted in dramatically different pumping requirements from those in the current spacesuit system. Hamilton Sundstrand, Cascon, and NASA are collaborating to develop and mature a pump that will reliably meet those new requirements in space environments and within the design constraints imposed by spacesuit system integration. That collaboration, which began in the NASA purchase of a pump prototype for test evaluation, is now entering a new phase of development. A second generation pump reflecting the lessons learned in NASA's testing of the original prototype will be developed under Hamilton Sundstrand internal research funding and ultimately tested in an integrated Advanced Portable Life Support System (APLSS) in NASA laboratories at the Johnson Space Center. This partnership is providing benefit to both industry and NASA by supplying a custom component for EVA integrated testing at no cost to the government while providing test data for industry that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to duplicate in industry laboratories. This paper discusses the evolving collaborative process, component requirements and design development based on early NASA test experience, component stand alone test results, and near term plans for integrated testing at JSCs.

  18. Exploration Spacecraft and Space Suit Internal Atmosphere Pressure and Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin; Duffield, Bruce; Jeng, Frank; Campbell, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The design of habitat atmospheres for future space missions is heavily driven by physiological and safety requirements. Lower EVA prebreathe time and reduced risk of decompression sickness must be balanced against the increased risk of fire and higher cost and mass of materials associated with higher oxygen concentrations. Any proposed increase in space suit pressure must consider impacts on space suit mass and mobility. Future spacecraft designs will likely incorporate more composite and polymeric materials both to reduce structural mass and to optimize crew radiation protection. Narrowed atmosphere design spaces have been identified that can be used as starting points for more detailed design studies and risk assessments.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Control System for a Mars Space Suit Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan; Copeland, Robert; Parker, amanda; Paul, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) control during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) on Mars will be challenging. Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canisters have impractical logistics penalties, and regenerable metal oxide (MetOx) canisters weigh too much. Cycling bed systems and permeable membranes that are regenerable in space vacuum cannot vent on Mars due to the high partial pressure of CO2 in the atmosphere. Although sweep gas regeneration is under investigation, the feasibility, logistics penalties, and failure modes associated with this technique have not been fully determined. TDA Research, Inc. is developing a durable, high-capacity regenerable adsorbent that can remove CO2 from the space suit ventilation loop. The system design allows sorbent regeneration at or above 6 torr, eliminating the potential for Martian atmosphere to leak into the regeneration bed and into the ventilation loop. Regeneration during EVA eliminates the consumable requirement related to the use of LiOH canisters and the mission duration limitations imposed by MetOx system. The concept minimizes the amount of consumable to be brought from Earth and makes the mission more affordable, while providing great operational flexibility during EVA. The feasibility of the concept has been demonstrated in a series of bench-scale experiments and a preliminary system analysis. Results indicate that sorbent regeneration can be accomplished by applying a 14 C temperature swing, while regenerating at 13 torr (well above the Martian atmospheric pressure), withstanding over 1,000 adsorption/regeneration cycles. This paper presents the latest results from these sorbent and system development efforts.

  20. The Walkback Test: A Study to Evaluate Suit and Life Support System Performance Requirements for a 10 Kilometer Traverse in a Planetary Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, Jessica R.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lee, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    As planetary suit and planetary life support systems develop, specific design inputs for each system relate to a presently unanswered question concerning operational concepts: What distance can be considered a safe walking distance for a suited EVA crew member exploring the surface of the Moon to "walk-back" to the habitat in the event of a rover breakdown, taking into consideration the planned EVA tasks as well as the possible traverse back to the habitat? It has been assumed, based on Apollo program experience, that 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) will be the maximum EVA excursion distance from the lander or habitat to ensure the crew member s safe return to the habitat in the event of a rover failure. To investigate the feasibility of performing a suited 10 km Walkback, NASA-JSC assembled a multi-disciplinary team to design and implement the Lunar Walkback Test . The test was designed not only to determine the feasibility of a 10 km excursion, but also to collect human performance, biomedical, and biomechanical data relevant to optimizing space suit design and life support system sizing. These data will also be used to develop follow-on studies to understand interrelationships of such key parameters as suit mass, inertia, suit pressure, and center of gravity (CG), and the respective influences of each on human performance.

  1. Music Education Suites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This publication describes options for designing and equipping middle and high school music education suites, and suggests ways of gaining community support for including full service music suites in new and renovated school facilities. In addition to basic music suites, and practice rooms, other options detailed include: (1) small ensemble…

  2. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benson, E.; England, S.; Charvat, J.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. Because of this high frequency usage, hand and arm related injuries are known to occur during EVA and EVA training in the NBL. The primary objectives of this investigation were to: 1) document all known EVA glove related injuries and circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend interventions where possible that could be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigation focused on the discomforts and injuries of U.S. crewmembers who had worn the pressurized Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit and experienced 4000 Series or Phase VI glove related incidents during 1981 to 2010 for either EVA ground training or in-orbit flight. We conducted an observational retrospective case-control investigation using 1) a literature review of known injuries, 2) data mining of crew injury, glove sizing, and hand anthropometry databases, 3) descriptive statistical analyses, and finally 4) statistical risk correlation and predictor analyses to better understand injury prevalence and potential causation. Specific predictor statistical analyses included use of principal component analyses (PCA), multiple logistic regression, and survival analyses (Cox proportional hazards regression). Results of these analyses were computed risk variables in the forms of odds ratios (likelihood of an injury occurring given the magnitude of a risk variable) and hazard ratios (likelihood of time to injury occurrence). Due to the exploratory nature of this investigation, we selected predictor variables significant at p=0.15. RESULTS: Through 2010, there have been a total of 330 NASA crewmembers, from which 96 crewmembers performed 322 EVAs during 1981-2010, resulting in 50 crewmembers being injured inflight and 44

  3. Enhanced Controlled Transdermal Delivery of Ambroxol from the EVA Matrix.

    PubMed

    Cho, C W; Kim, D B; Cho, H W; Shin, S C

    2012-03-01

    To avoid the systemic adverse effects that might occur after oral administration, transdermal delivery of ambroxol was studied as a method for maintaining proper blood levels for an extended period. Release of ambroxol according to concentration and temperature was determined, and permeation of drug through rat skin was studied using two chamber-diffusion cells. The solubility according to PEG 400 volume fraction was highest at 40% PEG 400. The rate of drug release from the EVA matrix increased with increased temperature and drug loading doses. A linear relationship existed between the release rate and the square root of loading rate. The activation energy (Ea) was measured from the slope of the plot of log P versus 1000/T and was found to be 10.71, 10.39, 10.33 and 9.87 kcal/mol for 2, 3, 4 and 5% loading dose from the EVA matrix, respectively. To increase the permeation rate of ambroxol across rat skin from the EVA matrix, various penetration enhancers such as fatty acids (saturated, unsaturated), propylene glycols, glycerides, pyrrolidones, and non-ionic surfactants were used. The enhancing effects of the incorporated enhancers on the skin permeation of ambroxol were evaluated using Franz diffusion cells fitted with intact excised rat skin at 37° using 40% PEG 400 solution as a receptor medium. Among the enhancers used, polyoxyethylene-2-oleyl ether increased the permeation rate by 4.25-fold. In conclusion, EVA matrix containing plasticizer and permeation enhancer could be developed for enhanced transdermal delivery of ambroxol. PMID:23325993

  4. Enhanced Controlled Transdermal Delivery of Ambroxol from the EVA Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Cho, C. W.; Kim, D. B.; Cho, H. W.; Shin, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    To avoid the systemic adverse effects that might occur after oral administration, transdermal delivery of ambroxol was studied as a method for maintaining proper blood levels for an extended period. Release of ambroxol according to concentration and temperature was determined, and permeation of drug through rat skin was studied using two chamber-diffusion cells. The solubility according to PEG 400 volume fraction was highest at 40% PEG 400. The rate of drug release from the EVA matrix increased with increased temperature and drug loading doses. A linear relationship existed between the release rate and the square root of loading rate. The activation energy (Ea) was measured from the slope of the plot of log P versus 1000/T and was found to be 10.71, 10.39, 10.33 and 9.87 kcal/mol for 2, 3, 4 and 5% loading dose from the EVA matrix, respectively. To increase the permeation rate of ambroxol across rat skin from the EVA matrix, various penetration enhancers such as fatty acids (saturated, unsaturated), propylene glycols, glycerides, pyrrolidones, and non-ionic surfactants were used. The enhancing effects of the incorporated enhancers on the skin permeation of ambroxol were evaluated using Franz diffusion cells fitted with intact excised rat skin at 37° using 40% PEG 400 solution as a receptor medium. Among the enhancers used, polyoxyethylene-2-oleyl ether increased the permeation rate by 4.25-fold. In conclusion, EVA matrix containing plasticizer and permeation enhancer could be developed for enhanced transdermal delivery of ambroxol. PMID:23325993

  5. TMEM166/EVA1A interacts with ATG16L1 and induces autophagosome formation and cell death.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Li, Ge; Qu, Liujing; Li, Ning; Liu, Wei; Xia, Dan; Hongdu, Beiqi; Lin, Xin; Xu, Chentong; Lou, Yaxin; He, Qihua; Ma, Dalong; Chen, Yingyu

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the autophagosome is controlled by an orderly action of ATG proteins. However, how these proteins are recruited to autophagic membranes remain poorly clarified. In this study, we have provided a line of evidence confirming that EVA1A (eva-1 homolog A)/TMEM166 (transmembrane protein 166) is associated with autophagosomal membrane development. This notion is based on dotted EVA1A structures that colocalize with ZFYVE1, ATG9, LC3B, ATG16L1, ATG5, STX17, RAB7 and LAMP1, which represent different stages of the autophagic process. It is required for autophagosome formation as this phenotype was significantly decreased in EVA1A-silenced cells and Eva1a KO MEFs. EVA1A-induced autophagy is independent of the BECN1-PIK3C3 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 3) complex but requires ATG7 activity and the ATG12-ATG5/ATG16L1 complex. Here, we present a molecular mechanism by which EVA1A interacts with the WD repeats of ATG16L1 through its C-terminal and promotes ATG12-ATG5/ATG16L1 complex recruitment to the autophagic membrane and enhances the formation of the autophagosome. We also found that both autophagic and apoptotic mechanisms contributed to EVA1A-induced cell death while inhibition of autophagy and apoptosis attenuated EVA1A-induced cell death. Overall, these findings provide a comprehensive view to our understanding of the pathways involved in the role of EVA1A in autophagy and programmed cell death. PMID:27490928

  6. EVA Development and Verification Testing at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jairala, Juniper C.; Durkin, Robert; Marak, Ralph J.; Sipila, Stepahnie A.; Ney, Zane A.; Parazynski, Scott E.; Thomason, Arthur H.

    2012-01-01

    As an early step in the preparation for future Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), astronauts perform neutral buoyancy testing to develop and verify EVA hardware and operations. Neutral buoyancy demonstrations at NASA Johnson Space Center's Sonny Carter Training Facility to date have primarily evaluated assembly and maintenance tasks associated with several elements of the International Space Station (ISS). With the retirement of the Shuttle, completion of ISS assembly, and introduction of commercial players for human transportation to space, evaluations at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) will take on a new focus. Test objectives are selected for their criticality, lack of previous testing, or design changes that justify retesting. Assembly tasks investigated are performed using procedures developed by the flight hardware providers and the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD). Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) maintenance tasks are performed using a more systematic set of procedures, EVA Concept of Operations for the International Space Station (JSC-33408), also developed by the MOD. This paper describes the requirements and process for performing a neutral buoyancy test, including typical hardware and support equipment requirements, personnel and administrative resource requirements, examples of ISS systems and operations that are evaluated, and typical operational objectives that are evaluated.

  7. Astronaut Sellers Performs STS-112 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard Side Integrated Truss Structure (S1) and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. In this photograph, Astronaut Piers J. Sellers uses both a handrail on the Destiny Laboratory and a foot restraint on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System or Canadarm2 to remain stationary while performing work at the end of the STS-112 mission's second space walk. A cloud-covered Earth provides the backdrop for the scene.

  8. Applications of EVA guidelines and design criteria. Volume 3: EVA systems cost model formating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a model for estimating the impact of manned EVA costs on future payloads is discussed. Basic information on the EV crewman requirements, equipment, physical and operational characteristics, and vehicle interfaces is provided. The cost model is being designed to allow system designers to quantify the impact of EVA on vehicle and payload systems.

  9. EVA Robotic Assistant Project: Platform Attitude Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickels, Kevin M.

    2003-01-01

    The Robotic Systems Technology Branch is currently working on the development of an EVA Robotic Assistant under the sponsorship of the Surface Systems Thrust of the NASA Cross Enterprise Technology Development Program (CETDP). This will be a mobile robot that can follow a field geologist during planetary surface exploration, carry his tools and the samples that he collects, and provide video coverage of his activity. Prior experiments have shown that for such a robot to be useful it must be able to follow the geologist at walking speed over any terrain of interest. Geologically interesting terrain tends to be rough rather than smooth. The commercial mobile robot that was recently purchased as an initial testbed for the EVA Robotic Assistant Project, an ATRV Jr., is capable of faster than walking speed outside but it has no suspension. Its wheels with inflated rubber tires are attached to axles that are connected directly to the robot body. Any angular motion of the robot produced by driving over rough terrain will directly affect the pointing of the on-board stereo cameras. The resulting image motion is expected to make tracking of the geologist more difficult. This will either require the tracker to search a larger part of the image to find the target from frame to frame or to search mechanically in pan and tilt whenever the image motion is large enough to put the target outside the image in the next frame. This project consists of the design and implementation of a Kalman filter that combines the output of the angular rate sensors and linear accelerometers on the robot to estimate the motion of the robot base. The motion of the stereo camera pair mounted on the robot that results from this motion as the robot drives over rough terrain is then straightforward to compute. The estimates may then be used, for example, to command the robot s on-board pan-tilt unit to compensate for the camera motion induced by the base movement. This has been accomplished in two ways

  10. Suitport Feasibility - Development and Test of a Suitport and Space Suit for Human Pressurized Space Suit Donning Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert M.; Mitchell, Kathryn; Allton, Charles; Ju, Hsing

    2011-01-01

    The suitport concept has been recently implemented as part of the small pressurized lunar rover (Currently the Space Exploration vehicle, or SEV) and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) concept demonstrator vehicle. Suitport replaces or augments the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress and egress of a spacesuit while the spacesuit remains outside of the pressurized volume of the spacecraft. This presents significant new opportunities to EVA exploration in both microgravity and surface environments. The suitport concept will enable three main improvements in EVA by providing reductions in: pre-EVA time from hours to less than thirty minutes; airlock consumables; contamination returned to the cabin with the EVA crewmember. To date, the first generation suitport has been tested with mockup suits on the rover cabins and pressurized on a bench top engineering unit. The work on the rover cabin has helped define the operational concepts and timelines, and has demonstrated the potential of suitport to save significant amounts of crew time before and after EVAs. The work with the engineering unit has successfully demonstrated the pressurizable seal concept including the ability to seal after the introduction and removal of contamination to the sealing surfaces. Using this experience, a second generation suitport was designed. This second generation suitport has been tested with a spacesuit prototype using the pressure differentials of the spacecraft. This test will be performed using the JSC B32 Chamber B, a human rated vacuum chamber. This test will include human rated suitports, the suitport compatible prototype suit, and chamber modifications. This test will bring these three elements together in the first ever pressurized donning of a rear entry suit through a suitport. This paper presents design of a human rated second generation suitport, modifications to

  11. Space Suit Thermal Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Anthony B.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.; Iovine, John V.; Lin, Chin H.

    1998-01-01

    The present NASA space suit (the Shuttle EMU) is a self-contained environmental control system, providing life support, environmental protection, earth-like mobility, and communications. This study considers the thermal dynamics of the space suit as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the present space suit is used to analyze the thermal dynamics of the suit with observations verified using experimental and flight data. Prior to using the model to define performance characteristics and limitations for the space suit, the model is first evaluated and improved. This evaluation includes determining the effect of various model parameters on model performance and quantifying various temperature prediction errors in terms of heat transfer and heat storage. The observations from this study are being utilized in two future design efforts, automatic thermal comfort control design for the present space suit and design of future space suit systems for Space Station, Lunar, and Martian missions.

  12. Biomedical Support of U.S. Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Dervay, J. P.; Gillis, D.; McMann, H. J.; Thomas, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    The world's first extravehicular activity (EVA) was performed by A. A. Leonov on March 18, 1965 during the Russian Voskhod-2 mission. The first US EVA was executed by Gemini IV astronaut Ed White on June 3, 1965, with an umbilical tether that included communications and an oxygen supply. A hand-held maneuvering unit (HHMU) also was used to test maneuverability during the brief EVA; however the somewhat stiff umbilical limited controlled movement. That constraint, plus difficulty returning through the vehicle hatch, highlighted the need for increased thermal control and improved EVA ergonomics. Clearly, requirements for a useful EVA were interrelated with the vehicle design. The early Gemini EVAs generated requirements for suits providing micro-meteor protection, adequate visual field and eye protection from solar visual and infrared radiation, gloves optimized for dexterity while pressurized, and thermal systems capable of protecting the astronaut while rejecting metabolic heat during high workloads. Subsequent Gemini EVAs built upon this early experience and included development of a portable environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) and an astronaut maneuvering unit. The ECLSS provided a pressure vessel and controller with functional control over suit pressure, oxygen flow, carbon dioxide removal, humidity, and temperature control. Gemini EVA experience also identified the usefulness of underwater neutral buoyancy and altitude chamber task training, and the importance of developing reliable task timelines. Improved thermal management and carbon dioxide control also were required for high workload tasks. With the Apollo project, EVA activity was primarily on the lunar surface; and suit durability, integrated liquid cooling garments, and low suit operating pressures (3.75 pounds per square inch absolute [psia] or 25.8 kilopascal [kPa],) were required to facilitate longer EVAs with ambulation and significant physical workloads with average metabolic

  13. Expedition 16 Flight Engineer Tani Performs EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Astronaut Daniel Tani (top center), Expedition 16 flight engineer, participates in the second of five scheduled sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction continues on the International Space Station (ISS). During the 6-hour and 33-minute space walk, Tani and STS-120 mission specialist Scott Parazynski (out of frame), worked in tandem to disconnect cables from the P6 truss, allowing it to be removed from the Z1 truss. Tani also visually inspected the station's starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) and gathered samples of 'shavings' he found under the joint's multilayer insulation covers. The space walkers also outfitted the Harmony module, mated the power and data grapple fixture and reconfigured connectors on the starboard 1 (S1) truss that will allow the radiator on S1 to be deployed from the ground later. The moon is visible at lower center. The STS-120 mission launched from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A at 11:38:19 a.m. (EDT) on October 23, 2007.

  14. Evaluation of safety of hypobaric decompressions and EVA from positions of probabilistic theory.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, V P

    1998-01-01

    Formation and subsequent evolution of gas bubbles in blood and tissues of subjects exposed to decompression are casual processes in their nature. Such character of bubbling processes in a body predetermines probabilistic character of decompression sickness (DCS) incidence in divers, aviators and astronauts. Our original probabilistic theory of decompression safety is based on stochastic models of these processes and on the concept of critical volume of a free gas phase in body tissues. From positions of this theory, the probability of DCS incidence during single-stage decompressions and during hypobaric decompressions under EVA in particular, is defined by the distribution of possible values of nucleation efficiency in "pain" tissues and by its critical significance depended on the parameters of a concrete decompression. In the present study the following is shown: 1) the dimensionless index of critical nucleation efficiency for "pain" body tissues is a more adequate index of decompression stress in comparison with Tissue Ratio, TR; 2) a priory the decompression under EVA performed according to the Russian protocol is more safe than decompression under EVA performed in accordance with the U.S. protocol; 3) the Russian space suit operated at a higher pressure and having a higher "rigidity" induces a stronger inhibition of mechanisms of cavitation and gas bubbles formation in tissues of a subject located in it, and by that provides a more considerable reduction of the DCS risk during real EVA performance. PMID:11541599

  15. Material selection for highly mobile space suit gloves based on fabric mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the factors that control the flexibility of fabric space suit elements by examining a bending model of a pressurized fabric tube. Results from the model are used to evaluate the current direction in highly mobile EVA glove research and suggest that changes are necessary in the glove fabric selection methodology.

  16. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Sensors for the Constellation Space Suit Life Support System for Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Paul, Heather L.; Conger, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the trade study to evaluate carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing technologies for the Constellation (Cx) space suit life support system for surface exploration. The trade study found that nondispersive infrared absorption (NDIR) is the most appropriate high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) technology for the CO2 sensor for the Cx space suit. The maturity of the technology is high, as it is the basis for the CO2 sensor in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). The study further determined that while there is a range of commercial sensors available, the Cx CO2 sensor should be a new design. Specifically, there are light sources (e.g., infrared light emitting diodes) and detectors (e.g., cooled detectors) that are not in typical commercial sensors due to cost. These advanced technology components offer significant advantages in performance (weight, volume, power, accuracy) to be implemented in the new sensor. The exact sensor design (light source, transmitting optics, path length, receiving optics and detector) will be specific for the Cx space suit and will be determined by the performance requirements of the Cx space suit. The paper further identifies specifications for some of the critical performance parameters as well as discussing the engineering aspects of implementing the sensor into the Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The paper then presents testing results from three CO2 sensors with respect to issues important to Extravehicular Activity (EVA) applications; stability, humidity dependence and low pressure compatibility. The three sensors include two NDIR sensors, one commercial and one custom-developed by NASA (for a different purpose), and one commercial electrochemical sensor. The results show that both NDIR sensors have excellent stability, no dependence on ambient humidity (when the ambient temperature is above the dew point) and operate in low pressure conditions and after being exposed to a full vacuum. The commercial

  17. NASA Glenn Research Center Battery Activities Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon and GRC's involvement in their development. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EVA) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  18. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Unmanned Vacuum Environment Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in more than 30 years, an advanced space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design was operated inside a vacuum chamber representative of the flight operating environment. The test article, PLSS 2.0, was the second system-level integrated prototype of the advanced PLSS design, following the PLSS 1.0 Breadboard that was developed and tested throughout 2011. Whereas PLSS 1.0 included five technology development components with the balance the system simulated using commercial-off-the-shelf items, PLSS 2.0 featured first generation or later prototypes for all components less instrumentation, tubing and fittings. Developed throughout 2012, PLSS 2.0 was the first attempt to package the system into a flight-like representative volume. PLSS 2.0 testing included an extensive functional evaluation known as Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) testing, Human-in-the-Loop testing in which the PLSS 2.0 prototype was integrated via umbilicals to a manned prototype space suit for 19 two-hour simulated EVAs, and unmanned vacuum environment testing. Unmanned vacuum environment testing took place from 1/9/15-7/9/15 with PLSS 2.0 located inside a vacuum chamber. Test sequences included performance mapping of several components, carbon dioxide removal evaluations at simulated intravehicular activity (IVA) conditions, a regulator pressure schedule assessment, and culminated with 25 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs). During the unmanned vacuum environment test series, PLSS 2.0 accumulated 378 hours of integrated testing including 291 hours of operation in a vacuum environment and 199 hours of simulated EVA time. The PLSS prototype performed nominally throughout the test series, with two notable exceptions including a pump failure and a Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) leak, for which post-test failure investigations were performed. In addition to generating an extensive database of PLSS 2.0 performance data, achievements included requirements and

  19. Comparison Of Human Modelling Tools For Efficiency Of Prediction Of EVA Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.; Loughead, Tomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Construction of the International Space Station (ISS) will require extensive extravehicular activity (EVA, spacewalks), and estimates of the actual time needed continue to rise. As recently as September, 1996, the amount of time to be spent in EVA was believed to be about 400 hours, excluding spacewalks on the Russian segment. This estimate has recently risen to over 1100 hours, and it could go higher before assembly begins in the summer of 1998. These activities are extremely expensive and hazardous, so any design tools which help assure mission success and improve the efficiency of the astronaut in task completion can pay off in reduced design and EVA costs and increased astronaut safety. The tasks which astronauts can accomplish in EVA are limited by spacesuit mobility. They are therefore relatively simple, from an ergonomic standpoint, requiring gross movements rather than time motor skills. The actual tasks include driving bolts, mating and demating electric and fluid connectors, and actuating levers; the important characteristics to be considered in design improvement include the ability of the astronaut to see and reach the item to be manipulated and the clearance required to accomplish the manipulation. This makes the tasks amenable to simulation in a Computer-Assisted Design (CAD) environment. For EVA, the spacesuited astronaut must have his or her feet attached on a work platform called a foot restraint to obtain a purchase against which work forces may be actuated. An important component of the design is therefore the proper placement of foot restraints.

  20. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study. Phase 2: Extravehicular activity at a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Valerie; Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Schulze, Arthur E.

    1988-01-01

    The focus is on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems requirements definition for an advanced space mission: remote-from-main base EVA on the Moon. The lunar environment, biomedical considerations, appropriate hardware design criteria, hardware and interface requirements, and key technical issues for advanced lunar EVA were examined. Six remote EVA scenarios (three nominal operations and three contingency situations) were developed in considerable detail.

  1. Validation suite for MCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Mosteller, R. D.

    2002-01-01

    Two validation suites, one for criticality and another for radiation shielding, have been defined and tested for the MCNP Monte Carlo code. All of the cases in the validation suites are based on experiments so that calculated and measured results can be compared in a meaningful way. The cases in the validation suites are described, and results from those cases are discussed. For several years, the distribution package for the MCNP Monte Carlo code1 has included an installation test suite to verify that MCNP has been installed correctly. However, the cases in that suite have been constructed primarily to test options within the code and to execute quickly. Consequently, they do not produce well-converged answers, and many of them are physically unrealistic. To remedy these deficiencies, sets of validation suites are being defined and tested for specific types of applications. All of the cases in the validation suites are based on benchmark experiments. Consequently, the results from the measurements are reliable and quantifiable, and calculated results can be compared with them in a meaningful way. Currently, validation suites exist for criticality and radiation-shielding applications.

  2. EVA tools and equipment reference book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fullerton, R. K.

    1993-01-01

    This document contains a mixture of tools and equipment used throughout the space shuttle-based extravehicular activity (EVA) program. Promising items which have reached the prototype stage of development are also included, but should not be considered certified ready for flight. Each item is described with a photo, a written discussion, technical specifications, dimensional drawings, and points of contact for additional information. Numbers on the upper left-hand corner of each photo may be used to order specific pictures from NASA and contractor photo libraries. Points of contact were classified as either operational or technical. An operational contact is an engineer from JSC Mission Operations Directorate who is familiar with the basic function and on-orbit use of the tool. A technical contact would be the best source of detailed technical specifications and is typically the NASA subsystem manager. The technical information table for each item uses the following terms to describe the availability or status of each hardware item: Standard - Flown on every mission as standard manifest; Flight specific - Potentially available for flight, not flown every mission (flight certification cannot be guaranteed and recertification may be required); Reference only - Item no longer in active inventory or not recommended for future use, some items may be too application-specific for general use; and Developmental - In the prototype stage only and not yet available for flight. The current availability and certification of any flight-specific tool should be verified with the technical point of contact. Those tools built and fit checked for Hubble Space Telescope maintenance are program dedicated and are not available to other customers. Other customers may have identical tools built from the existing, already certified designs as an optional service.

  3. Suite versus composite statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balsillie, J.H.; Tanner, W.F.

    1999-01-01

    Suite and composite methodologies, two statistically valid approaches for producing statistical descriptive measures, are investigated for sample groups representing a probability distribution where, in addition, each sample is probability distribution. Suite and composite means (first moment measures) are always equivalent. Composite standard deviations (second moment measures) are always larger than suite standard deviations. Suite and composite values for higher moment measures have more complex relationships. Very seldom, however, are they equivalent, and they normally yield statistically significant but different results. Multiple samples are preferable to single samples (including composites) because they permit the investigator to examine sample-to-sample variability. These and other relationships for suite and composite probability distribution analyses are investigated and reported using granulometric data.

  4. Tactile Data Entry for Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron B.; Hannaford, Blake; Sands, O Scott

    2012-01-01

    In the task-saturated environment of extravehicular activity (EVA), an astronaut's ability to leverage suit-integrated information systems is limited by a lack of options for data entry. In particular, bulky gloves inhibit the ability to interact with standard computing interfaces such as a mouse or keyboard. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation into a system that permits the space suit gloves themselves to be used as data entry devices. Hand motion tracking is combined with simple finger gesture recognition to enable use of a virtual keyboard, while tactile feedback provides touch-based context to the graphical user interface (GUI) and positive confirmation of keystroke events. In human subject trials, conducted with twenty participants using a prototype system, participants entered text significantly faster with tactile feedback than without (p = 0.02). The results support incorporation of vibrotactile information in a future system that will enable full touch typing and general mouse interactions using instrumented EVA gloves.

  5. STS-118 Astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Clay Anderson Perform EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    As the construction continued on the International Space Station (ISS), STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist Rick Mastracchio was anchored on the foot restraint of the Canadarm2 as he participated in the third session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) for the mission. Assisting Mastracchio was Expedition 15 flight engineer Clay Anderson (out of frame). During the 5 hour, 28 minute space walk, the two relocated the S-band Antenna Sub-Assembly from the Port 6 (P6) truss to the Port 1 (P1) truss, installed a new transponder on P1 and retrieved the P6 transponder.

  6. Astronaut Thomas Mattingly performs EVA during Apollo 16 transearth coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, performs extravehicular activity (EVA) during the Apollo 16 transearth coast. mattingly is assisted by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Mattingly inspected the SIM bay of the Service Module, and retrieved film from the Mapping and Panoramic cameras. Mattingly is wearing the helmet of Astronaut John W. Young, commander. The helmet's lunar extravehicular visor assembly helped protect Mattingly's eyes frmo the bright sun. This view is a frame from motion picture film exposed by a 16mm Maurer camera.

  7. STS-117 Astronauts John Olivas and Jim Reilly During EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists Jim Reilly (center frame), and John 'Danny' Olivas (bottom center), participated in the first Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) as construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS). Among other tasks, the two connected power, data, and cooling cables between trusses 1 (S1) and 3 (S3), released the launch restraints from and deployed the four solar array blanket boxes on S4, and released the cinches and winches holding the photovoltaic radiator on S4. The primary mission objective was the installment of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4).

  8. Apollo 16 lunar module 'Orion' photographed from distance during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is photographed from a distance by Astronaut Chares M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, aboard the moving Lunar Roving Vehicle. Astronauts Duke and John W. Young, commander, were returning from the excursion to Stone Mountain during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2). The RCA color television camera mounted on the LRV is in the foreground. A portion of the LRV's high-gain antenna is at top left. Smoky Mountain rises behind the LM in this north-looking view at the Descartes landing site.

  9. The effect of pressure suit gloves on hand performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Hara, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of pressure gloves on human hand capabilities is a major concern in the performance of extravehicular activity (EVA) for space maintenance and construction missions. The effects of EVA gloves on six hand performance domains was investigated in this NASA sponsored research. They were range of motion, strength, tactile perception, dexterity, fatigue, and comfort. All tests were designed to be performed in a glove box using the barehand as well as the glove at 0 and 4.3 pressure differentials. Ten subjects participated in the test in a repeated measures design. The results of the experiments are summarized in this paper.

  10. A suite of tools for monitoring and assessing impacts of road networks and off-road vehicle activity on rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite increasing amounts of transportation related activities on rangelands globally, few tools exist for assessing and monitoring impacts of roads, road networks and off-road vehicle traffic. This is in part due to an historical emphasis on grazing issues in rangelands and the complexity of monit...

  11. EVA - A Textual Data Processing Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakopin, Primoz

    EVA, a text processing tool designed to be self-contained and useful for a variety of languages, is described briefly, and its extensive coded character set is illustrated. Features, specifications, and database functions are noted. Its application in development of a Slovenian literary dictionary is also described. (MSE)

  12. Extravehicular activity at geosynchronous earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Schulze, Arthur E.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William

    1988-01-01

    The basic contract to define the system requirements to support the Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has three phases: EVA in geosynchronous Earth orbit; EVA in lunar base operations; and EVA in manned Mars surface exploration. The three key areas to be addressed in each phase are: environmental/biomedical requirements; crew and mission requirements; and hardware requirements. The structure of the technical tasks closely follows the structure of the Advanced EVA studies for the Space Station completed in 1986.

  13. Astronomical Video Suites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco Salgado, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Astronomer and visual artist Jose Francisco Salgado has directed two astronomical video suites to accompany live performances of classical music works. The suites feature awe-inspiring images, historical illustrations, and visualizations produced by NASA, ESA, and the Adler Planetarium. By the end of 2009, his video suites Gustav Holst's The Planets and Astronomical Pictures at an Exhibition will have been presented more than 40 times in over 10 countries. Lately Salgado, an avid photographer, has been experimenting with high dynamic range imaging, time-lapse, infrared, and fisheye photography, as well as with stereoscopic photography and video to enhance his multimedia works.

  14. Design of a 2-Hour Prebreathe Protocol for Space Walks (EVAs) from the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, M. L.; Conkin, J.; Foster, P. P.; Pilmanis, A. A.; Butler, B. D.; Fife, C.; Vann, R. D.; Gerth, W. A.; Loftin, K. C.; Dervay, J.; Waligora, J. M.; Powell, M. R.; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The majority of extravehicular activities (EVAs) performed from the shuttle use a 10.2 psi staged decompression. The International Space Station (ISS) will operate at 14.7 psi, requiring crews to "campout" in the airlock at 10.2 psi. The constraints associated with campout (crew isolation, oxygen usage, and waste management), provided the rationale to develop a 2-hour prebreathe protocol from 14.7 psi. Previous studies on the affect of microgravity and exercise during prebreathe suggested the feasibility of this approach. Various combinations of adynamia (nonwalking subjects), prebreathe exercise doses, and space suit donning options (10.2 vs. 14.7 psi) were analyzed against timeline and consumable constraints. Prospective decompression sickness (DCS) and venous gas emboli (VGE) accept/reject criteria were defined from statistical analysis of historical DCS data, combined with risk management of DCS under ISS mission circumstances. Maximum operational DCS levels were defined based on protecting for EVA capability with two crew members at 95% confidence, throughout ISS lifetime (within the constraints of NASA DCS disposition policy JPG 1800.3). The accept / reject limits were adjusted for greater safety (including Grade IV VGE criteria) based on analysis of related medical factors. Monte-Carlo simulation was performed to design a closed sequential, multi-center laboratory trial, including the capability of rejecting the primary protocol and testing at least one alternate exercise dose, within the 2-hour prebreathe. The 2-hour protocol incorporates 0, breathing for 5 0 min at 14.7 psi, including 10 min dual cycle ergometry at 75%VO(2max). It requires an additional 30 minO2breathing during depress from 14.7 to 10.2 psi, followed by a 30-60 min suit donning break at 10.2 psi/26.5% O2. It concludes with a 40 min in-suit O2 prebreathe. The protocol would be accepted for operations, if the incidence of DCS was less than 15% and Grade IV VGE less than 20%, both at 95

  15. Effect of weighted vest suit worn during daily activities on running speed, jumping power, and agility in young men.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, Timo; Ruotsalainen, Ilona; Virmavirta, Mikko

    2012-11-01

    Previous weighted vest interventions using exercise in addition to hypergravity have been successful in improving postural balance and power production capacity. The purpose of this study was to investigate if hypergravity alone in daily activities excluding sporting activities is effective in improving neuromuscular performance in young adults. Eight male subjects (age = 32 [SD: 6] years, height = 178 [5] cm, and body mass = 81 [8] kg) wore weighted vests 3 d·wk for 3 weeks during waking hours, excluding sporting activities. Control group comprised 9 male subjects (age = 32 [6] years, height = 179 [5] cm, and body mass = 83 [9] kg). Performance was assessed with countermovement jump (body mass normalized peak power), figure-of-8 running test (running time), and running velocity test at baseline and at the end of the intervention. At baseline, the groups did not differ from each other (multivariate analysis of variance [MANOVA] p = 0.828). A significant group × time interaction (MANOVA F = 5.1, p = 0.015) was observed for performance variables. Analysis of covariance indicated that the intervention improved the figure-of-8 running time (p = 0.016) (-2.2 vs. 0.5%), whereas normalized peak power (0.0 vs. 1.6%) and running velocity (1.3 vs. 0.1%) were unaffected (p ≥ 0.095). Wearing weighted vests was effective in slightly improving agility-related performance in young men. Because the effect was small, applying hypergravity only during exercise probably suffices. It appears that a proper volume and intensity of hypergravity could be in the order of 5-10% body weight vest worn during up to 50% of the training sessions for a period of 3-4 weeks. PMID:22266642

  16. Modified EVA Encapsulant Formulations for Low Temperature Processing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Z.; Pern, F. J.; Glick, S. H.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: We have developed several new ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) formulations modified on the basis of NREL patented EVA formulations [1]. The new formulations can be cured to a desired gel content of {approx}80% in the ambient at temperatures 20-30 C lower than the typical conditions in vacuum (i.e. {approx}150 C). Glass/glass laminates showed transmittance spectra that are essentially the same as that of EVA 15295P in the visible and NIR regions but higher in the UV region. Results of fluorescence analysis of the ambient-processed new EVA formulations showed the concentrations of the curing-generated {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl chromophores, which are responsible for the UV induced EVA discoloration and photodegradation, were considerably lower than that of EVA 15295P, therefore suggesting a better photochemical stability of new EVA formulations.

  17. Conversion of IVA Human Computer Model to EVA Use and Evaluation and Comparison of the Result to Existing EVA Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, George S.; Williams, Jermaine C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the methods, rationale, and comparative results of the conversion of an intravehicular (IVA) 3D human computer model (HCM) to extravehicular (EVA) use and compares the converted model to an existing model on another computer platform. The task of accurately modeling a spacesuited human figure in software is daunting: the suit restricts the human's joint range of motion (ROM) and does not have joints collocated with human joints. The modeling of the variety of materials needed to construct a space suit (e. g. metal bearings, rigid fiberglass torso, flexible cloth limbs and rubber coated gloves) attached to a human figure is currently out of reach of desktop computer hardware and software. Therefore a simplified approach was taken. The HCM's body parts were enlarged and the joint ROM was restricted to match the existing spacesuit model. This basic approach could be used to model other restrictive environments in industry such as chemical or fire protective clothing. In summary, the approach provides a moderate fidelity, usable tool which will run on current notebook computers.

  18. Design and simulation of EVA tools for first servicing mission of HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched into near-earth orbit by the space shuttle Discovery on April 24, 1990. The payload of two cameras, two spectrographs, and a high-speed photometer is supplemented by three fine-guidance sensors that can be used for astronomy as well as for star tracking. A widely reported spherical aberration in the primary mirror causes HST to produce images of much lower quality than intended. A space shuttle repair mission in late 1993 will install small corrective mirrors that will restore the full intended optical capability of the HST. The first servicing mission (FSM) will involve considerable extravehicular activity (EVA). It is proposed to design special EVA tools for the FSM. This report includes details of the data acquisition system being developed to test the performance of the various EVA tools in ambient as well as simulated space environment.

  19. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2008-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmet design, and in particular space suit design, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a slightly different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view is required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited FOV, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was able to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables without sacrificing fidelity. The specific field of view angles were defined by considering mission segment activities, historical performance of other suits, comparison between similar requirements (pressure visor up versus down, etc.), estimated requirements from other teams for field of view (Orion, Altair, EVA), previous field of view tests, medical data for shirtsleeve field of view performance, and mapping of visual field data to generate 45degree off-axis field of view requirements. Full resolution of several specific field of view angle requirements warranted further work, which consisted of low and medium fidelity field of view testing in the rear entry ISuit and DO27 helmet prototype. This paper serves to document this reduction progress and followup testing employed to write the Constellation requirements for helmet field of view.

  20. Development of Damp-Heat Resistant Self-Primed EVA and Non-EVA Encapsulant Formulations at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Jorgensen, G. J.

    2005-11-01

    Self-primed ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and non-EVA (PMG) encapsulant formulations were developed that have greater resistance to damp heat exposure at 85 deg C and 85% relative humidity (RH) (in terms of adhesion strength to glass substrates) than a commonly used commercial EVA product. The self-primed EVA formulations were developed on the basis of high-performing glass priming formulations that have previously proven to significantly enhance the adhesion strength of unprimed and primed EVA films on glass substrates during damp heat exposure. The PMG encapsulant formulations were based on an ethylene-methylacrylate copolymer containing glycidyl methacrylate.

  1. Integrated Software Systems for Crew Management During Extravehicular Activity in Planetary Terrain Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetz, Lawrence; Nguen, Dan; Jones, Jeffrey; Lee, Pascal; Merrell, Ronald; Rafiq, Azhar

    2008-01-01

    Initial planetary explorations with the Apollo program had a veritable ground support army monitoring the safety and health of the 12 astronauts who performed lunar surface extravehicular activities (EVAs). Given the distances involved, this will not be possible on Mars. A spacesuit for Mars must be smart enough to replace that army. The next generation suits can do so using 2 software systems serving as virtual companions, LEGACI (Life support, Exploration Guidance Algorithm and Consumable Interrogator) and VIOLET (Voice Initiated Operator for Life support and Exploration Tracking). The system presented in this study integrates data inputs from a suite of sensors into the MIII suit s communications, avionics and informatics hardware for distribution to remote managers and data analysis. If successful, the system has application not only for Mars but for nearer term missions to the Moon, and the next generation suits used on ISS as well. Field tests are conducted to assess capabilities for next generation spacesuits at Johnson Space Center (JSC) as well as the Mars and Lunar analog (Devon Island, Canada). LEGACI integrates data inputs from a suite of noninvasive biosensors in the suit and the astronaut (heart rate, suit inlet/outlet lcg temperature and flowrate, suit outlet gas and dewpoint temperature, pCO2, suit O2 pressure, state vector (accelerometry) and others). In the Integrated Walkback Suit Tests held at NASA-JSC and the HMP tests at Devon Island, communication and informatics capabilities were tested (including routing by satellite from the suit at Devon Island to JSC in Houston via secure servers at VCU in Richmond, VA). Results. The input from all the sensors enable LEGACI to compute multiple independent assessments of metabolic rate, from which a "best" met rate is chosen based on statistical methods. This rate can compute detailed information about the suit, crew and EVA performance using test-derived algorithms. VIOLET gives LEGACI voice activation

  2. Oracle Management Tool Suite

    2007-06-01

    The Oracle Management Tool Suite is used to automatically manage Oracle based systems. This includes startup and shutdown of databases and application servers as well as backup, space management, workload management and log file management.

  3. Study of roles of remote manipulator systems and EVA for shuttle mission support, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, T. B.; Micocci, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Alternate extravehicular activity (EVA) and remote manipulator system (RMS) configurations were examined for their relative effectiveness in performing an array of representative shuttle and payload support tasks. Initially a comprehensive analysis was performed of payload and shuttle support missions required to be conducted exterior to a pressurized inclosure. A set of task selection criteria was established, and study tasks were identified. The EVA and RMS modes were evaluated according to their applicability for each task and task condition. The results are summarized in tabular form, showing the modes which are chosen as most effective or as feasible for each task/condition. Conclusions concerning the requirements and recommendations for each mode are presented.

  4. Astronaut James Irwin gives salute beside U.S. flag during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, gives a military salute while standing beside the deployed U.S. flag during the Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Hadley-Apennine landing site. The flag was deployed toward the end of EVA-2. The Lunar Module 'Falcon' is partially visible on the right. Hadley Delta in the background rises approximately 4,000 meters (about 13,124 feet) above the plain. The base of the mountain is approximately 5 kilometers (about 3 statute miles) away. This photograph was taken by Astronaut David R. Scott, Apollo 15 commander.

  5. Astronaut David Scott gives salute beside U.S. flag during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut David R. Scott, commander, gives a military salute while standing beside the deployed U.S. flag during the Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Hadley-Apennine landing site. The flag was deployed toward the end of EVA-2. The Lunar Module 'Falcon' is partially visible on the right. Hadley Delta in the background rises approximately 4,000 meters (about 13,124 feet) above the plain. The base of the mountain is approximately 5 kilometers (about 3 statute miles) away. This photograph was taken by Astronaut James B. Irwin, Lunar Module pilot.

  6. Apollo 13 astronauts participate in walk-through of EVA timeline at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., commander of the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission, participates in a walk-through of the extravehicular activity (EVA) timeline at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Here, Lovell, using mock-ups, traverses with the two subpackages of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). Astronaut Fred W. Haise Jr., lunar Module Pilot, is standing in the left background (29672); Haise participates in a walk-through of the EVA timeline at KSC. Here, Haise uses an Apollo Lunar Surface Drill to dig a three-meter heat flow probe hole (29673).

  7. An innovative exercise method to simulate orbital EVA work - Applications to PLSS automatic controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lantz, Renee; Vykukal, H.; Webbon, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    An exercise method has been proposed which may satisfy the current need for a laboratory simulation representative of muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses to work during orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The simulation incorporates arm crank ergometry with a unique body support mechanism that allows all body position stabilization forces to be reacted at the feet. By instituting this exercise method in laboratory experimentation, an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) thermoregulatory control system can be designed to more accurately reflect the specific work requirements of orbital EVA.

  8. STS-57 astronauts Low and Wisoff perform DTO 1210 EVA in OV-105's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    During STS-57 extravehicular activity (EVA), Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low (foreground) secures portable foot restraint (PFR) (manipulator foot restraint (MFR)) to the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector using a PFR attachment device (PAD). MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff performs operations next to Low at the stowed European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA). This EVA, designated Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 1210, included evaluation of procedures being developed to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on mission STS-61 in December 1993. The scene is backdropped against the blackness of space with Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, payload bay (PLB) and payloads appearing in the foreground.

  9. Neutral buoyancy evaluation of technologies for space station external operations. [EVA weightlessness simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, D. L.; Bowden, M. L.; Spofford, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    In order to perform a complete systems analysis for almost any large space program, it is vital to have a thorough understanding of human capabilities in extravehicular activity (EVA). The present investigation is concerned with the most significant results from the MIT Space Systems Lab's neutral buoyancy tests. An evaluation of neutral buoyancy is considered along with the tested structures, aspects of learning, productivity, time and motion analysis, and assembly loads. Attention is given to EVA assembly with a manned maneuvering unit, teleoperated structural assembly, an integrated control station, a beam assembly teleoperator, and space station proximity operations.

  10. Results and applications of a space suit range-of-motion study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, AL

    1989-01-01

    The range of motion of space suits has traditionally been described using limited 2-D mapping of limb, torso, or arm movements performed in front of an orthogonal grid. A new technique for recovering extra-vehicular (EVA) space suit range-of-motion data during underwater testing was described in a paper presented by the author at the 1988 conference. The new technique uses digitized data which is automatically acquired from video images of the subject. Three-dimensional trajectories are recovered from these data, and can be displayed using 2-D computer graphics. Results of using this technique for the current shuttle EVA suit during underwater simulated weightlessness testing are discussed. Application of the data for use in animating anthropometric computer models is highlighted.

  11. Work and fatigue characteristics of unsuited and suited humans during isolated isokinetic joint motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, L. Javier; Maida, J. C.; Miles, E. H.; Rajulu, S. L.; Pandya, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    at 80% MVT. These results could be very useful in the design of future EMU suits and the planning of Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) for the future International Space Station assembly operations.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope EVA Power Ratchet Tool redesign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Paul W.; Park, Chan; Brown, Lee

    The Power Ratchet Tool (PRT) is a self contained, power-driven, 3/8 inch drive ratchet wrench which will be used by astronauts during Extravehicular Activities (EVA). This battery-powered tool is controlled by a dedicated electonic controller. The PRT was flown during the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Deployment Mission STS-31 to deploy the solar arrays if the automatic mechanisms failed. The PRT is currently intended for use during the first HST Servicing Mission STS-61 as a general purpose power tool. The PRT consists of three major components; the wrench, the controller, and the battery module. Fourteen discrete combinations of torque, turns, and speed may be programmed into the controller before the EVA. The crewmember selects the desired parameter profile by a switch mounted on the controller. The tool may also be used in the manual mode as a non-powered ratchet wrench. The power is provided by a silver-zinc battery module, which fits into the controller and is replaceable during an EVA. The original PRT did not meet the design specification of torque output and hours of operation. To increase efficiency and reliability the PRT underwent a redesign effort. The majority of this effort focused on the wrench. The original PRT drive train consisted of a low torque, high speed brushless DC motor, a face gear set, and a planocentric gear assembly. The total gear reduction was 300:1. The new PRT wrench consists of a low speed, high torque brushless DC motor, two planetary gear sets and a bevel gear set. The total gear reduction is now 75:1. A spline clutch has also been added to disengage the drive train in the manual mode. The design changes to the controller will consist of only those modifications necessary to accomodate the redesigned wrench.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope EVA Power Ratchet Tool redesign. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Paul W.; Park, Chan; Brown, Lee

    1993-01-01

    The Power Ratchet Tool (PRT) is a self contained, power-driven, 3/8 inch drive ratchet wrench which will be used by astronauts during Extravehicular Activities (EVA). This battery-powered tool is controlled by a dedicated electonic controller. The PRT was flown during the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Deployment Mission STS-31 to deploy the solar arrays if the automatic mechanisms failed. The PRT is currently intended for use during the first HST Servicing Mission STS-61 as a general purpose power tool. The PRT consists of three major components; the wrench, the controller, and the battery module. Fourteen discrete combinations of torque, turns, and speed may be programmed into the controller before the EVA. The crewmember selects the desired parameter profile by a switch mounted on the controller. The tool may also be used in the manual mode as a non-powered ratchet wrench. The power is provided by a silver-zinc battery module, which fits into the controller and is replaceable during an EVA. The original PRT did not meet the design specification of torque output and hours of operation. To increase efficiency and reliability the PRT underwent a redesign effort. The majority of this effort focused on the wrench. The original PRT drive train consisted of a low torque, high speed brushless DC motor, a face gear set, and a planocentric gear assembly. The total gear reduction was 300:1. The new PRT wrench consists of a low speed, high torque brushless DC motor, two planetary gear sets and a bevel gear set. The total gear reduction is now 75:1. A spline clutch has also been added to disengage the drive train in the manual mode. The design changes to the controller will consist of only those modifications necessary to accomodate the redesigned wrench. The battery design will be unaffected.

  14. In-suit Doppler technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Arthur E.; Greene, Ernest R.; Nadeau, John J.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to perform a technology assessment survey of non-invasive air embolism detection utilizing Doppler ultrasound methodologies. The primary application of this technology will be a continuous monitor for astronauts while performing extravehicular activities (EVA's). The technology assessment was to include: (1) development of a full understanding of all relevant background research; and (2) a survey of the medical ultrasound marketplace for expertise, information, and technical capability relevant to this development. Upon completion of the assessment, LSR was to provide an overview of technological approaches and R&D/manufacturing organizations.

  15. Modular System to Enable Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to perform extravehicular activity (EVA), both human and robotic, has been identified as a key component to space missions to support such operations as assembly and maintenance of space systems (e.g. construction and maintenance of the International Space Station), and unscheduled activities to repair an element of the transportation and habitation systems that can only be accessed externally and via unpressurized areas. In order to make human transportation beyond lower Earth orbit (LEO) practical, efficiencies must be incorporated into the integrated transportation systems to reduce system mass and operational complexity. Affordability is also a key aspect to be considered in space system development; this could be achieved through commonality, modularity and component reuse. Another key aspect identified for the EVA system was the ability to produce flight worthy hardware quickly to support early missions and near Earth technology demonstrations. This paper details a conceptual architecture for a modular EVA system that would meet these stated needs for EVA capability that is affordable, and that could be produced relatively quickly. Operational concepts were developed to elaborate on the defined needs, and to define the key capabilities, operational and design constraints, and general timelines. The operational concept lead to a high level design concept for a module that interfaces with various space transportation elements and contains the hardware and systems required to support human and telerobotic EVA; the module would not be self-propelled and would rely on an interfacing element for consumable resources. The conceptual architecture was then compared to EVA Systems used in the Space Shuttle Orbiter, on the International Space Station to develop high level design concepts that incorporate opportunities for cost savings through hardware reuse, and quick production through the use of existing technologies and hardware designs. An upgrade option

  16. TEJAS - TELEROBOTICS/EVA JOINT ANALYSIS SYSTEM VERSION 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    The primary objective of space telerobotics as a research discipline is the augmentation and/or support of extravehicular activity (EVA) with telerobotic activity; this allows increased emplacement of on-orbit assets while providing for their "in situ" management. Development of the requisite telerobot work system requires a well-understood correspondence between EVA and telerobotics that to date has been only partially established. The Telerobotics/EVA Joint Analysis Systems (TEJAS) hypermedia information system uses object-oriented programming to bridge the gap between crew-EVA and telerobotics activities. TEJAS Version 1.0 contains twenty HyperCard stacks that use a visual, customizable interface of icon buttons, pop-up menus, and relational commands to store, link, and standardize related information about the primitives, technologies, tasks, assumptions, and open issues involved in space telerobot or crew EVA tasks. These stacks are meant to be interactive and can be used with any database system running on a Macintosh, including spreadsheets, relational databases, word-processed documents, and hypermedia utilities. The software provides a means for managing volumes of data and for communicating complex ideas, relationships, and processes inherent to task planning. The stack system contains 3MB of data and utilities to aid referencing, discussion, communication, and analysis within the EVA and telerobotics communities. The six baseline analysis stacks (EVATasks, EVAAssume, EVAIssues, TeleTasks, TeleAssume, and TeleIssues) work interactively to manage and relate basic information which you enter about the crew-EVA and telerobot tasks you wish to analyze in depth. Analysis stacks draw on information in the Reference stacks as part of a rapid point-and-click utility for building scripts of specific task primitives or for any EVA or telerobotics task. Any or all of these stacks can be completely incorporated within other hypermedia applications, or they can be

  17. The European space suit, a design for productivity and crew safety.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A I; Berthier, S; Ollivier, Y

    1991-01-01

    In order to fulfill the two major mission objectives, i.e. support planned and unplanned external servicing of the COLUMBUS FFL and support the HERMES vehicle for safety critical operations and emergencies, the European Space Suit System baseline configuration incorporates a number of design features, which shall enhance the productivity and the crew safety of EVA astronauts. The work in EVA is today--and will be for several years--a manual work. Consequently, to improve productivity, the first challenge is to design a suit enclosure which minimizes movement restrictions and crew fatigue. It is covered by the "ergonomic" aspect of the suit design. Furthermore, it is also necessary to help the EVA crewmember in his work, by giving him the right information at the right time. Many solutions exist in this field of Man-Machine Interface, from a very simple system, based on cuff check lists, up to advanced systems, including Head-Up Displays. The design concept for improved productivity encompasses following features: easy donning/doffing thru rear entry, suit ergonomy optimisation, display of operational information in alpha-numerical and graphical form, and voice processing for operations and safety critical information. Concerning crew safety the major design features are: a lower R-factor for emergency EVA operations thru increased suit pressure, zero prebreath conditions for normal operations, visual and voice processing of all safety critical functions, and an autonomous life support system to permit unrestricted operations around HERMES and the CFFL. The paper analyses crew safety and productivity criteria and describes how these features are being built into the design of the European Space Suit System. PMID:11537126

  18. Astronaut David Wolf participates in training for contingency EVA in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf participates in training for contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-58 mission. The mission specialist was about to be submerged to a point of neutral buoyancy in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). In this view, Wolf is aided by technicians in donning the gloves for his extravehicular mobility unit (EMU).

  19. Underwater views of STS-11 crewman Robert L. Stewart during EVA training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Underwater views of STS-11 crewman Robert L. Stewart during extravehicular activity (EVA) training in the cargo bay in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) in bldg 27. Stewart busies himself with donning and doffing of the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) in a mockup of the Shuttle's cargo bay.

  20. STS-31 Crew Training: Firefighting, Food Tasting, EVA Prep and Post

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

  1. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys ALSEP during first Apollo 12 EVA on moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Apollo 12 lunar module pilot, deploys components of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the moon. The photo was made by Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Apollo 12 commander, using a 70mm handheld Haselblad camera modified for lunar surface usage.

  2. View of the Lunar Portable Magnetometer on the LRV photographed during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    View of the Lunar Portable Magnetometer mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) which was parked at Station 2 on the Descartes lunar landing site. It was photographed by the Apollo 16 crew during their second extravehicular activity (EVA-2). Note the shadow of the astronaut taking the photograph in the left foreground.

  3. Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, participates in the August 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the striking reflection of the Earth in Lousma's helmet visor.

  4. Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, participates in the August 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and Astronauts Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the reflection of the Apollo Telescope Mount and the Earth in Lousma's helmet visor.

  5. Astronaut Owen Garriott participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, participates in the August 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and Astronaut Jack Lousma, Skylab pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the reflection of the solar shield in Garriett's helmet visor.

  6. Astronaut William S. McArthur in training for contingency EVA in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut William S. McArthur, mission specialist, participates in training for contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-58 mission. He is wearing the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) minus his helmet. For simulation purposes, McArthur was about to be submerged to a point of neutral buoyancy in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF).

  7. Astronaut Shannon Lucid in training for contingency EVA for STS-58 in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Shannon W. Lucid participates in training for contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-58 mission. For simulation purposes, the mission specialist is about to be submerged to a point of neutral buoyancy in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF).

  8. Eva Szabo, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Eva Szabo is Chief of the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group at the NCI Division of Cancer Prevention. She graduated from Yale University with a BS in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, received her MD from Duke University, and completed her internal medicine residency at Bellevue-NYU Medical Center. After completing her medical oncology fellowship at the National Cancer Institute, Dr. Szabo led a laboratory effort studying lung cancer biology. |

  9. Results of EVA/mobile transporter space station truss assembly tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Judith J.; Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Bush, Harold G.; Lake, M. S.; Jensen, J. K.; Wallsom, R. E.; Phelps, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Underwater neutral buoyance tests were conducted to evaluate the use of a Mobile Transporter concept in conjunction with EVA astronauts to construct the Space Station Freedom truss structure. A three-bay orthogonal tetrahedral truss configuration with a 15 foot square cross section was repeatedly assembled by a single pair of pressure suited test subjects working from the Mobile Transporter astronaut positioning devices (mobile foot restraints). The average unit assembly time (which included integrated installation of utility trays) was 27.6 s/strut, or 6 min/bay. The results of these tests indicate that EVA assembly of space station size structures can be significantly enhanced when using a Mobile Transporter equipped with astronaut positioning devices. Rapid assembly time can be expected and are dependent primarily on the rate of translation permissible for on-orbit operations. The concept used to demonstate integrated installation of utility trays requires minimal EVA handling and consequentially, as the results show, has little impact on overall assembly time.

  10. Development of a Compact Efficient Cooling Pump for Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanBoeyen, Roger W.; Reeh, Jonathan A.; Trevino, Luis

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing demands placed on extravehicular activity (EVA) for the International Space Station (ISS) assembly and maintenance, along with planned lunar and Martian missions, the need for increased human productivity and capability becomes ever more critical. This is most readily achieved by reduction in space suit weight and volume, and increased hardware reliability, durability, and operating lifetime. Considerable progress has been made with each successive generation of space suit design; from the Apollo A7L suit, to the current Shuttle Extravehicular Mobile Unit (EMU) suit, and the next generation Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE). However, one area of space suit design which has continued to lag is the fluid pump used to drive the water cooling loop of the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). The two main types of fluid pumps typically used in space applications are rotodynamic pumps (pumping is achieved through a rotary vaned impeller) and displacement pumps (which includes rotary and diaphragm pumps). The rotating and moving parts found in the pumps and electric motor add significantly to the susceptibility to wear and friction, thermal mismatch, and complexity of the pumps. Electric motor-driven pumps capable of achieving high operational reliability are necessarily large, heavy, and energy inefficient. This report describes a development effort conducted for NASA by Lynntech, Inc., who recently demonstrated the feasibility of an electrochemically-driven fluid cooling pump. With no electric motor and minimal lightweight components, an electrochemically-driven pump is expected to be significantly smaller, lighter and achieve a longer life time than conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps. By employing sulfonated polystyrene-based proton exchange membranes, rather than conventional Nafion membranes, a significant reduction in the actuator power consumption was demonstrated. It was also demonstrated that these membranes possess the

  11. Extravehicular Activity and Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, J. A.; Mary, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The first human mission to Mars will be the farthest distance that humans have traveled from Earth and the first human boots on Martian soil in the Exploration EVA Suit. The primary functions of the Exploration EVA Suit are to provide a habitable, anthropometric, pressurized environment for up to eight hours that allows crewmembers to perform autonomous and robotically assisted extravehicular exploration, science/research, construction, servicing, and repair operations on the exterior of the vehicle, in hazardous external conditions of the Mars local environment. The Exploration EVA Suit has the capability to structurally interface with exploration vehicles via next generation ingress/egress systems. Operational concepts and requirements are dependent on the mission profile, surface assets, and the Mars environment. This paper will discuss the effects and dependencies of the EVA system design with the local Mars environment and Planetary Protection. Of the three study areas listed for the workshop, EVA identifies most strongly with technology and operations for contamination control.

  12. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Korona, F. Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This space suit system architecture and technologies required based on human exploration (EVA) destinations will be discussed, and how these systems should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program. A series of exercises and analyses provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program space suit architecture, with its maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, is postured to provide a viable solution for future space exploration missions. The destination environmental analysis demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew, given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit. Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and nonenvironmental design drivers that will become increasingly important as humans venture farther from Earth. The presentation of destination environmental data demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, largely independent of any particular design reference mission.

  13. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Korona, F. Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars1 left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper addresses the space suit system architecture and technologies required based on human exploration (EVA) destinations, and describes how these systems should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program. A series of exercises and analyses provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program space suit architecture, with its maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, is postured to provide a viable solution for future space exploration missions. The destination environmental analysis demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew, given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit. Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and non-environmental design drivers that will become increasingly important as humans venture farther from Earth. This paper demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, largely independent of any particular design reference mission.

  14. Advanced Crew Escape Suit.

    PubMed

    1995-09-01

    Design of the S1032 Launch Entry Suit (LES) began following the Challenger loss and NASA's decision to incorporate a Shuttle crew escape system. The LES (see Figure 1) has successfully supported Shuttle missions since NASA's Return to Flight with STS-26 in September 1988. In 1990, engineers began developing the S1035 Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) to serve as a replacement for the LES. The ACES was designed to be a simplified, lightweight, low-bulk pressure suit which aided self donning/doffing, provided improved comfort, and enhanced overall performance to reduce crew member stress and fatigue. Favorable crew member evaluations of a prototype led to full-scale development and qualification of the S1035 ACES between 1990 and 1992. Production of the S1035 ACES began in February 1993, with the first unit delivered to NASA in May 1994. The S1035 ACES first flew aboard STS-68 in August 1994 and will become the primary crew escape suit when the S1032 LES ends its service life in late 1995. The primary goal of the S1035 development program was to provide improved performance over that of the S1032 to minimize the stress and fatigue typically experienced by crew members. To achieve this, five fundamental design objectives were established, resulting in various material/configuration changes. PMID:11540717

  15. PLANNING THE MUSIC SUITE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HICK, BASIL L.; SAETVEIT, JOSEPH G.

    A PUBLICATION DESIGNED TO IMPROVE THE PLANNING OF MUSIC SUITES IN SCHOOLS. THE INFORMATION CAN BE USED IN THE PREPARATION OF PLANS FOR NEW BUILDINGS AND IMPROVING FACILITIES FOR MUSIC EDUCATION IN EXISTING BUILDINGS. SECTIONS INCLUDED DEAL WITH--(1) THE MUSIC PROGRAM AND SPECIAL NEEDS OF THE MUSIC DEPARTMENT, (2) LOCATION OF MUSIC ROOMS, (3) TYPES…

  16. Introduction to Radiation Issues for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Saganti, P. B.; Miller, J.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides significant challenges for radiation protection of the crew due to a combination of circumstances including: the extended duration of missions for many crewmembers, the exceptionally dynamic nature of the radiation environment in ISS orbit, and the necessity for numerous planned extravehicular activities (EVA) for station construction and maintenance. Radiation protection requires accurate radiation dose measurements and precise risk modeling of the transmission of high fluxes of energetic electrons and protons through the relatively thin shielding provided by the space suits worn during EVA. Experiments and analyses have been performed due to the necessity to assure complete radiation safety for the EVA crew and thereby ensure mission success. The detailed characterization described of the material and topological properties of the ISS space suits can be used as a basis for design of space suits used in future exploration missions. In radiation protection practices, risk from exposure to ionizing radiation is determined analytically by the level of exposure, the detrimental quality of the radiation field, the inherent radiosensitivity of the tissues or organs irradiated, and the age and gender of the person at the time of exposure. During low Earth orbit (LEO) EVA, the relatively high fluxes of low-energy electrons and protons lead to large variations in exposure of the skin, lens of the eye, and tissues in other shallow anatomical locations. The technical papers in this publication describe a number of ground-based experiments that precisely measure the thickness of the NASA extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and Russian Zvezda Orlan-M suits using medical computerized tomography (CT) X-ray analysis, and particle accelerator experiments that measure the minimum kinetic energy required by electrons and photons to penetrate major components of the suits. These studies provide information necessary for improving the

  17. Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement Techniques in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekdash, O.; Norcross, J.; Meginnis, I.

    2016-01-01

    Providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout is essential to the reduction of risk in performing suited operations. Long term CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms such as headache, lethargy, and dizziness. Thus maintaining adequate CO2 washout in both ground testing and during in flight EVAs is a requirement of current and future suit designs. It is necessary to understand the inspired CO2 of suit wearers such that future requirements for space suits appropriately address the risk of inadequate washout. Testing conducted by the EVA Physiology Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center aimed to characterize a method for noninvasively measuring inspired oronasal CO2 under pressurized suited conditions in order to better inform requirements definition and verification techniques for future CO2 washout limits in space suits. Based on a meta-analysis of those studies it was decided to test a nasal cannula as it is a commercially available device, would not impede suit ventilation delivery, and is placed directly in the breathing path of the user.

  18. Custom Unit Pump Design and Testing for the EVA PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design and test a pre-flight prototype pump for use in the Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump must accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting non-condensable gas without becoming air locked. The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the pre-flight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES verified that the pump meets the design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure drop, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, gas ingestion , and restart capability under both ambient and vacuum conditions. The pump operated between 40 and 240 lbm/hr flowrate, 35 to 100 F

  19. Biosensors for EVA: Improved Instrumentation for Ground-based Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soller, B.; Ellerby, G.; Zou, F.; Scott, P.; Jin, C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Coates, J.

    2010-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group has developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO 2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI project has 4 objectives: (1) increase the accuracy of the metabolic rate calculation through improved prediction of stroke volume; (2) investigate the relative contributions of calf and thigh oxygen consumption to metabolic rate calculation for walking and running; (3) demonstrate that the NIRS-based noninvasive metabolic rate methodology is sensitive enough to detect decrement in VO 2 in a space analog; and (4) improve instrumentation to allow testing within a spacesuit. Over the past year we have made progress on all four objectives, but the most significant progress was made in improving the instrumentation. The NIRS system currently in use at JSC is based on fiber optics technology. Optical fiber bundles are used to deliver light from a light source in the monitor to the patient, and light reflected back from the patient s muscle to the monitor for spectroscopic analysis. The fiber optic cables are large and fragile, and there is no way to get them in and out of the test spacesuit used for ground-based studies. With complimentary funding from the US Army, we undertook a complete redesign of the sensor and control electronics to build a novel system small enough to be used within the spacesuit and portable enough to be used by a combat medic. In the new system the filament lamp used in the fiber optic system was replaced with a novel broadband near infrared

  20. Using MVA and EVA to measure financial performance.

    PubMed

    Gapenski, L C

    1996-03-01

    Two measures of financial performance that are being applied increasingly in investor-owned and not-for-profit healthcare organizations are market value added (MVA) and economic value added (EVA). Unlike traditional profitability measures, both MVA and EVA measures take into account the cost of equity capital. MVA is most appropriate for investor-owned healthcare organizations and EVA is the best measure for not-for-profit organizations. As healthcare financial managers become more familiar with MVA and EVA and understand their potential, these two measures may become more widely accepted accounting tools for assessing the financial performance of investor-owned and not-for-profit healthcare organizations. PMID:10156588

  1. 802.16e System Profile for NASA Extra-Vehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foore, Lawrence R.; Chelmins, David T.; Nguyen, Hung D.; Downey, Joseph A.; Finn, Gregory G.; Cagley, Richard E.; Bakula, Casey J.

    2009-01-01

    This report identifies an 802.16e system profile that is applicable to a lunar surface wireless network, and specifically for meeting extra-vehicular activity (EVA) data flow requirements. EVA suit communication needs are addressed. Design-driving operational scenarios are considered. These scenarios are then used to identify a configuration of the 802.16e system (system profile) that meets EVA requirements, but also aim to make the radio realizable within EVA constraints. Limitations of this system configuration are highlighted. An overview and development status is presented by Toyon Research Corporation concerning the development of an 802.16e compatible modem under NASA s Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program. This modem is based on the recommended system profile developed as part of this report. Last, a path forward is outlined that presents an evolvable solution for the EVA radio system and lunar surface radio networks. This solution is based on a custom link layer, and 802.16e compliant physical layer compliant to the identified system profile, and a later progression to a fully interoperable 802.16e system.

  2. Use of Intermittent Recompression and Nitrox Breathing Mixtures during Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, M.L.; Abercromby, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: NASA's plans for lunar surface exploration include pressurized suitport rovers that are quickly ingressed and egressed with minimal consumables losses. This capability enables crewmembers to perform multiple short extravehicular activities (EVAs) at different locations in a single day versus a single 8-hr EVA. Modeling work and empirical human and animal data indicate that intermittent recompressions between EVA suit pressure and cabin pressure reduce decompression stress. Savings in crew time and gas losses may also be achieved if the N2 purge is shortened to 2 minutes, achieving 80% O2 (vs. 8 minutes, 95% O2). METHODS: A validated Tissue Bubble Dynamics Model was used to predict decompression stress using 80% and 95% O2 breathing mixtures during 3 x 2-hr EVAs (4.3 PSIA) with 1hr recompressions back to 8.0 PSIA (32% O2) versus a single 8-hr EVA. 15 minutes was spent at 6.0 PSIA before depressurizations to 4.3 PSIA; initial EVA tasks could be performed during this time. Model validation was based on significant prediction (p<0.001) and goodness of fit with 84 cases of DCS in 668 altitude exposures (McFadden s rho-squared=0.214). RESULTS: A 2.2% predicted increase in DCS risk due to the shortened purge is more than compensated for by a predicted 2.5% reduction in DCS risk due to intermittent recompression. 15 minutes at 80% O2, 6.0 PSIA prior to a 4.3 PSIA EVA prevents supersaturation in the brain and spinal cord (5-10 minute half-time compartments) and reduces tissue tensions in 40 min compartments, where most of the body s inert gas is located, to approximately the same levels (4.39 vs 4.00 PSIA) as achieved during a 40 min 95% O2 prebreathe at 10.2 PSIA. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent recompressions between lunar EVAs may enable reductions in suit purge and prebreathe requirements, decompression stress, and/or suit operating pressures.

  3. EVA Communications Avionics and Informatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carek, David Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The Glenn Research Center is investigating and developing technologies for communications, avionics, and information systems that will significantly enhance extra vehicular activity capabilities to support the Vision for Space Exploration. Several of the ongoing research and development efforts are described within this presentation including system requirements formulation, technology development efforts, trade studies, and operational concept demonstrations.

  4. Energy utilization rates during shuttle extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Waligora, J M; Kumar, K V

    1995-01-01

    The work rates or energy utilization rates during EVA are major factors in sizing of life support systems. These rates also provide a measure of ease of EVA and its cost in crew fatigue. From the first Shuttle EVA on the STS-6 mission in 1983, we have conducted 59 man-EVA and 341 man-hours of EVA. Energy utilization rates have been measured on each of these EVA. Metabolic rate was measured during each EVA using oxygen utilization corrected for suit leakage. From 1981-1987, these data were available for average data over the EVA or over large segments of the EVA. Since 1987, EVA oxygen utilization data were available at 2-minute intervals. The average metabolic rate on Shuttle EVA (194 kcal/hr.) has been significantly lower than metabolic rates during Apollo and Skylab missions. Peak rates have been below design levels, infrequent, and of short duration. The data suggest that the energy cost of tasks may be inversely related to the degree of training for the task. The data provide insight on the safety margins provided by life support designs and on the energy cost of Station construction EVA. PMID:11540993

  5. Space Suit Spins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Space is a hostile environment where astronauts combat extreme temperatures, dangerous radiation, and a near-breathless vacuum. Life support in these unforgiving circumstances is crucial and complex, and failure is not an option for the devices meant to keep astronauts safe in an environment that presents constant opposition. A space suit must meet stringent requirements for life support. The suit has to be made of durable material to withstand the impact of space debris and protect against radiation. It must provide essential oxygen, pressure, heating, and cooling while retaining mobility and dexterity. It is not a simple article of clothing but rather a complex modern armor that the space explorers must don if they are to continue exploring the heavens

  6. Integrated Suit Test 1 - A Study to Evaluate Effects of Suit Weight, Pressure, and Kinematics on Human Performance during Lunar Ambulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Norcross, Jason; Vos, Jessica R.

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to design the next generation Lunar suit, NASA has initiated a series of tests aimed at understanding the human physiological and biomechanical affects of space suits under a variety of conditions. The first of these tests was the EVA Walkback Test (ICES 2007-01-3133). NASA-JSC assembled a multi-disciplinary team to conduct the second test of the series, titled Integrated Suit Test 1 (IST-1), from March 6 through July 24, 2007. Similar to the Walkback Test, this study was performed with the Mark III (MKIII) EVA Technology Demonstrator suit, a treadmill, and the Partial Gravity Simulator in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility at Johnson Space Center. The data collected for IST-1 included metabolic rates, ground reaction forces, biomechanics, and subjective workload and controllability feedback on both suited and unsuited (shirt-sleeve) astronaut subjects. For IST-1 the center of gravity was controlled to a nearly perfect position while the weight, pressure and biomechanics (waist locked vs. unlocked) were varied individually to evaluate the effects of each on the ability to perform level (0 degree incline) ambulation in simulated Lunar gravity. The detailed test methodology and preliminary key findings of IST-1 are summarized in this report.

  7. Comparison of Human Modeling Tools for Efficiency of Prediction of EVA Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.; Loughead, Tomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Design of ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) interfaces for International Space Station is important to successful assembly. This is highlighted by the recent rise in the estimate of time required for EVA during the assembly to 900 hours. The traditional method of evaluating EVA design is examination of mockups in neutral buoyancy testing. While effective, this is costly. Any tools for streamlining this process have positive cost and schedule implications for Station design. The human modelling software package Jack has been shown to be a useful tool in computer-aided design of space hardware requiring actuation in EVA. The package has been used to aid in the design of flight hardware for a Station Assembly Mission; evaluation was based on comparison of the computer simulations with neutral buoyancy simulations. When used to predict the feasibility of tasks, the software was found to be effective for reach and visibility evaluation. Some limitations have been encountered in prediction of work clearances. Another human simulator is currently being evaluated using the same hardware and comparisons to the same Neutral Buoyancy simulations. Preliminary results for ERGO, which is derived from robotics software, indicate similar strengths and weaknesses.

  8. Underwater views of STS-5 crewmen Lenoir and Allen during EVA training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Underwater views of STS-5 crewmen Lenoir and Allen during EVA training. In this view, Mission Specialist/Astronaut Joseph P. Allen is in the foreground and Mission Specialist/Astronaut William B. Lenoir is at the top of the photography. Both men are wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) space suits and are weighted down to achieve neutral buoyancy in the 25-ft. deep pool. The background is a full-scale mockup of the Space Shuttle's cargo bay area. Divers assist in the training (35894); Allen goes through a simulation exercise with divers all around (35985); Divers assist the fully suited and tethered Lenoir as he simulates work to be done in the shuttle cargo bay (35986); Lenoir anchors himself to a full-scale mockup of the shuttle orbiter's cargo bay and holds onto a restraining device (35987).

  9. Development of an Objective Space Suit Mobility Performance Metric Using Metabolic Cost and Functional Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.; Norcross, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for evaluating EVA suit performance and mobility have historically concentrated on isolated joint range of motion and torque. However, these techniques do little to evaluate how well a suited crewmember can actually perform during an EVA. An alternative method of characterizing suited mobility through measurement of metabolic cost to the wearer has been evaluated at Johnson Space Center over the past several years. The most recent study involved six test subjects completing multiple trials of various functional tasks in each of three different space suits; the results indicated it was often possible to discern between different suit designs on the basis of metabolic cost alone. However, other variables may have an effect on real-world suited performance; namely, completion time of the task, the gravity field in which the task is completed, etc. While previous results have analyzed completion time, metabolic cost, and metabolic cost normalized to system mass individually, it is desirable to develop a single metric comprising these (and potentially other) performance metrics. This paper outlines the background upon which this single-score metric is determined to be feasible, and initial efforts to develop such a metric. Forward work includes variable coefficient determination and verification of the metric through repeated testing.

  10. Assessment and Management of the Risks of Debris Hits During Space Station EVAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate-Cornell, Elisabeth; Sachon, Marc

    1997-01-01

    The risk of EVAs is critical to the decision of whether or not to automate a large part of the construction of the International Space Station (ISS). Furthermore, the choice of the technologies of the space suit and the life support system will determine (1) the immediate safety of these operations, and (2) the long-run costs and risks of human presence in space, not only in lower orbit (as is the case of the ISS) but also perhaps, outside these orbits, or on the surface of other planets. The problem is therefore both an immediate one and a long-term one. The fundamental question is how and when to shift from the existing EMU system (suit, helmet, gloves and life support system) to another type (e.g. a hard suit), given the potential trade-offs among life-cycle costs, risks to the astronauts, performance of tasks, and uncertainties about new systems' safety inherent to such a shift in technology. A more immediate issue is how to manage the risks of EVAs during the construction and operation of the ISS in order to make the astronauts (in the words of the NASA Administrator) "as safe outside as inside". For the moment (June 1997), the plan is to construct the Space Station using the low-pressure space suits that have been developed for the space shuttle. In the following, we will refer to this suit assembly as EMU (External Maneuvering Unit). It is the product of a long evolution, starting from the U.S. Air Force pilot suits through the various versions and changes that occurred for the purpose of NASA space exploration, in particular during the Gemini and the Apollo programs. The Shuttle EMU is composed of both soft fabrics and hard plates. As an alternative to the shuttle suit, at least two hard suits were developed by NASA: the AX5 and the MRKIII. The problem of producing hard suits for space exploration is very similar to that of producing deep-sea diving suits. There was thus an opportunity to develop a suit that could be manufactured for both purposes with the

  11. STS-117 Astronauts John Olivas and Jim Reilly During EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists Jim Reilly (out of frame), and John 'Danny' Olivas (partially obscured, center), participated in the first Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) as construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS). Among other tasks, the two connected power, data, and cooling cables between trusses 1 (S1) and 3 (S3), released the launch restraints from and deployed the four solar array blanket boxes on S4, and released the cinches and winches holding the photovoltaic radiator on S4. The primary mission objective was the installment of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4). The horizon of Earth and a crescent moon are visible on the right.

  12. EVA Hazards due to TPS Inspection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2007-01-01

    Tile inspection and repair activities have implicit hazards associated with them. When an Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) crewmember and associated hardware are added into the equation, additional hazards are introduced. Potential hazards to the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Orbiter or the crew member themselves are created. In order to accurately assess the risk of performing a TPS inspection or repair, an accurate evaluation of potential hazards and how adequately these hazards are controlled is essential. The EMU could become damaged due to sharp edges, protrusions, thermal extremes, molten metal or impact with the Orbiter. Tools, tethers and the presence of a crew member in the vicinity of the Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) pose hazards to the Orbiter. Hazards such as additional tile or Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) damage from a loose tool, safety tethers, crewmember or arm impact are introduced. Additionally, there are hazards to the crew which should be addressed. Crew hazards include laser injury, electrical shock, inability to return to the airlock for EMU failures or Orbiter rapid safing scenarios, as well as the potential inadvertent release of a crew member from the arm/boom. The aforementioned hazards are controlled in various ways. Generally, these controls are addressed operationally versus by design, as the majority of the interfaces are to the Orbiter and the Orbiter design did not originally account for tile repair. The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), for instance, was originally designed to deploy experiments, and therefore has insufficient design controls for retention of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS). Although multiple methods to repair the Orbiter TPS exist, the majority of the hazards are applicable no matter which specific repair method is being performed. TPS Inspection performed via EVA also presents some of the same hazards. Therefore, the hazards common to all TPS inspection or repair methods will

  13. Air conditioned suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, G. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An environmentally controlled suit is described consisting of an airtight outergarment attached by an airtight bellows to the wall of a sterile chamber, an undergarment providing for circulation of air near the skin of the wearer, and a circulation system comprised of air supply and distribution to the extremities of the undegarment and central collection and exhaust of air from the midsection of the undergarment. A workman wearing the undergarment and attached circulation system enters the outer garment through a tunnel in the chamber wall and the attached bellows to work in the chamber without any danger of spreading bacteria.

  14. Exploration Space Suit Architecture: Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper picks up where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars (Hill, Johnson, IEEEAC paper #1209) left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and interfaces and could be reconfigured to meet the mission or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will walk though the continued development of a space suit system architecture, and how it should evolve to meeting the future exploration EVA needs of the United States space program. In looking forward to future US space exploration and determining how the work performed to date in the CxP and how this would map to a future space suit architecture with maximum re-use of technology and functionality, a series of thought exercises and analysis have provided a strong indication that the CxP space suit architecture is well postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions. Through the destination environmental analysis that is presented in this paper, the modular architecture approach provides the lowest mass, lowest mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low Earth orbit. Some of the studies presented here provide a look and validation of the non-environmental design drivers that will become every-increasingly important the further away from Earth humans venture and the longer they are away. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates a logical clustering of design environments that allows a very focused approach to technology prioritization, development and design that will maximize the return on investment independent of any particular program and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of being required for any particular manned flight program in the future. The new approach to space suit design and interface definition the discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with

  15. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Technology Development Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Sarah; Barta, Daniel; Stephan, Ryan; Gaddis, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The overall objective is to develop advanced gloves for extra vehicular activity (EVA) for future human space exploration missions and generate corresponding standards by which progress may be quantitatively assessed. The glove prototypes that result from the successful completion of this technology development activity will be delivered to NASA's Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) and ultimately to be included in an integrated test with the next generation spacesuit currently under development.

  16. First flight test results of the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Carl J.

    1995-01-01

    The Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) is a small, self-contained, propulsive-backpack system that provides free-flying mobility for an astronaut engaged in a space walk, also known as extravehicular activity (EVA.) SAFER contains no redundant systems and is intended for contingency use only. In essence, it is a small, simplified version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) last flown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1985. The operational SAFER unit will only be used to return an adrift EVA astronaut to the spacecraft. Currently, if an EVA crew member inadvertently becomes separated from the Space Shuttle, the Orbiter will maneuver to within the crew member's reach envelope, allowing the astronaut to regain contact with the Orbiter. However, with the advent of operations aboard the Russian MIR Space Station and the International Space Station, the Space Shuttle will not be available to effect a timely rescue. Under these conditions, a SAFER unit would be worn by each EVA crew member. Flight test of the pre-production model of SAFER occurred in September 1994. The crew of Space Shuttle Mission STS-64 flew a 6.9 hour test flight which included performance, flying qualities, systems, and operational utility evaluations. We found that the unit offers adequate propellant and control authority to stabilize and enable the return of a tumbling/separating crew member. With certain modifications, production model of SAFER can provide self-rescue capability to a separated crew member. This paper will present the program background, explain the flight test results and provide some insight into the complex operations of flight test in space.

  17. Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Sujit K.; Chaki, T. K.; Tikku, V. K.; Pradhan, N. K.; Bhowmick, A. K.

    1997-10-01

    Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) has been investigated over a range of times, temperatures, stretching, irradiation doses and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) levels. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) and stretched (100% elongation) sample shrinks to a maximum level when kept at 453K temperature for 60 s. The heat shrinkage of samples irradiated with radiation doses of 20, 50, 100 and 150 kGy increases sharply with increasing stretching in the initial stage. Amnesia rating decreases with increasing radiation dose and TMPTMA level as well as gel content. The high radiation dose and TMPTMA level lower the heat shrinkage due to the chain scission. The effect of temperature at which extension is carried out on heat shrinkage is marginal. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) EVA tubes of different dimensions expanded in a laboratory grade tube expander show similar behaviour at 453K and 60 s. The X-ray and DSC studies reveal that the crystallinity increases on stretching due to orientation of chains and it decreases to a considerable extent on heat shrinking. The theoretical and experimental values of heat shrinkage for tubes and rectangular strips are in good accord, when the radiation dose is 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%.

  18. EVA mouthguards: how thick should they be?

    PubMed

    Westerman, Bill; Stringfellow, Peter M; Eccleston, John A

    2002-02-01

    A major consideration in the performance of mouthguards is their ability to absorb energy and reduce transmitted forces when impacted. This is especially important to participants in contact sports such as hockey or football. The thickness of mouthguard materials is directly related to energy absorption and inversely related to transmitted forces when impacted. However, wearer comfort is also an important factor in their use. Thicker mouthguards are not user-friendly. While thickness of material over incisal edges and cusps of teeth is critical, just how thick should a mouthguard be and especially in these two areas? Transmitted forces through different thicknesses of the most commonly used mouthguard material, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) (Shore A Hardness of 80) were compared when impacted with identical forces which were capable of damaging the oro-facial complex. The constant impact force used in the tests was produced by a pendulum and had an energy of 4.4 joules and a velocity of 3 meters per second. Improvements in energy absorption and reductions in transmitted forces were observed with increasing thickness. However, these improvements lessened when the mouthguard material thickness was greater than 4 mm. The results show that the optimal thickness for EVA mouthguard material with a Shore A Hardness of 80 is around 4 mm. Increased thickness, while improving performance marginally, results in less wearer comfort and acceptance. PMID:11841462

  19. Adhesion Strength Study of EVA Encapsulants on Glass Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Glick, S. H.

    2003-05-01

    An extensive peel-test study was conducted to investigate the various factors that may affect the adhesion strength of photovoltaic module encapsulants, primarily ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), on glass substrates of various laminates based on a common configuration of glass/encapsulant/backfoil. The results show that"pure" or"absolute" adhesion strength of EVA-to-glass was very difficult to obtain because of tensile deformation of the soft, semi-elastic EVA layer upon pulling. A mechanically"strong enough" backing foil on the EVA was critical to achieving the"apparent" adhesion strength. Peel test method with a 90-degree-pull yielded similar results to a 180-degree-pull. The 90-degree-pull method better revealed the four stages of delamination failure of the EVA/backfoil layers. The adhesion strength is affected by a number of factors, which include EVA type, formulation, backfoil type and manufacturing source, glass type, and surface priming treatment on the glass surface or on the backfoil. Effects of the glass-cleaning method and surface texture are not obvious. Direct priming treatments used in the work did not improve, or even worsened, the adhesion. Aging of EVA by storage over~5 years reduced notably the adhesion strength. Lower adhesion strengths were observed for the blank (unformulated) EVA and non-EVA copolymers, such as poly(ethylene-co-methacrylate) (PEMA) or poly(ethylene-co-butylacrylate) (PEBA). Their adhesion strengths increased if the copolymers were cross-linked. Transparent fluoropolymer superstrates such as TefzelTM and DureflexTM films used for thin-film PV modules showed low adhesion strengths to the EVA at a level of~2 N/mm.

  20. In Vivo Noninvasive Analysis of Human Forearm Muscle Function and Fatigue: Applications to EVA Operations and Training Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fotedar, L. K.; Marshburn, T.; Quast, M. J.; Feeback, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Forearm muscle fatigue is one of the major limiting factors affecting endurance during performance of deep-space extravehicular activity (EVA) by crew members. Magnetic resonance (MR) provides in vivo noninvasive analysis of tissue level metabolism and fluid exchange dynamics in exercised forearm muscles through the monitoring of proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-31-MRS) parameter variations. Using a space glove box and EVA simulation protocols, we conducted a preliminary MRS/MRI study in a small group of human test subjects during submaximal exercise and recovery and following exhaustive exercise. In assessing simulated EVA-related muscle fatigue and function, this pilot study revealed substantial changes in the MR image longitudinal relaxation times (T2) as an indicator of specific muscle activation and proton flux as well as changes in spectral phosphocreatine-to-phosphate (PCr/Pi) levels as a function of tissue bioenergetic potential.

  1. The DKIST Instrumentation Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woeger, Friedrich

    2016-05-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope with its four meter diameter aperture will be the largest telescope in the world for solar observations when it is commissioned in the year 2019. In order to harness its scientific potential immediately, DKIST will integrate five instruments that each will provide unique functionality to measure properties of the solar atmosphere at unprecedented spatial resolution.In this paper we discuss the unique capabilities in the DKIST instrument suite that consists of the Visible Broadband Imager (VBI), the Visible Spectro-Polarimeter (ViSP), the Visible Tunable Filter (VTF), the Diffraction-Limited Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter (DL-NIRSP), and the Cryogenic Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter (Cryo-NIRSP).In addition, we will explain the facility's approach to supporting high spatial resolution data acquisition with multiple instruments simultaneously by means of the Facility Instrument Distribution Optics. This system of wavelength separating and interchangeable beamsplitters will enable a variety of different ways to optically configure the light beam to the instruments. This approach ensures that the DKIST instruments can use their individual advantages in a multitude of different observing scenarios. The DKIST instrumentation suite will enable crucial new insights into complex physical processes that occur on spatial scales that are smaller than any solar structure observed in the past.

  2. The recovery and utilization of space suit range-of-motion data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, AL; Walton, James S.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for recovering data for the range of motion of a subject wearing a space suit is described along with the validation of this technique on an EVA space suit. Digitized data are automatically acquired from video images of the subject; three-dimensional trajectories are recovered from these data, and can be displayed using three-dimensional computer graphics. Target locations are recovered using a unique video processor and close-range photogrammetry. It is concluded that such data can be used in such applications as the animation of anthropometric computer models.

  3. [Signal Processing Suite Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahr, John D.; Mir, Hasan; Morabito, Andrew; Grossman, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Our role in this project was to participate in the design of the signal processing suite to analyze plasma density measurements on board a small constellation (3 or 4) satellites in Low Earth Orbit. As we are new to space craft experiments, one of the challenges was to simply gain understanding of the quantity of data which would flow from the satellites, and possibly to interact with the design teams in generating optimal sampling patterns. For example, as the fleet of satellites were intended to fly through the same volume of space (displaced slightly in time and space), the bulk plasma structure should be common among the spacecraft. Therefore, an optimal, limited bandwidth data downlink would take advantage of this commonality. Also, motivated by techniques in ionospheric radar, we hoped to investigate the possibility of employing aperiodic sampling in order to gain access to a wider spatial spectrum without suffering aliasing in k-space.

  4. Clementine sensor suite

    SciTech Connect

    Ledebuhr, A.G.

    1994-11-15

    LLNL designed and built the suite of six miniaturized light-weight space-qualified sensors utilized in the Clementine mission. A major goal of the Clementine program was to demonstrate technologies originally developed for Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Programs. These sensors were modified to gather data from the moon. This overview presents each of these sensors and some preliminary on-orbit performance estimates. The basic subsystems of these sensors include optical baffles to reject off-axis stray light, light-weight ruggedized optical systems, filter wheel assemblies, radiation tolerant focal plane arrays, radiation hardened control and readout electronics and low mass and power mechanical cryogenic coolers for the infrared sensors. Descriptions of each sensor type are given along with design specifications, photographs and on-orbit data collected.

  5. Roof Savings Calculator Suite

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua R; Garrett, Aaron; Erdem, Ender; Huang, Yu

    2013-11-22

    The software options currently supported by the simulation engine can be seen/experienced at www.roofcalc.com. It defaults all values to national averages with options to test a base-case (residential or commercial) building versus a comparison building with inputs for building type, location, building vintage, conditioned area, number of floors, and window-to-wall ratio, cooling system efficiency, type of heating, heating system efficiency, duct location, roof/ceiling insulation level, above-sheathing ventilation, radiant barrier, roof thermal mass, roof solar reflectance, roof thermal emittance, utility costs, roof pitch. The Roof Savings Caculator Suite adds utilities and website/web service and the integration of AtticSim with DOE-2.1E, with the end-result being Roof Savings Calculator.

  6. Roof Savings Calculator Suite

    2013-11-22

    The software options currently supported by the simulation engine can be seen/experienced at www.roofcalc.com. It defaults all values to national averages with options to test a base-case (residential or commercial) building versus a comparison building with inputs for building type, location, building vintage, conditioned area, number of floors, and window-to-wall ratio, cooling system efficiency, type of heating, heating system efficiency, duct location, roof/ceiling insulation level, above-sheathing ventilation, radiant barrier, roof thermal mass, roof solar reflectance,more » roof thermal emittance, utility costs, roof pitch. The Roof Savings Caculator Suite adds utilities and website/web service and the integration of AtticSim with DOE-2.1E, with the end-result being Roof Savings Calculator.« less

  7. 20. NBS SUIT LAB. TABLE WITH MISCELLANEOUS SUIT PARTS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. NBS SUIT LAB. TABLE WITH MISCELLANEOUS SUIT PARTS AND TERRY WEST, A SPACE SUIT ASSEMBLY TECHNICIAN LOGGING SUIT PART DATA. PARTS ON THE TABLE ARE A HARD UPPER TORSO (HUT) (REAR LEFT), FULL HELMET (FRONT LEFT), TWO HELMETS WITHOUT PROTECTIVE VISORS, A PAIR OF GLOVES, AND A BACKPACK WITHOUT VOLUMETRIC COVER (REAR RIGHT). THE BACKPACK ATTACHES TO THE HUT TO MAKE-UP THE UPPER TORSO COMPONENTS OF THE SUIT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  8. Improvement of the performances of modified bituminous concrete with EVA and EVA-waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saoula, S.; Ait Mokhtar, K.; Haddadi, S.; Ghorbel, E.

    2009-11-01

    The improvement of the characteristics of the road flexible pavements is essential in regard to the growth of the traffics and the increasingly large performances of the vehicles. This improvement was made possible by the introduction of new methods and processes of modification of the products. The modification of the bituminous mix can be made in two manners: the first one is the modification of the bitumen binder (process A), the other one consists of the direct addition of a modifier during mixing operation (process B). It should be noted that one of the difficulties in Algeria is the absence of manufacturing units of the modified binders. For this reason, it is recommended to use the process B. In this article, the results of the influence of the modification of a bituminous concrete on its mechanical behaviour have been presented, using laboratory tests by the addition of EVA (Acetate of vinyl and ethylene) and of EVA-waste (waste of sole of shoes).

  9. Integrated separation scheme for measuring a suite of fission and activation products from a fresh mixed fission and activation product sample

    SciTech Connect

    Morley, Shannon M.; Seiner, Brienne N.; Finn, Erin C.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Smith, Steven C.; Gregory, Stephanie J.; Haney, Morgan M.; Lucas, Dawn D.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Beacham, Tere A.; Swearingen, Kevin J.; Friese, Judah I.; Douglas, Matthew; Metz, Lori A.

    2015-05-01

    Mixed fission and activation materials resulting from various nuclear processes and events contain a wide range of isotopes for analysis spanning almost the entire periodic table. In some applications such as environmental monitoring, nuclear waste management, and national security a very limited amount of material is available for analysis and characterization so an integrated analysis scheme is needed to measure multiple radionuclides from one sample. This work describes the production of a complex synthetic sample containing fission products, activation products, and irradiated soil and determines the percent recovery of select isotopes through the integrated chemical separation scheme. Results were determined using gamma energy analysis of separated fractions and demonstrate high yields of Ag (76 ± 6%), Au (94 ± 7%), Cd (59 ± 2%), Co (93 ± 5%), Cs (88 ± 3%), Fe (62 ± 1%), Mn (70 ± 7%), Np (65 ± 5%), Sr (73 ± 2%) and Zn (72 ± 3%). Lower yields (< 25%) were measured for Ga, Ir, Sc, and W. Based on the results of this experiment, a complex synthetic sample can be prepared with low atom/fission ratios and isotopes of interest accurately and precisely measured following an integrated chemical separation method.

  10. Application of EVA guidelines and design criteria. Volume 1: EVA selection/systems design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    Parameters that require consideration by the planners and designers when planning for man to perform functions outside the vehicle are presented in terms of the impact the extravehicular crewmen and major EV equipment items have on the mission, vehicle, and payload. Summary data on man's performance capabilities in the weightless space environment are also provided. The performance data are based on orbital and transearth EVA from previous space flight programs and earthbound simulations, such as water immersion and zero-g aircraft.

  11. Application of EVA guidelines and design criteria. Volume 2: EVA workstation conceptual designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    Several EV workstation concepts were developed and are documented. The workstation concepts were developed following a comprehensive analysis of potential EV missions, functions, and tasks as interpreted from NASA and contractor space shuttle and space station studies, mission models, and related reports. The design of a versatile, portable EVA workstation is aimed at reducing the design and development costs for each mission and aiding in the development of on-orbit serviceable payloads.

  12. Use of the Remote Access Virtual Environment Network (RAVEN) for coordinated IVA-EVA astronaut training and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cater, J P; Huffman, S D

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a unique virtual reality training and assessment tool developed under a NASA grant, "Research in Human Factors Aspects of Enhanced Virtual Environments for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Training and Simulation." The Remote Access Virtual Environment Network (RAVEN) was created to train and evaluate the verbal, mental and physical coordination required between the intravehicular (IVA) astronaut operating the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm and the EVA astronaut standing in foot restraints on the end of the RMS. The RAVEN system currently allows the EVA astronaut to approach the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) under control of the IVA astronaut and grasp, remove, and replace the Wide Field Planetary Camera drawer from its location in the HST. Two viewpoints, one stereoscopic and one monoscopic, were created all linked by Ethernet, that provided the two trainees with the appropriate training environments. PMID:11539288

  13. Astronaut David Wolf participates in training for contingency EVA in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf participates in training for contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-58 mission. The mission specialist was about to be submerged ito a point of neutral buoyancy in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). In this view, Wolf is displaying the flexibility of his training version of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) by lifting his arms above his head (31701); Wolf waves to the camera before he is submerged in the WETF (31702).

  14. Astronaut John Young reaches for tools in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, reaches for tools in the Apollo lunar hand tool carrier at the aft end of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. This view is looking south from the base of Stone Mountain.

  15. Astronaut John Young replaces tools in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, replaces tools in the Apollo lunar hand tool carrier at the aft end of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Smoky Mountain, with the large Ravine crater on its flank, is in the left background. This view is looking northeast.

  16. View of rim of South Ray crater on traverse up Stone Mountain during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A view of the rim of South Ray crater photographed with a 500mm lens from Station no.4 -- the highest point on the traverse up Stone Mountain -- during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. South Ray crater was a 'fresh' source of angular ejecta in the Lunar Module-Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package area and for samples at Station No.8.

  17. Astronaut Jack Lousma hooks up cable for rate gyro six pack during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, hooks up a 23 ft. 2 in. connecting cable for the rate gyro six pack during extravehicular activity (EVA) on August 24, 1973, as senn in this photographic reproduction taken from a color television tranmsission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The rate gyros were mounted inside the Multiple Docking Adapter opposite the Apollo Telescope Mount control and display console.

  18. Nutrition systems for pressure suits.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rapp, R. M.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Nutrition systems were successfully developed in the Apollo Program for astronauts wearing pressure suits during emergency decompression situations and during lunar surface explorations. These nutrition systems consisted of unique dispensers, water, flavored beverages, nutrient-fortified beverages, and intermediate moisture food bars. The emergency decompression system dispensed the nutrition from outside the pressure suit by interfacing with a suit helmet penetration port. The lunar exploration system utilized dispensers stowed within the interior layers of the pressure suit. These systems could be adapted for provision of nutrients in other situations requiring the use of pressure suits.

  19. EVA operational guidelines and considerations for use during the Space Station Freedom design review process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The EVA hardware interfaces, standards, and considerations are examined, as are guidelines that EVA operations engineer will use when reviewing the design packages from the EVA operational point of view. By utilizing both the EVA and robotics interfaces standards, design requirements, and the EVA operational guidelines and considerations, the Space Station Freedom program design can be more cost effective in the long term and also more compatible and friendly for on-orbit assembly and on-orbit maintenance and repair.

  20. Injury Potential Testing of Suited Occupants During Dynamic Spacecraft Flight Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Constellation Program, a space-suit architecture was envisioned for support of Launch, Entry, Abort, Micro-g EVA, Post Landing crew operations, and under emergency conditions, survival. This space suit architecture is unique in comparison to previous launch, entry, and abort (LEA) suit architectures in that it utilized rigid mobility elements in the scye and the upper arm regions. The suit architecture also employed rigid thigh disconnect elements to allow for quick disconnect functionality above the knee which allowed for commonality of the lower portion of the suit across two suit configurations. This suit architecture was designed to interface with the Orion seat subsystem, which includes seat components, lateral supports, and restraints. Due to this unique configuration of spacesuit mobility elements, combined with the need to provide occupant protection during dynamic landing events, risks were identified with potential injury due to the suit characteristics described above. To address the risk concerns, a test series was developed to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of these potential issues. Testing included use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs), Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and representative seat/suit hardware in combination with high linear acceleration events. The ensuing treatment focuses o detailed results of the testing that has ben conducted under this test series thus far.

  1. Injury Potential Testing of Suited Occupants During Dynamic Spacecraft Flight Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the NASA Constellation Program, a space-suit architecture was envisioned for support of Launch, Entry, Abort, Micro-g EVA, Post Landing crew operations, and under emergency conditions, survival. This space suit architecture is unique in comparison to previous launch, entry, and abort (LEA) suit architectures in that it utilized rigid mobility elements in the scye and the upper arm regions. The suit architecture also employed rigid thigh disconnect elements to allow for quick disconnect functionality above the knee which allowed for commonality of the lower portion of the suit across two suit configurations. This suit architecture was designed to interface with the Orion seat subsystem, which includes seat components, lateral supports, and restraints. Due to this unique configuration of spacesuit mobility elements, combined with the need to provide occupant protection during dynamic landing events, risks were identified with potential injury due to the suit characteristics described above. To address the risk concerns, a test series was developed to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of these potential issues. Testing included use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs), Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and representative seat/suit hardware in combination with high linear acceleration events. The ensuing treatment focuses on detailed results of the testing that has been conducted under this test series thus far.

  2. Current and future issues in USAF full pressure suit research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, Terrell E.

    1994-01-01

    Although the full pressure suits currently in the USAF operational inventory provide acceptable performance and crew protection for these missions, there is considerable room for improvement, especially in the areas of comfort, mobility, glove and helmet performance, and maintenance/supportability. As future aircraft push the envelope towards operations at higher and higher altitudes and transatmospheric flight, advances in full pressure suit technology will be needed. Also, enhanced pressure suit technology will be required to meet NASA's need for protection during future EVA operations for both on-orbit and planetary surface missions. This presentation will review the results of efforts at the Armstrong Laboratory to develop and demonstrate advanced full pressure suit technology for use in future high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft and transatmospheric vehicle operations. For those readers who may not be familiar with this area of life support equipment, a brief review of the important physiological and operational requirements for full pressure suits used in these applications will be addressed first, followed by a summary of the current state-of-the-art in USAF pressure suit technology. Ongoing and recently completed work on enhanced mobility pressure suit joints and improved pressure suit gloves will then be reviewed. The presentation will conclude with discussion of the technical challenges for successful development of an advanced full pressure suit for aerospace operations in the 21st century.

  3. Structure of EvaA: a paradigm for sugar 2,3-dehydratases.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Rachel L; Thoden, James B; Holden, Hazel M

    2013-03-26

    Unusual deoxysugars found appended to natural products often provide or enhance the pharmacokinetic activities of the parent compound. The preferred carbohydrate donors for the biosynthesis of such glycosylated natural products are the dTDP-linked sugars. Many of the biologically relevant dTDP-deoxysugars are constructed around the 2,6-dideoxyhexoses or the 2,3(4),6-trideoxyhexoses. A key step in the biosynthesis of these sugars is the removal of the hexose C-2' hydroxyl group and the oxidation of the C-3' hydroxyl group to a carbonyl moiety. Enzymes that catalyze these reactions are referred to as 2,3-dehydratases and have been, for the most part, largely uncharacterized. Here we report the first structural analysis of a sugar 2,3-dehydratase. For this investigation, the enzyme, EvaA, was cloned from Amycolatopsis orientalis, and the structure was solved and refined to a nominal resolution of 1.7 Å. On the basis of the resulting model, it is clear that EvaA belongs to the large Nudix hydrolase superfamily and is most similar to GDP-mannose hydrolase. Each subunit of the EvaA dimer folds into two domains that clearly arose via gene duplication. Two dTDP-sugar binding pockets, A and B, are present in each EvaA subunit. On the basis of site-directed mutagenesis experiments and activity assays, it appears that pocket A functions as the active site and pocket B is simply a remnant left behind from the gene duplication event. As 2,3-dehydration is crucial for the biosynthesis of many unusual deoxysugars, this investigation provides key structural insight into this widely conserved reaction. PMID:23473392

  4. Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement Techniques in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J.; Bekdash, O.; Meginnis, I.

    2016-01-01

    Providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout is essential to the reduction of risk in performing suited operations. Long term CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms such as headache, lethargy, dizziness, and in severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and death. Thus maintaining adequate CO2 washout in both ground testing and during in flight EVAs is a requirement of current and future suit designs. It is necessary to understand the inspired CO2 of suit wearers such that future requirements for space suits appropriately address the risk of inadequate washout. Testing conducted by the EVA Physiology Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center aimed to characterize a method for noninvasively measuring inspired oronasal CO2 under pressurized suited conditions in order to better inform requirements definition and verification techniques for future CO2 washout limits in space suits. Prior work conducted by the EPL examined several different wearable, respirator style, masks that could be used to sample air from the vicinity surround the nose and mouth of a suited test subject. Previously published studies utilized these masks, some being commercial products and some novel designs, to monitor CO2 under various exercise and flow conditions with mixed results for repeatability and/or consistency between subjects. Based on a meta-analysis of those studies it was decided to test a nasal cannula as it is a commercially available device that is placed directly in the flow path of the user as they breathe. A nasal cannula was used to sample air inhaled by the test subjects during both rest and exercise conditions. Eight subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill or operating an arm ergometer to reach target metabolic rates of 1000, 2000, and 3000 BTU/hr. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid for all tests, with supply flow rates of 6, 4, and 2 actual cubic feet per minute depending on the test condition. Each test configuration was conducted twice with subjects breathing

  5. Extravehicular Activity Testing in Analog Environments: Evaluating the Effects of Center of Gravity and Environment on Human Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, M.L.; Chappell, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) Project is performing tests in different analog environments to understand human performance during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) with the aim of developing more safe and efficient systems for lunar exploration missions and the Constellation Program. The project is characterizing human EVA performance in studies using several test beds, including the underwater NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) facilities, JSC fs Partial Gravity Simulator (POGO), and the NASA Reduced Gravity Office (RGO) parabolic flight aircraft. Using these varied testing environments, NASA can gain a more complete understanding of human performance issues related to EVA and the limitations of each testing environment. Tests are focused on identifying and understanding the EVA system factors that affect human performance such as center of gravity (CG), inertial mass, ground reaction forces (GRF), suit weight, and suit pressure. The test results will lead to the development of lunar EVA systems operations concepts and design requirements that optimize human performance and exploration capabilities. METHODS: Tests were conducted in the NBL and during NEEMO missions in the NOAA Aquarius Habitat. A reconfigurable back pack with repositionable mass was used to simulate Perfect, Low, Forward, High, Aft and NASA Baseline CG locations. Subjects performed simulated exploration tasks that included ambulation, kneel and recovery, rock pick-up, and shoveling. Testing using POGO, that simulates partial gravity via pneumatic weight offload system and a similar reconfigurable rig, is underway for a subset of the same tasks. Additionally, test trials are being performed on the RGO parabolic flight aircraft. Subject performance was assessed using a modified Cooper-Harper scale to assess operator compensation required to achieve desired performance. All CG locations are based on the assumption of a

  6. Development of an EVA systems cost model. Volume 2: Shuttle orbiter crew and equipment translation concepts and EVA workstation concept development and integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    EVA crewman/equipment translational concepts are developed for a shuttle orbiter payload application. Also considered are EVA workstation systems to meet orbiter and payload requirements for integration of workstations into candidate orbiter payload worksites.

  7. STS-49 crew captures INTELSAT VI above OV-105's payload bay (PLB) during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 crewmembers complete successful capture of the International Telecommunications Organization Satellite (INTELSAT) VI during their third extravehicular activity (EVA) into Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, payload bay (PLB). Left to right Mission Specialist (MS) Richard J. Hieb, MS Thomas D. Akers, and MS Pierre J. Thuot, positioned on the remote manipulator system (RMS), have handholds on the satellite and prepare to attach capture bar (tethered to Hieb). Mexico is seen on the Earth below including an area from Hermosillo, Sonara to Los Mochis in the state of Sinaloa. In the foreground is the Assembly of Station by EVA Methods (ASEM) multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS). Behind the three astronauts is the vertical perigee stage which will be attached to the INTELSAT VI prior to its release from the PLB.

  8. STS-49 crew captures INTELSAT VI above OV-105's payload bay (PLB) during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 crewmembers hold onto the 4.5 ton International Telecommunications Organization Satellite (INTELSAT) VI after a six-handed 'capture' was made minutes earlier during the mission's third extravehicular activity (EVA) into Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, payload bay (PLB). Left to right are Mission Specialist (MS) Richard J. Hieb, MS Thomas D. Akers, and MS Pierre J. Thuot. The three prepare to attach the capture bar which is tethered to Hieb. Thuot is positioned on the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm, from which he had made two earlier unsuccessful grapple attempts on two-person EVA sessions. Ground controllers and crewmembers agreed that a third attempt, using three mission specialists in the PLB, was the effort needed to accomplish the capture feat. Behind the three astronauts is the vertical perigee stage which will be attached to the INTELSAT VI prior to its release from the PLB.

  9. Underwater views of STS-5 crewmen Lenoir and Allen during EVA training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Underwater views of STS-5 crewmen Lenoir and Allen during EVA training. Mission Specialist/Astronaut Joseph P. Allen, wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and weighted down to achieve neutral buoyancy, uses a communication system to talk with fellow Mission Specialist/Astronaut William B. Lenoir (out of frame) during underwater simulation of STS-5 extravehicular activity (EVA) (35899); Both mission specialists coordinate their efforts on a chore near the airlock hatch during training. Lenoir is facing the camera. Their background is a full-scale mock-up of the shuttle payload bay (35900); Lenoir works underwater with a portable foot restraint during training underwater. Allen's backpack or mockup for a portable life support system (PLSS) is seen in one corner of the frame (35901).

  10. STS-57 astronauts Low and Wisoff perform DTO 1210 EVA in OV-105's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    During STS-57 extravehicular activity (EVA), Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low (foreground) and MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff work along the port side sill longeron in the payload bay (PLB) of the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Low will secure a portable foot restraint (PFR) (manipulator foot restraint (MFR)) to the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector (deployed behind the two astronauts) using a PFR attachment device (PAD). This EVA, designated Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 1210, included evaluation of procedures being developed to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on mission STS-61 in December 1993. Visible in OV-105's PLB are (front to back) the SPACEHAB-01 module (Commercial Middeck Augmentation Module (CMAM)), the Superhelium Onorbit Transfer (SHOOT) liquid helium dewar assembly, and the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) spacecraft. The scene is backdropped against the Earth's surface.

  11. Students Speak With EVA Operations Specialist Glenda Brown

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA’s International Space Station Mission Control Center, EVA Operations Specialist Glenda Brown participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Victory Lakes Interm...

  12. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Constellation Space Suit Element Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Henry H.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be very robust and function in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment for up to one hundred Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam protection materials. It also presents the materials properties test results and impact drop test results of the various foam materials evaluated in the study. The findings from this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam properties or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  13. Suitport Feasibility - Human Pressurized Space Suit Donning Tests with the Marman Clamp and Pneumatic Flipper Suitport Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert M.; Rodriggs, Liana; Allton, Charles; Jennings, Mallory; Aitchision, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    The suitport concept has been recently implemented as part of the small pressurized lunar rover (Currently the Space Exploration vehicle, or SEV) and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) concept demonstrator vehicle. Suitport replaces or augments the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress and egress of a space suit while the space suit remains outside of the pressurized volume of the spacecraft. This presents significant new opportunities to EVA exploration in both microgravity and surface environments. The suitport concept will enable three main improvements in EVA by providing reductions in: pre-EVA time from hours to less than thirty minutes; airlock consumables; contamination returned to the cabin with the EVA crewmember. Two second generation suitports were designed and tested. The previously reported second generation Marman Clamp suitport and a newer concept, the Pneumatic Flipper Suitport. These second generation suitports demonstrated human donning and doffing of the Z1 spacesuit with an 8.3 psi pressure differential across the spacesuit. Testing was performed using the JSC B32 Chamber B, a human rated vacuum chamber. The test included human rated suitports, the suitport compatible prototype suit, and chamber modifications. This test brought these three elements together in the first ever pressurized donning of a rear entry suit through a suitport. This paper presents the results of the testing, including unexpected difficulties with doffing, and engineering solutions implemented to ease the difficulties. A review of suitport functions, including a discussion of the need to doff a pressurized suit in earth gravity, is included. Recommendations for future design and testing are documented.

  14. Suitport Feasibility - Human Pressurized Space Suit Donning Tests with the Marmon Clamp and Pneumatic Flipper Suitport Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert M.; Rodriggs, Liana; Alton, Charles; Jennings, Mallory; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The suitport concept has been recently implemented as part of the small pressurized lunar rover (Currently the Space Exploration vehicle, or SEV) and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) concept demonstrator vehicle. Suitport replaces or augments the traditional airlock function of a spacecraft by providing a bulkhead opening, capture mechanism, and sealing system to allow ingress and egress of a space suit while the space suit remains outside of the pressurized volume of the spacecraft. This presents significant new opportunities to EVA exploration in both microgravity and surface environments. The suitport concept will enable three main improvements in EVA by providing reductions in: pre-EVA time from hours to less than thirty minutes; airlock consumables; contamination returned to the cabin with the EVA crewmember. Two second generation suitports were designed and tested. The previously reported second generation Marman Clamp suitport and a newer concept, the Pneumatic Flipper Suitport. These second generation suitports demonstrated human donning and doffing of the Z1 spacesuit with an 8.3 psi pressure differential across the spacesuit. Testing was performed using the JSC B32 Chamber B, a human rated vacuum chamber. The test included human rated suitports, the suitport compatible prototype suit, and chamber modifications. This test brought these three elements together in the first ever pressurized donning of a rear entry suit through a suitport. This paper presents the results of the testing, including unexpected difficulties with doffing, and engineering solutions implemented to ease the difficulties. A review of suitport functions, including a discussion of the need to doff a pressurized suit in earth gravity, is included. Recommendations for future design and testing are documented.

  15. Space Suit Radiator Performance in Lunar and Mars Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabity, James; Mason, Georgia; Copeland, Robert; Libberton, Kerry; Stephan, Ryan; Trevino, Luis; Paul, Heather

    2005-01-01

    During an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA), both the heat generated by the astronaut's metabolism and that produced by the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) must be rejected to space. The heat sources include the heat of adsorption of metabolic CO2, the heat of condensation of water, the heat removed from the body by the liquid cooling garment and the load from the electrical components. Although the sublimator hardware to reject this load weighs only 1.58 kg (3.48 lbm), an additional 3.6 kg (8 lbm) of water are loaded into the unit, most of which is sublimated and lost to thus become the single largest expendable during an eight hour EVA. We can significantly reduce the amount of expendable water consumed in the sublimator by using a radiator to reject heat from the Astronaut during an EVA. Last year we reported on the design and initial operational assessment tests of our novel radiator designated the Radiator And Freeze Tolerant heat eXchanger (RAFT-X). Herein, we report on tests conducted in the NASA Johnson Space Center Chamber E Thermal Vacuum Test Facility. Up to 260 W (900 Btu/h) of heat were rejected in Lunar and Mars environments with temperatures as cold as -170 C (- 275 F). Further, the RAFT-X endured several freeze / thaw cycles and in fact, the heat exchanger was completely frozen three times without any apparent damage to the unit.

  16. Moments applied in the manual assembly of space structures - Ease biomechanics results from STS-61B. [Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cousins, D.; Akin, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the level and pattern of moments applied in the manual assembly of a space structure were made in extravehicular activity (EVA) and neutral buoyancy simulation (NBS). The Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA program included the repeated assembly of a 3.6 m tetrahedral truss structure in EVA on STS-61B after extensive neutral buoyancy crew training. The flight and training structures were of equivalent mass and geometry to allow a direct correlation between EVA and NBS performance. A stereo photographic motion camera system was used to reconstruct in three dimensions rotational movements of structural beams during assembly. Moments applied in these manual handling tasks were calculated on the basis of the reconstructed movements taking into account effects of inertia, drag and virtual mass. Applied moments of 2.0 Nm were typical for beam rotations in EVA. Corresponding applied moments in NBS were typically up to five times greater. Moments were applied as impulses separated by several seconds of coasting in both EVA and NBS. Decelerating impulses were only infrequently observed in NBS.

  17. Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    very little expression of these anomalies. hardware from the human-occupied area may limit (although not likely eliminate) external materials in the human habitat. Definition of design-to requirements is critical to understanding technical feasibility and costs. The definition of Planetary Protection needs in relation to EVA mission and system element development cost impacts should be considered and interpreted in terms of Plausible Protection criteria. Since EVA operations will have the most direct physical interaction with the Martian surface, PP needs should be considered in the terms of mitigating hardware and operations impacts and costs.

  18. Design and simulation of EVA tools for first servicing mission of HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched into near-earth orbit by the Space Shuttle Discovery on April 24, 1990. The payload of two cameras, two spectrographs, and a high-speed photometer is supplemented by three fine-guidance sensors that can be used for astronomy as well as for star tracking. A widely reported spherical aberration in the primary mirror causes HST to produce images of much lower quality than intended. A Space Shuttle repair mission in January 1994 installed small corrective mirrors that restored the full intended optical capability of the HST. The First Servicing Mission (FSM) involved considerable Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Special EVA tools for the FSM were designed and developed for this specific purpose. In an earlier report, the details of the Data Acquisition System developed to test the performance of the various EVA tools in ambient as well as simulated space environment were presented. The general schematic of the test setup is reproduced in this report for continuity. Although the data acquisition system was used extensively to test a number of fasteners, only the results of one test each carried on various fasteners and the Power Ratchet Tool are included in this report.

  19. Cooperative EVA/Telerobotic Surface Operations in Support of Exploration Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, David L.

    2001-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Planetary Surface Robotics; 2) EVA Difficulties from Apollo; 3) Robotic Capabilities for EVA Support; 4) Astronaut Support Vehicle; 5) Three ASV Preliminary Designs; 6) Small Single-arm Assistant; 7) Dual-arm Assistant; 8) Large EVA Assistant; 9) Lessons Learned-Preliminary Designs; 10) Rover Design Assumptions; 11) Design Requirements-Terrain; 12) Design Requirements; 13) Science Payload; 14) Manipulator Arm; 15) EVA Multiple Robot Cooperation; 16) SSL Rover Body Concept; 17) Advanced EVA Support Rover Concept; 18) Robotic Access to Restricted Sites; 19) Robotic Rescue of EVA crew; and 19) Why Do We Need Humans? This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  20. STS-76 Pilot Richard Searfoss suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-76 Pilot Richard A. Searfoss checks the fit of his launch/entry suit gloves with assistance from a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout Building. STS-76 will be Searfoss' second trip into space and will be highlighted by the third docking between the Russian Space Station Mir and the U.S. Space Shuttle. Once suitup activities are completed the six-member STS- 76 flight crew will depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis is undergoing final preparations for liftoff during an approximately seven-minute launch window opening around 3:13 a.m. EST, March 22.

  1. Modeling a 15-min extravehicular activity prebreathe protocol using NASA's exploration atmosphere (56.5 kPa/34% O2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Conkin, Johnny; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2015-04-01

    NASA's plans for future human exploration missions utilize a new atmosphere of 56.5 kPa (8.2 psia), 34% O2, 66% N2 to enable rapid extravehicular activity (EVA) capability with minimal gas losses; however, existing EVA prebreathe protocols to mitigate risk of decompression sickness (DCS) are not applicable to the new exploration atmosphere. We provide preliminary analysis of a 15-min prebreathe protocol and examine the potential benefits of intermittent recompression (IR) and an abbreviated N2 purge on crew time and gas consumables usage. A probabilistic model of decompression stress based on an established biophysical model of DCS risk was developed, providing significant (p<0.0001) prediction and goodness-of-fit with 84 cases of DCS in 668 human altitude exposures including a variety of pressure profiles. DCS risk for a 15-min prebreathe protocol was then estimated under different exploration EVA scenarios. Estimated DCS risk for all EVA scenarios modeled using the 15-min prebreathe protocol ranged between 6.1% and 12.1%. Supersaturation in neurological tissues (5- and 10-min half-time compartments) is prevented and tissue tensions in faster half-time compartments (≤40 min), where the majority of whole-body N2 is located, are reduced to about the levels (30.0 vs. 27.6 kPa) achieved during a standard Shuttle prebreathe protocol. IR reduced estimated DCS risk from 9.7% to 7.9% (1.8% reduction) and from 8.4% to 6.1% (2.3% reduction) for the scenarios modeled; the penalty of N2 reuptake during IR may be outweighed by the benefit of decreased bubble size. Savings of 75% of purge gas and time (0.22 kg gas and 6 min of crew time per person per EVA) are achievable by abbreviating the EVA suit purge to 20% N2 vs. 5% N2 at the expense of an increase in estimated DCS risk from 9.7% to 12.1% (2.4% increase). A 15-min prebreathe protocol appears feasible using the new exploration atmosphere. IR between EVAs may enable reductions in suit purge and prebreathe requirements

  2. STS-49 ASEM activities illustrated with PLAID computer graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Assembly of Station by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Methods (ASEM) activities are illustrated with PLAID computer graphics. The multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS) grappled by the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector is positioned over OV-105's payload bay (PLB) as extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited crewmembers attach MPESS to ASEM truss structure with 'legs'. One astronaut, floating, works near the top of the structure while the second astronaut works at a payload retention latch assembly (PLRA) on the starboard sill. The empty INTELSAT perigee stage cradle structure is seen in the aft PLB.

  3. Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, K. R.; Newman, D. J.

    The “ Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Exploration” is an integrated countermeasure platform to mitigate the spaceflight-induced physiologic adaptation and de-conditioning that manifests during long-duration spaceflight and gravitational transitions. The V2Suit integrates flywheel gyroscopes and inertial measurement units within a wearable module that can be placed on the body segments, and when commanded in a coordinated manner provides a “ viscous resistance” during movements. The system architecture, human-system integration, and three six degree-of-freedom simulations are presented which describe the magnitude and direction of the gyroscopic torque and resulting force within the module during representative arm movements. The results demonstrate of the ability of the V2Suit module design to generate a reaction force along a specified direction and reject perturbations due to body kinematics - collectively illustrating the feasibility of the concept.

  4. Results of the Trace Contaminant Control Trade Study for Space Suit Life Support Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2009-01-01

    As the United States plans to return astronauts to the moon, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is of extreme importance. The trace contaminant control system (TCCS) will be located within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) of the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE), and is responsible for removing contaminants, which at increased levels can be hazardous to a crewmember's health. These contaminants come from several sources including metabolic production of the crewmember (breathing, sweating, etc.) and offgassing of the space suit material layers. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that investigated TCC technologies used in NASA space suits and vehicles as well as commercial and academic applications, to identify the best technology options for the CSSE PLSS. The trade study also looked at the feasibility of regeneration of TCC technologies, specifically to determine the viability of vacuum regeneration for on-back, real-time EVA.

  5. Results of the Trace Contaminant Control Trade Study for Space Suit Life Support Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory A.; Paul, Heather L.

    2008-01-01

    As the United States plans to return astronauts to the moon, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is of extreme importance. The trace contaminant control system (TCCS) will be located within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) of the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE), and is responsible for removing contaminants, which at increased levels can be hazardous to a crewmember s health. These contaminants come from several sources including metabolic production of the crewmember (breathing, sweating, etc.) and offgassing of the space suit material layers. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that investigated TCC technologies used in NASA space suits and vehicles as well as commercial and academic applications, to identify the best technology options for the CSSE PLSS. The trade study also looked at the feasibility of regeneration of TCC technologies, specifically to determine the viability of vacuum regeneration for on-back, realtime EVA.

  6. Ventilation Transport Trade Study for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Paul, Heather L.

    2008-01-01

    A new and advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for space suit surface exploration will require a durable, compact, and energy efficient system to transport the ventilation stream through the space suit. Current space suits used by NASA circulate the ventilation stream via a ball-bearing supported centrifugal fan. As NASA enters the design phase for the next generation PLSS, it is necessary to evaluate available technologies to determine what improvements can be made in mass, volume, power, and reliability for a ventilation transport system. Several air movement devices already designed for commercial, military, and space applications are optimized in these areas and could be adapted for EVA use. This paper summarizes the efforts to identify and compare the latest fan and bearing technologies to determine candidates for the next generation PLSS.

  7. Thermal processing of EVA encapsulants and effects of formulation additives

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H.

    1996-05-01

    The authors investigated the in-situ processing temperatures and effects of various formulation additives on the formation of ultraviolet (UV) excitable chromophores, in the thermal lamination and curing of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants. A programmable, microprocessor-controlled, double-bag vacuum laminator was used to study two commercial as formulated EVA films, A9918P and 15295P, and solution-cast films of Elvaxrm (EVX) impregnated with various curing agents and antioxidants. The results show that the actual measured temperatures of EVA lagged significantly behind the programmed profiles for the heating elements and were affected by the total thermal mass loaded inside the laminator chamber. The antioxidant Naugard P{trademark}, used in the two commercial EVA formulations, greatly enhances the formation of UV-excitable, short chromophores upon curing, whereas other tested antioxidants show little effect. A new curing agent chosen specifically for the EVA formulation modification produces little or no effect on chromophore formation, no bubbling problems in the glass/EVX/glass laminates, and a gel content of {approximately}80% when cured at programmed 155{degrees}C for 4 min. Also demonstrated is the greater discoloring effect with higher concentrations of curing-generated chromophores.

  8. EVA Glove Sensor Feasbility II Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melone, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives for the glove project include taking various measurements from human subjects during and after they perform different tasks in the glove box, acquiring data from these tests and determining the accuracy of these results, interpreting and analyzing this data, and using the data to better understand how hand injuries are caused during EVAs.1 Some of these measurements include force readings, temperature readings, and micro-circulatory blood flow.1 The three glove conditions tested were ungloved (a comfort glove was worn to house the sensors), Series 4000, and Phase VI. The general approach/procedure for the glove sensor feasibility project is as follows: 1. Prepare test subject for testing. This includes attaching numerous sensors (approximately 50) to the test subject, wiring, and weaving the sensors and wires in the glove which helps to keep everything together. This also includes recording baseline moisture data using the Vapometer and MoistSense. 2. Pressurizing the glove box. Once the glove box is pressurized to the desired pressure (4.3 psid), testing can begin. 3. Testing. The test subject will perform a series of tests, some of which include pinching a load cell, making a fist, pushing down on a force plate, and picking up metal pegs, rotating them 90 degrees, and placing them back in the peg board. 4. Post glove box testing data collection. After the data is collected from inside the glove box, the Vapometer and MoistSense device will be used to collect moisture data from the subject's hand. 5. Survey. At the conclusion of testing, he/she will complete a survey that asks questions pertaining to comfort/discomfort levels of the glove, glove sizing, as well as offering any additional feedback.

  9. Suites of dwarfs around Nearby giant galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisina, Elena I.; Makarov, Dmitry I. E-mail: kei@sao.ru

    2014-01-01

    The Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog (UNGC) contains the most comprehensive summary of distances, radial velocities, and luminosities for 800 galaxies located within 11 Mpc from us. The high density of observables in the UNGC makes this sample indispensable for checking results of N-body simulations of cosmic structures on a ∼1 Mpc scale. The environment of each galaxy in the UNGC was characterized by a tidal index Θ{sub 1}, depending on the separation and mass of the galaxy's main disturber (MD). We grouped UNGC galaxies with a common MD in suites, and ranked suite members according to their Θ{sub 1}. All suite members with positive Θ{sub 1} are assumed to be physical companions of the MD. About 58% of the sample are members of physical groups. The distribution of suites by the number of members, n, follows a relation N(n) ∼ n {sup –2}. The 20 most populated suites contain 468 galaxies, i.e., 59% of the UNGC sample. The fraction of MDs among the brightest galaxies is almost 100% and drops to 50% at M{sub B} = –18{sup m}. We discuss various properties of MDs, as well as galaxies belonging to their suites. The suite abundance practically does not depend on the morphological type, linear diameter, or hydrogen mass of the MD, the tightest correlation being with the MD dynamical mass. Dwarf galaxies around MDs exhibit well-known segregation effects: the population of the outskirts has later morphological types, richer H I contents, and higher rates of star formation activity. Nevertheless, there are some intriguing cases where dwarf spheroidal galaxies occur at the far periphery of the suites, as well as some late-type dwarfs residing close to MDs. Comparing simulation results with galaxy groups, most studies assume the Local Group is fairly typical. However, we recognize that the nearby groups significantly differ from each other and there is considerable variation in their properties. The suites of companions around the Milky Way and M31, consisting of the

  10. Suites of Dwarfs around nearby Giant Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisina, Elena I.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2014-01-01

    The Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog (UNGC) contains the most comprehensive summary of distances, radial velocities, and luminosities for 800 galaxies located within 11 Mpc from us. The high density of observables in the UNGC makes this sample indispensable for checking results of N-body simulations of cosmic structures on a ~1 Mpc scale. The environment of each galaxy in the UNGC was characterized by a tidal index Θ1, depending on the separation and mass of the galaxy's main disturber (MD). We grouped UNGC galaxies with a common MD in suites, and ranked suite members according to their Θ1. All suite members with positive Θ1 are assumed to be physical companions of the MD. About 58% of the sample are members of physical groups. The distribution of suites by the number of members, n, follows a relation N(n) ~ n -2. The 20 most populated suites contain 468 galaxies, i.e., 59% of the UNGC sample. The fraction of MDs among the brightest galaxies is almost 100% and drops to 50% at MB = -18m. We discuss various properties of MDs, as well as galaxies belonging to their suites. The suite abundance practically does not depend on the morphological type, linear diameter, or hydrogen mass of the MD, the tightest correlation being with the MD dynamical mass. Dwarf galaxies around MDs exhibit well-known segregation effects: the population of the outskirts has later morphological types, richer H I contents, and higher rates of star formation activity. Nevertheless, there are some intriguing cases where dwarf spheroidal galaxies occur at the far periphery of the suites, as well as some late-type dwarfs residing close to MDs. Comparing simulation results with galaxy groups, most studies assume the Local Group is fairly typical. However, we recognize that the nearby groups significantly differ from each other and there is considerable variation in their properties. The suites of companions around the Milky Way and M31, consisting of the Local Group, do not quite seem to be a typical

  11. Orion ECLSS/Suit System - Ambient Pressure Integrated Suit Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barido, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    The Ambient Pressure Integrated Suit Test (APIST) phase of the integrated system testing of the Orion Vehicle Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) technology was conducted for the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Crew and Thermal Systems Division performed this test in the eleven-foot human-rated vacuum chamber at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This testing is the first phase of suit loop testing to demonstrate the viability of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) being developed for Orion. APIST is the first in a series, which will consist of testing development hardware including the Carbon dioxide and Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS) and the air revitalization loop fan with human test subjects in pressure suits at varying suit pressures. Follow-on testing, to be conducted in 2013, will utilize the CAMRAS and a development regulator with human test subjects in pressure suits at varying cabin and suit pressures. This paper will discuss the results and findings of APIST and will also discuss future testing.

  12. Orion ECLSS/Suit System Intermediate Pressure Integrated Suit Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barido, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The Intermediate Pressure Integrated Suit Test (IPIST) phase of the integrated system testing of the Orion Vehicle Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) technology was conducted for the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. This test was performed in the eleven-foot human-rated vacuum chamber at the NASA Johnson Space Center by the Crew and Thermal Systems Division. This testing is the second phase of suit loop testing to demonstrate the viability of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) being developed for Orion. The IPIST configuration consisted of development hardware that included the CAMRAS, air revitalization loop fan and suit loop regulator. Two test subjects were in pressure suits at varying suit pressures. Follow-on testing, to be conducted in 2014, will utilize the same hardware with human test subjects in pressure suits at vacuum. This paper will discuss the results and findings of IPIST and will also discuss future testing.

  13. The Dichotomous HED Meteorite Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    The howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) clan is the largest suite of crustal rocks available from a differentiated asteroid. Attempts to unravel the petrogenetic history of the HED parent body have tacitly assumed that the suite is representative of the crust, and thus can be used to understand the differentiation history of the entire parent body. This assumption is a holdover from a time when we knew little about the HED parent body. Much has changed. Is this assumption still valid? HED Geochemistry: The HED suite is composed

  14. Evaluation of cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossum, A. C.; Wood, M. L.; Bishop, S. L.; Deblock, H.; Charles, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    This study represents the first systematic evaluation of dysrhythmias before, during, and after spaceflight including extravehicular activity (EVA). The data, based on 7 Shuttle crew members, revealed a nonsignificant decrease in ventricular and supraventricular ectopy during EVA, suggesting that the incidence of dysrhythmias is no greater during EVA than with any other phase of a mission or preflight.

  15. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 represents the second integrated prototype developed and tested to mature a design that uses advanced technologies to reduce consumables, improve robustness, and provide additional capabilities over the current state of the art. PLSS 2.0 was developed in 2012, with extensive functional evaluations and system performance testing through mid-2014. In late 2014, PLSS 2.0 was integrated with the Mark III space suit in an ambient laboratory environment to facilitate manned testing, designated PLSS 2.0 Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) testing, in which the PLSS prototype performed the primary life support functions, including suit pressure regulation, ventilation, carbon dioxide control, and cooling of the test subject and PLSS avionics. The intent of this testing was to obtain subjective test subject feedback regarding qualitative aspects of PLSS 2.0 performance such as thermal comfort, sounds, smells, and suit pressure fluctuations due to the cycling carbon dioxide removal system, as well as to collect PLSS performance data over a range of human metabolic rates from 500-3000 Btu/hr. Between October 27 and December 18, 2014, nineteen two-hour simulated EVA test points were conducted in which suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to achieve a target metabolic rate. Six test subjects simulated nominal and emergency EVA conditions with varied test parameters including metabolic rate profile, carbon dioxide removal control mode, cooling water temperature, and Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment (state of the art or prototype). The nineteen test points achieved more than 60 hours of test time, with 36 hours accounting for simulated EVA time. The PLSS 2.0 test article performed nominally throughout the test series, confirming design intentions for the advanced PLSS. Test subjects' subjective feedback provided valuable insight into thermal comfort and perceptions of suit pressure fluctuations that will influence future

  16. STS-37 crewmembers work with CETA during EVA training in JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross and MS Jerome Apt operate crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart during training session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing extravehicular mobility units (EMUs), Ross and Apt practice a extravehicular activity (EVA) spacewalk they will perform in OV-104's payload bay during STS-37. CETA is a type of railroad hand cart planned as a spacewalker's transportation system along the truss of Space Station Freedom (SSF). Apt is pulling Ross along to test the cart's ability to carry a person plus cargo. SCUBA divers monitor astronauts' underwater activity.

  17. US space flight experience. Physical exertion and metabolic demand of extravehicular activity: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas P.

    1989-01-01

    A review of physical exertion and metabolic demands of extravehicular activity (EVA) on U.S. astronauts is given. Information is given on EVA during Gemini, Apollo and Skylab missions. It is noted that nominal EVA's should not be overstressful from a cardiovascular standpoint; that manual-intensive EVA's such as are planned for the construction phase of the Space Station can and will be demanding from a muscular standpoint, primarily for the upper extremities; that off-nominal unplanned EVA's can be physically demanding both from an endurance and from a muscular standpoint; and that crewmembers should be physically prepared and capable of performing these EVA's at any time during the mission.

  18. Shoulder Joint For Protective Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Smallcombe, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    Shoulder joint allows full range of natural motion: wearer senses little or no resisting force or torque. Developed for space suit, joint offers advantages in protective garments for underwater work, firefighting, or cleanup of hazardous materials.

  19. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  20. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.