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Sample records for activity exploratory behavior

  1. Reduced locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in CC chemokine receptor 4 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ambrée, Oliver; Klassen, Irene; Förster, Irmgard; Arolt, Volker; Scheu, Stefanie; Alferink, Judith

    2016-11-01

    Chemokines and their receptors are key regulators of immune cell trafficking and activation. Recent findings suggest that they may also play pathophysiological roles in psychiatric diseases like depression and anxiety disorders. The CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and its two ligands, CCL17 and CCL22, are functionally involved in neuroinflammation as well as anti-infectious and autoimmune responses. However, their influence on behavior remains unknown. Here we characterized the functional role of the CCR4-CCL17 chemokine-receptor axis in the modulation of anxiety-related behavior, locomotor activity, and object exploration and recognition. Additionally, we investigated social exploration of CCR4 and CCL17 knockout mice and wild type (WT) controls. CCR4 knockout (CCR4(-/-)) mice exhibited fewer anxiety-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze, diminished locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, and social exploration, while their recognition memory was not affected. In contrast, CCL17 deficient mice did not show an altered behavior compared to WT mice regarding locomotor activity, anxiety-related behavior, social exploration, and object recognition memory. In the dark-light and object recognition tests, CCL17(-/-) mice even covered longer distances than WT mice. These data demonstrate a mechanistic or developmental role of CCR4 in the regulation of locomotor and exploratory behaviors, whereas the ligand CCL17 appears not to be involved in the behaviors measured here. Thus, either CCL17 and the alternative ligand CCL22 may be redundant, or CCL22 is the main activator of CCR4 in these processes. Taken together, these findings contribute to the growing evidence regarding the involvement of chemokines and their receptors in the regulation of behavior.

  2. Patterns of Theta Activity in Limbic Anxiety Circuit Preceding Exploratory Behavior in Approach-Avoidance Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Jacinto, Luis R.; Cerqueira, João J.; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Theta oscillations within the hippocampus-amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (HPC-AMY-mPFC) circuit have been consistently implicated in the regulation of anxiety behaviors, including risk-assessment. To study if theta activity during risk-assessment was correlated with exploratory behavior in an approach/avoidance paradigm we recorded simultaneous local field potentials from this circuit in rats exploring the elevated-plus maze (EPM). Opposing patterns of power variations in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and prelimbic (PrL) mPFC, but not in the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC), during exploratory risk-assessment of the open arms preceded further exploration of the open arms or retreat back to the safer closed arms. The same patterns of theta power variations in the HPC-BLA-mPFC(PrL) circuit were also displayed by animals submitted to chronic unpredictable stress protocol known to induce an anxious state. Diverging patterns of vHPC-mPFC(PrL) theta coherence were also significantly correlated with forthcoming approach or avoidance behavior in the conflict situation in both controls and stressed animals; interestingly, vHPC-BLA, and BLA-mPFC(PrL) theta coherence correlated with future behavior only in stressed animals, underlying the pivotal role of the amygdala on the stress response. PMID:27713693

  3. Opposing regulation of dopaminergic activity and exploratory motor behavior by forebrain and brainstem cholinergic circuits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jyoti C; Rossignol, Elsa; Rice, Margaret E; Machold, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine transmission is critical for exploratory motor behaviour. A key regulator is acetylcholine; forebrain acetylcholine regulates striatal dopamine release, whereas brainstem cholinergic inputs regulate the transition of dopamine neurons from tonic to burst firing modes. How these sources of cholinergic activity combine to control dopamine efflux and exploratory motor behaviour is unclear. Here we show that mice lacking total forebrain acetylcholine exhibit enhanced frequency-dependent striatal dopamine release and are hyperactive in a novel environment, whereas mice lacking rostral brainstem acetylcholine are hypoactive. Exploratory motor behaviour is normalized by the removal of both cholinergic sources. Involvement of dopamine in the exploratory motor phenotypes observed in these mutants is indicated by their altered sensitivity to the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist raclopride. These results support a model in which forebrain and brainstem cholinergic systems act in tandem to regulate striatal dopamine signalling for proper control of motor activity.

  4. Alienation Attitudes and Exploratory Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddi, Salvatore R.

    In order to give the psychological conception of alienation greater cogency relative to the influence of sociological alienation, research is needed that ties alienation attitudes to individual personal behavior. It was hypothesized that the stronger the alienation attitudes of people, the weaker will be their exploratory behavior. Thus,…

  5. Investigating Crickets: Observing Animal Exploratory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    For curriculum content-related reasons, inquiry activities can be difficult in classrooms unless the activities are approached in a manner that makes variations among student group findings understandable in the context of the study. Studies of individual animals and plant reactions to stimuli, such as insect exploratory behavior, allow the…

  6. Neonatal olfactory bulbectomy enhances locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and binding of NMDA receptors in pre-pubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Flores, G; Ibañez-Sandoval, O; Silva-Gómez, A B; Camacho-Abrego, I; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Morales-Medina, J C

    2014-02-14

    In this study, we investigated the effect of neonatal olfactory bulbectomy (nOBX) on behavioral paradigms related to olfaction such as exploratory behavior, locomotor activity in a novel environment and social interaction. We also studied the effect of nOBX on the activity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors during development. The behavioral effects of nOBX (postnatal day 7, PD7) were investigated in pre- (PD30) and post-pubertal (PD60) Wistar rats. NMDA receptor activity was measured with [(125)I]MK-801 in the brain regions associated with the olfactory circuitry. A significant increase in the novelty-induced locomotion was seen in the pre-pubertal nOBX rats. Although the locomotor effect was less marked than in pre-pubertal rats, the nOBX rats tested post-pubertally failed to habituate to the novel situation as quickly as the sham- and normal- controls. Pre-pubertally, the head-dipping behavior was enhanced in nOBX rats compared with sham-operated and normal controls, while normal exploratory behavior was observed between groups in adulthood. In contrast, social interaction was increased in post-pubertal animals that underwent nOBX. Both pre- and post-pubertal nOBX rats recovered olfaction. Interestingly, pre-pubertal rats showed a significant increase in the [(125)I]MK-801 binding in the piriform cortex, dorsal hippocampus, inner and outer layers of the frontal cortex and outer layer of the cingulate cortex. At post-pubertal age, no significant differences in [(125)I]MK-801 binding were observed between groups at any of the brain regions analyzed. These results suggest that nOBX produces pre-pubertal behavioral disturbances and NMDA receptor changes that are transitory with recovery of olfaction early in adulthood. PMID:24295633

  7. Neonatal olfactory bulbectomy enhances locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and binding of NMDA receptors in pre-pubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Flores, G; Ibañez-Sandoval, O; Silva-Gómez, A B; Camacho-Abrego, I; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Morales-Medina, J C

    2014-02-14

    In this study, we investigated the effect of neonatal olfactory bulbectomy (nOBX) on behavioral paradigms related to olfaction such as exploratory behavior, locomotor activity in a novel environment and social interaction. We also studied the effect of nOBX on the activity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors during development. The behavioral effects of nOBX (postnatal day 7, PD7) were investigated in pre- (PD30) and post-pubertal (PD60) Wistar rats. NMDA receptor activity was measured with [(125)I]MK-801 in the brain regions associated with the olfactory circuitry. A significant increase in the novelty-induced locomotion was seen in the pre-pubertal nOBX rats. Although the locomotor effect was less marked than in pre-pubertal rats, the nOBX rats tested post-pubertally failed to habituate to the novel situation as quickly as the sham- and normal- controls. Pre-pubertally, the head-dipping behavior was enhanced in nOBX rats compared with sham-operated and normal controls, while normal exploratory behavior was observed between groups in adulthood. In contrast, social interaction was increased in post-pubertal animals that underwent nOBX. Both pre- and post-pubertal nOBX rats recovered olfaction. Interestingly, pre-pubertal rats showed a significant increase in the [(125)I]MK-801 binding in the piriform cortex, dorsal hippocampus, inner and outer layers of the frontal cortex and outer layer of the cingulate cortex. At post-pubertal age, no significant differences in [(125)I]MK-801 binding were observed between groups at any of the brain regions analyzed. These results suggest that nOBX produces pre-pubertal behavioral disturbances and NMDA receptor changes that are transitory with recovery of olfaction early in adulthood.

  8. Circle Time: An Exploratory Study of Activities and Challenging Behavior in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaghlawan, Hasan Y.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine circle time activities in eight Head Start classrooms. A total of 7 h of observations occurred in eight classrooms. Songs and academic activities were the most frequently occurring activities. Challenging behavior during circle time also was examined. The three activities with the highest…

  9. A Physical Activity Program Improves Behavior and Cognitive Functions in Children with ADHD: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verret, Claudia; Guay, Marie-Claude; Berthiaume, Claude; Gardiner, Phillip; Beliveau, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the effects of a moderate- to high-intensity physical activity program on fitness, cognitive functions, and ADHD-related behavior in children with ADHD. Method: Fitness level, motor skills, behaviors, and cognitive functions are assessed by standardized tests before and after a 10-week training…

  10. Prenatal immune activation in mice blocks the effects of environmental enrichment on exploratory behavior and microglia density.

    PubMed

    Buschert, Jens; Sakalem, Marna E; Saffari, Roja; Hohoff, Christa; Rothermundt, Matthias; Arolt, Volker; Zhang, Weiqi; Ambrée, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Adverse environmental factors including prenatal maternal infection are capable of inducing long-lasting behavioral and neural alterations which can enhance the risk to develop schizophrenia. It is so far not clear whether supportive postnatal environments are able to modify such prenatally-induced alterations. In rodent models, environmental enrichment influences behavior and cognition, for instance by affecting endocrinologic, immunologic, and neuroplastic parameters. The current study was designed to elucidate the influence of postnatal environmental enrichment on schizophrenia-like behavioral alterations induced by prenatal polyI:C immune stimulation at gestational day 9 in mice. Adult offspring were tested for amphetamine-induced locomotion, social interaction, and problem-solving behavior as well as expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and associated molecules, microglia density and adult neurogenesis. Prenatal polyI:C treatment resulted in increased dopamine sensitivity and dopamine D2 receptor expression in adult offspring which was not reversed by environmental enrichment. Prenatal immune activation prevented the effects of environmental enrichment which increased exploratory behavior and microglia density in NaCl treated mice. Problem-solving behavior as well as the number of immature neurons was affected by neither prenatal immune stimulation nor postnatal environmental enrichment. The behavioral and neural alterations that persist into adulthood could not generally be modified by environmental enrichment. This might be due to early neurodevelopmental disturbances which could not be rescued or compensated for at a later developmental stage.

  11. Correlation between Fetal Brain Activity Patterns and Behavioral States: An exploratory fetal magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Naim; Govindan, Rathinaswamy B.; Vairavan, Srinivasan; Siegel, Eric; Temple, Jessica; Preissl, Hubert; Lowery, Curtis L; Eswaran, Hari

    2011-01-01

    The fetal brain remains inaccessible to neurophysiological studies. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is being assessed to fill this gap. We performed 40 fetal MEG (fMEG) recordings with gestational ages (GA) ranging from 30 to 37 weeks. The data from each recording were divided into 15 second epochs which in turn were classified as continuous (CO), discontinuous (DC), or artifact. The fetal behavioral state, quiet or active sleep, was determined using previously defined criteria based on fetal movements and heart rate variability. We studied the correlation between the fetal state, the GA and the percentage of CO and DC epochs. We also analyzed the Spectral Edge Frequency (SEF) and studied its relation with state and GA. We found that the odds of a DC epoch decreased by 6% per week as the GA increased (P=0.0036). This decrease was mainly generated by changes during quiet sleep, which showed 52% DC epochs before 35 weeks GA versus 38% after 35 weeks (P=0.0006). Active sleep did not show a significant change in DC epochs with GA. When both states were compared for MEG patterns within each GA group (before and after 35 weeks), the early group was found to have more DC epochs in quiet sleep (54%) compared to active sleep (42%) (P=0.036). No significant difference in DC epochs between the two states was noted in the late GA group. Analysis of SEF showed a significant difference (P=0.0014) before and after 35 weeks GA, with higher SEF noted at late GA. However, when both quiet and active sleep states were compared within each GA group, the SEF did not show a significant difference. We conclude that fMEG shows reproducible variations in gross features and frequency content, depending on GA and behavioral state. Fetal MEG is a promising tool to investigate fetal brain physiology and maturation. PMID:21237155

  12. Behavioral approach system activity and self-reported somatic symptoms in fibromyalgia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Becerra-García, Juan A; Robles Jurado, Manuel J

    2014-01-01

    The first objective was to investigate the behavioural activity in the systems of Gray's theory; these are the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioural Approach System (BAS), in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The second aim was to assess in FM patients whether there is an association between BIS or BAS with self-reported somatic symptoms. Twenty FM patients and 20 healthy controls completed questionnaire measures of BIS and BAS activity (Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire), self-reported somatic symptoms (Somatic Symptoms Scale Revised), positive and negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and health status (EuroQoL Visual Analogue Scale). The results showed that FM patients had lower Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scores than controls. The SR score correlated with different somatic symptoms groups. The partial correlation (controlling for other variables measured) showed that the SR score correlated specifically with musculoskeletal symptoms. Furthermore, in regression analysis, SR score significantly predicted musculoskeletal symptoms, after controlling for other variables measured in this study. Our findings suggest that FM patients show BAS hypoactivity. This BAS activity in FM is similar to patients with depression, where a lower BAS functioning has also been found. The BAS activity predicts the musculoskeletal self-reported symptoms in FM better than other measures included in this study. Although this is a preliminary study, it suggests the importance of BAS activity in FM.

  13. Behavioral approach system activity and self-reported somatic symptoms in fibromyalgia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Becerra-García, Juan A; Robles Jurado, Manuel J

    2014-01-01

    The first objective was to investigate the behavioural activity in the systems of Gray's theory; these are the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioural Approach System (BAS), in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The second aim was to assess in FM patients whether there is an association between BIS or BAS with self-reported somatic symptoms. Twenty FM patients and 20 healthy controls completed questionnaire measures of BIS and BAS activity (Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire), self-reported somatic symptoms (Somatic Symptoms Scale Revised), positive and negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and health status (EuroQoL Visual Analogue Scale). The results showed that FM patients had lower Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scores than controls. The SR score correlated with different somatic symptoms groups. The partial correlation (controlling for other variables measured) showed that the SR score correlated specifically with musculoskeletal symptoms. Furthermore, in regression analysis, SR score significantly predicted musculoskeletal symptoms, after controlling for other variables measured in this study. Our findings suggest that FM patients show BAS hypoactivity. This BAS activity in FM is similar to patients with depression, where a lower BAS functioning has also been found. The BAS activity predicts the musculoskeletal self-reported symptoms in FM better than other measures included in this study. Although this is a preliminary study, it suggests the importance of BAS activity in FM. PMID:24472271

  14. Lipopolysaccharide affects exploratory behaviors toward novel objects by impairing cognition and/or motivation in mice: Possible role of activation of the central amygdala.

    PubMed

    Haba, Ryota; Shintani, Norihito; Onaka, Yusuke; Wang, Hyper; Takenaga, Risa; Hayata, Atsuko; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2012-03-17

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces a series of systemic and psychiatric changes called sickness behavior. In the present study, we characterized the LPS-induced decrease in novel object exploratory behaviors in BALB/c mice. As already reported, LPS (0.3-5 μg/mouse) induced dose- and time-dependent decreases in locomotor activity, food intake, social interaction, and exploration for novel objects, and an increase in immobility in the forced-swim test. Although the decrease in locomotor activity was ameliorated by 10h postinjection, novel object exploratory behaviors remained decreased at 24h and were observed even with the lowest dose of LPS. In an object exploration test, LPS shortened object exploration time but did not affect moving time or the frequency of object exploration. Although pre-exposure to the same object markedly decreased the duration of exploration and LPS did not change this reduction, LPS significantly impaired the exploration of a novel object that replaced the familiar one. LPS did not affect anxiety-like behaviors in open-field and elevated plus-maze tests. An LPS-induced increase in the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells was observed in several brain regions within 6h of LPS administration, but the number of cells quickly returned to control levels, except in the central amygdala where the increase continued for 24h. These results suggest that LPS most prominently affects object exploratory behaviors by impairing cognition and/or motivation including continuous attention and curiosity toward objects, and that this may be associated with activation of brain nuclei such as the central amygdala.

  15. Career Exploratory Behaviors of Postsectondary Agriculture Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Levon T.; McCulloh, Rachel E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the extent of career exploratory behaviors of students enrolled in Iowa State University's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Career exploration was measured using the self and environmental exploration scales of the Career Exploration Survey (CES; Stumpf, Colarelli, Hartmann, 1983). A MANOVA…

  16. Construction of Virtual Psychology Laboratory Describing Exploratory Experimental Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaike, Ryuichi; Miwa, Kazuhisa

    In the present study, we show a simulated experiment environment, VPL(Virtual Psychology Laboratory), for visualizing user's exploratory experimental behavior, and present two main modules of the environment: (1) a cognitive simulator and (2) a system for automatically describing experimenter's behavior based on EBS (Exploratory Behavior Schema) proposed by the author. Users use this environment as an experimental psychologist who investigates human collaborative discovery. They experience many trials of conducting experiments using the simulated environment, and analyze by themselves their experimental processes based on the description of their behavior by EBS. It is expected that learners can notice their errors of experimental planning and refine various types of knowledge related to the experimental skills by repeating the experimental activities in this environment.

  17. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  18. Behavioral Momentum during a Continuous Reading Task: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostal, Brooks R.; Lee, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) often fail to master literacy skills, in part because disruptive behaviors interfere with task engagement and persistence. The theory of behavioral momentum explains the persistence of behavior in the face of changing environmental conditions. The current exploratory study examined…

  19. Adaptive Organizational Behavior of School Organizations: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koberg, Christine S.

    1986-01-01

    This study collected exploratory data on a group of organizational adjustment variables (procedural, personnel, process, structural, and strategic) among a group of schools and school districts. Results provide a preliminary basis for suggesting that the adaptive organizational behavior of schools and school districts may be influenced by…

  20. Hippocampal brain-network coordination during volitional exploratory behavior enhances learning.

    PubMed

    Voss, Joel L; Gonsalves, Brian D; Federmeier, Kara D; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J

    2011-01-01

    Exploratory behaviors during learning determine what is studied and when, helping to optimize subsequent memory performance. To elucidate the cognitive and neural determinants of exploratory behaviors, we manipulated the control that human subjects had over the position of a moving window through which they studied objects and their locations. Our behavioral, neuropsychological and neuroimaging data indicate that volitional control benefits memory performance and is linked to a brain network that is centered on the hippocampus. Increases in correlated activity between the hippocampus and other areas were associated with specific aspects of memory, which suggests that volitional control optimizes interactions among specialized neural systems through the hippocampus. Memory is therefore an active process that is intrinsically linked to behavior. Furthermore, brain structures that are typically seen as passive participants in memory encoding (for example, the hippocampus) are actually part of an active network that controls behavior dynamically as it unfolds. PMID:21102449

  1. Short-term erythrosine B-induced inhibition of the brain regional serotonergic activity suppresses motor activity (exploratory behavior) of young adult mammals.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Arindam; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies showed that repeated ingestion of erythrosine B (artificial food color) developed behavioral hyperactivity, but nothing is known about its single administration effect as well as the neurochemical (s) involvement. The present study provides evidence that a single higher dosage (10, 100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) of erythrosine administration to young adult male rats reduced motor activity (MA) maximally at 2 h and brain regional (medulla-pons, hippocampus and hypothalamus) serotonergic activity (measuring steady-state levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA, pargyline-induced 5-HT accumulation and 5-HIAA declination rate and 5-HT receptor binding) under similar experimental condition. The degree of erythrosine-induced inhibition of both MA and brain regional serotonergic activity was dosage dependent. Lower dosage (1 mg/kg, p.o.) did not affect either of the above. Erythrosine (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.)-induced MA suppression was also observed in the presence of specific MAO-A inhibitor, clorgyline (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or MAO-B inhibitor, deprenyl (5 mg/kg, i.p.); but their co-application (5 mg/kg, i.p., each) effectively prevented the erythrosine-induced motor suppression. Altogether these results suggest that a single higher dosage of erythrosine (10-200 mg/kg, p.o.) may reduce MA by reducing serotonergic activity with modulation of central dopaminergic activity depending on the brain regions.

  2. Exploratory activity and habituation of Drosophila in confined domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soibam, B.; Chen, L.; Roman, G. W.; Gunaratne, G. H.

    2014-09-01

    Animals use locomotion to find food, shelter, and escape routes as well as to locate predators, competitors, and mates. Thus, locomotion is related to many behavioral traits, and can be used to characterize these more complex facets of behavior. Exploratory behaviors are random and need to be assessed through stochastic analysis. By comparing ensembles of trajectories from Drosophila and a model animal, we identify a pair of principles that govern the stochastic motion of a specific species. The first depends on local cues and quantify directional persistence, i.e., the propensity of an animal to maintain direction; the second, its attraction to walls, is relevant for exploration in confined arenas. Statistical properties of exploratory activity in several types of arenas can be computed from these principles. A pair of spiral arenas are designed to demonstrate that centrophobicity, or fear of the center of an arena, is not a fundamental feature of exploration. xxxx We provide evidence to show that the decay in an animal's activity following its introduction into a novel arena is correlated to its familiarity with the arena. We define two measures, coverage and habituation, to quantify familiarity. It is found that the relationship between activity and coverage is independent of the arena size. Finally, we use an analysis of exploration of mutant species to infer that in Drosophila, habituation relies on visual cues.

  3. Parents and Exploration: The Effect of Context on Individual Differences in Exploratory Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bruce B.

    1984-01-01

    Three studies investigated: the effect of parent involvement on the exploratory behaviors of children rated as high-, moderate-, or low-explorers; whether maternal presence increased the exploration of low-exploratory children, decreased the exploration of high-exploratory children, or both; and whether maternal presence or mother/child…

  4. The Exploratory Behavior Scale: Assessing Young Visitors' Hands-On Behavior in Science Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Franse, Rooske K.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Exploratory Behavior Scale (EBS), a quantitative measure of young children's interactivity. More specifically, the EBS is developed from the psychological literature on exploration and play and measures the extent to which preschoolers explore their physical environment. A practical application of the EBS in a…

  5. Active Learning in the Library Instruction Environment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Alanna; Furno, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study investigating the impact of problem-based learning and clicker technology as active learning strategies at the American University of Sharjah Library, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Studies compared traditional and active learning classes. The present article maps the successes and challenges of these unique…

  6. Aging and the Effects of Exploratory Behavior on Spatial Memory.

    PubMed

    Varner, Kaitlin M; Dopkins, Stephen; Philbeck, John W

    2016-03-01

    The present research examined the effect of encoding from multiple viewpoints on scene recall in a group of younger (18-22 years) and older (65-80 years) adults. Participants completed a visual search task, during which they were given the opportunity to examine a room using two sets of windows that partitioned the room differently. Their choice of window set was recorded, to determine whether an association between these choices and spatial memory performance existed. Subsequently, participants were tested for spatial memory of the domain in which the search task was completed. Relative to younger adults, older adults demonstrated an increased tendency to use a single set of windows as well as decreased spatial memory for the domain. Window-set usage was associated with spatial memory, such that older adults who relied more heavily on a single set of windows also had better performance on the spatial memory task. These findings suggest that, in older adults, moderation in exploratory behavior may have a positive effect on memory for the domain of exploration.

  7. An investigation into the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Quirke, Thomas; O'Riordan, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory behavior in the wild is fundamentally linked to an animal's survival and natural life history. The ability to gather information about their environment, establish territories, assert dominance, communicate information regarding reproductive status and locate mates are closely associated with a range of exploratory behaviors. Understanding how these behaviors are performed within the captive setting is crucial in order to create a captive environment in which these behaviors can be expressed, and their function conserved. The objective of this research was to highlight the factors of captive husbandry and management that influence the occurrence of exploratory behaviour of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in captivity. One hundred and twelve cheetahs in 88 enclosures across nine zoological institutions in five countries were the subjects of this study. The presence of raised areas, number of movements between enclosures, group composition, sex and an interaction between group composition and the ability to view cheetahs in adjacent enclosures, all significantly influenced the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs. The presence of raised areas and an increasing number of movements between enclosures significantly increased the probability of observing exploratory behaviour, while this probability was significantly decreased for female cheetahs, when cheetahs were able to view conspecifics in adjacent enclosures, and were maintained in groups. A number of recommendations are discussed in relation to promoting exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs.

  8. Long-Term Association Between Developmental Assets and Health Behaviors: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Bleck, Jennifer; DeBate, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Based on internal and external assets, the positive youth development approach aims to increase the capacity among adolescents to overcome challenges as they transition to adulthood. Developmental assets have been found to be positively associated with academic achievement, a variety of health promoting behaviors, and improved physical and mental health. The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess the long-term association between positive youth developmental assets with health risk and promoting behaviors. Method A continuous scale of developmental assets was created using 30 items from Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, when participants were in 7th to 12th grades. Health behavior outcomes including cigarette use, substance use, fast food consumption, and physical activity were measured at both Wave III (age 18-26) and Wave IV (age 24-32). Path analysis was employed to assess the relationship between these observed measures. Results The well-fitted path model revealed associations between developmental assets with each health behavior at Wave III. Developmental assets indirectly influenced each health behavior and direct associations were observed between assets with substance use and physical activity at Wave IV. Conclusion Findings provide additional support for the developmental assets approach to adolescent health. Implications include Healthy People 2020 objectives related to tobacco and alcohol use and nutrition and physical activity. PMID:26462541

  9. Memory impairment and reduced exploratory behavior in mice after administration of systemic morphine.

    PubMed

    Kitanaka, Junichi; Kitanaka, Nobue; Hall, F Scott; Fujii, Mei; Goto, Akiko; Kanda, Yusuke; Koizumi, Akira; Kuroiwa, Hirotoshi; Mibayashi, Satoko; Muranishi, Yumi; Otaki, Soichiro; Sumikawa, Minako; Tanaka, Koh-Ichi; Nishiyama, Nobuyoshi; Uhl, George R; Takemura, Motohiko

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of morphine were examined on tests of spatial memory, object exploration, locomotion, and anxiety in male ICR mice. Administration of morphine (15 or 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) induced a significant decrease in Y-maze alternations compared to saline vehicle-treated mice. The reduced Y-maze alternations induced by morphine were completely blocked by naloxone (15 mg/kg) or β-funaltrexamine (5 mg/kg) but not by norbinaltorphimine (5 mg/kg) or naltrindole (5 mg/kg), suggesting that the morphine-induced spatial memory impairment was mediated predominantly by μ-opioid receptors (MOPs). Significant spatial memory retrieval impairments were observed in the Morris water maze (MWM) in mice treated with morphine (15 mg/kg) or scopolamine (1 mg/kg), but not with naloxone or morphine plus naloxone. Reduced exploratory time was observed in mice after administration of morphine (15 mg/kg), in a novel-object exploration test, without any changes in locomotor activity. No anxiolytic-like behavior was observed in morphine-treated mice in the elevated plus maze. A significant reduction in buried marbles was observed in morphine-treated mice measured in the marble-burying test, which was blocked by naloxone. These observations suggest that morphine induces impairments in spatial short-term memory and retrieval, and reduces exploratory behavior, but that these effects are not because of overall changes in locomotion or anxiety.

  10. Memory Impairment and Reduced Exploratory Behavior in Mice after Administration of Systemic Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Kitanaka, Junichi; Kitanaka, Nobue; Hall, F Scott; Fujii, Mei; Goto, Akiko; Kanda, Yusuke; Koizumi, Akira; Kuroiwa, Hirotoshi; Mibayashi, Satoko; Muranishi, Yumi; Otaki, Soichiro; Sumikawa, Minako; Tanaka, Koh-ichi; Nishiyama, Nobuyoshi; Uhl, George R; Takemura, Motohiko

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of morphine were examined on tests of spatial memory, object exploration, locomotion, and anxiety in male ICR mice. Administration of morphine (15 or 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) induced a significant decrease in Y-maze alternations compared to saline vehicle-treated mice. The reduced Y-maze alternations induced by morphine were completely blocked by naloxone (15 mg/kg) or β-funaltrexamine (5 mg/kg) but not by norbinaltorphimine (5 mg/kg) or naltrindole (5 mg/kg), suggesting that the morphine-induced spatial memory impairment was mediated predominantly by μ-opioid receptors (MOPs). Significant spatial memory retrieval impairments were observed in the Morris water maze (MWM) in mice treated with morphine (15 mg/kg) or scopolamine (1 mg/kg), but not with naloxone or morphine plus naloxone. Reduced exploratory time was observed in mice after administration of morphine (15 mg/kg), in a novel-object exploration test, without any changes in locomotor activity. No anxiolytic-like behavior was observed in morphine-treated mice in the elevated plus maze. A significant reduction in buried marbles was observed in morphine-treated mice measured in the marble-burying test, which was blocked by naloxone. These observations suggest that morphine induces impairments in spatial short-term memory and retrieval, and reduces exploratory behavior, but that these effects are not because of overall changes in locomotion or anxiety. PMID:25987850

  11. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  12. [Effects of nootropic drugs on behavior of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice in the exploratory cross-maze test].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, E V; Salimov, R M; Kovalev, G I

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory behavior, locomotor activity, and anxiety in inbred mice of C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains subchronically treated with placebo or various types of nootropic (cognition enhancing) drugs (piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, semax, pantogam, nooglutil) have been evaluated using the exploratory cross-maze test. It was found that BALB/c mice in comparison to C57BL/6 mice are characterized by greater anxiety and lower efficiency of exploratory behavior in the previously unfamiliar environment. All tested drugs clearly improved the exploratory behavior in BALB/c mice only. In BALB/c mice, piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, and semax also reduced anxiety, while phenotropil additionally increased locomotor activity. Thus, the nootropic drugs displayed clear positive modulation of spontaneous orientation in the mice strain with initially low exploratory efficiency (BALB/c) in the cross-maze test. Some drugs (pantogam, nooglutil) exhibited only nootropic properties, while the other drugs exhibited both nootropic effects on the exploratory activity and produced modulation of the anxiety level (piracetam, fenotropil, noopept, semax) and locomotor activity (fenotropil). PMID:23025044

  13. Exploratory behavior and recognition memory in medial septal electrolytic, neuro- and immunotoxic lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Dashniani, M G; Burjanadze, M A; Naneishvili, T L; Chkhikvishvili, N C; Beselia, G V; Kruashvili, L B; Pochkhidze, N O; Chighladze, M R

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of the medial septal (MS) lesions on exploratory activity in the open field and the spatial and object recognition memory has been investigated. This experiment compares three types of MS lesions: electrolytic lesions that destroy cells and fibers of passage, neurotoxic - ibotenic acid lesions that spare fibers of passage but predominantly affect the septal noncholinergic neurons, and immunotoxin - 192 IgG-saporin infusions that only eliminate cholinergic neurons. The main results are: the MS electrolytic lesioned rats were impaired in habituating to the environment in the repeated spatial environment, but rats with immuno- or neurotoxic lesions of the MS did not differ from control ones; the MS electrolytic and ibotenic acid lesioned rats showed an increase in their exploratory activity to the objects and were impaired in habituating to the objects in the repeated spatial environment; rats with immunolesions of the MS did not differ from control rats; electrolytic lesions of the MS disrupt spatial recognition memory; rats with immuno- or neurotoxic lesions of the MS were normal in detecting spatial novelty; all of the MS-lesioned and control rats clearly reacted to the object novelty by exploring the new object more than familiar ones. Results observed across lesion techniques indicate that: (i) the deficits after nonselective damage of MS are limited to a subset of cognitive processes dependent on the hippocampus, (ii) MS is substantial for spatial, but not for object recognition memory - the object recognition memory can be supported outside the septohippocampal system; (iii) the selective loss of septohippocampal cholinergic or noncholinergic projections does not disrupt the function of the hippocampus to a sufficient extent to impair spatial recognition memory; (iv) there is dissociation between the two major components (cholinergic and noncholinergic) of the septohippocampal pathway in exploratory behavior assessed in the open

  14. Effects of natural enrichment materials on stress, memory and exploratory behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Acklin, Casey J; Gault, Ruth A

    2015-07-01

    Environmental enrichment is an essential component of laboratory animal housing that allows animals to engage in natural behaviors in an otherwise artificial setting. Previous research by the authors suggested that, compared with synthetic enrichment materials, natural materials were associated with lower stress levels in mice. Here, the authors compare the effects of different enrichment materials on stress, memory and exploratory behavior in Swiss Webster mice. Mice that were provided with natural enrichment materials had lower stress levels, better memory and greater exploratory behavior than did mice provided with synthetic enrichment materials or with no enrichment materials. These findings suggest that provision of natural enrichment materials can improve well-being of laboratory mice.

  15. Parent Explanation and Preschoolers' Exploratory Behavior and Learning in a Shadow Exhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study fills a gap in existing visitor research by focusing on the preschool age group. The study explores relationships between parent explanation, children's exploratory behavior, and their domain-specific learning in a shadow exhibition. In addition, the effect of a preceding theater show on child and parent behaviors is examined. In…

  16. These studies were conducted to assess the effects of lead toxicity on exploratory behavior and running. Effects of lead on exploratory behavior and running speed in the shrew, Blarina brevicauda (Insectivora).

    PubMed

    Punzo, F; Farmer, C

    2003-10-01

    These studies were conducted to assess the effects of lead toxicity on exploratory behavior and running speed in the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda. Shrews from the experimental group received 25 mg/kg/day of lead acetate in their drinking water for a period of 90 days. Control subjects received sodium acetate. Exploratory behavior was determined using a computerized activity chamber where movements of test subjects broke infrared beams projected onto the floor of the apparatus. Time spent (sec) in exploration was recorded over eight 6-min intervals. Running speed (km/hr) was measured in a microprocessor-controlled rectangular racetrack fitted with photocell timers. With respect to time spent in exploration, there were significant differences between lead-exposed (20.5-23.9 sec per 6-min testing session) and control subjects (6.8-8.1 sec) after the sixth testing interval in the activity chamber. With respect to maximal running speed, control subjects ran significantly faster (mean: 14.8 km/hr) than their lead-exposed counterparts (5.83 km/hr). Lead-exposed animals exhibited hyperactivity and increased random locomotor movements. They would frequently bump into the walls and their movements were more random. Controls typically ran along the racetrack in a straight line. These results represent the first data for the effects of lead exposure on exploratory behavior and running speed for shrews. PMID:15248655

  17. Early chronic lead exposure reduces exploratory activity in young C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Research has suggested that chronic low-level lead exposure diminishes neurocognitive function in children. Tests that are sensitive to behavioral effects at lowest levels of lead exposure are needed for the development of animal models. In this study we investigated the effects of chronic low-level lead exposure on exploratory activity (unbaited nose poke task), exploratory ambulation (open field task) and motor coordination (Rotarod task) in pre-adolescent mice. C57BL/6J pups were exposed to 0 ppm (controls), 30 ppm (low-dose) or 230 ppm (high-dose) lead acetate via dams' drinking water administered from birth to postnatal day 28, to achieve a range of blood lead levels (BLLs) from not detectable to 14.84 µg dl(-1) ). At postnatal day 28, mice completed behavioral testing and were killed (n = 61). BLLs were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The effects of lead exposure on behavior were tested using generalized linear mixed model analyses with BLL, sex and the interaction as fixed effects, and litter as the random effect. BLL predicted decreased exploratory activity and no threshold of effect was apparent. As BLL increased, nose pokes decreased. The C57BL/6J mouse is a useful model for examining effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure on behavior. In the C57BL/6J mouse, the unbaited nose poke task is sensitive to the effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure. This is the first animal study to show behavioral effects in pre-adolescent lead-exposed mice with BLL below 5 µg dl(-1).

  18. Early chronic lead exposure reduces exploratory activity in young C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Research has suggested that chronic low-level lead exposure diminishes neurocognitive function in children. Tests that are sensitive to behavioral effects at lowest levels of lead exposure are needed for the development of animal models. In this study we investigated the effects of chronic low-level lead exposure on exploratory activity (unbaited nose poke task), exploratory ambulation (open field task) and motor coordination (Rotarod task) in pre-adolescent mice. C57BL/6J pups were exposed to 0 ppm (controls), 30 ppm (low-dose) or 230 ppm (high-dose) lead acetate via dams' drinking water administered from birth to postnatal day 28, to achieve a range of blood lead levels (BLLs) from not detectable to 14.84 µg dl(-1) ). At postnatal day 28, mice completed behavioral testing and were killed (n = 61). BLLs were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The effects of lead exposure on behavior were tested using generalized linear mixed model analyses with BLL, sex and the interaction as fixed effects, and litter as the random effect. BLL predicted decreased exploratory activity and no threshold of effect was apparent. As BLL increased, nose pokes decreased. The C57BL/6J mouse is a useful model for examining effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure on behavior. In the C57BL/6J mouse, the unbaited nose poke task is sensitive to the effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure. This is the first animal study to show behavioral effects in pre-adolescent lead-exposed mice with BLL below 5 µg dl(-1). PMID:25219894

  19. Geographic variation in the association between exploratory behavior and physiology in rufous-collared sparrows.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Karin; van Dongen, Wouter F D; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; Sabat, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Increasing research has attempted to clarify the links between animal personality and physiology. However, the mechanisms driving this association remain largely unknown, and knowledge of how ecological factors may affect its direction and strength is scant. In this study, we quantified variation in the association between exploratory behavior, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) in rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) inhabiting desert, Mediterranean, and cold-temperate climates. We found that the exploratory behavior score was highest in birds from the cold-temperate site, which was characterized by a moderate level of ecological variability (seasonality). Moreover, the association between exploratory behavior and physiological variables differed among localities. Only birds from the Mediterranean site showed a positive correlation between exploratory behavior and BMR. We found no association between exploration and TEWL at any study site. Our findings suggest that differences in the ecological conditions experienced by each sparrow population result in a particular combination of behavioral and physiological traits. An understanding of this intraspecific variation along ecological gradients provides unique insights into how specific ecological conditions affect the coupling of behavioral and physiological traits and the mechanisms underlying that relationship.

  20. Making behavioral activation more behavioral.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Manos, Rachel C; Busch, Andrew M; Rusch, Laura C

    2008-11-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with another behavioral treatment, Functional Analytic Psychotherapy, addresses this mismatch. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy provides a process for the therapeutic provision of immediate and natural reinforcement. This article presents this integration and offers theoretical and practical therapist guidelines on its application. Although the integration is largely theoretical, empirical data are presented in its support when available. The article ends with a discussion of future research directions.

  1. Anxiety-like and exploratory behaviors of isolation-reared mice in the staircase test.

    PubMed

    Ago, Yukio; Takahashi, Keiko; Nakamura, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Baba, Akemichi; Matsuda, Toshio

    2007-06-01

    The behavior of isolation-reared mice has not yet been studied in the staircase test. The present study examined the effects of anxiolytic or anxiogenic agents and isolation rearing on the behavior of ddY (outbred) strain mice in the staircase test. Diazepam and phenobarbital increased the number of steps climbed, but did not affect rearing behavior in group-reared mice. FG-7142, a benzodiazepine inverse agonist, significantly increased the number of rearing with no changes in the number of steps climbed in group-reared mice. Methamphetamine increased the number of steps climbed and decreased the number of rearing in group-reared mice. Although isolation-reared mice showed hyperactivity, there was no difference in locomotor activity for the test period of 3 min between isolation- and group-reared mice. Under these conditions, isolation rearing increased the numbers of steps climbed and rearing compared to group-reared controls. Microanalysis of locomotor patterns of group-reared mice in the staircase test showed that anxiolytic drugs increased the number of climbing to the top step of the staircase and methamphetamine increased the number of climbing to the first to third step. These results suggest that isolation rearing causes an anxiety-like state with increased exploratory behavior in mice.

  2. Advancing Paternal Age Is Associated with Deficits in Social and Exploratory Behaviors in the Offspring: A Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Mill, Jonathan; Fernandes, Cathy; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence from epidemiological research has demonstrated an association between advanced paternal age and risk for several psychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia and early-onset bipolar disorder. In order to establish causality, this study used an animal model to investigate the effects of advanced paternal age on behavioural deficits in the offspring. Methods C57BL/6J offspring (n = 12 per group) were bred from fathers of two different ages, 2 months (young) and 10 months (old), and mothers aged 2 months (n = 6 breeding pairs per group). Social and exploratory behaviors were examined in the offspring. Principal Findings The offspring of older fathers were found to engage in significantly less social (p = 0.02) and exploratory (p = 0.02) behaviors than the offspring of younger fathers. There were no significant differences in measures of motor activity. Conclusions Given the well-controlled nature of this study, this provides the strongest evidence for deleterious effects of advancing paternal age on social and exploratory behavior. De-novo chromosomal changes and/or inherited epigenetic changes are the most plausible explanatory factors. PMID:20041141

  3. Heart Rate Variability in Nonlinear Rats with Different Orientation and Exploratory Activity in the Open Field.

    PubMed

    Kur'yanova, E V; Teplyi, D L; Zhukova, Yu D; Zhukovina, N V

    2015-12-01

    The basic behavioral activity of nonlinear rats was evaluated from the sum of crossed peripheral and central squares and peripheral and central rearing postures in the open fi eld test. This index was low (<20 episodes), intermediate (20-29 episodes), or high (>30 episodes). Male rats with high score of orientation and exploratory activity were characterized by higher indexes of total heart rate variability than rats with low or intermediate activity. Specimens with a greater contribution of VLF waves into the total power spectrum of heart rate variability were shown to dominate among the rats with high behavioral activity. Our results are consistent with the notions of a suprasegmental nature of VLF waves.

  4. The Effect of a Parent Education Program on Selected Aspects of Parental Behavior: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Daniel David

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to measure the impact of a specific style of parent education on parental behavior with their children. Six families, chosen by invitation from among parents participating in the Carbon County, Utah parent education programs, participated in the study. A BAB-ABBA single case experimental design was…

  5. Human Behavior Based Exploratory Model for Successful Implementation of Lean Enterprise in Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhney, Rupy; Chason, Stewart

    2005-01-01

    Currently available Lean tools such as Lean Assessments, Value Stream Mapping, and Process Flow Charting focus on system requirements and overlook human behavior. A need is felt for a tool that allows one to baseline personnel, determine personnel requirements and align system requirements with personnel requirements. Our exploratory model--The…

  6. Association between exploratory activity and social individuality in genetically identical mice living in the same enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Freund, J; Brandmaier, A M; Lewejohann, L; Kirste, I; Kritzler, M; Krüger, A; Sachser, N; Lindenberger, U; Kempermann, G

    2015-11-19

    We previously reported that inbred, genetically identical mice living in one enriched environment develop individual behavioral trajectories, indicating increasingly different levels of spatial exploratory behavior as quantified by roaming entropy. Cumulative roaming entropy (cRE) correlated positively with adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a type of plasticity involved in the flexible integration of new information into existing contexts (Freund et al., 2013). The study on which we report here was done in parallel to that first experiment, but here we acquired detailed observational data on the behavior of individual mice. Roaming entropy (RE) was again assessed in real-time with an antenna-based system over the entire experimental period of 3months. Compared to the least active mice in the enclosure (low number of antenna contacts), the most active animals showed tendencies of increased socially interactive behavior in the final observation block whereas least active mice displayed more self-related behavior (non-social local exploration and play). When looking at roaming behavior, we discovered that RE correlated negatively with latent factors representing social exploratory and non-social exploratory and play behavior. Adult neurogenesis could not be studied in the present cohort but we do know that under identical conditions, cumulative RE correlated positively with adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We can thus hypothesize that the mice with more exploratory experience in terms of areal coverage (as quantified by RE) and related greater levels of adult hippocampal plasticity, might also be the ones that were less involved in interactions within the group and, hence, more individualistic. While this remains to be confirmed experimentally, the present data suggest that the described mechanism of individualization, which has previously been shown to be hippocampus-dependent, has a social component.

  7. Association between exploratory activity and social individuality in genetically identical mice living in the same enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Freund, J; Brandmaier, A M; Lewejohann, L; Kirste, I; Kritzler, M; Krüger, A; Sachser, N; Lindenberger, U; Kempermann, G

    2015-11-19

    We previously reported that inbred, genetically identical mice living in one enriched environment develop individual behavioral trajectories, indicating increasingly different levels of spatial exploratory behavior as quantified by roaming entropy. Cumulative roaming entropy (cRE) correlated positively with adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a type of plasticity involved in the flexible integration of new information into existing contexts (Freund et al., 2013). The study on which we report here was done in parallel to that first experiment, but here we acquired detailed observational data on the behavior of individual mice. Roaming entropy (RE) was again assessed in real-time with an antenna-based system over the entire experimental period of 3months. Compared to the least active mice in the enclosure (low number of antenna contacts), the most active animals showed tendencies of increased socially interactive behavior in the final observation block whereas least active mice displayed more self-related behavior (non-social local exploration and play). When looking at roaming behavior, we discovered that RE correlated negatively with latent factors representing social exploratory and non-social exploratory and play behavior. Adult neurogenesis could not be studied in the present cohort but we do know that under identical conditions, cumulative RE correlated positively with adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We can thus hypothesize that the mice with more exploratory experience in terms of areal coverage (as quantified by RE) and related greater levels of adult hippocampal plasticity, might also be the ones that were less involved in interactions within the group and, hence, more individualistic. While this remains to be confirmed experimentally, the present data suggest that the described mechanism of individualization, which has previously been shown to be hippocampus-dependent, has a social component. PMID:25987202

  8. Depreciative Behavior in Forest Campgrounds: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roger N.; And Others

    "Vandalism, theft, littering, rule violation, and nuisance behaviors were studied in 3 campgrounds during 1968 using participant observation techniques. Information was gathered on the extent and character of such behaviors and factors associated with their occurrence." Nuisance acts were most common (50%) followed by legal violations (37%) and…

  9. Rearrangement of the dendritic morphology in limbic regions and altered exploratory behavior in a rat model of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Bringas, M E; Carvajal-Flores, F N; López-Ramírez, T A; Atzori, M; Flores, G

    2013-06-25

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a blocker of histone deacetylase widely used to treat epilepsy, bipolar disorders, and migraine; its administration during pregnancy increases the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the child. Thus, prenatal VPA exposure has emerged as a rodent model of ASD. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of prenatal administration of VPA (500mg/kg) at E12.5 on the exploratory behavior and locomotor activity in a novel environment, as well as on neuronal morphological rearrangement in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), in the hippocampus, in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) at three different ages: immediately after weaning (postnatal day 21 [PD21]), prepubertal (PD35) and postpubertal (PD70) ages. Hyper-locomotion was observed in a novel environment in VPA animals at PD21 and PD70. Interestingly, exploratory behavior assessed by the hole board test at PD70 showed a reduced frequency but an increase in the duration of head-dippings in VPA-animals compared to vehicle-treated animals. In addition, the latency to the first head-dip was longer in prenatal VPA-treated animals at PD70. Quantitative morphological analysis of dendritic spine density revealed a reduced number of spines at PD70 in the PFC, dorsal hippocampus and BLA, with an increase in the dendritic spine density in NAcc and ventral hippocampus, in prenatal VPA-treated rats. In addition, at PD70 increases in neuronal arborization were observed in the NAcc, layer 3 of the PFC, and BLA, with retracted neuronal arborization in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus. Our results extend the list of altered behaviors (exploratory behavior) detected in this model of ASD, and indicate that the VPA behavioral phenotype is accompanied by previously undescribed morphological rearrangement in limbic regions.

  10. Influence of Long-Term Zinc Administration on Spatial Learning and Exploratory Activity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2016-08-01

    Animal brain contains a significant amount of zinc, which is a cofactor for more than 300 enzymes. Moreover, it provides the basis for functioning of more than 2000 transcription factors, and it is necessary for memory formation and learning processes in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc supplementation on behavior in 3-month-old rats. For this purpose, the Morris water maze paradigm, hole-board, and T-maze were used. Wistar rats received a solution of ZnSO4 in drinking water at the doses of 16 mg/kg (Zn16 group) and 32 mg/kg (Zn32 group). In rats pretreated with the lower dose of zinc, the improvement of the mean escape latency was observed in comparison to the control group and Zn32 group. During memory task, both ZnSO4-supplemented groups showed an increase in crossings over the previous platform position. Furthermore, the exploratory activity in Zn16 group was improved in comparison to Zn32 and control group. In the brains of zinc-supplemented rats, we observed the higher content of zinc, both in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. Hippocampal zinc level correlated positively with the mean annulus crossings of the Zn16 group during the probe trial. These findings show that the long-term administration of ZnS04 can improve learning, spatial memory, and exploratory activity in rats. Graphical Abstract Improvement of spatial learning, memory, and exploratory behavior.

  11. 17 CFR 229.1205 - (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1205 (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory... proves to be incapable of producing either oil or gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion as an oil or gas well. (2) A productive well is an exploratory, development, or extension well that...

  12. 17 CFR 229.1205 - (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1205 (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory... proves to be incapable of producing either oil or gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion as an oil or gas well. (2) A productive well is an exploratory, development, or extension well that...

  13. 17 CFR 229.1205 - (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1205 (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory... proves to be incapable of producing either oil or gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion as an oil or gas well. (2) A productive well is an exploratory, development, or extension well that...

  14. 17 CFR 229.1205 - (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1205 (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory... proves to be incapable of producing either oil or gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion as an oil or gas well. (2) A productive well is an exploratory, development, or extension well that...

  15. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A impairs sexual differentiation of exploratory behavior and increases depression-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Kubo, Kazuhiko; Aou, Shuji

    2006-01-12

    Perinatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA, 0.1 and 1 ppm in drinking water applied to mother rats for 6 weeks) has been shown to impair the sexual differentiation in exploratory behavior, but the exact critical period of this disrupting effect is still unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA (0.1 ppm in drinking water applied to dams during the final week of pregnant) on emotional and learning behaviors in addition to exploratory behavior. Estimated daily intake was 15 microg/kg/day, below the reference dose (RfD) in the United States and the daily tolerable intake (TDI) in Japan (50 microg/kg/day). The rats were successively tested in open-field test, elevated plus maze test, passive avoidance test and forced swimming test during development from 6 to 9 weeks of juvenile period. Prenatal exposure to BPA mainly affected male rats and abolished sex differences in rearing behavior in the open-field test and struggling behavior in the forced swimming test. BPA increased the immobility of male rats in the forced swimming test. The avoidance learning and behaviors in the elevated plus maze were not affected. The present study demonstrates that male rats at the final week of prenatal period are sensitive to BPA, which impairs sexual differentiation in rearing and struggling behavior and facilitate depression-like behavior.

  16. Coagulation activation in sickle cell trait: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Amin, Chirag; Adam, Soheir; Mooberry, Micah J; Kutlar, Abdullah; Kutlar, Ferdane; Esserman, Denise; Brittain, Julia E; Ataga, Kenneth I; Chang, Jen-Yea; Wolberg, Alisa S; Key, Nigel S

    2015-11-01

    Recent epidemiologic data suggest that sickle cell trait (HbAS; AS) is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. We conducted an exploratory study of healthy subjects with AS under baseline conditions to determine whether a chronic basal hyperactivation of coagulation exists, and if so, what mechanism(s) contribute to this state. Eighteen healthy AS individuals were compared to 22 African-American controls with a normal haemoglobin profile (HbAA; AA) and 17 patients with sickle cell disease (HbSS; SS). Plasma thrombin-antithrombin complexes and D-dimer levels were elevated in AS relative to AA patients (P = 0·0385 and P = 0·017, respectively), and as expected, were much higher in SSversusAA (P < 0·0001 for both). Thrombin generation in platelet poor plasma was indistinguishable between AA and AS subjects, whereas a paradoxical decrease in endogenous thrombin potential was observed in SS (P ≤ 0·0001). Whole blood tissue factor was elevated in SS compared to AA (P = 0·005), but did not differ between AA and AS. Plasma microparticle tissue factor activity was non-significantly elevated in AS (P = 0·051), but was clearly elevated in SS patients (P = 0·004) when compared to AA controls. Further studies in larger cohorts of subjects with sickle cell trait are needed to confirm the results of this preliminary investigation.

  17. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Rymer, William Z

    2016-03-21

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy.

  18. Cognitive and locomotor/exploratory behavior after chronic exercise in the olfactory bulbectomy animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Van Hoomissen, Jacqueline; Kunrath, Julie; Dentlinger, Renee; Lafrenz, Andrew; Krause, Mark; Azar, Afaf

    2011-09-12

    Despite the evidence that exercise improves cognitive behavior in animal models, little is known about these beneficial effects in animal models of pathology. We examined the effects of activity wheel (AW) running on contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and locomotor/exploratory behavior in the olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) model of depression, which is characterized by hyperactivity and changes in cognitive function. Twenty-four hours after the conditioning session of the CFC protocol, the animals were tested for the conditioned response in a conditioned and a novel context to test for the effects of both AW and OBX on CFC, but also the context specificity of the effect. OBX reduced overall AW running behavior throughout the experiment, but increased locomotor/exploratory behavior during CFC, thus demonstrating a context-dependent effect. OBX animals, however, displayed normal CFC behavior that was context-specific, indicating that aversively conditioned memory is preserved in this model. AW running increased freezing behavior during the testing session of the CFC protocol in the control animals but only in the conditioned context, supporting the hypothesis that AW running improves cognitive function in a context-specific manner that does not generalize to an animal model of pathology. Blood corticosterone levels were increased in all animals at the conclusion of the testing sessions, but levels were higher in AW compared to sedentary groups indicating an effect of exercise on neuroendocrine function. Given the differential results of AW running on behavior and neuroendocrine function after OBX, further exploration of the beneficial effects of exercise in animal models of neuropathology is warranted.

  19. Dairy cattle exploratory and social behaviors: is there an effect of cloning?

    PubMed

    Coulon, M; Baudoin, C; Depaulis-Carre, M; Heyman, Y; Renard, J P; Richard, C; Deputte, B L

    2007-11-01

    While an increasing number of animals are produced by means of somatic cloning, behavioral studies on cloned animals are still rare. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the somatic cloning procedure has an influence on locomotion, exploratory, vocal and social behaviors of heifers. Ten heifers were used in the present study. Five of them were cloned heifers derived from somatic cells of three different Prim'Holstein cows and five others were same-age control heifers produced by artificial insemination. In addition to observations of social behaviors in the stable group, each animal was placed individually for a short time in an unfamiliar environment. Our results failed to show any statistical differences between clones and their controls both in frequencies of agonistic and non-agonistic behaviors. However, cloned heifers showed significantly more non-agonistic and less agonistic behaviors towards other cloned partners than towards control ones. This result also stood for control heifers. As far as their Hierarchical Index was concerned, three cloned heifers were highest ranking and two others lowest ranking. In this herd, social dominance appeared to be linked to body weight and age rather than to a cloning effect. In an unfamiliar environment, cloned and control subjects exhibited the same level of locomotion and vocalization. However, cloned heifers showed more exploratory behaviors than did control ones. This difference could be due to environmental factors during the postnatal period rather than to cloning.

  20. Behavioral health staff's perceptions of pet-assisted therapy: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Jeanette; DeFabiis, Susanne; Belpedio, Camille

    2008-09-01

    The purpose and objectives of this exploratory descriptive study were threefold: to assess the impact of pet-assisted therapy on the overall well-being of behavioral health staff, to document whether pet-assisted therapy affected the retention of behavioral health staff, and to explore and describe therapeutic measures behavioral health staff implemented in using pet-assisted therapy in the delivery of mental health patient care. The participants in this study were 10 behavioral health staff members who were involved with the pet-assisted therapy program at a private psychiatric hospital in a Chicago suburb. Themes that emerged from the study included Self-Awareness, Morale, Innovative Therapeutic Strategies, Challenges, and Future Directions. This article describes these themes in detail, provides quotations from participants to further highlight meaning, and discusses the powerful effect of pet-assisted therapy on both patients and staff in the therapeutic milieu. PMID:18822998

  1. Neonatal exposure to LPS leads to heightened exploratory activity in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Rico, Javier Leonardo Rodríguez; Ferraz, Denise Brufato; Ramalho-Pinto, Francisco Juarez; Morato, Silvio

    2010-12-20

    Although several reports have demonstrated physiological and behavioral changes in adult rats due to neonatal immune challenges, little is known about their effects in adolescence. Since neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alters the neural substrates involved in cognitive disorders, we tested the hypothesis that it may also alter the response to novel environments in adolescent rats. At 3 and 5 days of age, male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of either vehicle solution or E. coli LPS (0.05mg/kg) or were left undisturbed. In the mid-adolescent period, between 40 and 46 days of age, the rats were exposed to the following behavioral tests: elevated plus-maze, open-field, novel-object exploration task, hole-board and the modified Porsolt forced swim test. The results showed that, in comparison with control animals, LPS-treated rats exhibited (1) less anxiety-related behaviors and enhanced patterns of locomotion and rearing in the plus-maze and the open-field tests, (2) high levels of exploration of both objects in the novel-object task and of corner and central holes in hole-board test, and (3) more time spent diving, an active behavior in the forced swim test. The present findings suggest that neonatal LPS exposure has long-lasting effects on the behavior profile adolescent rats exhibit in response to novelty. This behavioral pattern, characterized by heightened exploratory activity in novel environments, also suggests that early immune stimulation may contribute to the development of impulsive behavior in adolescent rats.

  2. Movement characteristics support a role for dead reckoning in organizing exploratory behavior.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Douglas G; Hamilton, Derek A; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2006-07-01

    Rat exploration is an organized series of trips. Each exploratory trip involves an outward tour from the refuge followed by a return to the refuge. A tour consists of a sequence of progressions with variable direction and speed concatenated by stops, whereas the return consists of a single direct progression. We have argued that processing self-movement information generated on the tour allows a rat to plot the return to the refuge. This claim has been supported by observing consistent differences between tour and return segments independent of ambient cue availability; however, this distinction was based on differences in movement characteristics derived from multiple progressions and stops on the tour and the single progression on the return. The present study examines movement characteristics of the tour and return progressions under novel-dark and light conditions. Three novel characteristics of progressions were identified: (1) linear speeds and path curvature of exploratory trips are negatively correlated, (2) tour progression maximum linear speed and temporal pacing varies as a function of travel distance, and (3) return progression movement characteristics are qualitatively different from tour progressions of comparable length. These observations support a role for dead reckoning in organizing exploratory behavior.

  3. Developmental Subchronic Exposure to Diphenylarsinic Acid Induced Increased Exploratory Behavior, Impaired Learning Behavior, and Decreased Cerebellar Glutathione Concentration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Negishi, Takayuki; Matsunaga, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, people using water from the well contaminated with high-level arsenic developed neurological, mostly cerebellar, symptoms, where diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) was a major compound. Here, we investigated the adverse effects of developmental exposure to 20mg/l DPAA in drinking water (early period [0–6 weeks of age] and/or late period [7–12]) on behavior and cerebellar development in male rats. In the open field test at 6 weeks of age, early exposure to DPAA significantly increased exploratory behaviors. At 12 weeks of age, late exposure to DPAA similarly increased exploratory behavior independent of the early exposure although a 6-week recovery from DPAA could reverse that change. In the passive avoidance test at 6 weeks of age, early exposure to DPAA significantly decreased the avoidance performance. Even at 12 weeks of age, early exposure to DPAA significantly decreased the test performance, which was independent of the late exposure to DPAA. These results suggest that the DPAA-induced increase in exploratory behavior is transient, whereas the DPAA-induced impairment of passive avoidance is long lasting. At 6 weeks of age, early exposure to DPAA significantly reduced the concentration of cerebellar total glutathione. At 12 weeks of age, late, but not early, exposure to DPAA also significantly reduced the concentration of cerebellar glutathione, which might be a primary cause of oxidative stress. Early exposure to DPAA induced late-onset suppressed expression of NMDAR1 and PSD95 protein at 12 weeks of age, indicating impaired glutamatergic system in the cerebellum of rats developmentally exposed to DPAA. PMID:24008832

  4. Analyzing the House Fly’s Exploratory Behavior with Autoregression Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hisanao; Horibe, Naoto; Shimada, Masakazu; Ikegami, Takashi

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents a detailed characterization of the trajectory of a single housefly with free range of a square cage. The trajectory of the fly was recorded and transformed into a time series, which was fully analyzed using an autoregressive model, which describes a stationary time series by a linear regression of prior state values with the white noise. The main discovery was that the fly switched styles of motion from a low dimensional regular pattern to a higher dimensional disordered pattern. This discovered exploratory behavior is, irrespective of the presence of food, characterized by anomalous diffusion.

  5. Sexual Behaviors during the First Year of College: An Exploratory Comparison of First and Second Semester Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail-Smith, Karen; Maguire, Rachel L.; Brinkley, Jason; Burke, Sloane

    2010-01-01

    The transition from high school to college offers adolescents more freedom that may result in increased risky sexual behaviors. This exploratory study examines sexual behaviors of freshmen. Half of participants completed a questionnaire during the first week of college and the other half during the last week of their freshmen year. Significant…

  6. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency Causes Reduced Exploratory Behavior in Mice Under Approach-Avoidance Conflict.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunlu; Yan, Yixiu; Cheng, Jingjing; Xiao, Gang; Gu, Jueqing; Zhang, Luqi; Yuan, Siyu; Wang, Junlu; Shen, Yi; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal approach-avoidance behavior has been linked to deficits in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system of the brain. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an important pattern-recognition receptor in the innate immune system, can be directly activated by substances of abuse, resulting in an increase of the extracellular DA level in the nucleus accumbens. We thus hypothesized that TLR4-dependent signaling might regulate approach-avoidance behavior. To test this hypothesis, we compared the novelty-seeking and social interaction behaviors of TLR4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice in an approach-avoidance conflict situation in which the positive motivation to explore a novel object or interact with an unfamiliar mouse was counteracted by the negative motivation to hide in exposed, large spaces. We found that TLR4(-/-) mice exhibited reduced novelty-seeking and social interaction in the large open spaces. In less stressful test apparatuses similar in size to the mouse cage, however, TLR4(-/-) mice performed normally in both novelty-seeking and social interaction tests. The reduced exploratory behaviors under approach-avoidance conflict were not due to a high anxiety level or an enhanced fear response in the TLR4(-/-) mice, as these mice showed normal anxiety and fear responses in the open field and passive avoidance tests, respectively. Importantly, the novelty-seeking behavior in the large open field induced a higher level of c-Fos activation in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) in TLR4(-/-) mice than in WT mice. Partially inactivating the NAcSh via infusion of GABA receptor agonists restored the novelty-seeking behavior of TLR4(-/-) mice. These data suggested that TLR4 is crucial for positive motivational behavior under approach-avoidance conflict. TLR4-dependent activation of neurons in the NAcSh may contribute to this phenomenon.

  7. Multitasking information behavior, information task switching and anxiety: An exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulou, Peggy; Kotsopoulou, Anastasia

    2015-02-01

    Multitasking information behavior involves multiple forms of information searching such as library and Web search. Few researchers, however, have explored multitasking information behavior and information task switching in libraries in conjunction with psychological variables. This study explored this behavior in terms of anxiety under time pressure. This was an exploratory case study. Participant searched information for three unrelated everyday life information topics during a library visit, in a timeframe of one hour. The data collection tools used were: diary, observation, interview, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. Participant took the Trait-anxiety test before the library visit to measure anxiety level as a personal characteristic. She also took State-anxiety test before, during and after the library visit to measure anxiety levels regarding the information seeking behavior. The results suggested that participant had high levels of anxiety at the beginning of the multitasking information behavior. The reason for that was the concern about the performance as well as the identification of the right resources. During the multitasking information behavior, participant still had anxiety to find the right information. The levels of anxiety, however, were less due to library's good organized structure. At the end of the information seeking process, the levels of anxiety dropped significant and therefore calm and safety returned. Finally, participant searched information for topics that were more important and for which she had prior knowledge When people, under time pressure, have access to well organized information, the levels of anxiety might decrease.

  8. Multitasking information behavior, information task switching and anxiety: An exploratory study

    SciTech Connect

    Alexopoulou, Peggy E-mail: an-kotsopoulou@yahoo.com; Kotsopoulou, Anastasia E-mail: an-kotsopoulou@yahoo.com

    2015-02-09

    Multitasking information behavior involves multiple forms of information searching such as library and Web search. Few researchers, however, have explored multitasking information behavior and information task switching in libraries in conjunction with psychological variables. This study explored this behavior in terms of anxiety under time pressure. This was an exploratory case study. Participant searched information for three unrelated everyday life information topics during a library visit, in a timeframe of one hour. The data collection tools used were: diary, observation, interview, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. Participant took the Trait-anxiety test before the library visit to measure anxiety level as a personal characteristic. She also took State-anxiety test before, during and after the library visit to measure anxiety levels regarding the information seeking behavior. The results suggested that participant had high levels of anxiety at the beginning of the multitasking information behavior. The reason for that was the concern about the performance as well as the identification of the right resources. During the multitasking information behavior, participant still had anxiety to find the right information. The levels of anxiety, however, were less due to library’s good organized structure. At the end of the information seeking process, the levels of anxiety dropped significant and therefore calm and safety returned. Finally, participant searched information for topics that were more important and for which she had prior knowledge When people, under time pressure, have access to well organized information, the levels of anxiety might decrease.

  9. Using an Exploratory Internet Activity & Trivia Game to Teach Students about Biomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Matthew L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in life science classes need an introduction to biomes, including an introduction to the concept, key biotic and abiotic features of biomes, and geographic locations of biomes. In this activity, students in seventh- and eighth-grade science classes used a directed exploratory Internet activity to learn about biomes. The author tested…

  10. Does academic dishonesty relate to unethical behavior in professional practice? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Harding, Trevor S; Carpenter, Donald D; Finelli, Cynthia J; Passow, Honor J

    2004-04-01

    Previous research indicates that students in engineering self-report cheating in college at higher rates than those in most other disciplines. Prior work also suggests that participation in one deviant behavior is a reasonable predictor of future deviant behavior. This combination of factors leads to a situation where engineering students who frequently participate in academic dishonesty are more likely to make unethical decisions in professional practice. To investigate this scenario, we propose the hypotheses that (1) there are similarities in the decision-making processes used by engineering students when considering whether or not to participate in academic and professional dishonesty, and (2) prior academic dishonesty by engineering students is an indicator of future decisions to act dishonestly. Our sample consisted of undergraduate engineering students from two technically-oriented private universities. As a group, the sample reported working full-time an average of six months per year as professionals in addition to attending classes during the remaining six months. This combination of both academic and professional experience provides a sample of students who are experienced in both settings. Responses to open-ended questions on an exploratory survey indicate that students identify common themes in describing both temptations to cheat or to violate workplace policies and factors which caused them to hesitate in acting unethically, thus supporting our first hypothesis and laying the foundation for future surveys having forced-choice responses. As indicated by the responses to forced-choice questions for the engineering students surveyed, there is a relationship between self-reported rates of cheating in high school and decisions to cheat in college and to violate workplace policies; supporting our second hypothesis. Thus, this exploratory study demonstrates connections between decision-making about both academic and professional dishonesty. If better

  11. Smoking automaticity and tolerance moderate brain activation during explore-exploit behavior.

    PubMed

    Addicott, Merideth A; Pearson, John M; Froeliger, Brett; Platt, Michael L; McClernon, F Joseph

    2014-12-30

    The adaptive trade-off between exploration and exploitation is a key component in models of reinforcement learning. Over the past decade, these models have been applied to the study of reward-seeking behavior. Drugs of addiction induce reward-seeking behavior and modify its underlying neurophysiological processes. These neurophysiological changes may underlie a behavioral shift from a flexible, exploratory mode to a focused, exploitative mode, which precedes the development of inflexible, habitual drug use. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between explore/exploit behavior and drug addiction by examining the neural correlates of this behavior in cigarette smokers. Participants (n=22) with a range of smoking behaviors completed a smoking dependence motives questionnaire and played a 6-armed bandit task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Exploratory behavior produced greater activation in the bilateral superior parietal and bilateral frontal cortices than exploitative behavior. Exploitative behavior produced greater activation in the bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri than exploratory behavior. fMRI data and orthogonalized smoking dependence motive scores were entered into multiple linear regression analyses. After controlling for nicotine tolerance, smoking automaticity positively correlated with activation in the same bilateral parietal regions preferentially activated by exploratory choices. These preliminary results link smoking dependence motives to variation in the neural processes that mediate exploratory decision making.

  12. Electronic Word of Mouth on Twitter About Physical Activity in the United States: Exploratory Infodemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Shelly; Janz, Kathleen F; Eckler, Petya; Yang, Jingzhen; Snetselaar, Linda G; Signorini, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Background Twitter is a widely used social medium. However, its application in promoting health behaviors is understudied. Objective In order to provide insights into designing health marketing interventions to promote physical activity on Twitter, this exploratory infodemiology study applied both social cognitive theory and the path model of online word of mouth to examine the distribution of different electronic word of mouth (eWOM) characteristics among personal tweets about physical activity in the United States. Methods This study used 113 keywords to retrieve 1 million public tweets about physical activity in the United States posted between January 1 and March 31, 2011. A total of 30,000 tweets were randomly selected and sorted based on numbers generated by a random number generator. Two coders scanned the first 16,100 tweets and yielded 4672 (29.02%) tweets that they both agreed to be about physical activity and were from personal accounts. Finally, 1500 tweets were randomly selected from the 4672 tweets (32.11%) for further coding. After intercoder reliability scores reached satisfactory levels in the pilot coding (100 tweets separate from the final 1500 tweets), 2 coders coded 750 tweets each. Descriptive analyses, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Fisher exact tests were performed. Results Tweets about physical activity were dominated by neutral sentiments (1270/1500, 84.67%). Providing opinions or information regarding physical activity (1464/1500, 97.60%) and chatting about physical activity (1354/1500, 90.27%) were found to be popular on Twitter. Approximately 60% (905/1500, 60.33%) of the tweets demonstrated users’ past or current participation in physical activity or intentions to participate in physical activity. However, social support about physical activity was provided in less than 10% of the tweets (135/1500, 9.00%). Users with fewer people following their tweets (followers) (P=.02) and with fewer accounts that they followed (followings) (P=.04

  13. Pressure to change drinking behavior: An exploratory analysis of US general population subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background General population studies have shown that pressure from others to change drinking can come from different sources. Receipt of informal pressure (IP) and formal pressure (FP) is known to vary by quantity and consequences of drinking, but less is known about how pressure varies among subgroups of the population. Method This exploratory study utilizes data from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1995–2010 (N=26,311) and examines associations between receipt of pressure and subgroups of drinkers. Results Increased relative risk of receiving IP and FP were observed for individuals reporting an arrest for driving after drinking and illicit drug use while poverty and lack of private health insurance increased risk of receipt of formal pressures. Regular marijuana use increased IP. Conclusion The subgroups that were studied received increased pressures to change drinking behavior, though disentangling the societal role of pressure and how it may assist with interventions, help seeking, and natural recovery is needed. PMID:25346550

  14. SIRT1 activates MAO-A in the brain to mediate anxiety and exploratory drive.

    PubMed

    Libert, Sergiy; Pointer, Kelli; Bell, Eric L; Das, Abhirup; Cohen, Dena E; Asara, John M; Kapur, Karen; Bergmann, Sven; Preisig, Martin; Otowa, Takeshi; Kendler, Kenneth S; Chen, Xiangning; Hettema, John M; van den Oord, Edwin J; Rubio, Justin P; Guarente, Leonard

    2011-12-23

    SIRT1 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase that governs a number of genetic programs to cope with changes in the nutritional status of cells and organisms. Behavioral responses to food abundance are important for the survival of higher animals. Here we used mice with increased or decreased brain SIRT1 to show that this sirtuin regulates anxiety and exploratory drive by activating transcription of the gene encoding the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) to reduce serotonin levels in the brain. Indeed, treating animals with MAO-A inhibitors or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) normalized anxiety differences between wild-type and mutant animals. SIRT1 deacetylates the brain-specific helix-loop-helix transcription factor NHLH2 on lysine 49 to increase its activation of the MAO-A promoter. Both common and rare variations in the SIRT1 gene were shown to be associated with risk of anxiety in human population samples. Together these data indicate that SIRT1 mediates levels of anxiety, and this regulation may be adaptive in a changing environment of food availability.

  15. Gay and Lesbian Adoptive Families: An Exploratory Study of Family Functioning, Adoptive Child's Behavior, and Familial Support Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick; Kindle, Peter; Carter, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Traditional legal and social forces have hindered the adoption of children by gay and lesbian individuals and couples. Using a convenience sample drawn from gay and lesbian support groups and Internet sites, this exploratory study examines adoptive families with gay and lesbian parents in terms of family functioning capabilities, child's behavior,…

  16. Assessing the Social Context in Initial Conjoint Behavioral Consultation Interviews: An Exploratory Analysis Investigating Processes and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Susan M.; Meegan, Sean P.; Eagle, John W.

    2002-01-01

    In this exploratory study, the communicative process in conjoint behavioral consultation was investigated with a coding system designed to measure two dimensions of communication (i.e., influence and involvement). Results indicated that CBC meetings were characterized by a high degree of affiliation among participants; however, few significant…

  17. Effects of novelty-reducing preparation on exploratory behavior and cognitive learning in a science museum setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Carole A.; Olstad, Roger G.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between (a) novelty and exploratory behavior, (b) novelty and cognitive learning, and (c) exploratory behavior and cognitive learning in science museums. Sixty-four sixth-grade public school students participated in a posttest-only control group design. The control group received a treatment designed to decrease the novelty of a field trip setting through a vicarious exposure while the placebo group received an informative but not novelty-reducing treatment. Both groups then visited the field site where they were videotaped. Statistical analyses were conducted on both dependent variables with socioeconomic status and academic achievement as covariates, novelty-reducing preparation as the independent variable, and gender as moderator variable. Exploratory behavior was shown to be positively correlated with cognitive learning. Significant differences were detected for exploratory behavior. For both dependent variables, gender by treatment group interaction was significant with novelty-reducing preparation shown to be highly effective on boys but having no effect on girls.

  18. The Roles of Negative Career Thinking and Career Problem-Solving Self-Efficacy in Career Exploratory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock-Yowell, Emily; Katz, Sheba P.; Reardon, Robert C.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    The respective roles of social cognitive career theory and cognitive information processing in career exploratory behavior were analyzed. A verified path model shows cognitive information processing theory's negative career thoughts inversely predict social cognitive career theory's career problem-solving self-efficacy, which predicts career…

  19. Relation of exploratory behavior of rats in elevated plus-maze to brain receptor binding properties and serum growth hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Kõks, S; Vasar, E; Soosaar, A; Lang, A; Volke, V; Võikar, V; Bourin, M; Männistö, P T

    1997-11-01

    Forty-five male Wistar rats were selected according to their behavior in the elevated plus-maze. They were separated as follows: animals with low exploratory activity ('anxious'), an 'intermediate' group and animals having high exploratory activity ('non-anxious'). Various receptor binding studies and hormonal assays were also performed in these selected rats. The affinity of 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT2A receptors in the frontal cortex was lower in the 'anxious' rats compared to home-cage controls and 'non-anxious' animals. Moreover, the number of cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors in the hippocampus was significantly elevated in the 'anxious' group compared to home-cage control animals. The blood levels of growth hormone (GH) were significantly lower in the 'non-anxious' rats compared to 'anxious' counterparts. In conclusion, it seems likely that the decreased exploratory activity of rats is related to the increased 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and CCK mediated neurotransmission in the brain. The different serum levels of GH in the selected rats probably reflect alterations in the activity of 5-HT and CCK.

  20. Collaborative Activities Enabled by GroupScribbles (GS): An Exploratory Study of Learning Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looi, Chee-Kit; Chen, Wenli; Ng, Foo-Keong

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of an exploratory cycle of a design-based research project and examines the learning effectiveness of collaborative activities that are supported by the GroupScribbles (GS) software technology in two Singapore primary science classrooms. The students had ten weeks of GS-based lessons in science, which were…

  1. School Counselors' Activities in Predominantly African American Urban Schools: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Lacretia

    2014-01-01

    A total of 102 school counselors who worked in predominantly African American urban schools in Michigan were surveyed to ascertain how frequently they engaged in school counseling activities as conceptualized by the American School Counseling Association. Additionally, this exploratory study sought to determine whether there were differences in…

  2. Understanding the Learning Process of Peer Feedback Activity: An Ethnographic Study of Exploratory Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Chunxian

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study attempts to find, reveal and understand the learning possibilities, from the social learning perspective, in the process of peer feedback activity in a College English classroom for non-English majors in China. The study reveals the nature of Exploratory Practice (EP), and the investigation is guided by EP principles,…

  3. Toxoplasmosis Preventive Behavior and Related Knowledge among Saudi Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to <30 years and those with previous history of unfavorable pregnancy outcome were more likely to follow toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to <40 years (OR=1.53), with ≥ secondary education (OR=1.96), had previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes (OR=1.88) and investigated for toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are

  4. Exploratory Studies With BT-11: A Proposed Orally Active Therapeutic for Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Bissel, Philippe; Boes, Katie; Hinckley, Jonathan; Jortner, Bernard S; Magnin-Bissel, Geraldine; Werre, Stephen R; Ehrich, Marion; Carbo, Adria; Philipson, Casandra; Hontecillas, Raquel; Philipson, Noah; Gandour, Richard D; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2016-09-01

    Lanthionine synthetase cyclase-like receptor 2 (LANCL2) is a novel therapeutic target for Crohn's disease (CD). BT-11 is a small molecule that binds LANCL2, is orally active, and has demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in 3 validated mouse models of colitis at doses as low as 8 mg/kg/d. Exploratory experiments evaluated BT-11 in male Harlan Sprague Dawley rats with a single oral dose of 500 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg/d for 14 days (n = 10 rats dosed/group). Treated and control rats were observed for behavioral detriments, and blood and tissues were collected for clinical pathology and histopathological examination. A functional observational battery demonstrated no differences between treated and control groups over multiple times of observation for quantal, categorical, and continuous end points, including posture, in cage activity, approach, response to touch, weight, grip strength, body temperature, and time on a rotarod. Histopathological examination of the brain, kidney, liver, adrenal gland, testes, stomach, small and large intestines, duodenum, pancreas, heart, lungs, spleen, thymus, and rib found no significant differences between the groups. Plasma enzymes associated with liver function were transiently elevated 2 to 4 days after the 500 mg/kg single dose but returned to normal values by 8 days and were not observed at any time in rats given 80 mg/kg/d for 14 days. One hour after oral administration of a single dose of 80 mg/kg, BT-11 had a maximal concentration of 21 ng/mL; the half-life was 3 hours. These experimental results demonstrated that BT-11 is well tolerated in rats, and, with further testing, may hold promise as an orally active therapeutic for CD. PMID:27230993

  5. Exploratory Studies With BT-11: A Proposed Orally Active Therapeutic for Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Bissel, Philippe; Boes, Katie; Hinckley, Jonathan; Jortner, Bernard S; Magnin-Bissel, Geraldine; Werre, Stephen R; Ehrich, Marion; Carbo, Adria; Philipson, Casandra; Hontecillas, Raquel; Philipson, Noah; Gandour, Richard D; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2016-09-01

    Lanthionine synthetase cyclase-like receptor 2 (LANCL2) is a novel therapeutic target for Crohn's disease (CD). BT-11 is a small molecule that binds LANCL2, is orally active, and has demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in 3 validated mouse models of colitis at doses as low as 8 mg/kg/d. Exploratory experiments evaluated BT-11 in male Harlan Sprague Dawley rats with a single oral dose of 500 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg/d for 14 days (n = 10 rats dosed/group). Treated and control rats were observed for behavioral detriments, and blood and tissues were collected for clinical pathology and histopathological examination. A functional observational battery demonstrated no differences between treated and control groups over multiple times of observation for quantal, categorical, and continuous end points, including posture, in cage activity, approach, response to touch, weight, grip strength, body temperature, and time on a rotarod. Histopathological examination of the brain, kidney, liver, adrenal gland, testes, stomach, small and large intestines, duodenum, pancreas, heart, lungs, spleen, thymus, and rib found no significant differences between the groups. Plasma enzymes associated with liver function were transiently elevated 2 to 4 days after the 500 mg/kg single dose but returned to normal values by 8 days and were not observed at any time in rats given 80 mg/kg/d for 14 days. One hour after oral administration of a single dose of 80 mg/kg, BT-11 had a maximal concentration of 21 ng/mL; the half-life was 3 hours. These experimental results demonstrated that BT-11 is well tolerated in rats, and, with further testing, may hold promise as an orally active therapeutic for CD.

  6. Implementation of Active Support in Victoria, Australia: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Jim; Beadle-Brown, Julie; Bigby, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Active support is an effective intervention to support engagement of residents with intellectual disability in group homes. This survey explored resident characteristics of the people supported by organisations implementing active support, the provision of active support, its procedures and systems, and resident engagement in…

  7. Place Cell Networks in Pre-weanling Rats Show Associative Memory Properties from the Onset of Exploratory Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Muessig, L.; Hauser, J.; Wills, T. J.; Cacucci, F.

    2016-01-01

    Place cells are hippocampal pyramidal cells that are active when an animal visits a restricted area of the environment, and collectively their activity constitutes a neural representation of space. Place cell populations in the adult rat hippocampus display fundamental properties consistent with an associative memory network: the ability to 1) generate new and distinct spatial firing patterns when encountering novel spatial contexts or changes in sensory input (“remapping”) and 2) reinstate previously stored firing patterns when encountering a familiar context, including on the basis of an incomplete/degraded set of sensory cues (“pattern completion”). To date, it is unknown when these spatial memory responses emerge during brain development. Here, we show that, from the age of first exploration (postnatal day 16) onwards, place cell populations already exhibit these key features: they generate new representations upon exposure to a novel context and can reactivate familiar representations on the basis of an incomplete set of sensory cues. These results demonstrate that, as early as exploratory behaviors emerge, and despite the absence of an adult-like grid cell network, the developing hippocampus processes incoming sensory information as an associative memory network. PMID:27282394

  8. Place Cell Networks in Pre-weanling Rats Show Associative Memory Properties from the Onset of Exploratory Behavior.

    PubMed

    Muessig, L; Hauser, J; Wills, T J; Cacucci, F

    2016-08-01

    Place cells are hippocampal pyramidal cells that are active when an animal visits a restricted area of the environment, and collectively their activity constitutes a neural representation of space. Place cell populations in the adult rat hippocampus display fundamental properties consistent with an associative memory network: the ability to 1) generate new and distinct spatial firing patterns when encountering novel spatial contexts or changes in sensory input ("remapping") and 2) reinstate previously stored firing patterns when encountering a familiar context, including on the basis of an incomplete/degraded set of sensory cues ("pattern completion"). To date, it is unknown when these spatial memory responses emerge during brain development. Here, we show that, from the age of first exploration (postnatal day 16) onwards, place cell populations already exhibit these key features: they generate new representations upon exposure to a novel context and can reactivate familiar representations on the basis of an incomplete set of sensory cues. These results demonstrate that, as early as exploratory behaviors emerge, and despite the absence of an adult-like grid cell network, the developing hippocampus processes incoming sensory information as an associative memory network. PMID:27282394

  9. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Bettilyon, Crystal N.; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling. PMID:27458354

  10. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling. PMID:27458354

  11. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling.

  12. Behavioral Intention and Behavior toward the Obese on a College Campus: An Exploratory Analysis of Discriminatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Carol; Symons, Cynthia W.; Kerr, Dianne L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Discriminatory behavior toward the obese is ubiquitous, which can lead to psychological conditions that exacerbate physical repercussions. Purpose: Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this study examined the link between college students' behavioral intention and self-reported behavior toward the obese. Possible connections…

  13. Exploratory research on mutagenic activity of coal-related materials

    SciTech Connect

    Warshawsky, D.; Schoeny, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    The following samples were found to be mutagenic for strains TA1538, TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium: ETTM-10, ETTM-11, ETTM-15, ETTM-16, and ETTM-17. ETTM-13 was marginally mutagenic for TA1537. ETTM-14 was slightly mutagenic for TA1537, TA1538, and TA98. Mutagenicity by all samples was demonstrated only in the presence of hepatic enzyme extracts (S9) which provided metabolic activation. ETTM-11 was shown to be the most mutagenic sample assayed thus far; specific activity was 2.79 x 10/sup 4/ TA98 revertants/mg sample. Fractionation by serial extractions with increasingly polar organic solvents was done at least 2 x with ETTM-10, ETTM-11, ETTM-15, ETTM-16 and ETTM-17. For some samples highly mutagenic fractions were observed.

  14. The Role of Social Novelty in Risk Seeking and Exploratory Behavior: Implications for Addictions.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Simon; Gao, Jennifer; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Novelty preference or sensation seeking is associated with disorders of addiction and predicts rodent compulsive drug use and adolescent binge drinking in humans. Novelty has also been shown to influence choice in the context of uncertainty and reward processing. Here we introduce a novel or familiar neutral face stimuli and investigate its influence on risk-taking choices in healthy volunteers. We focus on behavioural outcomes and imaging correlates to the prime that might predict risk seeking. We hypothesized that subjects would be more risk seeking following a novel relative to familiar stimulus. We adapted a risk-taking task involving acceptance or rejection of a 50:50 choice of gain or loss that was preceded by a familiar (pre-test familiarization) or novel face prime. Neutral expression faces of males and females were used as primes. Twenty-four subjects were first tested behaviourally and then 18 scanned using a different variant of the same task under functional MRI. We show enhanced risk taking to both gain and loss anticipation following novel relative to familiar images and particularly for the low gain condition. Greater risk taking behaviour and self-reported exploratory behaviours was predicted by greater right ventral putaminal activity to novel versus familiar contexts. Social novelty appears to have a contextually enhancing effect on augmenting risky choices possibly mediated via ventral putaminal dopaminergic activity. Our findings link the observation that novelty preference and sensation seeking are important traits predicting the initiation and maintenance of risky behaviours, including substance and behavioural addictions.

  15. Twenty-four hour activity budgets and patterns of behavior in captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis).

    PubMed

    Weller, S H.; Bennett, C L.

    2001-02-16

    Activity budgets of captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) were assessed from over 547h of observational data obtained from six ocelots; two females at the Dallas Zoo (Dallas, TX), two females at the Caldwell Zoo (Tyler, TX) and a male and female at the Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (Glen Rose, TX). Data were examined for the percentage of active behaviors exhibited during the day and nighttime hours; temporal patterns of active, pace, exploratory and marking behavior, and for significance in pacing behavior between pre- and post-feeding times. The captive cats had a bimodal pattern of active behavior similar to field studies of wild ocelots, except that the timing of the active peaks were closer to the diurnal hours for the captive cats. The captive ocelots were less active than wild ocelots, and more diurnal. Also, the captive cats exhibited stereotypic pacing. When the percentage of time of active behavior was assessed for each cat, a strong variation between individuals and institution was not seen. Pacing behavior was highest prior to the feeding times for the cats. In assessing patterns of behavior, peaks in marking and exploratory behavior in the cats did not occur at the same time as the peaks in active behavior. However, we did see institutional differences in the pattern of exploratory and marking behavior, which may have been influenced by differing management practices. PMID:11179560

  16. Disruption of exploratory and habituation behavior in mice with mutation of DISC1: an ethologically based analysis.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J; Desbonnet, L; Clarke, N; Waddington, J L; O'Tuathaigh, C M P

    2012-07-01

    Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) is a gene that has been functionally linked with neurodevelopmental processes and structural plasticity in the brain. Clinical genetic investigations have implicated DISC1 as a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia and related psychoses. Studies using mutant mouse models of DISC1 gene function have demonstrated schizophrenia-related anatomical and behavioral endophenotypes. In the present study, ethologically based assessment of exploratory and habituation behavior in the open field was conducted in DISC1 (L100P), wild-type (WT), heterozygous (HET), and homozygous (HOM) mutant mice of both sexes. Ethological assessment was conducted in an open-field environment to explore specific topographies of murine exploratory behavior across the extended course of interaction from initial exploration through subsequent habituation (the ethogram). During initial exploration, HET and HOM DISC1 mutants evidenced increased levels of locomotion and rearing to wall compared with WT. A HOM-specific increase in total rearing and a HET-specific increase in sifting behavior and reduction in rearing seated were also observed. Over subsequent habituation, locomotion, sniffing, total rearing, rearing to wall, rearing free, and rearing seated were increased in HET and HOM mutants vs. WT. Overall, grooming was increased in HOM relative to other genotypes. HET mice displayed a selective decrease in habituation of sifting behavior. These data demonstrate impairment in both initial exploratory and habituation of exploration in a novel environment in mice with mutation of DISC1. This is discussed in the context of the functional role of the gene vis à vis a schizophrenia phenotype as well as the value of ethologically based approaches to behavioral phenotyping.

  17. Transmission of Predictable Sensory Signals to the Cerebellum via Climbing Fiber Pathways Is Gated during Exploratory Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lawrenson, Charlotte L.; Watson, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Pathways arising from the periphery that target the inferior olive [spino-olivocerebellar pathways (SOCPs)] are a vital source of information to the cerebellum and are modulated (gated) during active movements. This limits their ability to forward signals to climbing fibers in the cerebellar cortex. We tested the hypothesis that the temporal pattern of gating is related to the predictability of a sensory signal. Low-intensity electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral hindlimb in awake rats evoked field potentials in the C1 zone in the copula pyramidis of the cerebellar cortex. Responses had an onset latency of 12.5 ± 0.3 ms and were either short or long duration (8.7 ± 0.1 vs 31.2 ± 0.3 ms, respectively). Both types of response were shown to be mainly climbing fiber in origin and therefore evoked by transmission in hindlimb SOCPs. Changes in response size (area of field, millivolts per millisecond) were used to monitor differences in transmission during rest and three phases of rearing: phase 1, rearing up; phase 2, upright; and phase 3, rearing down. Responses evoked during phase 2 were similar in size to rest but were smaller during phases 1 and 3, i.e., transmission was reduced during active movement when self-generated (predictable) sensory signals from the hindlimbs are likely to occur. To test whether the pattern of gating was related to the predictability of the sensory signal, some animals received the hindlimb stimulation only during phase 2. Over ∼10 d, the responses became progressively smaller in size, consistent with gating-out transmission of predictable sensory signals relayed via SOCPs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A major route for peripheral information to gain access to the cerebellum is via ascending climbing fiber pathways. During active movements, gating of transmission in these pathways controls when climbing fiber signals can modify cerebellar activity. We investigated this phenomenon in rats during their exploratory behavior of rearing

  18. A Quantitative Model of Motility Reveals Low-Dimensional Variation in Exploratory Behavior Across Multiple Nematode Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helms, Stephen; Avery, Leon; Stephens, Greg; Shimizu, Tom

    2014-03-01

    Animal behavior emerges from many layers of biological organization--from molecular signaling pathways and neuronal networks to mechanical outputs of muscles. In principle, the large number of interconnected variables at each of these layers could imply dynamics that are complex and hard to control or even tinker with. Yet, for organisms to survive in a competitive, ever-changing environment, behavior must readily adapt. We applied quantitative modeling to identify important aspects of behavior in chromadorean nematodes ranging from the lab strain C. elegans N2 to wild strains and distant species. We revealed subtle yet important features such as speed control and heavy-tailed directional changes. We found that the parameters describing this behavioral model varied among individuals and across species in a correlated way that is consistent with a trade-off between exploratory and exploitative behavior.

  19. Impact of Low-Dose Oral Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) on Juvenile and Adult Rat Exploratory and Anxiety Behavior: A CLARITY-BPA Consortium Study.

    PubMed

    Rebuli, Meghan E; Camacho, Luísa; Adonay, Maria E; Reif, David M; Aylor, David L; Patisaul, Heather B

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume production chemical and has been identified as an endocrine disruptor, prompting concern that developmental exposure could impact brain development and behavior. Rodent and human studies suggest that early life BPA exposure may result in an anxious, hyperactive phenotype but results are conflicting and data from studies using multiple doses below the no-observed-adverse-effect level are limited. To address this, the present studies were conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program. The impact of perinatal BPA exposure (2.5, 25, or 2500 µg/kg body weight (bw)/day) on behaviors related to anxiety and exploratory activity was assessed in juvenile (prepubertal) and adult NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes. Ethinyl estradiol (0.5 µg/kg bw/day) was used as a reference estrogen. Exposure spanned gestation and lactation with dams gavaged from gestational day 6 until birth and then the offspring gavaged directly through weaning (n = 12/sex/group). Behavioral assessments included open field, elevated plus maze, and zero maze. Anticipated sex differences in behavior were statistically identified or suggested in most cases. No consistent effects of BPA were observed for any endpoint, in either sex, at either age compared to vehicle controls; however, significant differences between BPA-exposed and ethinyl estradiol-exposed groups were identified for some endpoints. Limitations of this study are discussed and include suboptimal statistical power and low concordance across behavioral tasks. These data do not indicate BPA-related effects on anxiety or exploratory activity in these developmentally exposed rats.

  20. Impact of Low-Dose Oral Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) on Juvenile and Adult Rat Exploratory and Anxiety Behavior: A CLARITY-BPA Consortium Study.

    PubMed

    Rebuli, Meghan E; Camacho, Luísa; Adonay, Maria E; Reif, David M; Aylor, David L; Patisaul, Heather B

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume production chemical and has been identified as an endocrine disruptor, prompting concern that developmental exposure could impact brain development and behavior. Rodent and human studies suggest that early life BPA exposure may result in an anxious, hyperactive phenotype but results are conflicting and data from studies using multiple doses below the no-observed-adverse-effect level are limited. To address this, the present studies were conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program. The impact of perinatal BPA exposure (2.5, 25, or 2500 µg/kg body weight (bw)/day) on behaviors related to anxiety and exploratory activity was assessed in juvenile (prepubertal) and adult NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes. Ethinyl estradiol (0.5 µg/kg bw/day) was used as a reference estrogen. Exposure spanned gestation and lactation with dams gavaged from gestational day 6 until birth and then the offspring gavaged directly through weaning (n = 12/sex/group). Behavioral assessments included open field, elevated plus maze, and zero maze. Anticipated sex differences in behavior were statistically identified or suggested in most cases. No consistent effects of BPA were observed for any endpoint, in either sex, at either age compared to vehicle controls; however, significant differences between BPA-exposed and ethinyl estradiol-exposed groups were identified for some endpoints. Limitations of this study are discussed and include suboptimal statistical power and low concordance across behavioral tasks. These data do not indicate BPA-related effects on anxiety or exploratory activity in these developmentally exposed rats. PMID:26209558

  1. Subchronic treatment with phencyclidine in adolescence leads to impaired exploratory behavior in adult rats without altering social interaction or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor binding levels.

    PubMed

    Metaxas, A; Willems, R; Kooijman, E J M; Renjaän, V A; Klein, P J; Windhorst, A D; Donck, L Ver; Leysen, J E; Berckel, B N M van

    2014-11-01

    Although both the onset of schizophrenia and human phencyclidine (PCP) abuse typically present within the interval from adolescence to early adulthood, the majority of preclinical research employing the PCP model of schizophrenia has been conducted on neonatal or adult animals. The present study was designed to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical sequelae of subchronic exposure to PCP in adolescence. Male 35-42-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously administered either saline (10 ml · kg(-1) ) or PCP hydrochloride (10 mg · kg(-1) ) once daily for a period of 14 days (n = 6/group). The animals were allowed to withdraw from treatment for 2 weeks, and their social and exploratory behaviors were subsequently assessed in adulthood by using the social interaction test. To examine the effects of adolescent PCP administration on the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), quantitative autoradiography was performed on brain sections of adult, control and PCP-withdrawn rats by using 20 nM (3) H-MK-801. Prior subchronic exposure to PCP in adolescence had no enduring effects on the reciprocal contact and noncontact social behavior of adult rats. Spontaneous rearing in response to the novel testing arena and time spent investigating its walls and floor were reduced in PCP-withdrawn animals compared with control. The long-term behavioral effects of PCP occurred in the absence of persistent deficits in spontaneous locomotion or self-grooming activity and were not mediated by altered NMDAR density. Our results document differential effects of adolescent PCP administration on the social and exploratory behaviors of adult rats, suggesting that distinct neurobiological mechanisms are involved in mediating these behaviors. PMID:24953757

  2. The Role of Social Novelty in Risk Seeking and Exploratory Behavior: Implications for Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Simon; Gao, Jennifer; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Novelty preference or sensation seeking is associated with disorders of addiction and predicts rodent compulsive drug use and adolescent binge drinking in humans. Novelty has also been shown to influence choice in the context of uncertainty and reward processing. Here we introduce a novel or familiar neutral face stimuli and investigate its influence on risk-taking choices in healthy volunteers. We focus on behavioural outcomes and imaging correlates to the prime that might predict risk seeking. We hypothesized that subjects would be more risk seeking following a novel relative to familiar stimulus. We adapted a risk-taking task involving acceptance or rejection of a 50:50 choice of gain or loss that was preceded by a familiar (pre-test familiarization) or novel face prime. Neutral expression faces of males and females were used as primes. Twenty-four subjects were first tested behaviourally and then 18 scanned using a different variant of the same task under functional MRI. We show enhanced risk taking to both gain and loss anticipation following novel relative to familiar images and particularly for the low gain condition. Greater risk taking behaviour and self-reported exploratory behaviours was predicted by greater right ventral putaminal activity to novel versus familiar contexts. Social novelty appears to have a contextually enhancing effect on augmenting risky choices possibly mediated via ventral putaminal dopaminergic activity. Our findings link the observation that novelty preference and sensation seeking are important traits predicting the initiation and maintenance of risky behaviours, including substance and behavioural addictions. PMID:27427940

  3. The Role of Social Novelty in Risk Seeking and Exploratory Behavior: Implications for Addictions.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Simon; Gao, Jennifer; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Novelty preference or sensation seeking is associated with disorders of addiction and predicts rodent compulsive drug use and adolescent binge drinking in humans. Novelty has also been shown to influence choice in the context of uncertainty and reward processing. Here we introduce a novel or familiar neutral face stimuli and investigate its influence on risk-taking choices in healthy volunteers. We focus on behavioural outcomes and imaging correlates to the prime that might predict risk seeking. We hypothesized that subjects would be more risk seeking following a novel relative to familiar stimulus. We adapted a risk-taking task involving acceptance or rejection of a 50:50 choice of gain or loss that was preceded by a familiar (pre-test familiarization) or novel face prime. Neutral expression faces of males and females were used as primes. Twenty-four subjects were first tested behaviourally and then 18 scanned using a different variant of the same task under functional MRI. We show enhanced risk taking to both gain and loss anticipation following novel relative to familiar images and particularly for the low gain condition. Greater risk taking behaviour and self-reported exploratory behaviours was predicted by greater right ventral putaminal activity to novel versus familiar contexts. Social novelty appears to have a contextually enhancing effect on augmenting risky choices possibly mediated via ventral putaminal dopaminergic activity. Our findings link the observation that novelty preference and sensation seeking are important traits predicting the initiation and maintenance of risky behaviours, including substance and behavioural addictions. PMID:27427940

  4. Decreased exploratory activity in a mouse model of 15q duplication syndrome; implications for disturbance of serotonin signaling.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Kota; Tomonaga, Shozo; Hatanaka, Fumiyuki; Nakai, Nobuhiro; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Nakatani, Jin; Takumi, Toru

    2010-12-15

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have garnered significant attention as an important grouping of developmental brain disorders. Recent genomic studies have revealed that inherited or de novo copy number variations (CNVs) are significantly involved in the pathophysiology of ASDs. In a previous report from our laboratory, we generated mice with CNVs as a model of ASDs, with a duplicated mouse chromosome 7C that is orthologous to human chromosome 15q11-13. Behavioral analyses revealed paternally duplicated (patDp/+) mice displayed abnormal behaviors resembling the symptoms of ASDs. In the present study, we extended these findings by performing various behavioral tests with C57BL/6J patDp/+ mice, and comprehensively measuring brain monoamine levels with ex vivo high performance liquid chromatography. Compared with wild-type controls, patDp/+ mice exhibited decreased locomotor and exploratory activities in the open field test, Y-maze test, and fear-conditioning test. Furthermore, their decreased activity levels overcame increased appetite induced by 24 hours of food deprivation in the novelty suppressed feeding test. Serotonin levels in several brain regions of adult patDp/+ mice were lower than those of wild-type control, with no concurrent changes in brain levels of dopamine or norepinephrine. Moreover, analysis of monoamines in postnatal developmental stages demonstrated reduced brain levels of serotonin in young patDp/+ mice. These findings suggest that a disrupted brain serotonergic system, especially during postnatal development, may generate the phenotypes of patDp/+ mice.

  5. An exploratory study of mental health and HIV risk behavior among drug-using rural women in jail

    PubMed Central

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Harp, Kathi LH; Minieri, Alexandra; Oser, Carrie; Webster, J. Matthew; Havens, Jennifer; Leukefeld, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Objective Rural women, particularly those involved in the criminal justice system, are at risk for HIV due to the increasing prevalence of injection drug use, as well as limited services. Research on HIV risk correlates, including drug use and mental health, has primarily focused on urban women incarcerated in prisons. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine dual HIV risk behavior by three different mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and PTSD) among drug-using women in rural jails. Methods This study involved random selection, screening, and face-to-face interviews with 136 women from rural jails in one Appalachian state. Analyses focused on the relationship between mental health and HIV risk among this sample of drug-using women. Findings Nearly 80% of women self-reported symptoms of depression, and more than 60% endorsed symptoms consistent with anxiety and PTSD symptoms. Mental health was significantly correlated with severity of certain types of drug use, as well as risky sexual activity. In addition, for women experiencing anxiety and PTSD, injection drug use moderated the relationship between mental health and risky sexual activity. Implications Based on these rates of drug use, mental health problems, and the emergence of injection drug use in rural Appalachia, the need to explore the relationships between these issues among vulnerable and understudied populations, such as rural women, is critical. Due to service limitations in rural communities, criminal justice venues such as jails provide opportune settings for screening, assessment, and intervention for drug use, mental health, and HIV education and prevention. PMID:25799305

  6. Effects of post-weaning social isolation and environment al enrichment on exploratory behavior and ankiety in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tanaś, Łukasz; Ostaszewski, Paweł; Iwan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Adverse early experience is generally regarded as a risk factor for both externalizing and internalizing behavioral disorders in humans. It can be modeled in rats by a post-weaning social isolation procedure. Effects of social isolation might possibly be ameliorated by environmental enrichment. In the current study, 24 male Wistar rats were divided post-weaning into four rearing conditions: control, environmental enrichment (EE), social isolation (SI) and a combination of the two experimental conditions; (EE+SI). Two observations of the effects of rearing conditions on the rate of social and object interactions were conducted during the juvenile and post-pubertal stages of development. The SI condition led to a marked increase of social interactions during the juvenile phase, but did not affect object interactions. The EE condition increased the level of social interactions during both the juvenile and post-pubertal measurements. The effects of early rearing conditions on adult exploratory behavior were less clear, with a significant difference between the groups obtained in one of three behavioral tests. Results suggest a general robustness in the development of adult exploratory behavior and anxiety when rats were exposed to early social isolation and provided brief opportunities for social play during the juvenile period. Further studies, aimed at distinguishing play-related protective factors serving against long-term adverse effects of juvenile social isolation, are suggested.

  7. Medial hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptors regulate neuroendocrine responses to stress and exploratory locomotor activity: application of recombinant adenovirus containing 5-HT1A sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Holmes, Andrew; Ma, Li; Van de Kar, Louis D; Garcia, Francisca; Murphy, Dennis L

    2004-12-01

    Our previous studies found that serotonin transporter (SERT) knock-out mice showed increased sensitivity to minor stress and increased anxiety-like behavior but reduced locomotor activity. These mice also showed decreased density of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1A) receptors in the hypothalamus, amygdala, and dorsal raphe. To evaluate the contribution of hypothalamic 5-HT1A receptors to these phenotypes of SERT knock-out mice, two studies were conducted. Recombinant adenoviruses containing 5-HT1A sense and antisense sequences (Ad-1AP-sense and Ad-1AP-antisense) were used to manipulate 5-HT1A receptors in the hypothalamus. The expression of the 5-HT1A genes is controlled by the 5-HT1A promoter, so that they are only expressed in 5-HT1A receptor-containing cells. (1) Injection of Ad-1AP-sense into the hypothalamus of SERT knock-out mice restored 5-HT1A receptors in the medial hypothalamus; this effect was accompanied by elimination of the exaggerated adrenocorticotropin responses to a saline injection (minor stress) and reduced locomotor activity but not by a change in increased exploratory anxiety-like behavior. (2) To further confirm the observation in SERT-/- mice, Ad-1AP-antisense was injected into the hypothalamus of normal mice. The density and the function of 5-HT1A receptors in the medial hypothalamus were significantly reduced in Ad-1AP-antisense-treated mice. Compared with the control group (injected with Ad-track), Ad-1A-antisense-treated mice showed a significant reduction in locomotor activity, but again no changes in exploratory anxiety-like behaviors, tested by elevated plus-maze and open-field tests. Thus, the present results demonstrate that medial hypothalamic 5-HT1A receptors regulate stress responses and locomotor activity but may not regulate exploratory anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:15574737

  8. Increased exploratory activity of APP23 mice in a novel environment is reversed by siRNA.

    PubMed

    Senechal, Yann; Prut, Laetitia; Kelly, Peter H; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Natt, Francois; Hoyer, Daniel; Wiessner, Christoph; Dev, Kumlesh K

    2008-12-01

    Genetic abnormalities in amyloid precursor protein (APP) are associated with Down's syndrome and familial Alzheimer's disease where hallmark plaques contain A beta peptides derived from APP. Both APP and its derivatives are implicated in neurodegenerative processes and may play important physiological and pathophysiological roles in synaptic function. Here, we show that young APP23 transgenic mice overexpressing human APP with the Swedish double mutation display altered novelty seeking behavior before the age of plaque onset. Using short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted against APP, we investigate the direct contribution of APP and its derivatives to this behavioral deficit. After validating siRNAs targeting human APP in vitro, siRNAs were infused directly into the brain of APP23 mice for 2 weeks. Behavioral analysis shows that infusion of siRNA targeted against APP completely reverses increased exploratory activity in APP23 mice. Collectively, these data suggest that excessive APP and/or its derivatives, causes a hyperactive phenotype in APP23 mice when placed in a novel environment, which is fully reversible and not linked to plaque deposits.

  9. The use and utility of specific nonpharmacological interventions for behavioral symptoms in dementia: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S.; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Thein, Khin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study compares different non-pharmacological interventions for persons with behavioral symptoms and dementia on frequency of use and perceived efficacy in terms of change in behavior and interest. METHODS Participants were 89 nursing home residents from 6 Maryland nursing homes with a mean age of 85.9 years (SD=8.6). Research assistants presented interventions tailored to the participants` needs and preferences in a pre-intervention trial phase and in an intervention phase. The impact of each intervention on behavioral symptoms and on the person’s interest was rated immediately after the intervention by a research assistant. RESULTS The most utilized interventions in both trial and treatment phases were the social intervention of one-on-one interaction, simulated social interventions such as a lifelike doll and respite video, the theme intervention of magazine, and the sensory stimulation intervention of music. In contrast, the least utilized interventions in both phases were sewing, fabric book, and flower arrangement. Interventions with the highest impact on behavioral symptoms included one-on one social interaction, hand massage, music, video, care, and folding towels. Other high impact interventions included walking, going outside, flower arranging, food or drink, sewing, group activity, book presentation ball toss, coloring or painting, walking, and family video. CONCLUSIONS The results provide initial directions for choosing specific interventions for persons with dementia and also demonstrate a methodology for increasing knowledge through ongoing monitoring of practice. PMID:25081819

  10. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment Versus Traditional Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Public Speaking Anxiety: An Exploratory Trial Examining Differential Effects on Performance and Neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Lisa H; Forman, Evan M; Herbert, James D; Bradley, Lauren E; Foster, Elizabeth E; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for PSA emphasize anxiety reduction rather than enhancing behavioral performance. We compared the efficacy of two brief cognitive-behavioral interventions, a traditional cognitive-behavior treatment (tCBT) and an acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABBT), on public speaking performance and anxiety in a clinical sample of persons with PSA. The effects of treatment on prefrontal brain activation were also examined. Participants (n = 21) were randomized to 90 min of an ABBT or a tCBT intervention. Assessments took place at pre- and post-treatment and included self-rated anxiety and observer-rated performance measures, a behavioral assessment, and prefrontal cortical activity measurements using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Exploratory results indicated that participants in the ABBT condition experienced greater improvements in observer-rated performance relative to those in the tCBT condition, while those in the tCBT condition experienced greater reductions in subjective anxiety levels. Individuals in the ABBT condition also exhibited a trend toward greater treatment-related reductions in blood volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to those who received tCBT. Overall, these findings preliminarily suggest that acceptance-based treatments may free more cognitive resources in comparison with tCBT, possibly resulting in greater improvements in objectively rated behavioral performances for ABBT interventions. PMID:26872958

  11. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment Versus Traditional Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Public Speaking Anxiety: An Exploratory Trial Examining Differential Effects on Performance and Neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Lisa H; Forman, Evan M; Herbert, James D; Bradley, Lauren E; Foster, Elizabeth E; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for PSA emphasize anxiety reduction rather than enhancing behavioral performance. We compared the efficacy of two brief cognitive-behavioral interventions, a traditional cognitive-behavior treatment (tCBT) and an acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABBT), on public speaking performance and anxiety in a clinical sample of persons with PSA. The effects of treatment on prefrontal brain activation were also examined. Participants (n = 21) were randomized to 90 min of an ABBT or a tCBT intervention. Assessments took place at pre- and post-treatment and included self-rated anxiety and observer-rated performance measures, a behavioral assessment, and prefrontal cortical activity measurements using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Exploratory results indicated that participants in the ABBT condition experienced greater improvements in observer-rated performance relative to those in the tCBT condition, while those in the tCBT condition experienced greater reductions in subjective anxiety levels. Individuals in the ABBT condition also exhibited a trend toward greater treatment-related reductions in blood volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to those who received tCBT. Overall, these findings preliminarily suggest that acceptance-based treatments may free more cognitive resources in comparison with tCBT, possibly resulting in greater improvements in objectively rated behavioral performances for ABBT interventions.

  12. Emergent behavior in active colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zöttl, Andreas; Stark, Holger

    2016-06-01

    Active colloids are microscopic particles, which self-propel through viscous fluids by converting energy extracted from their environment into directed motion. We first explain how artificial microswimmers move forward by generating near-surface flow fields via self-phoresis or the self-induced Marangoni effect. We then discuss generic features of the dynamics of single active colloids in bulk and in confinement, as well as in the presence of gravity, field gradients, and fluid flow. In the third section, we review the emergent collective behavior of active colloidal suspensions, focusing on their structural and dynamic properties. After summarizing experimental observations, we give an overview of the progress in modeling collectively moving active colloids. While active Brownian particles are heavily used to study collective dynamics on large scales, more advanced methods are necessary to explore the importance of hydrodynamic and phoretic particle interactions. Finally, the relevant physical approaches to quantify the emergent collective behavior are presented.

  13. An Exploratory Evaluation of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation to Promote Collaboration among Family, School, and Pediatric Systems: A Role for Pediatric School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Susan M.; Warnes, Emily D.; Woods, Kathryn E.; Blevins, Carrie A.; Magee, Katie L.; Ellis, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric school psychology is a relatively new subspecialty in the field; however, few specific, prescribed roles have been articulated, and fewer have yielded preliminary efficacy data. In this exploratory study, the acceptability and potential efficacy of conjoint behavioral consultation (CBC) as a model for linking families, schools, and…

  14. Exploratory qualitative case study of lab-type activity interactions in an online graduate geoscience course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciavarella, Veronica C.

    This exploratory qualitative case study investigated the use of lab-type activities in an online graduate geoscience course. Constructivism is the theoretical framework used to explain how learning happens in lab-type activity, and provided the goals to which successful learning in lab-type activity is compared. This study focused on the learner-instructor, learner-learner, and perceptions of the learner-content interactions that occurred related to lab-type activities in an online graduate geoscience course to determine: if the instructor appeared as a facilitator of the learning process in the interactions over the activities; if students engaged in discussion and reflection about the activities; if students perceived the activities as meaningful and authentic; and if students perceived using higher order thinking and prior knowledge while interacting with the content. Ten graduate students from three offerings of the course participated in this study, as well as the instructor and designer of the course content and lab-type activities. Data were collected through interviews, and observation and analysis of the lab-type activities, instructor feedback to students in their graded activities, and discussion that occurred between the instructor and students and among students about the lab-type activities in discussion forums. The nature of the instructor's interactions in discussion forums, in feedback to students on graded activities, and reported by students' in interviews supported that, in the learner-instructor interactions, the instructor of this course was a facilitator who guided and scaffolded the students towards successfully completing the activities. Students engaged in discussion and reflected on the activities, but most learner-learner interactions in discussion forums about the lab-type activities appeared to occur for the purpose of comparison of results, support, and empathy. Students' success at higher order thinking type questions in lab

  15. An exploratory evaluation of Take Control: A novel computer-delivered behavioral platform for placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy trials for alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Devine, Eric G; Ryan, Megan L; Falk, Daniel E; Fertig, Joanne B; Litten, Raye Z

    2016-09-01

    Placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy trials for alcohol use disorder (AUD) require an active behavioral platform to avoid putting participants at risk for untreated AUD and to better assess the effectiveness of the medication. Therapist-delivered platforms (TDP) can be costly and present a risk to study design because of the variability in therapist fidelity. Take Control is a novel computer-delivered behavioral platform developed for use in pharmacotherapy trials sponsored by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Clinical Investigations Group (NCIG). This behavioral platform was developed with the goal of reducing trial implementation costs and limiting potential bias introduced by therapists providing TDP. This exploratory study is the first to compare Take Control with TDP on measures related to placebo response rate, medication adherence, and participant retention. Data were drawn from the placebo arms of four multisite, double-blind, randomized controlled trials (RCT) for AUD conducted by NCIG from 2007 to 2015. Data were compared from subjects receiving TDP (n=156) in two RCTs and Take Control (n=155) in another two RCTs. Placebo response rate, as represented by weekly percentage of heavy drinking days, was similar between groups. Subjects who received Take Control had a higher rate of medication adherence than those who received TDP. Subject retention was not significantly different between groups. The findings suggest that Take Control is comparable to TDP on measures of retention, medication adherence, and placebo response. Additional research is needed to evaluate Take Control directly against TDPs in a randomized trial. PMID:27521807

  16. Prevalence of Health Behaviors among a University Staff: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad; Thiagarajah, Krisha; Jeng, Ifeng

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of health behaviors among non-academic staff at a Midwestern U.S. university. A sample of 627 women and 237 men completed a web survey for the study. Most of the health behaviors showed no sex difference. Health behaviors of drinking, smoking, and irregular breakfast eating were significantly associated with…

  17. Exploratory Analyses of the Effects of Managerial Support and Feedback Consequences on Behavioral Safety Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, M. Dominic

    2006-01-01

    Reviews indicate management commitment is vital to maintain behavioral safety processes. Similarly, the impact of observation frequency on safety behaviors is thought to be important. An employee-driven process which encompassed behavioral observations, goal-setting, and feedback was implemented in a paper mill with 55 workgroups using a…

  18. Social and behavioral research in genomic sequencing: approaches from the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium Outcomes and Measures Working Group.

    PubMed

    Gray, Stacy W; Martins, Yolanda; Feuerman, Lindsay Z; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Barbara B; Christensen, Kurt D; Joffe, Steven; Rini, Christine; Veenstra, David; McGuire, Amy L

    2014-10-01

    The routine use of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine has the potential to dramatically alter patient care and medical outcomes. To fully understand the psychosocial and behavioral impact of sequencing integration into clinical practice, it is imperative that we identify the factors that influence sequencing-related decision making and patient outcomes. In an effort to develop a collaborative and conceptually grounded approach to studying sequencing adoption, members of the National Human Genome Research Institute's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium formed the Outcomes and Measures Working Group. Here we highlight the priority areas of investigation and psychosocial and behavioral outcomes identified by the Working Group. We also review some of the anticipated challenges to measurement in social and behavioral research related to genomic sequencing; opportunities for instrument development; and the importance of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method approaches. This work represents the early, shared efforts of multiple research teams as we strive to understand individuals' experiences with genomic sequencing. The resulting body of knowledge will guide recommendations for the optimal use of sequencing in clinical practice.

  19. The use of deployable telehealth centers by military beneficiaries to access behavioral healthcare: an exploratory evaluation in American Samoa.

    PubMed

    Mishkind, Matthew C; Martin, Suzanne; Husky, George; Miyahira, Sarah D; Gahm, Gregory A

    2012-12-01

    Some U.S. Military Health System (MHS) beneficiaries face unique challenges accessing available behavioral healthcare because of the nature of their occupations, deployments to and permanent duty stations in isolated geographies, and discontinuity of services. The use of deployable telehealth centers such as modified shipping containers offers promise as an innovative solution to increase access to behavioral healthcare in remote and otherwise austere environments. The first telehealth modified 20-foot shipping container, known as a relocatable telehealth center (RTeC), was deployed to increase access to care for MHS beneficiaries on American Samoa. The goal of this study was to conduct an exploratory evaluation of patient satisfaction with and usability perceptions of this solution as a place to receive behavioral healthcare services. Twenty-eight beneficiaries participated in this evaluation. Results suggest that the RTeC is safe and private and ultimately an appropriate telebehavioral-originating site. These data provide insight into usability considerations and inform future research and deployable telehealth center development. Additionally, a brief discussion about potential cost offset is provided as cost efficiencies impact RTeC viability. PMID:23078182

  20. The use of deployable telehealth centers by military beneficiaries to access behavioral healthcare: an exploratory evaluation in American Samoa.

    PubMed

    Mishkind, Matthew C; Martin, Suzanne; Husky, George; Miyahira, Sarah D; Gahm, Gregory A

    2012-12-01

    Some U.S. Military Health System (MHS) beneficiaries face unique challenges accessing available behavioral healthcare because of the nature of their occupations, deployments to and permanent duty stations in isolated geographies, and discontinuity of services. The use of deployable telehealth centers such as modified shipping containers offers promise as an innovative solution to increase access to behavioral healthcare in remote and otherwise austere environments. The first telehealth modified 20-foot shipping container, known as a relocatable telehealth center (RTeC), was deployed to increase access to care for MHS beneficiaries on American Samoa. The goal of this study was to conduct an exploratory evaluation of patient satisfaction with and usability perceptions of this solution as a place to receive behavioral healthcare services. Twenty-eight beneficiaries participated in this evaluation. Results suggest that the RTeC is safe and private and ultimately an appropriate telebehavioral-originating site. These data provide insight into usability considerations and inform future research and deployable telehealth center development. Additionally, a brief discussion about potential cost offset is provided as cost efficiencies impact RTeC viability.

  1. Physical activity of Aboriginals with type 2 diabetes: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Stephanie; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Raine, Kim; Courneya, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    Given the magnitude of the diabetes epidemic among Canadian Aboriginals and the corresponding need to develop physical activity interventions, the aims of this study were to: 1) examine the meaning of physical activity; 2) assess physical activity behavior levels; and 3) examine the association of key Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs with physical activity behavior. Thirty-four Aboriginals with diabetes completed a survey composed of questions regarding: 1) the perceived meaning of physical activity; 2) physical activity behavior; and 3) SCT constructs. An emerging theme revealed that some participants perceived physical activity leisure-time activities as appropriate across the lifespan, while the majority perceived leisure-time activities to be only for youth. Based on the reported energy expenditure estimates, 61.5% of participants were categorized as sedentary. However, when occupational and household activities were taken into account, 33.0% were categorized as sedentary. Bivariate correlations revealed that no SCT constructs were significantly associated with energy expenditure scores. Results suggest that specific SCT construct items may help understand physical activity behavior change.

  2. Exploratory of society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.

    2012-11-01

    A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.

  3. Subchronic memantine administration on spatial learning, exploratory activity, and nest-building in an APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Filali, Mohammed; Lalonde, Robert; Rivest, Serge

    2011-05-01

    Glutamate neurotoxicity has been proposed to be involved in Alzheimer pathogenesis, with clinical data supporting successful treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine. In the present study, the effects of subchronic memantine administration were assessed on spatial and non-spatial learning as well as exploratory activity and nest-building in APP/PS1 mutant mice. Memantine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was better than placebo during the reversal phase of left-right discrimination, though equivalent to saline for Morris water maze and passive avoidance learning. The drug had no effect on non-learned behaviors in elevated plus-maze exploration and nest-building. These results support a specific action of the NMDA receptor antagonist on behavioral flexibility in mutant mice with amyloid pathology.

  4. Exploratory Studies in Generalized Predictive Control for Active Aeroelastic Control of Tiltrotor Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Bennett, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aeroelasticity Branch at NASA Langley Research Center has a long and substantive history of tiltrotor aeroelastic research. That research has included a broad range of experimental investigations in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) using a variety of scale models and the development of essential analyses. Since 1994, the tiltrotor research program has been using a 1/5-scale, semispan aeroelastic model of the V-22 designed and built by Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. (BHTI) in 1981. That model has been refurbished to form a tiltrotor research testbed called the Wing and Rotor Aeroelastic Test System (WRATS) for use in the TDT. In collaboration with BHTI, studies under the current tiltrotor research program are focused on aeroelastic technology areas having the potential for enhancing the commercial and military viability of tiltrotor aircraft. Among the areas being addressed, considerable emphasis is being directed to the evaluation of modern adaptive multi-input multi- output (MIMO) control techniques for active stability augmentation and vibration control of tiltrotor aircraft. As part of this investigation, a predictive control technique known as Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) is being studied to assess its potential for actively controlling the swashplate of tiltrotor aircraft to enhance aeroelastic stability in both helicopter and airplane modes of flight. This paper summarizes the exploratory numerical and experimental studies that were conducted as part of that investigation.

  5. Young Children's Haptic Exploratory Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalagher, Hilary; Jones, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Adults vary their haptic exploratory behavior reliably with variation both in the sensory input and in the task goals. Little is known about the development of these connections between perceptual goals and exploratory behaviors. A total of 36 children ages 3, 4, and 5 years and 20 adults completed a haptic intramodal match-to-sample task.…

  6. Relationship Between L-DOPA-Induced Reduction in Motor and Exploratory Activity and Striatal Dopamine D2 Receptor Binding in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaus, Susanne; Beu, Markus; de Souza Silva, Maria A.; Huston, Joseph P.; Hautzel, Hubertus; Mattern, Claudia; Antke, Christina; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study assessed the influence of L-DOPA administration on neostriatal dopamine (DA) D2 receptor binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors in the rat. Methods: D2 receptor binding was measured in baseline, after challenge with the aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor benserazide, and after challenge with either 5 or 10 mg/kg L-DOPA plus benserazide. Additional rats received injections of saline. For baseline and challenges, striatal equilibrium ratios (V3″) were computed as estimation of the binding potential. Motor and exploratory behaviors were assessed for 30 min in an open field prior to administration of [123I]IBZM. D2 receptor binding was measured with small animal SPECT 2 h after radioligand administration for 60 min. Results: Both L-DOPA doses significantly reduced D2 receptor binding relative to baseline and led to significantly less ambulation, less head-shoulder motility, and more sitting relative to saline. Moreover, 10 mg/kg L-DOPA induced less head-shoulder motility, more sitting, and more grooming than 5 mg/kg L-DOPA. Analysis of time-behavior curves showed that L-DOPA-treated animals relative to saline exhibited a faster rate of decrease of ambulation frequency and a slower rate of decrease of both duration and frequency of head-shoulder motility from a lower maximum level. Conclusions: The reductions of striatal D2 receptor binding after L-DOPA may be conceived to reflect elevated concentrations of synaptic DA. L-DOPA-treated animals showed less ambulation and less head-shoulder motility than saline-treated animals, indicating an association between less behavioral activity and increased availability of striatal DA. The faster rate of decrease of ambulation frequency and the lower maximum levels of both head-shoulder motility duration and frequency may be interpreted in terms of influence of increased DA availability on behavioral habituation to a novel environment. PMID:26778989

  7. Defining Irresponsible Drinking Behaviors: An Exploratory Study Using the Viewpoint of Five Diverse Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Patricia C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Assessed viewpoints of 63 university students, 58 law enforcement officers, 48 bartenders, 26 beer distributor employees, and 46 health educators regarding level of irresponsibility perceived to be associated with specific alcohol-related behaviors. Subjects agreed that drinking behavior resulting in physical injury, legal trouble, or failure to…

  8. An Exploratory Look at the Relationships among Math Skills, Motivational Factors and Activity Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, Kellah M.; Potter, Ellen F.

    2013-01-01

    This study of a preschool classroom of 4 year old children examines underlying skills of number sense such as counting and spatial skills and Spontaneous Focusing on Numerosity. It also investigates children's patterns of engaging in spontaneous mathematical activities in free-play activity centers in relation to behaviors associated with…

  9. Skin Protection Behaviors among Young Male Latino Day Laborers: An Exploratory Study Using a Social Cognitive Approach

    PubMed Central

    Boyas, Javier F.; Brodell, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Latino Day Laborers (LDLs) are employed in occupations where multiple work hazards exist. One such hazard is the overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation for continuous periods of time. Regular sun exposure can put individuals at increased risk of developing skin cancers, especially without adequate protection. The purpose of this cross-sectional exploratory study was to use a social cognitive framework to assess skin protective behaviors among LDLs. A community-based nonrandom and purposive sample of LDLs was recruited in two states: Mississippi and Illinois. The study sample consisted of 137 male participants, of which the majority were of Mexican ancestry (72%). The average age was 35.40 (SD = 9.89) years. Results demonstrated that a substantial number of LDLs do not adequately practice sun protection behaviors on a regular basis. The skin cancer knowledge scores were very modest. The most frequently indicated barriers towards sun protection were “inconvenient,” “forget to use,” and “not being able to reapply sunscreen.” Overall, LDLs had moderate confidence in their abilities to adopt successful sun protection strategies. This study underscores the need for intervention programs aimed at LDLs to reduce extended time in the sun and increase use of sun protective measures when working outdoors. PMID:27019656

  10. Skin Protection Behaviors among Young Male Latino Day Laborers: An Exploratory Study Using a Social Cognitive Approach.

    PubMed

    Boyas, Javier F; Nahar, Vinayak K; Brodell, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    Latino Day Laborers (LDLs) are employed in occupations where multiple work hazards exist. One such hazard is the overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation for continuous periods of time. Regular sun exposure can put individuals at increased risk of developing skin cancers, especially without adequate protection. The purpose of this cross-sectional exploratory study was to use a social cognitive framework to assess skin protective behaviors among LDLs. A community-based nonrandom and purposive sample of LDLs was recruited in two states: Mississippi and Illinois. The study sample consisted of 137 male participants, of which the majority were of Mexican ancestry (72%). The average age was 35.40 (SD = 9.89) years. Results demonstrated that a substantial number of LDLs do not adequately practice sun protection behaviors on a regular basis. The skin cancer knowledge scores were very modest. The most frequently indicated barriers towards sun protection were "inconvenient," "forget to use," and "not being able to reapply sunscreen." Overall, LDLs had moderate confidence in their abilities to adopt successful sun protection strategies. This study underscores the need for intervention programs aimed at LDLs to reduce extended time in the sun and increase use of sun protective measures when working outdoors. PMID:27019656

  11. [Social environment and risky eating behaviors: an exploratory study in adolescent females in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Saucedo-Molina, Teresita de Jesús; Juárez-García, Francisco; Unikel-Santoncini, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to explore: (1) the association between the social environment at the city and family levels and risky eating behaviors in adolescent females and (2) the interaction between the social and cultural environment and body mass index (BMI). The data were obtained from a representative survey of female high school students in Mexico State, Mexico (15-19 years). A questionnaire was applied on risky eating behaviors and socio-demographic data. The municipal social and cultural environment was evaluated using the municipal marginalization index. Data analysis used multivariate regression. Prevalence of risky eating behaviors was 4.23%. BMI and family socioeconomic status were directly associated with risky eating behaviors. The municipal marginalization index was not associated with risky eating behaviors. Possible explanations for the latter are that the relevant components of the social and cultural environment were not measured, or that the municipal level does not exert a contextual effect on risky eating behaviors. The effect of BMI on risky eating behaviors was greater in more marginalized municipalities. PMID:23370022

  12. Haptic exploratory behavior during object discrimination: a novel automatic annotation method.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Sander E M; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2015-01-01

    In order to acquire information concerning the geometry and material of handheld objects, people tend to execute stereotypical hand movement patterns called haptic Exploratory Procedures (EPs). Manual annotation of haptic exploration trials with these EPs is a laborious task that is affected by subjectivity, attentional lapses, and viewing angle limitations. In this paper we propose an automatic EP annotation method based on position and orientation data from motion tracking sensors placed on both hands and inside a stimulus. A set of kinematic variables is computed from these data and compared to sets of predefined criteria for each of four EPs. Whenever all criteria for a specific EP are met, it is assumed that that particular hand movement pattern was performed. This method is applied to data from an experiment where blindfolded participants haptically discriminated between objects differing in hardness, roughness, volume, and weight. In order to validate the method, its output is compared to manual annotation based on video recordings of the same trials. Although mean pairwise agreement is less between human-automatic pairs than between human-human pairs (55.7% vs 74.5%), the proposed method performs much better than random annotation (2.4%). Furthermore, each EP is linked to a specific object property for which it is optimal (e.g., Lateral Motion for roughness). We found that the percentage of trials where the expected EP was found does not differ between manual and automatic annotation. For now, this method cannot yet completely replace a manual annotation procedure. However, it could be used as a starting point that can be supplemented by manual annotation.

  13. The Role of Racial Socialization in Relation to Parenting Practices and Youth Behavior: An Exploratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, James; McKay, Mary M.; Bannon, William M.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Racial socialization is receiving research attention because of growing evidence that it can be a protective developmental process in African American families. The present study was an exploration of the relationship of parental mental health, discipline effectiveness, monitoring and racial socialization strategies on child externalizing behaviors in a sample of 140 African American parent/caregivers. Findings indicated that certain types of racial socialization–particularly, spirituality and religious coping–in conjunction with discipline effectiveness was related to child behavior problems. Specifically, among parents who felt they used more effective discipline strategies, moderate to high rates of spiritual and religious coping were associated with a reduction of child behavior problems. These findings support the hypothesis that racial socialization is an important aspect of parenting in African American families that can be associated with the effective management of children’s behavior. Implications for parenting interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:19809535

  14. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes increase anxiety levels in rats and reduce exploratory activity in the open field test.

    PubMed

    Sayapina, N V; Batalova, T A; Chaika, V V; Kuznetsov, V L; Sergievich, A A; Kolosov, V P; Perel'man, Yu M; Golokhvast, K S

    2015-01-01

    The results of the first study on the effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the exploratory activity and the emotional state in laboratory rats assessed by the open field test are reported. During three or ten days, rats received 8-10 nm MWNTs added to their food at a dose of 500 mg/kg. It was demonstrated that, in the group of rats which were fed with MWNTs, the integrated anxiety level index began to increase as early as the third day of the experiment; on the tenth day, it appeared to be twice increased. It was also demonstrated that MWNTs decreased the integrated exploratory activity index nearly twofold on the third day and nearly fourfold on the tenth day.

  15. An Exploratory Investigation of the Counseling Competencies Scale: A Measure of Counseling Skills, Dispositions, and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Witta, E. Lea

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of the Counseling Competencies Scale (CCS; University of Central Florida Counselor Education Faculty, 2009), an instrument designed to assess trainee competencies as measured in their counseling skills, dispositions, and behaviors. There was strong internal consistency for the 4-factor model for…

  16. Impetus for Worship: An Exploratory Study of Adolescents' Idol Adoration Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ying-Ching; Lin, Chien-Hsin

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore the idolization behaviors of Taiwanese adolescents. The study gathered 1,636 questionnaires from 13 senior high schools across northern, central, southern, and eastern Taiwan. The results indicate that adolescents' gender correlates with the idol type they choose to adore when the idol is male. This…

  17. An exploratory study of nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors in adolescent Latinas.

    PubMed

    Gulbas, Lauren E; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M; Tyler, Tee R; Zayas, Luis H

    2015-07-01

    To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal behaviors and NSSIs. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice.

  18. Behavioral Health Providers and Electronic Health Records: An Exploratory Beliefs Elicitation and Segmentation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is a public policy strategy to improve healthcare quality and reduce accelerating health care costs. Much research has focused on medical providers' perceptions of EHRs, but little is known about those of behavioral health providers. This research was informed by the theory of reasoned…

  19. The Relationship between Principal Leadership Skills and School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Mary Miller; Lewis, Timothy J.; Hagar, John

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated key principal leadership skills associated with socially proactive school environments and examined the relationship between School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) implementation and increased evidence of those skills. Findings indicated the following: (a) certified staff members and principals from all schools rated…

  20. Student and Instructor Behaviors in Online Music Lessons: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document behaviors of applied music teachers and students, as they occurred in online lessons with instructional delivery facilitated through desktop videoconferencing. The author examined the use of desktop videoconferencing in the delivery of applied music instruction to six middle school-aged band students…

  1. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    SciTech Connect

    C.J. Byrne

    2001-02-20

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the individual

  2. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    SciTech Connect

    S. Goodin

    2002-07-22

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the individual

  3. Eating Behaviors in Cuban Adults: Results from an Exploratory Transcultural Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martín, Boris C.; Innamorati, Marco; Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Harnic, Désirée; Janiri, Luigi; Rivas-Suárez, Saira R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate eating behaviors in Cuban adults and compare them with those of a developed Western country, Italy. The study also aimed to determine the overall accuracy of a predictive model intended to define variables which could be used to discriminate between nationalities. Participants were 283 normal weight individuals from Cuba (n = 158) and Italy (n = 125). Italians had higher scores for restrained eating on the questionnaire than Cubans with a considerable effect size. This trend was also found for emotional eating and binge eating, as well as number of current dieters, despite the fact that effect sizes were small. On the other hand, Cubans, when compared to Italians reported higher scores for food thought suppression with reward responsiveness and restrained eating emerging as significant predictors of between-country differences. To conclude, eating behaviors in Cubans could be different from those reported in European countries, perhaps as a consequence of Cuba’s recent history. PMID:27725806

  4. An exploratory study of nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors in adolescent Latinas.

    PubMed

    Gulbas, Lauren E; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M; Tyler, Tee R; Zayas, Luis H

    2015-07-01

    To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal behaviors and NSSIs. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. PMID:26052816

  5. An Exploratory Study of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescent Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M.; Tyler, Tee R.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced these intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. PMID:26052816

  6. Anxiolytic effects of fluoxetine and nicotine exposure on exploratory behavior in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rhinehart, Zachariah

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a popular model for studying the pharmacology and behavior of anxiety. While there have been numerous studies documenting the anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of common drugs in zebrafish, many do not report or test for behavioral differences between the sexes. Previous studies have indicated that males and females differ in their baseline level of anxiety. In this study, we test for a sex interaction with fluoxetine and nicotine. We exposed fish to system water (control), 10 mg/L fluoxetine, or 1 mg/L nicotine for three minutes prior to being subjected to four minutes in an open-field drop test. Video recordings were tracked using ProAnalyst. Fish from both drug treatments reduced swimming speed, increased vertical position, and increased use of the top half of the open field when compared with the control, though fluoxetine had a larger effect on depth related behaviors while nicotine mostly affected swimming speed. A significant sex effect was observed where females swam at a slower and more constant speed than males, however neither drug produced a sex-dependent response.

  7. Anxiolytic effects of fluoxetine and nicotine exposure on exploratory behavior in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Singer, Matthew L; Oreschak, Kris; Rhinehart, Zachariah; Robison, Barrie D

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a popular model for studying the pharmacology and behavior of anxiety. While there have been numerous studies documenting the anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of common drugs in zebrafish, many do not report or test for behavioral differences between the sexes. Previous studies have indicated that males and females differ in their baseline level of anxiety. In this study, we test for a sex interaction with fluoxetine and nicotine. We exposed fish to system water (control), 10 mg/L fluoxetine, or 1 mg/L nicotine for three minutes prior to being subjected to four minutes in an open-field drop test. Video recordings were tracked using ProAnalyst. Fish from both drug treatments reduced swimming speed, increased vertical position, and increased use of the top half of the open field when compared with the control, though fluoxetine had a larger effect on depth related behaviors while nicotine mostly affected swimming speed. A significant sex effect was observed where females swam at a slower and more constant speed than males, however neither drug produced a sex-dependent response. PMID:27635325

  8. Anxiolytic effects of fluoxetine and nicotine exposure on exploratory behavior in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rhinehart, Zachariah

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a popular model for studying the pharmacology and behavior of anxiety. While there have been numerous studies documenting the anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of common drugs in zebrafish, many do not report or test for behavioral differences between the sexes. Previous studies have indicated that males and females differ in their baseline level of anxiety. In this study, we test for a sex interaction with fluoxetine and nicotine. We exposed fish to system water (control), 10 mg/L fluoxetine, or 1 mg/L nicotine for three minutes prior to being subjected to four minutes in an open-field drop test. Video recordings were tracked using ProAnalyst. Fish from both drug treatments reduced swimming speed, increased vertical position, and increased use of the top half of the open field when compared with the control, though fluoxetine had a larger effect on depth related behaviors while nicotine mostly affected swimming speed. A significant sex effect was observed where females swam at a slower and more constant speed than males, however neither drug produced a sex-dependent response. PMID:27635325

  9. Development of a cognitive behavioral group intervention programme for patients with multiple sclerosis: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Visschedijk, Mariëlle A J; Collette, Emma H; Polman, Chris H; Pfennings, Lilian E M A; van der Ploeg, Henk M

    2004-12-01

    A substantial group of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has difficulty coping with their disease. Cognitive behavioral group interventions may help these patients cope more effectively with MS. We developed an 8-session group intervention programme for patients recently diagnosed with MS to help them cope more effectively with MS and to overcome negative thoughts and beliefs about the disease to improve health-related quality of life. We tested the feasibility of the group intervention programme and health-related quality of life in a sample of 11 patients recently diagnosed with MS [mean age: 38 (+/-7.9) yr.; 8 women and 3 men]. All patients were recruited through direct referral by their neurologist or by an MS nurse specialist. The programme was conducted in two small groups of 7 patients each, and each group was led by two psychologists. Cognitive behavioral therapy was an important ingredient in each group session as well as sharing of personal experiences and discussing homework assignments. Each session was formatted the same way but addressed a different MS-specific theme, for example, 'coping with physical impairments' or 'communication with medical staff'. Participants experienced a significant improvement in the health-related quality of life domains of psychological status and vitality, as measured by subscales of Disability and Impact Profile and the Short Form-36 Health Survey. Although further studies are warranted, it appears that a short group intervention programme based on cognitive behavioral techniques for patients with MS might have a positive influence on health-related quality of life.

  10. Health Supplement Consumption Behavior in the Older Adult Population: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Mimi; Chan, Ka Long; Wong, Anthony; Tam, Eric; Fan, Elaine; Yip, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon, and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products, and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young–old (age 50–69) and old–old group (age 70 or above). The mean age is 67.93 ± 10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is, they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young–old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old–old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young–old and old–old. Young–old group and old–old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational program concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young–old and old–old groups. PMID:24575397

  11. Mobile Phone Sensor Correlates of Depressive Symptom Severity in Daily-Life Behavior: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Saeb, Sohrab; Zhang, Mi; Karr, Christopher J; Schueller, Stephen M; Corden, Marya E; Kording, Konrad P

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a common, burdensome, often recurring mental health disorder that frequently goes undetected and untreated. Mobile phones are ubiquitous and have an increasingly large complement of sensors that can potentially be useful in monitoring behavioral patterns that might be indicative of depressive symptoms. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the detection of daily-life behavioral markers using mobile phone global positioning systems (GPS) and usage sensors, and their use in identifying depressive symptom severity. Methods A total of 40 adult participants were recruited from the general community to carry a mobile phone with a sensor data acquisition app (Purple Robot) for 2 weeks. Of these participants, 28 had sufficient sensor data received to conduct analysis. At the beginning of the 2-week period, participants completed a self-reported depression survey (PHQ-9). Behavioral features were developed and extracted from GPS location and phone usage data. Results A number of features from GPS data were related to depressive symptom severity, including circadian movement (regularity in 24-hour rhythm; r=-.63, P=.005), normalized entropy (mobility between favorite locations; r=-.58, P=.012), and location variance (GPS mobility independent of location; r=-.58, P=.012). Phone usage features, usage duration, and usage frequency were also correlated (r=.54, P=.011, and r=.52, P=.015, respectively). Using the normalized entropy feature and a classifier that distinguished participants with depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥5) from those without (PHQ-9 score <5), we achieved an accuracy of 86.5%. Furthermore, a regression model that used the same feature to estimate the participants’ PHQ-9 scores obtained an average error of 23.5%. Conclusions Features extracted from mobile phone sensor data, including GPS and phone usage, provided behavioral markers that were strongly related to depressive symptom severity. While these findings must

  12. Social Desirability and Behavior Rating Scales: An Exploratory Study with the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merydith, Scott P.; Prout, H. Thompson; Blaha, John

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 (CBCL/4-18) and two modified measures of social desirability, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale with a sample of 65 parents of normal children from grades K-7. Results from correlational and multiple regression…

  13. HEALTH INSURANCE INFORMATION-SEEKING BEHAVIORS AMONG INTERNET USERS: AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS TO INFORM POLICIES.

    PubMed

    Erlyana, Erlyana; Acosta-Deprez, Veronica; O'Lawrence, Henry; Sinay, Tony; Ramirez, Jeremy; Jacot, Emmanuel C; Shim, Kyuyoung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of Internet users who seek health insurance information online, as well as factors affecting their behaviors in seeking health insurance information. Secondary data analysis was conducted using data from the 2012 Pew Internet Health Tracking Survey. Of 2,305 Internet user adults, only 29% were seeking health insurance information online. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test differences in characteristics of those who seek health insurance information online and those who do not. A logistic regression model was used to determine significant predictors of health insurance information-seeking behavior online. Findings suggested that factors such as being a single parent, having a high school education or less, and being uninsured were significant and those individuals were less likely to seek health insurance information online. Being a family caregiver of an adult and those who bought private health insurance or were entitled to Medicare were more likely to seek health insurance information online than non-caregivers and the uninsured. The findings suggested the need to provide quality health insurance information online is critical for both the insured and uninsured population.

  14. Impetus for worship: an exploratory study of adolescents' idol adoration behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Ching; Lin, Chien-Hsin

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore the idolization behaviors of Taiwanese adolescents. The study gathered 1,636 questionnaires from 13 senior high schools across northern, central, southern, and eastern Taiwan. The results indicate that adolescents' gender correlates with the idol type they choose to adore when the idol is male. This study summarizes "exterior," "interior," "wealth," and "athlete" as four underlying idol traits attracting adolescents. Various types of idols are considered to be significantly different on these four traits. The impacts of the four traits on adolescents' worship levels are nonsymmetrical. While the traits of exterior and athlete are worship facilitators, the trait of wealth is a prohibitor. By contrast, the trait of interior is neutral and has no effect on worship levels. Furthermore, adolescents are involved in higher levels of worship when the idol is a media star or is the opposite gender of the adolescent. Generally, adolescents' worship levels are heightened by the illusion of a perfect idol, indicating nonrational worship behaviors. Implications regarding the association between adolescents' cognitive abilities and idols' traits are discussed for future research. PMID:18047240

  15. Impetus for worship: an exploratory study of adolescents' idol adoration behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Ching; Lin, Chien-Hsin

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore the idolization behaviors of Taiwanese adolescents. The study gathered 1,636 questionnaires from 13 senior high schools across northern, central, southern, and eastern Taiwan. The results indicate that adolescents' gender correlates with the idol type they choose to adore when the idol is male. This study summarizes "exterior," "interior," "wealth," and "athlete" as four underlying idol traits attracting adolescents. Various types of idols are considered to be significantly different on these four traits. The impacts of the four traits on adolescents' worship levels are nonsymmetrical. While the traits of exterior and athlete are worship facilitators, the trait of wealth is a prohibitor. By contrast, the trait of interior is neutral and has no effect on worship levels. Furthermore, adolescents are involved in higher levels of worship when the idol is a media star or is the opposite gender of the adolescent. Generally, adolescents' worship levels are heightened by the illusion of a perfect idol, indicating nonrational worship behaviors. Implications regarding the association between adolescents' cognitive abilities and idols' traits are discussed for future research.

  16. 17 CFR 229.1205 - (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... not a dry well. (3) Completion refers to installation of permanent equipment for production of oil or..., disclose: (1) The number of net productive and dry exploratory wells drilled; and (2) The number of net productive and dry development wells drilled. (b) Definitions. For purposes of this Item 1205, the...

  17. Dissociable effects of selective lesions to hippocampal subsystems on exploratory behavior, contextual learning, and spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Good, M; Honey, R C

    1997-06-01

    Rats received excitotoxic lesions of different subsystems within the hippocampal system--either the hippocampus proper (cornu ammonis and dentate gyrus; hippocampal lesions) or the entorhinal cortex-subicular region (entorhinal lesions). Subsequently, their activity in an operant chamber was monitored both before and after footshock had been delivered (Experiment 1). Rats with hippocampal lesions showed enhanced activity before the delivery of footshock and reduced freezing after the delivery of shock. Rats with entorhinal lesions showed control levels of activity before the delivery of footshock and control levels of freezing after the delivery of footshock. Both types of lesion impaired spatial learning in a water maze (Experiment 2). These results suggest that the deficits arising from damage to the hippocampal system in contextual and spatial learning have different origins. PMID:9189263

  18. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Contact Across the Rat Vibrissal Array During Exploratory Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Jennifer A.; Towal, R. Blythe; Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

    2016-01-01

    The rat vibrissal system is an important model for the study of somatosensation, but the small size and rapid speed of the vibrissae have precluded measuring precise vibrissal-object contact sequences during behavior. We used a laser light sheet to quantify, with 1 ms resolution, the spatiotemporal structure of whisker-surface contact as five naïve rats freely explored a flat, vertical glass wall. Consistent with previous work, we show that the whisk cycle cannot be uniquely defined because different whiskers often move asynchronously, but that quasi-periodic (~8 Hz) variations in head velocity represent a distinct temporal feature on which to lock analysis. Around times of minimum head velocity, whiskers protract to make contact with the surface, and then sustain contact with the surface for extended durations (~25–60 ms) before detaching. This behavior results in discrete temporal windows in which large numbers of whiskers are in contact with the surface. These “sustained collective contact intervals” (SCCIs) were observed on 100% of whisks for all five rats. The overall spatiotemporal structure of the SCCIs can be qualitatively predicted based on information about head pose and the average whisk cycle. In contrast, precise sequences of whisker-surface contact depend on detailed head and whisker kinematics. Sequences of vibrissal contact were highly variable, equally likely to propagate in all directions across the array. Somewhat more structure was found when sequences of contacts were examined on a row-wise basis. In striking contrast to the high variability associated with contact sequences, a consistent feature of each SCCI was that the contact locations of the whiskers on the glass converged and moved more slowly on the sheet. Together, these findings lead us to propose that the rat uses a strategy of “windowed sampling” to extract an object's spatial features: specifically, the rat spatially integrates quasi-static mechanical signals across

  19. Reproductive state affects hiding behaviour under risk of predation but not exploratory activity of female Spanish terrapins.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Marzal, Alfonso; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2015-02-01

    Female investment during reproduction may reduce survivorship due to increased predation risk. During pregnancy, the locomotor performance of gravid females might be diminished due to the additional weight acquired. In addition, egg production may also increase thermoregulatory, metabolic and physiological costs. Also, pregnant females have greater potential fitness and should take fewer risks. Thus, females should ponder their reproductive state when considering their behavioural responses under risky situations. Here, we examine how reproductive state influence risk-taking behaviour in different contexts in female Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa). We simulated predator attacks of different risk levels and measured the time that the turtles spent hiding entirely inside their own shells (i.e. appearance times). We also assessed the subsequent time after emergence from the shell that the turtles spent immobile monitoring for predators before starting to escape actively (i.e. waiting times). Likewise, we performed a novel-environment test and measured the exploratory activity of turtles. We found no correlations between appearance time, waiting time or exploratory activity, but appearance times were correlated across different risk levels. Only appearance time was affected by the reproductive state, where gravid females reappeared relatively later from their shells after a predator attack than non-gravid ones. Moreover, among gravid females, those carrying greater clutches tended to have longer appearance times. This suggests that only larger clutches could affect hiding behaviour in risky contexts. In contrast, waiting time spent scanning for predators and exploratory activity were not affected by the reproductive state. These differences between gravid and non-gravid females might be explained by the metabolic-physiological costs associated with egg production and embryo maintenance, as well as by the relatively higher potential fitness of gravid females.

  20. The imposition of, but not the propensity for, social subordination impairs exploratory behaviors and general cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Colas-Zelin, Danielle; Light, Kenneth R; Kolata, Stefan; Wass, Christopher; Denman-Brice, Alexander; Rios, Christopher; Szalk, Kris; Matzel, Louis D

    2012-06-15

    Imposed social subordination, such as that which accompanies physical defeat or alienation, has been associated with impaired cognitive function in both human and non-human animals. Here we examined whether domain-specific and/or domain-general learning abilities (c.f. general intelligence) are differentially influenced by the imposition of social subordination. Furthermore, we assessed whether the impact of subordination on cognitive abilities was the result of imposed subordination per se, or if it reflected deficits intrinsically expressed in subjects that are predisposed to subordination. Subordinate and dominant behaviors were assessed in two groups of CD-1 male mice. In one group (Imposed Stratification), social stratification was imposed (through persistent physical defeat in a colonized setting) prior to the determination of cognitive abilities, while in the second group (Innate Stratification), an assessment of social stratification was made after cognitive abilities had been quantified. Domain-specific learning abilities were measured as performance on individual learning tasks (odor discrimination, fear conditioning, spatial maze learning, passive avoidance, and egocentric navigation) while domain-general learning abilities were determined by subjects' aggregate performance across the battery of learning tasks. We observed that the imposition of subordination prior to cognitive testing decreased exploratory tendencies, moderately impaired performance on individual learning tasks, and severely impaired general cognitive performance. However, similar impairments were not observed in subjects with a predisposition toward a subordinate phenotype (but which had not experienced physical defeat at the time of cognitive testing). Mere colonization, regardless of outcome (i.e., stratification), was associated with an increase in stress-induced serum corticosterone (CORT) levels, and thus CORT elevations were not themselves adequate to explain the effects of

  1. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Premarital Sexual Behavior Assessment Scale for Young Women (PSAS-YW): an exploratory mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Premarital sexual behaviors are important issue for women’s health. The present study was designed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a scale in order to identify young women who are at greater risk of premarital sexual behavior. Method This was an exploratory mixed method investigation. Indeed, the study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, qualitative methods (focus group discussion and individual interview) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. In the second phase, psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the questionnaire were assessed. Results In the first phase an item pool containing 53 statements related to premarital sexual behavior was generated. In the second phase item reduction was applied and the final version of the questionnaire containing 26 items was developed. The psychometric properties of this final version were assessed and the results showed that the instrument has a good structure, and reliability. The results from exploratory factory analysis indicated a 5-factor solution for the instrument that jointly accounted for the 57.4% of variance observed. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the instrument was found to be 0.87. Conclusion This study provided a valid and reliable scale to identify premarital sexual behavior in young women. Assessment of premarital sexual behavior might help to improve women’s sexual abstinence. PMID:24924696

  2. An exploratory factor analysis of the Parenting strategies for Eating and physical Activity Scale (PEAS) for use in Hispanic mothers of adolescent and preadolescent daughters with overweight.

    PubMed

    Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; Posada, Alexandria; Wiesner, Margit; Olvera, Norma

    2015-12-01

    Existing measures of feeding and physical activity parenting strategies have not been validated for use among Hispanic mothers of adolescent and preadolescent daughters with overweight. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the Parenting strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) among 134 Hispanic mothers (Mage=38.81, SD±6.34) of adolescent and preadolescent daughters with overweight. Results from this exploratory study revealed that a three-factor structure (Limit Setting, Monitoring, and Discipline) and a 13-item revised PEAS measure might be better suited for use with this population. The revised Limit Setting, Monitoring, Discipline, and total subscales had good reliability (α=0.89, α=0.88, α=0.90, and α=0.87, respectively) and the subscale inter-item correlations were strong. To assess the concurrent validity, the revised PEAS subscales were correlated with both subscales of the Behavioral Strategies to Reduce Fat and Increase Fiber (Parent Report) in a subset of the sample (n=78). The Monitoring and Discipline subscales were found to be correlated with the Behavioral Strategies to Reduce Fat (r=.36 and r=.27, p<.05, respectively) and Increase Fiber (r=.40 and r=.35, p<.01, respectively) subscales. However, the revised PEAS Limit Setting subscale was not correlated with either Reduce Fat or Increase Fiber strategy. Taken together, these results indicated some degree of concurrent validity. Results from this study should be cross-validated using confirmatory factor analysis approaches.

  3. Hypocretinergic neurons are activated in conjunction with goal-oriented survival-related motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Ramos, Oscar V; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2011-10-24

    Hypocretinergic neurons are located in the area of the lateral hypothalamus which is responsible for mediating goal-directed, survival-related behaviors. Consequently, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system functions to promote these behaviors including those patterns of somatomotor activation upon which they are based. Further, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system is not involved with repetitive motor activities unless they occur in conjunction with the goal-oriented behaviors that are governed by the lateral hypothalamus. In order to determine the veracity of these hypotheses, we examined Fos immunoreactivity (as a marker of neuronal activity) in hypocretinergic neurons in the cat during: a) Exploratory Motor Activity; b) Locomotion without Reward; c) Locomotion with Reward; and d) Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Significantly greater numbers of hypocretinergic neurons expressed c-fos when the animals were exploring an unknown environment during Exploratory Motor Activity compared with all other paradigms. In addition, a larger number of Hcrt+Fos+neurons were activated during Locomotion with Reward than during Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Finally, very few hypocretinergic neurons were activated during Locomotion without Reward and Wakefulness without Motor Activity, wherein there was an absence of goal-directed activities. We conclude that the hypocretinergic system does not promote wakefulness per se or motor activity per se but is responsible for mediating specific goal-oriented behaviors that take place during wakefulness. Accordingly, we suggest that the hypocretinergic system is responsible for controlling the somatomotor system and coordinating its activity with other systems in order to produce successful goal-oriented survival-related behaviors that are controlled by the lateral hypothalamus. PMID:21839102

  4. Hypocretinergic neurons are activated in conjunction with goal-oriented survival-related motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Ramos, Oscar V; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2011-10-24

    Hypocretinergic neurons are located in the area of the lateral hypothalamus which is responsible for mediating goal-directed, survival-related behaviors. Consequently, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system functions to promote these behaviors including those patterns of somatomotor activation upon which they are based. Further, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system is not involved with repetitive motor activities unless they occur in conjunction with the goal-oriented behaviors that are governed by the lateral hypothalamus. In order to determine the veracity of these hypotheses, we examined Fos immunoreactivity (as a marker of neuronal activity) in hypocretinergic neurons in the cat during: a) Exploratory Motor Activity; b) Locomotion without Reward; c) Locomotion with Reward; and d) Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Significantly greater numbers of hypocretinergic neurons expressed c-fos when the animals were exploring an unknown environment during Exploratory Motor Activity compared with all other paradigms. In addition, a larger number of Hcrt+Fos+neurons were activated during Locomotion with Reward than during Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Finally, very few hypocretinergic neurons were activated during Locomotion without Reward and Wakefulness without Motor Activity, wherein there was an absence of goal-directed activities. We conclude that the hypocretinergic system does not promote wakefulness per se or motor activity per se but is responsible for mediating specific goal-oriented behaviors that take place during wakefulness. Accordingly, we suggest that the hypocretinergic system is responsible for controlling the somatomotor system and coordinating its activity with other systems in order to produce successful goal-oriented survival-related behaviors that are controlled by the lateral hypothalamus.

  5. [Practice of Behavioral Activation in Cognitive-behavioral Therapy].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Nobuki

    2015-01-01

    An approach focusing on behavioral activation (BA) was adopted in the cognitive therapy of A. T. Beck, and it came to be considered that BA can play an important role in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Therefore, in recent years, BA based on clinical behavior analysis has been developed as a new treatment (Martell, et al.). The core characteristics are as follows: 1) focusing attention on context in daily life to promote the behavior control of patients and avoidance of a hatred experience ; 2) breaking the vicious circle; 3) promoting the behavior according to the purpose that the patients originally expect; 4) recognizing a relationship between behavior and the situation (contingency), thereby recovering self-efficacy tied to the long-term results that one originally expects. This does not increase pleasant activity at random when the patient is inactive, or give a sense of accomplishment. We know that depression is maintained by conducting functional analysis of detailed life behavior, and encourage the patients to have healthy behavior according to individual values. We help them to complete schedules regardless of mood and reflect on the results patiently. It is considered that those processes are important. BA may be easy to apply in clinical practice and effective for the chronic cases, or the patients in a convalescent stage. Also, in principle in the CBT for major depression, it may be effective that behavioral activation is provided in an early stage, and cognitive reconstruction in a latter stage. However, an approach to carry out functional analysis by small steps with careful activity monitoring is essential when the symptoms are severe. Furthermore, it should be considered that the way of psychoeducation requires caution because we encourage rest in the treatment of depression in our country. In particular, we must be careful not to take an attitude that an inactive behavior pattern is unproductive only based model cases.

  6. Brain-wide mapping of neural activity controlling zebrafish exploratory locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Timothy W; Mu, Yu; Narayan, Sujatha; Randlett, Owen; Naumann, Eva A; Yang, Chao-Tsung; Schier, Alexander F

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of salient sensory cues to guide behavior, animals must still execute sequences of motor actions in order to forage and explore. How such successive motor actions are coordinated to form global locomotion trajectories is unknown. We mapped the structure of larval zebrafish swim trajectories in homogeneous environments and found that trajectories were characterized by alternating sequences of repeated turns to the left and to the right. Using whole-brain light-sheet imaging, we identified activity relating to the behavior in specific neural populations that we termed the anterior rhombencephalic turning region (ARTR). ARTR perturbations biased swim direction and reduced the dependence of turn direction on turn history, indicating that the ARTR is part of a network generating the temporal correlations in turn direction. We also find suggestive evidence for ARTR mutual inhibition and ARTR projections to premotor neurons. Finally, simulations suggest the observed turn sequences may underlie efficient exploration of local environments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12741.001 PMID:27003593

  7. Mothers and Fathers at Play with their Children with Down Syndrome: Influence on Child Exploratory and Symbolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    de Falco, Simona; Esposito, Gianluca; Venuti, Paola; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Through play children exercise their emerging mental abilities, and for their part, when in collaborative play, caregivers often adjust their behaviours to assist their children’s progress. In this study, we focused on comparisons between play of Down Syndrome (DS) children with their two parents as well as on comparisons between the two parents’ play behaviours. Method Altogether 40 parent–child dyads participated: 20 children with DS (M age = 36.14 months) with their mothers and separately with their fathers. We coded participants’ play behaviours during child solitary and mother–child and father–child collaborative sessions. Results Although children increased exploratory play from solitary to collaborative sessions with both parents, symbolic play increased only during joint play with fathers. Fathers displayed less symbolic and more exploratory activity compared to mothers. Mothers and fathers alike were attuned to their children, although fathers showed a higher degree of attunement. Conclusions This study shows that maternal and paternal contributions to DS child play skills are positive but different. During collaborative play children received specific and nonoverlapping scaffolding from their two parents, and fathers’ contributions were unique. PMID:23275758

  8. Exploratory energy research program at the University of Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, W.

    1980-12-01

    A grant to the University of Michigan for an Exploratory Energy Research Program is used by Office of Energy Research (OER) to support faculty research and graduate student research assistantships. Progress on activity during the first six months of the program is described and brief status reports on 20 energy related faculty research projects in the physical, engineering, biological, and behavioral sciences are presented.

  9. Oral supplementation of Ocimum basilicum has the potential to improves the locomotory, exploratory, anxiolytic behavior and learning in adult male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Zahra, K; Khan, M A; Iqbal, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to determine the effect of 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory, locomotory and short-term memory formation in male albino mice. Five weeks old, male albino mice were used as the experimental animals in order to demonstrate the effect of O. basilicum's extract on learning and memory. Each male albino mouse was weighted and orally treated either with 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of O. basilicum leaf extract or with commercially available saline solution (Otsuka, Pakistan) for 7 days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurological tests (Elevated plus maze, Light and dark box, Open field and Rota rod). Dose supplementation continued during neurological testing. It was observed that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract improves neuromuscular co-ordination and male albino mouse performance in open field, light dark box and during novel object test when compared with control group. We concluded that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract has the potential to improve neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory behavior, object recognition ability and transfer latency in male albino mice and can be safely administrated orally.

  10. 50 CFR 300.106 - Exploratory fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exploratory fisheries. 300.106 Section 300.106 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.106 Exploratory fisheries. (a) An exploratory fishery, for purposes of this section, is a...

  11. 50 CFR 300.106 - Exploratory fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exploratory fisheries. 300.106 Section 300.106 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.106 Exploratory fisheries. (a) An exploratory fishery, for purposes of this section, is a...

  12. 50 CFR 300.106 - Exploratory fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exploratory fisheries. 300.106 Section 300.106 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.106 Exploratory fisheries. (a) An exploratory fishery, for purposes of this section, is a...

  13. 50 CFR 300.106 - Exploratory fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exploratory fisheries. 300.106 Section 300.106 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.106 Exploratory fisheries. (a) An exploratory fishery,...

  14. 50 CFR 300.106 - Exploratory fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exploratory fisheries. 300.106 Section 300.106 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.106 Exploratory fisheries. (a) An exploratory fishery,...

  15. A computational model for exploratory activity of rats with different anxiety levels in elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ariadne A; Morato, Silvio; Roque, Antonio C; Tinós, Renato

    2014-10-30

    The elevated plus-maze is an apparatus widely used to study the level of anxiety in rodents. The maze is plus-shaped, with two enclosed arms and two open arms, and elevated 50cm from the floor. During a test, which usually lasts for 5min, the animal is initially put at the center and is free to move and explore the entire maze. The level of anxiety is measured by variables such as the percentage of time spent and the number of entries in the enclosed arms. High percentage of time spent at and number of entries in the enclosed arms indicate anxiety. Here we propose a computational model of rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze based on an artificial neural network trained by a genetic algorithm. The fitness function of the genetic algorithm is composed of reward (positive) and punishment (negative) terms, which are incremented as the computational agent (virtual rat) moves in the maze. The punishment term is modulated by a parameter that simulates the effects of different drugs. Unlike other computational models, the virtual rat is built independently of prior known experimental data. The exploratory behaviors generated by the model for different simulated pharmacological conditions are in good agreement with data from real rats.

  16. A computational model for exploratory activity of rats with different anxiety levels in elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ariadne A; Morato, Silvio; Roque, Antonio C; Tinós, Renato

    2014-10-30

    The elevated plus-maze is an apparatus widely used to study the level of anxiety in rodents. The maze is plus-shaped, with two enclosed arms and two open arms, and elevated 50cm from the floor. During a test, which usually lasts for 5min, the animal is initially put at the center and is free to move and explore the entire maze. The level of anxiety is measured by variables such as the percentage of time spent and the number of entries in the enclosed arms. High percentage of time spent at and number of entries in the enclosed arms indicate anxiety. Here we propose a computational model of rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze based on an artificial neural network trained by a genetic algorithm. The fitness function of the genetic algorithm is composed of reward (positive) and punishment (negative) terms, which are incremented as the computational agent (virtual rat) moves in the maze. The punishment term is modulated by a parameter that simulates the effects of different drugs. Unlike other computational models, the virtual rat is built independently of prior known experimental data. The exploratory behaviors generated by the model for different simulated pharmacological conditions are in good agreement with data from real rats. PMID:25128721

  17. Making Activity Recognition Robust against Deceptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Saeb, Sohrab; Körding, Konrad; Mohr, David C

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare services increasingly use the activity recognition technology to track the daily activities of individuals. In some cases, this is used to provide incentives. For example, some health insurance companies offer discount to customers who are physically active, based on the data collected from their activity tracking devices. Therefore, there is an increasing motivation for individuals to cheat, by making activity trackers detect activities that increase their benefits rather than the ones they actually do. In this study, we used a novel method to make activity recognition robust against deceptive behavior. We asked 14 subjects to attempt to trick our smartphone-based activity classifier by making it detect an activity other than the one they actually performed, for example by shaking the phone while seated to make the classifier detect walking. If they succeeded, we used their motion data to retrain the classifier, and asked them to try to trick it again. The experiment ended when subjects could no longer cheat. We found that some subjects were not able to trick the classifier at all, while others required five rounds of retraining. While classifiers trained on normal activity data predicted true activity with ~38% accuracy, training on the data gathered during the deceptive behavior increased their accuracy to ~84%. We conclude that learning the deceptive behavior of one individual helps to detect the deceptive behavior of others. Thus, we can make current activity recognition robust to deception by including deceptive activity data from a few individuals. PMID:26659118

  18. Making Activity Recognition Robust against Deceptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Saeb, Sohrab; Körding, Konrad; Mohr, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare services increasingly use the activity recognition technology to track the daily activities of individuals. In some cases, this is used to provide incentives. For example, some health insurance companies offer discount to customers who are physically active, based on the data collected from their activity tracking devices. Therefore, there is an increasing motivation for individuals to cheat, by making activity trackers detect activities that increase their benefits rather than the ones they actually do. In this study, we used a novel method to make activity recognition robust against deceptive behavior. We asked 14 subjects to attempt to trick our smartphone-based activity classifier by making it detect an activity other than the one they actually performed, for example by shaking the phone while seated to make the classifier detect walking. If they succeeded, we used their motion data to retrain the classifier, and asked them to try to trick it again. The experiment ended when subjects could no longer cheat. We found that some subjects were not able to trick the classifier at all, while others required five rounds of retraining. While classifiers trained on normal activity data predicted true activity with ~38% accuracy, training on the data gathered during the deceptive behavior increased their accuracy to ~84%. We conclude that learning the deceptive behavior of one individual helps to detect the deceptive behavior of others. Thus, we can make current activity recognition robust to deception by including deceptive activity data from a few individuals. PMID:26659118

  19. Exploratory Studies in Generalized Predictive Control for Active Gust Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Eure, Kenneth W.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    2006-01-01

    The results of numerical simulations aimed at assessing the efficacy of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) for active gust load alleviation using trailing- and leading-edge control surfaces are presented. The equations underlying the method are presented and discussed, including system identification, calculation of control law matrices, and calculation of commands applied to the control effectors. Both embedded and explicit feedforward paths for inclusion of disturbance effects are addressed. Results from two types of simulations are shown. The first used a 3-DOF math model of a mass-spring-dashpot system subject to user-defined external disturbances. The second used open-loop data from a wind-tunnel test in which a wing model was excited by sinusoidal vertical gusts; closed-loop behavior was simulated in post-test calculations. Results obtained from these simulations have been decidedly positive. In particular, results of closed-loop simulations for the wing model showed reductions in root moments by factors as high as 1000, depending on whether the excitation is from a constant- or variable-frequency gust and on the direction of the response.

  20. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  1. [Behavioral Activation for Depression: Theory and Practice].

    PubMed

    Nakao, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) has recently attracted marked attention. While cognitive therapy focuses on the cognitive distortion of patients with depression and asks them to change their behaviors as the process of altering the cognitive distortion, BA pays attention to behavior to avoid an unpleasant situation or social situation as a key symptom that leads to persistence of the depression. Avoidance behaviors are often seen during every process of depression, from onset to recurrence. Avoidance behaviors, a decrease in pleasant phenomena, or increase in unpleasant phenomena, result in reinforcing a depressive mood. If patients can set appropriate behavioral targets and achieve them, the beneficial behaviors will be further promoted with positive feed-back. The behavioral change, as-a consequence, will result in improvement of the mood, cognition, and depression itself. In this manuscript, the author presents two clinical cases, in which BA assisted the patients in recovering from their depression. The first case was a male in his thirties who repeatedly took sick leave from his work because of maladjustment, which resulted in persistent depression. The second case was a female in her thirties who suffered from OCD and then became maladjusted to her place of work, depressive, and emotionally unstable. In both cases, avoidant behaviors caused their conditions to persist. Appropriate activities formed by BA improved their moods, and their self-efficacies were gradually regained. It was suggested that BA is markedly effective, especially in patients whose avoidant behaviors mainly cause the persistence of their depressive symptoms.

  2. Persistent Focal Behavior and Physical Activity Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the proclivity and performance attributes of focal students across time and activities using data from 9,345 students. Three systematic focal behavior partitions are examined: Across activities, across time, and across activities and time. A student's performance is focal if it ends in 0 or 5 for push-ups and 0 for…

  3. Data concerning the psychometric properties of the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation Scales for the Portuguese population.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Diana; Almeida, Fernando; Pinto, Marta; Segarra, Pilar; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    The behavioral inhibition/behavioral activation (BIS/BAS) scales (Carver & White, 1994), which allow rating the Gray's motivational systems, were translated and adapted into Portuguese. In this study, the authors present the procedure and the psychometric analyses of the Portuguese version of the scales, which included basic item and scales psychometric characteristics, as well as confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. After the psychometric analyses provided evidence for the quality of the Portuguese version of the scales, the normative data was provided by age and school grade. The confirmatory factor analysis of the BIS/BAS scales that the authors performed did not demonstrate satisfactory fit for the 2- or 4-factor solution. The authors also tested the more recent 5-factor model, but the fit indices remained inadequate. As fit indices were not satisfactory they proceeded with an exploratory factor analysis to examine the structure of the Portuguese scales. These psychometric analyses provided evidence of a successful translation of the original scales. Therefore these scales can now be used in future research with Portuguese or Brazilian population.

  4. The side-by-side exploratory test: a simple automated protocol for the evaluation of adult zebrafish behavior simultaneously with social interaction.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Isabel C; Siebel, Anna M; Piato, Angelo L; Bonan, Carla D; Vianna, Mônica R; Lara, Diogo R

    2015-10-01

    The assessment of shoaling in adult zebrafish is technically difficult, but important, given their social nature. The present study aimed to characterize a new protocol using simple automated tracking software to evaluate general behavior and social interaction simultaneously. To this end, we used a single tank with a central transparent glass division and placed one zebrafish on each side for 5 min. This strategy allows fish to interact visually at the same time that individual automated evaluation of behavior can be easily performed. Our results showed that, when two fish are placed side-by-side, there is an increase in their height in the tank compared with isolated fish and they remain close to each other. The pharmacological treatments with benzodiazepines (bromazepam and clonazepam) and the serotonergic drugs buspirone, fluoxetine, and escitalopram did not affect locomotion at the concentrations tested, except for the highest concentration of buspirone. Nevertheless, benzodiazepines increased interfish distance (i.e. reduced shoaling behavior) and serotonergic drugs elevated height in the tank. These results support the use of the side-by-side exploratory test for behavioral studies with the zebrafish, including high-throughput behavioral screening for antidepressants and anxiolytics. PMID:26061352

  5. Effect of functionally significant deiodinase single nucleotide polymorphisms on drinking behavior in alcohol dependence: an exploratory investigation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, MR; Schwandt, ML; Bollinger, JW; Dias, AA; Oot, EN; Goldman, D; Hodgkinson, CA; Leggio, L

    2016-01-01

    Background Abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis have been reported in alcoholism, however, there is no definitive agreement on the specific thyroid abnormalities and their underlying mechanisms in alcohol dependence (AD). The biological activity of thyroid hormones or the availability of T3 is regulated by the three deiodinase enzymes D1, D2 and D3. In the context of alcohol use, functionally significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP’s) of these deiodinase genes may play a role in HPT dysfunction. Methods The present study explored the effect of three functionally significant SNP’s (D1: rs2235544, D2: rs225014 and rs12885300) of deiodinase genes on drinking behavior and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in alcohol dependent (N=521) and control subjects (N=228). Results Rs225014 was associated with significant differences in the amount of naturalistic alcohol drinking assessed by the Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB). Alcohol-dependent subjects had significantly higher thyroid stimulating hormone levels compared to controls; however, there was no effect of genotype on TSH levels for either group. Conclusions These findings extend previous studies on thyroid dysfunction in alcoholism and provide novel, albeit preliminary, information by linking functionally significant genetic polymorphisms of the deiodinase enzymes with alcohol drinking behavior. PMID:26207529

  6. Mutation-related differences in exploratory, spatial, and depressive-like behavior in pcd and Lurcher cerebellar mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Tuma, Jan; Kolinko, Yaroslav; Vozeh, Frantisek; Cendelin, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum is not only essential for motor coordination but is also involved in cognitive and affective processes. These functions of the cerebellum and mechanisms of their disorders in cerebellar injury are not completely understood. There is a wide spectrum of cerebellar mutant mice which are used as models of hereditary cerebellar degenerations. Nevertheless, they differ in pathogenesis of manifestation of the particular mutation and also in the strain background. The aim of this work was to compare spatial navigation, learning, and memory in pcd and Lurcher mice, two of the most frequently used cerebellar mutants. The mice were tested in the open field for exploration behavior, in the Morris water maze with visible as well as reversal hidden platform tasks and in the forced swimming test for motivation assessment. Lurcher mice showed different space exploration activity in the open field and a lower tendency to depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test compared with pcd mice. Severe deficit of spatial navigation was shown in both cerebellar mutants. However, the overall performance of Lurcher mice was better than that of pcd mutants. Lurcher mice showed the ability of visual guidance despite difficulties with the direct swim toward a goal. In the probe trial test, Lurcher mice preferred the visible platform rather than the more recent localization of the hidden goal. PMID:26029065

  7. Girls' Physically Active Play and Parental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Margaret A.

    Sex differences in children's physical activity levels, and associations between girls' activity level, childrearing characteristics and parent-child play behavior were investigated in a quasi-naturalistic situation. As part of a longitudinal project, 144 third grade children were videotaped in a 1-hour play session with one of their parents. A…

  8. Food as a tool for learning in everyday activities at preschool – an exploratory study from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Sepp, Hanna; Höijer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a need for research both in relation to food education at preschools and in relation to how the individual teacher can handle and relate to the many different scientific facts and paradigms that are prevalent in relation to food, health, and a sustainable lifestyle. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and meanings that preschool teachers associate with involving food as a tool for learning in planned educational activities. Design An exploratory study was conducted in 14 preschools with 131 teachers. Twenty semi-structured individual or group interviews with 45 preschool staff were conducted, and 10 interviews were selected for analysis. Results According to participants, both children and teachers developed a sensory language; children became more positive towards tasting and teachers discovered new possibilities for interdisciplinary work. However, the results also show that an allowing system, with both an interested and confident teacher who recognises the competent child and a supportive organisation, is needed in order to make food a meaningful tool for learning in preschool. Discussion According to previous studies, food has the potential to play an important part in everyday activities at preschool, both in planned educational activities as well as at meal situations. Our results imply that a holistic understanding of food in preschool is required for long-term work with food as a natural part of the everyday activities. Conclusion The results imply that it is fun and meaningful for both children and teachers, and quite possible, to work with food as a tool for learning in everyday activities at preschool. In order to include food as a way to work with the preschool curriculum for a sustainable lifestyle, an allowing system is needed. PMID:27717411

  9. Do Negative Changes in Worldview Mediate Links Between Mass Trauma and Reckless Behavior? A Longitudinal Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Claire E; Wusik, Michael F; Sullivan, Connor P; Jones, Russell T; Hughes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Trauma exposure heightens the risk of reckless behavior and is now included in DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology. Individuals exposed to trauma may be likely to engage in reckless behavior because of negative changes in their worldview (referred to as disrupted worldview). The current study investigates the relationship between DSM-IV posttraumatic stress symptoms, disrupted worldview, and increased reckless behavior among 1145 students exposed to mass violence. Total posttraumatic stress symptomatology was associated with increased and persistent reckless behavior, supporting DSM-5 diagnostic inclusion. Although posttraumatic stress symptomatology predicted reckless behavior among those with varying levels of posttraumatic symptomatology, individuals with high symptomatology reported significantly higher recklessness. Disrupted worldview mediated the relationship between posttraumatic symptomatology and reckless behavior among individuals with high symptomatology, while only partially mediating the relationship among those with low symptomatology. These findings provide support for worldview disruptions as a mechanism by which prolonged reckless behavior may be manifested. PMID:26148489

  10. Do Negative Changes in Worldview Mediate Links Between Mass Trauma and Reckless Behavior? A Longitudinal Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Claire E; Wusik, Michael F; Sullivan, Connor P; Jones, Russell T; Hughes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Trauma exposure heightens the risk of reckless behavior and is now included in DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology. Individuals exposed to trauma may be likely to engage in reckless behavior because of negative changes in their worldview (referred to as disrupted worldview). The current study investigates the relationship between DSM-IV posttraumatic stress symptoms, disrupted worldview, and increased reckless behavior among 1145 students exposed to mass violence. Total posttraumatic stress symptomatology was associated with increased and persistent reckless behavior, supporting DSM-5 diagnostic inclusion. Although posttraumatic stress symptomatology predicted reckless behavior among those with varying levels of posttraumatic symptomatology, individuals with high symptomatology reported significantly higher recklessness. Disrupted worldview mediated the relationship between posttraumatic symptomatology and reckless behavior among individuals with high symptomatology, while only partially mediating the relationship among those with low symptomatology. These findings provide support for worldview disruptions as a mechanism by which prolonged reckless behavior may be manifested.

  11. Temperament moderates the influence of periadolescent social experience on behavior and adrenocortical activity in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Caruso, M J; McClintock, M K; Cavigelli, S A

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is a period of significant behavioral and physiological maturation, particularly related to stress responses. Animal studies that have tested the influence of adolescent social experiences on stress-related behavioral and physiological development have led to complex results. We used a rodent model of neophobia to test the hypothesis that the influence of adolescent social experience on adult behavior and adrenocortical function is modulated by pre-adolescent temperament. Exploratory activity was assessed in 53 male Sprague-Dawley rats to classify temperament and then they were housed in one of the three conditions during postnatal days (PND) 28-46: (1) with familiar kin, (2) with novel social partners, or (3) individually with no social partners. Effects on adult adrenocortical function were evaluated from fecal samples collected while rats were individually-housed and exposed to a 1-hour novel social challenge during PND 110-114. Adolescent-housing with novel or no social partners led to reduced adult glucocorticoid production compared to adolescent-housing with familiar littermates. Additionally, highly-exploratory pre-weanling rats that were housed with novel social partners during adolescence exhibited increased exploratory behavior and a more rapid return to basal glucocorticoid production in adulthood compared to those housed with familiar or no social partners during adolescence and compared to low-exploratory rats exposed to novel social partners. In sum, relatively short-term adolescent social experiences can cause transient changes in temperament and potentially longer-term changes in recovery of glucocorticoid production in response to adult social challenges. Furthermore, early temperament may modulate the influence of adolescent experiences on adult behavioral and adrenocortical function.

  12. An Exploratory Study of Elementary Classroom Teachers' Physical Activity Promotion from a Social Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin A.; Buchan, Heather; Perreault, Melanie; Doan, Rob; Doutis, Panayiotis; Weaver, Robert Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Despite its recommended use, physical activity promotion in the academic classroom (PAPAC) has received little attention in terms of the factors that help to facilitate it. In this study, a social learning perspective was adopted to examine the role of physical activity biographies in generalist classroom teachers' (CTs) PAPAC. CTs (N = 213) were…

  13. Physical activity and associated factors among young adults in Malaysia: an online exploratory survey.

    PubMed

    Sreeramareddy, C T; Majeed Kutty, N A; Razzaq Jabbar, M A; Boo, N Y

    2012-06-01

    The burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in Malaysia. Insufficient Physical Activity, which is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases, is less researched in Malaysia. We aimed to assess the level of physical activity and identify its correlates. An online survey was carried out during October, 2011 in the University Tunku Abdul Rahman by the opinion poll research committee. Young adults answered the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire about factors according to a socio-ecological model which was adapted from published studies. Metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours and MET-minutes were calculated. Physical activity was classified as sufficient when MET-minutes were > 840. The mean age of the 474 participants was 22.4 years (S.D. = 4.7), and 253 (53.4%) were females. Their mean and median of MET-hours of PA done during the previous seven days were 31.36 (S.D., 52.19) and 14.7 (IQR, 5.77-32.07), respectively. Physical activity done was sufficient among 242 (51.1%) participants. Using univariate analysis, being male, good self-rated health, positive intention, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, social support, and availability of facilities were associated with sufficient physical activity. Using multivariate analysis sufficient physical activity was associated with participants' intention (OR 0.75, 95% CIs 0.64, 0.88), self-efficacy (OR 0.91, 95% CIs 0.85, 0.97) and facility availability (OR 0.81, 95% CIs 0.73, 0.91). The proportion of participants with sufficient physical activity was low. Positive intention and self-efficacy associated with sufficient physical activity should be supported by availability of facilities and a safely-built environment. A nationwide survey about physical and associated socialecological factors is needed to design rational health promotion strategies.

  14. Behavioral changes and cholinesterase activity of rats acutely treated with propoxur.

    PubMed

    Thiesen, F V; Barros, H M; Tannhauser, M; Tannhauser, S L

    1999-01-01

    Early assessment of neurological and behavioral effects is extremely valuable for early identification of intoxications because preventive measures can be taken against more severe or chronic toxic consequences. The time course of the effects of an oral dose of the anticholinesterase agent propoxur (8.3 mg/kg) was determined on behaviors displayed in the open-field and during an active avoidance task by rats and on blood and brain cholinesterase activity. Maximum inhibition of blood cholinesterase was observed within 30 min after administration of propoxur. The half-life of enzyme-activity recovery was estimated to be 208.6 min. Peak brain cholinesterase inhibition was also detected between 5 and 30 min of the pesticide administration, but the half-life for enzyme activity recovery was much shorter, in the range of 85 min. Within this same time interval of the enzyme effects, diminished motor and exploratory activities and decreased performance of animals in the active avoidance task were observed. Likewise, behavioral normalization after propoxur followed a time frame similar to that of brain cholinesterase. These data indicate that behavioral changes that occur during intoxication with low oral doses of propoxur may be dissociated from signs characteristic of cholinergic over-stimulation but accompany brain cholinesterase activity inhibition.

  15. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities…

  16. Regional brain activation during meditation shows time and practice effects: an exploratory FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Baron Short, E; Kose, Samet; Mu, Qiwen; Borckardt, Jeffery; Newberg, Andrew; George, Mark S; Kozel, F Andrew

    2010-03-01

    Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation. Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation response versus control response and late meditation response versus early meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the overall group (n = 13), and using an overall brain analysis, there were no statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8) and long-term (n = 5) practitioners (>10 years) revealed that the time courses of long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and short-term meditation practitioners.

  17. Indoor Tracking to Understand Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour: Exploratory Study in UK Office Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Spinney, Richard; Smith, Lee; Ucci, Marcella; Fisher, Abigail; Konstantatou, Marina; Sawyer, Alexia; Wardle, Jane; Marmot, Alexi

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of the patterns of physical activity, standing and sitting by office workers. However, insight into these behaviours is of growing interest, notably in regard to public health priorities to reduce non-communicable disease risk factors associated with high levels of sitting time and low levels of physical activity. With the advent and increasing availability of indoor tracking systems it is now becoming possible to build detailed pictures of the usage of indoor spaces. This paper reports initial results of indoor tracking used in conjunction with the ActivPAL activity monitoring device. In this paper we give an overview of the usage of the tracking system and its installation and illustrate some of the resultant data. We also provide preliminary results that investigate the relationship between location, light physical activity and sitting in a small sample of office workers (n=33) from two separate office environments in order to demonstrate the relevance and explanatory power of the technique. PMID:25993515

  18. Indoor Tracking to Understand Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour: Exploratory Study in UK Office Buildings.

    PubMed

    Spinney, Richard; Smith, Lee; Ucci, Marcella; Fisher, Abigail; Konstantatou, Marina; Sawyer, Alexia; Wardle, Jane; Marmot, Alexi

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of the patterns of physical activity, standing and sitting by office workers. However, insight into these behaviours is of growing interest, notably in regard to public health priorities to reduce non-communicable disease risk factors associated with high levels of sitting time and low levels of physical activity. With the advent and increasing availability of indoor tracking systems it is now becoming possible to build detailed pictures of the usage of indoor spaces. This paper reports initial results of indoor tracking used in conjunction with the ActivPAL activity monitoring device. In this paper we give an overview of the usage of the tracking system and its installation and illustrate some of the resultant data. We also provide preliminary results that investigate the relationship between location, light physical activity and sitting in a small sample of office workers (n=33) from two separate office environments in order to demonstrate the relevance and explanatory power of the technique. PMID:25993515

  19. Impact of antipsychotic medication on physical activity and physical fitness in adolescents: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Daenen, Anne; Damme, Tine Van; De Hert, Marc; Rosenbaum, Simon; Bruyninckx, David

    2016-08-30

    Antipsychotics are used increasingly in adolescents for a range of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether physical activity levels and physical fitness of adolescent inpatients treated with antipsychotic medication, differs from either (i) antipsychotic naïve adolescents with mental health problems and, (ii) healthy controls. All participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents, the Positive-and-Negative-Affect-Schedule and performed the Eurofit test battery. Adolescents with mental health problems (irrespective of antipsychotic medication) were significantly (P<0.05) less physically active and had an impaired whole body balance, running speed and cardiovascular endurance compared to healthy controls (n=15, 8♂, 15.9±1.3 years). Adolescents treated with antipsychotic medication (n=15, 8♂, 15.5±1.3 years) were less physically active and had an impaired whole body balance compared with antipsychotic naïve adolescents (n=15, 8♂, 15.7±1.4 years). Given the overwhelming deleterious impact of physical inactivity and low physical fitness on physical and mental health outcomes, interventions specifically targeting physical activity and physical fitness among adolescents experiencing mental illness, both treated with, and not treated with antipsychotic medication are warranted as a priority. Antipsychotic medication should be considered as a risk factor for physical inactivity and poor physical fitness. PMID:27288738

  20. Transformation of Students into Active and Participatory Citizens: An Exploratory Study in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Shun Wing

    2009-01-01

    Based on the data collected from focus groups and individual interviews with secondary school students and civic education teachers, this article explores how young people are transformed to become active and participatory citizens. The findings show that the roles and personal beliefs of civic education teachers are of critical significance at…

  1. MEDIATORS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BEHAVIOR CHANGE

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Melissa A.; Papandonatos, George D.; Lewis, Beth A.; Whiteley, Jessica A.; Williams, David M.; King, Abby C.; Bock, Beth C.; Pinto, Bernardine; Marcus, Bess H.

    2009-01-01

    Using a multivariate extension of the Baron and Kenny (1986) mediation framework, we examined the simultaneous effect of psychosocial variables hypothesized to mediate the relationship between a motivationally-tailored physical activity intervention, and 6-month physical activity behavior in 239 healthy, under-active adults (mean age=47.5; 82% women). Participants were randomly assigned to 1) Print-based feedback; 2) Telephone-based feedback; or 3) Contact Control. All mediation criteria were satisfied for both intervention arms. In terms of effect size, a moderate indirect effect of Print (0.39, 95% CI=0.21, 0.57) was due to increases in behavioral processes (0.54, 95% CI= 0.29, 0.80) being attenuated by decreases due to cognitive processes (-0.17, 95%CI= -0.31,-.03). A moderate indirect effect was observed for Telephone (0.47, 95% CI=0.28, 0.66), with increases due to behavioral processes (0.61, 95% CI=0.34, 0.87) attenuated by decreases due to cognitive processes (0.15, 95% CI=-0.27, -0.02); self-efficacy and decisional balance mediational paths did not attain statistical significance. These findings highlight the importance of studies that deconstruct the theoretical components of interventions to determine which combination produces the greatest behavior changes at the lowest cost. PMID:18642998

  2. [Effect of cinnarizine on the brain mitochondrial oxidative system, antioxidant blood activity, and the rat behavior in hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Belostotskaia, L I; Chaĭka, L A; Gomon, O N

    2003-01-01

    The effect of cinnarizine on the functional state of brain mitochondria, the activity of blood antioxidant system, and the behavior of rats was studied under model hypoxic hypoxia conditions. A four-day treatments with cinnarizine (50 mg/kg, twice per day via a gastric tube) prevents the hypoxic brain edema development, restores NAD+ dependent oxidation of a succinate substrate, normalizes emotional-exploratory activity, and causes hyperlocomotion of the experimental animals, while not influencing a high level of activity of the blood antioxidant system. PMID:14743704

  3. Exploratory orbit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal.

  4. Exploratory study to evaluate tolerability, safety, and activity of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Raut, Ashwinikumar A; Rege, Nirmala N; Tadvi, Firoz M; Solanki, Punita V; Kene, Kirti R; Shirolkar, Sudatta G; Pandey, Shefali N; Vaidya, Rama A; Vaidya, Ashok B

    2012-07-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) (WS), a "rasayana" drug, is recommended for balavardhan and mamsavardhan. The study was intended to evaluate dose-related tolerability, safety, and activity of WS formulation in normal individuals. The design was prospective, open-labeled, variable doses in volunteers. Eighteen apparently healthy volunteers (12M:6F, age:18-30 years, and BMI: 19-30) were enrolled. After baseline investigations, they received WS capsules (Rx) (aqueous extract, 8:1) daily in two divided doses with increase in daily dosage every 10 days for 30 days (750 mg/day ×10 days, 1 000 mg/day × 10 days, 1 250 mg/day × 10 days). Volunteers were assessed for symptoms/signs, vital functions, hematological and biochemical organ function tests. Muscle activity was measured by hand grip strength, quadriceps strength, and back extensor force. Exercise tolerance was determined using cycle ergometry. Lean body weight and fat% were computed from skin fold thickness measurement. Adverse events were recorded, as volunteered by the subjects. Repeated measures ANOVA, McNemar's test, and paired t test were employed. All but one volunteer tolerated WS without any adverse event. One volunteer showed increased appetite, libido, and hallucinogenic effects with vertigo at the lowest dose and was withdrawn from study. In six subjects, improvement in quality of sleep was found. Organ function tests were in normal range before and after the intervention. Reduction in total- and LDL- cholesterol and increase of strength in muscle activity was significant. Total body fat percentage showed a reduction trend. WS, in escalated dose, was tolerated well. The formulation appeared safe and strengthened muscle activity. In view of its traditional Rasayana use, further studies are planned to evaluate potential of this drug in patients of sarcopenia. PMID:23125505

  5. Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) May Have Antidepressant Activity in Anxious Depressed Humans - An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Amsterdam, Jay D.; Shults, Justine; Soeller, Irene; Mao, Jun James; Rockwell, Kenneth; Newberg, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective As part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we examined the antidepressant action of oral chamomile (Matricaria recutita) extract in subjects with co-morbid anxiety and depression symptoms. We hypothesized that chamomile may demonstrate a clinically meaningful antidepressant activity versus placebo. Methods 57 subjects received either chamomile extract or placebo therapy. Nineteen subjects had anxiety with co-morbid depression, 16 had anxiety with past history of depression, and 22 had anxiety with no current or past depression. Generalized estimating equations analysis was used to identify clinically meaningful changes over time in Hamilton Depression Rating (HAM-D) rating outcome measures among treatment groups. Results We observed a significantly greater reduction in mean total HAM-D scores (p<0.05) and HAM-D core depression item score (p<0.05) for chamomile versus placebo in all subjects, and a non-significant trend for a greater reduction in HAM-D core depression score for chamomile versus placebo in subjects with anxiety with current co-morbid depression (p=0.062). Conclusion Chamomile may have clinically meaningful antidepressant activity that occurs in addition to its previously observed anxiolytic activity. PMID:22894890

  6. Exploratory Data Analysis Using a Dedicated Visualization App: Looking for Patterns in Volcanic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Manen, S. M.; Chen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present an App designed to visualize and identify patterns in volcanic activity during the last ten years. It visualizes VEI (volcanic explosivity index) levels, population size, frequency of activity, and geographic region, and is designed to address the issue of oversampling of data. Often times, it is difficult to access a large set of data that can be scattered at first glance and hard to digest without visual aid. This App serves as a model that solves this issue and can be applied to other data. To enable users to quickly assess the large data set it breaks down the apparently chaotic abundance of information into categories and graphic indicators: color is used to indicate the VEI level, size for population size within 5 km of a volcano, line thickness for frequency of activity, and a grid to pinpoint a volcano's latitude. The categories and layers within them can be turned on and off by the user, enabling them to scroll through and compare different layers of data. By visualising the data this way, patterns began to emerge. For example, certain geographic regions had more explosive eruptions than others. Another good example was that low frequency larger impact volcanic eruptions occurred more irregularly than smaller impact volcanic eruptions, which had a more stable frequencies. Although these findings are not unexpected, the easy to navigate App does showcase the potential of data visualization for the rapid appraisal of complex and abundant multi-dimensional geoscience data.

  7. An exploratory randomized controlled trial of a novel high-school-based smoking cessation intervention for adolescent smokers using abstinence-contingent incentives and cognitive behavioral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Cooney, Judith L.; Schepis, Ty S.; Kong, Grace; Liss, Thomas B.; Liss, Amanda K.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Nich, Charla; Babuscio, Theresa; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few effective smoking cessation interventions for adolescent smokers. We developed a novel intervention to motivate tobacco use behavior change by 1) enhancing desire to quit through the use of abstinence-contingent incentives (CM), 2) increasing cessation skills through the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and 3) removing cessation barriers through delivery within high schools. Methods An exploratory four-week, randomized controlled trial was conducted in Connecticut high schools to dismantle the independent and combined effects of CM and CBT; smokers received CM alone, CBT alone, or CM+CBT. Participants included 82 adolescent smokers seeking smoking cessation treatment. The primary outcome was seven-day end-of-treatment (EOT) point prevalence (PP) abstinence, determined using self-reports confirmed using urine cotinine levels. Secondary outcomes included one-day EOT PP abstinence and cigarette use during treatment and follow up. Results Among participants who initiated treatment (n=72), group differences in seven-day EOT-PP abstinence were observed (χ2=10.48, p<0.01) with higher abstinence in the CM+CBT (36.7%) and CM (36.3%) conditions when compared with CBT (0%). One-day EOT-PP abstinence evidenced similar effects (χ2= 10·39, p<0·01; CM+CBT: 43%, CM: 43%, CBT: 4·3%). Survival analyses indicated differences in time to first cigarette during treatment (χ2=8·73, p =·003; CBT: Day 3, CM: Day 9, CM+CBT: Day 20). At one-and three-month follow ups, while no differences were observed, the CM alone group had the slowest increase in cigarette use. Conclusions High-school, incentive-based smoking cessation interventions produce high rates of short-term abstinence among adolescent smokers; adding cognitive behavioral therapy does not appear to further enhance outcomes. PMID:23523130

  8. Enduring effects of post-weaning rearing condition on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and motor activity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Mosaferi, Belal; Babri, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Hadi; Mohaddes, Gisou

    2015-04-01

    Environmental manipulation at early critical periods could have long-lasting effects. In spite of the great interest in the biological effects of the environmental condition so far, its long-lasting effects are less documented. This study looks at the enduring effects of rearing condition on tasks that measure affective responses and exploratory behavior in male Wistar rats. The animals were reared from weaning to adulthood in an enriched environment, standard laboratory condition, or isolated condition. Then, all rats were housed in standard laboratory cages to provide a common environment, and successively exposed to different tests between 0 and 11 weeks post-manipulation. The open field test indicated a more efficient exploratory behavior in the enriched group, and an enhanced spontaneous motor activity in both standard and isolated groups. In addition, rats reared in standard condition showed heightened motor activity in forced swimming test and elevated plus maze. Forced swimming test showed an antidepressive-like effect in the enriched environment group by increased climbing behavior. In respect to the anxiety behavior, environmental enrichment improved threat detection ability. It is concluded that rearing condition from weaning to adulthood has important and long-lasting effects on depressive- and anxiety-like and exploratory behaviors as well as motor activity.

  9. An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Comparisons and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Cutler, Martin M.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin; Powell, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The study compared psychosocial risk behaviors of adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing with those of their hearing peers in a residential treatment facility. Statistically significant differences emerged between groups. The adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing demonstrated clinically higher scores than those of their hearing peers…

  10. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…

  11. Relationships between Thinking Styles and Behaviors Fostering Creativity: An Exploratory Study for the Mediating Role of Certain Demographic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikici, Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the role of demographic traits of Turkish teachers on the relationship between their thinking styles and creativity fostering behaviors. Three studies were conducted to investigate these relationships. In the first study, 202 Turkish elementary and secondary school teachers were included; in the second, 106 novice…

  12. Emotional intelligence, emotions, and feelings of support staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Zijlmans, Linda J M; Embregts, Petri J C M; Bosman, Anna M T

    2013-11-01

    Working with clients who show challenging behavior can be emotionally demanding and stressful for support staff, because this behavior may cause a range of negative emotional reactions and feelings. These reactions are of negative influence on staff wellbeing and behavior. Research has focused on negative emotions of staff. However, a distinction between emotions and feelings has never been made in the research field of intellectual disabilities. Negative emotions and feelings may be regulated by emotional intelligence, a psychological construct that takes into account personal style and individual differences. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence on the one hand and emotions and feelings on the other. Participants were 207 support staff serving clients with moderate to borderline intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior. Emotional intelligence, emotions, and feelings were measured with questionnaires. The results show that emotional intelligence, emotions, and feelings are related. However, found relationships were weak. Most significant relations were found between feelings and stress management and adaptation elements of emotional intelligence. Because the explored variables can change over time they call for a longitudinal research approach.

  13. Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Measure Construct Validity of the Traits, Aptitudes, and Behaviors Scale (TABS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besnoy, Kevin D.; Dantzler, John; Besnoy, Lisa R.; Byrne, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the construct validity of the Traits, Aptitudes, and Behaviors Scale (TABS). Data for this study were collected from two separate school districts across three different academic years in the Southeastern United States. Of the total sample (N = 2,330), 64.6% of the children were identified as African American, 29.0% as…

  14. Haptic-Visual Matching of Shape by Mentally Retarded Children: Effects of Stimulus and Haptic Exploratory Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Philip W.; And Others

    This experiment compared retarded and normal subjects at different developmental levels on visual (V) and haptic (H) matching tasks. Systematic observations of variables known to have developmentally linked effects on accuracy, including stimulus complexity and haptic exploratory search style, were made. Seventeen mentally retarded subjects, with…

  15. Family leadership styles and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transformational leadership is conceptualized as a set of behaviors designed to inspire, energize and motivate others to achieve higher levels of functioning, and is associated with salient health-related outcomes in organizational settings. Given (a) the similarities that exist between leadership within organizational settings and parenting within families, and (b) the importance of the family environment in the promotion of adolescent health-enhancing behaviors, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cross-sectional relationships between parents’ transformational leadership behaviors and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors. Methods 857 adolescents (aged 13–15, mean age = 14.70 yrs) completed measures of transformational parenting behaviors, healthful dietary intake and leisure-time physical activity. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between family transformational leadership and adolescent health outcomes. A further ‘extreme group analysis’ was conducted by clustering families based on quartile splits. A MANCOVA (controlling for child gender) was conducted to examine differences between families displaying (a) HIGH levels of transformational parenting (consistent HIGH TP), (b) LOW levels of transformational parenting (consistent LOW TP), and (c) inconsistent levels of transformational parenting (inconsistent HIGH-LOW TP). Results Results revealed that adolescents’ perceptions of family transformational parenting were associated with both healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Adolescents who perceived their families to display the highest levels of transformational parenting (HIGH TP group) displayed greater healthy eating and physical activity behaviors than adolescents who perceived their families to display the lowest levels of transformational parenting behaviors (LOW TP group). Adolescents who perceived their families to display inconsistent levels of transformational

  16. Wiki technology enhanced group project to promote active learning in a neuroscience course for first-year medical students: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Mi, Misa; Gould, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    A Wiki group project was integrated into a neuroscience course for first-year medical students. The project was developed as a self-directed, collaborative learning task to help medical students review course content and make clinically important connections. The goals of the project were to enhance students' understanding of key concepts in neuroscience, promote active learning, and reinforce their information literacy skills. The objective of the exploratory study was to provide a formative evaluation of the Wiki group project and to examine how Wiki technology was utilized to enhance active and collaborative learning of first-year medical students in the course and to reinforce information literacy skills.

  17. Development and validation of the theory of planned behavior questionnaire in physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tirado González, Sonia; Neipp López, M Carmen; Quiles Marcos, Yolanda; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is one of the main theoretical models in the study of the different variables, which influence in the practise of physical activity. The aim in this study was to develop a questionnaire based on TPB in physical activity context providing evidence for the validity of the obtained measures. The instrumental project included three independent studies. The first study entailed the construction and qualitative assessment of the items. In the second study, the analysis of factorial structure was performed by means of exploratory measures, and it showed that the reliability of measures was adequate. The third study provided evidence on the dimensionality of the scale. The confirmatory factorial analysis guaranteed the stability of factorial structure proposed by the TPB and provided evidence for the internal validity of the inventory. Moreover, this study provided evidence of its external validity.

  18. The Use of Cross-Curricular Activity on Interactive Playgrounds to Supplement School-Based Physical Activity: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Amy; Dotterweich, Andy R.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity and physical inactivity are serious threats to the health and wellness of our schoolchildren. Research has shown that play and physical activity are important in development, behaviour and academic achievement. Through the efforts of coordinated school health program and a Physical Education for Progress grant, a county school…

  19. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on the exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial memory of the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate.

    PubMed

    Languille, Solène; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2012-12-01

    The data are inconsistent about the ability of dietary omega-3 fatty acids to prevent age-associated cognitive decline. Indeed, most clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids against cognitive decline, and methodological issues are still under debate. In contrast to human studies, experiments performed in adult rodents clearly indicate that omega-3 fatty acids supplement can improve behavioural and cognitive functions. The inconsistent observations between human and rodent studies highlight the importance of the use of non-human primate models. The aim of the present study was to address the impact of omega-3 fatty acids (given in the form of dietary fish oil) on exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial reference memory in the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate. Aged animals fed fish oil exhibited decreased exploratory activity, as manifested by an increase in the latency to move and a reduced distance travelled in an open-field. The fish oil-supplemented animals exhibited no change in the anxiety level, but they were more reactive to go into the dark arms of a light/dark plus-maze. In addition, we found that fish oil supplementation did not significantly improve the spatial memory performance in the Barnes maze task. This study demonstrated for the first time that a fish oil diet initiated late in life specifically modifies the exploratory behaviour without improving the spatial memory of aged non-human primates. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may be effective when started early in life but less effective when started at later ages. PMID:22921374

  20. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on the exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial memory of the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate.

    PubMed

    Languille, Solène; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2012-12-01

    The data are inconsistent about the ability of dietary omega-3 fatty acids to prevent age-associated cognitive decline. Indeed, most clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids against cognitive decline, and methodological issues are still under debate. In contrast to human studies, experiments performed in adult rodents clearly indicate that omega-3 fatty acids supplement can improve behavioural and cognitive functions. The inconsistent observations between human and rodent studies highlight the importance of the use of non-human primate models. The aim of the present study was to address the impact of omega-3 fatty acids (given in the form of dietary fish oil) on exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial reference memory in the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate. Aged animals fed fish oil exhibited decreased exploratory activity, as manifested by an increase in the latency to move and a reduced distance travelled in an open-field. The fish oil-supplemented animals exhibited no change in the anxiety level, but they were more reactive to go into the dark arms of a light/dark plus-maze. In addition, we found that fish oil supplementation did not significantly improve the spatial memory performance in the Barnes maze task. This study demonstrated for the first time that a fish oil diet initiated late in life specifically modifies the exploratory behaviour without improving the spatial memory of aged non-human primates. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may be effective when started early in life but less effective when started at later ages.

  1. An exploratory study into the putative prebiotic activity of fructans isolated from Agave angustifolia and the associated anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Allsopp, Philip; Possemiers, Sam; Campbell, David; Oyarzábal, Iván Saldaña; Gill, Chris; Rowland, Ian

    2013-08-01

    Linear inulin-type fructan (ITF) prebiotics have a putative role in the prevention of colorectal cancer, whereas relatively little is known about branched fructans. This study aims to investigate the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of branched fructans derived from Agave angustifolia Haw, using the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) model. The proximal, transverse and distal vessels were used to investigate fructan fermentation throughout the colon and to assess the alterations of the microbial composition and fermentation metabolites (short chain fatty acids and ammonia). The influence on bioactivity of the fermentation supernatant was assessed by MTT, Comet and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), respectively. Addition of Agave fructan to the SHIME model significantly increased (P < 0.05), bifidobacteria populations (proximal and transverse), SCFA concentrations (proximal, transverse and distal) and decreased ammonia concentrations in the distal vessel. Furthermore, the fermentation supernatant significantly (P < 0.05) increased the TER of a Caco-2 cell monolayer (%) and decreased fluorescein-based paracellular flux, suggesting enhanced barrier function and reduced epithelial barrier permeability (proximal and distal vessel). While cytotoxicity and genotoxicity remained unaltered in response to the presence of Agave fructans. To conclude, branched Agave fructans show indications of prebiotic activity, particularly in relation to colon health by exerting a positive influence on gut barrier function, an important aspect of colon carcinogenesis. PMID:23714623

  2. An exploratory study into the putative prebiotic activity of fructans isolated from Agave angustifolia and the associated anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Allsopp, Philip; Possemiers, Sam; Campbell, David; Oyarzábal, Iván Saldaña; Gill, Chris; Rowland, Ian

    2013-08-01

    Linear inulin-type fructan (ITF) prebiotics have a putative role in the prevention of colorectal cancer, whereas relatively little is known about branched fructans. This study aims to investigate the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of branched fructans derived from Agave angustifolia Haw, using the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) model. The proximal, transverse and distal vessels were used to investigate fructan fermentation throughout the colon and to assess the alterations of the microbial composition and fermentation metabolites (short chain fatty acids and ammonia). The influence on bioactivity of the fermentation supernatant was assessed by MTT, Comet and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), respectively. Addition of Agave fructan to the SHIME model significantly increased (P < 0.05), bifidobacteria populations (proximal and transverse), SCFA concentrations (proximal, transverse and distal) and decreased ammonia concentrations in the distal vessel. Furthermore, the fermentation supernatant significantly (P < 0.05) increased the TER of a Caco-2 cell monolayer (%) and decreased fluorescein-based paracellular flux, suggesting enhanced barrier function and reduced epithelial barrier permeability (proximal and distal vessel). While cytotoxicity and genotoxicity remained unaltered in response to the presence of Agave fructans. To conclude, branched Agave fructans show indications of prebiotic activity, particularly in relation to colon health by exerting a positive influence on gut barrier function, an important aspect of colon carcinogenesis.

  3. Behavioral activation: a strategy to enhance treatment response.

    PubMed

    Sudak, Donna M; Majeed, Muhammad H; Youngman, Branden

    2014-07-01

    Behavioral activation is an empirically validated treatment for depression pioneered in 1973 by Ferster, based on B.F. Skinner's behavioral principles. After publication of Beck's work on cognitive therapy, the boundaries of behavioral and cognitive therapies were blurred and the two now overlap substantially. Behavioral activation is also used as a stand-alone treatment and can also be effective in conjunction with antidepressant medication. Case conceptualization in behavioral activation entails an assessment of the behaviors that the patient has stopped that produce pleasure or are of importance, as well as behaviors essential to self-care. Activity monitoring, which provides treatment targets and leads to the case conceptualization in behavioral activation, consists of using charts, forms, or other prompts to track the relationship between activities and other variables (e.g., mood, enjoyment). That technique is also used to target rumination, procrastination, and avoidance and may also be helpful for patients with psychosis. PMID:25036582

  4. Romantic relationship development in the age of Facebook: an exploratory study of emerging adults' perceptions, motives, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults' experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as "In a Relationship" and actively link one's profile to a romantic partner's, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed.

  5. Romantic relationship development in the age of Facebook: an exploratory study of emerging adults' perceptions, motives, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults' experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as "In a Relationship" and actively link one's profile to a romantic partner's, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed. PMID:23098273

  6. Who intervenes against homophobic behavior? Attributes that distinguish active bystanders.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Vecho, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    Research on homophobic behavior has focused on students engaging in this behavior or students toward whom this behavior is directed. There has been little attention to the large segment of students who observe this behavior, including active bystanders who defend or support students when homophobic behavior occurs. Among 722 high school students (55% female, 87% white, 86% heterosexual), 66.8% had observed at least one instance of homophobic behavior in the past 30 days. Gender (in this case, girls more so than boys), leadership, courage, altruism, justice sensitivity, and number of LGBT friends were associated with engagement in more active bystander behavior in response to observing homophobic behavior. Further, gender, courage, altruism, and number of LGBT friends each made unique contributions in accounting for variability in students' defending behavior in a comprehensive regression model. Findings highlight qualities that interventionists should cultivate in students that could lead to more active bystander engagement against homophobic behavior. PMID:26790700

  7. Recent Perplexing Behavior in Solar Activity Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, James C.

    1997-05-01

    Calcium K and Hα and SOHO He II UV plage and sunspot ara have been monitored using images on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The purpose of the project is to determine the degree of correlation between changing plage area and solar irradiance changes (also obtained via the INTERNET). Also the project provides a low cost process to involve undergraduates in astronomy research. When using weighted weekly averages for both spot Hα plage pixel counts, we see the expected decline from the last maximum. The activity continues to decline, or at best, has flattened out over the past several months. In contrast, the K-line plage pixel count from both Big Bear and Sacramento Peak show an upswing since mid-1995 or earlier. The k2 measurments from both Kitt Peak and Sacramento Peak are in general agreement with the spot and Hα behavior, indicating wer are in, or barely passed minimum. Images high in the chromosphere, detailing the magnetic network, may be more senstive to smaller field changes. This might be a partial explanation for the earlier upswing in K line and He 304 activity, which are receiving radiation near or at the top of the chromosphere.

  8. Loss of rostral brainstem cholinergic activity results in decreased ultrasonic vocalization behavior and altered sensorimotor gating.

    PubMed

    Machold, Robert P

    2013-11-01

    The parabigeminal (PBG), pedunculopontine (PPTg), and laterodorsal tegmental (LDTg) nuclei located in the rostral brainstem are the primary sources of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) for the midbrain and thalamus, and as part of the ascending reticular activating system, these cholinergic signaling pathways regulate mouse behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. Here, I report that mice harboring a conditional deletion of ACh synthesis specifically within these nuclei (ChAT(En1 KO)) exhibit decreased ultrasonic vocalizations both as pups and adults, consistent with their previously reported hypoactivity when exploring the novel environment of the open field arena. Furthermore, in prepulse inhibition (PPI) tests, ChAT(En1 KO) animals exhibited increased sensorimotor gating in comparison to control littermates. These data suggest that ACh signaling arising from the rostral brainstem modulates animal behavior in part by tuning the levels of sensorimotor gating. Thus, the net effect of this cholinergic activity is to increase sensitivity to environmental stimuli, and loss of this pathway contributes to the hypoactivity in these mutants by raising the sensory threshold for eliciting exploratory behaviors.

  9. Chronic Pyruvate Supplementation Increases Exploratory Activity and Brain Energy Reserves in Young and Middle-Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koivisto, Hennariikka; Leinonen, Henri; Puurula, Mari; Hafez, Hani Sayed; Barrera, Glenda Alquicer; Stridh, Malin H.; Waagepetersen, Helle S.; Tiainen, Mika; Soininen, Pasi; Zilberter, Yuri; Tanila, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of pyruvate when given in systemic injections. Impaired glucose uptake and metabolism are found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and in AD mouse models. We tested whether dietary pyruvate supplementation is able to provide added energy supply to brain and thereby attenuate aging- or AD-related cognitive impairment. Mice received ~800 mg/kg/day Na-pyruvate in their chow for 2–6 months. In middle-aged wild-type mice and in 6.5-month-old APP/PS1 mice, pyruvate facilitated spatial learning and increased exploration of a novel odor. However, in passive avoidance task for fear memory, the treatment group was clearly impaired. Independent of age, long-term pyruvate increased explorative behavior, which likely explains the paradoxical impairment in passive avoidance. We also assessed pyruvate effects on body weight, muscle force, and endurance, and found no effects. Metabolic postmortem assays revealed increased energy compounds in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as increased brain glycogen storages in the pyruvate group. Pyruvate supplementation may counteract aging-related behavioral impairment, but its beneficial effect seems related to increased explorative activity rather than direct memory enhancement. PMID:27014054

  10. An exploratory intervention study suggests clinical benefits of training in chronic stroke to be paralleled by changes in brain activity using repeated fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Landsmann, Barbara; Pinter, Daniela; Pirker, Eva; Pichler, Gerald; Schippinger, Walter; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Mathie, Gabriel; Gattringer, Thomas; Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies demonstrated changes in sensorimotor network activation over time after stroke that have been interpreted as partly compensatory. Locomotor and balance trainings may improve both mobility and cognition even in chronic stroke and thereby impact on cerebral activation patterns. We here aimed at testing these assumptions in an exploratory study to inform subsequent larger intervention studies. Patients and methods Eight patients (73.3±4.4 years) with a chronic lacunar stroke (mean interval 3.7 years after the acute event with a range from 2 to 4 years) and residual leg paresis leading to gait disturbance received a guided 5-week training focusing on mobility, endurance, and coordination. Before and afterward, they underwent clinical, neuropsychological, and gait assessments and brain MRI at 3 T including a functional ankle movement paradigm. Sixteen healthy controls (HCs; 68.8±5.4 years) followed the same protocol without intervention. Results After training, patients had improved in mobility, memory, and delayed recall of memory. While cerebral activations in HC remained completely unaltered, patients showed increased activations in the right precentral gyrus, the right and left superior frontal gyri, and the right frontal lobe, with bipedal ankle movements after training. Conclusion In this exploratory study of chronic stroke, we found not only significant effects of physical training on mobility but also distinct aspects of cognition already with a small number of highly selected patients. These improvements were paralleled by alterations in cerebral activity possibly reflecting neuronal plasticity. Larger studies including randomization are needed. PMID:26869779

  11. Possible dopaminergic stimulation of locus coeruleus alpha1-adrenoceptors involved in behavioral activation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Quartermain, David; Dunn, Adrian J; Weinshenker, David; Stone, Eric A

    2008-07-01

    alpha(1)-Adrenoceptors of the locus coeruleus (LC) have been implicated in behavioral activation in novel surroundings, but the endogenous agonist that activates these receptors has not been established. In addition to the canonical activation of alpha(1)-receptors by norepinephrine (NE), there is evidence that dopamine (DA) may also activate certain brain alpha(1)-receptors. This study examined the contribution of DA to exploratory activity in a novel cage by determining the effect of infusion of various dopaminergic and adrenergic drugs into the mouse LC. It was found that the D2/D3 agonist, quinpirole, which selectively blocks the release of CNS DA, produced a dose-dependent and virtually complete abolition of exploration and all movement in the novel cage test. The quinpirole-induced inactivity was significantly attenuated by coinfusion of DA but not by the D1 agonist, SKF38390. Furthermore, the DA attenuation of quinpirole inactivity was blocked by coinfusion of the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, terazosin, but not by the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390. LC infusions of either quinpirole or terazosin also produced profound inactivity in DA-beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice that lack NE, indicating that their behavioral effects were not due to an alteration of the release or action of LC NE. Measurement of endogenous DA, NE, and 5HT and their metabolites in the LC during exposure to the novel cage indicated an increase in the turnover of DA and NE but not 5HT. These results indicate that DA is a candidate as an endogenous agonist for behaviorally activating LC alpha(1)-receptors and may play a role in the activation of this nucleus by novel surroundings. PMID:18435418

  12. Executive function moderates the intention-behavior link for physical activity and dietary behavior.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Epp, Lynette J; Elias, Lorin J

    2008-01-01

    Dominant theories of health behavior posit that social-cognitive and conative variables are sufficient to explain health behavior tendencies. The current studies challenge this assumption in two ways: (1) by demonstrating that unique variance in health protective behavior is predictable by knowing about individual differences in executive functioning, and (2) by demonstrating that executive function moderates the association between intention and behavior. In Studies 1 and 2, participants completed a computer-based task of executive function (Go/NoGo task) and articulated 1-week behavioral intentions for physical activity (Study 1) and dietary behavior (Study 2). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that executive function predicts unique variance in both behaviors, and strongly moderates the association between behavioral intention and behavioral performance. Together behavioral intention and executive function explain more variance in health protective behavior than 'rational actor' models that have been widely adopted and disseminated. PMID:25160480

  13. Brooding and Pondering: Isolating the active ingredients of depressive rumination with exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling

    PubMed Central

    Armey, Michael F.; Fresco, David M.; Moore, Michael T.; Mennin, Douglas S.; Turk, Cynthia L.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Spasojevic, Jelena; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2010-01-01

    Depressive rumination, as assessed by Nolen-Hoeksema’s Response Styles Questionnaire (RSQ; Nolen-Hoeksema & Morrow, 1991), predicts the onset, chronicity, and duration of depressed mood. However, some RSQ items contain depressive content and result in a heterogeneous factor structure. After the a priori elimination of items potentially confounded with depressed item content, Treynor et al. (2003) identified two factors within the remaining RSQ rumination subscale that were differentially related to depression: brooding and pondering. However, Treynor et al. (2003) used a non-standard form and administration of the RSQ. The present study sought to address these methodological idiosyncrasies and replicate the factor structure of Treynor et al. (2003) through exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Findings support the brooding and pondering solution and demonstrate that brooding relates more strongly to depression and anxiety than does pondering. PMID:19667138

  14. Behavioral Intervention to Reduce AIDS Risk Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jeffrey A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Randomly assigned homosexual men (N=104) with history of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) risk behavior to experimental and control groups. Experimentals received AIDS risk education, cognitive-behavioral self-management training, sexual assertion training, and social support development training. Experimentals greatly reduced frequency…

  15. Pupil Inquiry Behavior Analysis and Change Activity. Interim Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manion, Raymond C.

    This interim report discusses progress toward three major goals of the Pupil Inquiry Behavior Analysis and Change Activity: increased pupil inquiry, changed teacher behavior to facilitate pupil inquiry, and the development of a 32-week course of instruction to provide for these behavioral changes. Data currently available deals with the emotional…

  16. Association of Active Play-Related Parenting Behaviors, Orientations, and Practices with Preschool Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on…

  17. The cognitive-behavioral system of leadership: cognitive antecedents of active and passive leadership behaviors.

    PubMed

    Dóci, Edina; Stouten, Jeroen; Hofmans, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose a cognitive-behavioral understanding of active and passive leadership. Building on core evaluations theory, we offer a model that explains the emergence of leaders' active and passive behaviors, thereby predicting stable, inter-individual, as well as variable, intra-individual differences in both types of leadership behavior. We explain leaders' stable behavioral tendencies by their fundamental beliefs about themselves, others, and the world (core evaluations), while their variable, momentary behaviors are explained by the leaders' momentary appraisals of themselves, others, and the world (specific evaluations). By introducing interactions between the situation the leader enters, the leader's beliefs, appraisals, and behavior, we propose a comprehensive system of cognitive mechanisms that underlie active and passive leadership behavior. PMID:26441721

  18. The cognitive-behavioral system of leadership: cognitive antecedents of active and passive leadership behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dóci, Edina; Stouten, Jeroen; Hofmans, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose a cognitive-behavioral understanding of active and passive leadership. Building on core evaluations theory, we offer a model that explains the emergence of leaders’ active and passive behaviors, thereby predicting stable, inter-individual, as well as variable, intra-individual differences in both types of leadership behavior. We explain leaders’ stable behavioral tendencies by their fundamental beliefs about themselves, others, and the world (core evaluations), while their variable, momentary behaviors are explained by the leaders’ momentary appraisals of themselves, others, and the world (specific evaluations). By introducing interactions between the situation the leader enters, the leader’s beliefs, appraisals, and behavior, we propose a comprehensive system of cognitive mechanisms that underlie active and passive leadership behavior. PMID:26441721

  19. Fuzzy Behavior Modulation with Threshold Activation for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunstel, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes fuzzy logic techniques used in a hierarchical behavior-based architecture for robot navigation. An architectural feature for threshold activation of fuzzy-behaviors is emphasized, which is potentially useful for tuning navigation performance in real world applications. The target application is autonomous local navigation of a small planetary rover. Threshold activation of low-level navigation behaviors is the primary focus. A preliminary assessment of its impact on local navigation performance is provided based on computer simulations.

  20. Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

  1. Psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Sagarin, Brad J

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed. PMID:20665329

  2. Effects of chronic administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract on anxiety-like reactivity and on circadian and exploratory activities in mice.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Alvin; Feuillere, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Lesburgere, Edith; Beracochea, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of chronic (15 consecutive days of treatment) per os administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract (Cyracos, Naturex) on anxiety-like reactivity in mice. As measured by HPLC, Cyracos contains significant amounts of rosmarinic acid and the triterpenoids oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, which inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) activity and increase GABA levels in the brain (Awad et al., 2007; Awad et al., 2009). Thus, we evaluated Cyracos use in independent groups of C57BL/6 mice with regard to anxiety-like reactivity in an elevated plus maze and an open field task. We found that Cyracos significantly reduced anxiety-like reactivity in the elevated plus maze dose-dependently, but no significant effect was observed in the open field task. Parallel experiments in independent groups of mice showed that the Cyracosdose at which it exerted anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze did not alter exploratory or circadian activities. Therefore, our results demonstrate that Cyracos has anxiolytic-like effects under moderate stress conditions and does not alter activity levels.

  3. [Physical activity, eating behavior, and pathology].

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Estébanez Humanes, Sonia; Santiago Fernández, María José

    2008-09-01

    Intense physical activity has been reported in patients with eating disorders, and hyperactivity can be found in more than 80% in severe stages. The beginning of food restriction occurs at earlier ages if there is an intense physical activity; body dissatisfaction is more intense among patients who practice exercise; and the presence of intense activity in anorexia nervosa usually precedes to the restrictive diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of exercise at the beginning of the eating disorder, and to analyze possible differences in the kind of exercise, according to age, sex and diagnostic subgroups. In order to evaluate the exercise 745 patients were assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE). The presence of physical activity (driving to caloric consumption, weight loss or modification of body shape), kind of activity, and its intensity were considered. Only the presence of moderate or high intensity clearly related with the mentioned objectives was considered. 407 patients (54.63%) engaged in exercise: 68.96% with anorexia, 68.96% with bulimia, and 34.73% with other non-specified eating disorders. There were not significant differences between men and women. Hyperactivity was the most frequent (47.42%), followed by gym activity (25.79%). Taking into account the different clinic subgroups, we could observe significant differences. To assess eating disorders, a correct evaluation of the physical activity should be necessary in order to include this aspect in treatment programs. PMID:19137991

  4. Classroom Activities and Demonstrations for Use in Behavioral Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cology, Lorry J.

    This compilation provides descriptions of and resource materials for 25 classroom activities or demonstrations for behavioral science courses. For each activity, the following information is provided: subject area, source, time required and materials needed. In addition, discussion questions and comments on the value and use of the activities are…

  5. Active-Learning Exercises for Consumer Behavior Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents 13 active-learning activities designed for use in consumer behavior courses. The exercises involve students in brief activities, such as analysis of persuasion techniques in advertising, and follow-up discussion. Reports that students found the exercises enjoyable and worthwhile. (CFR)

  6. Activity and Social Behavior in a Complex Environment in Rats Neonatally Exposed to Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Boschen, Karen E.; Hamilton, Gillian F.; Delorme, James E.; Klintsova, Anna Y.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental complexity (EC) is a powerful, stimulating paradigm that engages animals through a variety of sensory and motor pathways. Exposure to EC (30 days) following 12 days of wheel running preserves hippocampal neuroplasticity in male rats neonatally exposed to alcohol during the third-trimester equivalent (binge-like exposure on postnatal days [PD] 4–9). The current experiment investigates the importance of various components of EC (physical activity, exploration, social interaction, novelty) and examines whether neonatal alcohol exposure affects how male rats interact with their environment and other male rats. Male pups were assigned to 1 of 3 neonatal conditions from PD 4–9: suckle control (SC), sham-intubated (SI), or alcohol-exposed (AE, 5.25 g/kg/day). From PD 30–42 animals were housed with 24-h access to a voluntary running wheel. The animals were then placed in EC from PD 42–72 (9 animals/cage, counterbalanced by neonatal condition). During EC, the animals were filmed for five 30-min sessions (PD 42, 48, 56, 64, 68). For the first experiment, the videos were coded for distance traveled in the cage, overall locomotor activity, time spent near other animals, and interaction with toys. For the second experiment, the videos were analyzed for wrestling, mounting, boxing, grooming, sniffing, and crawling over/under. AE animals were found to be less active and exploratory and engaged in fewer mounting behaviors compared to control animals. Results suggest that after exposure to wheel running, AE animals still have deficits in activity and social behaviors while housed in EC compared to control animals with the same experience. PMID:25150044

  7. Safety-Related Improvisation in Led Outdoor Activities: An Exploratory Investigation into Its Occurrence and Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Margaret J.; Salmon, Paul M.; Lenné, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic nature of led outdoor activities means that, despite activity providers' best efforts, activity leaders can be exposed to unanticipated situations for which no procedures exist. Improvisation, the spontaneous, real-time conception and execution of a novel response, has been identified as a potential means of maintaining safety in…

  8. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Dietary Behaviors among US High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Shannon; Demissie, Zewditu; Kann, Laura; Galuska, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors are each associated with overweight and obesity among youth. However, the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors are complex and not well understood. Purpose. To describe the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among a representative sample of US high school students. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS). Using logistic regression models which controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, body weight status, and weight management goals, we compared dietary behaviors among students who did and did not meet national recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviors. Results. Students who participated in recommended levels of daily PA (DPA) and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA) were more likely than those who did not to eat fruits and vegetables. Students who exceeded recommended limits for television (TV) and computer/video game (C/VG) screen time were less likely than those who did not to consume fruits and vegetables and were more likely to consume fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusions. Researchers may want to address PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors jointly when developing health promotion and obesity prevention programs for youth. PMID:26101666

  9. Exploratory energy research program at the University of Michigan. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, W.

    1980-12-08

    A DOE grant to the University of Michigan for an Exploratory Energy Research Program is being used by the U-M Office of Energy Research (OER) to support faculty research and grad student research assistantships. Progress on activity during the first six months of the program is described and brief status reports on 20 energy-related faculty research projects in the physical, engineering, biological, and behavioral sciences are presented.

  10. Activity space environment and dietary and physical activity behaviors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Schulz, Amy J; Matthews, Stephen A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Wilbur, JoEllen; Wegrzyn, Lani; Gibbs, Kevin; Braunschweig, Carol; Stokes, Carmen

    2011-09-01

    This study examined relationships among individual demographics, environmental features (e.g., fast food outlet density, park land use) of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces, and weight-related behaviors (diet, physical activity). Participants' movement was tracked for 7 days using global positioning systems (GPS). Two activity space measures (one standard deviation ellipse, daily path area) were derived from the GPS data. Activity spaces were generally larger than residential neighborhoods; environmental features of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces were weakly associated; and some activity space environmental features were related to dietary behaviors. Activity spaces may provide new insights into environmental influences on obesity-related behaviors.

  11. Activity Space Environment and Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Matthews, Stephen A.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Wilbur, JoEllen; Wegrzyn, Lani; Gibbs, Kevin; Braunschweig, Carol; Stokes, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships among individual demographics, environmental features (e.g., fast food outlet density, park land use) of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces, and obesity-related behaviors (diet, physical activity). Participants’ movement was tracked for seven days using global positioning systems (GPS). Two activity space measures (one standard deviation ellipse, daily path area) were derived from the GPS data. Activity spaces were generally larger than residential neighborhoods; environmental features of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces were weakly associated; and some activity space environmental features were related to dietary behaviors. Activity spaces may provide new insights into environmental influences on obesity-related behaviors. PMID:21696995

  12. Symbol Sense Behavior in Digital Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhove, Christian; Drijvers, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The algebraic expertise that mathematics education is aiming for includes both procedural skills and conceptual understanding. To capture the latter, notions such as symbol sense, gestalt view and visual salience have been developed. We wonder if digital activities can be designed that not only require procedural algebraic skills, but also invite…

  13. Controlling neural activity in Caenorhabditis elegans to evoke chemotactic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocabas, Askin; Shen, Ching-Han; Guo, Zengcai V.; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2013-03-01

    Animals locate and track chemoattractive gradients in the environment to find food. With its simple nervous system, Caenorhabditis elegans is a good model system in which to understand how the dynamics of neural activity control this search behavior. To understand how the activity in its interneurons coordinate different motor programs to lead the animal to food, here we used optogenetics and new optical tools to manipulate neural activity directly in freely moving animals to evoke chemotactic behavior. By deducing the classes of activity patterns triggered during chemotaxis and exciting individual neurons with these patterns, we identified interneurons that control the essential locomotory programs for this behavior. Notably, we discovered that controlling the dynamics of activity in just one interneuron pair was sufficient to force the animal to locate, turn towards and track virtual light gradients.

  14. What type of narrative do children prefer in active video games? An exploratory study of cognitive and emotional responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) is critical in preventing childhood obesity, and lowering risk of certain cancers. Active video games (AVGs) provide an innovative promising method for increasing PA and enhancing health outcomes, especially among children. While AVGs could prevent childhood obesity, a child's...

  15. Comparison of Infant and Adult Rats in Exploratory Activity, Diurnal Patterns, and Responses to Novel and Anxiety-Provoking Environments

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kiersten S.; Morrell, Joan I.

    2008-01-01

    Infant rats emerge from the maternal nest at Postnatal Day 17–18 to have their first critical environmental experiences; they may be particularly sensitive to experiences or experimental interventions that can affect their adult capacity. The authors address open questions on 2 components of normative environmental exploration, locomotor activity and response to anxiety-provoking locations, in Postnatal Day 18 infant and Postnatal Day 60 adult rats. The authors compare diurnal patterns of locomotor activity, wheel running, novel and familiar open-field activity, and 2 measures of anxiety. Infants have an equivalent capacity to adults for locomotor activity and wheel running and a fundamentally adult-like diurnal rhythm, except that they do not anticipate light–dark transitions, are more perturbable at their most somnolent, and are more or less active during specific limited phases than adults. Infants initially have a lower rate of locomotor activity in novel environments and have a greater willingness to be active in anxiety-provoking locations. Such differences may allow enhanced gathering of environmental information by the infant and are important to consider in the design of experiments using infants. PMID:17592936

  16. Characterizing active transportation behavior among college students using the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Chaney, Robert A; Bernard, Amy L; Wilson, Bradley R A

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity poses concern for health risks among all groups in the United States. Active transportation (AT) (e.g., bicycling) is one way of being physically active and may be helpful in promoting physical activity. This study characterized active transportation behavior among college students using the Theory of Planned Behavior. This study sought to describe predictors, including Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs, of AT behavior among college students at a large Midwest university. Students were recruited through the university registrar's office and e-mailed an electronic survey. Differences among AT users were determined using t-tests, and predictors of AT were identified using regression analysis. Significant differences between AT users for all TPB constructs were observed. Regression analysis using only TPB constructs accounted for 11.58% explained variation in AT use. Other variables added to the model resulted in 44.44% explained variation in AT use. The final model included subjective norms, age, perceived behavioral control, and transportation type and destination. The results of this research are insightful in explaining AT behavior. Perceived norms and the level of control students had regarding their method of transportation were important contributions to AT use. These results may be applied to promoting physical activity in community health.

  17. Activity anorexia: An interplay between basic and applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, W. David; Epling, W. Frank; Dews, Peter B.; Estes, William K.; Morse, William H.; Van Orman, Willard; Herrnstein, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between basic research with nonhumans and applied behavior analysis is illustrated by our work on activity anorexia. When rats are fed one meal a day and allowed to run on an activity wheel, they run excessively, stop eating, and die of starvation. Convergent evidence, from several different research areas, indicates that the behavior of these animals and humans who self-starve is functionally similar. A biobehavioral theory of activity anorexia is presented that details the cultural contingencies, behavioral processes, and physiology of anorexia. Diagnostic criteria and a three-stage treatment program for activity-based anorexia are outlined. The animal model permits basic research on anorexia that for practical and ethical reasons cannot be conducted with humans. Thus, basic research can have applied importance. PMID:22478169

  18. Behavioral swimming effects and acetylcholinesterase activity changes in Jenynsia multidentata exposed to chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin individually and in mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bonansea, Rocío Inés; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Amé, María Valeria

    2016-07-01

    The pesticides cypermethrin (CYP) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) were found together in water bodies located in agricultural and urban areas. However, the impact to non-target biota from exposure to mixtures has received little attention. In the current study, we evaluated changes in swimming behavior and cholinesterase enzymes activity in Jenynsia multidentata, to investigate the possible effects of these insecticides individually and in mixtures. Moreover, differences between technical and commercial mixtures of the pesticides were evaluated. Females of J. multidentata were exposed over 96-h to CYP (0.04 and 0.4µgL(-1)), CPF (0.4 and 4µgL(-1)), individually and in a technical and commercial mixtures. Swimming behavior was recorded after 24h and 96h of exposure. Also, we measured cholinesterase enzymes activity in brain and muscle after 96h of exposure. Exposure to CYP increased the exploratory activity of J. multidentata in the upper area of the aquarium. Fish exposed to CPF (4µg L(-1)) showed a decrease in swimming activity and an increase in the time spent at the bottom of the aquarium. Interestingly, fish exposed to the technical and commercial mixture of CYP and CPF displayed a different behavior based on the concentration of exposure. Low concentration of pesticides elicited an increase in J. multidentata swimming activity with preference for the upper area of the aquarium, and high concentrations caused decrease in swimming activity with preference for the bottom area of the aquarium. Based on the response of cholinesterase enzymes, acetylcholinesterase in muscle was more sensitive to exposure to CYP, CPF and their mixtures than in brain. A decrease in swimming behavior correlates significantly with the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in muscle of J. multidentata exposed to high concentrations of pesticides. These results draw attention to the need of more studies on the potential ecotoxicological impact of pesticides and its mixtures at

  19. Behavioral swimming effects and acetylcholinesterase activity changes in Jenynsia multidentata exposed to chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin individually and in mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bonansea, Rocío Inés; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Amé, María Valeria

    2016-07-01

    The pesticides cypermethrin (CYP) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) were found together in water bodies located in agricultural and urban areas. However, the impact to non-target biota from exposure to mixtures has received little attention. In the current study, we evaluated changes in swimming behavior and cholinesterase enzymes activity in Jenynsia multidentata, to investigate the possible effects of these insecticides individually and in mixtures. Moreover, differences between technical and commercial mixtures of the pesticides were evaluated. Females of J. multidentata were exposed over 96-h to CYP (0.04 and 0.4µgL(-1)), CPF (0.4 and 4µgL(-1)), individually and in a technical and commercial mixtures. Swimming behavior was recorded after 24h and 96h of exposure. Also, we measured cholinesterase enzymes activity in brain and muscle after 96h of exposure. Exposure to CYP increased the exploratory activity of J. multidentata in the upper area of the aquarium. Fish exposed to CPF (4µg L(-1)) showed a decrease in swimming activity and an increase in the time spent at the bottom of the aquarium. Interestingly, fish exposed to the technical and commercial mixture of CYP and CPF displayed a different behavior based on the concentration of exposure. Low concentration of pesticides elicited an increase in J. multidentata swimming activity with preference for the upper area of the aquarium, and high concentrations caused decrease in swimming activity with preference for the bottom area of the aquarium. Based on the response of cholinesterase enzymes, acetylcholinesterase in muscle was more sensitive to exposure to CYP, CPF and their mixtures than in brain. A decrease in swimming behavior correlates significantly with the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in muscle of J. multidentata exposed to high concentrations of pesticides. These results draw attention to the need of more studies on the potential ecotoxicological impact of pesticides and its mixtures at

  20. A volitional help sheet to increase physical activity in people with low socioeconomic status: A randomised exploratory trial.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Christopher J; Arden, Madelynne A

    2010-12-01

    Volitional help sheets use Gollwitzer's (1993) concept of implementation intentions as a vehicle to change behaviour using Prochaska and DiClemente's (1983) processes of change. The present study designed and tested a volitional help sheet to increase physical activity in a group with low socioeconomic status (low-SES). Sixty-eight people (33 women, 35 men; mean age 27) with low-SES were randomly allocated to either an experimental group or a control group. Both groups received a questionnaire and a volitional help sheet; the only difference between the experimental and control groups was that the former were given explicit instructions to link occasions on which they were tempted not to be physically active with appropriate behavioural responses (processes of change). Physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent minutes per week) was the main outcome measure; behavioural intention and self-efficacy were the secondary outcome measures. The findings revealed significant increase in physical activity in the experimental condition, relative to the control condition, F (1, 66) = 7.28, p < 0.01, η2(10) = 0.10, but no differences for social cognitive variables. Furthermore, the participants who were most responsive to the intervention engaged in more than three times the physical activity at baseline than those who received the intervention but did not subsequently change. The findings provide further support for volitional help sheets to change health behaviour and extend them to a group with low-SES. Further work is required to refine this intervention tool.

  1. [The effect of different motor regimens modulating spontaneous activity on rat behavior].

    PubMed

    Kulikov, V P; Kiselev, V I; Konev, I V

    1993-01-01

    A method was developed of non-stressful modulation of spontaneous motor activity of rats. Restraint of mobility was found to inhibit spontaneous activity. Physiological stimulation of muscle activity by means of complication of food-procuring behaviour was accompanied by increase of spontaneous activity. Physiological stimulation of motor activity was characterized by stability of orienting-exploratory behaviour, emotional reactivity, expression of "freedom response", the best learning and working abilities of the animals. Regimes with imposing or restriction of muscle activity favoured the inhibition of spontaneous activity and the decrease of efficiency of adaptive behaviour. Motor regimes accompanied by increase of spontaneous activity were found to be optimal for adaptive behaviour.

  2. Why older people engage in physical activity: an exploratory study of participants in a community-based walking program.

    PubMed

    Capalb, Darren J; O'Halloran, Paul; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2014-01-01

    While older people experience substantial physical and mental health benefits from regular physical activity, participation rates among older people are low. There is a need to gather more information about why older people do and do not engage in physical activity. This paper aims to examine the reasons why older men and women chose to engage in a community-based physical activity program. Specific issues that were examined included reasons why older people who had been involved in a community-based program on a regular basis: commenced the program; continued with the program; and recommenced the program after they had dropped out. Ten participants (eight females and two males) aged between 62 and 75 years, who had been participating in a community-based physical activity program for a minimum of 6 months, were individually interviewed. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Three major themes emerged, including 'time to bond: social interaction' with sub-themes 'bona fide friendships' and 'freedom from being isolated'; 'I want to be healthy: chronic disease management'; and 'new lease on life'. Two of the primary reasons why older people both commenced and recommenced the program were the promise of social interaction and to be able to better manage their chronic conditions. PMID:23241196

  3. Learners' Interpersonal Beliefs and Generated Feedback in an Online Role-Playing Peer-Feedback Activity: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yu-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Peer feedback affords interaction and critical thinking opportunities for learners in online courses. However, various factors prevent learners from taking advantage of these promising benefits. This study explored learners' perceptions of the interpersonal factors in a role-playing peer-feedback activity, and examined the types of peer feedback…

  4. Chronic Assessment of Diaphragm Muscle EMG Activity across Motor Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla, Carlos B.; Seven, Yasin B.; Hurtado-Palomino, Juan N.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.

    2011-01-01

    The diaphragm muscle is main inspiratory muscle in mammals. Quantitative analyses documenting the reliability of chronic diaphragm EMG recordings are lacking. Assessment of ventilatory and non-ventilatory motor behaviors may facilitate evaluating diaphragm EMG activity over time. We hypothesized that normalization of diaphragm EMG amplitude across behaviors provides stable and reliable parameters for longitudinal assessments of diaphragm activity. We found that diaphragm EMG activity shows substantial intra-animal variability over 6 weeks, with coefficient of variation (CV) for different behaviors ~29–42%. Normalization of diaphragm EMG activity to near maximal behaviors (e.g., deep breathing) reduced intra-animal variability over time (CV ~22–29%). Plethysmographic measurements of eupneic ventilation were also stable over 6 weeks (CV ~13% for minute ventilation). Thus, stable and reliable measurements of diaphragm EMG activity can be obtained longitudinally using chronically implanted electrodes by examining multiple motor behaviors. By quantitatively determining the reliability of longitudinal diaphragm EMG analyses, we provide an important tool for evaluating the progression of diseases or injuries that impair ventilation. PMID:21414423

  5. Behaviorism and the Stages of Scientific Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J

    2010-01-01

    Following from an earlier analysis by B. F. Skinner, the present article suggests that the verbal processes in science may usefully be viewed as following a three-stage progression. This progression starts with (a) identification of basic data, then moves to (b) description of relations among those data, and ultimately concludes with (c) the deployment of higher order concepts in statements about organizations of data. The article emphasizes the importance of viewing theory and explanation as examples of verbal processes at the later stages, guided by the stimulus control from the earlier stages. The article further suggests that many theories and explanations in traditional psychology often take a form that appears to be from the later stages. However, adequate activity at the earlier stages has not preceded those theories and explanations. They therefore do not have the benefit of suitable stimulus control from the earlier stages. Rather, they reflect some degree of stimulus control by many mentalistic assumptions about causal entities and relations. Ultimately, traditional theories and explanations influenced by mentalistic assumptions occasion less effective interaction with natural events (e.g., through prediction and control) than they might otherwise. PMID:22479126

  6. An exploratory study to assess the activity of the acarine growth inhibitor, fluazuron, against Sarcoptes scabei infestation in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The most common treatments for scabies in human and veterinary settings are topical 5% permethrin or systemic treatment with ivermectin. However, these treatments have very little activity against arthropod eggs, and therefore repeated treatment is frequently required. In-vitro, biochemical and molecular studies have demonstrated that human mites are becoming increasingly resistant to both acaricides. To identify alternate acaricides, we undertook a pilot study of the in vivo activity of the benzoylphenyl urea inhibitor of chitin synthesis, fluazuron, in pigs with sarcoptic mange. Findings Pigs (n = 5) were infested with S. scabei var suis, and randomised to treatment at the start of peak infestation with fluazuron at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day per os for 7 days (n = 3) or no treatment (n = 2). Clinical scores, skin scrapings for mite counts and blood sampling for pharmacokinetic analysis were undertaken. Fluazuron was well absorbed in treated pigs with measureable blood levels up to 4 weeks post treatment. No adverse effects were observed. Modest acaricidal activity of the compound was observed, with a reduction in severity of skin lesions in treated pigs, as well as a reduction in number of scabies mite's early life stages. Conclusions The moderate efficacy of fluazuron against scabies mites indicates a lead to the development of alternate treatments for scabies, such as combination therapies that maybe applicable for human use in the future. PMID:22336283

  7. Exploratory studies, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Exploratory Studies Group is dedicated to advanced investigation of accelerators and radiation, primarily in the area of charged-particle beams and photon beams. Its primary mission is to explore the next steps in the development of particle accelerators and storage rings, which are important both for high-energy physics and for the wide range of disciplines now turning to synchrotron-radiation sources and free-electron lasers. Our research is therefore deeply committed to LBL`s institutional goal of becoming a center for the generation and use of coherent and incoherent electromagnetic radiation of exceptional brightness, as well as for generic research on the future development of accelerators. A significant fraction of our effort is dedicated to general accelerator-physics research for facilities on the immediate horizon, but a vital part of our activities comprises research into exotic possibilities for charged-particle production, accumulation, acceleration, and storage. During this report period, we were proncipally involved in four general areas of study: Accelerator-physics research for the Advanced Light Source, the 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source now under construction at LBL. In collaboration with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, both the conceptual and the detailed design of PEP-II, an energy-asymmetric electron-positron collider, based on the PEP ring at SLAC and designed to serve as a B-meson factory. Studies of ultraviolet and infrared free-electron lasers based on linear accelerators and storage rings, in particular the conceptual design of an infrared free-electron laser for the proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory at LBL. Generic high-energy accelerator-physics and photon-beam research directed far into the future to envision facilities that would employ new techniques of particle-beam acceleration and storage and photon-beam generation.

  8. Exploratory studies, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Exploratory Studies Group is dedicated to advanced investigation of accelerators and radiation, primarily in the area of charged-particle beams and photon beams. Its primary mission is to explore the next steps in the development of particle accelerators and storage rings, which are important both for high-energy physics and for the wide range of disciplines now turning to synchrotron-radiation sources and free-electron lasers. Our research is therefore deeply committed to LBL's institutional goal of becoming a center for the generation and use of coherent and incoherent electromagnetic radiation of exceptional brightness, as well as for generic research on the future development of accelerators. A significant fraction of our effort is dedicated to general accelerator-physics research for facilities on the immediate horizon, but a vital part of our activities comprises research into exotic possibilities for charged-particle production, accumulation, acceleration, and storage. During this report period, we were proncipally involved in four general areas of study: Accelerator-physics research for the Advanced Light Source, the 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source now under construction at LBL. In collaboration with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, both the conceptual and the detailed design of PEP-II, an energy-asymmetric electron-positron collider, based on the PEP ring at SLAC and designed to serve as a B-meson factory. Studies of ultraviolet and infrared free-electron lasers based on linear accelerators and storage rings, in particular the conceptual design of an infrared free-electron laser for the proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory at LBL. Generic high-energy accelerator-physics and photon-beam research directed far into the future to envision facilities that would employ new techniques of particle-beam acceleration and storage and photon-beam generation.

  9. An Alternative to Residential Neighborhoods: An Exploratory Study of How Activity Spaces and Perception of Neighborhood Social Processes Relate to Maladaptive Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freisthler, Bridget; Thomas, Crystal A.; Curry, Susanna R.; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2016-01-01

    Background: The environments where parents spend time, such as at work, at their child's school, or with friends and family, may exert a greater influence on their parenting behaviors than the residential neighborhoods where they live. These environments, termed activity spaces, provide individualized information about the where parents go,…

  10. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States.

    PubMed

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-05-11

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  11. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production. PMID:27187352

  12. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States.

    PubMed

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production. PMID:27187352

  13. An exploratory study on a chest-worn computer for evaluation of diet, physical activity and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingui; Burke, Lora E; Baranowski, Thomas; Fernstrom, John D; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Bai, Yicheng; Li, Yuecheng; Li, Chengliu; Yue, Yaofeng; Li, Zhen; Nie, Jie; Sclabassi, Robert J; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Jia, Wenyan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, wearable computers have become new members in the family of mobile electronic devices, adding new functions to those provided by smart-phones and tablets. As "always-on" miniature computers in the personal space, they will play increasing roles in the field of healthcare. In this work, we present our development of eButton, a wearable computer designed as a personalized, attractive, and convenient chest pin in a circular shape. It contains a powerful microprocessor, numerous electronic sensors, and wireless communication links. We describe its design concepts, electronic hardware, data processing algorithms, and its applications to the evaluation of diet, physical activity and lifestyle in the study of obesity and other chronic diseases.

  14. An Exploratory Study on a Chest-Worn Computer for Evaluation of Diet, Physical Activity and Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mingui; Burke, Lora E.; Baranowski, Thomas; Fernstrom, John D.; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Bai, Yicheng; Li, Yuecheng; Li, Chengliu; Yue, Yaofeng; Li, Zhen; Nie, Jie; Sclabassi, Robert J.; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Jia, Wenyan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, wearable computers have become new members in the family of mobile electronic devices, adding new functions to those provided by smartphones and tablets. As “always-on” miniature computers in the personal space, they will play increasing roles in the field of healthcare. In this work, we present our development of eButton, a wearable computer designed as a personalized, attractive, and convenient chest pin in a circular shape. It contains a powerful microprocessor, numerous electronic sensors, and wireless communication links. We describe its design concepts, electronic hardware, data processing algorithms, and its applications to the evaluation of diet, physical activity and lifestyle in the study of obesity and other chronic diseases. PMID:25708374

  15. An exploratory study on a chest-worn computer for evaluation of diet, physical activity and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingui; Burke, Lora E; Baranowski, Thomas; Fernstrom, John D; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Bai, Yicheng; Li, Yuecheng; Li, Chengliu; Yue, Yaofeng; Li, Zhen; Nie, Jie; Sclabassi, Robert J; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Jia, Wenyan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, wearable computers have become new members in the family of mobile electronic devices, adding new functions to those provided by smart-phones and tablets. As "always-on" miniature computers in the personal space, they will play increasing roles in the field of healthcare. In this work, we present our development of eButton, a wearable computer designed as a personalized, attractive, and convenient chest pin in a circular shape. It contains a powerful microprocessor, numerous electronic sensors, and wireless communication links. We describe its design concepts, electronic hardware, data processing algorithms, and its applications to the evaluation of diet, physical activity and lifestyle in the study of obesity and other chronic diseases. PMID:25708374

  16. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asparouhov, Tihomir; Muthen, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a frequently used multivariate analysis technique in statistics. Jennrich and Sampson (1966) solved a significant EFA factor loading matrix rotation problem by deriving the direct Quartimin rotation. Jennrich was also the first to develop standard errors for rotated solutions, although these have still not made…

  17. Exploratory Problems in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Frederick W.

    This book attempts to introduce students to the creative aspects of mathematics through exploratory problems. The introduction presents the criteria for the selection of the problems in the book. Criteria indicate that problems should: be immediately attractive, require data to be generated or gathered, appeal to students from junior high school…

  18. Exploratory Business Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for Arkansas ninth-grade students to explore business careers through the use of competency-based instructional materials. Exploratory business teachers are asked to incorporate the twenty-three units of study into a sequence best suited to their teaching style. Units include such topics as "Social Security,""What…

  19. Delphinid behavioral responses to incidental mid-frequency active sonar.

    PubMed

    Henderson, E Elizabeth; Smith, Michael H; Gassmann, Martin; Wiggins, Sean M; Douglas, Annie B; Hildebrand, John A

    2014-10-01

    Opportunistic observations of behavioral responses by delphinids to incidental mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar were recorded in the Southern California Bight from 2004 through 2008 using visual focal follows, static hydrophones, and autonomous recorders. Sound pressure levels were calculated between 2 and 8 kHz. Surface behavioral responses were observed in 26 groups from at least three species of 46 groups out of five species encountered during MFA sonar incidents. Responses included changes in behavioral state or direction of travel, changes in vocalization rates and call intensity, or a lack of vocalizations while MFA sonar occurred. However, 46% of focal groups not exposed to sonar also changed their behavior, and 43% of focal groups exposed to sonar did not change their behavior. Mean peak sound pressure levels when a behavioral response occurred were around 122 dB re: 1 μPa. Acoustic localizations of dolphin groups exhibiting a response gave insight into nighttime movement patterns and provided evidence that impacts of sonar may be mediated by behavioral state. The lack of response in some cases may indicate a tolerance of or habituation to MFA sonar by local populations; however, the responses that occur at lower received levels may point to some sensitization as well.

  20. Left brain cortical activity modulates stress effects on social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunee; Hong, Jiso; Park, Young-Gyun; Chae, Sujin; Kim, Yong; Kim, Daesoo

    2015-01-01

    When subjected to stress, some individuals develop maladaptive symptoms whereas others retain normal behavior. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known to control these adaptive responses to stress. Here, we show that mPFC neurons in the left hemisphere control stress effects on social behavior. Mice made socially avoidant by the stress of chronic social defeats showed depressed neural activity in the left mPFC. Photoactivation of these neurons reversed social avoidance and restored social activity. Despite social defeats, resilient mice with normal sociability showed normal firing rates in the left mPFC; however, photoinhibition of these neurons induced social avoidance. The same photomodulation administered to the right mPFC caused no significant effects. These results explain how stressed individuals develop maladaptive behaviors through left cortical depression, as reported in mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:26302668

  1. Dissecting an online intervention for cancer survivors: four exploratory analyses of internet engagement and its effects on health status and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenghao; Koh, Pang Wei; Ritter, Philip L; Lorig, Kate; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Saria, Suchi

    2015-02-01

    The Internet has been used extensively to offer health education content and also for social support. More recently, we have seen the advent of Internet-based health education interventions that combine content with structured social networking. In many ways this is the Internet equivalent to small group interventions. While we have some knowledge about the efficacy of these interventions, few studies have examined how participants engage with programs and how that might affect outcomes. This study seeks to explore (a) the content of posts and (b) the nature of participant engagement with an online, 6-week workshop for cancer survivors and how such engagement may affect health outcomes. Using methodologies related to computational linguistics (latent Dirichlet allocation) and more standard statistical approaches, we identified (a) discussion board themes; (b) the relationship between reading and posting messages and outcomes; (c) how making, completing, or not completing action plans is related to outcome; and (d) how self-tailoring relates to outcomes. When considering all posts, emotional support is a key theme. However, different sets of themes are expressed in the first workshop post where participants are asked to express their primary concern. Writing posts was related to improved outcomes, but reading posts was less important. Completing, but not merely making, action plans and self-tailoring are statistically associated with future positive health outcomes. The findings from these exploratory studies can be considered when shaping future electronically mediated social networking interventions. In addition, the methods used here can be used in analyzing other large electronically mediated social-networking interventions.

  2. Prefrontal Brain Activity Predicts Temporally Extended Decision-Making Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarkoni, Tal; Braver, Todd S.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Green, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    Although functional neuroimaging studies of human decision-making processes are increasingly common, most of the research in this area has relied on passive tasks that generate little individual variability. Relatively little attention has been paid to the ability of brain activity to predict overt behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance…

  3. Children's Emotion and Behavior In Painting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Ju

    2013-01-01

    This study adopted various methods such as qualitative research, observation, interviews, and document collection to examine the emotional responses, behavior changes, and counseling effects on a single-parent child in a skipped-generation family before or after a series of painting activities. The participant was asked to take part in 50-minute…

  4. Coitally Active University Students: Sexual Behaviors, Concerns, and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Carol A.; Davidson, J. Kenneth., Sr.

    1986-01-01

    Examined behaviors, attitudes, and concerns of students coitally active. Differences between genders included male dissatisfaction with infrequent opportunities for sexual intercourse, lack of variety of sex partners, and insufficient oral-genital stimulation. Female concerns were lack of stimulation to their breasts, painful sexual intercourse,…

  5. Development and Pilot Investigation of Behavioral Activation for Negative Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mairs, Hilary; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Keeley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Negative symptoms cause functional impairment and impede recovery from psychosis, not least, because of limited developments in empirically validated treatments. This article details a pilot evaluation of a behavioral activation (BA) treatment with eight people presenting with psychosis and marked negative symptoms. The rationale for this…

  6. Crisis and chaos in behavioral nutrition and physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resnicow and Vaughn challenged the field of behavioral nutrition and physical activity to conduct research in new ways. They challenged the predictiveness of our models, sensitivity to initial conditions, factors predisposing to change, and measurement procedures. While the predictiveness of our mod...

  7. Behavioral Activation for Depressed Teens: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritschel, Lorie A.; Ramirez, Cynthia L.; Jones, Meredith; Craighead, W. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) is a psychosocial intervention that has shown promising treatment outcome results with depressed adults. The current pilot study evaluated a version of BA adapted for depressed adolescents. Six teens (3 male, 3 female, ages 14-17) who met criteria for major depressive disorder participated in the study. Participants were…

  8. Scale Development for Measuring and Predicting Adolescents’ Leisure Time Physical Activity Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Francis; Romero Granados, Santiago; Arribas Galarraga, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a scale for assessing and predicting adolescents’ physical activity behavior in Spain and Luxembourg using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework. The sample was comprised of 613 Spanish (boys = 309, girls = 304; M age =15.28, SD =1.127) and 752 Luxembourgish adolescents (boys = 343, girls = 409; M age = 14.92, SD = 1.198), selected from students of two secondary schools in both countries, with a similar socio-economic status. The initial 43-items were all scored on a 4-point response format using the structured alternative format and translated into Spanish, French and German. In order to ensure the accuracy of the translation, standardized parallel back-translation techniques were employed. Following two pilot tests and subsequent revisions, a second order exploratory factor analysis with oblimin direct rotation was used for factor extraction. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were also tested. The 4-week test-retest correlations confirmed the items’ time stability. The same five factors were obtained, explaining 63.76% and 63.64% of the total variance in both samples. Internal consistency for the five factors ranged from α = 0.759 to α = 0. 949 in the Spanish sample and from α = 0.735 to α = 0.952 in the Luxembourgish sample. For both samples, inter-factor correlations were all reported significant and positive, except for Factor 5 where they were significant but negative. The high internal consistency of the subscales, the reported item test-retest reliabilities and the identical factor structure confirm the adequacy of the elaborated questionnaire for assessing the TPB-based constructs when used with a population of adolescents in Spain and Luxembourg. The results give some indication that they may have value in measuring the hypothesized TPB constructs for PA behavior in a cross-cultural context. Key points When using the structured alternative format, weak internal consistency was obtained

  9. Same-sex sexual behaviors among male migrants in a context of male "marriage squeeze": results from an exploratory survey in urban Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle; Li, Shuzhuo; Yang, Bo

    2012-11-01

    The male marriage squeeze in China may increase the prevalence of male same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants who lack stable female sexual partners. The same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants appear to be at high risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly because of a lack of knowledge of these diseases. Using data from the "Survey on Reproductive Health and Family Life of Migrant Male Bachelors in Urban Areas" conducted in Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, in December 2009 and January 2010, this study compares same-sex sexual behaviors of unmarried with that of married male migrants (including married but separated men who are migrating without their spouse or partner and cohabitating men who are migrating with their spouse or partner). It is reported that the prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried males reaches 11%, more than twice the 5.1% reported by married but separated men and thrice the 3.8% reported by cohabitating men. It also appears that the same-sex sexual behaviors is significantly associated with men's attitudes toward same-sex sexual behaviors (odds ratio = 1.59, p < .001), toward life-long bachelorhood (odds ratio = 1.35, p < .01), and with marital status (odds ratio = 0.37, p < .01). The frequency of condom use appears to be higher among unmarried men than among men who are married, whether or not they migrated with their wives, and is significantly associated with scores on knowledge about HIV/AIDS (estimated coefficient = .12, p < .001) and STIs (estimated coefficient = .22, p < .01). It is also associated with the likelihood of same-sex sexual behaviors (estimated coefficients = .83, p < .01) and marital status (estimated coefficients for married but separated = -.50, p < .05; estimated coefficients for cohabitating = -.77, p < .001).

  10. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  11. Acute nicotine induces anxiety and disrupts temporal pattern organization of rat exploratory behavior in hole-board: a potential role for the lateral habenula

    PubMed Central

    Casarrubea, Maurizio; Davies, Caitlin; Faulisi, Fabiana; Pierucci, Massimo; Colangeli, Roberto; Partridge, Lucy; Chambers, Stephanie; Cassar, Daniel; Valentino, Mario; Muscat, Richard; Benigno, Arcangelo; Crescimanno, Giuseppe; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine is one of the most addictive drugs of abuse. Tobacco smoking is a major cause of many health problems, and is the first preventable cause of death worldwide. Several findings show that nicotine exerts significant aversive as well as the well-known rewarding motivational effects. Less certain is the anatomical substrate that mediates or enables nicotine aversion. Here, we show that acute nicotine induces anxiogenic-like effects in rats at the doses investigated (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), as measured by the hole-board apparatus and manifested in behaviors such as decreased rearing and head-dipping and increased grooming. No changes in locomotor behavior were observed at any of the nicotine doses given. T-pattern analysis of the behavioral outcomes revealed a drastic reduction and disruption of complex behavioral patterns induced by all three nicotine doses, with the maximum effect for 1 mg/kg. Lesion of the lateral habenula (LHb) induced hyperlocomotion and, strikingly, reversed the nicotine-induced anxiety obtained at 1 mg/kg to an anxiolytic-like effect, as shown by T-pattern analysis. We suggest that the LHb is critically involved in emotional behavior states and in nicotine-induced anxiety, most likely through modulation of monoaminergic nuclei. PMID:26082682

  12. Daily physical activity patterns of children with delayed eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Annette R; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Lundgren, Jennifer D; Allison, Kelly; Tremblay, Angelo; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Drapeau, Vicky

    2013-10-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is a delayed pattern of energy intake. It is unknown if symptoms associated with this syndrome are accompanied by a delayed pattern of physical activity. This study examines the relationship between physical activity patterns and delayed eating behaviors in children. Children from the QUALITY cohort (n = 269, 45% female, aged 8-11 y) completed the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), which measures NES symptoms on a continuous scale and identifies single NES symptoms. Daily accelerometer data were transformed into mean counts per wear-time minute for each hour of the day. Children with high NEQ scores had higher levels of daily (p < 0.001) and evening physical activity (p = 0.05) and reached 75% of their total daily physical activity 20 minutes later than children with low NEQ scores (p < 0.05). Excessive evening snacking and a strong urge to eat in the evening or at night were the symptoms most related to these physical activity patterns. Children with delayed eating behaviors had higher levels of physical activity in the late morning and evening and a delayed physical activity pattern compared to children with no or fewer symptoms. Future research is needed to determine if physical activity plays a role in the onset or maintenance of night eating.

  13. Development of new physical activity and sedentary behavior change self-efficacy questionnaires using item response modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; Baranowski, Tom; Watson, Kathy; Bachman, Christine; Baranowski, Janice C; Thompson, Debbe; Hernández, Arthur E; Venditti, Elizabeth; Blackshear, Tara; Moe, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Background Theoretically, increased levels of physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) should lead to increased physical activity, but few studies have reported this effect among youth. This failure may be at least partially attributable to measurement limitations. In this study, Item Response Modeling (IRM) was used to develop new physical activity and sedentary behavior change self-efficacy scales. The validity of the new scales was compared with accelerometer assessments of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods New PASE and sedentary behavior change (TV viewing, computer video game use, and telephone use) self-efficacy items were developed. The scales were completed by 714, 6th grade students in seven US cities. A limited number of participants (83) also wore an accelerometer for five days and provided at least 3 full days of complete data. The new scales were analyzed using Classical Test Theory (CTT) and IRM; a reduced set of items was produced with IRM and correlated with accelerometer counts per minute and minutes of sedentary, light and moderate to vigorous activity per day after school. Results The PASE items discriminated between high and low levels of PASE. Full and reduced scales were weakly correlated (r = 0.18) with accelerometer counts per minute after school for boys, with comparable associations for girls. Weaker correlations were observed between PASE and minutes of moderate to vigorous activity (r = 0.09 – 0.11). The uni-dimensionality of the sedentary scales was established by both exploratory factor analysis and the fit of items to the underlying variable and reliability was assessed across the length of the underlying variable with some limitations. The reduced sedentary behavior scales had poor reliability. The full scales were moderately correlated with light intensity physical activity after school (r = 0.17 to 0.33) and sedentary behavior (r = -0.29 to -0.12) among the boys, but not for girls. Conclusion New physical activity

  14. Similarity of Cortical Activity Patterns Predicts generalization Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Engineer, Crystal T.; Perez, Claudia A.; Carraway, Ryan S.; Chang, Kevin Q.; Roland, Jarod L.; Sloan, Andrew M.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Humans and animals readily generalize previously learned knowledge to new situations. Determining similarity is critical for assigning category membership to a novel stimulus. We tested the hypothesis that category membership is initially encoded by the similarity of the activity pattern evoked by a novel stimulus to the patterns from known categories. We provide behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that activity patterns in primary auditory cortex contain sufficient information to explain behavioral categorization of novel speech sounds by rats. Our results suggest that category membership might be encoded by the similarity of the activity pattern evoked by a novel speech sound to the patterns evoked by known sounds. Categorization based on featureless pattern matching may represent a general neural mechanism for ensuring accurate generalization across sensory and cognitive systems. PMID:24147140

  15. Predicting active users' personality based on micro-blogging behaviors.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Li, Ang; Hao, Bibo; Guan, Zengda; Zhu, Tingshao

    2014-01-01

    Because of its richness and availability, micro-blogging has become an ideal platform for conducting psychological research. In this paper, we proposed to predict active users' personality traits through micro-blogging behaviors. 547 Chinese active users of micro-blogging participated in this study. Their personality traits were measured by the Big Five Inventory, and digital records of micro-blogging behaviors were collected via web crawlers. After extracting 839 micro-blogging behavioral features, we first trained classification models utilizing Support Vector Machine (SVM), differentiating participants with high and low scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory [corrected]. The classification accuracy ranged from 84% to 92%. We also built regression models utilizing PaceRegression methods, predicting participants' scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory. The Pearson correlation coefficients between predicted scores and actual scores ranged from 0.48 to 0.54. Results indicated that active users' personality traits could be predicted by micro-blogging behaviors.

  16. Predicting Active Users' Personality Based on Micro-Blogging Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Bibo; Guan, Zengda; Zhu, Tingshao

    2014-01-01

    Because of its richness and availability, micro-blogging has become an ideal platform for conducting psychological research. In this paper, we proposed to predict active users' personality traits through micro-blogging behaviors. 547 Chinese active users of micro-blogging participated in this study. Their personality traits were measured by the Big Five Inventory, and digital records of micro-blogging behaviors were collected via web crawlers. After extracting 845 micro-blogging behavioral features, we first trained classification models utilizing Support Vector Machine (SVM), differentiating participants with high and low scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory. The classification accuracy ranged from 84% to 92%. We also built regression models utilizing PaceRegression methods, predicting participants' scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory. The Pearson correlation coefficients between predicted scores and actual scores ranged from 0.48 to 0.54. Results indicated that active users' personality traits could be predicted by micro-blogging behaviors. PMID:24465462

  17. Monitoring Neural Activity with Bioluminescence during Natural Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, Eva A.; Kampff, Adam R.; Prober, David A.; Schier, Alexander F.; Engert, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Existing techniques for monitoring neural activity in awake, freely behaving vertebrates are invasive and difficult to target to genetically identified neurons. Here we describe the use of bioluminescence to non-invasively monitor the activity of genetically specified neurons in freely behaving zebrafish. Transgenic fish expressing the Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein GFP-apoAequorin (GA) in most neurons generated large and fast bioluminescent signals related to neural activity, neuroluminescence, that could be recorded continuously for many days. To test the limits of this technique, GA was specifically targeted to the hypocretin-positive neurons of the hypothalamus. We found that neuroluminescence generated by this group of ~20 neurons was associated with periods of increased locomotor activity and identified two classes of neural activity corresponding to distinct swim latencies. Thus, our neuroluminescence assay can report, with high temporal resolution and sensitivity, the activity of small subsets of neurons during unrestrained behavior. PMID:20305645

  18. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Elementary Principals' Perceptions of Their Leadership Behaviors and the Impact on One Year of Reading Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between principals' perceptions of their learning-centered leadership behaviors and one year of reading achievement scores. Perceptions of principals were gathered from 31 out of 42 elementary schools in a district located in Central Virginia. This study explored the relationship between…

  19. Maternal obesity in the rat programs male offspring exploratory, learning and motivation behavior: prevention by dietary intervention pre-gestation or in gestation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Reyes-Castro, L A; Ibáñez, C; Ramírez, A; Chavira, R; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2012-04-01

    We studied the effects of maternal high fat diet (HFD, 25% calories from fat administered before and during pregnancy and lactation) and dietary intervention (switching dams from HFD to control diet) at different periconceptional periods on male offspring anxiety related behavior, exploration, learning, and motivation. From weaning at postnatal day (PND) 21, female subjects produced to be the mothers in the study received either control diet (CTR - 5% calories from fat), HFD through pregnancy and lactation (MO), HFD during PNDs 21-90 followed by CTR diet (pre-gestation (PG) intervention) or HFD from PND 21 to 120 followed by CTR diet (gestation and lactation (G) intervention) and bred at PND 120. At 19 days of gestation maternal serum corticosterone was increased in MO and the PG and G dams showed partial recovery with intermediate levels. In offspring, no effects were found in the elevated plus maze test. In the open field test, MO and G offspring showed increase zone entries, displaying less thigmotaxis; PG offspring showed partial recuperation of this behavior. During initial operant conditioning MO, PG and G offspring displayed decreased approach behavior with subsequent learning impairment during the acquisition of FR-1 and FR-5 operant conditioning for sucrose reinforcement. Motivation during the progressive ratio test increased in MO offspring; PG and G intervention recuperated this behavior. We conclude that dietary intervention can reverse negative effects of maternal HFD and offspring outcomes are potentially due to elevated maternal corticosterone.

  20. An Exploratory Investigation of the Effect of Working in an Environmentally Themed Facility on the Conservation-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior of Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Amy; Lockhart, Donna; Ogden, Jacqueline; Dierking, Lynn D.

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, we have seen an increased focus on measuring the impact of zoos, aquariums, and other free-choice learning environments on the conservation-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior of the visiting public. However, no such studies have been conducted on the impact of such environments on the staff working in these…

  1. An Intervention for HPV Risk Reduction Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior: An Exploratory Study with College-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Jocelyn Brineman; McAnulty, Richard D.; Reeve, Charlie; Cann, Arnie

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a group intervention in reducing risks of contracting human papillomavirus (HPV) among college-aged women. Using a randomized design, the study examined the effectiveness of an HPV educational group intervention guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior. The intervention was provided in a…

  2. Correlates of physical activity behavior in rural youth.

    PubMed

    Pate, R R; Trost, S G; Felton, G M; Ward, D S; Dowda, M; Saunders, R

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of physical activity behavior in a sample of rural, predominantly African American youth. Three hundred sixty-one fifth-grade students from two rural counties in South Carolina (69% African American, median age = 11 years) completed a questionnaire designed to measure beliefs and social influences regarding physical activity, physical activity self-efficacy, perceived physical activity habits of family members and friends, and access to exercise and fitness equipment at home. After school physical activity and television watching were assessed using the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR). Students were classified as physically active according to a moderate physical activity standard: two or more 30-min blocks at an intensity of 3 METs (metabolic equivalents) or greater, and a vigorous physical activity standard: one or more 30-min blocks at an intensity of 6 METs or greater. According to the moderate physical activity standard, 34.9% of students were classified as low-active. Multivariate analysis revealed age, gender, television watching, and exercise equipment at home to be significant correlates of low activity status. According to the vigorous physical activity standard, 32.1% of the students were classified as low-active. Multivariate analysis revealed age, gender, television watching, and self-efficacy with respect to seeking support for physical activity to be significant correlates of low activity status. In summary, gender and the amount of television watching were found to be the most important correlates of physical activity in rural, predominantly African American youth. PMID:9294878

  3. Effects of swimming activity on the copulatory behavior of sexually active male rats.

    PubMed

    Allouh, M Z

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has long been associated with better sexual function. This study investigated the effects of moderate swimming exercise on the copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats. Two sets of sexually potent male rats -highly active and moderately active- were identified depending on baseline sexual activity. Each of the two sets of rats was further randomly divided into two groups (swimming and sedentary). There were 16 rats in each of the four study groups (highly active swimming, highly active sedentary, moderately active swimming and moderately active sedentary). The copulatory behavior parameters and serum testosterone levels were measured and compared between the rats of the swimming and sedentary groups following a month long training period in which rats were made to swim for 1 h every alternate day. Swimming significantly improved the sexual performance of highly active rats, as indicated by increased intromission frequency and intromission ratio, compared with the sedentary controls. Swimming improved both sexual desire and performance, as indicated by reduced mount latency and increased intromission ratio, respectively, in swimming moderately active rats compared with the sedentary moderately active controls. Therefore, swimming activity improves the copulatory behavior of both highly active and moderately active male rats.

  4. Physical activity and senior games participation: benefits, constraints, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, David; Henderson, Karla A; Wilson, Beth E

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the article was to examine the physical activity perceptions and behaviors of older adults who were active participants in a statewide senior games (i.e., North Carolina Senior Games; NCSG) program with its focus on year-round involvement through activities in local communities. A random sample of 440 older adults (55 years and older) completed a questionnaire in 2006 about their participation in community-based senior games. A uniqueness of this study is its focus on active older adults, which provides insight into how to maintain physical involvement. Older adults who were most active perceived the most benefits from senior games but did not necessarily have the fewest constraints. This study of NCSG as an organization designed to promote healthy living in communities offered an example of how a social-ecological framework aimed at health promotion can be applied. PMID:19451664

  5. An exploratory study of the effectiveness of group narrative therapy on the school behavior of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms.

    PubMed

    Looyeh, Majid Yoosefi; Kamali, Khosrow; Shafieian, Roya

    2012-10-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of group narrative therapy for improving the school behavior of a small sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fourteen clinics referred 9- to 11-year-old girls with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD were randomly assigned to treatment and wait-list control groups. Posttreatment ratings by teachers showed that narrative therapy had a significant effect on reducing ADHD symptoms 1 week after completion of treatment and sustained after 30 days. PMID:22999036

  6. SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR, NOT TV VIEWING, PREDICTS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG 3- TO 7-YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information about relationships between the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of young children is available in the literature. We therefore examined how sedentary behaviors, TV watching, and encouragements and discouragements for activity were associated with physical activity (as me...

  7. The orienting-exploratory response hypothesis of discriminative conditioning.

    PubMed

    Grastyán, E; Buzsáki, G

    1979-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological manifestations occurring under conditions of spatial discontiguity of CS and reinforcement (or response) are described. It is concluded that the conflict or learning difficulties which arise in such situations are the result of a competition between the signal directed conditioned orienting response and the goal directed approach response which require different or opposite directional movements. Considerations are offered to prove that the complex orienting-exploratory response emerging as a result of reinforcement corresponds to the real conditioned response and accordingly the CS to a new independent goal with comparable attractiveness as the primary (consummative) goal. Arguments are (brought up against the validity of the stimulus substitution theory of signal directed activities. Findings obtained in fimbria-fornix lesioned animals are presented to show that the orienting-exploratory mode of coping with spatial tasks necessitates the intactness of the limbic system. The conclusion is drawn that an apparently more adaptive mode of behaving in spatial discontiguity, where the CS only releases or triggers the goal response (used occasionally by intact but exclusively by limbic lesioned animals) corresponds to a relatively inferior mode of adaptation.

  8. Neural correlates of active avoidance behavior in superior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jeremy D.; Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A.

    2010-01-01

    Active avoidance of harmful situations seems highly adaptive, but the underlying neural mechanisms are largely unknown. Rats can effectively use the superior colliculus during active avoidance to detect a salient whisker conditioned stimulus (WCS) that signals an aversive event. Here, we recorded unit and field potential activity in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus of rats during active avoidance behavior. During the period preceding the onset of the WCS, avoids are associated with a higher firing rate than escapes (unsuccessful avoids), indicating that a prepared superior colliculus is more likely to detect the WCS and lead to an avoid. Moreover, during the WCS, a robust ramping up of overall firing rate is observed for trials leading to avoids. The firing rate ramping is not due to shuttling, and may serve to drive downstream circuits to avoid. Therefore, a robust neural correlate of active avoidance behavior is found in the superior colliculus, emphasizing its role in the detection of salient sensory signals that require immediate action. PMID:20573897

  9. Internet Reporting of Weekly Physical Activity Behaviors: The WIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Tyson; Frierson, Georita M.; Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Morrow, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Self-report measures have been validated and are widely used. Interest currently lies in the development of simple, valid methods that can be used in any location to determine level of PA in large populations/samples. The purpose of this report is to illustrate tracking of physical activity behaviors and musculoskeletal injury reports on a weekly basis via the Internet. Methods The Women’s Injury Study (WIN) methodology includes use of BRFSS-related physical activity items that are completed online by more than 800 women weekly for an average of 3 years. Results With more than 45,000 weekly physical activity and injury logs, the percentage of total logs submitted via online records is 91%. Self-reported pedometer steps are consistent with similar, smaller research samples. Conclusions This report suggests that Internet tracking is a viable means of assessing nearly real-time physical activity, describes the process of developing and monitoring self-reported physical activity behaviors via the Internet, and provides recommendations for others considering such methods. PMID:20683095

  10. Cognitive behavior therapy for comorbid migraine and/or tension-type headache and major depressive disorder: An exploratory randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R; Aiello, Rachele; Gilson, Kathryn; Meadows, Graham; Milgrom, Jeannette; Reece, John

    2015-10-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated comorbidity between migraine and tension-type headache on the one hand, and depression on the other. Presence of depression is a negative prognostic indicator for behavioral treatment of headaches. Despite the recognised comorbidity, there is a limited research literature evaluating interventions designed for comorbid headaches and depression. Sixty six participants (49 female, 17 male) suffering from migraine and/or tension-type headache and major depressive disorder were randomly allocated to a Routine Primary Care control group or a Cognitive Behavior Therapy group that also received routine primary care. The treatment program involved 12 weekly 50-min sessions administered by clinical psychologists. Participants in the treatment group improved significantly more than participants in the control group from pre-to post-treatment on measures of headaches, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Improvements achieved with treatment were maintained at four month follow-up. Comorbid anxiety disorders were not a predictor of response to treatment, and the only significant predictor was gender (men improved more than women). The new integrated treatment program appears promising and worthy of further investigation.

  11. The Eco-Behavioral Approach to Surveys and Social Accounts for Rural Communities: Exploratory Analyses and Interpretations of Roger G. Barker's Microdata from the Behavior Setting Survey of Midwest, Kansas in 1963-64.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Karl A.

    The concept of behavior settings--the environments shaping individual behavior--was originated by Roger Barker in 1950 in connection with his community surveys in a small Kansas town, code-named Midwest. This book seeks to provide rural social scientists with an understanding of Barker's eco-behavioral approach and proposed adaptations of it to…

  12. Dabbling duck behavior and aircraft activity in coastal North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conomy, J.T.; Collazo, J.A.; Dubovsky, J.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Requests to increase military aircraft activity in some training facilities in the United States have prompted the need to determine if waterfowl and other wildlife are adversely affected by aircraft disturbance. We quantified behavioral responses of wintering American black ducks (Anas rubripes), American wigeon (A. americana), gadwall (A. strepera), and American green-winged teal (A. crecca carolinensis) exposed to low-level flying military aircrafts at Piney and Cedar islands, North Carolina, in 1991 and 1992. Waterfowl spent ???1.4% of their time responding to aircraft, which included flying, swimming, and alert behaviors. Mean duration of responses by species ranged from 10 to 40 sec. Costs to each species were deemed low because disruptions represented a low percentage of their time-activity budgets only a small proportion of birds reacted to disturbance (13/672; 2%); and the likelihood of resuming the activity disrupted by an aircraft disturbance event was high (64%). Recorded levels of aircraft disturbance (i.e., x?? = 85.1 dBA) were not adversely affecting the time-activity budgets of selected waterfowl species wintering at Piney and Cedar islands.

  13. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates from a high dimensional set of psychological measurements. PMID:25431517

  14. Lifestyle physical activity behavior among South Asian Indian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Marquez, David; Farran, Carol

    2013-12-01

    Little is known of the physical activity behavior of South Asian Indian immigrants (SAIs), though they have more than twice the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes than Whites. This was a cross-sectional descriptive face-to-face survey design, comparing between men and women in leisure time (LTPA), household (HPA), and occupational physical activity (OPA). Participants also wore a Lifecorder EX (NL2200) accelerometer for 7 days. Just over half (51.8 %) of the participants met the recommended PA guidelines (≥150 min moderate-intensity or ≥75 min vigorous-intensity) through LTPA. The average number of daily steps was 6,904.3, which is in the "low active" classification. Increasing lifestyle PA among SAIs is important; PA interventions appealing to gender and culture and with an aerobic component are needed.

  15. Depressive behavior and activation of the orexin/hypocretin system.

    PubMed

    Arendt, David H; Ronan, Patrick J; Oliver, Kevin D; Callahan, Leah B; Summers, Tangi R; Summers, Cliff H

    2013-02-01

    The orexin/hypocretin peptide signaling system plays a neuromodulatory role in motivation and stress; two critical components of depression. Although work has been done to identify links between orexin and depression, few specific neuroanatomical associations have been made. These studies have not investigated the relationship between orexin and orexin receptor expression in specific brain regions associated with this disorder. To address this, we examined immobility during the forced swim test (FST) in mice, a commonly used measure of depressive behavior. We analyzed the variation in FST immobility with the distribution of orexin and its receptor mRNA. We found that animals that exhibited more robust depressive behavior had greater or lesser orexin system expression that depended on the limbic brain region analyzed. In the hippocampus there was a negative correlation between orexin expression and FST immobility. Animals that displayed relatively more depressive behavior had lower hippocampal expression of Orexin A (OrxA). In the amygdala, there was a curvilinear relationship between OrxA and FST performance. In addition there was a positive correlation with amygdalar Type I orexin receptor (Orx1) mRNA and depressive behavior. Despite the differences in limbic orexin expression, there was no correlation between immobility and hypothalamic orexin neuron activation as measured by c-Fos. Overall, more severe depressive behavior was associated with reduced hippocampal orexin expression, contrasted with increased orexin plus Orx1 receptor mRNA expression in the amygdala. This divergent pattern between the hippocampus and amygdala mirrors a neurobiological theme seen in depression resulting from reduced hippocampal, but increased amygdalar, size and function.

  16. Reward bias and lateralization in gambling behavior: behavioral activation system and alpha band analysis.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Finocchiaro, Roberta; Canavesio, Ylenia; Messina, Rossella

    2014-11-30

    The present research explored the main factors that can influence subjects' choices in the case of decisions. In order to elucidate the individual differences that influence the decisional processes, making their strategies more or less advantageous, we tested the effect of a reward sensitivity in the behavioral activation system (BAS-Reward) constructed on the ability to distinguish between high- and low-risk decisions. Secondly, the lateralization effect, related to increased activation of the left (BAS-related) hemisphere, was explored. Thirty-one subjects were tested using the Iowa Gambling Task, and the BAS-Reward measure was applied to distinguish between high-BAS and low-BAS groups. Behavioral responses (gain/loss options) and alpha-band modulation were considered. It was found that high-BAS group increased their tendency to opt in favor of the immediate reward (loss strategy) rather than the long-term option (win strategy). Secondly, high-BAS subjects showed an increased left-hemisphere activation in response to losing (with immediate reward) choices in comparison with low-BAS subjects. A "reward bias" effect was supposed to explain both the bad strategy and the unbalanced hemispheric activation for high-BAS and more risk-taking subjects.

  17. Aspects of activity behavior as a determinant of the physical activity level.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, A G; Plasqui, G; Goris, A H C; Westerterp, K R

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated which aspects of the individuals' activity behavior determine the physical activity level (PAL). Habitual physical activity of 20 Dutch adults (age: 26-60 years, body mass index: 24.5 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. Accelerometer output was used to identify the engagement in different types of daily activities with a classification tree algorithm. Activity behavior was described by the daily duration of sleeping, sedentary behavior (lying, sitting, and standing), walking, running, bicycling, and generic standing activities. Simultaneously, the total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water. PAL was calculated as TEE divided by sleeping metabolic rate. PAL was significantly associated (P<0.05) with sedentary time (R=-0.72), and the duration of walking (R=0.49), bicycling (R=0.77), and active standing (R=0.62). A negative association was observed between sedentary time and the duration of active standing (R=-0.87; P<0.001). A multiple-linear regression analysis showed that 75% of the variance in PAL could be predicted by the duration of bicycling (Partial R(2) =59%; P<0.01), walking (Partial R(2) =9%; P<0.05) and being sedentary (Partial R(2) =7%; P<0.05). In conclusion, there is objective evidence that sedentary time and activities related to transportation and commuting, such as walking and bicycling, contribute significantly to the average PAL. PMID:20536909

  18. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger. The bi-factor model has a general factor and a number of group factors. The purpose of this article is to introduce an exploratory form of bi-factor analysis. An advantage of using exploratory bi-factor analysis is that one need not provide a specific…

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans glia modulate neuronal activity and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stout Jr., Randy F.; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Parpura, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Glial cells of Caenorhabditis elegans can modulate neuronal activity and behavior, which is the focus of this review. Initially, we provide an overview of neuroglial evolution, making a comparison between C. elegans glia and their genealogical counterparts. What follows is a brief discussion on C. elegans glia characteristics in terms of their exact numbers, germ layers origin, their necessity for proper development of sensory organs, and lack of their need for neuronal survival. The more specific roles that various glial cells have on neuron-based activity/behavior are succinctly presented. The cephalic sheath glia are important for development, maintenance and activity of central synapses, whereas the amphid glia seem to set the tone of sensory synapses; these glial cell types are ectoderm-derived. Mesoderm-derived Glial-Like cells in the nerve Ring (GLRs) appear to be a part of the circuit for production of motor movement of the worm anterior. Finally, we discuss tools and approaches utilized in studying C. elegans glia, which are assets available for this animal, making it an appealing model, not only in neurosciences, but in biology in general. PMID:24672428

  20. Background activities, induction, and behavioral allocation in operant performance.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M; Davison, Michael

    2014-09-01

    In experiments on operant behavior, other activities, called "background" activities, compete with the operant activities. Herrnstein's (1970) formulation of the matching law included background reinforcers in the form of a parameter rO, but remained vague about the activities (BO) that produce rO. To gain more understanding, we analyzed data from three studies of performance with pairs of variable-interval schedules that changed frequently in the relative rate at which they produced food: Baum and Davison (2014), Belke and Heyman (1994), and Soto, McDowell, and Dallery (2005). Results sometimes deviated from the matching law, suggesting variation in rO. When rO was calculated from the matching equation, two results emerged: (a) rO is directly proportional to BO, as in a ratio schedule; and (b) rO and BO depend on the food rate, which is to say that BO consists of activities induced by food, as a phylogenetically important event. Other activities unrelated to food (BN ) correspond to Herrnstein's original conception of rO and may be included in the matching equation. A model based on Baum's (Baum, 2012) concepts of allocation, induction, and contingency explained the deviations from the matching law. In the model, operant activity B, BO, and BN competed unequally in the time allocation: B and BO both replaced BN , BO replaced lever pressing (Soto et al.), and key pecking replaced BO (Baum & Davison). Although the dependence of rO and BO on food rate changes Herrnstein's (1970) formulation, the model preserved the generalized matching law for operant activities by incorporating power-function induction.

  1. Sex Trade Behavior Among Heterosexually Active Homeless Men

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Kennedy, David P.; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Sex trade behavior is fairly common among homeless adults and may contribute to higher rates of HIV/AIDS in this population. This study provides a detailed examination of the sex trade-related attitudes and behaviors of homeless men by: (1) determining the prevalence of sex trade-related behaviors, including sex with female sex workers (FSWs); (2) identifying risk factors for having sex with FSWs; and (3) comparing men's relationships with FSWs and non-FSWs in terms of relationship qualities and HIV-related risk behaviors, such as condom use. Structured interviews were conducted with a probability sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men recruited from meal lines in Los Angeles. Recent sex with a FSW was reported by 26% of men, and more likely among those who were older, used crack cocaine, had more sex partners, believed that sometimes men just need to have sex no matter what, and were embedded in networks that were denser and where risky sex was more normative. Compared to non-FSW partners, men with FSW partners felt less emotionally close to them, were more likely to believe the partner had never been tested for HIV, and were more likely to have sex with them under the influence of drugs or alcohol; however, they were not more likely to talk about using condoms or to use condoms with FSWs. Whether the relationship was considered “serious” was a stronger correlate of condom use than whether the partner was a FSW. Implications of these findings for HIV prevention efforts among homeless adults are discussed. PMID:23720137

  2. Behavioral characterization of serotonergic activation in the flatworm Planaria.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Martilias S; Gilmore, Kirsti; Raffa, Robert B; Walker, Ellen A

    2008-05-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors have been identified in Planaria, a model used for studying the pharmacology of behavioral phenomena. This study characterized the behavioral and locomotor effects of 5-HT, a 5-HT1A agonist, a 5-HT1B/2C agonist, and a 5-HT1A antagonist to examine the role of 5-HT receptor activation in this species. Planarians were video recorded individually in a clear plastic cube containing drug solution or vehicle. To quantify locomotor velocity (pLMV), planarians were placed individually into a dish containing drug solution or vehicle and the rate of gridline crossings was recorded. For the antagonist experiments, four conditions were studied: water alone, agonist alone, antagonist alone, and agonist plus antagonist. The decrease in pLMV induced by the5-HT1A agonist (8-OH-DPAT), and the 5-HT1B/2C agonist (mCPP), was antagonized by pretreatment with the 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100635) at a dose that had no effect of its own on pLMV. At a higher concentration of WAY-100635, further decreases in pLMV induced by 8-OH-DPAT were observed. Each agonist produced increased occurrences of 'C-like position' and 'screw-like hyperkinesia', 5-HT and mCPP produced 'writhing', and only mCPP produced a significant increase in duration of 'headswing' behavior. The results demonstrate that the 5-HT1A receptor identified in Planaria mediates behavioral responses to 5-HT receptor ligands, supporting the notion that planarians possess functional 5-HT receptors and might serve as a simple model for their study.

  3. Behavioral characterization of serotonergic activation in the flatworm Planaria.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Martilias S; Gilmore, Kirsti; Raffa, Robert B; Walker, Ellen A

    2008-05-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors have been identified in Planaria, a model used for studying the pharmacology of behavioral phenomena. This study characterized the behavioral and locomotor effects of 5-HT, a 5-HT1A agonist, a 5-HT1B/2C agonist, and a 5-HT1A antagonist to examine the role of 5-HT receptor activation in this species. Planarians were video recorded individually in a clear plastic cube containing drug solution or vehicle. To quantify locomotor velocity (pLMV), planarians were placed individually into a dish containing drug solution or vehicle and the rate of gridline crossings was recorded. For the antagonist experiments, four conditions were studied: water alone, agonist alone, antagonist alone, and agonist plus antagonist. The decrease in pLMV induced by the5-HT1A agonist (8-OH-DPAT), and the 5-HT1B/2C agonist (mCPP), was antagonized by pretreatment with the 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100635) at a dose that had no effect of its own on pLMV. At a higher concentration of WAY-100635, further decreases in pLMV induced by 8-OH-DPAT were observed. Each agonist produced increased occurrences of 'C-like position' and 'screw-like hyperkinesia', 5-HT and mCPP produced 'writhing', and only mCPP produced a significant increase in duration of 'headswing' behavior. The results demonstrate that the 5-HT1A receptor identified in Planaria mediates behavioral responses to 5-HT receptor ligands, supporting the notion that planarians possess functional 5-HT receptors and might serve as a simple model for their study. PMID:18469535

  4. The Implications of Rapid Economic Growth for Health-Related Behaviors and Chronic Metabolic Diseases: An Exploratory Study in Post-Earthquake West China

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Hilary; Gipson, Jessica D.; Yang, Fan; Li, Jinrong; Li, Ping; Liu, Wei; Yang, Cui; Mao, Meng; Chang, Yen-Jung; Seto, Edmund; Wang, May C.

    2015-01-01

    A devastating earthquake struck west China in 2008. Reconstruction efforts have focused on urbanization and modernization, hastening economic growth in the area. This rapid growth provides a unique opportunity to explore the potential impact of rapid environmental changes on metabolic disease risk. The study objective was to gather qualitative information from residents of a rapidly changing area in China to determine perceived changes in food- and physical activity-related aspects of the environment and their perceived effects on health. We conducted extensive interviews with 30 residents of an area where towns were rapidly rebuilt after being destroyed by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Findings suggest that a longitudinal investigation of children and their families in this rapidly developing region may identify mechanisms by which environmental factors influence the development of diet-related chronic illnesses. PMID:26478828

  5. Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects. PMID:24999522

  6. Demographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors in sixteen Michigan parks.

    PubMed

    Reed, Julian A; Price, Anna E; Grost, Lisa; Mantinan, Karah

    2012-04-01

    The Building Healthy Communities (BHC) initiative addresses inadequate physical activity in Michigan using a population-based approach to prevent chronic disease. Eighteen local health departments through 2010 received $1,505,179 to plan and implement community-based interventions to increase physical activity among low-income and minority populations. This paper examines park user demographics, compares park user demographics to the demographic characteristics and examines physical activity behaviors of park users in these parks. BHC Park usage was examined from 2008 to 2010 using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). One sample binomial tests were used to examine if the proportion of male and female park users was different than the proportion of males and females in Michigan and to examine if the proportion of white and other park users was different than the proportion of whites and others in Michigan. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to examine whether the observed proportions for age groups observed using the park differed from the actual proportions for age groups in Michigan. The majority of BHC park users were white. More children were observed than other age groups. Park users were most often observed engaging in walking or vigorous activity rather than sedentary activities. When comparing the proportion of whites (54.7%) and others (42.8%) observed using the parks to the proportion of whites (79%) and others (21%) residing in Michigan, there was a significant difference (P < 0.001) with a greater proportion of whites and smaller proportion of persons of other ethnicities expected to be observed using the parks. This chi square goodness of fit test showed a significant difference in the observed and expected number of persons observed using the trail in each age group (χ(2) = 4,897.707, df = 3, P < 0.001) with a greater number of children (n = 1,939) and teens (n = 1,116) observed than the number of

  7. Accumulation and endocrine disrupting effects of the flame retardant mixture Firemaster® 550 in rats: an exploratory assessment.

    PubMed

    Patisaul, Heather B; Roberts, Simon C; Mabrey, Natalie; McCaffrey, Katherine A; Gear, Robin B; Braun, Joe; Belcher, Scott M; Stapleton, Heather M

    2013-02-01

    Firemaster® 550 (FM 550), a fire-retardant mixture used in foam-based products, was recently identified as a common contaminant in household dust. The chemical structures of its principle components suggest they have endocrine disrupting activity, but nothing is known about their physiological effects at environmentally relevant exposure levels. The goal of this exploratory study was to evaluate accumulation, metabolism and endocrine disrupting effects of FM 550 in rats exposed to 100 or 1000 µg/day across gestation and lactation. FM 550 components accumulated in tissues of exposed dams and offspring and induced phenotypic hallmarks associated with metabolic syndrome in the offspring. Effects included increased serum thyroxine levels and reduced hepatic carboxylesterease activity in dams, and advanced female puberty, weight gain, male cardiac hypertrophy, and altered exploratory behaviors in offspring. Results of this study are the first to implicate FM 550 as an endocrine disruptor and an obesogen at environmentally relevant levels.

  8. Accumulation and Endocrine Disrupting Effects of the Flame Retardant Mixture Firemaster® 550 in Rats: An Exploratory Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Roberts, Simon C.; Mabrey, Natalie; McCaffrey, Katherine A.; Gear, Robin B.; Braun, Joe; Belcher, Scott M.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Firemaster® 550 (FM 550), a fire-retardant mixture used in foam-based products, was recently identified as a common contaminant in household dust. The chemical structures of its principle components suggest they have endocrine disrupting activity, but nothing is known about their physiological effects at environmentally relevant exposure levels. The goal of this exploratory study was to evaluate accumulation, metabolism and endocrine disrupting effects of FM 550 in rats exposed to 100 or 1000 μg/day across gestation and lactation. FM 550 components accumulated in tissues of exposed dams and offspring and induced phenotypic hallmarks associated with metabolic syndrome in the offspring. Effects included increased serum thyroxine levels and reduced hepatic carboxylesterease activity in dams, and advanced female puberty, weight gain, male cardiac hypertrophy, and altered exploratory behaviors in offspring. Results of this study are the first to implicate FM 550 as an endocrine disruptor and an obesogen at environmentally relevant levels. PMID:23139171

  9. Newberry exploratory slimhole

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    During July-November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 foot exploratory slimhole (3.85 inches diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA.

  10. Physical Activity, Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep Duration in Adolescents: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, Masataka; Lochbaum, Marc; Stegemeier, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent associations of physical activity and screen-based sedentary behavior with sleep duration among adolescents by using data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011–2013. Using latent class analysis, we identified 4 latent subgroups of adolescents with various levels of physical activity and screen-based sedentary behavior. The subgroup with high levels of physical activity and low levels of sedentary behavior generally showed greater odds of having sufficient sleep (≥8 hours/night) than the other subgroups. Findings imply that concurrent achievement of a high level of physical activity and low level of screen-based sedentary behavior is necessary to promote sufficient sleep among adolescents. PMID:27634781

  11. Physical Activity, Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep Duration in Adolescents: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngdeok; Umeda, Masataka; Lochbaum, Marc; Stegemeier, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent associations of physical activity and screen-based sedentary behavior with sleep duration among adolescents by using data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011-2013. Using latent class analysis, we identified 4 latent subgroups of adolescents with various levels of physical activity and screen-based sedentary behavior. The subgroup with high levels of physical activity and low levels of sedentary behavior generally showed greater odds of having sufficient sleep (≥8 hours/night) than the other subgroups. Findings imply that concurrent achievement of a high level of physical activity and low level of screen-based sedentary behavior is necessary to promote sufficient sleep among adolescents. PMID:27634781

  12. Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.

    1992-03-24

    As was stated by the first presenter, the Long Valley Exploratory Well represents a vital linking of geothermal theory, technology and applications. The five presenters take us through that linking to the extent the current progress at the well makes that possible. The site is, of course, a geothermally rich resource, a ''recently active'' caldera. In many ways, the site has a wealth of data preceding the present work. It is a site which has excited the interest of the geothermal community for a long time. As is often the case in geothermal work, the prior data has raised as many questions as were answered. It is on this basis that the further exploration of a probable high temperature resource is being explored to great depths. The first presentation represents the cooperation and coordination maintained between similar elements of the Basic Energy Sciences programs and those in the Geothermal programs of DOE's Conservation and Renewable Energy activities. Similarly, the work exemplifies the close coordination of the DOE work with the U. S. Geological Survey, the National Science Foundation, and the U. S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The first presentation also represents the theoretical and modeling portion of the session. Appropriate to geothermal technology, the central programmatic theme is geophysical and geochemical aspects of fluid flow and interaction in porous and fractured rocks. It was interesting to note that even the theoretical work and modeling addressed the applicability to earth-based energy resources, and as well their utilization in a manner such as to assure environmental acceptability. Topics addressed included: (1) fundamental properties and interactions of rocks, mineral, and fluids; (2) transport and flow of fluids in rocks; and (3) structure of geologic units. The session continued with the description of the Phase II operations at the Long Valley Exploratory Well. The drilling operations were described as relatively trouble

  13. Teaching Social Skills in a Virtual Environment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jason; Parks-Savage, Agatha; Rehfuss, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study which examines the use of virtual environment technology as a tool to teach elementary school children social skills. Small group interventions were assessed to determine how the participants were measurably different on 7 different dependent variables: problem behaviors, academic competence,…

  14. Academic and Personal Development through Group Work: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study linked academic and personal development within a group counseling intervention. A pre-test post-test research design compared social skills, learning behaviors, and achievement with a convenience sample and control group of students from three elementary schools. For the treatment group, grade point average in Language Arts…

  15. Cross-behavior associations and multiple health behavior change: A longitudinal study on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake.

    PubMed

    Fleig, Lena; Küper, Carina; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf; Wiedemann, Amelie U

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the interrelation of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. The influence of stage congruence between physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake on multiple behavior change was also investigated. Health behaviors, social-cognitions, and stages of change were assessed in 2693 adults at two points in time. Physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed 4 weeks after the baseline. Social-cognitions, stages as well as stage transitions across behavior domains were positively interrelated. Stage congruence was not related to changes in physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. Physical activity and nutrition appear to facilitate rather than hinder each other. Having intentions to change both behaviors simultaneously does not seem to overburden individuals.

  16. Acetylcholine activity in selective striatal regions supports behavioral flexibility.

    PubMed

    Ragozzino, Michael E; Mohler, Eric G; Prior, Margaret; Palencia, Carlos A; Rozman, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Daily living often requires individuals to flexibly respond to new circumstances. There is considerable evidence that the striatum is part of a larger neural network that supports flexible adaptations. Cholinergic interneurons are situated to strongly influence striatal output patterns which may enable flexible adaptations. The present experiments investigated whether acetylcholine actions in different striatal regions support behavioral flexibility by measuring acetylcholine efflux during place reversal learning. Acetylcholine efflux selectively increased in the dorsomedial striatum, but not dorsolateral or ventromedial striatum during place reversal learning. In order to modulate the M2-class of autoreceptors, administration of oxotremorine sesquifumurate (100 nM) into the dorsomedial striatum, concomitantly impaired reversal learning and an increase in acetylcholine output. These effects were reversed by the m(2) muscarinic receptor antagonist, AF-DX-116 (20 nM). The effects of oxotremorine sesquifumurate and AF-DX-116 on acetylcholine efflux were selective to behaviorally-induced changes as neither treatment affected acetylcholine output in a resting condition. In contrast to reversal learning, acetylcholine efflux in the dorsomedial striatum did not change during place acquisition. The results reveal an essential role for cholinergic activity and define its locus of control to the dorsomedial striatum in cognitive flexibility.

  17. Influence of military activities on raptor abundance and behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schueck, Linda S.; Marzluff, J.M.; Steenhof, Karen

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the influence of military training on the abundance and behavior of raptors at a military training area in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in Idaho during the breeding seasons of 1991a??1994. Raptor counts on military training ranges did not differ when we compared all training days to all non-training days. However, during one period of intensive military training in one breeding season, raptor counts were lower during training than on non-training days. During training, Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus) did not alter their behavior on training days. In years when prey numbers were low, falcons, hawks, and eagles perched and flew at low levels less often and flew at higher altitudes more often during training than they did when training did not occur. We observed fewer prey capture attempts on ranges on days with training than on days without training. Specific types of military training activity affected counts of raptors on ranges. The lowest raptor counts were associated with firing of artillery, small arms, and main turret guns or machine guns on tanks. Raptor counts associated with tank preparation (i.e., assembling and loading ammunition), driving, laser training, and convoy traffic were similar to non-training periods.

  18. Behavioral State Modulates the Activity of Brainstem Sensorimotor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Kimberly L.

    2011-01-01

    Sensorimotor processing must be modulated according to the animal's behavioral state. A previous study demonstrated that motion responses were strongly state dependent in birds. Vestibular eye and head responses were significantly larger and more compensatory during simulated flight, and a flight-specific vestibular tail response was also characterized. In the current study, we investigated the neural substrates for these state-dependent vestibular behaviors by recording extracellularly from neurons in the vestibular nuclear complex and comparing their spontaneous activity and sensory responses during default and simulated flight states. We show that motion-sensitive neurons in the lateral vestibular nucleus are state dependent. Some neurons increased their spontaneous firing rates during flight, though their increased excitability was not reflected in higher sensory gains. However, other neurons exhibited state-dependent gating of sensory inputs, responding to rotational stimuli only during flight. These results demonstrate that vestibular processing in the brainstem is state dependent and lay the foundation for future studies to investigate the synaptic mechanisms responsible for these modifications. PMID:22090497

  19. Behavioral activating effects of adrafinil in aged canines.

    PubMed

    Siwak, C T; Gruet, P; Woehrlé, F; Schneider, M; Muggenburg, B A; Murphey, H L; Callahan, H; Milgram, N W

    2000-06-01

    Adrafinil, a vigilance enhancing pharmaceutical, was administered to aged dogs for 14 consecutive days at doses of 10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg using a crossover design. The effects on spontaneous behavior in a 10-min canine open-field test were systematically recorded every fourth day, starting with day 1 of treatment. The open field tests were given 2 or 10 h following oral administration of capsules containing either adrafinil or lactose, the placebo control. Adrafinil caused an increase in locomotor activity at the three highest doses at both the 2- and 10-h intervals and during both the first (days 1 and 5) and second treatment week (days 9 and 13). Adrafinil also caused a transient increase in directed sniffing. At the highest dose level, adrafinil caused a decrease in urination frequency. The increased locomotion was generally unaccompanied by stereotypical behavior in the test session. There was some variability; a subpopulation of animals showed either no effect, or decreased locomotion. The individual differences were correlated with changes in serum levels of adrafinil 10 h following treatment. PMID:10880681

  20. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Chronic Fibromyalgia Pain: Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A multiple-baseline-across two behavior sets and positions (reclined, upright) was used to experimentally examine the effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment for Pain (BAT-P) on pain-related behavior of a 44-year-old woman with a 22-year history of fibromyalgia (FM). BAT-P, based on the matching law, is comprised of Behavioral Relaxation…

  1. Theatrical fire pursuant exploratory laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    Bellevue, Oliver C.; Johnson, Bennett M.; Feczko, Andrew F.; Nadig, Daniel E.; White, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Fire in the operating theater is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report igniting an intraperitoneal fire while preforming an exploratory laparotomy for perforated viscus. Fortunately, the patient suffered no injuries as a result. PMID:27252520

  2. Theatrical fire pursuant exploratory laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Bellevue, Oliver C; Johnson, Bennett M; Feczko, Andrew F; Nadig, Daniel E; White, David M

    2016-01-01

    Fire in the operating theater is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report igniting an intraperitoneal fire while preforming an exploratory laparotomy for perforated viscus. Fortunately, the patient suffered no injuries as a result. PMID:27252520

  3. Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly-active 8th grade girls

    PubMed Central

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Dowda, Marsha; Beets, Michael W.; Pate, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose While girls are generally less physically active than boys, some girls regularly engage in high levels of physical activity (PA); however, very little is known about these girls and how they differ from those who are less physically active. This study examined the PA behavior and related characteristics of highly-active adolescent girls and compared them with those who are less active. Methods Data from 1,866 8th grade girls from 6 field centers across the U.S. participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were included in the present analysis. Mixed model ANOVAs examined differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and physical activity (accelerometry and self-report) variables between high- and low-active girls; effect sizes were calculated for the differences. Results High-active girls were taller, had lower BMIs and body fat, and were less sedentary. High-active girls scored higher on self-efficacy, enjoyment of PA, self-management strategies, outcome-expectancy value, and support from family and friends than low-active girls. Low-active girls participated in more leisure-time and educational sedentary activities than high-active girls. High-active girls participated in more PA classes/lessons outside of school, team sports, and individual sports. They were also more likely to participate in sports in an organized setting in the community or at school than low-active girls. Conclusions Health promotion efforts should focus on decreasing the amount of time girls spend in sedentary activities and replacing that time with organized PA opportunities; such efforts should seek to minimize perceived barriers and increase self-efficacy and support for PA. PMID:23384978

  4. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  5. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Physical Activity: The Moderating Role of Mental Toughness.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Thomas E; Moffitt, Robyn L; Neumann, David L; Thomas, Patrick R

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether mental toughness, the capacity to maintain performance under pressure, moderated the relation between physical activity intentions and subsequent behavior. Participants (N = 117) completed the Mental Toughness Index and a theory of planned behavior questionnaire. Seven days later, physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control explained substantial variance (63.1%) in physical activity intentions. Intentions also significantly predicted physical activity behavior. The simple slopes analyses for the moderation effect revealed a nonsignificant intention-behavior relation at low levels of mental toughness. However, intentions were significantly and positively related to physical activity when mental toughness was moderate or high, suggesting that the development of a mentally tough mindset may reduce the gap between behavior and physical activity intention. Future research is needed to confirm these findings and apply them in the design of mental toughness interventions to facilitate physical activity engagement.

  6. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Physical Activity: The Moderating Role of Mental Toughness.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Thomas E; Moffitt, Robyn L; Neumann, David L; Thomas, Patrick R

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether mental toughness, the capacity to maintain performance under pressure, moderated the relation between physical activity intentions and subsequent behavior. Participants (N = 117) completed the Mental Toughness Index and a theory of planned behavior questionnaire. Seven days later, physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control explained substantial variance (63.1%) in physical activity intentions. Intentions also significantly predicted physical activity behavior. The simple slopes analyses for the moderation effect revealed a nonsignificant intention-behavior relation at low levels of mental toughness. However, intentions were significantly and positively related to physical activity when mental toughness was moderate or high, suggesting that the development of a mentally tough mindset may reduce the gap between behavior and physical activity intention. Future research is needed to confirm these findings and apply them in the design of mental toughness interventions to facilitate physical activity engagement. PMID:26524097

  7. Physical activity related information sources predict physical activity behaviors in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini; Boule, Normand G

    2010-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a key management strategy for type 2 diabetes. Despite the known benefits, PA levels are low. Whether the low level of PA is related to lack of knowledge or support is not fully understood. This study was conducted to describe where and how often adults with type 2 diabetes receive and seek information related to PA and examine the relationships between the source and quality of PA information with PA behaviors. A series of questions related to the source and quality of PA information were added to a baseline survey distributed to the participants (N = 244) of the Canadian Aerobic and Resistance Training in Diabetes (CARED) study. Physicians and television were found to be the main sources of PA-related information. In our cross-sectional model, sources of PA-related information other than that from health care professionals explained 14% (p = .05) and 16% (p < .05) of the variance for aerobic-based and resistance training behaviors and 22% (p < .01) and 15% (p < .05) for these behaviors in our longitudinal model. Physical activity (PA)-related information is widely available to adults with type 2 diabetes. Neither the quantity nor the quality of the PA information provided by health care professionals predicted PA behavior. These data provide further insight into the modes with which PA can be promoted to adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21170787

  8. Friendship networks and physical activity and sedentary behavior among youth: a systematized review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity and increased participation in sedentary leisure-time activities are two important obesity-risk behaviors that impact the health of today’s youth. Friend’s health behaviors have been shown to influence individual health behaviors; however, current evidence on the specific role of friendship networks in relation to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior is limited. The purpose of this review was to summarize evidence on friendship networks and both physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents. Method After a search of seven scientific databases and reference scans, a total of thirteen articles were eligible for inclusion. All assessed the association between friendship networks and physical activity, while three also assessed sedentary behavior. Results Overall, higher levels of physical activity among friends are associated with higher levels of physical activity of the individual. Longitudinal studies reveal that an individual’s level of physical activity changes to reflect his/her friends’ higher level of physical activity. Boys tend to be influenced by their friendship network to a greater extent than girls. There is mixed evidence surrounding a friend’s sedentary behavior and individual sedentary behavior. Conclusion Friends’ physical activity level appears to have a significant influence on individual’s physical activity level. Evidence surrounding sedentary behavior is limited and mixed. Results from this review could inform effective public health interventions that harness the influence of friends to increase physical activity levels among children and adolescents. PMID:24289113

  9. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form: Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Rachel C.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Luo, Wen

    2011-01-01

    Following a landmark component analysis of cognitive therapy by Jacobson and colleagues (1996), there has been renewed interest in behavioral activation (BA) treatments for depression. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) was developed to measure when and how clients become activated over the course of BA treatment. Multiple…

  10. Pupils' Readiness for Self-Regulated Learning in the Forethought Phase of Exploratory Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsärinne, Mika; Kallio, Manne; Virta, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses pupils' readiness for self-regulation in Exploratory Production in Technology Education. In the forethought phase of Exploratory Production, pupils envision and regulate their technological production activities. Next, in the performance phase, the envisioned goals are tried and implemented through ideating, planning…

  11. Envisioning Competence: Learning, Problem Solving, and Children at Work in the Exploratory Bicycle Shop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Charles Florian

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the conceptual learning and cognitive development processes of schoolchildren engaged in problem solving activities in a non-school, workplace setting known as the exploratory bicycle shop. The exploratory bike shop is a commercial bicycle shop: a) that has been adapted for combined retail and educational purposes and b) where…

  12. Behavior Disorders: The Need for Multiple and Integrated Treatment Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernes, Kerry

    In response to increasing demands that Canadian school boards provide behavior adaptation programs to counter the effects of disruptive home environments, school violence, and victimization, this paper explores definitions and diagnostic criteria for the following behavior disorders: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant…

  13. Active Mesogenic Droplets: Impact of Liquid Crystallinity and Collective Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Christian

    Droplets of common mesogenic compounds show a self-propelled motion when immersed in aqueous solutions containing ionic surfactants at concentrations well above the critical micelle concentration. After introducing some general properties of this type of artificial microswimmer, we focus on two topics: the influence of liquid crystallinity on the swimming behavior and the collective behavior of ensembles of a larger number of droplets. The mesogenic properties are not essential for the basic mechanism of self-propulsion, nevertheless they considerably influence the swimming behavior of the droplets. For instance, the shape of the trajectories strongly depends on whether the droplets are in the nematic or isotropic state. The droplet swimmers are also ideally suited for the study of collective behavior: Microfluidics enables the generation of large numbers of identical swimmers and we can tune their buoyancy. We report on the collective behavior in three-dimensional environments. Supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SPP 1726 ``Microswimmers'').

  14. Optimal Scaling of HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors in Ethnically Diverse Homosexually Active Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used homogeneity analysis and latent class analysis to analyze sexual behavior patterns in two samples of homosexually active men. Results support the existence of a single, nonlinear, latent dimension underlying male homosexual behaviors consistent with HIV-related risk taking, providing an efficient means to scale sexual behavior patterns. (RJM)

  15. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  16. Adsorption behavior of alpha -cypermethrin on cork and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Valentina F; Priolo, Giuseppe; Alves, Arminda C; Cabral, Miguel F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2007-08-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the adsorption behavior of alpha -cypermethrin [R)-alpha -cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl(1S)-cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate, and (S)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R)-cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate] in solutions on granules of cork and activated carbon (GAC). The adsorption studies were carried out using a batch equilibrium technique. A gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to analyze alpha -cypermethrin after solid phase extraction with C18 disks. Physical properties including real density, pore volume, surface area and pore diameter of cork were evaluated by mercury porosimetry. Characterization of cork particles showed variations thereby indicating the highly heterogeneous structure of the material. The average surface area of cork particles was lower than that of GAC. Kinetics adsorption studies allowed the determination of the equilibrium time - 24 hours for both cork (1-2 mm and 3-4 mm) and GAC. For the studied alpha -cypermethrin concentration range, GAC revealed to be a better sorbent. However, adsorption parameters for equilibrium concentrations, obtained through the Langmuir and Freundlich models, showed that granulated cork 1-2 mm have the maximum amount of adsorbed alpha-cypermethrin (q(m)) (303 microg/g); followed by GAC (186 microg/g) and cork 3-4 mm (136 microg/g). The standard deviation (SD) values, demonstrate that Freundlich model better describes the alpha -cypermethrin adsorption phenomena on GAC, while alpha -cypermethrin adsorption on cork (1-2 mm and 3-4 mm) is better described by the Langmuir. In view of the adsorption results obtained in this study it appears that granulated cork may be a better and a cheaper alternative to GAC for removing alpha -cypermethrin from water.

  17. Thyroid axis activity and suicidal behavior in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Duval, Fabrice; Mokrani, Marie-Claude; Lopera, Felix Gonzalez; Diep, Thanh Son; Rabia, Hassen; Fattah, Saïd

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between suicidal behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis activity in depressed patients. The serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were evaluated before and after 0800 and 2300 h thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenges, on the same day, in 95 medication-free DSM-IV euthyroid major depressed inpatients and 44 healthy hospitalized controls. Compared to controls: (1) patients with a positive suicide history (PSH; n=53) showed lower basal FT4 (at 0800 h: p<0.005; at 2300 h: p<0.03), but normal FT3 levels, while patients with a negative suicide history (NSH; n=42) showed normal FT4 and FT3 levels; (2) TSH responses to TRH (DeltaTSH) were blunted in NSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.03; at 2300 h: p<0.00001), but not in PSHs; (3) both NSHs and PSHs showed lower DeltaDeltaTSH values (differences between 2300 h-DeltaTSH and 0800 h-DeltaTSH) (p<0.000001 and p<0.003, respectively). Compared to NSHs, basal FT4 levels were reduced in PSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.002; at 2300h: p<0.006). HPT parameters were not significantly different between recent suicide attempters (n=32) and past suicide attempters (n=21). However, compared to controls, recent suicide attempters showed lower 2300 h-DeltaTSH (p<0.04) and DeltaDeltaTSH (p<0.002) values, and lower basal FT4 values (at 0800 h: p<0.006; at 2300 h: p<0.02). Our results, obtained in a large sample of depressed inpatients, indicate that various degrees of HPT axis dysregulation are associated with the history of suicide. PMID:20129737

  18. Behavioral Activation for Depression in Older Adults: Theoretical and Practical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Polenick, Courtney Allyn; Flora, Stephen Ray

    2013-01-01

    Late-life depression (LLD) is a major public health concern that can have devastating effects on older individuals and their families. Behavioral theories predict that decreases in response-contingent positive reinforcement and increases in negatively reinforced avoidance behaviors, often accompanied by aversive life events, result in the selection and maintenance of depression. Based on these theories, behavioral activation treatments for depression are designed to facilitate structured increases in enjoyable activities that increase opportunities for contact with positive reinforcement. We discuss the applicability of behavioral models for LLD, and we briefly review current behavioral activation interventions for LLD with an emphasis on implications for future behavior-analytic research. Behavioral activation has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing depression and increasing healthy behavior in older adults. Potential challenges and considerations for future research are discussed. We suggest that applied behavior analysts and clinical behavior analysts are particularly well suited to improve and expand on the knowledge base and practical application of behavioral activation interventions with this population. PMID:25729131

  19. Behavioral activation system modulation on brain activation during appetitive and aversive stimulus processing

    PubMed Central

    Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán-Tomás, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Parcet, Maria-Antònia; Ávila, César

    2010-01-01

    The reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) proposed the behavioral activation system (BAS) as a neurobehavioral system that is dependent on dopamine-irrigated structures and that mediates the individual differences in sensitivity and reactivity to appetitive stimuli associated with BAS-related personality traits. Theoretical developments propose that high BAS sensitivity is associated with both enhanced appetitive stimuli processing and the diminished processing of aversive stimuli. The objective of this study was to analyze how individual differences in BAS functioning were associated with brain activation during erotic and aversive picture processing while subjects were involved in a simple goal-directed task. Forty-five male participants took part in this study. The task activation results confirm the activation of the reward and punishment brain-related structures while viewing erotic and aversive pictures, respectively. The SR scores show a positive correlation with activation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex, the mesial prefrontal cortex and the right occipital cortex while viewing erotic pictures, and a negative correlation with the right lateral prefrontal cortex and the left occipital cortex while viewing aversive pictures. In summary, the SR scores modulate the activity of the cortical areas in the prefrontal and the occipital cortices that are proposed to modulate the BAS and the BIS-FFFS. PMID:20147458

  20. Behavioral activation system modulation on brain activation during appetitive and aversive stimulus processing.

    PubMed

    Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán-Tomás, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Parcet, Maria-Antònia; Avila, César

    2010-03-01

    The reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) proposed the behavioral activation system (BAS) as a neurobehavioral system that is dependent on dopamine-irrigated structures and that mediates the individual differences in sensitivity and reactivity to appetitive stimuli associated with BAS-related personality traits. Theoretical developments propose that high BAS sensitivity is associated with both enhanced appetitive stimuli processing and the diminished processing of aversive stimuli. The objective of this study was to analyze how individual differences in BAS functioning were associated with brain activation during erotic and aversive picture processing while subjects were involved in a simple goal-directed task. Forty-five male participants took part in this study. The task activation results confirm the activation of the reward and punishment brain-related structures while viewing erotic and aversive pictures, respectively. The SR scores show a positive correlation with activation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex, the mesial prefrontal cortex and the right occipital cortex while viewing erotic pictures, and a negative correlation with the right lateral prefrontal cortex and the left occipital cortex while viewing aversive pictures. In summary, the SR scores modulate the activity of the cortical areas in the prefrontal and the occipital cortices that are proposed to modulate the BAS and the BIS-FFFS.

  1. Behavioral activation system modulation on brain activation during appetitive and aversive stimulus processing.

    PubMed

    Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán-Tomás, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Parcet, Maria-Antònia; Avila, César

    2010-03-01

    The reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) proposed the behavioral activation system (BAS) as a neurobehavioral system that is dependent on dopamine-irrigated structures and that mediates the individual differences in sensitivity and reactivity to appetitive stimuli associated with BAS-related personality traits. Theoretical developments propose that high BAS sensitivity is associated with both enhanced appetitive stimuli processing and the diminished processing of aversive stimuli. The objective of this study was to analyze how individual differences in BAS functioning were associated with brain activation during erotic and aversive picture processing while subjects were involved in a simple goal-directed task. Forty-five male participants took part in this study. The task activation results confirm the activation of the reward and punishment brain-related structures while viewing erotic and aversive pictures, respectively. The SR scores show a positive correlation with activation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex, the mesial prefrontal cortex and the right occipital cortex while viewing erotic pictures, and a negative correlation with the right lateral prefrontal cortex and the left occipital cortex while viewing aversive pictures. In summary, the SR scores modulate the activity of the cortical areas in the prefrontal and the occipital cortices that are proposed to modulate the BAS and the BIS-FFFS. PMID:20147458

  2. Locomotor activity and cocaine-seeking behavior during acquisition and reinstatement of operant self-administration behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Koeltzow, Timothy E; Vezina, Paul

    2005-05-28

    Recent studies indicate that administration of dopamine D2-like receptor agonists reinstates drug-seeking behavior in rodents, whereas dopamine D1-like receptor agonists do not. These effects have been related to the ability of these agonists to facilitate the expression of sensitized locomotor activity. Presently, we describe experiments in which locomotor activity was assessed concomitantly with operant performance during acquisition, extinction and reinstatement. We report that locomotor activity was inversely related to drug-seeking behavior during acquisition of cocaine self-administration under a Fixed Ratio (FR) 1 schedule of reinforcement. During a single trial extinction session, animals that had acquired cocaine self-administration exhibited a conditioned increase in drug-seeking behavior, but there was no evidence of a conditioned locomotor response. During reinstatement, cocaine (20 mg/kg) significantly increased both locomotor activity and drug-seeking behavior. The dopamine D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg) increased drug-seeking behavior, but did not significantly increase locomotor activity. In contrast, the dopamine D1-like receptor agonist SKF 81297 (0.5 mg/kg) failed to reinstate drug-seeking behavior, but produced significant locomotor activation. To determine whether the inability of SKF 81297 to promote reinstatement is related to the strength of operant conditioning, additional rats were trained to self-administer cocaine using an FR-3 schedule of reinforcement. Despite achieving response rates during training almost four times higher compared to the FR-1 condition, administration of SKF 81297 again failed to significantly increase drug-seeking behavior during reinstatement testing. These results extend previous findings, confirming the important role of D2-like, but not D1-like receptor activation in the reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. An understanding of the mechanisms by which D1- and D2-like agonists differentially

  3. Cortical substrates for exploratory decisions in humans.

    PubMed

    Daw, Nathaniel D; O'Doherty, John P; Dayan, Peter; Seymour, Ben; Dolan, Raymond J

    2006-06-15

    Decision making in an uncertain environment poses a conflict between the opposing demands of gathering and exploiting information. In a classic illustration of this 'exploration-exploitation' dilemma, a gambler choosing between multiple slot machines balances the desire to select what seems, on the basis of accumulated experience, the richest option, against the desire to choose a less familiar option that might turn out more advantageous (and thereby provide information for improving future decisions). Far from representing idle curiosity, such exploration is often critical for organisms to discover how best to harvest resources such as food and water. In appetitive choice, substantial experimental evidence, underpinned by computational reinforcement learning (RL) theory, indicates that a dopaminergic, striatal and medial prefrontal network mediates learning to exploit. In contrast, although exploration has been well studied from both theoretical and ethological perspectives, its neural substrates are much less clear. Here we show, in a gambling task, that human subjects' choices can be characterized by a computationally well-regarded strategy for addressing the explore/exploit dilemma. Furthermore, using this characterization to classify decisions as exploratory or exploitative, we employ functional magnetic resonance imaging to show that the frontopolar cortex and intraparietal sulcus are preferentially active during exploratory decisions. In contrast, regions of striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex exhibit activity characteristic of an involvement in value-based exploitative decision making. The results suggest a model of action selection under uncertainty that involves switching between exploratory and exploitative behavioural modes, and provide a computationally precise characterization of the contribution of key decision-related brain systems to each of these functions.

  4. Depression-like Behavior Induced by Nesfatin-1 in Rats: Involvement of Increased Immune Activation and Imbalance of Synaptic Vesicle Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Xu, Ya-Yun; Qin, Gan; Peng, Yao-Nan; Zhang, Chao-Feng; Liu, Xing-Rui; Liang, Li-Chuan; Wang, Zhong-Zheng; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a multicausal disorder and has been associated with metabolism regulation and immuno-inflammatory reaction. The anorectic molecule nesfatin-1 has recently been characterized as a potential mood regulator, but its precise effect on depression and the possible mechanisms remain unknown, especially when given peripherally. In the present study, nesfatin-1 was intraperitoneally injected to the rats and the depression-like behavior and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were evaluated. The plasma concentrations of nesfatin-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP); and the hypothalamic expression levels of nesfatin-1, synapsin I, and synaptotagmin I mRNA were evaluated in nesfatin-1 chronically treated rats. The results showed that both acute and chronic administration of nesfatin-1 increased immobility in the forced swimming test (FST), and resulted in the hyperactivity of HPA axis, as indicated by the increase of plasma corticosterone concentration and hypothalamic expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA. Moreover, after chronic nesfatin-1 administration, the rats exhibited decreased activity and exploratory behavior in the open field test (OFT) and increased mRNA expression of synapsin I and synaptotagmin I in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, chronic administration of nesfatin-1 elevated plasma concentrations of IL-6 and CRP, which were positively correlated with despair behavior, plasma corticosterone level, and the hypothalamic mRNA expression of synapsin I and synaptotagmin I. These results indicated that exogenous nesfatin-1 could induce the immune-inflammatory activation, which might be a central hug linking the depression-like behavior and the imbalanced mRNA expression of synaptic vesicle proteins in the hypothalamus. PMID:26617482

  5. Progress Report {number_sign}1 on the materials identification, characterization and evaluation activity: Acquisition of materials data from the Exploratory Studies Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Meike, A., LLNL

    1998-02-01

    This paper reports on the initial work within the Materials Identification, Characterization and Evaluation Sub-activity Integration Activity within the Introduced Materials Task (IMT) (WBS 1.2.3.12.5). The goals of this activity are twofold.: (1) to identify and characterize types and usage of materials that are most likely to be introduced into a potential High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a result of its construction and operation and (2) to provide tools for the Integration Activity to evaluate the chemical impact on the repository based on information gathered from sources external and internal to the Introduced Materials Task-by the Literature Survey Sub-activity (Integration Activity, IMT). Based on this information and assessment, the Integration Activity activates relevant activities within the Introduced Materials Task and provides information to other Tasks within the Yucca Mountain Project.

  6. Sex differences in anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity following prenatal and postnatal methamphetamine exposure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hrubá, L; Schutová, B; Šlamberová, R

    2012-01-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of prenatal and postnatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure on behavior and anxiety in adult male and female rats. Mothers were daily exposed to injection of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline (S): prior to impregnation and throughout gestation and lactation periods. On postnatal day 1, pups were cross-fostered so that each mother raised 6 saline-exposed pups and 6 MA-exposed pups. Based on the prenatal and postnatal exposure 4 experimental groups (S/S, S/MA, MA/S, MA/MA) were tested in the Open field (OF) and in the Elevated plus maze (EPM) in adulthood. Locomotion, exploration, immobility and comforting behavior were evaluated in the OF, while anxiety was assessed in the EPM. While prenatal MA exposure did not affect behavior and anxiety in adulthood, postnatal MA exposure (i.e. MA administration to lactating mothers) induced long-term changes. Specifically, adult female rats in diestrus and adult males postnatally exposed to MA via breast milk (S/MA and MA/MA) had decreased locomotion and exploratory behavior in the OF and showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the EPM when compared to female rats in diestrus or males postnatally exposed to saline (S/S and MA/S). In adult females in proestrus, postnatal exposure to MA affected only exploratory behavior in the OF when compared to rats in proestrus postnatally exposed to saline. Thus, the present study shows that postnatal exposure to MA via breast milk impairs behavior in unfamiliar environment and anxiety-like behavior of adult male and female rats more than prenatal MA exposure. PMID:21884713

  7. The effect of simulated ostracism on physical activity behavior in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Assess the effects of simulated ostracism on children’s physical activity behavior, time allocated to sedentary behavior, and liking of physical activity. Methods: Nineteen (N=11 males, 8 females) children (11.7±1.3 years) completed two experimental sessions. During each session childre...

  8. A Social Cognitive Perspective of Physical-Activity-Related Behavior in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine student and teacher physical-activity-related behavior using the theory of planned behavior and self-efficacy theory. Although teachers reported an overwhelmingly positive attitude toward teaching physical activity lessons to promote fitness development, they only devoted 4% of their class time to…

  9. Parental Social Support and the Physical Activity-Related Behaviors of Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Alderman, Brandon L.

    2010-01-01

    Social support from parents serves as one of the primary influences of youth physical activity-related behaviors. A systematic review was conducted on the relationship of parental social support to the physical activity-related behaviors of youth. Four categories of social support were identified, falling under two distinct mechanisms--tangible…

  10. Association between Hypothesized Parental Influences and Preschool Children's Physical Activity Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Schary, David P.; Beets, Michael W.; Leary, Janie; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To date, most research investigating the influence of parents on children"s physical activity behavior has been conducted among school-aged children. As a result, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms through which parents can influence their young children's physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to…

  11. Weight Status in US Youth: The Role of Activity, Diet, and Sedentary Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peart, Tasha; Velasco Mondragon, H. Eduardo; Rohm-Young, Deborah; Bronner, Yvonne; Hossain, Mian B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess associations of physical activity, diet, and sedentary behaviors with overweight and obesity. Methods: Analyses of the NHANES 2003-06 were conducted among 2368 US adolescents, ages 12-19. Self-reported diet and sedentary behavior measures were used; physical activity was assessed using accelerometers. Results:…

  12. BEACHES: An Observational System for Assessing Children's Eating and Physical Activity Behaviors and Associated Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health Evaluation System (BEACHES) codes direct observations of children's dietary and physical activity behaviors and associated environmental events, including physical location, antecedents, and consequences. The system's reliability and validity was assessed in a study of 42 children (ages…

  13. Relationship of Physical Activity to Eating Behaviors and Weight Loss in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakicic, John M.; Wing, Rena R.; Winters-Hart, Carena

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether change in physical activity would relate to compliance with changes in dietary intake and eating behaviors in an 18-month behavioral weight loss program, also noting the contribution of exercise to weight loss. Data on 104 women indicated that physical activity related to long-term weight loss and was part of a constellation of…

  14. Engagement in Vocational Activities Promotes Behavioral Development for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Smith, Leann E.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relations over time between behavioral functioning (autism symptoms, maladaptive behaviors, activities of daily living) and vocational/educational activities of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants were 153 adults with ASD (M age = 30.2 years) who were part of a larger longitudinal study.…

  15. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  16. Multiple Behavior Change among Church Members Taking Part in the Faith, Activity, and Nutrition Program

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which participants in a combined physical activity (PA) and dietary intervention achieved changes in multiple health behaviors. Design Group randomized trial; includes participants assigned to the intervention group only. Setting 36 churches in South Carolina. Participants 360 African American church members. Intervention 15-month PA and dietary intervention, guided by the structural ecological model, targeting environmental (i.e. social, cultural, physical) and organizational (i.e. policies, practices) changes within the church. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported PA, fruit and vegetable consumption, fat-, and fiber-related behaviors. Analysis Change in each behavior was defined as unadjusted pretest-posttest improvement ≥0.20 of the baseline standard deviation. The total number and each combination of behaviors changed were calculated. Results 19.2% changed no health behaviors as defined above, 31.4% changed one health behavior, 30.8% changed two health behaviors, 13.3% changed three health behaviors, and 5.3% changed all four of the targeted health behaviors. Combinations of multiple behavior change included PA and dietary behaviors, suggesting both behaviors can be changed simultaneously. Conclusions and Implications Nearly half of participants changed at least two health behaviors. Faith-based interventions targeting environmental and organizational change can successfully change multiple behaviors, potentially leading to greater improvements in public health. PMID:23769297

  17. An Exploratory Study of Biology Teachers' Online Information Seeking Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrault, Anne Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on exploratory research that investigated biology teachers' perceptions of their online information seeking practices and how these practices influenced their instructional planning activities. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the results of an online survey and ten in-depth interviews measuring use of specific online…

  18. GABA-B receptor activation and conflict behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelaars, C.E.J.; Bollen, E.L.; Rigter, H.; Bruinvels, J.

    1988-01-01

    Baclofen and oxazepam enhance extinction of conflict behavior in the Geller-Seifter test while baclofen and diazepam release punished behavior in Vogel's conflict test. In order to investigate the possibility that the effect of the selective GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen is mediated indirectly via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex, the effect of pretreatment of rats with baclofen on (/sup 3/H)-diazepam binding to washed and unwashed cortical and cerebellar membranes of rats has been studied. Baclofen pretreatment increase Bmax in washed cerebellar membranes when bicuculline was present in the incubation mixture. No effect was seen in cortical membranes. The present results render it unlikely that the effect of baclofen on extinction of conflict behavior and punished drinking is mediated via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex. 50 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  19. Nucleus accumbens neuronal activity correlates to the animal's behavioral response to acute and chronic methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Catherine M; Chong, Samuel L; Dafny, Nachum

    2014-04-22

    Acute and chronic methylphenidate (MPD) exposure was recorded simultaneously for the rat's locomotor activity and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) neuronal activity. The evaluation of the neuronal events was based on the animal's behavior response to chronic MPD administration: 1) Animals exhibiting behavioral sensitization, 2) Animals exhibiting behavioral tolerance. The experiment lasted for 10days with four groups of animals; saline, 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0mg/kg MPD. For the main behavioral findings, about half of the animals exhibited behavioral sensitization or behavioral tolerance to 0.6, 2.5, and/or 10mg/kg MPD respectively. Three hundred and forty one NAc neuronal units were evaluated. Approximately 80% of NAc units responded to 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0mg/kg MPD. When the neuronal activity was analyzed based on the animals' behavioral response to chronic MPD exposure, significant differences were seen between the neuronal population responses recorded from animals that expressed behavioral sensitization when compared to the NAc neuronal responses recorded from animals exhibiting behavioral tolerance. Three types of neurophysiological sensitization and neurophysiological tolerance can be recognized following chronic MPD administration to the neuronal populations. Collectively, these findings show that the same dose of chronic MPD can elicit either behavioral tolerance or behavioral sensitization. Differential statistical analyses were used to verify our hypothesis that the neuronal activity recorded from animals exhibiting behavioral sensitization will respond differently to MPD compared to those animals exhibiting behavioral tolerance, thus, suggesting that it is essential to record the animal's behavior concomitantly with neuronal recordings.

  20. Lifestyle Physical Activity Behavior of Korean American Dry Cleaner Couples

    PubMed Central

    Sukyung, Ju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Eunice, Lee; Arlene, Miller

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to: (1) describe and compare lifestyle physical activity (leisure-time, household, and occupational physical activity), using both self-report and an objective measure of step counts, in self-employed Korean American married couples working together at dry cleaners, and (2) examine the relationship between self-report and objective measures of physical activity. Design and Sample Seventy couples participated in this cross-sectional, descriptive, face-to-face interview survey. Measures Two self-reports (28-item Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors Physical Activity Questionnaire and Tecumseh Occupational Physical Activity Questionnaire) and one objective measure (New Lifestyles-800 pedometer) were used. Results The husbands spent significantly more time than their wives in moderate- to vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity (207 vs. 122 minutes/week) and occupational physical activity (2,585 vs. 1,065 minutes/week). Most couples (91%) met recommended levels of physical activity based on their occupational physical activity. Pedometer steps correlated significantly only with leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions Study findings suggest that to increase physical activity in Korean American couples who work in a small business, moderate-intensity lifestyle physical activity interventions across leisure-time, household, and occupational physical activity will be more successful than traditional leisure-time interventions. In addition, results suggest that there is a need for interventions that target both members of the married couple. PMID:22092460

  1. Gender Differences in College Leisure Time Physical Activity: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Integrated Behavioral Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beville, Jill M.; Umstattd Meyer, M. Renée; Usdan, Stuart L.; Turner, Lori W.; Jackson, John C.; Lian, Brad E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: National data consistently report that males participate in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) at higher rates than females. This study expanded previous research to examine gender differences in LTPA of college students using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by including 2 additional constructs, descriptive norm and…

  2. Understanding Physical Activity Behavior in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Chris; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Erich; Rhodes, Ryan; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for African American students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and…

  3. Physical Activity Behaviors, Motivation, and Self-Efficacy among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauline, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well documented benefits of an active lifestyle, lack of physical activity is a significant health problem in college students. The purpose of this descriptive study was to attain baseline physical activity behaviors, motivation factors, and self-efficacy levels to assist with developing tailored physical activity programs and…

  4. Using Web-Based Activities to Promote Reading: An Exploratory Study with Teenagers (Uso de actividades en la red para promover la lectura: un estudio exploratorio con adolescentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rátiva Velandia, Marlén; Pedreros Torres, Andrés Leonardo; Núñez Alí, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    It is considered valuable to take advantage of web activities to improve and qualify the English teaching and learning processes, especially in the promotion of reading comprehension. In this article we share the process and results of a study that focused on some activities based on web materials that were designed and used with 10th grade…

  5. The Contribution of Ideational Behavior to Creative Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Sue Hyeon; Park, Hyeri; Runco, Mark A.; Choe, Ho-Seong

    2016-01-01

    The prediction of creative performance from ideation has shown promise, but questions remain. In this study, the relationship of ideational behavior and the creative performance of elementary school children (N = 255) was examined across 6 domains of creative performance: science, mathematics, technology, fine arts, music, and writing.…

  6. A Secure Behavior Modification Sensor System for Physical Activity Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Today, advances in wireless sensor networks are making it possible to capture large amounts of information about a person and their interaction within their home environment. However, what is missing is how to ensure the security of the collected data and its use to alter human behavior for positive benefit. In this research, exploration was…

  7. Engagement in vocational activities promotes behavioral development for adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Smith, Leann E; Mailick, Marsha R

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relations over time between behavioral functioning (autism symptoms, maladaptive behaviors, activities of daily living) and vocational/educational activities of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants were 153 adults with ASD (M age = 30.2 years) who were part of a larger longitudinal study. Data were collected at two time points separated by 5.5 years. Cross-lag models were used, which accounted for stability over time while testing both directions of cross-lagged effects. Results suggested that greater vocational independence and engagement was related to subsequent reductions in autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors, and improvements in activities of daily living. Relations between earlier behavioral variables (symptoms, behaviors, and activities of daily living) and later vocational independence were not statistically significant. PMID:24287880

  8. Behavioral Assessment of Physical Activity in Obese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent…

  9. Active Reading Behaviors in Tablet-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Bolchini, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Active reading is fundamental to learning. However, there is little understanding about whether traditional active reading frameworks sufficiently characterize how learners study multimedia tablet textbooks. This paper explores the nature of active reading in the tablet environment through a qualitative study that engaged 30 students in an active…

  10. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p <.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health. PMID:21242603

  11. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p <.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health.

  12. Role of CCK in anti-exploratory action of paroxetine, 5-HT reuptake inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kõks, Sulev; Bourin, Michel; Võikar, Vootele; Soosaar, Andres; Vasar, Eero

    1999-03-01

    The administration of paroxetine (0.5-8 mg/kg), a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, induced a dose-dependent reduction of exploratory activity of rats in the motility test. In the elevated plus-maze paroxetine was less effective, only 8 mg/kg of paroxetine decreased the exploratory behaviour of rats. The doses of paroxetine (2-8 mg/kg) reducing the exploratory activity in the motility test increased the density of CCK receptors in the frontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus. The treatment of rats with the CCK(B) receptor antagonist LY288,513 (0.01-1 mg/kg) did not change the exploratory activity. However, the reduction of exploratory activity induced by the low dose of paroxetine (2 mg/kg), but not by the higher dose (8 mg/kg), was dose-dependently reversed by the administration of LY288,513. Moreover, LY288,513 did not affect the anti-exploratory action of paroxetine (8 mg/kg) in the elevated plus-maze. Diazepam at doses (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) not suppressing the locomotor activity did not change the anti-exploratory action of paroxetine in the motility test. It is likely that the anti-exploratory action of a low dose of paroxetine (2 mg/kg) is not related to the increase in anxiety, but rather to the reduction of exploratory drive. Evidence exists that this effect of paroxetine is mediated via the activation of CCK-ergic transmission.

  13. Medial septal GABAergic projection neurons promote object exploration behavior and type 2 theta rhythm.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan, Gireesh; Shin, Jonghan; Kim, Seong-Wook; Kim, Angela; Paydar, Afshin; Kim, Duk-Soo; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Kim, Jinhyun; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Kim, Daesoo; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Exploratory drive is one of the most fundamental emotions, of all organisms, that are evoked by novelty stimulation. Exploratory behavior plays a fundamental role in motivation, learning, and well-being of organisms. Diverse exploratory behaviors have been described, although their heterogeneity is not certain because of the lack of solid experimental evidence for their distinction. Here we present results demonstrating that different neural mechanisms underlie different exploratory behaviors. Localized Cav3.1 knockdown in the medial septum (MS) selectively enhanced object exploration, whereas the null mutant (KO) mice showed enhanced-object exploration as well as open-field exploration. In MS knockdown mice, only type 2 hippocampal theta rhythm was enhanced, whereas both type 1 and type 2 theta rhythm were enhanced in KO mice. This selective effect was accompanied by markedly increased excitability of septo-hippocampal GABAergic projection neurons in the MS lacking T-type Ca(2+) channels. Furthermore, optogenetic activation of the septo-hippocampal GABAergic pathway in WT mice also selectively enhanced object exploration behavior and type 2 theta rhythm, whereas inhibition of the same pathway decreased the behavior and the rhythm. These findings define object exploration distinguished from open-field exploration and reveal a critical role of T-type Ca(2+) channels in the medial septal GABAergic projection neurons in this behavior. PMID:27208094

  14. Medial septal GABAergic projection neurons promote object exploration behavior and type 2 theta rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Gangadharan, Gireesh; Shin, Jonghan; Kim, Seong-Wook; Kim, Angela; Paydar, Afshin; Kim, Duk-Soo; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Kim, Jinhyun; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Kim, Daesoo; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Exploratory drive is one of the most fundamental emotions, of all organisms, that are evoked by novelty stimulation. Exploratory behavior plays a fundamental role in motivation, learning, and well-being of organisms. Diverse exploratory behaviors have been described, although their heterogeneity is not certain because of the lack of solid experimental evidence for their distinction. Here we present results demonstrating that different neural mechanisms underlie different exploratory behaviors. Localized Cav3.1 knockdown in the medial septum (MS) selectively enhanced object exploration, whereas the null mutant (KO) mice showed enhanced-object exploration as well as open-field exploration. In MS knockdown mice, only type 2 hippocampal theta rhythm was enhanced, whereas both type 1 and type 2 theta rhythm were enhanced in KO mice. This selective effect was accompanied by markedly increased excitability of septo-hippocampal GABAergic projection neurons in the MS lacking T-type Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, optogenetic activation of the septo-hippocampal GABAergic pathway in WT mice also selectively enhanced object exploration behavior and type 2 theta rhythm, whereas inhibition of the same pathway decreased the behavior and the rhythm. These findings define object exploration distinguished from open-field exploration and reveal a critical role of T-type Ca2+ channels in the medial septal GABAergic projection neurons in this behavior. PMID:27208094

  15. Oscillatory phase modulates the timing of neuronal activations and resulting behavior.

    PubMed

    Coon, W G; Gunduz, A; Brunner, P; Ritaccio, A L; Pesaran, B; Schalk, G

    2016-06-01

    Human behavioral response timing is highly variable from trial to trial. While it is generally understood that behavioral variability must be due to trial-by-trial variations in brain function, it is still largely unknown which physiological mechanisms govern the timing of neural activity as it travels through networks of neuronal populations, and how variations in the timing of neural activity relate to variations in the timing of behavior. In our study, we submitted recordings from the cortical surface to novel analytic techniques to chart the trajectory of neuronal population activity across the human cortex in single trials, and found joint modulation of the timing of this activity and of consequent behavior by neuronal oscillations in the alpha band (8-12Hz). Specifically, we established that the onset of population activity tends to occur during the trough of oscillatory activity, and that deviations from this preferred relationship are related to changes in the timing of population activity and the speed of the resulting behavioral response. These results indicate that neuronal activity incurs variable delays as it propagates across neuronal populations, and that the duration of each delay is a function of the instantaneous phase of oscillatory activity. We conclude that the results presented in this paper are supportive of a general model for variability in the effective speed of information transmission in the human brain and for variability in the timing of human behavior. PMID:26975551

  16. [Definitive or exploratory periodontal experimentation: an overview of the literature].

    PubMed

    Hujoel, P P

    1996-01-01

    Definitive and exploratory randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have different goals as well as different design and analysis characteristics. The goal of definitive studies is to provide unequivocal evidence of a treatment's tangible benefit to the patient; a pre-trial-specified hypothesis is tested by use of a pre-trial-specified method. The goal of exploratory studies is to elucidate biological treatment mechanisms, to identify promising treatments, and to generate hypotheses for definitive studies: multiple hypotheses are evaluated to extract as much information from the data as possible. The purposes of this study were: (1) to survey selected design and analysis characteristics of randomized controlled periodontal trials published between 1988 and 1992 (n = 86), and (2) to classify trials as exploratory or definitive studies. The periodontal RCTs surveyed were typical of exploratory studies whose primary goal was to elucidate biological treatment mechanisms. Trial reports indicated the testing of multiple hypotheses (> or = 6 hypothesis tests in 70 of the 86 trials) on a variety of biological markers (86 out of 86 trials). The sample size (< or = 30 subjects in 67 out of 86 trials), duration (< or = 6 months in 65 out of 86 trials), and design and analysis characteristics (e.g., an absence of masking in 57 out of 86 trials) were also typical of exploratory studies which strive to obtain quick answers (short duration) at a low cost (small sample size; accept bias for increased efficiency and a lower cost). No definitive trials were identified. Promising, biologically active, treatments identified in exploratory trials should be evaluated in definitive studies where the primary goal is the procurement of unequivocal evidence of a treatment's tangible benefit to the patient. The costs and benefits of conducting definitive periodontal RCTs to provide such evidence should be investigated.

  17. Mars Exploratory Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canizo, Thea L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students learn about the characteristics of the planet Mars. Challenges students to design and build a model of a robotic vehicle that can travel on the surface of Mars and accomplish an assigned task that will provide information useful for future manned trips to the planet. Outlines mission task cards and progress…

  18. Synthetic Training Data Generation for Activity Monitoring and Behavior Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monekosso, Dorothy; Remagnino, Paolo

    This paper describes a data generator that produces synthetic data to simulate observations from an array of environment monitoring sensors. The overall goal of our work is to monitor the well-being of one occupant in a home. Sensors are embedded in a smart home to unobtrusively record environmental parameters. Based on the sensor observations, behavior analysis and modeling are performed. However behavior analysis and modeling require large data sets to be collected over long periods of time to achieve the level of accuracy expected. A data generator - was developed based on initial data i.e. data collected over periods lasting weeks to facilitate concurrent data collection and development of algorithms. The data generator is based on statistical inference techniques. Variation is introduced into the data using perturbation models.

  19. [Behavioral activation and depression: a contextual treatment approach].

    PubMed

    Soucy Chartier, Isabelle; Blanchet, Valérie; Provencher, Martin D

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a widespread psychological disorder that affects approximately one in five North American. Typical reactions to depression include inactivity, isolation, and rumination. Several treatments and psychological interventions have emerged to address this problematic. Cognitive behavioural therapies have received increasingly large amounts of empirical support. A sub-component of cognitive behavioural therapy, behavioural activation, has been shown to in itself effectively treat symptoms of depression. This intervention involves efforts to re-activate the depressed client by having them engage in pleasant, gratifying, leisure, social, or physical activities, thereby counteracting the tendency to be inactive and to isolate oneself. Clients are guided through the process of establishing a list of potentially rewarding social, leisure, mastery-oriented or physical activities, to then establish a gradual hierarchy of objectives to be accomplished over the span of several weeks. Concrete action plans are devised, and solutions to potential obstacles are elaborated. The client is the asked to execute the targeted objective and to record their mood prior to and following the activity. Behavioural activation effectively reverses the downward spiral to depression. Interestingly, studies show that behavioural activation has a positive effect on cognitive activities. It has been shown to reduce rumination and favour cognitive restructuring, without requiring cognitively-based interventions. The advantage of this treatment is therefore that it is simpler to administer in comparison to full-packaged cognitive behavioural therapies, it requires a lesser number of sessions and can be disseminated in a low-intensity format. This article begins by summarizing the origins of the behavioural model of depression, which serves as a basis to the understanding of behavioural activation. This is followed by a detailed explanation of the different phases involved in a behavioural

  20. Reciprocal Reinforcement Between Wearable Activity Trackers and Social Network Services in Influencing Physical Activity Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity trackers (WATs) are emerging consumer electronic devices designed to support physical activities (PAs), which are based on successful behavior change techniques focusing on goal-setting and frequent behavioral feedbacks. Despite their utility, data from both recent academic and market research have indicated high attrition rates of WAT users. Concurrently, evidence shows that social support (SS), delivered/obtained via social network services or sites (SNS), could increase adherence and engagement of PA intervention programs. To date, relatively few studies have looked at how WATs and SS may interact and affect PAs. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore how these two Internet and mobile technologies, WATs and SNS, could work together to foster sustainable PA behavior changes and habits among middle-aged adults (40-60 years old) in Taiwan. Methods We used purposive sampling of Executive MBA Students from National Taiwan University of Science and Technology to participate in our qualitative research. In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted with a total of 15 participants, including 9 WAT users and 6 nonusers. Analysis of the collected materials was done inductively using the thematic approach with no preset categories. Two authors from different professional backgrounds independently annotated and coded the transcripts, and then discussed and debated until consensus was reached on the final themes. Results The thematic analysis revealed six themes: (1) WATs provided more awareness than motivation in PA with goal-setting and progress monitoring, (2) SS, delivered/obtained via SNS, increased users’ adherence and engagement with WATs and vice versa, (3) a broad spectrum of configurations would be needed to deliver WATs with appropriately integrated SS functions, (4) WAT design, style, and appearance mattered even more than those of smartphones, as they are body-worn devices, (5) the user interfaces of WATs left a

  1. Impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity and sedentary behaviors, but not reflective intentions, prospectively predict non-exercise activity thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cheval, Boris; Sarrazin, Philippe; Pelletier, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is crucial, given its extensive health benefits. Some scholars have assumed that a proneness to react differently to environmental cues promoting sedentary versus active behaviors could be responsible for inter-individual differences in NEAT. In line with this reflection and grounded on the Reflective-Impulsive Model, we test the assumption that impulsive processes related to sedentary and physical activity behaviors can prospectively predict NEAT, operationalized as spontaneous effort exerted to maintain low intensity muscle contractions within the release phases of an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. Participants (n = 91) completed a questionnaire assessing their intentions to adopt physical activity behaviors and a manikin task to assess impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity behaviors (IAPA) and sedentary behaviors (IASB). Participants were then instructed to perform a maximal handgrip strength task and an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. As hypothesized, multilevel regression analyses revealed that spontaneous effort was (a) positively predicted by IAPA, (b) negatively predicted by IASB, and (c) was not predicted by physical activity intentions, after controlling for some confounding variables such as age, sex, usual PA level and average force provided during the maximal-contraction phases of the task. These effects remained constant throughout all the phases of the task. This study demonstrated that impulsive processes may play a unique role in predicting spontaneous physical activity behaviors. Theoretically, this finding reinforces the utility of a motivational approach based on dual-process models to explain inter-individual differences in NEAT. Implications for health behavior theories and behavior change interventions are outlined. PMID:25526596

  2. Computer supported collaborative learning in a clerkship: an exploratory study on the relation of discussion activity and revision of critical appraisal papers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical students in clerkship are continuously confronted with real and relevant patient problems. To support clinical problem solving skills, students perform a Critical Appraisal of a Topic (CAT) task, often resulting in a paper. Because such a paper may contain errors, students could profit from discussion with peers, leading to paper revision. Active peer discussion by a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environment show positive medical students perceptions on subjective knowledge improvement. High students’ activity during discussions in a CSCL environment demonstrated higher task-focussed discussion reflecting higher levels of knowledge construction. However, it remains unclear whether high discussion activity influences students’ decisions revise their CAT paper. The aim of this research is to examine whether students who revise their critical appraisal papers after discussion in a CSCL environment show more task-focussed activity and discuss more intensively on critical appraisal topics than students who do not revise their papers. Methods Forty-seven medical students, stratified in subgroups, participated in a structured asynchronous online discussion of individual written CAT papers on self-selected clinical problems. The discussion was structured by three critical appraisal topics. After the discussion, the students could revise their paper. For analysis purposes, all students’ postings were blinded and analysed by the investigator, unaware of students characteristics and whether or not the paper was revised. Postings were counted and analysed by an independent rater, Postings were assigned into outside activity, non-task-focussed activity or task-focussed activity. Additionally, postings were assigned to one of the three critical appraisal topics. Analysis results were compared by revised and unrevised papers. Results Twenty-four papers (51.6%) were revised after the online discussion. The discussions of the revised

  3. [Active treatment of behavior problems of the mentally retarded. Sultopride].

    PubMed

    Amedro, M J; Couquiaud, F G

    1983-12-15

    We have studied the effectiveness of a neuroleptic, sultopride, in difficult patients with mental impairment and severe disorders of behavior and character. Twenty patients were entered into the study. Specific items were evaluated one week, two months and four months after initiation of treatment. Disorders of character abated quickly and significantly. Tolerance was satisfactory. Overall results were satisfactory in 75% of patients, with 55% good and 20% very good responses. Failures were recorded in patients with associated disorders of personality and affect.

  4. Motor neuronal activity varies least among individuals when it matters most for behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cullins, Miranda J.; Shaw, Kendrick M.; Gill, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    How does motor neuronal variability affect behavior? To explore this question, we quantified activity of multiple individual identified motor neurons mediating biting and swallowing in intact, behaving Aplysia californica by recording from the protractor muscle and the three nerves containing the majority of motor neurons controlling the feeding musculature. We measured multiple motor components: duration of the activity of identified motor neurons as well as their relative timing. At the same time, we measured behavioral efficacy: amplitude of grasping movement during biting and amplitude of net inward food movement during swallowing. We observed that the total duration of the behaviors varied: Within animals, biting duration shortened from the first to the second and third bites; between animals, biting and swallowing durations varied. To study other sources of variation, motor components were divided by behavior duration (i.e., normalized). Even after normalization, distributions of motor component durations could distinguish animals as unique individuals. However, the degree to which a motor component varied among individuals depended on the role of that motor component in a behavior. Motor neuronal activity that was essential for the expression of biting or swallowing was similar among animals, whereas motor neuronal activity that was not essential for that behavior varied more from individual to individual. These results suggest that motor neuronal activity that matters most for the expression of a particular behavior may vary least from individual to individual. Shaping individual variability to ensure behavioral efficacy may be a general principle for the operation of motor systems. PMID:25411463

  5. Sources of mu activity and their functional connectivity in perceiving complexities in reciprocal social interactive motion: An exploratory study using the 'Namaste' task.

    PubMed

    Tikka, Sai Krishna; Shreekantiah, Umesh; Krishnan, Asha; Goyal, Nishant; Nizamie, S Haque; Ram, Daya

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive processes underlying reciprocal social interactions are understood by the mechanism of embodiment, which is closely related to the mirror neuron system. Electroencephalographic (EEG) mu activity is a neural marker of the mirror neuron system. This study investigated the mu activity, localization of its sources and functional connectivity, which was induced while watching reciprocal social interactive motion across various degrees of complexity. Eighteen healthy participants underwent high-resolution EEG recording using 256-channels while they watched a specifically designed, culture specific, video task that showed two persons interacting socially using body gestures. Task complexity was determined by (1) whether there was an identical gestural response or a non-identical one; (2) whether the participant watched two persons interacting or was virtually involved in the interaction. Source localization and functional connectivity analysis was conducted for mu activity across various tasks. We also correlated mu activity and functional connectivity measures with serum BDNF. We found that spectral densities in various brain sources of mu activity and their increased functional connectivity distinguished identical and non-identical reciprocal expression observations, while mu suppression alone did not discriminate various degrees of complexities. These findings might have important implications in the understanding of mechanisms underlying mirror neuron dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. PMID:27520887

  6. Sources of mu activity and their functional connectivity in perceiving complexities in reciprocal social interactive motion: An exploratory study using the 'Namaste' task.

    PubMed

    Tikka, Sai Krishna; Shreekantiah, Umesh; Krishnan, Asha; Goyal, Nishant; Nizamie, S Haque; Ram, Daya

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive processes underlying reciprocal social interactions are understood by the mechanism of embodiment, which is closely related to the mirror neuron system. Electroencephalographic (EEG) mu activity is a neural marker of the mirror neuron system. This study investigated the mu activity, localization of its sources and functional connectivity, which was induced while watching reciprocal social interactive motion across various degrees of complexity. Eighteen healthy participants underwent high-resolution EEG recording using 256-channels while they watched a specifically designed, culture specific, video task that showed two persons interacting socially using body gestures. Task complexity was determined by (1) whether there was an identical gestural response or a non-identical one; (2) whether the participant watched two persons interacting or was virtually involved in the interaction. Source localization and functional connectivity analysis was conducted for mu activity across various tasks. We also correlated mu activity and functional connectivity measures with serum BDNF. We found that spectral densities in various brain sources of mu activity and their increased functional connectivity distinguished identical and non-identical reciprocal expression observations, while mu suppression alone did not discriminate various degrees of complexities. These findings might have important implications in the understanding of mechanisms underlying mirror neuron dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders.

  7. Assessment of factors that predict physical activity among Oklahoma clergy: a theory of planned behavior approach.

    PubMed

    Gwin, Shannon; Taylor, E Laurette; Branscum, Paul; Hofford, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of physical activity among clergy members in Oklahoma, using the theory of planned behavior. A 51-item valid and reliable instrument, measuring theory of planned behavior constructs and physical activity, was developed and administered to 141 clergy members. Results indicated that the majority of those surveyed were white (93%), college educated (97%), and overweight or obese (84%). Stepwise multiple regression analysis found that intentions accounted for 13.8% of the variance of physical activity whereas attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control accounted for 54.8% of the variance of intention. Implications for intervention development are discussed.

  8. Behavioral study of ultradian activity periods of mice enclosed in experimental cages of different dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, A.

    1982-01-01

    Male mice are enclosed in cages of different dimensions (cage A - 23x8x8 cm., cage B - 36x27x17 cm.), in an alternating light/dark regimen, at an ambient temperature of 22 to 23 C. The successions of the behavioral sequences of ultradian activity periods are noticed by direct observation during 11 consecutive hours in light. The experimental situation modifies the mean duration time and the behavioral organization of each activity period. However, the comparison of the overall activity time lengths and the comparison of the overall behavioral frequencies suggest that the energy spent per mouse is constant.

  9. An economic and financial exploratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotti, S.; Sornette, D.; Treleaven, P.; Battiston, S.; Caldarelli, G.; Hommes, C.; Kirman, A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes the vision of a European Exploratory for economics and finance using an interdisciplinary consortium of economists, natural scientists, computer scientists and engineers, who will combine their expertise to address the enormous challenges of the 21st century. This Academic Public facility is intended for economic modelling, investigating all aspects of risk and stability, improving financial technology, and evaluating proposed regulatory and taxation changes. The European Exploratory for economics and finance will be constituted as a network of infrastructure, observatories, data repositories, services and facilities and will foster the creation of a new cross-disciplinary research community of social scientists, complexity scientists and computing (ICT) scientists to collaborate in investigating major issues in economics and finance. It is also considered a cradle for training and collaboration with the private sector to spur spin-offs and job creations in Europe in the finance and economic sectors. The Exploratory will allow Social Scientists and Regulators as well as Policy Makers and the private sector to conduct realistic investigations with real economic, financial and social data. The Exploratory will (i) continuously monitor and evaluate the status of the economies of countries in their various components, (ii) use, extend and develop a large variety of methods including data mining, process mining, computational and artificial intelligence and every other computer and complex science techniques coupled with economic theory and econometric, and (iii) provide the framework and infrastructure to perform what-if analysis, scenario evaluations and computational, laboratory, field and web experiments to inform decision makers and help develop innovative policy, market and regulation designs.

  10. Validation of mercury tip-switch and accelerometer activity sensors for identifying resting and active behavior in bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasmine Ware,; Rode, Karyn D.; Pagano, Anthony M.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Charles T Robbins,; Joy Erlenbach,; Shannon Jensen,; Amy Cutting,; Nicole Nicassio-Hiskey,; Amy Hash,; Owen, Megan A.; Heiko Jansen,

    2015-01-01

    Activity sensors are often included in wildlife transmitters and can provide information on the behavior and activity patterns of animals remotely. However, interpreting activity-sensor data relative to animal behavior can be difficult if animals cannot be continuously observed. In this study, we examined the performance of a mercury tip-switch and a tri-axial accelerometer housed in collars to determine whether sensor data can be accurately classified as resting and active behaviors and whether data are comparable for the 2 sensor types. Five captive bears (3 polar [Ursus maritimus] and 2 brown [U. arctos horribilis]) were fitted with a collar specially designed to internally house the sensors. The bears’ behaviors were recorded, classified, and then compared with sensor readings. A separate tri-axial accelerometer that sampled continuously at a higher frequency and provided raw acceleration values from 3 axes was also mounted on the collar to compare with the lower resolution sensors. Both accelerometers more accurately identified resting and active behaviors at time intervals ranging from 1 minute to 1 hour (≥91.1% accuracy) compared with the mercury tip-switch (range = 75.5–86.3%). However, mercury tip-switch accuracy improved when sampled at longer intervals (e.g., 30–60 min). Data from the lower resolution accelerometer, but not the mercury tip-switch, accurately predicted the percentage of time spent resting during an hour. Although the number of bears available for this study was small, our results suggest that these activity sensors can remotely identify resting versus active behaviors across most time intervals. We recommend that investigators consider both study objectives and the variation in accuracy of classifying resting and active behaviors reported here when determining sampling interval.

  11. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  12. Promoting Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors: The Heart Smart Discussion Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCalla, Judith R.; Juarez, Cheryl L.; Williams, Lucia E.; Brown, Judy; Chipungu, Katie; Saab, Patrice G.

    2012-01-01

    The health habits of high school students affect not only their current health but also their future risk for obesity and cardiovascular disease. The "Heart Smart Discussion Activity" was developed to provide information about heart health, good nutrition, physical activity, and stress management. It encourages students to discuss…

  13. Understanding the Active Ingredients in an Effective Preschool Vocabulary Intervention: An Exploratory Study of Teacher and Child Talk during Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to identify the active ingredients in an effective professional development intervention focused on enhancing preschool vocabulary instruction, this study examines the frequency with which teachers and children discussed theme-related vocabulary words during shared book reading. Head Start teachers received 1 year of…

  14. Physical Activity Behavior Change Interventions Based on the Transtheoretical Model: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Andrew J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Johnston, Lynne H.

    2009-01-01

    This review critically examines Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based interventions for physical activity (PA) behavior change. It has been suggested that the TTM may not be the most appropriate theoretical model for applications to PA behavior change. However, previous reviews have paid little or no attention to how accurately each intervention…

  15. Social Behaviors and Gender Differences among Preschoolers: Implications for Science Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desouza, Josephine M. Shireen; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2002-01-01

    A 2-year ethnographic study focused on social behaviors and gender differences among preschoolers engaging in science activities. Findings indicated that boys exhibited curiosity, spontaneity, extensive prior knowledge about nature, and tended toward aggressive, competitive, and sometimes violent behavior. Girls displayed a submissive countenance,…

  16. Physical Activity Behaviors and Emotional Self-Efficacy: Is There a Relationship for Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; Umstattd, M. Renee; Zullig, Keith J.; Paxton, Raheem J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study explored relationships between physical activity (PA) behaviors and emotional self-efficacy (ESE) in a statewide sample of public high school adolescents in South Carolina (n = 3836). Methods: The Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey PA items and an adolescent ESE scale were used. Logistic regression…

  17. Initial Open Trial of a Computerized Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spates, C. Richard; Kalata, Alyssa H.; Ozeki, Satoshi; Stanton, Cory E.; Peters, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This article presents preliminary findings from use of a novel computer program that implements an evidence-based psychological intervention to treat depression based on behavioral activation (BA) therapy. The program is titled “Building a Meaningful Life Through Behavioral Activation”. The findings derive from an open trial with moderate to…

  18. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Fibromyalgia-Related Pain Anxiety Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Effects of Behavioral Activation Treatment (BAT) on pain anxiety, depression, and pain interference on a 43-year-old female with an 11-year history of chronic fibromyalgia pain are described. Analgesic, anxyiolytic, and antidepressant medications were stabilized prior to participation. Dependent measures were the Behavioral Relaxation Scale, a…

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial of Behavioral Activation Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Rodman, Samantha; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Brown, Richard A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Depressive symptoms are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes, and there remains continued interest in behavioral interventions that simultaneously target smoking and depressive symptomatology. In this pilot study, we examined whether a behavioral activation treatment for smoking (BATS) can enhance cessation outcomes. Method:…

  20. Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior of Youth with Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Li, Dongmei; Heinrich, Katie M.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in childhood are important indicators of present and future health and are associated with school-related outcomes such as academic achievement, behavior, peer relationships, and self-esteem. Using logistic regression models that controlled for gender, age, ethnicity/race, and socioeconomic…

  1. Early Behavioral Intervention Is Associated with Normalized Brain Activity in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; Jones, Emily J. H.; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Faja, Susan; Kamara, Dana; Murias, Michael; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Smith, Milani; Rogers, Sally J.; Webb, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A previously published randomized clinical trial indicated that a developmental behavioral intervention, the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), resulted in gains in IQ, language, and adaptive behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder. This report describes a secondary outcome measurement from this trial, EEG activity. Method:…

  2. Adolescent Sexual Activity and the Development of Delinquent Behavior: The Role of Relationship Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Despite the well-established association between adolescent sexual activity and delinquent behavior, little research has examined the potential importance of relationship contexts in moderating this association. The current study used longitudinal, behavioral genetic data on 519 same-sex twin pairs (48.6% female) divided into two age cohorts…

  3. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: A randomized clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...

  4. A Framework For Using GPS Data In Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Marta M.; Schipperijn, Jasper; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are increasingly applied in activity studies, yet significant theoretical and methodological challenges remain. This paper presents a framework for integrating GPS data with other technologies to create dynamic representations of behaviors in context. Utilizing more accurate and sensitive measures to link behavior and environmental exposures allows for new research questions and methods to be developed. PMID:25390297

  5. Physiological-behavioral coupling research in the Soviet science of higher nervous activity: a visitation report.

    PubMed

    Ray, R D

    1977-01-01

    Behavioral research paradigms presently used by Soviet scientists to explore relations between behavioral and physiological activities are discussed. Each laboratory represented was physically visited by the author during a six month exhange visit to the Soviet Union. Research ranging from central concommitants of language and meaning to biofeedback and peripheral autonomic functions are described. PMID:854371

  6. Development of modified cable models to simulate accurate neuronal active behaviors.

    PubMed

    Elbasiouny, Sherif M

    2014-12-01

    In large network and single three-dimensional (3-D) neuron simulations, high computing speed dictates using reduced cable models to simulate neuronal firing behaviors. However, these models are unwarranted under active conditions and lack accurate representation of dendritic active conductances that greatly shape neuronal firing. Here, realistic 3-D (R3D) models (which contain full anatomical details of dendrites) of spinal motoneurons were systematically compared with their reduced single unbranched cable (SUC, which reduces the dendrites to a single electrically equivalent cable) counterpart under passive and active conditions. The SUC models matched the R3D model's passive properties but failed to match key active properties, especially active behaviors originating from dendrites. For instance, persistent inward currents (PIC) hysteresis, frequency-current (FI) relationship secondary range slope, firing hysteresis, plateau potential partial deactivation, staircase currents, synaptic current transfer ratio, and regional FI relationships were not accurately reproduced by the SUC models. The dendritic morphology oversimplification and lack of dendritic active conductances spatial segregation in the SUC models caused significant underestimation of those behaviors. Next, SUC models were modified by adding key branching features in an attempt to restore their active behaviors. The addition of primary dendritic branching only partially restored some active behaviors, whereas the addition of secondary dendritic branching restored most behaviors. Importantly, the proposed modified models successfully replicated the active properties without sacrificing model simplicity, making them attractive candidates for running R3D single neuron and network simulations with accurate firing behaviors. The present results indicate that using reduced models to examine PIC behaviors in spinal motoneurons is unwarranted.

  7. Using Antecedent Physical Activity to Increase On-Task Behavior in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Sara; Vail, Cynthia O.; Ayres, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    A withdrawal design was used to investigate how physical activity affects on-task behavior of young children with significant developmental delays in a special education preschool classroom. Five preschool age children with significant developmental delays engaged in either physical activity or seated center activities for 20 min prior to a 15-min…

  8. BE-ACTIV: A Staff-Assisted Behavioral Intervention for Depression in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Suzanne; Looney, Stephen W.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly; Teri, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article (a) describes a 10-week, behavioral, activities-based intervention for depression that can be implemented in nursing homes collaboratively with nursing home activities staff and (b) presents data related to its development, feasibility, and preliminary outcomes. Design and Methods: We developed BE-ACTIV, which stands for…

  9. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Breast Cancer Survivors: New Insight into Activity Patterns and Potential Intervention Targets

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Siobhan M.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Steeves, Jeremy; McClain, James; Alfano, Catherine M.; McAuley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background Inactivity and sedentary behavior are related to poorer health outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, few studies examining these behaviors in survivors have used objective measures, considered activities other than moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity (MVPA) and/or sedentary behavior (i.e. low intensity activities) or compared survivors to healthy controls. The purpose of the present study is to compare accelerometer-measured activity of various intensities (total, light, lifestyle, MVPA) and sedentary behavior between breast cancer survivors and non-cancer controls. Methods An imputation-based approach of independent sample t-tests adjusting for multiple comparisons was used to compare estimates of participation in each activity and sedentary behavior between survivors [n=398; M(SD)age=56.95 (9.11)] and block-matched non-cancer controls [n=1120; M(SD)age=54.88 (16.11)]. Potential moderating effects of body mass index (BMI), age, and education were also examined. Results Breast cancer survivors registered less daily total (282.8 v. 346.9) light (199.1 v. 259.3) and lifestyle (62.0 v. 71.7) activity minutes and more MVPA (21.6 v. 15.9) and sedentary behavior (555.7 v. 500.6) minutes than controls (p<0.001 for all). These relationships were largely consistent across BMI, age and education. On average, survivors spent an estimated 66.4% of their waking time sedentary and 31.1% in light/lifestyle activity and 2.6% in MVPA. Conclusions Breast cancer survivors are more sedentary and participate in less low intensity activity than controls. Although survivors registered more MVPA, these levels were insufficient. Future research should explore these differences and potential benefits of targeting low intensity activities and reducing sedentary time in this population. PMID:26026737

  10. The use of dendrograms to describe the electrical activity of motoneurons underlying behaviors in leeches

    PubMed Central

    Juárez-Hernández, León J.; Bisson, Giacomo; Torre, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The present manuscript aims at identifying patterns of electrical activity recorded from neurons of the leech nervous system, characterizing specific behaviors. When leeches are at rest, the electrical activity of neurons and motoneurons is poorly correlated. When leeches move their head and/or tail, in contrast, action potential (AP) firing becomes highly correlated. When the head or tail suckers detach, specific patterns of electrical activity are detected. During elongation and contraction the electrical activity of motoneurons in the Medial Anterior and Dorsal Posterior nerves increase, respectively, and several motoneurons are activated both during elongation and contraction. During crawling, swimming, and pseudo-swimming patterns of electrical activity are better described by the dendrograms of cross-correlations of motoneurons pairs. Dendrograms obtained from different animals exhibiting the same behavior are similar and by averaging these dendrograms we obtained a template underlying a given behavior. By using this template, the corresponding behavior is reliably identified from the recorded electrical activity. The analysis of dendrograms during different leech behavior reveals the fine orchestration of motoneurons firing specific to each stereotyped behavior. Therefore, dendrograms capture the subtle changes in the correlation pattern of neuronal networks when they become involved in different tasks or functions. PMID:24098274

  11. Temporal self-regulation theory: a neurobiologically informed model for physical activity behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Peter A.; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Dominant explanatory models for physical activity behavior are limited by the exclusion of several important components, including temporal dynamics, ecological forces, and neurobiological factors. The latter may be a critical omission, given the relevance of several aspects of cognitive function for the self-regulatory processes that are likely required for consistent implementation of physical activity behavior in everyday life. This narrative review introduces temporal self-regulation theory (TST; Hall and Fong, 2007, 2013) as a new explanatory model for physical activity behavior. Important features of the model include consideration of the default status of the physical activity behavior, as well as the disproportionate influence of temporally proximal behavioral contingencies. Most importantly, the TST model proposes positive feedback loops linking executive function (EF) and the performance of physical activity behavior. Specifically, those with relatively stronger executive control (and optimized brain structures supporting it, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC)) are able to implement physical activity with more consistency than others, which in turn serves to strengthen the executive control network itself. The TST model has the potential to explain everyday variants of incidental physical activity, sport-related excellence via capacity for deliberate practice, and variability in the propensity to schedule and implement exercise routines. PMID:25859196

  12. An exploratory study on the peroxyl-radical-scavenging activity of 2,6-dimethyl-5-hepten-2-ol and its heterocyclic analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Sikora, Magdalena; Bonikowski, Radosław; Kula, Józef

    2016-03-01

    The structural properties and radical scavenging activity of 2,6-dimethyl-5-hepten-2-ol (1) and its new heterocyclic analogues, i.e. 2-methyl-4-(5-methylfuran-2-yl)-butan-2-ol (2) and 2-methyl-4-(5-methylthiophen-2-yl)-butan-2-ol (3) and have been studied by using the experimental and theoretical methods for the first time. Activity of title compounds against the peroxyl radical was determined by using standard fluorimetric test, i.e. the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assay (ORACFL). Furthermore, the electron-donating ability of odorants has been evaluated by using colorimetric ABTS assay. According to the experimental results obtained from the ORACFL test 2,6-dimethyl-5-hepten-2-ol was characterized by the highest activity in comparison with the novel counterparts. Nevertheless, all investigated compounds exhibited pronounced anti-peroxyl radical activity comparable to that exerted by the one of the most prominent antioxidant among the monoterpene alcohols, i.e. by linalool. On the other hand, the title compounds exerted relatively low capacity to quench the radical cation of ABTS. Theoretical calculations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method with the hybrid functional B3LYP were carried out in order to investigate selected structural and electronic properties including the geometrical parameters as well as the energy of frontier molecular orbitals of parent molecules and the resulting radicals. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of peroxyl-radical-scavenging has been determined by using the thermodynamic descriptors such as the bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) and ionization potentials (IPs). These theoretical data pointed out the relevance of HAT mechanism in the peroxyl-radical-scavenging exhibited by 2,6-dimethyl-5-hepten-2-ol and its new heterocyclic analogues in polar and non-polar medium.

  13. Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, R.; Herrmann, H. J.; de Arcangelis, L.

    2014-03-01

    The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure.

  14. Students' Daily Physical Activity Behaviors: The Role of Quality Physical Education in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wiyun; Hypnar, Andrew J.; Mason, Steve A.; Zalmout, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of quality physical education (QPET) in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) which is intended to promote physical activity (PA) behaviors in and outside of schools. Participants were nine elementary physical education teachers and their fourth- and fifth-grade students…

  15. The importance of behavior theory in control system modeling of physical activity sensor data.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Among health behaviors, physical activity has the most extensive record of research using passive sensors. Control systems and other system dynamic approaches have long been considered applicable for understanding human behavior, but only recently has the technology provided the precise and intensive longitudinal data required for these analytic approaches. Although sensors provide intensive data on the patterns and variations of physical activity over time, the influences of these variations are often unmeasured. Health behavior theories provide an explanatory framework of the putative mediators of physical activity changes. Incorporating the intensive longitudinal measurement of these theoretical constructs is critical to improving the fit of control system model of physical activity and for advancing behavioral theory. Theory-based control models also provide guidance on the nature of the controllers which serve as the basis for just-in-time adaptive interventions based on these control system models.

  16. The importance of behavior theory in control system modeling of physical activity sensor data.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Among health behaviors, physical activity has the most extensive record of research using passive sensors. Control systems and other system dynamic approaches have long been considered applicable for understanding human behavior, but only recently has the technology provided the precise and intensive longitudinal data required for these analytic approaches. Although sensors provide intensive data on the patterns and variations of physical activity over time, the influences of these variations are often unmeasured. Health behavior theories provide an explanatory framework of the putative mediators of physical activity changes. Incorporating the intensive longitudinal measurement of these theoretical constructs is critical to improving the fit of control system model of physical activity and for advancing behavioral theory. Theory-based control models also provide guidance on the nature of the controllers which serve as the basis for just-in-time adaptive interventions based on these control system models. PMID:25571577

  17. Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure: An Investigation of Relative Symptom Changes in PTSD and Depression during the Course of Integrated Behavioral Activation, Situational Exposure, and Imaginal Exposure Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gros, Daniel F.; Price, Matthew; Strachan, Martha; Yuen, Erica K.; Milanak, Melissa E.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness of exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be adversely influenced by comorbid disorders. The present study investigated behavioral activation and therapeutic exposure (BA-TE), a new integrated treatment designed specifically for comorbid symptoms of PTSD and depression. Combat veterans with PTSD (N = 117)…

  18. Effects of combat deployment on risky and self-destructive behavior among active duty military personnel.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Cynthia J; Stander, Valerie A; McWhorter, Stephanie K; Rabenhorst, Mandy M; Milner, Joel S

    2011-10-01

    Although research has documented negative effects of combat deployment on mental health, few studies have examined whether deployment increases risky or self-destructive behavior. The present study addressed this issue. In addition, we examined whether deployment effects on risky behavior varied depending on history of pre-deployment risky behavior, and assessed whether psychiatric conditions mediated effects of deployment on risky behavior. In an anonymous survey, active duty members of the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy (N = 2116) described their deployment experiences and their participation in risky recreational activities, unprotected sex, illegal drug use, self-injurious behavior, and suicide attempts during three time frames (civilian, military pre-deployment, and military post-deployment). Respondents also reported whether they had problems with depression, anxiety, or PTSD during the same three time frames. Results revealed that risky behavior was much more common in civilian than in military life, with personnel who had not deployed, compared to those who had deployed, reporting more risky behavior and more psychiatric problems as civilians. For the current time period, in contrast, personnel who had deployed (versus never deployed) were significantly more likely to report both risky behavior and psychiatric problems. Importantly, deployment was associated with increases in risky behavior only for personnel with a pre-deployment history of engaging in risky behavior. Although psychiatric conditions were associated with higher levels of risky behavior, psychiatric problems did not mediate associations between deployment and risky behavior. Implications for understanding effects of combat deployment on active duty personnel and directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Homeopathy – what are the active ingredients? An exploratory study using the UK Medical Research Council's framework for the evaluation of complex interventions

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Trevor DB; Weiss, Marjorie

    2006-01-01

    Background Research in homeopathy has traditionally addressed itself to defining the effectiveness of homeopathic potencies in comparison to placebo medication. There is now increasing awareness that the homeopathic consultation is in itself a therapeutic intervention working independently or synergistically with the prescribed remedy. Our objective was to identify and evalute potential "active ingredients" of the homeopathic approach as a whole, in a prospective formal case series, which draws on actual consultation data, and is based on the MRC framework for the evaluation of complex interventions. Methods Following on from a theoretical review of how homeopathic care might mediate its effects, 18 patients were prospectively recruited to a case series based at Bristol Homeopathic Hospital. Patients, who lived with one of three index conditions, were interviewed before and after a five visit "package of care". All consultations were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Additional data, including generic and condition-specific questionnaires, artwork and "significant other" reports were collected. Textual data was subject to thematic analysis and triangulated with other sources. Results We judged that around one third of patients had experienced a major improvement in their health over the study period, a third had some improvement and a third had no improvement. Putative active ingredients included the patients' "openness to the mind-body connection", consultational empathy, in-depth enquiry into bodily complaints, disclosure, the remedy matching process and, potentially, the homeopathic remedies themselves. Conclusion This study has has identified, using primary consultation and other data, a range of factors that might account for the effectiveness of homeopathic care. Some of these, such as empathy, are non-specific. Others, such as the remedy matching process, are specific to homeopathy. These findings counsel against the use of placebo-controlled RCT designs in

  20. Blood flow changes in arteriovenous malformation during behavioral activation.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, G

    1983-01-01

    Striking task-dependent fluctuations were observed in the cerebral blood flow pattern of a patient with a left posterior hemispheric arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Two-dimensional measures of regional cerebral flow in the resting state, using the xenon 133 inhalation technique, revealed a region of high flow coincident with the AVM seen on the patient's arteriograms. In subsequent studies, the AVM stood out as a region of high blood flow during a relaxed state, while it approached normal levels of flow when there was attentional demand. These observations suggest that focal regulatory mechanisms exist at the AVM or else that very substantial redistributions of blood flow are taking place which the flow rate in the AVM reflects only passively. Patients considered for embolic treatment of an AVM would benefit from an assessment of behavioral influences on flow in the AVM.

  1. Objectively Quantified Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Predicting Visceral Adiposity and Liver Fat

    PubMed Central

    Pavey, Toby G.; Caterson, Ian D.; George, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and self-reported physical activity levels. However, subjective measurements can be inaccurate and prone to reporter bias. We investigated whether objectively quantified physical activity levels predicted liver fat and VAT in overweight/obese adults. Methods. Habitual physical activity was measured by triaxial accelerometry for four days (n = 82). Time spent in sedentary behavior (MET < 1.6) and light (MET 1.6 < 3), moderate (MET 3 < 6), and vigorous (MET 6 < 9) physical activity was quantified. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were used to quantify visceral and liver fat. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed. Results. There were no associations between physical activity or sedentary behavior and liver lipid. Sedentary behavior and moderate and vigorous physical activity accounted for just 3% of variance for VAT (p = 0.14) and 0.003% for liver fat (p = 0.96). Higher levels of VAT were associated with time spent in moderate activity (r = 0.294, p = 0.007), but there was no association with sedentary behavior. Known risk factors for obesity-related NAFLD accounted for 62% and 40% of variance in VAT and liver fat, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Objectively measured levels of habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior did not influence VAT or liver fat. PMID:27777796

  2. Factors Predicting the Physical Activity Behavior of Female Adolescents: A Test of the Health Promotion Model

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadian, Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework. Methods This cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework. Results The final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001), perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001), social support (β=0.24, p<0.001), perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001), and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001). Conclusions The findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population. PMID:24570808

  3. Physical Activity Behavior, Barriers to Activity, and Opinions About a Smartphone-Based Physical Activity Intervention Among Rural Residents

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Henrietta; Manini, Todd; Dallery, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rural Americans engage in less physical activity (PA) and experience higher rates of consequent health problems (i.e., obesity, cardiovascular disease) than urban Americans. Although geographic barriers have historically made this population hard to reach, rural individuals are increasingly gaining access to smartphones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate PA behavior and barriers to PA among rural residents and to gauge their receptiveness to a smartphone-based PA intervention that is currently in the development stage. Materials and Methods: Rural Floridian adults (n=113), 18 years of age and older, completed surveys to assess PA behavior, PA barriers, and opinions about an intervention to increase PA. Specifically, they were asked to imagine a program that would require them to do PA with their mobile phones and whether they viewed intended aspects of the program as helpful. The present work is therefore formative research that sought to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a smartphone-based intervention among rural residents. Results of the survey will inform the development of a tailored, smartphone-based PA intervention. Results: The 37.2% of participants with low PA levels (<600 metabolic equivalent [MET]-min per week) were more likely to report personal and environmental barriers to PA than the 47.8% of participants with moderate PA levels (≥600 MET-min per week). More barriers were reported among participants who self-reported as white and among participants of older age, lower education level, and lower socioeconomic status. Additionally, 75.9% of participants reported features of the intervention as at least somewhat helpful. Conclusions: The growing ubiquity of smartphones among rural residents, combined with participants' positive response to the program description, supports the acceptability of a smartphone-based PA intervention for rural communities. Given the participants' receptiveness, future research

  4. Predicting Physical Activity of First-Year University Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Matthew Yiu Wing; Bray, Steven Russell; Ginis, Kathleen Anne Martin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to apply Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB) and a measure of past physical activity behavior to predict first-year students' physical activity intentions and behavior. Participants and Methods: First-year university students (N = 212) completed measures of TPB variables and past physical activity at…

  5. Exploratory factor analysis for small samples.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sunho; Lee, Soonmook

    2011-09-01

    Traditionally, two distinct approaches have been employed for exploratory factor analysis: maximum likelihood factor analysis and principal component analysis. A third alternative, called regularized exploratory factor analysis, was introduced recently in the psychometric literature. Small sample size is an important issue that has received considerable discussion in the factor analysis literature. However, little is known about the differential performance of these three approaches to exploratory factor analysis in a small sample size scenario. A simulation study and an empirical example demonstrate that regularized exploratory factor analysis may be recommended over the two traditional approaches, particularly when sample sizes are small (below 50) and the sample covariance matrix is near singular.

  6. Three exploratory studies of relations between young adults' preference for activities involving a specific sense modality and sensory attributes of early memories.

    PubMed

    Westman, A S; Stuve, M

    2001-04-01

    Three studies explored whether young adults' preference for using a sense modality, e.g., hearing, correlated with presence or clarity of attributes of that sense modality in earliest memories from childhood, elementary school, or high school. In Study 1, 75 graduates or seniors in fine arts, fashion merchandising, music, conducting, or dance showed no greater frequency or clarity of any modality's sensory attributes. In Study 2, 213 beginning university students' ratings of current importance of activities emphasizing a sense modality correlated with sensory contents of recollections only for smell and taste. In Study 3, 102 beginning students' ratings of current enjoyment in using a sense modality and sensory contents of recollections were correlated and involved every modality except vision. PMID:11361304

  7. Learning Behavior Characterization with Multi-Feature, Hierarchical Activity Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Cheng; Segedy, James R.; Kinnebrew, John S.; Biswas, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses Multi-Feature Hierarchical Sequential Pattern Mining, MFH-SPAM, a novel algorithm that efficiently extracts patterns from students' learning activity sequences. This algorithm extends an existing sequential pattern mining algorithm by dynamically selecting the level of specificity for hierarchically-defined features…

  8. Does Physical Activity Intensity Moderate Social Cognition and Behavior Relationships?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Felicity; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Downs, Danielle Symons

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Public health messaging about physical activity (PA) sometimes combines moderate and vigorous intensity, but the variance/invariance of the motives for PA by intensity has received scant attention. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the beliefs and motivations associated with regular moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA in a…

  9. The Benford law behavior of the religious activity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, T. A.

    2014-08-01

    An important aspect of religious association is that adherents, as part of their religious duty, carry out various activities. One religious group known for keeping the elaborate records of day-to-day activities of its members is the Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs)-a worldwide Christian religious group. We analyse the historical records of the country-wide data associated with twelve different religious activities of JWs to see if there are any patterns in the distribution of the first digits as predicted by Benford's law. This law states that the first digits of numbers in data sets are not uniformly distributed but often, not always, follow a logarithmic distribution such that the numbers beginning with smaller digits appear more frequently than those with larger ones. We find that the data on religious activities like peak publishers, pioneer publishers, baptizations, public meetings, congregations, bible studies, time spent in door-to-door contacts, attendances at the memorial services, total literature and individual magazines distributed, new subscriptions and back-calls received excellently conforms to Benford's law.

  10. A Behavior-Based Approach for Educational Robotics Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cristoforis, P.; Pedre, S.; Nitsche, M.; Fischer, T.; Pessacg, F.; Di Pietro, C.

    2013-01-01

    Educational robotics proposes the use of robots as a teaching resource that enables inexperienced students to approach topics in fields unrelated to robotics. In recent years, these activities have grown substantially in elementary and secondary school classrooms and also in outreach experiences to interest students in science, technology,…

  11. Comparing the effects of tofacitinib, methotrexate and the combination, on bone marrow oedema, synovitis and bone erosion in methotrexate-naive, early active rheumatoid arthritis: results of an exploratory randomised MRI study incorporating semiquantitative and quantitative techniques

    PubMed Central

    Conaghan, Philip G; Østergaard, Mikkel; Bowes, Michael A; Wu, Chunying; Fuerst, Thomas; Irazoque-Palazuelos, Fedra; Soto-Raices, Oscar; Hrycaj, Pawel; Xie, Zhiyong; Zhang, Richard; Wyman, Bradley T; Bradley, John D; Soma, Koshika; Wilkinson, Bethanie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the effects of tofacitinib—an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)—with or without methotrexate (MTX), on MRI endpoints in MTX-naive adult patients with early active RA and synovitis in an index wrist or hand. Methods In this exploratory, phase 2, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients received tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily + MTX, tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily + placebo (tofacitinib monotherapy), or MTX + placebo (MTX monotherapy), for 1 year. MRI endpoints (Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials RA MRI score (RAMRIS), quantitative RAMRIS (RAMRIQ) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI) were assessed using a mixed-effect model for repeated measures. Treatment differences with p<0.05 (vs MTX monotherapy) were considered significant. Results In total, 109 patients were randomised and treated. Treatment differences in RAMRIS bone marrow oedema (BME) at month 6 were −1.55 (90% CI −2.52 to −0.58) for tofacitinib + MTX and −1.74 (−2.72 to −0.76) for tofacitinib monotherapy (both p<0.01 vs MTX monotherapy). Numerical improvements in RAMRIS synovitis at month 3 were −0.63 (−1.58 to 0.31) for tofacitinib + MTX and −0.52 (−1.46 to 0.41) for tofacitinib monotherapy (both p>0.05 vs MTX monotherapy). Treatment differences in RAMRIQ synovitis were statistically significant at month 3, consistent with DCE MRI findings. Less deterioration of RAMRIS and RAMRIQ erosive damage was seen at months 6 and 12 in both tofacitinib groups versus MTX monotherapy. Conclusions These results provide consistent evidence using three different MRI technologies that tofacitinib treatment leads to early reduction of inflammation and inhibits progression of structural damage. Trial registration number NCT01164579. PMID:27002108

  12. Intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with meeting recommended physical activity among rural Latino youth.

    PubMed

    Perry, Cynthia K; Saelens, Brian E; Thompson, Beti

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to identify intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with engaging in recommended levels of physical activity among rural Latino middle school youth. Data were from an anonymous survey of 773 Latino youth (51% female) about level of and barriers and motivators to physical activity, risk behaviors, and park use. Logistic regression models identified factors correlated with meeting recommended levels of physical activity (5 days or more 3 60 min/day). Thirty-four percent of girls and 41% of boys reported meeting this physical activity recommendation. Participation in an organized after school activity (p < .001) and in physical education (PE) classes 5 days a week (p < .001) were strongly associated with meeting recommended physical activity level. Making PE available 5 days a week and creating opportunities for organized after school physical activity programs may increase the number of rural Latino middle school youth who meet recommended physical activity level.

  13. BEACHES: an observational system for assessing children's eating and physical activity behaviors and associated events.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, T L; Sallis, J F; Nader, P R; Patterson, T L; Elder, J P; Berry, C C; Rupp, J W; Atkins, C J; Buono, M J; Nelson, J A

    1991-01-01

    An integrated system for coding direct observations of children's dietary and physical activity behaviors was developed. Associated environmental events were also coded, including physical location, antecedents, and consequences. To assess the instrument's reliability and validity, 42 children, aged 4 to 8 years, were observed for 8 consecutive weeks at home and at school. Results indicated that four 60-min observations at home produced relatively stable estimates for most of the 10 dimensions. Interobserver reliabilities during live and videotaped observations were high, with the exception of "consequences" categories that occurred in less than 1% of observed intervals. Evidence of validity was provided by findings that antecedents were associated with respective dietary and physical activity behaviors. The five physical activity categories were validated by heartrate monitoring in a second study. The Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health Evaluation System is appropriate for studying influences on diet and physical activity in children in a variety of settings. PMID:2055797

  14. Physically Developed and Exploratory Young Infants Contribute to Their Own Long-Term Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2014-01-01

    A developmental cascade defines a longitudinal relation in which one psychological characteristic uniquely affects another psychological characteristic later in time, separately from other intrapersonal and extrapersonal factors. Here, we report results of a large-scale (N = 374), normative, prospective, 14-year longitudinal, multivariate, multisource, controlled study of a developmental cascade from infant motor-exploratory competence at 5 months to adolescent academic achievement at 14 years, through conceptually related and age-appropriate measures of psychometric intelligence at 4 and 10 years and academic achievement at 10 years. This developmental cascade applied equally to girls and boys and was independent of children’s behavioral adjustment and social competence; mothers’ supportive caregiving, verbal intelligence, education, and parenting knowledge; and the material home environment. Infants who were more motorically mature and who explored more actively at 5 months of age achieved higher academic levels as 14-year-olds. PMID:23964000

  15. Physically developed and exploratory young infants contribute to their own long-term academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T D

    2013-10-01

    A developmental cascade defines a longitudinal relation in which one psychological characteristic uniquely affects another psychological characteristic later in time, separately from other intrapersonal and extrapersonal factors. Here, we report results of a large-scale (N = 374), normative, prospective, 14-year longitudinal, multivariate, multisource, controlled study of a developmental cascade from infant motor-exploratory competence at 5 months to adolescent academic achievement at 14 years, through conceptually related and age-appropriate measures of psychometric intelligence at 4 and 10 years and academic achievement at 10 years. This developmental cascade applied equally to girls and boys and was independent of children's behavioral adjustment and social competence; mothers' supportive caregiving, verbal intelligence, education, and parenting knowledge; and the material home environment. Infants who were more motorically mature and who explored more actively at 5 months of age achieved higher academic levels as 14-year-olds. PMID:23964000

  16. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz scientific publication from 1900 to 1917, an exploratory study].

    PubMed

    Weltman, Wanda Latmann

    2002-01-01

    The present article is an exploratory study on the scientific material published by Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC) from 1900 to 1917. It aims at characterizing the initial production of the institute and its scientists' concern with information. In order to characterize such production, publication data and citation analysis have been used. Through a comparative analysis of publication data and their citations by other scientists, the author evaluates part of IOC scientists' behavior towards the quality of products and as information users. The present study builds up a general view of those scientists' areas of activities and interests in the period 1900-1917 and characterizes part of their role as information producers and users.

  17. Alteration of viral infectious behavior by surface active agents.

    PubMed

    Vanden Bossche, G

    1994-06-01

    Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and wastewater retentate, which had been adjusted to the same level of pH and ionic strength by addition of a concentrated PBS solution, were experimentally seeded with polio- or parvovirus and treated with various concentrations of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammoniumbromid (DTAB), respectively. Upon subsequent assessment for viral infectivity of the samples in Buffalo green monkey kidney cell cultures, infectivity modulating effects of DTAB in PBS and of SDS in retentate appeared to be largely affected by the electrical charge of the suspended virions. However, if PBS or retentate samples were treated with SDS or DTAB respectively, different isoelectric properties between polio- and parvovirus particles were less likely to affect the detergent concentration required for optimal virus recovery. Moreover, in the presence of soluble organics, optimal virus recovery rates were obtained with much lower detergent concentrations if the samples had been treated with DTAB instead of SDS. Measurement of the effective critical micelle concentration as well as multiangle electrophoretic light scattering (MELS) seemed to provide a simple approach to monitoring colloidal stability of multicomponent viral particle (VP) suspensions upon the addition of ionic detergents. By measuring zeta potential distribution, MELS offers additional information about alterations to electrical viral surface properties. Since the behavior of VPs is well known to largely depend upon their electrical characteristics within the environment in which they exist, there is substantial evidence that MELS can provide valuable guidelines in studying optimal detergent-treatment conditions for virus recovery from aqueous suspensions.

  18. Chronic Social Stress in Puberty Alters Appetitive Male Sexual Behavior and Neural Metabolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bastida, Christel C.; Puga, Frank; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Jennings, Kimberly J.; Wommack, Joel C.; Delville, Yvon

    2014-01-01

    Repeated social subjugation in early puberty lowers testosterone levels. We used hamsters to investigate the effects of social subjugation on male sexual behavior and metabolic activity within neural systems controlling social and motivational behaviors. Subjugated animals were exposed daily to aggressive adult males in early puberty for postnatal days 28 to 42, while control animals were placed in empty clean cages. On postnatal day 45, they were tested for male sexual behavior in the presence of receptive female. Alternatively, they were tested for mate choice after placement at the base of a Y-maze containing a sexually receptive female in one tip of the maze and an ovariectomized one on the other. Social subjugation did not affect the capacity to mate with receptive females. Although control animals were fast to approach females and preferred ovariectomized individuals, subjugated animals stayed away from them and showed no preference. Cytochrome oxidase activity was reduced within the preoptic area and ventral tegmental area in subjugated hamsters. In addition, the correlation of metabolic activity of these areas with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and anterior parietal cortex changed significantly from positive in controls to negative in subjugated animals. These data show that at mid-puberty, while male hamsters are capable of mating, their appetitive sexual behavior is not fully mature and this aspect of male sexual behavior is responsive to social subjugation. Furthermore, metabolic activity and coordination of activity in brain areas related to sexual behavior and motivation was altered by social subjugation. PMID:24852486

  19. Amplitude of the SCN Clock Enhanced by the Behavioral Activity Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    van Oosterhout, Floor; Lucassen, Eliane A.; Houben, Thijs; vanderLeest, Henk Tjebbe; Antle, Michael C.; Meijer, Johanna H.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a small structure at the base of the hypothalamus. While light effects on the SCN are well established, little is known of behavioral effects. This study elucidates direct modulating action of behavioral activity on the SCN by use of in vivo electrophysiology recordings, assessments of general locomotor behavior, and video-tracking of mice. The results show suppression of SCN neuronal activity by spontaneous behavior, the magnitude being dependent on the intensity, duration and type of behavioral activity. The suppression was moderate (32% of circadian amplitude) for low-intensity behavior and considerable (59%) for locomotor activity. Mild manipulation of the animals had reversed effects on the SCN indicating that different mechanisms are involved in the regulatory effect of spontaneous versus induced activity. The results indicate that exercise at the proper time of the cycle can boost the amplitude of the rhythm of the SCN clock itself. This has potentially beneficial effects for other rhythmic functions that are under the control of the SCN. PMID:22761873

  20. Aversive emotional interference impacts behavior and prefronto-striatal activity during increasing attentional control

    PubMed Central

    Papazacharias, Apostolos; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Quarto, Tiziana; Mancini, Marina; Porcelli, Annamaria; Romano, Raffaella; Caforio, Grazia; Todarello, Orlando; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that emotional stimulation modulates attentional processing during goal-directed behavior and related activity of a brain network including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the caudate nucleus. However, it is not clear how emotional interference modulates behavior and brain physiology during variation in attentional control, a relevant question for everyday life situations in which both emotional stimuli and cognitive load vary. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of negative emotions on behavior and activity in IFG and caudate nucleus during increasing levels of attentional control. Twenty two healthy subjects underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task in which neutral or fearful facial expressions were displayed before stimuli eliciting increasing levels of attentional control processing. Results indicated slower reaction time (RT) and greater right IFG activity when fearful compared with neutral facial expressions preceded the low level of attentional control. On the other hand, fearful facial expressions preceding the intermediate level of attentional control elicited faster behavioral responses and greater activity in the right and left sides of the caudate. Finally, correlation analysis indicated a relationship between behavioral correlates of attentional control after emotional interference and right IFG activity. All together, these results suggest that the impact of negative emotions on attentional processing is differentially elicited at the behavioral and physiological levels as a function of cognitive load. PMID:25954172

  1. Behavioral responses of north American Elk to recreational activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naylor, L.M.; Wisdom, M.J.; Anthony, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Off-road recreation on public lands in North America has increased dramatically in recent years. Wild ungulates are sensitive to human activities, but the effect of off-road recreation, both motorized and nonmotorized, is poorly understood. We measured responses of elk (Cervus elaphus) to recreational disturbance in northeast Oregon, USA, from April to October, 2003 and 2004. We subjected elk to 4 types of recreational disturbance: all-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding, mountain biking, hiking, and horseback riding. Motion sensors inside radiocollars worn by 13 female elk recorded resting, feeding, and travel activities at 5-minute intervals throughout disturbance and control periods. Elk fed and rested during control periods, with little time spent traveling. Travel time increased in response to all 4 disturbances and was highest in mornings. Elk travel time was highest during ATV exposure, followed by exposure to mountain biking, hiking, and horseback riding. Feeding time decreased during ATV exposure and resting decreased when we subjected elk to mountain biking and hiking disturbance in 2003. Our results demonstrated that activities of elk can be substantially affected by off-road recreation. Mitigating these effects may be appropriate where elk are a management priority. Balancing management of species like elk with off-road recreation will become increasingly important as off-road recreational uses continue to increase on public lands in North America.

  2. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  3. Effect of Novel, School-Based High-Intensity Interval Training (HIT) on Cardiometabolic Health in Adolescents: Project FFAB (Fun Fast Activity Blasts) - An Exploratory Controlled Before-And-After Trial

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-volume high-intensity interval training holds promise for cardiometabolic health promotion in adolescents, but sustainable interventions must be practical and engaging. We examined the effect of a school-based multi-activity low-volume high-intensity interval training intervention on adolescents’ cardiometabolic health. Methods In an exploratory controlled before-and-after design, 101 adolescents (mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 14.0 ± 0.3 years) were recruited from four schools; two were designated as intervention sites (n = 41), and two as control (n = 60). The intervention comprised 4 to 7 repetitions of 45 s maximal effort exercise (basketball, boxing, dance and soccer drills) interspersed with 90-s rest, thrice weekly for 10 weeks. Outcomes were non-fasting blood lipids and glucose, waist circumference, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, resting blood pressure, physical activity, twenty-metre shuttle-run test performance and carotid artery intima-media thickness. The difference in the change from baseline (intervention minus control) was estimated for each outcome. Using magnitude-based inferences, we calculated the probability that the true population effect was beneficial, trivial, and harmful against a threshold for the minimum clinically important difference of 0.2 between-subject SDs. Results and Discussion Mean (± SD) attendance for the intervention (expressed as percentage of available intervention sessions [n = 30]) was 77 ± 13%. Post-intervention, there were likely beneficial effects for triglycerides (-26%; 90% confidence interval -46% to 0%), waist circumference (-3.9 cm; -6.1 cm to -1.6 cm) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (+16 min; -5 to 38 min), and a possibly beneficial effect for twenty-metre shuttle-run test performance (+5 shuttles; -1 to 11 shuttles) in intervention participants (vs controls). The role of elevated triglycerides and waist circumference in cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome

  4. II. Physical activity: measurement and behavioral patterns in children and youth.

    PubMed

    Wójcicki, Thomas R; McAuley, Edward

    2014-12-01

    With physical activity levels among children and adolescents at an all-time low, there is a critical need for scientists and public health officials alike to further examine the physical activity behaviors of this population. Accordingly, this chapter will act as an entrée to the rest of the monograph by providing a general overview of the epidemiology of physical activity among youth in the United States. In so doing, we discuss the following: public health guidelines for youth-based physical activity, current rates and trends of physical activity participation in youth, issues related to physical education rates in school systems, lifestyle practices that encourage sedentary behaviors and attendant disease states, a synopsis of the health-related benefits of a physically active lifestyle, promotion of and opportunities for increased engagement, and comparisons of objective and subjective methods of measuring physical activity.

  5. Wheel-running activity modulates circadian organization and the daily rhythm of eating behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pendergast, Julie S.; Branecky, Katrina L.; Huang, Roya; Niswender, Kevin D.; Yamazaki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet acutely alters the daily rhythm of eating behavior and circadian organization (the phase relationship between oscillators in central and peripheral tissues) in mice. Voluntary wheel-running activity counteracts the obesogenic effects of high-fat diet and also modulates circadian rhythms in mice. In this study, we sought to determine whether voluntary wheel-running activity could prevent the proximate effects of high-fat diet consumption on circadian organization and behavioral rhythms in mice. Mice were housed with locked or freely rotating running wheels and fed chow or high-fat diet for 1 week and rhythms of locomotor activity, eating behavior, and molecular timekeeping (PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE luminescence rhythms) in ex vivo tissues were measured. Wheel-running activity delayed the phase of the liver rhythm by 4 h in both chow- and high-fat diet-fed mice. The delayed liver phase was specific to wheel-running activity since an enriched environment without the running wheel did not alter the phase of the liver rhythm. In addition, wheel-running activity modulated the effect of high-fat diet consumption on the daily rhythm of eating behavior. While high-fat diet consumption caused eating events to be more evenly dispersed across the 24 h-day in both locked-wheel and wheel-running mice, the effect of high-fat diet was much less pronounced in wheel-running mice. Together these data demonstrate that wheel-running activity is a salient factor that modulates liver phase and eating behavior rhythms in both chow- and high-fat-diet fed mice. Wheel-running activity in mice is both a source of exercise and a self-motivating, rewarding behavior. Understanding the putative reward-related mechanisms whereby wheel-running activity alters circadian rhythms could have implications for human obesity since palatable food and exercise may modulate similar reward circuits. PMID:24624109

  6. Wheel-running activity modulates circadian organization and the daily rhythm of eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, Julie S; Branecky, Katrina L; Huang, Roya; Niswender, Kevin D; Yamazaki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet acutely alters the daily rhythm of eating behavior and circadian organization (the phase relationship between oscillators in central and peripheral tissues) in mice. Voluntary wheel-running activity counteracts the obesogenic effects of high-fat diet and also modulates circadian rhythms in mice. In this study, we sought to determine whether voluntary wheel-running activity could prevent the proximate effects of high-fat diet consumption on circadian organization and behavioral rhythms in mice. Mice were housed with locked or freely rotating running wheels and fed chow or high-fat diet for 1 week and rhythms of locomotor activity, eating behavior, and molecular timekeeping (PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE luminescence rhythms) in ex vivo tissues were measured. Wheel-running activity delayed the phase of the liver rhythm by 4 h in both chow- and high-fat diet-fed mice. The delayed liver phase was specific to wheel-running activity since an enriched environment without the running wheel did not alter the phase of the liver rhythm. In addition, wheel-running activity modulated the effect of high-fat diet consumption on the daily rhythm of eating behavior. While high-fat diet consumption caused eating events to be more evenly dispersed across the 24 h-day in both locked-wheel and wheel-running mice, the effect of high-fat diet was much less pronounced in wheel-running mice. Together these data demonstrate that wheel-running activity is a salient factor that modulates liver phase and eating behavior rhythms in both chow- and high-fat-diet fed mice. Wheel-running activity in mice is both a source of exercise and a self-motivating, rewarding behavior. Understanding the putative reward-related mechanisms whereby wheel-running activity alters circadian rhythms could have implications for human obesity since palatable food and exercise may modulate similar reward circuits.

  7. A Daily Process Analysis of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Perceived Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Patrick T.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Doerksen, Shawna E.; Elavsky, Steriani; Rebar, Amanda L.; Conroy, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the role of both physical activity and sedentary behavior in daily perceptions of cognitive abilities and whether these relations exist within-person, between-person, or both. Design Non-experimental, intensive longitudinal research using ecological momentary assessments. Method College students wore accelerometers and provided end-of-day reports on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and perceived cognitive abilities for 14 days. Results Across self-reports and objective measures of behavior, daily deviations in physical activity were positively associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Daily deviations in self-reported, but not objectively-assessed, sedentary behavior also were negatively associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Contrary to previous research, overall levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors were not associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Conclusions These findings indicate that physical activity has a within- rather than between-person association with perceived cognitive abilities although between-person associations effects may require longer monitoring periods to manifest. Further research is needed to establish the direction of causality and resolve whether the nature (rather than quantity) of sedentary activities influences cognition. PMID:25419176

  8. Characterization and water activation behavior of tourmaline nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, S; Wei, C D; Liu, Y X

    2010-03-01

    Tourmaline nanoparticles were prepared by using a wet mechanochemisty method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the tourmaline grain size is in the range from tens of nanometers to several hundred nanometers. Through characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, it was found that the milled tourmaline had a better far infrared emitting performance due to the increase of radiation surface area. The structure change of liquid water clusters induced by the addition of tourmaline nanoparticles was observed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results showed that the addition of tourmaline nanoparticles reduced the 17O NMR full width at half maximum intensity (FWHM) for treated water and the volume of water molecule clusters. The feature of activated water was enhanced with decreasing tourmaline nanoparticles size due to the cooperation of strong surface electric field and high far infrared emissivity. Moreover the activation time can be maintained at 480 h suggesting the potential application of tourmaline in wastewater treatment. PMID:20355638

  9. Psychostimulants and Cognition: A Continuum of Behavioral and Cognitive Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Suzanne; Sage, Jennifer R.; Shuman, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Psychostimulants such as cocaine have been used as performance enhancers throughout recorded history. Although psychostimulants are commonly prescribed to improve attention and cognition, a great deal of literature has described their ability to induce cognitive deficits, as well as addiction. How can a single drug class be known to produce both cognitive enhancement and impairment? Properties of the particular stimulant drug itself and individual differences between users have both been suggested to dictate the outcome of stimulant use. A more parsimonious alternative, which we endorse, is that dose is the critical determining factor in cognitive effects of stimulant drugs. Herein, we review several popular stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine), outlining their history of use, mechanism of action, and use and abuse today. One common graphic depiction of the cognitive effects of psychostimulants is an inverted U–shaped dose-effect curve. Moderate arousal is beneficial to cognition, whereas too much activation leads to cognitive impairment. In parallel to this schematic, we propose a continuum of psychostimulant activation that covers the transition from one drug effect to another as stimulant intake is increased. Low doses of stimulants effect increased arousal, attention, and cognitive enhancement; moderate doses can lead to feelings of euphoria and power, as well as addiction and cognitive impairment; and very high doses lead to psychosis and circulatory collapse. This continuum helps account for the seemingly disparate effects of stimulant drugs, with the same drug being associated with cognitive enhancement and impairment. PMID:24344115

  10. Characterization and water activation behavior of tourmaline nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, S; Wei, C D; Liu, Y X

    2010-03-01

    Tourmaline nanoparticles were prepared by using a wet mechanochemisty method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the tourmaline grain size is in the range from tens of nanometers to several hundred nanometers. Through characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, it was found that the milled tourmaline had a better far infrared emitting performance due to the increase of radiation surface area. The structure change of liquid water clusters induced by the addition of tourmaline nanoparticles was observed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results showed that the addition of tourmaline nanoparticles reduced the 17O NMR full width at half maximum intensity (FWHM) for treated water and the volume of water molecule clusters. The feature of activated water was enhanced with decreasing tourmaline nanoparticles size due to the cooperation of strong surface electric field and high far infrared emissivity. Moreover the activation time can be maintained at 480 h suggesting the potential application of tourmaline in wastewater treatment.

  11. Active Assistance Technology for Health-Related Behavior Change: An Interdisciplinary Review

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user experience. Objective To conduct an interdisciplinary literature review to determine the extent to which the active technological capabilities of dynamic and adaptive information processing are being applied in behavior change interventions and to identify their role in these interventions. Methods We defined key categories of active technology such as semantic information processing, pattern recognition, and adaptation. We conducted the literature search using keywords derived from the categories and included studies that indicated a significant role for an active technology in health-related behavior change. In the data extraction, we looked specifically for the following technology roles: (1) dynamic adaptive tailoring of messages depending on context, (2) interactive education, (3) support for client self-monitoring of behavior change progress, and (4) novel ways in which interventions are grounded in behavior change theories using active technology. Results The search returned 228 potentially relevant articles, of which 41 satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found that significant research was focused on dialog systems, embodied conversational agents, and activity recognition. The most covered health topic was physical activity. The majority of the studies were early-stage research. Only 6 were randomized controlled trials, of which 4 were positive for behavior change and 5 were positive for acceptability. Empathy and relational behavior were significant research themes in

  12. The Relationship Between Parental Physical Activity and Screen Time Behaviors and the Behaviors of their Young Children.

    PubMed

    Carson, Valerie; Stearns, Jodie; Janssen, Ian

    2015-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental and children's physical activity and screen time behaviors in a large sample of children in the early years. The results are based on 738 children aged 0-5 years and their parents from the Kingston, Canada area. Parents completed a questionnaire from May to September 2011 that assessed sociodemographic characteristics, their physical activity and screen time, and their child's physical activity and screen time. Logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were conducted. Parents in the lowest quartile of physical activity were 2.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68-4.57) times more likely to have a child in the lowest quartile of physical activity compared with parents in the highest quartile of physical activity. Relationships were stronger in two parent homes compared with single-parent homes. Parents in the second (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.36-3.78), third (2.30, 1.32-3.99), and fourth (7.47, 4.53-12.33) screen time quartiles were significantly more likely to have a child in the highest quartile of screen time compared with parents in quartile one. To optimize healthy growth and development in the early years, future family-centered interventions targeting both physical activity and screen time appear important.

  13. The Relationship Between Parental Physical Activity and Screen Time Behaviors and the Behaviors of their Young Children.

    PubMed

    Carson, Valerie; Stearns, Jodie; Janssen, Ian

    2015-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental and children's physical activity and screen time behaviors in a large sample of children in the early years. The results are based on 738 children aged 0-5 years and their parents from the Kingston, Canada area. Parents completed a questionnaire from May to September 2011 that assessed sociodemographic characteristics, their physical activity and screen time, and their child's physical activity and screen time. Logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were conducted. Parents in the lowest quartile of physical activity were 2.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68-4.57) times more likely to have a child in the lowest quartile of physical activity compared with parents in the highest quartile of physical activity. Relationships were stronger in two parent homes compared with single-parent homes. Parents in the second (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.36-3.78), third (2.30, 1.32-3.99), and fourth (7.47, 4.53-12.33) screen time quartiles were significantly more likely to have a child in the highest quartile of screen time compared with parents in quartile one. To optimize healthy growth and development in the early years, future family-centered interventions targeting both physical activity and screen time appear important. PMID:25918825

  14. Participatory Learning through Behavioral and Cognitive Engagements in an Online Collective Information Searching Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Ching; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between college students' behavioral and cognitive engagements while performing an online collective information searching (CIS) activity. The activity aimed to assist the students in utilizing a social bookmarking application to exploit the Internet in a collective manner. A group of 101 college…

  15. Does Alcohol Use among Sexually Active College Students Moderate HIV Risk Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John E.; Malow, Robert M.; Norman, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    College students frequently use alcohol and are very sexually active, but do the two behaviors result in greater HIV risk? We employed the AIDS Risk Reduction Model to assess condom use during vaginal intercourse for sexually active college students using and not using alcohol proximal to sex. Students reported multiple lifetime sex partners and…

  16. Self-Efficacy Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior: Teaching Physically Active Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine determinants of teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes (i.e., spend at least 50% of class time with the students engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity). Based on the theory of planned behavior, a model was examined hypothesizing that teachers'…

  17. Relationship between Frequency and Intensity of Physical Activity and Health Behaviors of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Tony T.; Werch, Chudley E.; Wong, Alvin H.; Bian, Hui; Weiler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background: While studies have determined the importance of physical activity in advancing health outcomes, relatively few have explored the relationship between exercise and various health behaviors of adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between frequency and intensity of physical activity and both health risk…

  18. Positive Behavior Interventions and Support in a Physical Activity Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Buchanan, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation of positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) in a summer camp. The camp provided physical activity opportunities to underserved children attending a summer program at a local, rural public school. Certified physical education teachers led activity stations. Participants in…

  19. A critical review of assessment strategies to measure the behavioral activation model of depression.

    PubMed

    Manos, Rachel C; Kanter, Jonathan W; Busch, Andrew M

    2010-07-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) treatments for depression are based on a model of psychopathology indicating that losses of, reductions in, or chronically low levels of positive reinforcement produce behavioral and emotional changes in depression. The corresponding mechanism theory is that using BA techniques to increase activation will lead to a subsequent increase in positive reinforcement, which will decrease depressive symptoms. We attempt to review BA literature relevant to its psychopathology and mechanism models, paying particular attention to attempts to measure activation as conceptualized within BA treatments and attempts to measure reinforcement. Suggestions on ways in which to improve these measurements in order to better evaluate the psychopathology and mechanism models are provided.

  20. Helping behavior induced by empathic concern attenuates anterior cingulate activation in response to others' distress.

    PubMed

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sugawara, Sho K; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Makita, Kai; Hamano, Yuki H; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Helping behavior is motivated by empathic concern for others in distress. Although empathic concern is pervasive in daily life, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. Empathic concern involves the suppression of the emotional response to others' distress, which occurs when individuals distance themselves emotionally from the distressed individual. We hypothesized that helping behavior induced by empathic concern, accompanied by perspective-taking, would attenuate the neural activation representing aversive feelings. We also predicted reward system activation due to the positive feeling resulting from helping behavior. Participant underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing a virtual ball-toss game. In some blocks ("concern condition"), one player ("isolated player") did not receive ball-tosses from other players. In this condition, participants increased ball-tosses to the isolated player (helping behavior). Participants then evaluated the improved enjoyment of the isolated player resulting from their helping behavior. Anterior cingulate activation during the concern condition was attenuated by the evaluation of the effect of helping behavior. The right temporoparietal junction, which is involved in perspective-taking and the dorsal striatum, part of the reward system, were also activated during the concern condition. These results suggest that humans can attenuate affective arousal by anticipating the positive outcome of empathic concern through perspective-taking. PMID:26032190

  1. Helping behavior induced by empathic concern attenuates anterior cingulate activation in response to others' distress.

    PubMed

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sugawara, Sho K; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Makita, Kai; Hamano, Yuki H; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Helping behavior is motivated by empathic concern for others in distress. Although empathic concern is pervasive in daily life, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. Empathic concern involves the suppression of the emotional response to others' distress, which occurs when individuals distance themselves emotionally from the distressed individual. We hypothesized that helping behavior induced by empathic concern, accompanied by perspective-taking, would attenuate the neural activation representing aversive feelings. We also predicted reward system activation due to the positive feeling resulting from helping behavior. Participant underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing a virtual ball-toss game. In some blocks ("concern condition"), one player ("isolated player") did not receive ball-tosses from other players. In this condition, participants increased ball-tosses to the isolated player (helping behavior). Participants then evaluated the improved enjoyment of the isolated player resulting from their helping behavior. Anterior cingulate activation during the concern condition was attenuated by the evaluation of the effect of helping behavior. The right temporoparietal junction, which is involved in perspective-taking and the dorsal striatum, part of the reward system, were also activated during the concern condition. These results suggest that humans can attenuate affective arousal by anticipating the positive outcome of empathic concern through perspective-taking.

  2. Parent readiness to change differs for overweight child dietary and physical activity behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kyung; McEachern, Rebecca; Jelalian, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Parent involvement is important to help overweight children lose weight. However, parent readiness to make changes around child eating and physical activity (PA) behaviors can differ across domains. Using a cross-sectional design, our aim was to examine which factors were associated with parents being in the action/maintenance stage of change (SOC) in each domain. From November 2008 – August 2009, parents of overweight/obese children (n=202) attending a tertiary care obesity clinic in Providence, RI answered questions assessing their SOC, beliefs about child health and weight, and provider behaviors. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were created to determine which factors were associated with parent readiness to make changes for child dietary and PA behaviors. Almost 62% of parents were in the action SOC for child dietary behaviors, but only 41% were in the action SOC for PA behaviors. Parents who believed their own weight was a health problem were less likely to be ready to make changes to their child’s dietary behaviors. Physician discussion of strategies was related to readiness to make changes for child dietary behaviors, but not PA behaviors. In the PA domain, parents of younger children were more likely to be ready to make changes. Training healthcare providers to address PA readiness and be aware of factors influencing dietary and PA readiness may result in more effective conversations with parents and improve behavior change efforts for pediatric weight loss. PMID:24953789

  3. The influence of self-determination in physical education on leisure-time physical activity behavior.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

    2007-09-01

    Using a multitheory approach, this study was designed to investigate the influence of urban adolescents' perceived autonomy and competence in physical education on their physical activity intentions and behaviors during leisure time. A transcontextual model was hypothesized and tested. Urban adolescents (N=653, ages 11-15 years) completed questionnaires assessing relevant psychological constructs and moderate to vigorous physical activity and then had their cardiorespiratory fitness assessed with the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test. Based on our structural equation modeling analyses and fit indexes, the transcontextual model adequately fit the data. We concluded that the two theoretical frameworks--SDT and theory of planned behavior--can be integrated to provide an enhanced understanding of the influence of physical education on leisure-time physical activity. The results revealed that perceived autonomy and competence in physical education are interrelated and function as a whole for enhancing leisure-time physically active intentions and behavior.

  4. The Behavior of Total Lightning Activity in Severe Florida Thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Earle; Boldi, Bob; Matlin, Anne; Weber, Mark; Hodanish, Steve; Sharp, Dave; Goodman, Steve; Raghavan, Ravi; Buechler, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    The development of a new observational system called LISDAD (Lightning Imaging Sensor Demonstration and Display) has enabled a study of severe weather in central Florida. The total flash rates for storms verified to be severe are found to exceed 60 flashes/min, with some values reaching 500 flashes/min. Similar to earlier results for thunderstorm microbursts, the peak flash rate precedes the severe weather at the ground by 5-20 minutes. A distinguishing feature of severe storms is the presence of lightning "jumps"-abrupt increases in flash rate in advance of the maximum rate for the storm. ne systematic total lightning precursor to severe weather of all kinds-wind, hail, tornadoes-is interpreted in terms of the updraft that sows the seeds aloft for severe weather at the surface and simultaneously stimulates the ice microphysics that drives the lightning activity.

  5. Dynamical behaviors of a plate activated by an induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcheutchoua Fossi, D. O.; Woafo, P.

    2010-08-01

    Dynamics and chaotification of a system consisting of an induction motor activating a mobile plate (with variable contents) fixed to a spring are studied. The dynamical model of the device is presented and the electromechanical equations are formulated. The oscillations of the plate are analyzed through variations of the following reliable control parameters: phase voltage supply of the motor, frequency of the external source and mass of the plate. The dynamics of the system near the fundamental resonance region presents jump phenomenon. Mapping of the control parameters planes in terms of types of motion reveals period- n motion, quasi-periodicity and chaos. Anti-control of chaos of the induction motor is also obtained using the field-oriented control associated to the time delay feedback control.

  6. Exploratory Programs in Alabama Middle Grades Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Louis L.; Allen, Michael G.; McKenna, Beverly

    Many educators believe that middle grades schools have a responsibility to capitalize on the natural curiosity of young adolescents through the use of an exploratory curriculum to help students understand the world in which they live. This study examined the status of middle grades exploratory programs in Alabama. A 22-item questionnaire was sent…

  7. Exploratory Programing in Georgia's Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Louis L.; Allen, Michael G.

    This study surveyed the nature and extent of exploratory programming in intermediate schools. A 22-item questionnaire was sent to all 285 of the state's middle and junior high schools. Of the 163 respondents, 160 indicated that they had some form of exploratory programming. The latter number included: (1) 155 schools with traditional exploratory…

  8. Exploratory Analyses of the Long-Term Effects of Improving Behavior, Attendance, and Educational Achievement in Grades 1-6 and 8-12. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Richard; Gibson, Neal

    2012-01-01

    We studied relationships among background characteristics, behavioral infractions, punishments, attendance, and educational achievement, using longitudinal data of students in grades 1-6 and 8-12. We estimated how much hypothesized early improvements in educational achievement or sustained improvements in behavior and attendance might ultimately…

  9. Predicting adolescent eating and activity behaviors: the role of social norms and personal agency.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christina Wood; Little, Todd D; Brownell, Kelly D

    2003-03-01

    Guided by the theory of planned behavior, this 2-week longitudinal study examined health behaviors in a sample of 279 adolescents. Social norms and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were tested as predictors of self-reported intentions and behaviors in 2 domains, eating and physical activity. Differentiating, as opposed to aggregating, parent and peer norms provided unique information. For PBC, the authors distinguished global causality beliefs from self-related agency beliefs and intraself (effort, ability) from extraself (parents, teachers) means. Intraself agency beliefs strongly predicted healthy intentions, whereas intraself causality beliefs had a negative influence. Patterns differed somewhat across behaviors and gender. Results highlight theoretical issues and provide potential targets for research on health promotion programs for youth.

  10. Predicting adolescent eating and activity behaviors: the role of social norms and personal agency.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christina Wood; Little, Todd D; Brownell, Kelly D

    2003-03-01

    Guided by the theory of planned behavior, this 2-week longitudinal study examined health behaviors in a sample of 279 adolescents. Social norms and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were tested as predictors of self-reported intentions and behaviors in 2 domains, eating and physical activity. Differentiating, as opposed to aggregating, parent and peer norms provided unique information. For PBC, the authors distinguished global causality beliefs from self-related agency beliefs and intraself (effort, ability) from extraself (parents, teachers) means. Intraself agency beliefs strongly predicted healthy intentions, whereas intraself causality beliefs had a negative influence. Patterns differed somewhat across behaviors and gender. Results highlight theoretical issues and provide potential targets for research on health promotion programs for youth. PMID:12683739

  11. Behavioral responses of goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) to parasitic activity of botflies.

    PubMed

    Blank, David; Yang, Weikang

    2014-02-01

    We studied behavioral responses of goitered gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa) to hypodermic botfly (family Hypodermatidae) activity in the naturally arid conditions of Kazakhstan. We found that the reactions of goitered gazelles are very similar to the insect-repelling behaviors of other ruminants and that most behavioral responses of goitered gazelles, such as frantic running, tail movements, and grooming, are not specific to botflies. The seasonal and diurnal changes in the intensity of the behavioral responses of the goitered gazelles coincided with the parasitic activities of botfly maggots. Surprisingly, the group size of the goitered gazelles decreased during the breeding of these parasitic insects instead of increasing, as was expected according to our predictions. As an alternative, the goitered gazelles chose an opposite strategy of dispersion throughout the area to avoid infestation. This strategy is well-known for other species of ungulates and was quite effective, because their infestation rate was relatively low. PMID:24171698

  12. Self-efficacy theory and the theory of planned behavior: teaching physically active physical education classes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey J; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to examine determinants of teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes (i.e., spend at least 50% of class time with the students engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity). Based on the theory of planned behavior, a model was examined hypothesizing that teachers' intentions were determined by subjective norm, attitude, and perceived behavioral control. Grounded in self-efficacy theory, it was hypothesized that program goal importance and hierarchical and barrier self-efficacy would also predict intention. Using a series of hierarchical regression analyses, the theory of planned behavior was supported by accounting for 59% of the variance in intention due to attitude, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm. Self-efficacy theory based variables received minimal support.

  13. Calcium Imaging of Basal Forebrain Activity during Innate and Learned Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Thomas C.; Pinto, Lucas; Brock, Julien R.; Dan, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays crucial roles in arousal, attention, and memory, and its impairment is associated with a variety of cognitive deficits. The BF consists of cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic neurons. Electrical or optogenetic stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons enhances cortical processing and behavioral performance, but the natural activity of these cells during behavior is only beginning to be characterized. Even less is known about GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Here, we performed microendoscopic calcium imaging of BF neurons as mice engaged in spontaneous behaviors in their home cages (innate) or performed a go/no-go auditory discrimination task (learned). Cholinergic neurons were consistently excited during movement, including running and licking, but GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons exhibited diverse responses. All cell types were activated by overt punishment, either inside or outside of the discrimination task. These findings reveal functional similarities and distinctions between BF cell types during both spontaneous and task-related behaviors. PMID:27242444

  14. Behavioral responses of goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) to parasitic activity of botflies.

    PubMed

    Blank, David; Yang, Weikang

    2014-02-01

    We studied behavioral responses of goitered gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa) to hypodermic botfly (family Hypodermatidae) activity in the naturally arid conditions of Kazakhstan. We found that the reactions of goitered gazelles are very similar to the insect-repelling behaviors of other ruminants and that most behavioral responses of goitered gazelles, such as frantic running, tail movements, and grooming, are not specific to botflies. The seasonal and diurnal changes in the intensity of the behavioral responses of the goitered gazelles coincided with the parasitic activities of botfly maggots. Surprisingly, the group size of the goitered gazelles decreased during the breeding of these parasitic insects instead of increasing, as was expected according to our predictions. As an alternative, the goitered gazelles chose an opposite strategy of dispersion throughout the area to avoid infestation. This strategy is well-known for other species of ungulates and was quite effective, because their infestation rate was relatively low.

  15. Calcium Imaging of Basal Forebrain Activity during Innate and Learned Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Thomas C; Pinto, Lucas; Brock, Julien R; Dan, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays crucial roles in arousal, attention, and memory, and its impairment is associated with a variety of cognitive deficits. The BF consists of cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic neurons. Electrical or optogenetic stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons enhances cortical processing and behavioral performance, but the natural activity of these cells during behavior is only beginning to be characterized. Even less is known about GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Here, we performed microendoscopic calcium imaging of BF neurons as mice engaged in spontaneous behaviors in their home cages (innate) or performed a go/no-go auditory discrimination task (learned). Cholinergic neurons were consistently excited during movement, including running and licking, but GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons exhibited diverse responses. All cell types were activated by overt punishment, either inside or outside of the discrimination task. These findings reveal functional similarities and distinctions between BF cell types during both spontaneous and task-related behaviors. PMID:27242444

  16. Differential Hedonic Experience and Behavioral Activation in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Ivy F.; Grove, Tyler B.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2014-01-01

    The Kraepelinian distinction between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) emphasizes affective and volitional impairment in the former, but data directly comparing the two disorders for hedonic experience are scarce. This study examined whether hedonic experience and behavioral activation may be useful phenotypes distinguishing SZ and BP. Participants were 39 SZ and 24 BP patients without current mood episode matched for demographics and negative affect, along with 36 healthy controls (HC). They completed the Chapman Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales, Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), and Behavioral Activation Scale (BAS). SZ and BP showed equally elevated levels of self-report negative affect and trait anhedonia compared to HC. However, SZ reported significantly lower pleasure experience (TEPS) and behavioral activation (BAS) than BP, who did not differ from HC. SZ and BP showed differential patterns of relationships between the hedonic experience and behavioral activation measures. Overall, the results suggest that reduced hedonic experience and behavioral activation may be effective phenotypes distinguishing SZ from BP even when affective symptoms are minimal. However, hedonic experience differences between SZ and BP are sensitive to measurement strategy, calling for further research on the nature of anhedonia and its relation to motivation in these disorders. PMID:24999173

  17. EEG spectra, behavioral states and motor activity in rats exposed to acetylcholinesterase inhibitor chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, Olga A; Gordon, Christopher J

    2002-06-01

    Exposure to organophosphates (OP) has been associated with sleep disorders such as insomnia and "excessive dreaming." The central mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. OPs inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, leading to a hyperactivity of the brain cholinergic systems that are involved in sleep regulation. We studied alterations in the EEG, behavioral states, motor activity and core temperature in rats orally administered with 10 or 40 mg/kg of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CHP). Occipital EEG, motor activity and core temperature were recorded with telemetric transmitters. Behavioral sleep-wake states were visually scored. Both doses of CHP produced alterations of the EEG (decrease in power of sigma/beta and increase in slow theta and fast gamma bands) characteristic of arousal. EEG alterations were consistent with behavioral changes such as an increase in wakefulness and a decrease in sleep. Waking immobility was a prevalent behavior. We did not detect any overt signs of CHP toxicity, such as an abnormal posture or gait, suggesting that reduced locomotion can be a result of central effects of CHP (such as activation of cholinergic motor inhibitory system) rather than peripheral (such as an impairment of neuromuscular function). Changes in the EEG and behavior occurred independently of the decrease in core temperature. Increased wakefulness together with reduced motor activity after exposure to CHP seems to be a result of hyperactivity in brain cholinergic neuronal networks. PMID:12175464

  18. Differential hedonic experience and behavioral activation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Tso, Ivy F; Grove, Tyler B; Taylor, Stephan F

    2014-11-30

    The Kraepelinian distinction between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) emphasizes affective and volitional impairment in the former, but data directly comparing the two disorders for hedonic experience are scarce. This study examined whether hedonic experience and behavioral activation may be useful phenotypes distinguishing SZ and BP. Participants were 39 SZ and 24 BP patients without current mood episode matched for demographics and negative affect, along with 36 healthy controls (HC). They completed the Chapman Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales, Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), and Behavioral Activation Scale (BAS). SZ and BP showed equally elevated levels of self-report negative affect and trait anhedonia compared to HC. However, SZ reported significantly lower pleasure experience (TEPS) and behavioral activation (BAS) than BP, who did not differ from HC. SZ and BP showed differential patterns of relationships between the hedonic experience and behavioral activation measures. Overall, the results suggest that reduced hedonic experience and behavioral activation may be effective phenotypes distinguishing SZ from BP even when affective symptoms are minimal. However, hedonic experience differences between SZ and BP are sensitive to measurement strategy, calling for further research on the nature of anhedonia and its relation to motivation in these disorders.

  19. Altered behavior in spotted hyenas associated with increased human activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boydston, Erin E.; Kapheim, Karen M.; Watts, Heather E.; Szykman, Micaela; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate how anthropogenic activity might affect large carnivores, we studied the behaviour of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) during two time periods. From 1996 to 1998, we documented the ecological correlates of space utilization patterns exhibited by adult female hyenas defending a territory at the edge of a wildlife reserve in Kenya. Hyenas preferred areas near dense vegetation but appeared to avoid areas containing the greatest abundance of prey, perhaps because these were also the areas of most intensive livestock grazing. We then compared hyena behaviour observed in 1996–98 with that observed several years earlier and found many differences. Female hyenas in 1996–98 were found farther from dens, but closer to dense vegetation and to the edges of their territory, than in 1988–90. Recent females also had larger home ranges, travelled farther between consecutive sightings, and were more nocturnal than in 1988–90. Finally, hyenas occurred in smaller groups in 1996–98 than in 1988–90. We also found several changes in hyena demography between periods. We next attempted to explain differences observed between time periods by testing predictions of hypotheses invoking prey abundance, climate, interactions with lions, tourism and livestock grazing. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that increased reliance on the reserve for livestock grazing was responsible for observed changes. That behavioural changes were not associated with decreased hyena population density suggests the behavioural plasticity typical of this species may protect it from extinction.

  20. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hedgepeth, J; Johnson, Gary E. ); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.