Science.gov

Sample records for activity external hazard

  1. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  2. Progress for the Industry Application External Hazard Analyses Early Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis L.; Prescott, Steven; Coleman, Justin; Ryan, Emerald; Bhandari, Bishwo; Sludern, Daniel; Pope, Chad; Sampath, Ram

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the current progress and status related to the Industry Application #2 focusing on External Hazards. For this industry application within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) R&D Pathway, we will create the Risk-Informed Margin Management (RIMM) approach to represent meaningful (i.e., realistic facility representation) event scenarios and consequences by using an advanced 3D facility representation that will evaluate external hazards such as flooding and earthquakes in order to identify, model and analyze the appropriate physics that needs to be included to determine plant vulnerabilities related to external events; manage the communication and interactions between different physics modeling and analysis technologies; and develop the computational infrastructure through tools related to plant representation, scenario depiction, and physics prediction. One of the unique aspects of the RISMC approach is how it couples probabilistic approaches (the scenario) with mechanistic phenomena representation (the physics) through simulation. This simulation-based modeling allows decision makers to focus on a variety of safety, performance, or economic metrics. In this report, we describe the evaluation of various physics toolkits related to flooding representation. Ultimately, we will be coupling the flooding representation with other events such as earthquakes in order to provide coupled physics analysis for scenarios where interactions exist.

  3. Assessment of External Hazards at Radioactive Waste and Used Fuel Management Facilities - 13505

    SciTech Connect

    Gerchikov, Mark; Schneider, Glenn; Khan, Badi; Alderson, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    One of the key lessons from the Fukushima accident is the importance of having a comprehensive identification and evaluation of risks posed by external events to nuclear facilities. While the primary focus has been on nuclear power plants, the Canadian nuclear industry has also been updating hazard assessments for radioactive waste and used fuel management facilities to ensure that lessons learnt from Fukushima are addressed. External events are events that originate either physically outside the nuclear site or outside its control. They include natural events, such as high winds, lightning, earthquakes or flood due to extreme rainfall. The approaches that have been applied to the identification and assessment of external hazards in Canada are presented and analyzed. Specific aspects and considerations concerning hazards posed to radioactive waste and used fuel management operations are identified. Relevant hazard identification techniques are described, which draw upon available regulatory guidance and standard assessment techniques such as Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOPs) and 'What-if' analysis. Consideration is given to ensuring that hazard combinations (for example: high winds and flooding due to rainfall) are properly taken into account. Approaches that can be used to screen out external hazards, through a combination of frequency and impact assessments, are summarized. For those hazards that cannot be screened out, a brief overview of methods that can be used to conduct more detailed hazard assessments is also provided. The lessons learnt from the Fukushima accident have had a significant impact on specific aspects of the approaches used to hazard assessment for waste management. Practical examples of the effect of these impacts are provided. (authors)

  4. Multiple external hazards compound level 3 PSA methods research of nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Handing; Liang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yang, Jianfeng; Liu, Weidong; Lei, Dina

    2017-01-01

    2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant severe accident was caused by both earthquake and tsunami, which results in large amount of radioactive nuclides release. That accident has caused the radioactive contamination on the surrounding environment. Although this accident probability is extremely small, once such an accident happens that is likely to release a lot of radioactive materials into the environment, and cause radiation contamination. Therefore, studying accidents consequences is important and essential to improve nuclear power plant design and management. Level 3 PSA methods of nuclear power plant can be used to analyze radiological consequences, and quantify risk to the public health effects around nuclear power plants. Based on multiple external hazards compound level 3 PSA methods studies of nuclear power plant, and the description of the multiple external hazards compound level 3 PSA technology roadmap and important technical elements, as well as taking a coastal nuclear power plant as the reference site, we analyzed the impact of off-site consequences of nuclear power plant severe accidents caused by multiple external hazards. At last we discussed the impact of off-site consequences probabilistic risk studies and its applications under multiple external hazards compound conditions, and explained feasibility and reasonableness of emergency plans implementation.

  5. Joint probability safety assessment for NPP defense infrastructure against extreme external natural hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Guilin, L.; Defu, L.; Huajun, L.; Fengqing, W.; Tao, Z.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing tendency of natural hazards, the typhoon, hurricane and tropical Cyclone induced surge, wave, precipitation, flood and wind as extreme external loads menacing Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in coastal and inland provinces of China. For all of planned, designed And constructed NPP the National Nuclear Safety Administration of China and IAEA recommended Probable Maximum Hurricane /Typhoon/(PMH/T), Probable Maximum Storm Surge (PMSS), Probable Maximum Flood (PMF), Design Basis Flood (DBF) as safety regulations for NPP defense infrastructures. This paper discusses the joint probability analysis of simultaneous occurrence typhoon induced extreme external hazards and compare with IAEA 2006-2009 recommended safety regulation design criteria for some NPP defense infrastructures along China coast. (authors)

  6. Bio-Medical Factors and External Hazards in Space Station Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olling, E. H.

    1966-01-01

    The design of space-station configurations is influenced by many factors. Probably the most demanding and critical are the biomedical and external hazards requirements imposed to provide the proper environment and supporting facilities for the crew and the adequate protective measures necessary to provide a configuration'in which the crew can live and work efficiently in relative comfort and safety. The major biomedical factors, such as physiology, psychology, nutrition, personal hygiene, waste management, and recreation, all impose their own peculiar requirements. The commonality and integration of these requirements demand the utmost ingenuity and inventiveness be exercised in order to achieve effective configuration compliance. The relationship of biomedical factors for the internal space-station environment will be explored with respect to internal atmospheric constituency, atmospheric pressure levels, oxygen positive pressure, temperature, humidity, CO2 concentration, and atmospheric contamination. The range of these various parameters and the recommended levels for design use will be analyzed. Requirements and criteria for specific problem areas such as zero and artificial gravity and crew private quarters will be reviewed and the impact on the design of representative solutions will be presented. In the areas of external hazards, the impact of factors such as meteoroids, radiation, vacuum, temperature extremes, and cycling on station design will be evaluated. Considerations with respect to operational effectiveness and crew safety will be discussed. The impact of such factors on spacecraft design to achieve acceptable launch and reentry g levels, crew rotation intervals, etc., will be reviewed.

  7. Development plan for the External Hazards Experimental Group. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Justin Leigh; Smith, Curtis Lee; Burns, Douglas Edward; Kammerer, Annie

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the development plan for a new multi-partner External Hazards Experimental Group (EHEG) coordinated by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) within the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) technical pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Currently, there is limited data available for development and validation of the tools and methods being developed in the RISMC Toolkit. The EHEG is being developed to obtain high-quality, small- and large-scale experimental data validation of RISMC tools and methods in a timely and cost-effective way. The group of universities and national laboratories that will eventually form the EHEG (which is ultimately expected to include both the initial participants and other universities and national laboratories that have been identified) have the expertise and experimental capabilities needed to both obtain and compile existing data archives and perform additional seismic and flooding experiments. The data developed by EHEG will be stored in databases for use within RISMC. These databases will be used to validate the advanced external hazard tools and methods.

  8. Bio-Medical Factors and External Hazards in Space Station Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olling, Edward H.

    1966-01-01

    The design of space-station configurations is influenced by many factors, Probably the most demanding and critical are the biomedical and external hazards requirements imposed to provide the proper environment and supporting facilities for the crew and the adequate protective measures necessary to provide a configuration in which the crew can live and work efficiently in relative comfort and safety. The major biomedical factors, such as physiology, psychology, nutrition, personal hygiene, waste management, and recreation, all impose their own peculiar requirements. The commonality and integration of these requirements demand the utmost ingenuity and inventiveness be exercised in order to achieve effective configuration compliance. The relationship of biomedical factors for the internal space-station environment will be explored with respect to internal atmospheric constituency, atmospheric pressure levels, oxygen positive pressure, temperature, humidity, CO2 concentration, and atmospheric contamination. The range of these various parameters and the recommended levels for design use will be analyzed. Requirements and criteria for specific problem areas such as zero and artificial gravity and crew private quarters will be reviewed and the impact on the design of representative solutions will be presented. In the areas of external hazards, the impact of factors such as meteoroids, radiation, vacuum, temperature extremes, and cycling on station design will be evaluated. Considerations with respect to operational effectiveness and crew safety will be discussed. The impact of such factors on spacecraft design to achieve acceptable launch and reentry g levels, crew rotation intervals, etc., will be reviewed. Examples of configurations, subsystems, and internal a arrangement and installations to comply with such biomedical factor requirements will ber presented. The effects of solutions to certain biomedical factors on configuration weight, operational convenience, and

  9. Solar activities and Climate change hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hady, A. A., II

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the geological history of Earth, climate change is one of the recurrent natural hazards. In recent history, the impact of man brought about additional climatic change. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary, both solar activities and building-up of green-house gases effect added to the climatic changes. This paper discusses if the global worming caused by the green-house gases effect will be equal or less than the global cooling resulting from the solar activities. In this respect, we refer to the Modern Dalton Minimum (MDM) which stated that starting from year 2005 for the next 40 years; the earth's surface temperature will become cooler than nowadays. However the degree of cooling, previously mentioned in old Dalton Minimum (c. 210 y ago), will be minimized by building-up of green-house gases effect during MDM period. Regarding to the periodicities of solar activities, it is clear that now we have a new solar cycle of around 210 years. Keywords: Solar activities; solar cycles; palaeoclimatic changes; Global cooling; Modern Dalton Minimum.

  10. Establishing Hazardous Gas Launch Commit Criteria for the Space Shuttle External Tank Intertank Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baran, Adam J.; Piekarski, Brian; Steinbock, Roy D.; Ferguson, Lyle W.; Lim, Kair-Chuan

    2000-01-01

    Until recently, the simultaneous detection and evaluation of multiple Space Transportation System (STS) element compartments for propellant leakage was not possible during the External Tank (ET) pre-pressurization (pre-press) phase of propellant loading; late in the loading sequence (T-3 min to T-0). There exist launch commit criteria (LCCS) designed to protect against leaks resulting in flammable mixtures in the intertank during the functional life of the ET; start of propellant loading through ET-Orbiter separation. However thus far, leak protection had relied on the premise that if a propellant supply system leak were to exist, it would be a leak of fixed area present at the start of propellant loading (dumb leak mode) and such a leak could be detected earlier in the loading sequence than the pre-press phase. No measures had ever been implemented which would protect against leaks potentially developing late in the loading sequence (smart leak mode), The STS community had baselined this situation as an accepted risk their decision supported by exhaustive hardware acceptance criteria and a history of many successful launches. With the recent development of improvements to the hazardous gas detection system (HGDS), an opportunity arose to monitor the intertank compartment for hazardous gas concentrations beyond the T-3 minute mark. In this timeframe the propellant supply system is pressurized for flight and protection was sought against potential leaks generated by this pressurization process. The challenge at hand was to develop LCCs in this timeframe that were not too conservative to unnecessarily prohibit a launch, yet not too liberal to endanger crew safety and mission success. Since essentially no measurement history existed in this timeframe, the LCCs would have to rely on analysis alone. At NASA's direction, Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems (LMMSS) developed requirements that would protect against a smart leak during pre-press. A smart leak protection

  11. Identifying hazard parameter to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suminar, Wulan; Saepuloh, Asep; Meilano, Irwan

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of hazard assessment to active volcanoes is crucial for risk management. The hazard map of volcano provides information to decision makers and communities before, during, and after volcanic crisis. The rapid and accurate hazard assessment, especially to an active volcano is necessary to be developed for better mitigation on the time of volcanic crises in Indonesia. In this paper, we identified the hazard parameters to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano. The Guntur volcano in Garut Region, West Java, Indonesia was selected as study area due population are resided adjacent to active volcanoes. The development of infrastructures, especially related to tourism at the eastern flank from the Summit, are growing rapidly. The remote sensing and field investigation approaches were used to obtain hazard parameters spatially. We developed a quantitative and dynamic algorithm to map spatially hazard potential of volcano based on index overlay technique. There were identified five volcano hazard parameters based on Landsat 8 and ASTER imageries: volcanic products including pyroclastic fallout, pyroclastic flows, lava and lahar, slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and vegetation density. Following this proposed technique, the hazard parameters were extracted, indexed, and calculated to produce spatial hazard values at and around Guntur Volcano. Based on this method, the hazard potential of low vegetation density is higher than high vegetation density. Furthermore, the slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and fragmental volcanic product such as pyroclastics influenced to the spatial hazard value significantly. Further study to this proposed approach will be aimed for effective and efficient analyses of volcano risk assessment.

  12. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  13. 76 FR 4847 - Hazardous Materials: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    .... SUMMARY: PHMSA is proposing to amend the Hazardous Materials Regulations to prohibit the transportation of... This rulemaking is issued under the authority of the Federal hazardous materials transportation law (49... regulations for the safe transportation, including security, of hazardous materials in intrastate,...

  14. 76 FR 14643 - Hazardous Materials: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ...: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting Flammable Liquids AGENCY...) seeking public comment on a proposal to prohibit the transportation of flammable liquids in...

  15. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  16. 77 FR 31005 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Hazardous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Hazardous Waste Report, Notification of Regulated Waste Activity, and Part A Hazardous Waste Permit Application and Modification AGENCY... proposed changes to the Hazardous Waste Report form and instructions designed to clarify...

  17. Probabilistic seismic hazard study based on active fault and finite element geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastelic, Vanja; Carafa, Michele M. C.; Visini, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    We present a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) that is exclusively based on active faults and geodynamic finite element input models whereas seismic catalogues were used only in a posterior comparison. We applied the developed model in the External Dinarides, a slow deforming thrust-and-fold belt at the contact between Adria and Eurasia.. is the Our method consists of establishing s two earthquake rupture forecast models: (i) a geological active fault input (GEO) model and, (ii) a finite element (FEM) model. The GEO model is based on active fault database that provides information on fault location and its geometric and kinematic parameters together with estimations on its slip rate. By default in this model all deformation is set to be released along the active faults. The FEM model is based on a numerical geodynamic model developed for the region of study. In this model the deformation is, besides along the active faults, released also in the volumetric continuum elements. From both models we calculated their corresponding activity rates, its earthquake rates and their final expected peak ground accelerations. We investigated both the source model and the earthquake model uncertainties by varying the main active fault and earthquake rate calculation parameters through constructing corresponding branches of the seismic hazard logic tree. Hazard maps and UHS curves have been produced for horizontal ground motion on bedrock conditions VS 30 ≥ 800 m/s), thereby not considering local site amplification effects. The hazard was computed over a 0.2° spaced grid considering 648 branches of the logic tree and the mean value of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years hazard level, while the 5th and 95th percentiles were also computed to investigate the model limits. We conducted a sensitivity analysis to control which of the input parameters influence the final hazard results in which measure. The results of such comparison evidence the deformation model and

  18. Wildfire Research in an Environmental Hazards Course: An Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Tamara U.; Halvorson, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    Creating opportunities for students to actively apply hazards theory to real-life situations is often a challenge in hazards geography courses. This article presents a project, the Jocko Lakes Fire Project, that implemented learning strategies to encourage students to be active in wildfire hazards research. Wildfire hazards stand out as an…

  19. Crew activities, science, and hazards of manned missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    1988-01-01

    The crew scientific and nonscientific activities that will occur at each stage of a mission to Mars are examined. Crew activities during the interplanetary flight phase will include simulations, maintenance and monitoring, communications, upgrading procedures and operations, solar activity monitoring, cross-training and sharpening of skills, physical conditioning, and free-time activities. Scientific activities will address human physiology, human psychology, sociology, astronomy, space environment effects, manufacturing, and space agriculture. Crew activities on the Martian surface will include exploration, construction, manufacturing, food production, maintenance and training, and free time. Studies of Martian geology and atmosphere, of the life forms that may exist there, and of the Martian moons will occur on the planet's surface. Crew activities and scientific studies that will occur in Mars orbit, and the hazards relevant to each stage of the mission, are also addressed.

  20. 1993 annual report of hazardous waste activities for the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is a detailed listing of all of the Hazardous Waste activities occurring at Martin Marietta`s K-25 site. Contained herein are hazardous waste notification forms, waste stream reports, generator fee forms and various TSDR reports.

  1. 76 FR 17414 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; 2011 Hazardous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Waste Report, Notification of Regulated Waste Activity, and Part A Hazardous Waste Permit Application... collection. In addition, EPA is requesting comments on some proposed changes to the Hazardous Waste Report... Hazardous Waste Report From and Instructions booklet in the docket for this notice. What should I...

  2. GHRC: NASAs Hazardous Weather Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Bugbee, Kaylin

    2016-01-01

    The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC; ghrc.nsstc.nasa.gov) is one of NASA's twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers responsible for providing access to NASA's Earth science data to users worldwide. Each of NASA's twelve DAACs focuses on a specific science discipline within Earth science, provides data stewardship services and supports its research community's needs. Established in 1991 as the Marshall Space Flight Center DAAC and renamed GHRC in 1997, the data center's original mission focused on the global hydrologic cycle. However, over the years, data holdings, tools and expertise of GHRC have gradually shifted. In 2014, a User Working Group (UWG) was established to review GHRC capabilities and provide recommendations to make GHRC more responsive to the research community's evolving needs. The UWG recommended an update to the GHRC mission, as well as a strategic plan to move in the new direction. After a careful and detailed analysis of GHRC's capabilities, research community needs and the existing data landscape, a new mission statement for GHRC has been crafted: to provide a comprehensive active archive of both data and knowledge augmentation services with a focus on hazardous weather, its governing dynamical and physical processes, and associated applications. Within this broad mandate, GHRC will focus on lightning, tropical cyclones and storm-induced hazards through integrated collections of satellite, airborne, and in-situ data sets. The new mission was adopted at the recent 2015 UWG meeting. GHRC will retain its current name until such time as it has built substantial data holdings aligned with the new mission.

  3. Incentive-Elicited Mesolimbic Activation and Externalizing Symptomatology in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, James M.; Chen, Gang; Smith, Ashley R.; Hommer, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Opponent-process theories of externalizing disorders (ExD) attribute them to some combination of overactive reward processing systems and/or underactive behavior inhibition systems. Reward processing has been indexed by recruitment of incentive-motivational neurocircuitry of the ventral striatum (VS), including nucleus accumbens…

  4. HAZ-ED Classroom Activities for Understanding Hazardous Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Federal Superfund Program investigates and cleans up hazardous waste sites throughout the United States. Part of this program is devoted to informing the public and involving people in the process of cleaning up hazardous waste sites from beginning to end. The Haz-Ed program was developed to assist the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)…

  5. 48 CFR 9903.201-8 - Compliant accounting changes due to external restructuring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... changes due to external restructuring activities. 9903.201-8 Section 9903.201-8 Federal Acquisition... Requirements 9903.201-8 Compliant accounting changes due to external restructuring activities. The contract price and cost adjustment requirements of this part 9903 are not applicable to compliant cost...

  6. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol ester increases red blood cell scramblase activity and external phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Barber, Latorya A; Palascak, Mary B; Qi, Xiaoyang; Joiner, Clinton H; Franco, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) is thought to contribute to sickle cell disease (SCD) pathophysiology. The red blood cell (RBC) aminophospholipid translocase (APLT) mediates the transport of PS from the outer to the inner RBC membrane leaflet to maintain an asymmetric distribution of PL, while phospholipid scramblase (PLSCR) equilibrates PL across the RBC membrane, promoting PS externalization. We previously identified an association between PS externalization level and PLSCR activity in sickle RBC under basal conditions. Other studies showed that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by PMA (phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate) causes increased external PS on RBC. Therefore, we hypothesized that PMA-activated PKC stimulates PLSCR activity in RBC and thereby contributes to increased PS externalization. In the current studies, we show that PMA treatment causes immediate and variable PLSCR activation and subsequent PS externalization in control and sickle RBC. While TfR+ sickle reticulocytes display some endogenous PLSCR activity, we observed a robust activation of PLSCR in sickle reticulocytes treated with PMA. The PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine (Chel), significantly inhibited PMA-dependent PLSCR activation and PS externalization. Chel also inhibited endogenous PLSCR activity in sickle reticulocytes. These data provide evidence that PKC mediates PS externalization in RBC through activation of PLSCR.

  7. Internalism, Active Externalism, and Nonconceptual Content: The Ins and Outs of Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dartnall, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Active externalism (also known as the extended mind hypothesis) says that we use objects and situations in the world as external memory stores that we consult as needs dictate. This gives us economies of storage: We do not need to remember that Bill has blue eyes and wavy hair if we can acquire this information by looking at Bill. I argue for a…

  8. Sports Management Faculty External Grant-Writing Activities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVinney, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to fill a void in information, provide relevant, current data for faculty members related to external grant-writing activities related to the academic field of sport management and serve as a tool that may aid in the advancement of external grant-writing efforts within the field of sport management. All data is specific to…

  9. Specific activity and hazards of granite samples collected from the Eastern Desert of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Wafaa

    2004-01-01

    Fifty granitic rock samples were collected from different plutons in the central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt and were analyzed for specific concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K radionuclei. The measurements were carried out using a high performance and stability Nomad Plus spectroscopy system attached to a 1.7 keV (FWHM) HPGe detector. The spectra were analyzed using the direct gamma counting comparison method as well as the traditional absolute efficiency curve method. The highest average value of (238)U concentration (1184 Bq kg(-1)) was observed at EI Misikat region whereas the highest average values of (40)K and (232)Th concentration (2301.8 and 162.5 Bq kg(-1) respectively), were detected at Gabal Homret Waggat area. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the absorbed dose rate (D), the external hazard index (H(ex)) and the annual gonadal dose equivalent were also calculated and compared to the international recommended values. Radon exhalation rate from the rock samples were measured using the activated charcoal canister method. The average value of radon exhalation varies from 0.052 to 0.69 Bq m(-2) h(-1) and depends on the specific concentration of uranium.

  10. Active Metamaterial Based Terahertz Polarimeter for Spectroscopic Detection of Chemical and Biological Hazards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Active Metamaterial Based Terahertz Polarimeter for Spectroscopic Detection of Chemical and Biological Hazards by Grace D. Metcalfe ...for Spectroscopic Detection of Chemical and Biological Hazards Grace D. Metcalfe and Michael Wraback Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Grace D. Metcalfe , Michael Wraback, Richard D. Averitt, and Xin Zhang 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  11. 75 FR 82005 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Hazardous Waste...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Hazardous Waste Generator.... Title: Hazardous Waste Generator Standards (Renewal). ICR numbers: EPA ICR No. 0820.11, OMB Control No... RCRA requires EPA to develop standards for small quantity generators. Section 3002 of RCRA...

  12. Natural hazards activities of the National Geophysical Data Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockridge, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, has been given the task of collecting, managing, and disseminating the great mass of inofmation produced by scientific observations of the geophysical environment. This article describes NGDC data bases that speifically relate to natural hazards

  13. Activities for Teaching about Hazardous Materials in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Robert W.; And Others

    Materials containing hazardous substances present serious problems to human health and to the health of the environment. There are many potential problems related to the site of a house or apartment, the construction materials used in the house or the apartment, products and materials used in and around the home, and disposal of materials.…

  14. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  15. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  16. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  17. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  18. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  19. Framing: Supporting Change for a System as an External Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    a division of labour that specifies how the motive is transformed into the outcome. 21 DSTO-RR-0127 Tools _J Motive J C Individual...Cnr Transformation Outcome ^ Process Rules nmunit) Division of Labour VL ^ Figure 2.3 Incorporating the social aspects in Activity Theory...these capabilities, creates roles by the division of labour , allocates tasks to roles, creates an organisational structure and formal management

  20. Musculoskeletal modelling of muscle activation and applied external forces for the correction of scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study uses biomechanical modelling and computational optimization to investigate muscle activation in combination with applied external forces as a treatment for scoliosis. Bracing, which incorporates applied external forces, is the most popular non surgical treatment for scoliosis. Non surgical treatments which make use of muscle activation include electrical stimulation, postural control, and therapeutic exercises. Electrical stimulation has been largely dismissed as a viable treatment for scoliosis, although previous studies have suggested that it can potentially deliver similarly effective corrective forces to the spine as bracing. Methods The potential of muscle activation for scoliosis correction was investigated over different curvatures both with and without the addition of externally applied forces. The five King’s classifications of scoliosis were investigated over a range of Cobb angles. A biomechanical model of the spine was used to represent various scoliotic curvatures. Optimization was applied to the model to reduce the curves using combinations of both deep and superficial muscle activation and applied external forces. Results Simulating applied external forces in combination with muscle activation at low Cobb angles (< 20 degrees) over the 5 King’s classifications, it was possible to reduce the magnitude of the curve by up to 85% for classification 4, 75% for classifications 3 and 5, 65% for classification 2, and 60% for classification 1. The reduction in curvature was less at larger Cobb angles. For King’s classifications 1 and 2, the serratus, latissimus dorsi, and trapezius muscles were consistently recruited by the optimization algorithm for activation across all Cobb angles. When muscle activation and external forces were applied in combination, lower levels of muscle activation or less external force was required to reduce the curvature of the spine, when compared with either muscle activation or external force applied

  1. Marital Conflict and Children's Externalizing Behavior: Interactions between Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Erath, Stephen; Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy; Staton, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS) activity were examined as moderators. PNS activity was indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to lab…

  2. Digital data set of volcano hazards for active Cascade Volcanos, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, Steve P.

    1996-01-01

    Scientists at the Cascade Volcano Observatory have completed hazard assessments for the five active volcanos in Washington. The five studies included Mount Adams (Scott and others, 1995), Mount Baker (Gardner and others, 1995), Glacier Peak (Waitt and others, 1995), Mount Rainier (Hoblitt and others, 1995) and Mount St. Helens (Wolfe and Pierson, 1995). Twenty Geographic Information System (GIS) data sets have been created that represent the hazard information from the assessments. The twenty data sets have individual Open File part numbers and titles

  3. Frontal electroencephalogram activation asymmetry, emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Santesso, Diane L; Reker, Dana L; Schmidt, Louis A; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versusnegative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys had significantly lower emotional intelligence than girls, and low emotional intelligence was associated with significantly more externalizing behaviors (i.e., aggression and delinquency), replicating previous work. We also found that children with higher reported externalizing behaviors exhibited significantly greater relative right frontal EEG activity at rest compared with children with little to no externalizing behavioral problems. There was, however, no relation between emotional intelligence and the pattern of resting frontal EEG activity. Thus, emotional intelligence and the pattern of frontal EEG activation at rest are independent predictors of externalizing behaviors in children. Findings also suggest that individual differences in emotional intelligence may not be based on differences in levels of emotional regulation or the generation of positive affect as reflected in frontal EEG asymmetries, but rather other social and cognitive competencies required for adaptive behavior.

  4. External cardiac compression may be harmful in some scenarios of pulseless electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Hogan, T S

    2012-10-01

    Pulseless electrical activity occurs when organised or semi-organised electrical activity of the heart persists but the product of systemic vascular resistance and the increase in systemic arterial flow generated by the ejection of the left venticular stroke volume is not sufficient to produce a clinically detectable pulse. Pulseless electrical activity encompasses a very heterogeneous variety of severe circulatory shock states ranging in severity from pseudo-cardiac arrest to effective cardiac arrest. Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for pulseless electrical activity are generally poor. Impairment of cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output in many scenarios of pulseless electrical activity, including extreme vasodilatory shock states. There is no evidence that external cardiac compression can increase cardiac output when impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output. If impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output and the heart is effectively ejecting all the blood returning to it, then external cardiac compression can only increase cardiac output if it increases venous return and cardiac filling. Repeated cardiac compression asynchronous with the patient's cardiac cycle and raised mean intrathoracic pressure due to chest compression can be expected to reduce rather than to increase cardiac filling and therefore to reduce rather than to increase cardiac output in such circumstances. The hypothesis is proposed that the performance of external cardiac compression will have zero or negative effect on cardiac output in pulseless electrical activity when impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output. External cardiac compression may be both directly and indirectly harmful to significant sub-groups of patients with pulseless electrical activity. We have neither evidence nor theory to provide comfort that external cardiac compression is not harmful in many scenarios of pulseless

  5. Detection of parity violation in chiral molecules by external tuning of electroweak optical activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bargueno, Pedro; Gonzalo, Isabel; Perez de Tudela, Ricardo

    2009-07-15

    A proposal is made to measure the parity-violating energy difference between enantiomers of chiral molecules by modifying the dynamics of the two-state system using an external chiral field, in particular, circularly polarized light. The intrinsic molecular parity-violating energy could be compensated by this external chiral field, with the subsequent change in the optical activity. From the observation of changes in the time-averaged optical activity of a sample with initial chiral purity and minimized environment effects, the value of the intrinsic parity-violating energy could be extracted. A discussion is made on the feasibility of this measurement.

  6. Teamwork tools and activities within the hazard component of the Global Earthquake Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, M.; Weatherill, G.; Monelli, D.; Danciu, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) is a public-private partnership aimed at supporting and fostering a global community of scientists and engineers working in the fields of seismic hazard and risk assessment. In the hazard sector, in particular, GEM recognizes the importance of local ownership and leadership in the creation of seismic hazard models. For this reason, over the last few years, GEM has been promoting different activities in the context of seismic hazard analysis ranging, for example, from regional projects targeted at the creation of updated seismic hazard studies to the development of a new open-source seismic hazard and risk calculation software called OpenQuake-engine (http://globalquakemodel.org). In this communication we'll provide a tour of the various activities completed, such as the new ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Catalogue, and of currently on-going initiatives like the creation of a suite of tools for the creation of PSHA input models. Discussion, comments and criticism by the colleagues in the audience will be highly appreciated.

  7. Seismic hazard assessment of Syria using seismicity, DEM, slope, active tectonic and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Raed; Adris, Ahmad; Singh, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, we discuss the use of an integrated remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques for evaluation of seismic hazard areas in Syria. The present study is the first time effort to create seismic hazard map with the help of GIS. In the proposed approach, we have used Aster satellite data, digital elevation data (30 m resolution), earthquake data, and active tectonic maps. Many important factors for evaluation of seismic hazard were identified and corresponding thematic data layers (past earthquake epicenters, active faults, digital elevation model, and slope) were generated. A numerical rating scheme has been developed for spatial data analysis using GIS to identify ranking of parameters to be included in the evaluation of seismic hazard. The resulting earthquake potential map delineates the area into different relative susceptibility classes: high, moderate, low and very low. The potential earthquake map was validated by correlating the obtained different classes with the local probability that produced using conventional analysis of observed earthquakes. Using earthquake data of Syria and the peak ground acceleration (PGA) data is introduced to the model to develop final seismic hazard map based on Gutenberg-Richter (a and b values) parameters and using the concepts of local probability and recurrence time. The application of the proposed technique in Syrian region indicates that this method provides good estimate of seismic hazard map compared to those developed from traditional techniques (Deterministic (DSHA) and probabilistic seismic hazard (PSHA). For the first time we have used numerous parameters using remote sensing and GIS in preparation of seismic hazard map which is found to be very realistic.

  8. Externally heated thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1991-04-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.

  9. Frontal Electroencephalogram Activation Asymmetry, Emotional Intelligence, and Externalizing Behaviors in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santesso, L. Diane; Dana, L. Reker; Schmidt, Louis A.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versus negative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys…

  10. Strength and muscle activity of shoulder external rotation of subjects with and without scapular dyskinesis

    PubMed Central

    Uga, Daisuke; Nakazawa, Rie; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the relationship between scapular dyskinesis and shoulder external rotation strength and muscle activity. [Subjects and Methods] Both shoulders of 20 healthy males were evaluated. They were classified into 19 normal, 8 subtly abnormal, and 13 obviously abnormal shoulders using the scapular dyskinesis test. Subtly abnormal shoulders were subsequently excluded from the analysis. Shoulder external rotation strength and muscle activity (infraspinatus, serratus anterior, upper, middle, and lower trapezius) were measured in 2 positions using a handheld dynamometer and surface electromyography while sitting in a chair with shoulder 0° abduction and flexion (1st position), and while lying prone on the elbows with the shoulders elevated in the zero position (zero position). The strength ratio was calculated to quantify the change in strength between the positions (zero position / 1st position). [Results] In the obviously abnormal shoulder group, the strength in the 1st position was significantly stronger, the strength ratio was significantly smaller, and the serratus anterior in the zero position showed significantly lower activity than the normal shoulder group. [Conclusion] In shoulder external rotation in the zero position, in obviously abnormal shoulders, the serratus anterior is poorly recruited, weakening the shoulder external rotation strength. PMID:27190434

  11. External locus of control contributes to racial disparities in memory and reasoning training gains in ACTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Meyer, Oanh L.; Choi, Eunhee; Thomas, Michael L.; Willis, Sherry L.; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L.; Rebok, George W.; Parisi, Jeanine M.

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training. PMID:26237116

  12. External locus of control contributes to racial disparities in memory and reasoning training gains in ACTIVE.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Meyer, Oanh L; Choi, Eunhee; Thomas, Michael L; Willis, Sherry L; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W; Parisi, Jeanine M

    2015-09-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training.

  13. External validation and prediction employing the predictive squared correlation coefficient test set activity mean vs training set activity mean.

    PubMed

    Schüürmann, Gerrit; Ebert, Ralf-Uwe; Chen, Jingwen; Wang, Bin; Kühne, Ralph

    2008-11-01

    The external prediction capability of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models is often quantified using the predictive squared correlation coefficient, q (2). This index relates the predictive residual sum of squares, PRESS, to the activity sum of squares, SS, without postprocessing of the model output, the latter of which is automatically done when calculating the conventional squared correlation coefficient, r (2). According to the current OECD guidelines, q (2) for external validation should be calculated with SS referring to the training set activity mean. Our present findings including a mathematical proof demonstrate that this approach yields a systematic overestimation of the prediction capability that is triggered by the difference between the training and test set activity means. Example calculations with three regression models and data sets taken from literature show further that for external test sets, q (2) based on the training set activity mean may become even larger than r (2). As a consequence, we suggest to always use the test set activity mean when quantifying the external prediction capability through q (2) and to revise the respective OECD guidance document accordingly. The discussion includes a comparison between r (2) and q (2) value ranges and the q (2) statistics for cross-validation.

  14. Thermal Noise Reduction of Mechanical Oscillators by Actively Controlled External Dissipative Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Shoudan; Medich, David; Czajkowsky, Daniel M.; Sheng, Sitong; Yuan, Jian-Yang; Shao, Zhifeng

    1999-01-01

    We show that the thermal fluctuations of very soft mechanical oscillators, such as the cantilever in an atomic force microscope (AFM), can be reduced without changing the stiffness of the spring or having to lower the environment temperature. We derive a theoretical relationship between the thermal fluctuations of an oscillator and an actively external-dissipative force. This relationship is verified by experiments with an AFM cantilever where the external active force is coupled through a magnetic field. With simple instrumentation, we have reduced the thermal noise amplitude of the cantilever by a factor of 3.4, achieving an apparent temperature of 25 K with the environment at 295K. This active noise reduction approach can significantly improve the accuracy of static position or static force measurements in a number of practical applications.

  15. Safe Active Play: A Guide to Avoiding Play Area Hazards. [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Active play provides healthy exercise and allows children to test their skills against challenges in their environment, but when play results in even minor injury, it may be taking place in a hazardous setting. This video is designed to teach caregivers, child care program staff and recreation officials how to create safe play environments. Based…

  16. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of environmental hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop™ ?‘Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)’ was held from 31st January to 5th February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary aim of the workshop was to provide objective advice, ...

  17. Potential exposure to hazardous work activities: tractor usage among farmwomen.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Ann K; Skarke, Lana; Gilmore, Karen; Brown, Elizabeth R

    2006-01-01

    Farmwomen are often an unacknowledged workforce, leading to a lack of targeted safety interventions. This study examined the involvement and work patterns of 665 women in Texas and 657 women in Louisiana who were 18 years old and older and whose family participated in farming operations. Surveys were used to gather specific data regarding tractor work patterns, tractor knowledge, sources of information about tractors, and demographic information in two southern states in which cattle and dairy were the major agricultural commodity. Among the sample of 1,322 women, 577 (43.6%) reported driving tractors at least one day a year. This subset was used to describe characteristics of tractors and tractor-related activities. Findings indicate that women learn to drive tractors in their 20s, use husbands as the primary source of their information about tractors, engage in a wide variety of farm activities including bush-hogging and plowing, and acknowledge knowing an average or less than an average amount about driving tractors. Women most often reported driving between 1 to 12 days/year (n = 321, 55.6%). When examining patterns of ROPS-equipped tractor use, women were 1.47 times more likely to drive a tractor without ROPS or enclosed when driving less than 12 days a year as opposed to 13-103 days/year or greater than 104 days/year. The results of this study support the need for health care professionals and safety specialists to design appropriate interventions that target women to become more knowledgeable regarding the injury risks associated with farm work while driving tractors.

  18. Stabilization/solidification of hazardous and radioactive wastes with alkali-activated cements.

    PubMed

    Shi, Caijun; Fernández-Jiménez, A

    2006-10-11

    This paper reviews progresses on the use of alkali-activated cements for stabilization/solidification of hazardous and radioactive wastes. Alkali-activated cements consist of an alkaline activator and cementing components, such as blast furnace slag, coal fly ash, phosphorus slag, steel slag, metakaolin, etc., or a combination of two or more of them. Properly designed alkali-activated cements can exhibit both higher early and later strengths than conventional portland cement. The main hydration product of alkali-activated cements is calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) with low Ca/Si ratios or aluminosilicate gel at room temperature; CSH, tobmorite, xonotlite and/or zeolites under hydrothermal condition, no metastable crystalline compounds such as Ca(OH)(2) and calcium sulphoaluminates exist. Alkali-activated cements also exhibit excellent resistance to corrosive environments. The leachability of contaminants from alkali-activated cement stabilized hazardous and radioactive wastes is lower than that from hardened portland cement stabilized wastes. From all these aspects, it is concluded that alkali-activated cements are better matrix for solidification/stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes than Portland cement.

  19. Preface: Special Session SpS7 The impact hazard: current activities and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    In 2012, at the time of the Beijing GA, two decades had passed since the publication of the Spaceguard Report. Time has not passed in vain for the subject of NEO-related hazards, and we are currently in a totally different situation than in the early nineties. The amount of work done, and the level of awareness of the underlying problems, have both risen to such a level that a re-assessment by the astronomical community of its rôle and involvement was in order, and the GA Special Session 7 ``The impact hazard: current activities and future plans'' was aimed exactly at that.

  20. Safety Design Requirements for Active Hazard Mitigation Device (AHMD) Employed to Address Fast and Slow Cook-off Thermal Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-18

    Hazard Mitigation Device (AHMD) Employed to Address Fast and Slow Cook-off Thermal Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...environments. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Active Hazard Mitigation Device insensitive munitions fast cook-off slow...DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR ACTIVE HAZARD MITIGATION DEVICE (AHMD) EMPLOYED TO ADDRESS FAST AND SLOW COOK-OFF THERMAL THREATS DOD Fuze Engineering

  1. External kink modes as a model for MHD activity associated with ELMs

    SciTech Connect

    Manickam, J.

    1992-01-01

    Tokamak plasmas in the high confinement mode of operation are known to exhibit edge localized activity referred to as ELMs. A model is proposed for the underlying cause in terms of the external kink mode. The build up of the current density near the plasma edge is shown to decrease the shear in the safety-factor, q, profile and lead to destabilization of the kink mode. The role of the plasma geometry and equilibrium profiles is discussed.

  2. Assessment of the Antimicrobial Activity of Algae Extracts on Bacteria Responsible of External Otitis.

    PubMed

    Pane, Gianluca; Cacciola, Gabriele; Giacco, Elisabetta; Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Coppo, Erika

    2015-10-20

    External otitis is a diffuse inflammation around the external auditory canal and auricle, which is often occurred by microbial infection. This disease is generally treated using antibiotics, but the frequent occurrence of antibiotic resistance requires the development of new antibiotic agents. In this context, unexplored bioactive natural candidates could be a chance for the production of targeted drugs provided with antimicrobial activity. In this paper, microbial pathogens were isolated from patients with external otitis using ear swabs for over one year, and the antimicrobial activity of the two methanol extracts from selected marine (Dunaliella salina) and freshwater (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) microalgae was tested on the isolated pathogens. Totally, 114 bacterial and 11 fungal strains were isolated, of which Staphylococcus spp. (28.8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (24.8%) were the major pathogens. Only three Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains and 11 coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed resistance to methicillin. The two algal extracts showed interesting antimicrobial properties, which mostly inhibited the growth of isolated S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella spp. with MICs range of 1.4 × 10⁸ to 2.2 × 10(10) cells/mL. These results suggest that the two algae have potential as resources for the development of antimicrobial agents.

  3. Assessment of the Antimicrobial Activity of Algae Extracts on Bacteria Responsible of External Otitis

    PubMed Central

    Pane, Gianluca; Cacciola, Gabriele; Giacco, Elisabetta; Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Coppo, Erika

    2015-01-01

    External otitis is a diffuse inflammation around the external auditory canal and auricle, which is often occurred by microbial infection. This disease is generally treated using antibiotics, but the frequent occurrence of antibiotic resistance requires the development of new antibiotic agents. In this context, unexplored bioactive natural candidates could be a chance for the production of targeted drugs provided with antimicrobial activity. In this paper, microbial pathogens were isolated from patients with external otitis using ear swabs for over one year, and the antimicrobial activity of the two methanol extracts from selected marine (Dunaliella salina) and freshwater (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) microalgae was tested on the isolated pathogens. Totally, 114 bacterial and 11 fungal strains were isolated, of which Staphylococcus spp. (28.8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (24.8%) were the major pathogens. Only three Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains and 11 coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed resistance to methicillin. The two algal extracts showed interesting antimicrobial properties, which mostly inhibited the growth of isolated S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella spp. with MICs range of 1.4 × 109 to 2.2 × 1010 cells/mL. These results suggest that the two algae have potential as resources for the development of antimicrobial agents. PMID:26492256

  4. External coxa saltans (snapping hip) treated with active release techniques®: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Spina, Andreo A.

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of painful coxa saltans (snapping hip) can be a debilitating injury for a competitive athlete, hindering both training, and performance. Considering the various potential etiologies, it often poses a diagnostic and management dilemma for health care practitioners and the success of treatment is often dependent on the practitioner’s precise understanding of the cause. Although it is suggested by various authors that conservative therapy should be attempted before considering surgical management, little is known in terms of the most effective modes of manual therapy that should be attempted. Case Presentation A case of chronic, external coxa saltans in a 16 year old competitive dancer treated with Active Release Techniques® is presented. The clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, management and rehabilitation of the case are discussed. Conclusion Active Release Techniques®, or ART, is a soft tissue treatment method that focuses on relieving tissue tension via the removal of fibrosis/adhesion that develops in tissue that is overloaded with repetitive use. In this case of external coxa saltans, the underlying cause of the condition was increased tissue tension leading to increased friction of the proximal Iliotibial band (ITB) complex over the greater trochanter. Utilizing ART resulted in a complete resolution of this athlete’s symptoms and may be a good treatment option for external coax saltans. PMID:17657288

  5. The QBO and weak external forcing by solar activity: A three dimensional model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dameris, M.; Ebel, A.

    1989-01-01

    A better understanding is attempted of the physical mechanisms leading to significant correlations between oscillations in the lower and middle stratosphere and solar variability associated with the sun's rotation. A global 3-d mechanistic model of the middle atmosphere is employed to investigate the effects of minor artificially induced perturbations. The aim is to explore the physical mechanisms of the dynamical response especially of the stratosphere to weak external forcing as it may result from UV flux changes due to solar rotation. First results of numerical experiments dealing about the external forcing of the middle atmosphere by solar activity were presented elsewhere. Different numerical studies regarding the excitation and propagation of weak perturbations have been continued since then. The model calculations presented are made to investigate the influence of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) on the dynamical response of the middle atmosphere to weak perturbations by employing different initial wind fields which represent the west and east phase of the QBO.

  6. Influence of hip position and gender on active hip internal and external rotation.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, G G; Hoenig, K J; Lepley, J E; Papanek, P E

    1998-09-01

    A general lack of descriptive details exists for measurements of hip rotation range of motion. This study was designed to establish the influence of gender and hip flexion position on active range of motion of the hip in external and internal rotation. Sixty (39 females and 21 males) healthy college-age (21.8 +/- 1.7 years) subjects were studied. Hip rotation of the dominant leg of each subject was measured in the prone (hip near 0 degree of flexion) and seated (hip near 90 degrees of flexion) positions using a standard goniometer. Data were analyzed using an analysis of variance model. Pearson's r statistics were used to determine the degree of association between measurements of hip rotation made seated vs. prone. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between mean hip external rotation (ER) measured seated (36 +/- 7 degrees) and mean hip ER measured prone (45 +/- 10 degrees). Conversely, mean hip internal rotation (IR) measured seated (33 +/- 7 degrees) was not statistically different than mean hip IR measured prone (36 +/- 9 degrees). Females had statistically more active hip internal and external rotation than males (p < 0.05). A moderate degree of association existed between measurements of hip ER taken in the prone vs. seated position (r = 0.57, p < 0.05). For IR, the degree of association between the two measurement positions was slightly higher (r = 0.72, p < 0.05). Unlike the amount of active hip internal rotation which showed little difference between measurements made prone vs. seated, our data indicate that measurement position had a significant effect on the amount of active range of motion of the hip in ER. These findings are clinically significant for they stress the importance of documenting measurement position. They also stress the need for representative norms to be established for each hip position and gender.

  7. Variation in human cancer cell external phosphatidylserine is regulated by flippase activity and intracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Vallabhapurapu, Subrahmanya D; Blanco, Víctor M; Sulaiman, Mahaboob K; Vallabhapurapu, Swarajya Lakshmi; Chu, Zhengtao; Franco, Robert S; Qi, Xiaoyang

    2015-10-27

    Viable cancer cells expose elevated levels of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the exoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. However, the mechanisms leading to elevated PS exposure in viable cancer cells have not been defined. We previously showed that externalized PS may be used to monitor, target and kill tumor cells. In addition, PS on tumor cells is recognized by macrophages and has implications in antitumor immunity. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular details of PS exposure on cancer cells in order to improve therapeutic targeting. Here we explored the mechanisms regulating the surface PS exposure in human cancer cells and found that differential flippase activity and intracellular calcium are the major regulators of surface PS exposure in viable human cancer cells. In general, cancer cell lines with high surface PS exhibited low flippase activity and high intracellular calcium, whereas cancer cells with low surface PS exhibited high flippase activity and low intracellular calcium. High surface PS cancer cells also had higher total cellular PS than low surface PS cells. Together, our results indicate that the amount of external PS in cancer cells is regulated by calcium dependent flippase activity and may also be influenced by total cellular PS.

  8. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527... products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin...

  9. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527... products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin...

  10. STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY APPROACHES AND DATA EXPLORATION TOOLS FOR PRIORITIZING AND ASSESSING THE TOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY APPROACHES AND DATA EXPLORATION TOOLS FOR PRIORITIZING AND ASSESSING THE TOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) refers to a set of structurally diverse environmental chemicals, many with limited toxicity data, that have...

  11. 49 CFR 388.7 - Joint administrative activities related to enforcement of safety and hazardous materials laws and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... enforcement of safety and hazardous materials laws and regulations. 388.7 Section 388.7 Transportation Other... administrative activities related to enforcement of safety and hazardous materials laws and regulations. To... nature and extent of the authority and capabilities of the respective agencies to enforce the safety...

  12. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  13. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  14. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  15. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  16. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  17. Advanced fault management for the Space Station External Active Thermal Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, William S.; Hill, Timothy; Robertson, Charles

    1992-07-01

    The Thermal Control System Automation Project is developing three related software systems. The first is a high-fidelity simulator of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS), which provides heating, cooling, and control necessary to maintain elements, systems, and components within their required temperature range. The second is an SSF run-time object data base. The third is a knowledge-based system (KBS) to monitor, control, and perform fault detection, isolation, and recovery on the SSF EATCS. The paper describes the EATCS hardware, the KBS design, the model-based sensor validation, the rule-based diagnosis, human interface issues, and future plans for the KBS.

  18. Sea-ice hazards, associated risks and implications for human activities in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, Hajo; Mahoney, Andrew; Jones, Joshua

    2014-05-01

    Polar sea ice serves important functions in the Earth system, including as climate regulator, habitat for diverse biological communities, or substrate and platform for a range of human activities. Subsumed under the concept of sea-ice services, polar ice covers are associated with benefits and risks of harm to ecosystems and people. Recent changes in Arctic ice extent, thickness and mobility have transformed services derived from sea ice. We summarize how these changes have diminished some benefits derived from the ice cover, while increasing others. More important, growing maritime activities in the North and a changing ice cover drive a need for better understanding of sea-ice hazards and the risk they represent in the context of human activities in the Arctic. Three major aspects of this problem are: (1) Broader risks associated with a rapid reduction in summer ice extent, such as geographic shifts in marine ecosystems and warming of submarine permafrost and adjacent land; (2) hazards resulting from changes in sea ice extent and dynamics such as increased coastal erosion and threats to infrastructure; and (3) risks derived from the combination of sea-ice hazards and human activities such as shipping or offshore resource development. Problem (1) is typically seen as a slow-onset hazard that requires a response in the form of mitigation and adaptation. At the same time, the importance of linkages between summer sea-ice reduction to processes outside of the Arctic has only recently emerged (such as atmospheric circulation patterns and extreme weather events) and remains difficult to quantify. Hazards and risks subsumed under (2) and (3) are more localized but with potentially major ecological and socio-economic consequences beyond the Arctic. Drawing on examples from our research in Alaska, we review and illustrate key aspects of sea-ice hazards in terms of risks to ecosystems, people and infrastructure in the coastal zone and Arctic shelf seas. In the Pacific

  19. Muscle Activation Differs Between Partial And Full Back Squat Exercise With External Load Equated.

    PubMed

    Jarbas da Silva, Josinaldo; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Marchetti, Priscyla Nardi; Pecoraro, Silvio Luis; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique

    2017-02-13

    Changes in range of motion affect the magnitude of the load during the squat exercise and, consequently may influence muscle activation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscle activation between the partial and full back squat exercise with external load equated on a relative basis between conditions. Fifteen young, healthy, resistance trained men (age: 26±5 years, height: 173±6 cm) performed a back squat at their 10 repetition maximum using two different ranges of motion (partial and full) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), erector spinae (ES), soleus (SL), and gluteus maximus (GM). In general, muscle activity was highest during the partial back squat for GM (P=0.004), BF (P=0.009), and SL (P=0.031) when compared to full. There was no significant difference for RPE between partial and full back squat exercise at 10RM (8±1 and 9±1, respectively). In conclusion, the range of motion in the back squat alters muscle activation of the prime mover (gluteus maximus), and stabilizers (soleus and biceps femoris) when performed with the load equated on a relative basis. Thus, the partial back squat maximizes the level of muscle activation of the gluteus maximus and associated stabilizer muscles.

  20. 78 FR 8699 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Annual Report for Hazardous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ..., Revision to Annual Report for Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...) invites comments on its intention to revise form PHMSA F 7000-1.1--Annual Report for Hazardous Liquid... hazardous liquid operators' annual reports is an important tool for identifying safety trends in...

  1. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances.

    PubMed

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T; Biever, Ronald C; Bjerregaard, Poul; Borgert, Christopher; Brugger, Kristin; Blankinship, Amy; Chambers, Janice; Coady, Katherine K; Constantine, Lisa; Dang, Zhichao; Denslow, Nancy D; Dreier, David A; Dungey, Steve; Gray, L Earl; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D; Hecker, Markus; Holbech, Henrik; Iguchi, Taisen; Kadlec, Sarah; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kawashima, Yukio; Kloas, Werner; Krueger, Henry; Kumar, Anu; Lagadic, Laurent; Leopold, Annegaaike; Levine, Steven L; Maack, Gerd; Marty, Sue; Meador, James; Mihaich, Ellen; Odum, Jenny; Ortego, Lisa; Parrott, Joanne; Pickford, Daniel; Roberts, Mike; Schaefers, Christoph; Schwarz, Tamar; Solomon, Keith; Verslycke, Tim; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Yamazaki, Kunihiko

    2017-03-01

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop(®) "Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)" was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an ecotoxicological hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on 6 endocrine-active substances (EAS-not necessarily proven EDS, but substances known to interact directly with the endocrine system) that are representative of a range of perturbations of the endocrine system and considered to be data rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organization for 1 or more ecologically relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17α-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17β-trenbolone, tributyltin, and vinclozolin. The 6 case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations but provided foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the ecotoxicological hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve some of the identified issues. The present paper provides broad guidance for scientists in regulatory authorities, industry, and academia on issues likely to arise during the ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of EAS and EDS. The primary conclusion of this paper, and of the SETAC Pellston Workshop on which it is based, is that if data on environmental exposure, effects on sensitive species and life-stages, delayed effects, and effects at low concentrations are robust, initiating environmental risk

  2. External protons destabilize the activated voltage sensor in hERG channels.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu Patrick; Cheng, Yen May; Van Slyke, Aaron C; Claydon, Tom W

    2014-03-01

    Extracellular acidosis shifts hERG channel activation to more depolarized potentials and accelerates channel deactivation; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. External divalent cations, e.g., Ca(2+) and Cd(2+), mimic these effects and coordinate within a metal ion binding pocket composed of three acidic residues in hERG: D456 and D460 in S2 and D509 in S3. A common mechanism may underlie divalent cation and proton effects on hERG gating. Using two-electrode voltage clamp, we show proton sensitivity of hERG channel activation (pKa = 5.6), but not deactivation, was greatly reduced in the presence of Cd(2+) (0.1 mM), suggesting a common binding site for the Cd(2+) and proton effect on activation and separable effects of protons on activation and deactivation. Mutational analysis confirmed that D509 plays a critical role in the pH dependence of activation, as shown previously, and that cooperative actions involving D456 and D460 are also required. Importantly, neutralization of all three acidic residues abolished the proton-induced shift of activation, suggesting that the metal ion binding pocket alone accounts for the effects of protons on hERG channel activation. Voltage-clamp fluorimetry measurements demonstrated that protons shifted the voltage dependence of S4 movement to more depolarized potentials. The data indicate a site and mechanism of action for protons on hERG activation gating; protonation of D456, D460 and D509 disrupts interactions between these residues and S4 gating charges to destabilize the activated configuration of S4.

  3. Effects of cycle duration of an external electrostatic field on anammox biomass activity

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xin; Qiao, Sen; Zhou, Jiti

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of different cycle durations of an external electrostatic field on an anammox biomass were investigated. The total application time per day was 12 h at 2 V/cm for different cycle durations (i.e., continuous application-resting time) of 3 h-3 h, 6 h-6 h, and 12 h-12 h. Compared with the control reactor, the nitrogen removal rates (NRRs) increased by 18.7%, 27.4% and 8.50% using an external electrostatic field application with a continuous application time of 3 h, 6 h and 12 h. Moreover, after the reactor was running smoothly for approximately 215 days under the optimal electrostatic field condition (mode 2, continuous application-rest time: 6 h-6 h), the total nitrogen (TN) removal rate reached a peak value of approximately 6468 g-N/m3/d, which was 44.7% higher than the control. The increase in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers, heme c content and enzyme activities were demonstrated to be the main reasons for enhancement of the NRR of the anammox process. Additionally, transmission electron microscope observations proved that a morphological change in the anammox biomass occurred under an electrostatic field application. PMID:26794647

  4. Gamma-Ray Spectrometers Using Superconducting Transition Edge Sensors with External Active Feedback Bias

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, D.T.; van den Berg, M.L.; Loshak, A.; Frank, M.; Barbee, T.W.; Labov, S.E.

    2000-09-22

    The authors are developing x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers with high absorption efficiency and high energy-resolution for x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy. They are microcalorimeters consisting of a bulk Sn absorber coupled to a Mo/Cu multilayer superconducting transition edge sensor (TES). The authors have measured an energy resolution of 70 eV FWHM for 60 keV incident gamma-rays using electrothermal feedback. They have also operated these microcalorimeters with an external active feedback bias to linearize the detector response, improve the count rate performance, and extend the detection energy range. They present x-ray and gamma-ray results operation of this detector design in both bias modes.

  5. Active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers in an external ring cavity

    PubMed Central

    Revin, D. G.; Hemingway, M.; Wang, Y.; Cockburn, J. W.; Belyanin, A.

    2016-01-01

    Stable ultrashort light pulses and frequency combs generated by mode-locked lasers have many important applications including high-resolution spectroscopy, fast chemical detection and identification, studies of ultrafast processes, and laser metrology. While compact mode-locked lasers emitting in the visible and near infrared range have revolutionized photonic technologies, the systems operating in the mid-infrared range where most gases have their strong absorption lines, are bulky and expensive and rely on nonlinear frequency down-conversion. Quantum cascade lasers are the most powerful and versatile compact light sources in the mid-infrared range, yet achieving their mode-locked operation remains a challenge, despite dedicated effort. Here we report the demonstration of active mode locking of an external-cavity quantum cascade laser. The laser operates in the mode-locked regime at room temperature and over the full dynamic range of injection currents. PMID:27147409

  6. Quaternary Geology and Surface Faulting Hazard: Active and Capable Faults in Central Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.

    2015-12-01

    The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.1), in central Italy, raised the issue of surface faulting hazard in Italy, since large urban areas were affected by surface displacement along the causative structure, the Paganica fault. Since then, guidelines for microzonation were drew up that take into consideration the problem of surface faulting in Italy, and laying the bases for future regulations about related hazard, similarly to other countries (e.g. USA). More specific guidelines on the management of areas affected by active and capable faults (i.e. able to produce surface faulting) are going to be released by National Department of Civil Protection; these would define zonation of areas affected by active and capable faults, with prescriptions for land use planning. As such, the guidelines arise the problem of the time interval and general operational criteria to asses fault capability for the Italian territory. As for the chronology, the review of the international literature and regulatory allowed Galadini et al. (2012) to propose different time intervals depending on the ongoing tectonic regime - compressive or extensional - which encompass the Quaternary. As for the operational criteria, the detailed analysis of the large amount of works dealing with active faulting in Italy shows that investigations exclusively based on surface morphological features (e.g. fault planes exposition) or on indirect investigations (geophysical data), are not sufficient or even unreliable to define the presence of an active and capable fault; instead, more accurate geological information on the Quaternary space-time evolution of the areas affected by such tectonic structures is needed. A test area for which active and capable faults can be first mapped based on such a classical but still effective methodological approach can be the central Apennines. Reference Galadini F., Falcucci E., Galli P., Giaccio B., Gori S., Messina P., Moro M., Saroli M., Scardia G., Sposato A. (2012). Time

  7. The impact of low technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Aschengrau, A.; Hardy, S.; Mackey, P.; Pultinas, D.

    1998-10-01

    This prospective environmental intervention study was conducted to determine the impact of low-technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. Children whose homes had severe lead hazards were automatically assigned to the intervention group. Children whose homes had lesser hazards were randomly assigned to the intervention group or comparison group. The one-time intervention focused mainly on cleaning and repainting window areas and educating caregivers to maintain effective housekeeping techniques. Changes in blood lead and dust lead loading levels were observed following the interventions. Analysis of covariance was used to adjust comparisons of postintervention levels for preintervention levels and other variables. The lead hazard reduction activities were associated with a modest decline in blood lead levels among children with severe hazards. The magnitude of the decline depended on the confounder that was controlled; the majority ranged from {minus}1.1 to {minus}1.6 {micro}g/dL. A moderate reduction in window well dust lead loading levels was also observed. While low-technology lead hazard reduction measures appeared to be an effective secondary prevention strategy among children with severe household lead hazards, larger studies are needed to confirm these results.

  8. The study of external dose rate and retained body activity of patients receiving 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiying; Jiao, Ling; Cui, Songye; Wang, Liang; Tan, Jian; Zhang, Guizhi; He, Yajing; Ruan, Shuzhou; Fan, Saijun; Zhang, Wenyi

    2014-10-21

    Radiation safety is an integral part of targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of this work was to study the external dose rate and retained body activity as functions of time in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients receiving 131I therapy. Seventy patients were stratified into two groups: the ablation group (A) and the follow-up group (FU). The patients' external dose rate was measured, and simultaneously, their retained body radiation activity was monitored at various time points. The equations of the external dose rate and the retained body activity, described as a function of hours post administration, were fitted. Additionally, the release time for patients was calculated. The reduction in activity in the group receiving a second or subsequent treatment was more rapid than the group receiving only the initial treatment. Most important, an expeditious method was established to indirectly evaluate the retained body activity of patients by measuring the external dose rate with a portable radiation survey meter. By this method, the calculated external dose rate limits are 19.2, 8.85, 5.08 and 2.32 μSv·h-1 at 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 m, respectively, according to a patient's released threshold level of retained body activity <400 MBq. This study is beneficial for radiation safety decision-making.

  9. Closure of a hazardous waste disposal facility in an active oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, S.A.; White, A.E. )

    1991-02-01

    State and federal laws and regulations enacted during the past five years have led to closure activities at a large number of hazardous waste disposal facilities. These closures are often lengthy, difficult, and expensive. Closures must adhere to federal regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as State regulations administered by the Department of Health Services and the Regional Water Quality Control Boards. This exhibit depicts the regulatory framework for closure of a hazardous waste site. It also describes the closure alternatives for a site in the Central Valley which primarily accepted wastes generated from oil field activities. Generally, one of two closure alternatives is followed: (1) sites are closed-in-place with the wastes covered or monitored, or (2) wastes are treated and removed so that no waste or waste residue remains. Regulations issued by the EPA in 1987 made another option available. This option is risk-based clean closure and involves the identification of risk-based cleanup goals. A site-specific risk assessment adhering to federal and state guidelines is required to establish the cleanup goals. Waste constituents present in concentrations below these goals may be left in place without post closure care.

  10. Effects of replica running shoes upon external forces and muscle activity during running.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Ana Paula Da Silva; Brandina, Kátia; Bianco, Roberto; Oliveira, Vitor Henrique De; Souza, Juliana Roque De; Mezencio, Bruno; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Júlio Cerca

    2012-05-01

    Twelve participants ran (9 km · h(-1)) to test two types of running shoes: replica and original shoes. Ground reaction force, plantar pressure and electromyographic activity were recorded. The shoes were tested randomly and on different days. Comparisons between the two experimental conditions were made by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test (P ≤ 0.05). The time to first peak, loading rate of the first peak and impulse of the first 75 ms of stance were significantly different between the shoes (P ≤ 0.05), revealing an increase of impact forces for the replica shoes. The peak plantar pressure values were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) when wearing replica shoes. During running, the contact area was significantly smaller (P ≤ 0.05) for the replica shoe. The electromyographic activity of the analysed muscles did not show changes between the two shoes in running. These findings suggest that the use of replica running shoes can increase the external load applied to the human body, but may not change the muscle activity pattern during locomotion. This new mechanical situation may increase the risk of injuries in these movements.

  11. Iterative weighted average diffusion as a novel external force in the active contour model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirov, Ilya S.; Nakhmani, Arie

    2016-03-01

    The active contour model has good performance in boundary extraction for medical images; particularly, Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) active contour model shows good performance at concavity convergence and insensitivity to initialization, yet it is susceptible to edge leaking, deep and narrow concavities, and has some issues handling noisy images. This paper proposes a novel external force, called Iterative Weighted Average Diffusion (IWAD), which used in tandem with parametric active contours, provides superior performance in images with high values of concavity. The image gradient is first turned into an edge image, smoothed, and modified with enhanced corner detection, then the IWAD algorithm diffuses the force at a given pixel based on its 3x3 pixel neighborhood. A forgetting factor, φ, is employed to ensure that forces being spread away from the boundary of the image will attenuate. The experimental results show better behavior in high curvature regions, faster convergence, and less edge leaking than GVF when both are compared to expert manual segmentation of the images.

  12. 78 FR 41829 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Annual Report for Hazardous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ..., Revision to Annual Report for Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... from hazardous liquid operators' annual reports is an important tool for identifying safety trends in... provided for each information collection: (1) Abstract for the affected annual report form; (2) title...

  13. 77 FR 68130 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Hazard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Manuals for Operators and... promote the application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles to reduce the... of information technology. Voluntary Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Manuals for...

  14. 75 FR 40839 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Hazard Analysis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Procedures for the Safe and Sanitary... requirements for applying hazard analysis and critical control point (HAACP) procedures for safe and sanitary... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point...

  15. G-EVER Activities and the Next-generation Volcanic Hazard Assessment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarada, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER) is a consortium of Asia-Pacific geohazard research institutes that was established in 2012. G-EVER aims to formulate strategies to reduce the risks of disasters worldwide caused by the occurrence of earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions. G-EVER is working on enhancing collaboration, sharing of resources, and making information on the risks of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions freely available and understandable. The 1st G-EVER International Symposium was held in Tsukuba, Japan in March 11, 2013. The 2nd Symposium is scheduled in Sendai, Tohoku Japan, in Oct. 19-20, 2013. Currently, 4 working groups were proposed in the G-EVER Consortium. The next-generation volcano hazard assessment WG is developing a useful system for volcanic eruption prediction, risk assessment, and evacuation at various eruption stages. The assessment system is based on volcanic eruption history datasets, volcanic eruption database, and numerical simulations. Volcanic eruption histories including precursor phenomena leading to major eruptions of active volcanoes are very important for future prediction of volcanic eruptions. A high quality volcanic eruption database, which contains compilations of eruption dates, volumes, and types, is important for the next-generation volcano hazard assessment system. Proposing international standards on how to estimate the volume of volcanic products is important to make a high quality volcanic eruption database. Spatial distribution database of volcanic products (e.g. tephra and pyroclastic flow distributions), encoded into a GIS based database is necessary for more precise area and volume estimation and risk assessments. The volcanic eruption database is developed based on past eruption results, which only represents a subset of possible future scenarios. Therefore, numerical simulations with controlled parameters are needed for more precise volcanic eruption

  16. Hazard analysis of active tectonics through geomorphometric parameters to cultural heritage conservation: the case of Paphos in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyriou, A. V.; Sarris, A.; Alexakis, D.; Agapiou, A.; Themistocleous, K.; Lysandrou, V.; Hadjimitsis, D.

    2014-08-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, can have a large destructive effect on cultural heritage sites conservation. This study aims to assess from a geospatial perspective the risk from natural hazards for the archaeological sites and monuments and evaluate the potential tectonic activity impact on the cultural and historic heritage. Geomorphometric data derivatives that can be extracted from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) provide information relevant with active tectonics. The specific extracted tectonic information when being used on the basis of analytical hierarchy process and weighted linear combination approach can offer an important robust approach. The ranking of the derived information relatively to specific criteria of weights can enhance the interrelationships and assemblages over neotectonics aspects. The outcomes of that methodological framework can propose an assessment approach for the spatial distribution of neotectonic activity and can become a useful tool to assessing seismic hazard for disaster risk reduction. The risk assessment aspects of such a hazard are being interlinked with the archaeological sites in order to highlight and examine those that are exposed on ongoing tectonic activity and seismic hazard. Paphos area in Cyprus has been used as the test bed for the particular analysis. The results show an important number of archaeological sites being located within zones of high degree of neotectonic activity.

  17. Analysis of The Xx Century Effusive Activity At Mount Etna To Assess The Potential Effusive Hazard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, D.; Lodato, L.; Neri, M.

    We examined older documents and publications together with more recent and de- tailed reports related to the 20th century effusive activity (terminal and flank eruptions) at Mt. Etna, with the primary objective of creating a single data-base of volcanologi- cal data, at present lacking in the literature. The restitution in digital form of the maps of the lava fields allowed to measure, with great precision compared with previous estimations, the area and length of every lava flow, allowing improved estimates of volumes and effusive rates. The quantity and the quality of the collected bibliographic information of the studied eruptions improve progressively from the beginning of the century up to the present, and can be considered complete for the flank activity. The data of each single eruption have been inserted into a relational database, that pro- vides both ease of use and the potential of upgrading with information from new or more ancient eruptions. By examining the collected data (e.g. maximum length of lava flows, altitude reached, eruption duration) we obtained some useful relationships, that allowed us to characterise some eruption typologies at Etna. The improvement of the volcanic data related to the effusive activity of the last century represents an impor- tant contribution in terms of volcanic hazard, suggesting for example the areas most at risk by opening of eruptive fractures and lava covering. Statistical observations can be a useful contribution to the planning required by civil defense in a strongly urban- ized area, such as the etnean one; assessment hazard, in particular, should be focused particularly on the southeastern foot of the volcanic belt, in which the volcanic risk in- creases due to the presence of several populated centers that amount to approximately 500.000 people.

  18. External carbonic anhydrase in three Caribbean corals: quantification of activity and role in CO2 uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansik, Anna L.; Fitt, William K.; Hopkinson, Brian M.

    2015-09-01

    Scleractinian corals have complicated inorganic carbon ( C i) transport pathways to support both photosynthesis, by their symbiotic dinoflagellates, and calcification. The first step in C i acquisition, uptake into the coral, is critical as the diffusive boundary layer limits the supply of CO2 to the surface and HCO3 - uptake is energy intensive. An external carbonic anhydrase (eCA) on the oral surface of corals is thought to facilitate CO2 uptake by converting HCO3 - into CO2, helping to overcome the limitation imposed by the boundary layer. However, this enzyme has not yet been identified or detected in corals, nor has its activity been quantified. We have developed a method to quantify eCA activity using a reaction-diffusion model to analyze data on 18O removal from labeled C i. Applying this technique to three species of Caribbean corals ( Orbicella faveolata, Porites astreoides, and Siderastrea radians) showed that all species have eCA and that the potential rates of CO2 generation by eCA greatly exceed photosynthetic rates. This demonstrates that eCA activity is sufficient to support its hypothesized role in CO2 supply. Inhibition of eCA severely reduces net photosynthesis in all species (on average by 46 ± 27 %), implying that CO2 generated by eCA is a major carbon source for photosynthesis. Because of the high permeability of membranes to CO2, CO2 uptake is likely driven by a concentration gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane. The ubiquity of eCA in corals from diverse genera and environments suggests that it is fundamental for photosynthetic CO2 supply.

  19. 41 CFR 102-75.130 - If hazardous substance activity took place on the property, what specific information must an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... activity took place on the property, what specific information must an agency include in the title report... the property, what specific information must an agency include in the title report? If hazardous substance activity took place on the property, the reporting agency must include information on the type...

  20. Computer Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Exposure Hazard for Space Station Astronauts during Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Kelley, James S.; Panneton, Robert B.; Arndt, G. Dickey

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate the RF radiation hazards to astronauts and electronics equipment due to various Space Station transmitters, the electric fields around the various Space Station antennas are computed using the rigorous Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) techniques. The Method of Moments (MoM) was applied to the UHF and S-band low gain antennas. The Aperture Integration (AI) method and the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) method were used to compute the electric field intensities for the S- and Ku-band high gain antennas. As a result of this study, The regions in which the electric fields exceed the specified exposure levels for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) electronics equipment and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) astronaut are identified for various Space Station transmitters.

  1. An underwater superoleophobic surface that can be activated/deactivated via external triggers.

    PubMed

    Dunderdale, Gary J; Urata, Chihiro; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2014-11-11

    Poly[(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (pDMAEMA) brush surfaces were prepared using a facile aqueous Activators ReGenerated by Electron Transfer Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ARGET-ATRP) protocol at ambient temperature without any need to purge reaction solutions of oxygen. This produced underwater superoleophobic surfaces, which exhibited high advancing (θA, 164-166°) and receding (θR, 153-165°) contact angles (CAs) and low CA hysteresis (1-11°) with a variety of oils. Both in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and dynamic CA measurements confirmed that pDMAEMA brush surfaces responded to three different external stimuli (pH, ionic strength, and temperature) by changing their thicknesses, degree of hydration, or their chemical composition. Increasing pH resulted in the largest decrease in hydration, followed by increasing temperature, and increasing ionic strength gave the smallest change in hydration. Coincident with these structural changes, stimulus-responsive dynamic dewetting behavior with various oils was observed. Increasing pH or ionic strength drastically reduced the θR values of oil drops and increased CA hysteresis, resulting in a sticky surface on which oil drops were pinned. No noticeable changes in dynamic oleophobicity were observed with increasing temperature. In addition, when oil drops impacted onto the brush surface instead of being gently placed, surfaces did not exhibit stimulus-responsive dewetting properties, being oleophobic under all conditions.

  2. Hebbian Plasticity Realigns Grid Cell Activity with External Sensory Cues in Continuous Attractor Models

    PubMed Central

    Mulas, Marcello; Waniek, Nicolai; Conradt, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    After the discovery of grid cells, which are an essential component to understand how the mammalian brain encodes spatial information, three main classes of computational models were proposed in order to explain their working principles. Amongst them, the one based on continuous attractor networks (CAN), is promising in terms of biological plausibility and suitable for robotic applications. However, in its current formulation, it is unable to reproduce important electrophysiological findings and cannot be used to perform path integration for long periods of time. In fact, in absence of an appropriate resetting mechanism, the accumulation of errors over time due to the noise intrinsic in velocity estimation and neural computation prevents CAN models to reproduce stable spatial grid patterns. In this paper, we propose an extension of the CAN model using Hebbian plasticity to anchor grid cell activity to environmental landmarks. To validate our approach we used as input to the neural simulations both artificial data and real data recorded from a robotic setup. The additional neural mechanism can not only anchor grid patterns to external sensory cues but also recall grid patterns generated in previously explored environments. These results might be instrumental for next generation bio-inspired robotic navigation algorithms that take advantage of neural computation in order to cope with complex and dynamic environments. PMID:26924979

  3. Hebbian Plasticity Realigns Grid Cell Activity with External Sensory Cues in Continuous Attractor Models.

    PubMed

    Mulas, Marcello; Waniek, Nicolai; Conradt, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    After the discovery of grid cells, which are an essential component to understand how the mammalian brain encodes spatial information, three main classes of computational models were proposed in order to explain their working principles. Amongst them, the one based on continuous attractor networks (CAN), is promising in terms of biological plausibility and suitable for robotic applications. However, in its current formulation, it is unable to reproduce important electrophysiological findings and cannot be used to perform path integration for long periods of time. In fact, in absence of an appropriate resetting mechanism, the accumulation of errors over time due to the noise intrinsic in velocity estimation and neural computation prevents CAN models to reproduce stable spatial grid patterns. In this paper, we propose an extension of the CAN model using Hebbian plasticity to anchor grid cell activity to environmental landmarks. To validate our approach we used as input to the neural simulations both artificial data and real data recorded from a robotic setup. The additional neural mechanism can not only anchor grid patterns to external sensory cues but also recall grid patterns generated in previously explored environments. These results might be instrumental for next generation bio-inspired robotic navigation algorithms that take advantage of neural computation in order to cope with complex and dynamic environments.

  4. A Sinuous Tumulus over an Active Lava Tube at Klauea Volcano: Evolution, Analogs, and Hazard Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Tim R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Patrick, Matthew R.; Wooten, Kelly M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflation of narrow tube-fed basaltic lava flows (tens of meters across), such as those confined by topography, can be focused predominantly along the roof of a lava tube. This can lead to the development of an unusually long tumulus, its shape matching the sinuosity of the underlying lava tube. Such a situation occurred during Klauea Volcanos (Hawaii, USA) ongoing East Rift Zone eruption on a lava tube active from July through November 2010. Short-lived breakouts from the tube buried the flanks of the sinuous, ridge-like tumulus, while the tumulus crest, its surface composed of lava formed very early in the flows emplacement history, remained poised above the surrounding younger flows. At least several of these breakouts resulted in irrecoverable uplift of the tube roof. Confined sections of the prehistoric Carrizozo and McCartys flows (New Mexico, USA) display similar sinuous, ridge-like features with comparable surface age relationships. We contend that these distinct features formed in a fashion equivalent to that of the sinuous tumulus that formed at Kilauea in 2010. Moreover, these sinuous tumuli may be analogs for some sinuous ridges evident in orbital images of the Tharsis volcanic province on Mars. The short-lived breakouts from the sinuous tumulus at Kilauea were caused by surges in discharge through the lava tube, in response to cycles of deflation and inflation (DI events) at Kilauea's summit. The correlation between DI events and subsequent breakouts aided in lava flow forecasting. Breakouts from the sinuous tumulus advanced repeatedly toward the sparsely populated Kalapana Gardens subdivision, destroying two homes and threatening others. Hazard assessments, including flow occurrence and advance forecasts, were relayed regularly to the Hawai?i County Civil Defense to aid their lava flow hazard mitigation efforts while this lava tube was active.

  5. Intrinsic conductances actively shape excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic responses in olfactory bulb external tufted cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaolin; Shipley, Michael T

    2008-10-08

    The initial synapse in the olfactory system is from olfactory nerve (ON) terminals to postsynaptic targets in olfactory bulb glomeruli. Recent studies have disclosed multiple presynaptic factors that regulate this important linkage, but less is known about the contribution of postsynaptic intrinsic conductances to integration at these synapses. The present study demonstrates voltage-dependent amplification of EPSPs in external tufted (ET) cells in response to monosynaptic (ON) inputs. This amplification is mainly exerted by persistent Na(+) conductance. Larger EPSPs, which bring the membrane potential to a relatively depolarized level, are further boosted by the low-voltage-activated Ca(2+) conductance. In contrast, the hyperpolarization-activated nonselective cation conductance (I(h)) attenuates EPSPs mainly by reducing EPSP duration; this also reduces temporal summation of multiple EPSPs. Regulation of EPSPs by these subthreshold, voltage-dependent conductances can enhance both the signal-to-noise ratio and the temporal summation of multiple synaptic inputs and thus help ET cells differentiate high- and low-frequency synaptic inputs. I(h) can also transform inhibitory inputs to postsynaptic excitation. When the ET cell membrane potential is relatively depolarized, as during a burst of action potentials, IPSPs produce classic inhibition. However, near resting membrane potentials where I(h) is engaged, IPSPs produce rebound bursts of action potentials. ET cells excite GABAergic PG cells. Thus, the transformation of inhibitory inputs to postsynaptic excitation in ET cells may enhance intraglomerular inhibition of mitral/tufted cells, the main output neurons in the olfactory bulb, and hence shape signaling to olfactory cortex.

  6. Long-term recording of external urethral sphincter EMG activity in unanesthetized, unrestrained rats

    PubMed Central

    LaPallo, Brandon K.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.; Chen, Xiang Yang

    2014-01-01

    The external urethral sphincter muscle (EUS) plays an important role in urinary function and often contributes to urinary dysfunction. EUS study would benefit from methodology for longitudinal recording of electromyographic activity (EMG) in unanesthetized animals, but this muscle is a poor substrate for chronic intramuscular electrodes, and thus the required methodology has not been available. We describe a method for long-term recording of EUS EMG by implantation of fine wires adjacent to the EUS that are secured to the pubic bone. Wires pass subcutaneously to a skull-mounted plug and connect to the recording apparatus by a flexible cable attached to a commutator. A force transducer-mounted cup under a metabolic cage collected urine, allowing recording of EUS EMG and voided urine weight without anesthesia or restraint. Implant durability permitted EUS EMG recording during repeated (up to 3 times weekly) 24-h sessions for more than 8 wk. EMG and voiding properties were stable over weeks 2–8. The degree of EUS phasic activity (bursting) during voiding was highly variable, with an average of 25% of voids not exhibiting bursting. Electrode implantation adjacent to the EUS yielded stable EMG recordings over extended periods and eliminated the confounding effects of anesthesia, physical restraint, and the potential for dislodgment of the chronically implanted intramuscular electrodes. These results show that micturition in unanesthetized, unrestrained rats is usually, but not always, associated with EUS bursting. This methodology is applicable to studying EUS behavior during progression of gradually evolving disease and injury models and in response to therapeutic interventions. PMID:24990895

  7. Long-term recording of external urethral sphincter EMG activity in unanesthetized, unrestrained rats.

    PubMed

    LaPallo, Brandon K; Wolpaw, Jonathan R; Chen, Xiang Yang; Carp, Jonathan S

    2014-08-15

    The external urethral sphincter muscle (EUS) plays an important role in urinary function and often contributes to urinary dysfunction. EUS study would benefit from methodology for longitudinal recording of electromyographic activity (EMG) in unanesthetized animals, but this muscle is a poor substrate for chronic intramuscular electrodes, and thus the required methodology has not been available. We describe a method for long-term recording of EUS EMG by implantation of fine wires adjacent to the EUS that are secured to the pubic bone. Wires pass subcutaneously to a skull-mounted plug and connect to the recording apparatus by a flexible cable attached to a commutator. A force transducer-mounted cup under a metabolic cage collected urine, allowing recording of EUS EMG and voided urine weight without anesthesia or restraint. Implant durability permitted EUS EMG recording during repeated (up to 3 times weekly) 24-h sessions for more than 8 wk. EMG and voiding properties were stable over weeks 2-8. The degree of EUS phasic activity (bursting) during voiding was highly variable, with an average of 25% of voids not exhibiting bursting. Electrode implantation adjacent to the EUS yielded stable EMG recordings over extended periods and eliminated the confounding effects of anesthesia, physical restraint, and the potential for dislodgment of the chronically implanted intramuscular electrodes. These results show that micturition in unanesthetized, unrestrained rats is usually, but not always, associated with EUS bursting. This methodology is applicable to studying EUS behavior during progression of gradually evolving disease and injury models and in response to therapeutic interventions.

  8. Numerical Tsunami Hazard Assessment of the Only Active Lesser Antilles Arc Submarine Volcano: Kick 'em Jenny.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Robertson, R. E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc has potentially been hit by prehistorical regional tsunamis generated by voluminous volcanic landslides (volume > 1 km3) among the 53 events recognized so far. No field evidence of these tsunamis are found in the vincity of the sources. Such a scenario taking place nowadays would trigger hazardous tsunami waves bearing potentially catastrophic consequences for the closest islands and regional offshore oil platforms.Here we applied a complete hazard assessment method on the only active submarine volcano of the arc Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ). KeJ is the southernmost edifice with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. From the three identified landslide episodes one is associated with a collapse volume ca. 4.4 km3. Numerical simulations considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami. An edifice current volume estimate is ca. 1.5 km3.Previous study exists in relationship to assessment of regional tsunami hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (run-up) in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. However this assessment was based on inferred volume of collapse material. We aim to firstly quantify potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA); secondly to assess first order run-ups and maximum inland inundation distance for Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, i.e. two important economic centers of the Lesser Antilles. In this framework we present for seven geomechanical models tested in the RSIA step maps of critical failure surface associated with factor of stability (Fs) for twelve sectors of 30° each; then we introduce maps of expected potential run-ups (run-up × the probability of failure at a sector) at the shoreline.The RSIA evaluates critical potential failure surface associated with Fs <1 as compared to areas of deficit/surplus of mass/volume identified on the volcanic edifice using (VolcanoFit 2

  9. Thermally activated delayed fluorescence OLEDs with fully solution processed organic layers exhibiting nearly 10% external quantum efficiency.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Ken; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Daisuke; Sakai, Yoshiya; Nakayama, Akira; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Yamamoto, Kimihisa

    2017-02-21

    New solution processable and laminatable terminally modified carbazole-triazine thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) dendrimers are reported. An OLED device with fully solution processed organic layers exhibited an external quantum efficiency of up to 9.4% at 100 cd m(-2).

  10. Active tectonics of the Seattle fault and central Puget sound, Washington - Implications for earthquake hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.Y.; Dadisman, S.V.; Childs, J. R.; Stanley, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    We use an extensive network of marine high-resolution and conventional industry seismic-reflection data to constrain the location, shallow structure, and displacement rates of the Seattle fault zone and crosscutting high-angle faults in the Puget Lowland of western Washington. Analysis of seismic profiles extending 50 km across the Puget Lowland from Lake Washington to Hood Canal indicates that the west-trending Seattle fault comprises a broad (4-6 km) zone of three or more south-dipping reverse faults. Quaternary sediment has been folded and faulted along all faults in the zone but is clearly most pronounced along fault A, the northernmost fault, which forms the boundary between the Seattle uplift and Seattle basin. Analysis of growth strata deposited across fault A indicate minimum Quaternary slip rates of about 0.6 mm/yr. Slip rates across the entire zone are estimated to be 0.7-1.1 mm/yr. The Seattle fault is cut into two main segments by an active, north-trending, high-angle, strike-slip fault zone with cumulative dextral displacement of about 2.4 km. Faults in this zone truncate and warp reflections in Tertiary and Quaternary strata and locally coincide with bathymetric lineaments. Cumulative slip rates on these faults may exceed 0.2 mm/yr. Assuming no other crosscutting faults, this north-trending fault zone divides the Seattle fault into 30-40-km-long western and eastern segments. Although this geometry could limit the area ruptured in some Seattle fault earthquakes, a large event ca. A.D. 900 appears to have involved both segments. Regional seismic-hazard assessments must (1) incorporate new information on fault length, geometry, and displacement rates on the Seattle fault, and (2) consider the hazard presented by the previously unrecognized, north-trending fault zone.

  11. 78 FR 69689 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Hazard Analysis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Procedures for the Safe and Sanitary... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... monitoring of the critical control points and other measurements as prescribed in the HACCP plan......

  12. Effect of an 8-week practice of externally triggered speech on basal ganglia activity of stuttering and fluent speakers.

    PubMed

    Toyomura, Akira; Fujii, Tetsunoshin; Kuriki, Shinya

    2015-04-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying stuttering are not well understood. It is known that stuttering appears when persons who stutter speak in a self-paced manner, but speech fluency is temporarily increased when they speak in unison with external trigger such as a metronome. This phenomenon is very similar to the behavioral improvement by external pacing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Recent imaging studies have also suggested that the basal ganglia are involved in the etiology of stuttering. In addition, previous studies have shown that the basal ganglia are involved in self-paced movement. Then, the present study focused on the basal ganglia and explored whether long-term speech-practice using external triggers can induce modification of the basal ganglia activity of stuttering speakers. Our study of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that stuttering speakers possessed significantly lower activity in the basal ganglia than fluent speakers before practice, especially when their speech was self-paced. After an 8-week speech practice of externally triggered speech using a metronome, the significant difference in activity between the two groups disappeared. The cerebellar vermis of stuttering speakers showed significantly decreased activity during the self-paced speech in the second compared to the first experiment. The speech fluency and naturalness of the stuttering speakers were also improved. These results suggest that stuttering is associated with defective motor control during self-paced speech, and that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are involved in an improvement of speech fluency of stuttering by the use of external trigger.

  13. Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G.; Driscoll, N.; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R.; Louie, J.; Pullammanappallil, S.

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie M. Kell, Graham Kent, Neal W. Driscoll, Robert E. Karlin, Robert L. Baskin, John N. Louie, Kenneth D. Smith, Sathish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 5-9, abstract NS14A-08.

  14. March 2016 Memo: Planning for Removal and Remedial Activities at Hardrock Mining and Mineral Processing Sites with Fluid Hazards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memo from EPA Assistant Administrator Mathy Stanislaus, regarding planning for removal and remedial activities at hardrock mining and mineral processing sites with fluid hazards, and to share the Agency’s expectations for the work that is done at these sit

  15. Achromobactor denitrificans SP1 produces pharmaceutically active 25C prodigiosin upon utilizing hazardous di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Achromobacter denitrificans SP1 isolated from soil sludge heavily contaminated with plastic waste produced a novel pharmaceutically-active 25C prodigiosin analog during growth in a simple mineral salt medium supplemented with hazardous di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended PVC plastics (in situ) ...

  16. Hazard analysis in active landslide areas in the State of Veracruz, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Martina; Morales Barrera, Wendy V.; Rodriguez Elizarrarás, Sergio R.; Solleiro Rebolledo, Elizabeth; Sedov, Sergey; Terhorst, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    mass movements are analyzed in order to reconstruct complex interrelations of the causes and effects of landslide events. One of the major objectives of this research is to evaluate the potential hazard of active landslide areas. Detailed field analyzes were performed to investigate the situations and dynamics of the slope movements. Therefore, geomorphological mapping, sediment characterization as well as geophysical methods are applied. On the one hand, a detailed sediment characterization aims to identify the type of material (e.g. geotechnical attributes), on the other sediments can provide information on different activity phases, respectively movement processes in slide masses. Furthermore, the focus is placed on the determination of landslide relevant parameters and thresholds. Digital elevation models, which were generated before the onset of slope movements, are integrated in the geomorphological analysis. The poster presents the specific study sites in Veracruz and the situation of endangered slopes before and after the landslide events. It is planned to use this knowledge to model susceptibility maps for the region in the future. Moreover, field data will be used as basic information for further monitoring plans. Resulting susceptibility maps will be provided to the responsible authorities in order to support sustainable planning of settlements and infrastructure in hazardous regions.

  17. Modeling the Effect of External Carbon Source Addition under Different Electron Acceptor Conditions in Biological Nutrient Removal Activated Sludge Systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang; Wisniewski, Kamil; Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Zhou, Qi; Xie, Li; Makinia, Jacek

    2016-02-16

    The aim of this study was to expand the International Water Association Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) to predict the aerobic/anoxic behavior of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and "ordinary" heterotrophs in the presence of different external carbon sources and electron acceptors. The following new aspects were considered: (1) a new type of the readily biodegradable substrate, not available for the anaerobic activity of PAOs, (2) nitrite as an electron acceptor, and (3) acclimation of "ordinary" heterotrophs to the new external substrate via enzyme synthesis. The expanded model incorporated 30 new or modified process rate equations. The model was evaluated against data from several, especially designed laboratory experiments which focused on the combined effects of different types of external carbon sources (acetate, ethanol and fusel oil) and electron acceptors (dissolved oxygen, nitrate and nitrite) on the behavior of PAOs and "ordinary" heterotrophs. With the proposed expansions, it was possible to improve some deficiencies of the ASM2d in predicting the behavior of biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems with the addition of external carbon sources, including the effect of acclimation to the new carbon source.

  18. Modelling Active Faults in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) with OpenQuake: Definition, Design and Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherill, Graeme; Garcia, Julio; Poggi, Valerio; Chen, Yen-Shin; Pagani, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) has, since its inception in 2009, made many contributions to the practice of seismic hazard modeling in different regions of the globe. The OpenQuake-engine (hereafter referred to simply as OpenQuake), GEM's open-source software for calculation of earthquake hazard and risk, has found application in many countries, spanning a diversity of tectonic environments. GEM itself has produced a database of national and regional seismic hazard models, harmonizing into OpenQuake's own definition the varied seismogenic sources found therein. The characterization of active faults in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is at the centre of this process, motivating many of the developments in OpenQuake and presenting hazard modellers with the challenge of reconciling seismological, geological and geodetic information for the different regions of the world. Faced with these challenges, and from the experience gained in the process of harmonizing existing models of seismic hazard, four critical issues are addressed. The challenge GEM has faced in the development of software is how to define a representation of an active fault (both in terms of geometry and earthquake behaviour) that is sufficiently flexible to adapt to different tectonic conditions and levels of data completeness. By exploring the different fault typologies supported by OpenQuake we illustrate how seismic hazard calculations can, and do, take into account complexities such as geometrical irregularity of faults in the prediction of ground motion, highlighting some of the potential pitfalls and inconsistencies that can arise. This exploration leads to the second main challenge in active fault modeling, what elements of the fault source model impact most upon the hazard at a site, and when does this matter? Through a series of sensitivity studies we show how different configurations of fault geometry, and the corresponding characterisation of near-fault phenomena (including

  19. Dysregulated Coherence of Subjective and Cardiac Emotional Activation in Adolescents with Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Paul D.; Nuselovici, Jacob N.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Kendziora, Kimberly T.; Usher, Barbara A.; Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Background: Effective emotion regulation should be reflected in greater coherence between physiological and subjective aspects of emotional responses. Method: Youths with normative to clinical levels of internalizing problems (IP) and externalizing problems (EP) watched emotionally evocative film-clips while having heart rate (HR) recorded, and…

  20. 42 CFR 438.358 - Activities related to external quality review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE External Quality Review § 438.358... quality of care. (3) Calculation of performance measures in addition to those reported by an MCO or PIHP... conducted by an MCO or PIHP and validated by an EQRO. (5) Conduct of studies on quality that focus on...

  1. Measurement of activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th for assessment of radiation hazards from soils of the southwestern region of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Oladele Samuel

    2009-08-01

    Activity concentrations of the selected radionuclides (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were measured in surface soil samples collected from 38 cities in the southwest region of Nigeria by means of gamma spectroscopy with a high-purity germanium detector. Measured activity concentration values of (40)K varied from 34.9 +/- 4.4 to 1,358.6 +/- 28.5 Bq kg(-1) (given on a dry mass (DM) basis) with a mean value of 286.5 +/- 308.5 Bq kg(-1); that of (226)Ra varied from 9.3 +/- 3.7 to 198.1 +/- 13.8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 54.5 Bq kg(-1) and a standard deviation of 38.7 Bq kg(-1), while that of (232)Th varied from 5.4 +/- 1.1 to 502.0 +/- 16.5 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 91.1 Bq kg(-1) and standard deviation of 100.9 Bq kg(-1). The mean activity concentration values obtained for (226)Ra and (232)Th are greater than the world average values reported by the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation for areas of normal background radiation. Radiological indices were estimated for the radiation/health hazards of the natural radioactivity of all soil samples. Estimated absorbed dose rates in air varied from 12.42 +/- 2.25 to 451.33 +/- 19.06 nGy h(-1), annual outdoor effective dose rates from 0.015 +/- 0.003 to 0.554 +/- 0.023 mSv year(-1), internal hazard index from 0.10 +/- 0.03 to 3.02 +/- 0.16, external hazard index from 0.07 +/- 0.01 to 2.60 +/- 0.11, representative level index from 0.19 +/- 0.03 to 6.84 +/- 0.29, activity index from 0.09 +/- 0.02 to 3.42 +/- 0.15, and radium equivalent activity from 26.95 +/- 5.04 to 963.15 +/- 41.87 Bq kg(-1). Only the mean value of the representative level index exceeds the limit for areas of normal background radiation. All other indices show mean values that are lower than the recommended limits.

  2. Experimental study on the hemostatc activity of Pollen Typhae: a traditional folk medicine used by external and oral application.

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Naoki; Tamura, Koichiro; Tanaka, Ayako; Matsuda, Juzo; Atsumi, Gen-ichi

    2011-12-01

    Pollen Typhae is the traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used to treat the hemorrhagic diseases both by external and oral application. The present study examines the hemostatic properties and its components of Pollen Typhae. Pollen extract significantly reduced prothrombin time (PT), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT) and recalcification time. Pollen extract directly activated factor XII in the coagulation cascade. Acidic polysaccharide in the pollen that adsorbed to the diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) column was the causative agent of factor XII activation. These results suggested that an electronegative charge attributed to an acidic polysaccharide in the pollen extract contributed to the hemostatic activity. We then examined the hemostatic activity of administered pollen extract in the mouse tail bleeding model. Tail bleeding was significantly decreased after oral administration of the pollen extract, whereas the acidic polysaccharide fraction did not affect the duration of tail bleeding. These results suggest that the oral anticoagulant effect of Pollen Typhae is attributed to compounds other than acidic polysaccharides. We concluded that the activation of the intrinsic coagulation pathway by the acidic polysaccharide contributes to the external hemostatic property of Pollen Typhae, and the action of components such as flavonoids that possess anticoagulant activity are causative agent when orally administered.

  3. Active Graphene-Based Terahertz Dual-Band Modulator Implemented in the Presence of External Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiang; Huang, Qiuping; Zhao, Yi; Cai, Honglei; Lu, Yalin

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we numerically demonstrate a dynamic graphene-based dual-band metamaterial modulator (gDMM) in the presence of an external magnetic field and gate electric field. With the objective of modulating terahertz waves at two separate channels, we utilize the proposed dual-field control method to dynamically modulate the optical conductivity of graphene, and thus the working frequencies of the gDMM. An interpretation for such dependence on the external fields is presented based on a quantum understanding of the energy structure of graphene, and a numerical method based on the finite element method (FEM) is employed to investigate the optical responses of our proposed gDMM. Our results show that, by varying the strength of external fields, one can switch the operation status of the two working channels located at 3.18 THz and 9.04 THz, with modulation depths exceeding 84.4%. Only 30 meV of energy is required for shifting the Fermi level to accomplish the switch, which is extremely low compared with methods in previous works using gate electric control alone. Simultaneous ON/OFF statuses are also realized. Such great tunability and controllability of our proposed gDMM over a wide frequency range may give rise to a new class of dynamic devices for terahertz and microwave applications.

  4. Ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing pH-responsive ligands: External control of catalyst solubility and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balof, Shawna Lynn

    2011-12-01

    Sixteen novel, Ru-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing pH responsive ligands were synthesized. The pH-responsive groups employed with these catalysts included dimethylamino (NMe2) modified NHC ligands as well as N-donor dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and 3-(o-pyridyl)propylidene ligands. These pH-responsive ligands provided the means by which the solubility and/or activity profiles of the catalysts produced could be controlled via acid addition. The main goal of this dissertation was to design catalyst systems capable of performing ring opening metathesis (ROMP) and ring closing metathesis (RCM) reactions in both organic and aqueous media. In an effort to quickly gain access to new catalyst structures, a template synthesis for functionalized NHC ligand precursors was designed, in addition to other strategies, to obtain ligand precursors with ancillary NMe2 groups. Kinetic studies for the catalysts produced from these precursors showed external control of catalyst solubility was afforded via protonation of the NMe2 groups of their NHC ligands. Additionally, this protonation afforded external control of catalyst propagation rates for several catalysts. This is the first known independent external control for the propagation rates of ROMP catalysts. The incorporation of pH-responsive N-donor ligands into catalyst structures also provided the means for the external control of metathesis activity, as the protonation of these ligands resulted in an increased initiation rate based on their fast and irreversible dissociation from the metal center. The enhanced external control makes these catalysts applicable to a wide range of applications, some of which have been explored by us and/or through collaboration. Three of the catalysts designed showed remarkable metathesis activity in aqueous media. These catalysts displayed comparable RCM activity in aqueous media to a class of water-soluble catalysts reported by Grubbs et al., considered to be the most active catalyst for

  5. Efficacy and safety of active silicone oil removal through a 23-gauge transconjunctival cannula using an external vacuum pump

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Chang, Woohyok; Sagong, Min

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy and safety of active removal of silicone oil with low and high viscosity through a 23-gauge transconjunctival cannula using an external vacuum pump. METHODS This study was conducted as a prospective, interventional case series. A total of 22 eyes of 21 patients [1000 centistokes (cSt): 17 eyes, 5700 cSt: 5 eyes] were included in this study. All patients underwent active silicone oil removal via the entire lumen of a 23-gauge microcannula with suction pressure of a 650-700 mm Hg vacuum using an external vacuum pump. A tubing adaptor from the Total Plus Pak® (Alcon, Fort Worth, USA) was used to join the microcannula and silicone vacuum tube connected to an external vacuum pump. Main outcome measures were mean removal time, changes of intraocular pressure (IOP) and visual acuity, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. RESULTS Mean removal time (min) was 1.49±0.43 for 1000 cSt and 7.12±1.27 for 5700 cSt. The IOP was 18.57±7.48 mm Hg at baseline, 11.68±4.55 mm Hg at day 1 postoperatively (P<0.001), and 15.95±4.92, 16.82±3.81, 17.41±3.50, and 17.09±3.01 mm Hg after one week, one month, three months, and six months, respectively. All patients showed improved or stabilized visual acuity. There was no occurrence of intraoperative or postoperative complications during the follow up period. CONCLUSION This technique for active removal of silicone oil through a 23-gauge cannula using an external vacuum pump is fast, effective, and safe as well as economical for silicone oil with both low and high viscosity in all eyes with pseudophakia, aphakia, or phakia. PMID:25938054

  6. Disposal of hazardous materials from TxDOT activities. Final report, September 1992-August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, M.; Corapcioglu, M.Y.; Beavers, T.; Beck, B.; Mehevec, A.

    1994-11-01

    The process of purchasing, storing, handling and disposal of hazardous waste is demanding. The Texas Department of Transportation deals with many such compounds every day in performing its duty of maintaining over 70,000 miles of Texas roadway. With the new demands being placed on all users of hazardous materials by the new EPA guidelines, procedures must be enacted to ensure TxDOT`s compliance with these ever-changing regulations. The placement of full-time safety and hazardous materials coordinators in each district office will help to ensure that employees follow reporting procedures and use disposal guidelines. The report will discuss these actions and others that might help TxDOT in this task.

  7. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  8. External copper inhibits the activity of the large-conductance calcium- and voltage-sensitive potassium channel from skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Morera, F J; Wolff, D; Vergara, C

    2003-03-01

    We have characterized the effect of external copper on the gating properties of the large-conductance calcium- and voltage-sensitive potassium channel from skeletal muscle, incorporated into artificial bilayers. The effect of Cu2+ was evaluated as changes in the gating kinetic properties of the channel after the addition of this ion. We found that, from concentrations of 20 microM and up, copper induced a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in channel open probability. The inhibition of channel activity by Cu2+ could not be reversed by washing or by addition of the copper chelator, bathocuproinedisulfonic acid. However, channel activity was appreciably restored by the sulfhydryl reducing agent dithiothreitol. The effect of copper was specific since other transition metal divalent cations such as Ni2+, Zn2+ or Cd2+ did not affect BK(Ca) channel activity in the same concentration range. These results suggest that external Cu2+-induced inhibition of channel activity was due to direct or indirect oxidation of key amino-acid sulfhydryl groups that might have a role in channel gating.

  9. Hazardous Wastes. Two Games for Teaching about the Problem. Environmental Communications Activities. Bulletin 703.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Two games are presented which demonstrate the complexity of the hazardous waste problem through an introduction to the: (1) economics of waste disposal; (2) legislation surrounding waste disposal; (3) necessity to handle wastes with care; (4) damages to the environmental and human health resulting from improper disposal; (5) correct ways to…

  10. 24 CFR 35.125 - Notice of evaluation and hazard reduction activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.125 Notice of... is undertaken and lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards are found to be present, or if...

  11. 24 CFR 35.125 - Notice of evaluation and hazard reduction activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.125 Notice of... is undertaken and lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards are found to be present, or if...

  12. 24 CFR 35.125 - Notice of evaluation and hazard reduction activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.125 Notice of... is undertaken and lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards are found to be present, or if...

  13. 24 CFR 35.125 - Notice of evaluation and hazard reduction activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.125 Notice of... is undertaken and lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards are found to be present, or if...

  14. 24 CFR 35.125 - Notice of evaluation and hazard reduction activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.125 Notice of... is undertaken and lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards are found to be present, or if...

  15. Thrombus imaging in a primate model with antibodies specific for an external membrane protein of activated platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Palabrica, T.M.; Furie, B.C.; Konstam, M.A.; Aronovitz, M.J.; Connolly, R.; Brockway, B.A.; Ramberg, K.L.; Furie, B.

    1989-02-01

    The activated platelet is a potential target for the localization of thrombi in vivo since, after stimulation and secretion of granule contents, activated platelets are concentrated at sites of blood clot formation. In this study, we used antibodies specific for a membrane protein of activated platelets to detect experimental thrombi in an animal model. PADGEM (platelet activation-dependent granule-external membrane protein), a platelet alpha-granule membrane protein, is translocated to the plasma membrane during platelet activation and granule secretion. Since PADGEM is internal in unstimulated platelets, polyclonal anti-PADGEM and monoclonal KC4 antibodies do not bind to circulating resting platelets but do interact with activated platelets. Dacron graft material incubated with radiolabeled KC4 or anti-PADGEM antibodies in the presence of thrombin-activated platelet-rich plasma bound most of the antibody. Imaging experiments with 123I-labeled anti-PADGEM in baboons with an external arterial-venous Dacron shunt revealed rapid uptake in the thrombus induced by the Dacron graft; control experiments with 123I-labeled nonimmune IgG exhibited minimal uptake. Deep venous thrombi, formed by using percutaneous balloon catheters to stop blood flow in the femoral vein of baboons, were visualized with 123I-labeled anti-PADGEM. Thrombi were discernible against blood pool background activity without subtraction techniques within 1 hr. No target enhancement was seen with 123I-labeled nonimmune IgG. 123I-labeled anti-PADGEM cleared the blood pool with an initial half-disappearance time of 6 min and did not interfere with hemostasis. These results indicate that radioimmunoscintigraphy with anti-PADGEM antibodies can visualize thrombi in baboon models and is a promising technique for clinical thrombus detection in humans.

  16. External corrosion of line pipe -- A summary of research activities performed since 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Jack, T.R.; Wilmott, M.J.; Sutherby, R.L.; Worthington, R.G.

    1995-11-01

    External corrosion is a major threat to the integrity of gas transmission systems. This paper reviews corrosion and environmental cracking problems and their control based on more than twelve years of field and laboratory research work performed by a major Canadian gas transmission company. To protect against corrosion the company uses a dual system consisting of protective coatings and cathodic protection. Either of these systems operating properly can provide the protection necessary to prevent leaks and ruptures in line pipe. In some situations however coatings can fail in such a way as to shield a corrosion cell on the pipe surface under degraded coating from cathodic protection. Where the protective systems are thwarted, a variety of corrosion and cracking scenarios can lead to leaks and ruptures. These scenarios will be identified and assessed in terms of where they occur as well as their frequency and seriousness.

  17. Cells as Active Particles in Asymmetric Potentials: Motility under External Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Comelles, Jordi; Caballero, David; Voituriez, Raphaël; Hortigüela, Verónica; Wollrab, Viktoria; Godeau, Amélie Luise; Samitier, Josep; Martínez, Elena; Riveline, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration is a crucial event during development and in disease. Mechanical constraints and chemical gradients can contribute to the establishment of cell direction, but their respective roles remain poorly understood. Using a microfabricated topographical ratchet, we show that the nucleus dictates the direction of cell movement through mechanical guidance by its environment. We demonstrate that this direction can be tuned by combining the topographical ratchet with a biochemical gradient of fibronectin adhesion. We report competition and cooperation between the two external cues. We also quantitatively compare the measurements associated with the trajectory of a model that treats cells as fluctuating particles trapped in a periodic asymmetric potential. We show that the cell nucleus contributes to the strength of the trap, whereas cell protrusions guided by the adhesive gradients add a constant tunable bias to the direction of cell motion. PMID:25296303

  18. Probabilistic seismic hazard at Mt. Etna (Italy): The contribution of local fault activity in mid-term assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaro, R.; D'Amico, S.; Peruzza, L.; Tuvè, T.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, we tackle the problem of seismic hazard at Etna deriving from the recurrent seismogenic activity of local faults, by adopting two independent methods based on probabilistic approaches. We assess the hazard in terms of macroseismic intensity and represent the occurrence probability calculated for different exposure times both on maps and at fault scale. Seismic hazard maps obtained by applying the "site approach" through the SASHA code and a new probabilistic attenuation model, indicate the eastern flank of the volcano as the most hazardous, with expected intensity (Iexp) in 50 years (i.e. the standard exposure time adopted in the seismic regulations) ranging from degrees IX to X EMS. In shorter exposure periods (20, 10, 5 years), values of Iexp up to IX are also reached in the same area, but they are clearly determined by the earthquakes generated by the Timpe fault system. In order to quantify the contribution of local seismogenic sources to the hazard of the region, we reconstruct the seismic history of each fault and calculate with SASHA the probability that earthquakes of a given intensity may be generated in different exposure times. Results confirm the high level of hazard due to the S. Tecla, Moscarello and Fiandaca faults especially for earthquakes of moderate intensity, i.e. VI ≤ I0 ≤ VII, with probabilities respectively exceeding 50% and 20% in 10 years, and 30% and 10% in 5 years. Occurrence probability of major events (I0 ≥ VIII) at the fault scale has also been investigated by statistics on intertimes. Under stationary assumptions we obtain a probability of 6.8% in 5 years for each structure; by introducing the time-dependency (time elapsed since the last event occurred on each fault) through a BPT model, we identify the Moscarello and S. Tecla faults as the most probable sources to be activated in the next 5 years (2013-2017). This result may represent a useful indication to establish priority criteria for actions aimed at reducing

  19. Special astronomical configurations, solar activity and deep degassing as a trigger of natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natyaganov, Vladimir; Syvorotkin, Vladimir; Fedorov, Valeriy; Shopin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Extraordinary cases of tectonic events (strong earthquakes, volcano eruptions), mine explosions, typhoons, hurricanes, tornado outbreak sequences, ball lightnings, transient luminous events are analyzed in relation with special astronomical configurations, which are specific relative positions of the Sun, Earth, Moon and the closest planets of the Solar System (Venus, Mars and Jupiter) [1]. Usage of special astronomical coordinate systems give evidence not only of correlations but also of hidden causes-and-effect relations between the analyzed phenomena. The geocentric ecliptic latitude system is an example of such astronomical coordinate systems. It gives clear evidence of coherence between strong earthquakes and the maximal Moon declination from the plane of the ecliptic. Extraordinary cases of planet activity from the beginning of XX century till the present time are shown in the years of special astronomical configurations and abrupt increasing of solar activity. According to the empirical scheme of short-term earthquake prediction [3], geomagnetic disturbances are the triggers of earthquakes. Geomagnetic disturbances perform electromagnetic pumping (electromagnetic excitation) of the Earth's interior in the regions of intersections of seismomagnetic meridians with the plate boundaries as a result of electrothermal breakdowns in the heterogeneous medium of tectonic faults. This results in the local intensification of deep degassing [4], decreasing of shear strength of the medium that triggers earthquakes usually after 2 or 3 weeks (±2 days) after the geomagnetic disturbance. Examples of officially registered predictions of Kamchatka earthquakes with M7+ without missing events, including deep-focus earthquakes in the Okhotsk Sea since the year of 2002, are shown. It is discussed correlations and possible cause-and-effect relations between a different phenomena such as - dangerous natural hazardous events such as the record tornado outbreak sequences in the USA

  20. Gasification characteristics of an activated carbon catalyst during the decomposition of hazardous waste material in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Yukihiko; Nuessle, F.W.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Recently, carbonaceous materials including activated carbon were proven to be effective catalysts for hazardous waste gasification in supercritical water. Using coconut shell activated carbon catalyst, complete decomposition of industrial organic wastes including methanol and acetic acid was achieved. During this process, the total mass of the activated carbon catalyst changes by two competing processes: a decrease in weight via gasification of the carbon by supercritical water, or an increase in weight by deposition of carbonaceous materials generated by incomplete gasification of the biomass feedstocks. The deposition of carbonaceous materials does not occur when complete gasification is realized. Gasification of the activated carbon in supercritical water is often favored, resulting in changes in the quality and quantity of the catalyst. To thoroughly understand the hazardous waste decomposition process, a more complete understanding of the behavior of activated carbon in pure supercritical water is needed. The gasification rate of carbon by water vapor at subcritical pressures was studied in relation to coal gasification and generating activated carbon.

  1. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-12-28

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  2. Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    environment and the cleanup of inactive waste disposal sites." This manual is a guidance document for managers responsible for occupational safety and health...programs at inactive hazardous waste sites. It assumes a basic knowledge of science and experience in occupational safety and health. It is the...product of a four-agency committee (the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA

  3. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  4. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  5. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  6. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  7. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  8. Noninvasive measurement of radiopharmaceutical time–activity data using external thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng-Chang; Dong, Shang-Lung; Lin, Hsin-Hon; Ni, Yu-Ching; Jan, Meei-Ling; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we present a new method for estimating the time–activity data using serial timely measurements of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The approach is based on the combination of the measurement of surface dose using TLD and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to estimate the radiopharmaceutical time–activity data. It involves four steps: (1) identify the source organs and outline their contours in computed tomography images; (2) compute the S values on the body surface for each source organ using a MC code; (3) obtain a serial measurement of the dose with numerous TLDs placed on the body surface; (4) solve the dose–activity equation to generate organ cumulative activity for each period of measurement. The activity of each organ at the time of measurement is simply the cumulative activity divided by the timespan between measurements. The usefulness of this method was studied using a MC simulation based on an Oak Ridge National Laboratory mathematical phantom with 18F-FDG filled in six source organs. Numerous TLDs were placed on different locations of the surface and were repeatedly read and replaced. The time–activity curves (TACs) of all organs were successfully reconstructed. Experiments on a physical phantom were also performed. Preliminary results indicate that it is an effective, robust, and simple method for assessing the TAC. The proposed method holds great potential for a range of applications in areas such as targeted radionuclide therapy, pharmaceutical research, and patient-specific dose estimation.

  9. Resting-state EEG power predicts conflict-related brain activity in internally guided but not in externally guided decision-making.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Takashi; Bai, Yu; Nashiwa, Hitomi; Northoff, Georg

    2013-02-01

    Most experimental studies of decision-making have specifically examined situations in which a single correct answer exists (externally guided decision-making). Along with such externally guided decision-making, there are instances of decision-making in which no correct answer based on external circumstances is available for the subject (internally guided decision-making, e.g. preference judgment). We compared these two different types of decision-making in terms of conflict-monitoring and their relation with resting-state brain activity. Current electroencephalography (EEG) data demonstrated that conflict-related N2 amplitudes (i.e., difference between large-conflict and small-conflict conditions) in externally guided decision-making were modulated by the type of external stimulus (i.e., large-conflict stimulus pair or small-conflict stimulus pair) but were not found to be correlated with resting-state brain activity (i.e. resting-state EEG power). In contrast, conflict-related N2 amplitudes in internally guided decision-making were found to be correlated with resting-state brain activity, but were not found to be modulated by the type of stimulus itself: the degree to which the type of external stimulus modulates the conflict during stimulus encoding varies according to individual differences in intrinsic brain activity. Considering those results comprehensively, we demonstrate for the first time resting-state and stimulus-related differences between externally and internally guided decision-making.

  10. A mobile laboratory for surface and subsurface imaging in geo-hazard monitoring activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornacchia, Carmela; Bavusi, Massimo; Loperte, Antonio; Pergola, Nicola; Pignatti, Stefano; Ponzo, Felice; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    A new research infrastructure for supporting ground-based remote sensing observations in the different phases of georisk management cycle is presented. This instrumental facility has been designed and realised by TeRN, a public-private consortium on Earth Observations and Natural Risks, in the frame of the project "ImpresAmbiente" funded by Italian Ministry of Research and University. The new infrastructure is equipped with ground-based sensors (hyperspectral cameras, thermal cameras, laser scanning and electromagnetic antennae) able to remotely map physical parameters and/or earth-surface properties (temperature, soil moisture, land cover, etc…) and to illuminate near-surface geological structures (fault, groundwater tables, landslide bodies etc...). Furthermore, the system can be used for non-invasive investigations of architectonic buildings and civil infrastructures (bridges, tunnel, road pavements, etc...) interested by natural and man-made hazards. The hyperspectral cameras can acquire high resolution images of earth-surface and cultural objects. They are operating in the Visible Near InfraRed (0.4÷1.0μm) with 1600 spatial pixel and 3.7nm of spectral sampling and in the Short Wave InfraRed (1.3÷2.5µm) spectral region with 320 spatial pixel and 5nm of spectral sampling. The IR cameras are operating in the Medium Wavelength InfraRed (3÷5µm; 640x512; NETD< 20 mK) and in the Very Long Wavelength InfraRed region (7.7÷11.5 µm; 320x256; NETD<25 mK) with a frame rate higher than 100Hz and are both equipped with a set of optical filters in order to operate in multi-spectral configuration. The technological innovation of ground-based laser scanning equipment has led to an increased resolution performances of surveys with applications in several field, as geology, architecture, environmental monitoring and cultural heritage. As a consequence, laser data can be useful integrated with traditional monitoring techniques. The Laser Scanner is characterized by very

  11. Enzymatic activities in limb muscles subjected to external fixation with ring-hybrid frames.

    PubMed

    Reznick, Abraham Z; Coleman, Raymond; Stein, Haim

    2007-04-01

    Enzymatic activities, which originate in the muscle envelope of tibiae with an experimental segmental bone loss, provide additional evidence for the intimate bone-muscle interrelationships in new bone formation.

  12. Active tectonics in Eastern Lunana (NW Bhutan): Implications for the seismic and glacial hazard potential of the Bhutan Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M. C.; Wiesmayr, G.; Brauner, M.; HäUsler, H.; Wangda, D.

    2006-06-01

    Paleoseismological investigations, brittle fault analysis, and paleostrain calculations combined with the interpretation of satellite imagery and flood wave modeling were used to investigate the seismic and associated glacial hazard potential in Eastern Lunana, a remote area in NW Bhutan. Seismically induced liquefaction features, cracked pebbles, and a surface rupture of about 6.8 km length constrain the occurrence of M ≥ 6 earthquakes within this high-altitude periglacial environment, which are the strongest earthquakes ever been reported for the Kingdom of Bhutan. Seismicity occurs along conjugate sets of faults trending NE-SW to NNW-SSE by strike-slip and normal faulting mechanism indicating E-W extension and N-S shortening. The strain field for these conjugate sets of active faults is consistent with widespread observations of young E-W expansion throughout southern Tibet and the north Himalaya. We expect, however, that N-S trending active strike-slip faults may even reach much farther to the south, at least into southern Bhutan. Numerous glacial lakes exist in the investigation area, and today more than 100 × 106 m3 of water are stored in moraine-dammed and supraglacial lakes which are crosscut by active faults. Strong earthquakes may trigger glacial lake outburst floods, and the impact of such flash floods may be worst 80 km downstream where the valley is broad and densely populated. Consequently, tectonic models of active deformation have to be closely linked with glacial hazard evaluation and require rethinking and modification.

  13. Pausing and activating thread state upon pin assertion by external logic monitoring polling loop exit time condition

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Giampapa, Mark; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Satterfield, David L; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2013-05-21

    A system and method for enhancing performance of a computer which includes a computer system including a data storage device. The computer system includes a program stored in the data storage device and steps of the program are executed by a processer. The processor processes instructions from the program. A wait state in the processor waits for receiving specified data. A thread in the processor has a pause state wherein the processor waits for specified data. A pin in the processor initiates a return to an active state from the pause state for the thread. A logic circuit is external to the processor, and the logic circuit is configured to detect a specified condition. The pin initiates a return to the active state of the thread when the specified condition is detected using the logic circuit.

  14. A pilot GIS database of active faults of Mt. Etna (Sicily): A tool for integrated hazard evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreca, Giovanni; Bonforte, Alessandro; Neri, Marco

    2013-02-01

    A pilot GIS-based system has been implemented for the assessment and analysis of hazard related to active faults affecting the eastern and southern flanks of Mt. Etna. The system structure was developed in ArcGis® environment and consists of different thematic datasets that include spatially-referenced arc-features and associated database. Arc-type features, georeferenced into WGS84 Ellipsoid UTM zone 33 Projection, represent the five main fault systems that develop in the analysed region. The backbone of the GIS-based system is constituted by the large amount of information which was collected from the literature and then stored and properly geocoded in a digital database. This consists of thirty five alpha-numeric fields which include all fault parameters available from literature such us location, kinematics, landform, slip rate, etc. Although the system has been implemented according to the most common procedures used by GIS developer, the architecture and content of the database represent a pilot backbone for digital storing of fault parameters, providing a powerful tool in modelling hazard related to the active tectonics of Mt. Etna. The database collects, organises and shares all scientific currently available information about the active faults of the volcano. Furthermore, thanks to the strong effort spent on defining the fields of the database, the structure proposed in this paper is open to the collection of further data coming from future improvements in the knowledge of the fault systems. By layering additional user-specific geographic information and managing the proposed database (topological querying) a great diversity of hazard and vulnerability maps can be produced by the user. This is a proposal of a backbone for a comprehensive geographical database of fault systems, universally applicable to other sites.

  15. Aerospace clinical psychology and its role in serving practitioners of hazardous activities.

    PubMed

    King, R

    1999-04-01

    Aerospace clinical psychology is defined as a special application of psychology to the hazardous and stressful occupations associated with aviation and space flight. Aerospace clinical psychological services usually are offered on a unit or organizational level, though interventions can be designed for individuals and their families. The application of aerospace clinical psychology to the "failing aviator" is described and the current status of the field is provided. The roles of flight surgeons and mental health providers are explained. Associations between poor pilot coping skills and failure at crew resource management are explored. Areas for future research are detailed.

  16. Ecto-phosphatase activity on the external surface of Rhodnius prolixus salivary glands: modulation by carbohydrates and Trypanosoma rangeli.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Suzete A O; Fonseca de Souza, André L; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Dick, Claudia F; dos Santos, André L A; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2008-05-01

    The salivary glands of insect's vectors are target organs to study the vectors-pathogens interactions. Rhodnius prolixus an important vector of Trypanosoma cruzi can also transmit Trypanosoma rangeli by bite. In the present study we have investigated ecto-phosphatase activity on the surface of R. prolixus salivary glands. Ecto-phosphatases are able to hydrolyze phosphorylated substrates in the extracellular medium. We characterized these ecto-enzyme activities on the salivary glands external surface and employed it to investigate R. prolixus-T. rangeli interaction. Salivary glands present a low level of hydrolytic activity (4.30+/-0.35 nmol p-nitrophenol (p-NP)xh(-1)xgland pair(-1)). The salivary glands ecto-phosphatase activity was not affected by pH variation; and it was insensitive to alkaline inhibitor levamisole and inhibited approximately 50% by inorganic phosphate (Pi). MgCl2, CaCl2 and SrCl2 enhanced significantly the ecto-phosphatase activity detected on the surface of salivary glands. The ecto-phosphatase from salivary glands surface efficiently releases phosphate groups from different phosphorylated amino acids, giving a higher rate of phosphate release when phospho-tyrosine is used as a substrate. This ecto-phosphatase activity was inhibited by carbohydrates as d-galactose and d-mannose. Living short epimastigotes of T. rangeli inhibited salivary glands ecto-phosphatase activity at 75%, while boiled parasites did not. Living long epimastigote forms induced a lower, but significant inhibitory effect on the salivary glands phosphatase activity. Interestingly, boiled long epimastigote forms did not loose the ability to modulate salivary glands phosphatase activity. Taken together, these data suggest a possible role for ecto-phosphatase on the R. prolixus salivary glands-T. rangeli interaction.

  17. A new way towards high-efficiency thermally activated delayed fluorescence devices via external heavy-atom effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Jin, Jiangjiang; Huang, Zhi; Zhuang, Shaoqing; Wang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism is a significant method that enables the harvesting of both triplet and singlet excitons for emission. However, up to now most efforts have been devoted to dealing with the relation between singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) and fluorescence efficiency, while the significance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is usually ignored. In this contribution, a new method is developed to realize high-efficiency TADF-based devices through simple device-structure optimizations. By inserting an ultrathin external heavy-atom (EHA) perturber layer in a desired manner, it provides useful means of accelerating the T1 → S1 reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) in TADF molecules without affecting the corresponding S1 → T1 process heavily. Furthermore, this strategy also promotes the utilization of host triplets through Förster mechanism during host → guest energy transfer (ET) processes, which helps to get rid of the solely dependence upon Dexter mechanism. Based on this strategy, we have successfully raised the external quantum efficiency (EQE) in 4CzPN-based devices by nearly 38% in comparison to control devices. These findings provide keen insights into the role of EHA played in TADF-based devices, offering valuable guidelines for utilizing certain TADF dyes which possess high radiative transition rate but relatively inefficient RISC.

  18. A Broadly-Based Training Program in Volcano Hazards Monitoring at the Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Bevens, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes, in cooperation with the USGS Volcano Hazards Program at HVO and CVO, offers a broadly based volcano hazards training program targeted toward scientists and technicians from developing nations. The program has been offered for 25 years and provides a hands-on introduction to a broad suite of volcano monitoring techniques, rather than detailed training with just one. The course content has evolved over the life of the program as the needs of the trainees have changed: initially emphasizing very basic monitoring techniques (e.g. precise leveling, interpretation of seismic drum records, etc.) but, as the level of sophistication of the trainees has increased, training in more advanced technologies has been added. Currently, topics of primary emphasis have included volcano seismology and seismic networks; acquisition and modeling of geodetic data; methods of analysis and monitoring of gas geochemistry; interpretation of volcanic deposits and landforms; training in LAHARZ, GIS mapping of lahar risks; and response to and management of volcanic crises. The course also provides training on public outreach, based on CSAV's Hawaii-specific hazards outreach programs, and volcano preparedness and interactions with the media during volcanic crises. It is an intensive eight week course with instruction and field activities underway 6 days per week; it is now offered in two locations, Hawaii Island, for six weeks, and the Cascades volcanoes of the Pacific Northwest, for two weeks, to enable trainees to experience field conditions in both basaltic and continental volcanic environments. The survival of the program for more than two decades demonstrates that a need for such training exists and there has been interaction and contribution to the program by the research community, however broader engagement with the latter continues to present challenges. Some of the reasons for this will be discussed.

  19. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as lead and mercury Chemicals such as pesticides Cigarettes Some viruses Alcohol For men, a reproductive hazard can affect the sperm. For a woman, a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. ...

  20. The Influence of External Perturbations on Running Kinematics and Muscle Activity Before and After Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Haudum, Anita; Birklbauer, Jürgen; Müller, Erich

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, the running pattern of the lower extremity was examined while being perturbed through tubes attached between the ankles and the lower back to analyze influences on the running pattern variability before and after a varied running intervention. 3D-kinematics, joint coupling and electromyography (EMG), as well as their variability, were analyzed in ten healthy male participants during treadmill running (10.5 km·h-1). Pre- and post-tests each consisted of 2 x 30 min treadmill running (one with and one without tubes). The results showed major acute effects on EMG and kinematics, as well as joint coordination variability, due to the constraints (p < 0.05). After the intervention, a process of normalization of most kinematic and EMG parameters occurred; however, EMG variability, kinematic variability and joint coordination variability were reduced during tube running below normal running level (p < 0.05). The findings further indicate rapid kinematic adaptations while muscle activity appears to require longer practice to adapt. The constraint serves to acutely increase variability, but may lead to reduced variability when applied for a longer period of time. Key points Normalization of the EMG variability after the training intervention during running with the dynamic constraint Joint coupling variability was reduced after practice intervention during constrained running Kinematic adaptations happen fast while muscle activity requires longer practice Sublevels (i.e., EMGs) were more influenced by the constraint than the macroscopic kinematics. PMID:24150066

  1. A statistical method linking geological and historical eruption time series for volcanic hazard estimations: Applications to active polygenetic volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Rosas, Ana Teresa; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando

    2008-09-01

    The probabilistic analysis of volcanic eruption time series is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk. Such series describe complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. A statistical method linking geological and historical eruption time series is proposed for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions. The first step of the analysis is to characterize the eruptions by their magnitudes. As is the case in most natural phenomena, lower magnitude events are more frequent, and the behavior of the eruption series may be biased by such events. On the other hand, eruptive series are commonly studied using conventional statistics and treated as homogeneous Poisson processes. However, time-dependent series, or sequences including rare or extreme events, represented by very few data of large eruptions require special methods of analysis, such as the extreme-value theory applied to non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Here we propose a general methodology for analyzing such processes attempting to obtain better estimates of the volcanic hazard. This is done in three steps: Firstly, the historical eruptive series is complemented with the available geological eruption data. The linking of these series is done assuming an inverse relationship between the eruption magnitudes and the occurrence rate of each magnitude class. Secondly, we perform a Weibull analysis of the distribution of repose time between successive eruptions. Thirdly, the linked eruption series are analyzed as a non-homogeneous Poisson process with a generalized Pareto distribution as intensity function. As an application, the method is tested on the eruption series of five active polygenetic Mexican volcanoes: Colima, Citlaltépetl, Nevado de Toluca, Popocatépetl and El Chichón, to obtain hazard estimates.

  2. Uncertainties in biological responses that influence hazard and risk approaches to the regulation of endocrine active substances.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Joanne L; Bjerregaard, Poul; Brugger, Kristin E; Gray, L Earl; Iguchi, Taisen; Kadlec, Sarah M; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R

    2017-03-01

    Endocrine-disrupting substances (EDS) may have certain biological effects including delayed effects, multigenerational effects, and may display nonmonotonic dose-response (NMDR) relationships that require careful consideration when determining environmental hazards. Endocrine disrupting substances can have specific and profound effects when exposure occurs during sensitive windows of the life cycle (development, reproduction). This creates the potential for delayed effects that manifest when exposure has ceased, possibly in a different life stage. This potential underscores the need for testing in appropriate (sensitive) life stages and full life cycle designs. Such tests are available in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) tool box and should be used to derive endpoints that can be considered protective of all life stages. Similarly, the potential for effects to be manifest in subsequent generations (multigenerational effects) has also been raised as a potential issue in the derivation of appropriate endpoints for EDS. However, multigenerational studies showing increasing sensitivity of successive generations are uncommon. Indeed this is reflected in the design of new higher tier tests to assess endocrine active substances (EAS) that move to extended one-generation designs and away from multi-generational studies. The occurrence of NMDRs is also considered a limiting factor for reliable risk assessment of EDS. Evidence to date indicates NMDRs are more prevalent in in vitro and mechanistic data, not often translating to adverse apical endpoints that would be used in risk assessment. A series of steps to evaluate NMDRs in the context of endocrine hazard and risk assessment procedures is presented. If careful consideration of delayed, multigenerational effects and NMDRs is made, it is feasible to assess environmental endocrine hazards and derive robust apical endpoints for risk assessment procedures ensuring a high level of environmental

  3. Volcanology and volcanic activity with a primary focus on potential hazard impacts for the Hawaii geothermal project

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B.; Delaney, P.T.; Kauahikaua, J.P.

    1993-10-01

    This annotated bibliography reviews published references about potential volcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii that are pertinent to drilling and operating geothermal wells. The first two sections of this annotated bibliography list the most important publications that describe eruptions of Kilauea volcano, with special emphasis on activity in and near the designated geothermal subzones. References about historic eruptions from Mauna Loa`s northeast rift zone, as well as the most recent activity on the southern flank of dormant Mauna Kea, adjacent to the Humu`ula Saddle are described. The last section of this annotated bibliography lists the most important publications that describe and analyze deformations of the surface of Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes.

  4. Gasification characteristics of an activated carbon catalyst during the decomposition of hazardous waste materials in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Yukihiko; Nuessle, F.W.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    Recently, carbonaceous materials were proved to be effective catalysts for hazardous waste decomposition in supercritical water. Gasification of the carbonaceous catalyst itself is also expected, however, under supercritical conditions. Thus, it is essential to determine the gasification rate of the carbonaceous materials during this process to determine the active lifetime of the catalysts. For this purpose, the gasification characteristics of granular coconut shell activated carbon in supercritical water alone (600-650{degrees}C, 25.5-34.5 MPa) were investigated. The gasification rate at subatmospheric pressure agreed well with the gasification rate at supercritical conditions, indicating the same reaction mechanism. Methane generation under these conditions is via pyrolysis, and thus is not affected by the water pressure. An iodine number increase of 25% was observed as a result of the supercritical water gasification.

  5. Simultaneous reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution from TOF data, acquired with external transmission source.

    PubMed

    Panin, V Y; Aykac, M; Casey, M E

    2013-06-07

    The simultaneous PET data reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution is presented, where the attenuation image is constrained by exploiting an external transmission source. Data are acquired in time-of-flight (TOF) mode, allowing in principle for separation of emission and transmission data. Nevertheless, here all data are reconstructed at once, eliminating the need to trace the position of the transmission source in sinogram space. Contamination of emission data by the transmission source and vice versa is naturally modeled. Attenuated emission activity data also provide additional information about object attenuation coefficient values. The algorithm alternates between attenuation and emission activity image updates. We also proposed a method of estimation of spatial scatter distribution from the transmission source by incorporating knowledge about the expected range of attenuation map values. The reconstruction of experimental data from the Siemens mCT scanner suggests that simultaneous reconstruction improves attenuation map image quality, as compared to when data are separated. In the presented example, the attenuation map image noise was reduced and non-uniformity artifacts that occurred due to scatter estimation were suppressed. On the other hand, the use of transmission data stabilizes attenuation coefficient distribution reconstruction from TOF emission data alone. The example of improving emission images by refining a CT-based patient attenuation map is presented, revealing potential benefits of simultaneous CT and PET data reconstruction.

  6. Mechanisms of Earth activity forsed by external celestial bodies:energy budjet and nature of cyclicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    In given report we discuss tidal and non-tidal mechanisms of forced tectonic (endogenous) activity of the Earth caused by gravitational attraction of the Moon, Sun and the planets. On the base of the classical solution of the problem of elasticity for model of the Earth with concentric mass distribution the evaluations of the tidal energy and power of Earth lunar-solar deformations, including their joint effect, were obtained. Important role of the joint energetic effect of rotational deformation of the Earth with lunar and solar tides was illustrated. Gravitational interaction of the Moon and Sun with non-spherical, non-homogeneous shells of the Earth generates big additional mechanical forces and moments of the interaction of the neighboring shells (rigid core, liquid core, mantle, lithosphere and separate plates). Acting of these forces and moments in the different time scales on the corresponding sells generates cyclic perturbations of the tensional state of the shells, their deformations, small relative translational displacements and small relative rotational oscillations of the shells. In geological period of time it leads to a fundamental tectonic reconstruction of the Earth. These additional forces and moments of the cyclic celestial-mechanical nature produce cyclic deformations of the all layers of the body and organize and control practically all natural processes. The additional force between mantle and core is cyclic and characterized by the wide basis of frequencies typical for orbital motions (of the Sun, Moon and planets), for rotational motion of the Earth, Moon and Sun and for many from observed natural processes. The problem about small relative translatory-rotary motion of the two shells separated by the thin viscous-elastic layer is studied. The differential equations of motion were obtained and have been studied in particular cases (plane motion of system; case of two axisymmetrical interacting shells and oth.) by approximate methods of small

  7. Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7 = low, 8-14 = moderate, and 15-21 = high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3–14 (mean = 8.1 ± 2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation

  8. Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity.

    PubMed

    Galaviz, Karla I; Harden, Samantha M; Smith, Erin; Blackman, Kacie Ca; Berrey, Leanna M; Mama, Scherezade K; Almeida, Fabio A; Lee, Rebecca E; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2014-06-17

    The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7 = low, 8-14 = moderate, and 15-21 = high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3-14 (mean = 8.1 ± 2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation

  9. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-09-07

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation).

  10. Modulation of the Relationship Between External Knee Adduction Moments and Medial Joint Contact Forces Across Subjects and Activities

    PubMed Central

    Trepczynski, Adam; Kutzner, Ines; Bergmann, Georg; Taylor, William R; Heller, Markus O

    2014-01-01

    Objective The external knee adduction moment (EAM) is often considered a surrogate measure of the distribution of loads across the tibiofemoral joint during walking. This study was undertaken to quantify the relationship between the EAM and directly measured medial tibiofemoral contact forces (Fmed) in a sample of subjects across a spectrum of activities. Methods The EAM for 9 patients who underwent total knee replacement was calculated using inverse dynamics analysis, while telemetric implants provided Fmed for multiple repetitions of 10 activities, including walking, stair negotiation, sit-to-stand activities, and squatting. The effects of the factors “subject” and “activity” on the relationships between Fmed and EAM were quantified using mixed-effects regression analyses in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE) and the slope of the regression. Results Across subjects and activities a good correlation between peak EAM and Fmed values was observed, with an overall R2 value of 0.88. However, the slope of the linear regressions varied between subjects by up to a factor of 2. At peak EAM and Fmed, the RMSE of the regression across all subjects was 35% body weight (%BW), while the maximum error was 127 %BW. Conclusion The relationship between EAM and Fmed is generally good but varies considerably across subjects and activities. These findings emphasize the limitation of relying solely on the EAM to infer medial joint loading when excessive directed cocontraction of muscles exists and call for further investigations into the soft tissue–related mechanisms that modulate the internal forces at the knee. PMID:24470261

  11. Effects of a shoulder injury prevention strength training program on eccentric external rotator muscle strength and glenohumeral joint imbalance in female overhead activity athletes.

    PubMed

    Niederbracht, Yvonne; Shim, Andrew L; Sloniger, Mark A; Paternostro-Bayles, Madeline; Short, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    Imbalance of the eccentrically-activated external rotator cuff muscles versus the concentrically-activated internal rotator cuff muscles is a primary risk factor for glenohumeral joint injuries in overhead activity athletes. Nonisokinetic dynamometer based strength training studies, however, have focused exclusively on resulting concentric instead of applicable eccentric strength gains of the external rotator cuff muscles. Furthermore, previous strength training studies did not result in a reduction in glenoumeral joint muscle imbalance, thereby suggesting that currently used shoulder strength training programs do not effectively reduce the risk of shoulder injury to the overhead activity athlete. Two collegiate women tennis teams, consisting of 12 women, participated in this study throughout their preseason training. One team (n = 6) participated in a 5-week, 4 times a week, external shoulder rotator muscle strength training program next to their preseason tennis training. The other team (n = 6) participated in a comparable preseason tennis training program, but did not conduct any upper body strength training. Effects of this strength training program were evaluated by comparing pre- and posttraining data of 5 maximal eccentric external immediately followed by concentric internal contractions on a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer (Chattecx Corp., Hixson, Tennessee). Overall, the shoulder strength training program significantly increased eccentric external total work without significant effects on concentric internal total work, concentric internal mean peak force, or eccentric external mean peak force. In conclusion, by increasing the eccentric external total exercise capacity without a subsequent increase in the concentric internal total exercise capacity, this strength training program potentially decreases shoulder rotator muscle imbalances and the risk for shoulder injuries to overhead activity athletes.

  12. Hazardous Waste Data (RCRAInfo)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazardous waste information is contained in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo), a national program management and inventory system about hazardous waste handlers. In general, all generators, transporters, treaters, storers, and disposers of hazardous waste are required to provide information about their activities to state environmental agencies. These agencies, in turn pass on the information to regional and national EPA offices. This regulation is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984. You may use the RCRAInfo Search to determine identification and location data for specific hazardous waste handlers, and to find a wide range of information on treatment, storage, and disposal facilities regarding permit/closure status, compliance with Federal and State regulations, and cleanup activities.

  13. Approach to using mechanism-based structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis to assess human health hazard potential of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Lai, David Y

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing use and development of engineered nanoparticles in electronics, consumer products, pesticides, food and pharmaceutical industries, there is a growing concern about potential human health hazards of these materials. A number of studies have demonstrated that nanoparticle toxicity is extremely complex, and that the biological activity of nanoparticles will depend on a variety of physicochemical properties such as particle size, shape, agglomeration state, crystal structure, chemical composition, surface area and surface properties. Nanoparticle toxicity can be attributed to nonspecific interaction with biological structures due to their physical properties (e.g., size and shape) and biopersistence, or to specific interaction with biomolecules through their surface properties (e.g., surface chemistry and reactivity) or release of toxic ions. The toxic effects of most nanomaterials have not been adequately characterized and currently, there are many issues and challenges in toxicity testing and risk assessment of nanoparticles. Based on the possible mechanisms of action and available in vitro and in vivo toxicity database, this paper proposes an approach to using mechanism-based SAR analysis to assess the relative human health hazard/risk potential of various types of nanomaterials.

  14. Active crustal deformation of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) using GPS data: Implications in seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staller, Alejandra; Benito, Belen; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Hernández, Douglas; Hernández-Rey, Román; Alonso-Henar, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    El Salvador, Central America, is part of the Chortis block in the northwestern boundary of the Caribbean plate. This block is interacting with a diffuse triple junction point with the Cocos and North American plates. Among the structures that cut the Miocene to Pleistocene volcanic deposits stands out the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ): It is oriented in N90º-100ºE direction, and it is composed of several structural segments that deform Quaternary deposits with right-lateral and oblique slip motions. The ESFZ is seismically active and capable of producing earthquakes such as the February 13, 2001 with Mw 6.6 (Martínez-Díaz et al., 2004), that seriously affected the population, leaving many casualties. This structure plays an important role in the tectonics of the Chortis block, since its motion is directly related to the drift of the Caribbean plate to the east and not with the partitioning of the deformation of the Cocos subduction (here not coupled) (Álvarez-Gómez et al., 2008). Together with the volcanic arc of El Salvador, this zone constitutes a weakness area that allows the motion of forearc block toward the NW. The geometry and the degree of activity of the ESFZ are not studied enough. However their knowledge is essential to understand the seismic hazard associated to this important seismogenic structure. For this reason, since 2007 a GPS dense network was established along the ESFZ (ZFESNet) in order to obtain GPS velocity measurements which are later used to explain the nature of strain accumulation on major faults along the ESFZ. The current work aims at understanding active crustal deformation of the ESFZ through kinematic model. The results provide significant information to be included in a new estimation of seismic hazard taking into account the major structures in ESFZ.

  15. Using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data for Hazard Estimation in Some Active Regions in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed Mohamed, Abdel-Monem

    2016-07-01

    Egypt rapidly growing development is accompanied by increasing levels of standard living particular in its urban areas. However, there is a limited experience in quantifying the sources of risk management in Egypt and in designing efficient strategies to keep away serious impacts of earthquakes. From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active regions in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes had occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt: Aswan, Greater Cairo, Red Sea and Sinai Peninsula regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated regions and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the recent crustal movements, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GNSS are used where geodetic networks are covering such seismo-active regions. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions and put Aswan and Greater Cairo under the lowest class according to horizontal crustal strains classifications. This work will serve a basis for the development of so-called catastrophic models and can be further used for catastrophic risk management. Also, this work is trying to evaluate risk of large catastrophic losses within the important regions including the High Dam, strategic buildings and archeological sites. Studies on possible scenarios of earthquakes and losses are a critical issue for decision making in insurance as a part of mitigation measures.

  16. The effects of hip external rotator exercises and toe-spread exercises on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking in subjects with pronated foot

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of toe-spread (TS) exercises and hip external rotator strengthening exercises for pronated feet on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy adults with no present or previous pain, no past history of surgery on the foot or the ankle, and no foot deformities. Ten subjects performed hip external rotator strengthening exercises and TS exercises and the remaining ten subjects performed only TS exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] Less change in navicular drop height occurred in the group that performed hip external rotator exercises than in the group that performed only TS exercises. The group that performed only TS exercises showed increased abductor hallucis muscle activity during both stair-climbing and -descending, and the group that performed hip external rotator exercises showed increased muscle activities of the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis during stair-climbing and increased muscle activity of only the abductor hallucis during stair-descending after exercise. [Conclusion] Stair-walking can be more effectively performed if the hip external rotator muscle is strengthened when TS exercises are performed for the pronated foot. PMID:27134364

  17. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

  18. A sinuous tumulus over an active lava tube at Kīlauea Volcano: Evolution, analogs, and hazard forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Tim R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Patrick, Matthew R.; Wooten, Kelly M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflation of narrow tube-fed basaltic lava flows (tens of meters across), such as those confined by topography, can be focused predominantly along the roof of a lava tube. This can lead to the development of an unusually long tumulus, its shape matching the sinuosity of the underlying lava tube. Such a situation occurred during Kīlauea Volcano's (Hawai'i, USA) ongoing East Rift Zone eruption on a lava tube active from July through November 2010. Short-lived breakouts from the tube buried the flanks of the sinuous, ridge-like tumulus, while the tumulus crest, its surface composed of lava formed very early in the flow's emplacement history, remained poised above the surrounding younger flows. At least several of these breakouts resulted in irrecoverable uplift of the tube roof. Confined sections of the prehistoric Carrizozo and McCartys flows (New Mexico, USA) display similar sinuous, ridge-like features with comparable surface age relationships. We contend that these distinct features formed in a fashion equivalent to that of the sinuous tumulus that formed at Kīlauea in 2010. Moreover, these sinuous tumuli may be analogs for some sinuous ridges evident in orbital images of the Tharsis volcanic province on Mars. The short-lived breakouts from the sinuous tumulus at Kīlauea were caused by surges in discharge through the lava tube, in response to cycles of deflation and inflation (DI events) at Kīlauea's summit. The correlation between DI events and subsequent breakouts aided in lava flow forecasting. Breakouts from the sinuous tumulus advanced repeatedly toward the sparsely populated Kalapana Gardens subdivision, destroying two homes and threatening others. Hazard assessments, including flow occurrence and advance forecasts, were relayed regularly to the Hawai'i County Civil Defense to aid their lava flow hazard mitigation efforts while this lava tube was active.

  19. A sinuous tumulus over an active lava tube at Kīlauea Volcano: evolution, analogs, and hazard forecasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orr, Tim R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Patrick, Matthew R.; Wooten, Kelly M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflation of narrow tube-fed basaltic lava flows (tens of meters across), such as those confined by topography, can be focused predominantly along the roof of a lava tube. This can lead to the development of an unusually long tumulus, its shape matching the sinuosity of the underlying lava tube. Such a situation occurred during Kīlauea Volcano's (Hawai'i, USA) ongoing East Rift Zone eruption on a lava tube active from July through November 2010. Short-lived breakouts from the tube buried the flanks of the sinuous, ridge-like tumulus, while the tumulus crest, its surface composed of lava formed very early in the flow's emplacement history, remained poised above the surrounding younger flows. At least several of these breakouts resulted in irrecoverable uplift of the tube roof. Confined sections of the prehistoric Carrizozo and McCartys flows (New Mexico, USA) display similar sinuous, ridge-like features with comparable surface age relationships. We contend that these distinct features formed in a fashion equivalent to that of the sinuous tumulus that formed at Kīlauea in 2010. Moreover, these sinuous tumuli may be analogs for some sinuous ridges evident in orbital images of the Tharsis volcanic province on Mars. The short-lived breakouts from the sinuous tumulus at Kīlauea were caused by surges in discharge through the lava tube, in response to cycles of deflation and inflation (DI events) at Kīlauea's summit. The correlation between DI events and subsequent breakouts aided in lava flow forecasting. Breakouts from the sinuous tumulus advanced repeatedly toward the sparsely populated Kalapana Gardens subdivision, destroying two homes and threatening others. Hazard assessments, including flow occurrence and advance forecasts, were relayed regularly to the Hawai'i County Civil Defense to aid their lava flow hazard mitigation efforts while this lava tube was active.

  20. Landslide Hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Landslide hazards occur in many places around What Can You Do If You Live Near Steep Hills? the world and include fast-moving debris flows, slow-moving landslides, and a variety of flows and slides initiating from volcanoes. Each year, these hazards cost billions of dollars and cause numerous fatalities and injuries. Awareness and education about these hazards is a first step toward reducing damaging effects. The U.S. Geological Survey conducts research and distributes information about geologic hazards. This Fact Sheet is published in English and Spanish and can be reproduced in any form for further distribution. 

  1. Active shortening of the Cascadia forearc and implications for seismic hazards of the Puget Lowland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.Y.; Blakely, R.J.; Stephenson, W.J.; Dadisman, S.V.; Fisher, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Margin-parallel shortening of the Cascadia forearc is a consequence of oblique subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath North America. Strike-slip, thrust, and oblique crustal faults beneath the densely populated Puget Lowland accommodate much of this north-south compression, resulting in large crustal earthquakes. To better understand this forearc deformation and improve earthquake hazard, assessment, we here use seismic reflection surveys, coastal exposures of Pleistocene strata, potential-field data, and airborne laser swath mapping to document and interpret a significant structural boundary near the City of Tacoma. This boundary is a complex structural zone characterized by two distinct segments. The northwest trending, eastern segment, extending from Tacoma to Carr Inlet, is formed by the broad (??? 11.5 km), southwest dipping (??? 11??-2??) Rosedale monocline. This monocline raises Crescent Formation basement about 2.5 km, resulting in a moderate gravity gradient. We interpret the Rosedale monocline as a fault-bend fold, forming above a deep thrust fault. Within the Rosedale monocline, inferred Quaternary strata thin northward and form a growth triangle that is 4.1 to 6.6 km wide at its base, suggesting ??? 2-3 mm/yr of slip on the underlying thrust. The western section of the >40-km-long, north dipping Tacoma fault, extending from Hood Canal to Carr Inlet, forms the western segment of the Tacoma basin margin. Structural relief on this portion of the basin margin may be several kilometers, resulting in steep gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies. Quaternary structural relief along the Tacoma fault is as much as 350-400 m, indicating a minimum slip rate of about 0.2 mm/yr. The inferred eastern section of the Tacoma fault (east of Carr Inlet) crosses the southern part of the Seattle uplift, has variable geometry along strike, and diminished structural relief. The Tacoma fault is regarded as a north dipping backthrust to the Seattle fault, so that slip on a

  2. Nitrogen removal from wastewater and external waste activated sludge reutilization/reduction by simultaneous sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox (SFDA).

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Peng, Yongzhen; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Mengyue; Wang, Shuying

    2016-08-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous nitrogen removal and external waste activated sludge (WAS) reutilization/reduction by using the synergy of sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox processes in up-flow reactors (SFDA). Pre-treated domestic wastewater and synthetic wastewater (containing nitrite ∼20mg/L, ammonium ∼10mg/L in both) were fed to 1# and 2# SFDA, respectively. Long-term operation of 1# SFDA was investigated with achieving the peak ammonium removal rate of 0.021 and nitrite removal rate of 0.081kgN/(m(3)d) as nitrogen loading rate elevated from 0.075 to 0.106kgN/(m(3)d). Negative effect of dissolved oxygen on anammox or fermentation in the 2# SFDA was demonstrated negligible due to rapid depletion by microorganisms. Furthermore, a "net" sludge reduction of 38.8% was obtained due to sludge decay and organics consumption by denitrification. The SFDA process was expected to potentially be used for nitrogen removal and WAS reutilization/reduction in full-scale application.

  3. Blue organic light-emitting diodes realizing external quantum efficiency over 25% using thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Takuya; Kubo, Shosei; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Komino, Takeshi; Adachi, Chihaya; Kaji, Hironori

    2017-03-21

    Improving the performance of blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is needed for full-colour flat-panel displays and solid-state lighting sources. The use of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) is a promising approach to efficient blue electroluminescence. However, the difficulty of developing efficient blue TADF emitters lies in finding a molecular structure that simultaneously incorporates (i) a small energy difference between the lowest excited singlet state (S1) and the lowest triplet state (T1), ΔE ST, (ii) a large oscillator strength, f, between S1 and the ground state (S0), and (iii) S1 energy sufficiently high for blue emission. In this study, we develop TADF emitters named CCX-I and CCX-II satisfying the above requirements. They show blue photoluminescence and high triplet-to-singlet up-conversion yield. In addition, their transition dipole moments are horizontally oriented, resulting in further increase of their electroluminescence efficiency. Using CCX-II as an emitting dopant, we achieve a blue OLED showing a high external quantum efficiency of 25.9%, which is one of the highest EQEs in blue OLEDs reported previously.

  4. Modeling external carbon addition in biological nutrient removal processes with an extension of the international water association activated sludge model.

    PubMed

    Swinarski, M; Makinia, J; Stensel, H D; Czerwionka, K; Drewnowski, J

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to expand the International Water Association Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) to account for a newly defined readily biodegradable substrate that can be consumed by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) under anoxic and aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. The model change was to add a new substrate component and process terms for its use by PAOs and other heterotrophic bacteria under anoxic and aerobic conditions. The Gdansk (Poland) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which has a modified University of Cape Town (MUCT) process for nutrient removal, provided field data and mixed liquor for batch tests for model evaluation. The original ASM2d was first calibrated under dynamic conditions with the results of batch tests with settled wastewater and mixed liquor, in which nitrate-uptake rates, phosphorus-release rates, and anoxic phosphorus uptake rates were followed. Model validation was conducted with data from a 96-hour measurement campaign in the full-scale WWTP. The results of similar batch tests with ethanol and fusel oil as the external carbon sources were used to adjust kinetic and stoichiometric coefficients in the expanded ASM2d. Both models were compared based on their predictions of the effect of adding supplemental carbon to the anoxic zone of an MUCT process. In comparison with the ASM2d, the new model better predicted the anoxic behaviors of carbonaceous oxygen demand, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and phosphorous (PO4-P) in batch experiments with ethanol and fusel oil. However, when simulating ethanol addition to the anoxic zone of a full-scale biological nutrient removal facility, both models predicted similar effluent NO3-N concentrations (6.6 to 6.9 g N/m3). For the particular application, effective enhanced biological phosphorus removal was predicted by both models with external carbon addition but, for the new model, the effluent PO4-P concentration was approximately one-half of that found from

  5. Immobilized-cell-augmented activated sludge process for treating wastewater containing hazardous compounds.

    PubMed

    Jittawattanarat, Rungrod; Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Khan, Eakalak

    2007-05-01

    A novel bioaugmentation scheme called immobilized-cell-augmented activated sludge (ICAAS) was developed. Offline enricher reactors were used to maintain immobilized acclimated cells applied to augment completely mixed activated sludge (CMAS) treating a pentachlorophenol (PCP) pulse loading. Cellulose triacetate (CA) and powder activated carbon (PAC) combined with CA (PAC + CA) were the two media types used for entrapping the PCP-degrading culture. With ICAAS at 5% by volume augmentation, PCP removal of 73.1 and 75.1% via biodegradation, volatilization, and adsorption onto suspended cells, entrapped cells, and media was achieved for the systems with CA and PAC + CA media, respectively, while PCP removal in a control CMAS, which had a comparable level of combined PCP adsorption onto suspended cells and volatilization as the ICAAS, was 48.7%. Results further showed that the immobilized cells retained their PCP-degrading ability when they were fed with the inducer (PCP) once every 20 days.

  6. The evaluation of upper body muscle activity during the performance of external chest compressions in simulated hypogravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krygiel, Rebecca G.; Waye, Abigail B.; Baptista, Rafael Reimann; Heidner, Gustavo Sandri; Rehnberg, Lucas; Russomano, Thais

    2014-04-01

    BACKGROUND: This original study evaluated the electromyograph (EMG) activity of four upper body muscles: triceps brachii, erector spinae, upper rectus abdominis, and pectoralis major, while external chest compressions (ECCs) were performed in simulated Martian hypogravity using a Body Suspension Device, counterweight system, and standard full body cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) mannequin. METHOD: 20 young, healthy male subjects were recruited. One hundred compressions divided into four sets, with roughly six seconds between each set to indicate 'ventilation', were performed within approximately a 1.5 minute protocol. Chest compression rate, depth and number were measured along with the subject's heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). RESULTS: All mean values were used in two-tailed t-tests using SPSS to compare +1 Gz values (control) versus simulated hypogravity values. The AHA (2005) compression standards were maintained in hypogravity. RPE and HR increased by 32% (p < 0.001) and 44% (p = 0.002), respectively, when ECCs were performed during Mars simulation, in comparison to +1 Gz. In hypogravity, the triceps brachii showed significantly less activity (p < 0.001) when compared with the other three muscles studied. The comparison of all the other muscles showed no difference at +1 Gz or in hypogravity. CONCLUSIONS: This study was among the first of its kind, however several limitations were faced which hopefully will not exist in future studies. Evaluation of a great number of muscles will allow space crews to focus on specific strengthening exercises within their current training regimes in case of a serious cardiac event in hypogravity.

  7. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  9. Hazardous Waste Environmental Education Resource Kit for Manitoba Teachers: Suggested Activities K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey-Franchuk, Andrea J.

    Society has become increasingly aware of the harmful effects that the disposal of chemical waste products have on the environment and human health. Public information is central to the development of a responsible waste management plan. The activities contained in this guide are organized in sequence from kindergarten to grade 12, and provide…

  10. Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A. M.; Kent, G.; Driscoll, N. W.; Karlin, R. E.; Baskin, R. L.; Louie, J. N.; Smith, K. D.; Pullammanappallil, S.

    2011-12-01

    Preliminary slip rates measured across the East Pyramid Lake fault, or the Lake Range fault, help provide new estimates of extension across the Pyramid Lake basin. Multiple stratigraphic horizons spanning 48 ka were tracked throughout the lake, with layer offsets measured across all significant faults in the basin. A chronstratigraphic framework acquired from four sediment cores allows slip rates of the Lake Range and other faults to be calculated accurately. This region of the northern Walker Lake, strategically placed between the right-lateral strike-slip faults of Honey and Eagle Lakes to the north, and the normal fault bounded basins to the southwest (e.g., Tahoe, Carson), is critical in understanding the underlying structural complexity that is not only necessary for geothermal exploration, but also earthquake hazard assessment due to the proximity of the Reno-Sparks metropolitan area. In addition, our seismic CHIRP imaging with submeter resolution allows the construction of the first fault map of Pyramid Lake. The Lake Range fault can be obviously traced west of Anahoe Island extending north along the east end of the lake in numerous CHIRP lines. Initial drafts of the fault map reveal active transtension through a series of numerous, small, northwest striking, oblique-slip faults in the north end of the lake. A previously field mapped northwest striking fault near Sutcliff can be extended into the west end of Pyramid Lake. This fault map, along with the calculated slip rate of the Lake Range, and potentially multiple other faults, gives a clearer picture into understanding the geothermal potential, tectonic regime and earthquake hazards in the Pyramid Lake basin and the northern Walker Lane. These new results have also been merged with seismicity maps, along with focal mechanisms for the larger events to begin to extend our fault map in depth.

  11. The other ex ante moral hazard in health.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Packalen, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that pooled insurance coverage can induce people to make inefficiently low investments in self-protective activities. We identify another ex ante moral hazard that runs in the opposite direction. Lower levels of self-protection and the associated chronic conditions and behavioral patterns such as obesity, smoking, and malnutrition increase the incidence of many diseases and consumption of treatments to those diseases. This increases the reward for innovation and thus benefits the innovator. It also increases treatment innovation which benefits all consumers. As individuals do not take these positive externalities into account, their investments in self-protection are inefficiently high. We quantify the lower bound of this externality for obesity. The lower bound is independent of how much additional innovation is generated. The results show that the externality we identify offsets the negative Medicare-induced insurance externality of obesity. The Medicare-induced obesity subsidy is thus not a sufficient rationale for "soda taxes", "fat taxes" or other penalties on obesity. The quantitative finding also implies that the other ex ante moral hazard that we identify can be as important as the ex ante moral hazard that has been a central concept in health economics for decades.

  12. Control of Rhagoletis indifferents using Thiamethoxam and Spinosad baits under external fly pressure and its relation to rapidity of kill and residual bait activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of western cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis indifferens Curran) using thiamethoxam in sucrose bait and spinosad bait in cherry orchards under external fly pressure and its relation to rapidity of kill and residual bait activity were studied in Washington and Utah in 2010 and 2011. Thiamethoxam ...

  13. Sky-Blue Organic Light Emitting Diode with 37% External Quantum Efficiency Using Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence from Spiroacridine-Triazine Hybrid.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ting-An; Chatterjee, Tanmay; Tsai, Wei-Lung; Lee, Wei-Kai; Wu, Meng-Jung; Jiao, Min; Pan, Kuan-Chung; Yi, Chih-Lung; Chung, Chin-Lung; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Wu, Chung-Chih

    2016-08-01

    Extremely efficient sky-blue organic electroluminescence with external quantum efficiency of ≈37% is achieved in a conventional planar device structure, using a highly efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter based on the spiroacridine-triazine hybrid and simultaneously possessing nearly unitary (100%) photoluminescence quantum yield, excellent thermal stability, and strongly horizontally oriented emitting dipoles (with a horizontal dipole ratio of 83%).

  14. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  15. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals’ Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  16. Context-Dependent Neural Activation: Internally and Externally Guided Rhythmic Lower Limb Movement in Individuals With and Without Neurodegenerative Disease.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Madeleine E; Lee, Ho Lim; Battisto, Jessica; Crosson, Bruce; McGregor, Keith M

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that has received considerable attention in allopathic medicine over the past decades. However, it is clear that, to date, pharmacological and surgical interventions do not fully address symptoms of PD and patients' quality of life. As both an alternative therapy and as an adjuvant to conventional approaches, several types of rhythmic movement (e.g., movement strategies, dance, tandem biking, and Tai Chi) have shown improvements to motor symptoms, lower limb control, and postural stability in people with PD (1-6). However, while these programs are increasing in number, still little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying motor improvements attained with such interventions. Studying limb motor control under task-specific contexts can help determine the mechanisms of rehabilitation effectiveness. Both internally guided (IG) and externally guided (EG) movement strategies have evidence to support their use in rehabilitative programs. However, there appears to be a degree of differentiation in the neural substrates involved in IG vs. EG designs. Because of the potential task-specific benefits of rhythmic training within a rehabilitative context, this report will consider the use of IG and EG movement strategies, and observations produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging and other imaging techniques. This review will present findings from lower limb imaging studies, under IG and EG conditions for populations with and without movement disorders. We will discuss how these studies might inform movement disorders rehabilitation (in the form of rhythmic, music-based movement training) and highlight research gaps. We believe better understanding of lower limb neural activity with respect to PD impairment during rhythmic IG and EG movement will facilitate the development of novel and effective therapeutic approaches to mobility limitations and postural instability.

  17. Ribavirin-induced externalization of phosphatidylserine in erythrocytes is predominantly caused by inhibition of aminophospholipid translocase activity.

    PubMed

    Kleinegris, Marie-Claire; Koek, Ger H; Mast, Kelly; Mestrom, Eveline H C; Wolfs, Jef L N; Bevers, Edouard M

    2012-10-15

    Ribavirin in combination with interferon-α is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C, but often induces severe anemia forcing discontinuation of the therapy. Whereas suppression of bone marrow by interferon may impact on the production of erythrocytes, it has been suggested that accumulation of ribavirin in erythrocytes induces alterations causing an early removal of these cells by the mononuclear phagocytic system. Externalization of phosphatidylserine, which is exclusively present in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane, is a recognition signal for phagocytosis in particular of apoptotic cells. Here, we demonstrate that surface exposure of phosphatidylserine upon prolonged treatment of erythrocytes with ribavirin results mainly from inactivation of the aminophospholipid translocase, an ATP-dependent lipid pump, which specifically transports phosphatidylserine from the outer to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Inactivation is due to severe ATP depletion, although competitive inhibition by ribavirin or its phosphorylated derivatives cannot be excluded. Phospholipid scramblase, responsible for collapse of lipid asymmetry, appears to be of minor importance as erythrocytes of patients with the Scott syndrome, lacking Ca(2+)-induced lipid scrambling, are equally sensitive to ribavirin treatment. Neither the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine nor the pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPH did affect ribavirin-induced phosphatidylserine exposure, suggesting that oxidative stress or apoptotic-related mechanisms are not involved in this process. In conclusion, we propose that spontaneous loss of lipid asymmetry, not corrected by aminophospholipid translocase activity, is the mechanism for ribavirin-induced phosphatidylserine exposure that may contribute to ribavirin-induced anemia.

  18. Context-Dependent Neural Activation: Internally and Externally Guided Rhythmic Lower Limb Movement in Individuals With and Without Neurodegenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, Madeleine E.; Lee, Ho Lim; Battisto, Jessica; Crosson, Bruce; McGregor, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that has received considerable attention in allopathic medicine over the past decades. However, it is clear that, to date, pharmacological and surgical interventions do not fully address symptoms of PD and patients’ quality of life. As both an alternative therapy and as an adjuvant to conventional approaches, several types of rhythmic movement (e.g., movement strategies, dance, tandem biking, and Tai Chi) have shown improvements to motor symptoms, lower limb control, and postural stability in people with PD (1–6). However, while these programs are increasing in number, still little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying motor improvements attained with such interventions. Studying limb motor control under task-specific contexts can help determine the mechanisms of rehabilitation effectiveness. Both internally guided (IG) and externally guided (EG) movement strategies have evidence to support their use in rehabilitative programs. However, there appears to be a degree of differentiation in the neural substrates involved in IG vs. EG designs. Because of the potential task-specific benefits of rhythmic training within a rehabilitative context, this report will consider the use of IG and EG movement strategies, and observations produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging and other imaging techniques. This review will present findings from lower limb imaging studies, under IG and EG conditions for populations with and without movement disorders. We will discuss how these studies might inform movement disorders rehabilitation (in the form of rhythmic, music-based movement training) and highlight research gaps. We believe better understanding of lower limb neural activity with respect to PD impairment during rhythmic IG and EG movement will facilitate the development of novel and effective therapeutic approaches to mobility limitations and postural instability. PMID:26696952

  19. The effects of aging on the dynamic adsorption of hazardous organic vapors on impregnated activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Amitay-Rosen, Tal; Leibman, Amir; Nir, Ido; Zaltsman, Amalia; Kaplan, Doron

    2015-01-01

    The effects of an eight-year natural aging of ASC impregnated activated carbon on the adsorption capacity and breakthrough times of model organic vapors and of the nerve agent sarin were investigated. Aging delayed methanol breakthrough from dry air on pre-dried carbon, but shortened the breakthrough time of both methanol and hexane under relative humidity (RH) of 30-85% on pre-humidified carbon. Aging also shortened the breakthrough time of the less volatile model compound 2-methoxyethanol, especially under RH of 60-85%. Aging significantly reduced the protection capacity against sarin at RH of 85%. The effects of aging on physisorption are attributed to enhanced hydrogen-bonding capability and strength of the interaction between water and adsorption sites on the carbon surface.

  20. Space Life Sciences Directorate's Position on the Physiological Effects of Exposing the Crewmemeber to Low-Voltage Electrical Hazards During Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Kramer, Leonard; Mikatarian, Ron; Polk, James; Duncan, Michael; Koontz, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The models predict that, for low voltage exposures in the space suit, physiologically active current could be conducted across the crew member causing catastrophic hazards. Future work with Naval Health Research Center Detachment Directed Energy Bio-effects Laboratory is being proposed to analyze additional current paths across the human torso and upper limbs. These models may need to be verified with human studies.

  1. Active Subduction on Both Coasts of Costa Rica Does not Represent an Important Tsunami Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V.

    2007-05-01

    Costa Rica, on the southern terminus of the Middle American Trench is being affected by active subduction on both, along the Pacific coast as well as on its Caribbean coast. Three main subduction segments can be recognized along the Pacific coast: 1) under northwestern Costa Rica, off Papagayo Gulf and Nicoya peninsula, the Cocos plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate; 2) under southern Costa Rica (Osa and Burica peninsulas) the Cocos plate subducts under the Panama Block and 3) in the central Pacific coast (between Nicoya and Osa peninsulas) the Cocos plate subducts under a shear zone that marks the transition between the Caribbean and the Cocos plate. Along the Caribbean coast, south of Puerto Limon, the Caribbean plate subducts under the Panama block. Large subduction earthquakes occur under the Nicoya peninsula, Osa peninsula and south of Limon. Most of the rupture area of these large events lies below land so the deformation of the ocean floor is minimal and therefore the tsunamis they generate are small. No large subduction earthquakes occur under the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica due to the subduction of small sea mounts that act as small asperities without potential to accumulate large amounts of slip. For this reason the region between Nicoya and Osa peninsulas is not an important tsunamigenic zone.

  2. Hazardous'' terminology

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of terms (e.g., hazardous chemicals,'' hazardous materials,'' hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses toxic'' nomenclature.

  3. Identifying Hazards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The federal government has established a system of labeling hazardous materials to help identify the type of material and threat posed. Summaries of information on over 300 chemicals are maintained in the Envirofacts Master Chemical Integrator.

  4. Coastal Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on hurricanes and tsunamis and uses these topics to address other parts of the science curriculum. In addition to a discussion on beach erosion, a poster is provided that depicts these natural hazards that threaten coastlines. (DDR)

  5. Marine Hazards, a Result of Naval War Activities in the Pacific 1942-1945?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernaerts, A.

    2014-12-01

    The clash between the United States and Japan in the Pacific from December 1942 to August 1945 presumably caused marine geohazards exceeding significantly many submarine earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions and tsunamis. Most significantly the most pronounced shift in Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) took place within the shortest period of time ever observed, and when the Allies navies approached Japan's coast line two years later, winter air temperatures (December to February 1944/45) fell to the lowest level ever observed. The Naval War in the Pacific from 1943 - 1945 was not only devastating to man and material, but also substantially altered the structure of the sea surface layer down to 100 meter and more, with a subsequent impact on air temperatures, and PDO balance across the Northern Pacific. Until now the question has received little attention although it is obvious that a global rising temperature trend prior the early 1940s turned into a decreasing mode during the time when huge naval war activities took place across the oceans in the Northern Hemisphere that eventually lasted for three decades until the mid-1970s While the impact of screw driven vessels since their invention in the 19th Century on the sea surface structure is difficult to assess, and no investigations have been made yet . The naval war in the Pacific from 1943 - 1945 could be regarded as a huge scale 'field experiment' on manmade marine geohazards due to the suddenness, the magnitude and the intensity, penetrating the ocean to considerable depths. Naval operations and available sea and climate data need to be identified, linked, evaluated and discussed. What kind of impact did the Pacific War have on climate? It seems due time to pay attention to this issue.

  6. Active faulting in Raghunandan Anticline, NE Bengal Basin, implications for future earthquake hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan, A.; Kali, E.; Coudurier Curveur, A.; van der Woerd, J.; Tapponnier, P.; Alam, A. K.; Ildefonso, S.; Banerjee, P.; Dorbath, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Bengal basin is situated in a complex tectonic zone where the Indian-Eurasian Plates and Indian-Burmese Plates are colliding. This region is known for some of the largest intra-continental seismic events of the last 500 years, the 1548 Bengal earthquake of magnitude M>8?, the 1762 Arakan earthquake of magnitude M>8?, the 1897 Shillong earthquakes of magnitude Ms 8.7, the 1918 Srimangal earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.6 and the 1950 Assam earthquake of magnitude Mw 8.6. The source faults of these events and whether these large earthquakes occurred on faults that reached the surface or reminded blind remain controversial. The Bengal basin still needs to be better understood in terms of active faulting and seismicity. The Eastern boundary of Bengal basin is marked by numerous NS trending folds of the Indo-Burma Ranges. We focused on the Raghunandan Anticline, NE Bengal basin, a broad, asymmetric, growing ramp anticline, steep west-facing front and bounded westwards by a steep tectonic scarp truncating gently east dipping Quaternary sandstone beds. The scarp morphology is suggestive of a still preserved co-seismic free face above a colluvial wedge. We carried out more than 20 topographic profiles to document the precise height and shape of this 12-15 m high scarp (above alluvial surface) and to survey a set of uplifted alluvial terraces located along the Shahapur River behind the scarp. The analysis of the topographic profiles around the Shajibazar area reveals the presence of 5 alluvial terraces hanging 3 m to 19 m above Shahapur River bed. T1 and T2 terraces are the best-preserved terraces on both sides of the Shahapur River. C14 and Be 10 ages allow to date the lowest abandonned terrace and to estimate the uplift rate of this area.

  7. Piezo activated mode tracking system for widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity mid-IR semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocki, Gerard (Inventor); Tittel, Frank K. (Inventor); Curl, Robert F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A widely tunable, mode-hop-free semiconductor laser operating in the mid-IR comprises a QCL laser chip having an effective QCL cavity length, a diffraction grating defining a grating angle and an external cavity length with respect to said chip, and means for controlling the QCL cavity length, the external cavity length, and the grating angle. The laser of claim 1 wherein said chip may be tuned over a range of frequencies even in the absence of an anti-reflective coating. The diffraction grating is controllably pivotable and translatable relative to said chip and the effective QCL cavity length can be adjusted by varying the injection current to the chip. The laser can be used for high resolution spectroscopic applications and multi species trace-gas detection. Mode-hopping is avoided by controlling the effective QCL cavity length, the external cavity length, and the grating angle so as to replicate a virtual pivot point.

  8. Natural hazards science strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research - founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes - can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events. To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science. In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H-SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  9. Natural hazards science strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events.To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science.In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  10. Slope stability susceptibility evaluation parameter (SSEP) rating scheme - An approach for landslide hazard zonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghuvanshi, Tarun Kumar; Ibrahim, Jemal; Ayalew, Dereje

    2014-11-01

    In this paper a new slope susceptibility evaluation parameter (SSEP) rating scheme is presented which is developed as an expert evaluation approach for landslide hazard zonation. The SSEP rating scheme is developed by considering intrinsic and external triggering parameters that are responsible for slope instability. The intrinsic parameters which are considered are; slope geometry, slope material (rock or soil type), structural discontinuities, landuse and landcover and groundwater. Besides, external triggering parameters such as, seismicity, rainfall and manmade activities are also considered. For SSEP empirical technique numerical ratings are assigned to each of the intrinsic and triggering parameters on the basis of logical judgments acquired from experience of studies of intrinsic and external triggering factors and their relative impact in inducing instability to the slope. Further, the distribution of maximum SSEP ratings is based on their relative order of importance in contributing instability to the slope. Finally, summation of all ratings for intrinsic and triggering parameter based on actual observation will provide the expected degree of landslide in a given land unit. This information may be utilized to develop a landslide hazard zonation map. The SSEP technique was applied in the area around Wurgessa Kebelle of North Wollo Zonal Administration, Amhara National Regional State in northern Ethiopia, some 490 km from Addis Ababa. The results obtained indicates that 8.33% of the area fall under Moderately hazard and 83.33% fall within High hazard whereas 8.34% of the area fall under Very high hazard. Further, in order to validate the LHZ map prepared during the study, active landslide activities and potential instability areas, delineated through inventory mapping was overlain on it. All active landslide activities and potential instability areas fall within very high and high hazard zone. Thus, the satisfactory agreement confirms the rationality of

  11. One-step green synthesis of non-hazardous dicarboxyl cellulose flocculant and its flocculation activity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hangcheng; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Xiaogang; Liu, Hongyi; Shao, Lan; Zhang, Xiumei; Yao, Juming

    2015-10-15

    The waste management of used flocculants is a thorny issue in the field of wastewater treatment. To natural cellulose based flocculants, utilization of hazardous cellulose solvent and simplification of synthetic procedure are the two urgent problems needing to be further improved. In this work, a series of natural dicarboxyl cellulose flocculants (DCCs) were one-step synthesized via Schiff-base route. The cellulose solvent (NaOH/Urea solution) was utilized during the synthesis process. The full-biodegradable flocculants avoid causing secondary pollution to environment. The chemical structure and solution property of the DCC products were characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, TGA, FESEM, charge density and ζ-potential. Kaolin suspension and effluent from paper mill were selected to evaluate the flocculation activity of the DCCs. Their flocculation performance was compared with that of commercial cationic polyacrylamide and poly aluminium chloride flocculants. The positive results showed that the NaOH/Urea solvent effectively promoted the dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) conversion to DCC in the one-step synthesis reaction. The DCCs with the carboxylate content more than 1 mmol/g exhibited steady flocculation performance to kaolin suspension in the broad pH range from 4 to 10. Its flocculation capacity to the effluent from paper mill also showed excellent.

  12. A comparative investigation on adsorption performances of mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste rubber tire and activated carbon for a hazardous azo dye--Acid Blue 113.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V K; Gupta, Bina; Rastogi, Arshi; Agarwal, Shilpi; Nayak, Arunima

    2011-02-15

    A mesoporous carbon developed from waste tire rubber, characterized by chemical analysis, FTIR, and SEM studies, was used as an adsorbent for the removal and recovery of a hazardous azo dye, Acid Blue 113. Surface area, porosity, and density were determined. The adsorption of the dye over the prepared adsorbent and a commercial activated carbon was achieved under different pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process follow first order kinetics and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative. By percolating the dye solution through fixed-bed columns the bulk removal of the Acid Blue 113 was carried out and necessary parameters were determined to find out the percentage saturation of both the columns. Recovery of the dye was made by eluting 0.1 M NaOH through the column.

  13. Optimal external laryngeal manipulation versus McCoy blade in active position in patients with poor view of glottis on direct laryngoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Arumugam; Venkat, Ranjani; Badhe, Ashok Shankar

    2010-01-01

    Successful endotracheal intubation requires a clear view of glottis. Optimal external laryngeal manipulation may improve the view of glottis on direct laryngoscopy with Macintosh blade, but it requires another trained hand. Alternatively, McCoy laryngoscope with elevated tip may be useful. This study has been designed to compare the two techniques in patients with poor view of glottis. Two hundred patients with ‘Grade 2 or more’ view of glottis on direct laryngoscopy with Macintosh blade are included in the study. Optimal external laryngeal manipulation was applied, followed by laryngoscopy with McCoy blade in activated position; and the view was noted in both situations. The two interventions were compared using Chi-square test. The overall changes, in the views, were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed rank test. Both the techniques improved the view of glottis significantly (P<0.05). Optimal external laryngeal manipulation was significantly better than McCoy laryngoscope in active position, especially in patients with Grade 3 or 4 baseline view, poor oropharyngeal class, decreased head extension and decreased submandibular space (odds ratio = 2.36, 3.17, 3.22 and 26.48 respectively). To conclude, optimal external laryngeal manipulation is a better technique than McCoy laryngoscope in patients with poor view of glottis on direct laryngoscopy with Macintosh blade. PMID:20532072

  14. Bridging the gap between research and practice: an assessment of external validity of community-based physical activity programs in Bogotá, Colombia, and Recife, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paez, Diana C; Reis, Rodrigo S; Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Sarmiento, Olga L; Barros, Mauro; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-03-01

    For more than a decade, physical activity classes have been offered in public places at no cost to the participants in some Latin American cities, however, internal and external validity evidence of these programs is limited. The goals of this study were to assess, report, and compare the external validity of the Recreovia program (RCP) in Colombia, and the Academia da Cidade program (ACP) in Brazil. Interviews to assess external validity of the RCP and ACP were conducted in 2012. The interview guide was developed based on the RE-AIM framework. Seventeen key informants were selected to participate in the study. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative qualitative method and experts validated common themes. RCP and ACP key informants reported that both programs reach underserved population. There is no information available about effectiveness. Both programs take place in public spaces (e.g., parks and plazas), which are selected for adoption mainly based on community demand. RCP and ACP offer free physical activity classes with educational and cultural components, have a strong organizational structure for implementation, and differ on schedule and content of classes. Funding sources were reported to play an important role on long-term maintenance. Facilitators and barriers were identified. Programs are similar in the reach and adoption elements; the main differences were found on implementation and maintenance, whereas information on effectiveness was not found. Reporting external validity of these programs is useful to bridge the gap between research and practice.

  15. California's potential volcanic hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, P. )

    1989-01-01

    Although volcanic eruptions have occurred infrequently in California during the last few thousand years, the potential danger to life and property from volcanoes in the state is great enough to be of concern, according to a recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publication. The 17-page bulletin, Potential Hazards from Future Volcanic Eruptions in California, gives a brief history of volcanic activity in California during the past 100,000 years, descriptions of the types of volcanoes in the state, the types of potentially hazardous volcanic events that could occur, and hazard-zonation maps and tables depicting six areas of the state where volcanic eruptions might occur. The six areas and brief descriptions of their past volcanic history and potential for future volcanic hazards are briefly summarized here.

  16. Uncertainties in biological responses that influence hazard or risk approaches to the regulation of endocrine active substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) may have delayed or transgenerational effects and display non-monotonic dose response relationships (NMDRs) that require careful consideration when determining environmental hazards. The case studies evaluated for the SETAC Pellston Workshop&...

  17. SETAC Pellston WorkshopTM: Environmental hazard and risk assessment approaches for endocrine-active chemicals (EHRA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suspected endocrine disrupting substances (EDS) are now being evaluated by several regulatory authorities. A debate is in progress about whether or not EDS can be adequately assessed by following the standard approach involving identification of intrinsic hazards, prediction of e...

  18. Flood- and Drought-Related Natural Hazards Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2016-03-23

    Tools for natural hazard assessment and mitigation • Light detection and ranging (lidar) remote sensing technology • StreamStats Web-based tool for streamflow statistics • Flood inundation mapper

  19. Hazardous waste minimization report for CY 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, C.M.

    1990-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility. Its primary role is the support of energy technology through applied research and engineering development and scientific research in basic and physical sciences. ORNL also is a valuable resource in the solution of problems of national importance, such as nuclear and chemical waste management. In addition, useful radioactive and stable isotopes which are unavailable from the private sector are produced at ORNL. As a result of these activities, hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes are generated at ORNL. A formal hazardous waste minimization program for ORNL was launched in mid 1985 in response to the requirements of Section 3002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). During 1986, a task plan was developed. The six major tasks include: planning and implementation of a laboratory-wide chemical inventory and the subsequent distribution, treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) of unneeded chemicals; establishment and implementation of a distribution system for surplus chemicals to other (internal and external) organizations; training and communication functions necessary to inform and motivate laboratory personnel; evaluation of current procurement and tracking systems for hazardous materials and recommendation and implementation of improvements; systematic review of applicable current and proposed ORNL procedures and ongoing and proposed activities for waste volume and/or toxicity reduction potential; and establishment of criteria by which to measure progress and reporting of significant achievements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. The effect of external magnetic fields on the catalytic activity of Pd nanoparticles in Suzuki cross-coupling reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Changlai; Li, Ren; Li, Ran; Chen, Qianwang

    2016-04-01

    Pd nanoparticles supported on Co3[Co(CN)6]2 nanoparticles (marked as Pd@Co3[Co(CN)6]2 nanoparticles) were prepared as catalysts for the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction under external magnetic fields (MFs). It is shown that a weak external MF can increase the rate of the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction at room temperature, and with the increase of the strength of external MFs the reaction rate also increased. At 30 °C, the yield was increased by nearly 50% under a 0.5 T external MF after 24 hours compared to that without a MF applied. Theoretical calculations revealed that the adsorption energy changed from -1.07 to -1.12 eV in the presence of MFs, which increased by 5% compared with the absence of MFs, leading to a lower total energy of the adsorption system, which is beneficial to the reaction. From the analysis of the partial density states, it could be seen that the 2p orbital of the carbon atom in bromobenzene and the 4d orbital of the Pd atom overlap more closely in the presence of MFs, which is beneficial for the electron transfer from the Pd substrate to the bromobenzene molecule. This study is helpful in understanding the interaction between MFs and catalysts and regulating the process of catalytic reactions via MFs.Pd nanoparticles supported on Co3[Co(CN)6]2 nanoparticles (marked as Pd@Co3[Co(CN)6]2 nanoparticles) were prepared as catalysts for the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction under external magnetic fields (MFs). It is shown that a weak external MF can increase the rate of the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction at room temperature, and with the increase of the strength of external MFs the reaction rate also increased. At 30 °C, the yield was increased by nearly 50% under a 0.5 T external MF after 24 hours compared to that without a MF applied. Theoretical calculations revealed that the adsorption energy changed from -1.07 to -1.12 eV in the presence of MFs, which increased by 5% compared with the absence of MFs, leading to a lower total energy of the

  1. The Impact Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, D.

    2009-12-01

    Throughout its existence, Earth has been pummelled by rocks from space. The cratered face of the Moon testifies to this continuing cosmic bombardment, and the 1908 Tunguska impact in Siberia should have been a wake-up call to the impact hazard. For most scientists, however, it was the discovery 30 years ago that the KT mass extinction was caused by an impact that opened our eyes to this important aspect of Earth history -- that some geological and biological changes have an external origin, and that the biosphere is much more sensitive to impact disturbance than was imagined. While life adapts beautifully to slow changes in the enviroment, a sudden event, like a large impact, can have catastrophic consequences. While we do not face any known hazard today for an extinction-level event, we are becoming aware that more than a million near-earth asteroids (NEAs) exist with the capacity to take out a city if they hit in the wrong place. The NASA Spaceguard Survey has begun to discover and track the larger NEAs, but we do not yet have the capability to find more than a few pecent of the objects as small as the Tunguska impactor (about 40 m diameter). This continuing impact hazard is at roughly the hazard level of volcanic eruptions, including the rare supervolcano eruptions. The differnece is that an incoming cosmic projectile can be detected and tracked, and by application of modern space technology, most impactors could be deflected. Impacts are the only natural hazard that can be eliminated. This motivates our NEA search programs such as Spaceguard and argues for extending them to smaller sizes. At the same time we realize that the most likely warning time for the next impact remains a few seconds, and we may therefore need to fall back on the more conventional responses of disaster mitigation and relief.

  2. Biogeosystem technique as a method to overcome the Biological and Environmental Hazards of modern Agricultural, Irrigational and Technological Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Zinchenko, Vladimir; Zarmaev, Ali; Magomadov, Ali; Chernenko, Vladimir; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin; Dikaev, Zaurbek

    2014-05-01

    Modern challenge for humanity is to replace the paradigm of nature use and overcome environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere. It is utterly reasonable to stop dividing biosphere on shares - the human habitat and the environment. In the 21st century it is an outdated anthropocentrism. Contradicting himself to biosphere Humankind has the problems. The new paradigm of biosphere control by methods of Biogeosystem technique is on agenda of Humankind. Key directions of Biogeosystem technique. Tillage. Single rotary milling 20…30-50…60 sm soil layer optimizes the evolution and environment of soil, creates a favorable conditions for the rhizosphere, increases the biological productivity of biosphere by 30-50% compared to the standard agricultural practices for the period up to 40 years. Recycle material. Recycling of mineral and organic substances in soil layer of 20…30-50…60 sm in rotary milling soil processing provides wastes clean return to biosphere. Direct intrasoil substances synthesis. Environmentally friendly robot wasteless nanotechnology provides direct substances synthesis, including fertilizers, inside the soil. It eliminates the prerequisites of the wastes formation under standard industrial technologies. Selective substance's extraction from soil. Electrochemical robotic nanotechnology provides selective substances extraction from soil. The technology provides recovery, collection and subsequent safe industrial use of extracted substances out of landscape. Saving fresh water. An important task is to save fresh water in biosphere. Irrigation spends water 4-5 times more of biological requirements of plants, leads to degradation of soil and landscape. The intrasoil pulse continuous-discrete paradigm of irrigation is proposed. It provides the soil and landscape conservation, increases the biological productivity, save the fresh water up to 10-20 times. The subsurface soil rotary processing and

  3. An assessment of hazards caused by electromagnetic interaction on humans present near short-wave physiotherapeutic devices of various types including hazards for users of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMD).

    PubMed

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs) may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W) or general public (GP) members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons). Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs), by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators) were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users). Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45 cm for W or 62 cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90 cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated). Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120 cm for W or 150 cm for both-GP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment).

  4. Space Station: Improving NASA's planning for external maintenance. Report to the Chair, Government Activities and Transportation Subcommittee, Committee on Government Operations, and House of Representatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-07-01

    In 1996, NASA plans to begin assembly of the international Space Station Freedom in low earth orbit. One of the greatest challenges facing NASA will be maintaining the Space Station's external components throughout the assembly period and over its anticipated 30-year life using astronauts to perform extravehicular activity (EVA). The amount of EVA that can be performed is limited, and the activity is inherently risky, given the harsh environment of space. The United States General Accounting Office (GAO) review of NASA's efforts to determine the Space Station's EVA maintenance requirements and its plans to meet those requirements is presented.

  5. 10 CFR 851.21 - Hazard identification and assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... using of accredited and certified laboratories; (3) Record observations, testing and monitoring results... hazards; (6) Perform routine job activity-level hazard analyses; (7) Review site safety and...

  6. Geothermal hazards - Mercury emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1975-01-01

    Enthusiasm for intensified geothermal exploration may induce many participants to overlook a long-term potential toxicity hazard possibly associated with the tapping of magmatic steam. The association of high atmospheric Hg levels with geothermal activity has been established both in Hawaii and Iceland, and it has been shown that mercury can be introduced into the atmosphere from fumaroles, hot springs, and magmatic sources. These arguments, extended to thallium, selenium, and other hazardous elements, underscore the need for environmental monitoring in conjunction with the delivery of magmatic steam to the surface.

  7. Effects of augmented trunk stabilization with external compression support on shoulder and scapular muscle activity and maximum strength during isometric shoulder abduction.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Suhn-yeop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of augmented trunk stabilization with external compression support (ECS) on the electromyography (EMG) activity of shoulder and scapular muscles and shoulder abductor strength during isometric shoulder abduction. Twenty-six women volunteered for the study. Surface EMG was used to monitor the activity of the upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), and middle deltoid (MD), and shoulder abductor strength was measured using a dynamometer during three experimental conditions: (1) no external support (condition-1), (2) pelvic support (condition-2), and (3) pelvic and thoracic supports (condition-3) in an active therapeutic movement device. EMG activities were significantly lower for UT and higher for MD during condition 3 than during condition 1 (p < 0.05). The MD/UT ratio was significantly higher during condition 3 than during conditions 1 and 2, and higher during condition 2 than during condition 1 (p < 0.05). Shoulder abductor strength was significantly higher during condition 3 than during condition 1 (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that augmented trunk stabilization with the ECS may be advantageous with regard to reducing the compensatory muscle effort of the UT during isometric shoulder abduction and increasing shoulder abductor strength.

  8. Cosmic Rays trajectory reconstruction in the Earth Magnetosphere: External Field models importance during the last solar active period (from 2011 to 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandi, Davide; Della Torre, Stefano; Pensotti, Simonetta; Bobik, Pavol; Kudela, Karel; Rancoita, Pier Giorgio; Gervasi, Massimo; Jeroen Boschini, Matteo; Rozza, Davide; La vacca, Giuseppe; Tacconi, Mauro

    Geomagsphere is a backtracing code for Cosmic Rays trajectory reconstruction in the Earth Magnetosphere that has been developed with last models of Internal (IGRF-11) and External (Tsyganenko 1996 and 2005) field components. This backtracing technique was used to separate Primary Cosmic Rays Particles, in case of allowed trajectory, from Secondary particles, in case of forbidden trajectory. We compared Magnetic Field measurements with and without the external field model with satellite data in past periods, in particular GOES (1998) and CLUSTER (2004) data. For both periods TS05 reproduces the magnetc field components with good accuracy. The specificity of the TS05 model, designed for solar storms, was tested comparing it with data taken by CLUSTER during the last solar active period (from 2011 to 2013) During Solar Flares (occurred march and May 2012), the usage of such an external field has a relevavant impact on fraction of AMS-02 cosmic rays identified as trapped and secondary particles, especially in high geomagnetic latitudes, as was expecte by some previous simulations, in comparison with the Internal Field only.

  9. Hazardous fluid leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Harold E.; McLaurin, Felder M.; Ortiz, Monico; Huth, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.

  10. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-11-05

    This analysis was performed by the Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) Safety Assurance Department to identify and document the internal hazards and preliminary events associated with preclosure operations of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Internal hazards are those hazards presented by operation of the facility and associated processes. These are in contrast to external hazards which involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. The hazard analysis methodology used in this analysis provides a systematic means to identify facility hazards and associated events that may result in radiological consequences to the public and facility worker during the MGR preclosure period. The events are documented in a preliminary events list and are intended to be used as input to the MGR Design Basis Event (DBE) selection process. It is expected that the results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of DBE analyses for the preclosure period of repository operation. As the MGR design progresses, this analysis will be reviewed to ensure no new hazards are introduced and that previously evaluated hazards have not increased in severity.

  11. Trunk muscle activation and associated lumbar spine joint shear forces under different levels of external forward force applied to the trunk.

    PubMed

    Kingma, Idsart; Staudenmann, Didier; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2007-02-01

    High anterior intervertebral shear loads could cause low back injuries and therefore the neuromuscular system may actively counteract these forces. This study investigated whether, under constant moment loading relative to L3L4, an increased externally applied forward force on the trunk results in a shift in muscle activation towards the use of muscles with more backward directed lines of action, thereby reducing the increase in total joint shear force. Twelve participants isometrically resisted forward forces, applied at several locations on the trunk, while moments were held constant relative to L3L4. Surface EMG and lumbar curvature were measured, and an EMG-driven muscle model was used to calculate compression and shear forces at all lumbar intervertebral joints. Larger externally applied forward forces resulted in a flattening of the lumbar lordosis and a slightly more backward directed muscle force. Furthermore, the overall muscle activation increased. At the T12L1 to L3L4 joint, resulting joint shear forces remained small (less than 200N) because the average muscle force pulled backward relative to those joints. However, at the L5S1 joint the average muscle force pulled the trunk forward so that the increase in muscle force with increasing externally applied forward force caused a further rise in shear force (by 102.1N, SD=104.0N), resulting in a joint shear force of 1080.1N (SD=150.4N) at 50Nm moment loading. It is concluded that the response of the neuromuscular system to shear force challenges tends to increase rather than reduce the shear loading at the lumbar joint that is subjected to the highest shear forces.

  12. Effect of breeding activity on the microflora of the external genitalia and in the semen of stallions, and the relationship between micro-organisms on the skin and on the external genitalia.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, T; Miranda, C; Pinto, M; Silva, E; Damásio, L; Costa, A L; Correia, M J; Duarte, J C; Cosinha, C; Lopes, G; Thompson, G; Rocha, A

    2014-12-01

    A possible role of breeding activities in the composition of the microbial population in stallions' external genitalia (EG) and the relationship between micro-organisms colonizing the skin of the abdomen and the ones colonizing the EG have not been studied. In experiment 1, EG microbiological samples were collected from 41 stallions used for both natural cover and semen collection (BST) and from 18 non-breeding stallions (NBST). A higher (p < 0.05) frequency of isolation of potentially pathogenic species was found for BST. Age did not influence number of micro-organism species isolated both in BST and NBST. In experiment 2, the microbial content of the EG and semen was compared in 23 BST. Most micro-organisms isolated from the EG were present in semen, albeit with a numerically lower prevalence. In 7 stallions, six microbial species isolated from semen were absent from the EG cultures, suggesting contamination by the operator. In experiment 3, a numerically higher number of micro-organism species was isolated from the EG of 31 stallions, than from their skin of the ventral abdomen in contact with the penis or from the skin of the thorax. With the sole exception of Escherichia coli, potentially pathogenic bacteria were only isolated from the EG but not from the skin. Results suggest that breeding activity increased the number of species colonizing the EG; most species isolated from the EG were also found in semen even if with a lower frequency, and additional semen contamination seemed to occur during its manipulation. Many micro-organism species of the skin were also isolated from the penis, but independently of being or not in contact with the penis, skin did not seem to provide an adequate environment for the growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria that were isolated from EG, with the sole exception for E. coli.

  13. Hazardous waste: cleanup and prevention

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Cronin, Nancy L.; Farrar, Frank; Serrano, Guillermo Eliezer Ávila; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Our lifestyles are supported by complex Industrial activities that produce many different chemicals and chemical wastes. The Industries that produce our clothing, cars, medicines, paper, food, fuels, steel, plastics, and electric components use and discard thousands of chemicals every year. At home we may use lawn chemicals, solvents, disinfectants, cleaners, and auto products to Improve our quality of life. A chemical that presents a threat or unreasonable risk to people or the environment Is a hazardous material. When a hazardous material can no longer be used, It becomes a hazardous waste. Hazardous wastes come from a variety of sources, from both present and past activities. Impacts to human health and the environment can result from Improper handling and disposal of hazardous waste.

  14. Assessing hazard risk, cost of adaptation and traditional land use activities in the context of permafrost thaw in communities in Yukon and the Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkert, B.; Perrin, A.; Calmels, F.

    2015-12-01

    Together with its partners, the Northern Climate ExChange (NCE, part of the Yukon Research Centre at Yukon College) has been mapping permafrost-related hazard risk in northern communities since 2010. By integrating geoscience and climate project data, we have developed a series of community-scale hazard risk maps. The maps depict hazard risk in stoplight colours for easy interpretation, and support community-based, future-focused adaptation planning. Communities, First Nations, consultants and local regulatory agencies have used the hazard risk maps to site small-scale infrastructure projects, guide land planning processes, and assess suitability of land development applications. However, we know that assessing risk is only one step in integrating the implications of permafrost degradation in societal responses to environmental change. To build on our permafrost hazard risk maps, we are integrating economic principles and traditional land use elements. To assess economic implications of adaptation to permafrost change, we are working with geotechnical engineers to identify adaptation options (e.g., modified building techniques, permafrost thaw mitigation approaches) that suit the risks captured by our existing hazard risk maps. We layer this with an economic analysis of the costs associated with identified adaptation options, providing end-users with a more comprehensive basis upon which to make decisions related to infrastructure. NCE researchers have also integrated traditional land use activities in assessments of permafrost thaw risk, in a project led by Jean Marie River First Nation in the Northwest Territories. Here, the implications of permafrost degradation on food security and land use priorities were assessed by layering key game and gathering areas on permafrost thaw vulnerability maps. Results indicated that close to one quarter of big and small game habitats, and close to twenty percent of key furbearer and gathering areas within the First Nation

  15. When the hazard you're monitoring is the least of your troubles… the early days of a ubiquitous computing citizen science initiative on active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Manen, S. M.; Richards, M.; Seaton, R.; Cameron, I.; Avard, G.; Martinez, M.

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 500 million people live in close proximity to one or more of the world's 1500 active volcanoes, and this number is set to increase through population growth. The corresponding human, social, environmental and economic costs of volcanic activity are likewise set to rise. Monitoring of active volcanoes is imperative to minimize the impact of volcanic activity. However, people's responses towards risk are not just determined by objective scientific information, but also by socio-cognitive factors such as hazard salience; risk perception; anxiety levels and sense of self efficacy. This project aims to take a citizen science approach to the monitoring of hazardous volcanic gases: a low-cost automated ubiquitous technology station will increase spatial and temporal data resolution while providing citizens access to relevant, accurate, timely and local information. This means a single data stream can be used to develop a better understanding of volcanic degassing and raise levels of hazard salience and increase feelings of self efficacy. A year and two prototypes into the project, this work presents the lessons learnt to date. Careful consideration was given to the station design in light of the harsh conditions it may encounter. Once the first prototypes were built, results from the initial lab tests were encouraging. Yet it wasn't until the stations were taken into the field that unexpected challenges were encountered: humans. During the very first field trial the prototype was vandalised, our second attempt was thwarted by customs and courier services. As a result, we've had to be flexible in our approach and adapt our strategy and station design in response to these events, which will eventually result in a better outcome. However, this case study serves as a reminder of the importance of considering factors beyond the equipment, data, interpretation and involvement of the public, when planning and implementing a citizen science initiative.

  16. Effect of Externally Applied Perturbation Fields on Alfvénic MHD Activity in the NSTX Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolon, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Observations from NSTX demonstrate that externally applied magnetic perturbations (MP) can alter the dynamic of beam driven Alfvén modes. Bursting Global Alfvén Eigenmodes (GAE, n = 7-9, 400-700 kHz) respond to pulses of static n = 3 fields (δB/B ~ 0.01 at the plasma edge) reducing mode amplitude, bursting period and frequency sweep by a factor of 2-3 [Bortolon et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 265008 (2013)]. Similar MP attenuate the amplitude of continuous Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAE, n = 2-3, 50-90 kHz). Calculations of the perturbed beam-ion distribution function, considering MP from ideal or resistive plasma response, confirm an enhanced fast-ion transport consistent with a reduced drive for the GAE. At the same time, MP can also affect the Alfvén stability by altering the structure of Alfvén continua through modification of the kinetic profiles or introducing toroidal coupling as result of the broken axisymmetry. Computations of the n = 2 Alfvén continuum for NSTX equilibria with n = 3 MP show strong modification of the TAE continuum near the plasma edge, where coupling between n = 2 and n = 5 continuum modes reduces the gap, providing an additional damping for TAE modes extending in this region. DOE Contracts No. DE-FG02-06ER54867, DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  17. A Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity on the external surface of Trypanosoma rangeli modulated by exogenous inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-de-Souza, André L; Dick, Claudia Fernanda; Dos Santos, André Luiz Araújo; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2008-08-01

    In this work, we characterized a Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity present in live Trypanosoma rangeli epimastigotes. This enzyme showed capacity to hydrolyze the artificial substrate for phosphatases, p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP). At saturating concentration of p-NPP, half-maximal p-NPP hydrolysis was obtained with 0.23mM Mg(2+). Ca(2+) had no effect on the basal phosphatase activity, could not substitute Mg(2+) as an activator and in contrast inhibited the p-NPP hydrolysis stimulated by Mg(2+). The dependence on p-NPP concentration showed a normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics for this phosphatase activity with values of V(max) of 8.94+/-0.36 nmol p-NP x h(-1) x 10(-7) cells and apparent K(m) of 1.04+/-0.16 mM p-NPP. Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity was stimulated by the alkaline pH range. Experiments using inhibitors, such as, sodium fluoride, sodium orthovanadate and ammonium molybdate, inhibited the Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity. Inorganic phosphate (Pi), a product of phosphatases, inhibited reversibly in 50% this activity. Okadaic acid and microcystin-LR, specific phosphoserine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors, inhibited significantly the Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity. In addition, this phosphatase activity was able to recognize as substrates only o-phosphoserine and o-phosphothreonine, while o-phosphotyrosine was not a good substrate for this phosphatase. Epimastigote forms of T. rangeli exhibit a typical growth curve, achieving the stationary phase around fifth or sixth day and the Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity decreased around 10-fold with the cell growth progression. Cells maintained at Pi-deprived medium (2 mM Pi) present Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity approximately threefold higher than that maintained at Pi-supplemented medium (50 mM Pi).

  18. The external amino acid signaling pathway promotes activation of Stp1 and Uga35/Dal81 transcription factors for induction of the AGP1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Sater, Fadi; Iraqui, Ismaïl; Urrestarazu, Antonio; André, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    Yeast cells respond to the presence of amino acids in their environment by inducing transcription of several amino acid permease genes including AGP1, BAP2, and BAP3. The signaling pathway responsible for this induction involves Ssy1, a permease-like sensor of external amino acids, and culminates with proteolytic cleavage and translocation to the nucleus of the zinc-finger proteins Stp1 and Stp2, the lack of which abolishes induction of BAP2 and BAP3. Here we show that Stp1-but not Stp2-plays an important role in AGP1 induction, although significant induction of AGP1 by amino acids persists in stp1 and stp1 stp2 mutants. This residual induction depends on the Uga35/Dal81 transcription factor, indicating that the external amino acid signaling pathway activates not only Stp1 and Stp2, but also another Uga35/Dal81-dependent transcriptional circuit. Analysis of the AGP1 gene's upstream region revealed that Stp1 and Uga35/Dal81 act synergistically through a 21-bp cis-acting sequence similar to the UAS(AA) element previously found in the BAP2 and BAP3 upstream regions. Although cells growing under poor nitrogen-supply conditions display much higher induction of AGP1 expression than cells growing under good nitrogen-supply conditions, the UAS(AA) itself is totally insensitive to nitrogen availability. Nitrogen-source control of AGP1 induction is mediated by the GATA factor Gln3, likely acting through adjacent 5'-GATA-3' sequences, to amplify the positive effect of UAS(AA). Our data indicate that Stp1 may act in combination with distinct sets of transcription factors, according to the gene context, to promote induction of transcription in response to external amino acids. The data also suggest that Uga35/Dal81 is yet another transcription factor under the control of the external amino acid sensing pathway. Finally, the data show that the TOR pathway mediating global nitrogen control of transcription does not interfere with the external amino acid signaling pathway. PMID

  19. [The effect of long-term external ionizing radiation on the functional activity of rat thyroid under enhanced potassium iodide consumption].

    PubMed

    Lupachik, S V; Nadol'nik, L I

    2008-01-01

    The study was devoted to the effect of long-term (20 days) external ionizing radiation at a dose of 0.5 Gy on the iodide metabolism in the rat thyroid under supplementation of high iodine doses (10 daily KI doses). It was found that the potassium iodide administration partially prevented the effects of a post radiation decrease of serum thyroid hormone levels (the level of T4 was normal and that of T3 was 77.4% of the controls). After the supplementation of 10 daily iodide doses, the rat thyroid tissue showed the most pronounced increase in the levels of total, free and protein-bound iodide compared to the groups of animals consuming normal and elevated KI doses. Pronounced inhibition of thyroid peroxidase activity (3.1-fold) was noted in the same group. The data obtained indicate a radiation-induced activation of iodide uptake during its enhanced supplementation and disturbed iodide enzymatic oxidation and organification.

  20. High-resolution 3D seismic reflection imaging across active faults and its impact on seismic hazard estimation in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroshi; Abe, Susumu; Kawasaki, Shinji; Kato, Naoko

    2016-10-01

    We collected and interpreted high-resolution 3D seismic reflection data across a hypothesized fault scarp, along the largest active fault that could generate hazardous earthquakes in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The processed and interpreted 3D seismic cube, linked with nearby borehole stratigraphy, suggests that a monocline that deforms lower Pleistocene units is unconformably overlain by middle Pleistocene conglomerates. Judging from structural patterns and vertical separation on the lower-middle Pleistocene units and the ground surface, the hypothesized scarp was interpreted as a terrace riser rather than as a manifestation of late Pleistocene structural growth resulting from repeated fault activity. Devastating earthquake scenarios had been predicted along the fault in question based on its proximity to the metropolitan area, however our new results lead to a significant decrease in estimated fault length and consequently in the estimated magnitude of future earthquakes associated with reactivation. This suggests a greatly reduced seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan area from earthquakes generated by active intraplate crustal faults.

  1. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  2. The Impact of External Employment on 12th Grade Student Participation in Extracurricular Activities as a Function of School Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 were used to compare 11,000 high school students on school size, time spent participating in extracurricular activities (ECA), and hours spent in employment. Findings indicated that students from small schools spent more time participating in ECA than students from larger schools for equivalent…

  3. International Space Station External Contamination Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikatarian, Ron; Soares, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    PResentation slides examine external contamination requirements; International Space Station (ISS) external contamination sources; ISS external contamination sensitive surfaces; external contamination control; external contamination control for pre-launch verification; flight experiments and observations; the Space Shuttle Orbiter waste water dump, materials outgassing, active vacuum vents; example of molecular column density profile, modeling and analysis tools; sources of outgassing induced contamination analyzed to date, quiescent sources, observations on optical degradation due to induced external contamination in LEO; examples of typical contaminant and depth profiles; and status of the ISS system, material outgassing, thruster plumes, and optical degradation.

  4. Effect of external sodium on intracellular chloride activity in the surface cells of frog gastric mucosa. Microelectrode studies.

    PubMed

    Curci, S; Schettino, T

    1984-06-01

    The intracellular chloride activity and its dependence on ionic substitutions in the bathing media was studied in individual surface cells of resting gastric mucosa using conventional and Cl- selective microelectrodes. When the tissue was perfused with control NaCl-Ringer the cell membrane p.d.'s, cell-lumen (psi cm) and cell-serosa (psi cs) were -40.9 +/- 0.6 mV and -66.8 +/- 0.5 mV (n = 175) respectively and the p.d. measured by the Cl- selective microelectrodes across the serosal membrane (psi csCl-) averaged -32.4 +/- 0.7 mV (n = 138). From these values an intracellular Cl- activity (acCl-) of 15.3 mmol/l can be estimated. The data indicate that chloride ion is distributed close to equilibrium at the luminal membrane while it is accumulated by an energy requiring step at the serosal membrane. Reduction (2 mmol/l) or absence of chloride from the luminal bath did not result in any detectable change of acCl-; on the other hand, after removal of Cl- from the serosal bath the intracellular Cl- activity fell to 7.1 mmol/l. When the tissue was exposed to serosal Na+-free Ringer (Na+ replaced by choline or TMA), although the acCl- remained unaffected, a marked reduction of the electrochemical gradient for Cl- at the serosal membrane was observed. These data indicate that: chloride is accumulated in the surface cells against its electrochemical potential difference at the serosal membrane; the luminal membrane has a negligible conductance to Cl-, while the serosal membrane represents a conductive pathway to chloride; the uphill entry of chloride at the serosal membrane seems to be, at least partially, Na+-dependent.

  5. Computationally efficient simulation of electrical activity at cell membranes interacting with self-generated and externally imposed electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo-Toro, Andres; Neef, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Objective. We present a computational method that implements a reduced set of Maxwell's equations to allow simulation of cells under realistic conditions: sub-micron cell morphology, a conductive non-homogeneous space and various ion channel properties and distributions. Approach. While a reduced set of Maxwell's equations can be used to couple membrane currents to extra- and intracellular potentials, this approach is rarely taken, most likely because adequate computational tools are missing. By using these equations, and introducing an implicit solver, numerical stability is attained even with large time steps. The time steps are limited only by the time development of the membrane potentials. Main results. This method allows simulation times of tens of minutes instead of weeks, even for complex problems. The extracellular fields are accurately represented, including secondary fields, which originate at inhomogeneities of the extracellular space and can reach several millivolts. We present a set of instructive examples that show how this method can be used to obtain reference solutions for problems, which might not be accurately captured by the traditional approaches. This includes the simulation of realistic magnitudes of extracellular action potential signals in restricted extracellular space. Significance. The electric activity of neurons creates extracellular potentials. Recent findings show that these endogenous fields act back onto the neurons, contributing to the synchronization of population activity. The influence of endogenous fields is also relevant for understanding therapeutic approaches such as transcranial direct current, transcranial magnetic and deep brain stimulation. The mutual interaction between fields and membrane currents is not captured by today's concepts of cellular electrophysiology, including the commonly used activation function, as those concepts are based on isolated membranes in an infinite, isopotential extracellular space. The

  6. Historical analysis of US pipeline accidents triggered by natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, or lightning, can initiate accidents in oil and gas pipelines with potentially major consequences on the population or the environment due to toxic releases, fires and explosions. Accidents of this type are also referred to as Natech events. Many major accidents highlight the risk associated with natural-hazard impact on pipelines transporting dangerous substances. For instance, in the USA in 1994, flooding of the San Jacinto River caused the rupture of 8 and the undermining of 29 pipelines by the floodwaters. About 5.5 million litres of petroleum and related products were spilled into the river and ignited. As a results, 547 people were injured and significant environmental damage occurred. Post-incident analysis is a valuable tool for better understanding the causes, dynamics and impacts of pipeline Natech accidents in support of future accident prevention and mitigation. Therefore, data on onshore hazardous-liquid pipeline accidents collected by the US Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) was analysed. For this purpose, a database-driven incident data analysis system was developed to aid the rapid review and categorization of PHMSA incident reports. Using an automated data-mining process followed by a peer review of the incident records and supported by natural hazard databases and external information sources, the pipeline Natechs were identified. As a by-product of the data-collection process, the database now includes over 800,000 incidents from all causes in industrial and transportation activities, which are automatically classified in the same way as the PHMSA record. This presentation describes the data collection and reviewing steps conducted during the study, provides information on the developed database and data analysis tools, and reports the findings of a statistical analysis of the identified hazardous liquid pipeline incidents in terms of accident dynamics and

  7. The External Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  8. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    SCHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-08-22

    overpressure--external to T Plant, was included for completeness but is not within the scope of the hazards evaluation. Container failures external to T Plant will be addressed as part of the transportation analysis. This document describes the HazOp analysis performed for the activities associated with the storage of SNF sludge in the T Plant.

  9. Volcanic hazards to airports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  10. Comparison of the hazards posed to amphibians by the glyphosate spray control program versus the chemical and physical activities of coca production in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Brain, Richard A; Solomon, Keith R

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the cumulative multifactorial physical and chemical impacts resulting from coca production on amphibian populations in comparison with the potential impacts produced by the herbicide glyphosate (Glyphos), which, mixed with the surfactant Cosmo-Flux, is used in the spray control program for illicit crops in Colombia. Using similar worst-case assumptions for exposure, several other pesticides used for coca production, including mancozeb, lambda cyhalothrin, endosulfan, diazinon, malathion, and chlorpyrifos, were up to 10- to 100-fold more toxic to frogs than the Glyphos-Cosmo-Flux mixture. Comparing hazard quotients based on application rates, several of these compounds demonstrated hazards 3-383 times that of formulated glyphosate. Secondary effects, particularly of insecticides, are also a concern, as these agents selectively target the primary food source of amphibians, which may indirectly impact growth and development. Although the potential chemical impacts by other pesticides are considerable, physical activities associated with coca production, particularly deforestation of primary forests for new coca plots, portend the greatest hazard to amphibian populations. The entire production cycle of cocaine has been linked to ecosystem degradation. The clearing of pristine forests for coca propagation in Colombia is well documented, and some of these regions coincide with those that contain exceptional amphibian biodiversity. This is particularly problematic as coca production encroaches more deeply into more remote areas of tropical rain forest. Transportation of disease, including the chitrid fungus, to these remote regions via human intrusion may also adversely affect amphibian populations. Therefore, the cumulative impacts of coca production, through habitat destruction, application of agrochemicals, and potential transmission of disease, are judged to pose greater risks to amphibian populations in coca-growing regions than the glyphosate

  11. Removal of PCDD/Fs from flue gas by a fixed-bed activated carbon filter in a hazardous waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Karademir, Aykan; Bakoglu, Mithat; Taspinar, Fatih; Ayberk, Savas

    2004-02-15

    The adsorption of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) by activated carbon (AC) was examined in a fixed-bed AC unit in a hazardous waste incinerator (IZAYDAS) in Turkey. Results showed that the removal efficiencies of PCDD/Fs decrease as the chlorination level increases, which was explained by the difference in gas/particle partitioning of the compounds. Since dioxins are tightly adsorbed by activated carbon, other flue gas constituents showed no clear effect on the dioxin removal. Adsorption kinetics indicated that the adsorption of volatile congeners and homologues fits well with Henry's law, possibly due to the higher gaseous fractions, while the correlation was lower for lowly volatile ones. PCDD/F congeners and homologues had a concentration value up to which no adsorption occurred, which could be attributed to the insufficient contact times at the low concentrations.

  12. Delisting a Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page discussed the hazardous waste delisting process. A hazardous waste delisting is a rulemaking procedure to amend the list of hazardous wastes to exclude a waste produced at a particular facility.

  13. PUREX facility hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-09-23

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities.

  14. Volcanic hazards in Central America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, William I.; Bluth, Gregg J.S.; Carr, Michael J.; Ewert, John W.; Patino, Lina C.; Vallance, James W.

    2006-01-01

    This volume is a sampling of current scientific work about volcanoes in Central America with specific application to hazards. The papers reflect a variety of international and interdisciplinary collaborations and employ new methods. The book will be of interest to a broad cross section of scientists, especially volcanologists. The volume also will interest students who aspire to work in the field of volcano hazards mitigation or who may want to work in one of Earth’s most volcanically active areas.

  15. Control of the hyperpolarization-activated cation current by external anions in rabbit sino-atrial node cells.

    PubMed Central

    Frace, A M; Maruoka, F; Noma, A

    1992-01-01

    1. Effects of varying concentrations of anions on the hyperpolarization-activated current (I(f)) were studied in myocytes isolated from the rabbit sino-atrial node. Substituting Cs+ for the intracellular K+ clearly separated I(f) from the delayed rectifier K+ current. Control properties, including gating kinetics and ion selectivity, similar to previous studies were obtained. 2. Substitution of extracellular Cl- with larger anions including isethionate, glutamate, acetate, and aspartate, reduced the amplitude of I(f) without changing the reversal potential. Substitution with small anions such as iodide or nitrate supported an intact I(f). These effects were reproduced in the excised outside-out patch conformation. 3. The conductance for I(f) was a saturating function of the extracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]o) with an equilibrium binding constant (K1/2) of 11 mM and a slope factor of about 1 when substituted with large anions. Total removal of small anions completely abolished I(f). 4. The voltage-dependent gating of I(f) was not affected by changing ([Cl-]o), suggesting that Cl- modulates conductance properties of I(f). 5. The results indicate that I(f) conductance is unique in that it is dependent on an extracellular anion (Cl-), yet it is carried exclusively by cations, K+ and Na+. These effects are independent of any measurable voltage-dependent gating parameters. PMID:1281504

  16. Intracellular ion activities in frog skin in relation to external sodium and effects of amiloride and/or ouabain.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, B J; Kernan, R P

    1984-01-01

    Intracellular activities of sodium, potassium and chloride ions, aiNa, aiK, and aiCl were measured with ion-selective single-, double- and triple-barrelled micro-electrodes in skin and isolated epithelia of Rana temporaria bathed on both sides with normal or modified physiological saline. Apical and basolateral membrane potentials, psi ac and psi cs and resistance Ra and Rb respectively were also measured and from the latter the fractional resistance of the apical membrane, F(Ra) and voltage divider ratio, delta psi ac/delta psi cs were measured as criteria of satisfactory membrane penetration by the micro-electrodes. Under control conditions, aiNa was 12.3 +/- 0.8 mM, aiK was 70.3 +/- 22 mM and aiCl was 20.3 +/- 1.6 mM with psi ac averaging -38.0 +/- 3.2 mV. When 10(-4) M-amiloride was added to the apical bathing fluid aiNa fell within 10 min to 1.18 +/- 0.1 mM and aiCl to 5.2 +/- 0.9 mM, while aiK increased to 86.2 +/- 3.8 mM as measured from the basolateral border of isolated epithelia. The sodium transport pool of the skin was measured from the fall in aiNa in the presence of amiloride and could be expressed as 33 X 10(-9) mol cm-2 of epithelium. The mean rate of fall of aiNa under these conditions corresponded to an efflux rate at the basolateral border of 30.1 X 10(-9) mol cm-2 min-1 (48 microA cm-2) giving a half-time for turnover of the sodium transport pool of 33 s. Reduction of sodium concentration in the apical fluid from the normal 79 mM-Na to 10, 1 and 0.1 mM caused aiNa to fall in stages to 2 mM. Because psi ac increased in negativity to -101 mV in the process, this driving force for passive sodium accumulation, more than offset the increased sodium gradient opposing sodium influx across the apical border. PMID:6610743

  17. Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G.; Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H.

    1994-11-01

    Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

  18. Swimming in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Holger

    2016-11-01

    Microswimmers move autonomously but are subject to external fields, which influence their swimming path and their collective dynamics. With three concrete examples we illustrate swimming in external fields and explain the methodology to treat it. First, an active Brownian particle shows a conventional sedimentation profile in a gravitational field but with increased sedimentation length and some polar order along the vertical. Bottom-heavy swimmers are able to invert the sedimentation profile. Second, active Brownian particles interacting by hydrodynamic flow fields in a three-dimensional harmonic trap can spontaneously break the isotropic symmetry. They develop polar order, which one can describe by mean-field theory reminiscent to Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, and thereby pump fluid. Third, a single microswimmer shows interesting non-linear dynamics in Poiseuille flow including swinging and tumbling trajectories. For pushers, hydrodynamic interactions with bounding surfaces stabilize either straight swimming against the flow or tumbling close to the channel wall, while pushers always move on a swinging trajectory with a specific amplitude as limit cycle.

  19. Effects of preincubation of eggs and activation medium on the percentage of eyed embryos in ide (Leuciscus idus), an externally fertilizing fish.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Linhart, Otomar; Krejszeff, Sławomir; Żarski, Daniel; Król, Jarosław; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest

    2016-03-15

    Standardization of fertilization protocols is crucial for improving reproductive techniques for externally fertilizing fish in captive breeding. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of preincubation of eggs and activation medium on the percentage of eyed embryos for ide (Leuciscus idus). Pooled eggs from five females were preincubated in three different activating media for 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 seconds and then fertilized by pooled sperm from five males. At the eyed-egg stage, the percentage of viable embryos was later calculated. Results showed that preincubation time was significant for the freshwater activation medium (P < 0.001), such that the percentage of eyed embryos declined across the preincubation time gradient. Additionally, there was an effect on the percentage of eyed embryos when eggs were incubated with Woynarovich solution (P < 0.001), such that a decline was detected at 90 seconds, whereas no effect was detected for the saline water medium. Activating medium had a significant effect on the percentage of eyed embryos for each preincubation time (P < 0.05). More precisely, freshwater produced the lowest percentage of eyed embryos at all preincubation times (ranged from 1.9% at 120 seconds to 43.6% at 0 seconds), whereas saline water and Woynarovich solution produced the highest percentage of eyed embryos at 0 seconds and 30 seconds before incubation. Woynarovich solution produced the highest percentage of eyed embryos at 60 seconds (65.26%), whereas saline water produced the highest percentage at 90 seconds (68.37%). No difference was detected between saline water and Woynarovich solution at 120 seconds. Examination of sperm traits showed no impact of activating medium on computer assisted sperm analysis parameters. Together, these results suggest that saline water or Woynarovich solution improve fertilization rate in ide during IVF; thus, these media are useful for standardizing fertilization protocols and

  20. 76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY...) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from the definition of... Recovery Act (RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from...

  1. 76 FR 48073 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 260 and 261 RIN 2050-AG60 Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY... the Agency) is proposing to revise the regulations for hazardous waste management under the...

  2. Hazard categorization of 105-KE basin debris removal project

    SciTech Connect

    Meichle, R.H.

    1996-01-25

    This supporting document provides the hazard categorization for 105-KE Basin Debris Removal Project activities planned in the K east Basin. All activities are categorized as less than Hazard Category 3.

  3. Active vibration control of a ring-stiffened cylindrical shell in contact with unbounded external fluid and subjected to harmonic disturbance by piezoelectric sensor and actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Moon K.; Yang, Dong-Ho

    2013-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the suppression of vibrations and radiated sound of a ring-stiffened circular cylindrical shell in contact with unbounded external fluid by means of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. The dynamic model of a circular cylindrical shell based on the Sanders shell theory was considered together with a ring stiffener model. The mass and stiffness matrices for a ring stiffener were newly derived in this study and added to the mass and stiffness matrices of the cylindrical shell, respectively. The fluid-added mass matrix, which was derived by using the baffled shell theory, was also added to the mass matrix. Finally, the equations representing the piezoelectric sensor measurement and piezoelectric actuation complete the theoretical model for the addressed problem. The natural vibration characteristics of the ring-stiffened cylindrical shell both in air and in water were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. An active vibration controller which can cope with a harmonic disturbance was designed by considering the modified higher harmonic control, which is, in fact, a band rejection filter. An active vibration control experiment on the submerged cylindrical shell was carried out in a water tank and the digital control system was used. The experimental results showed that both vibrations and radiation sound of the submerged cylindrical shell were suppressed by a pair of piezoelectric sensor and actuator.

  4. Modeling lahar behavior and hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manville, Vernon; Major, Jon J.; Fagents, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Lahars are highly mobile mixtures of water and sediment of volcanic origin that are capable of traveling tens to > 100 km at speeds exceeding tens of km hr-1. Such flows are among the most serious ground-based hazards at many volcanoes because of their sudden onset, rapid advance rates, long runout distances, high energy, ability to transport large volumes of material, and tendency to flow along existing river channels where populations and infrastructure are commonly concentrated. They can grow in volume and peak discharge through erosion and incorporation of external sediment and/or water, inundate broad areas, and leave deposits many meters thick. Furthermore, lahars can recur for many years to decades after an initial volcanic eruption, as fresh pyroclastic material is eroded and redeposited during rainfall events, resulting in a spatially and temporally evolving hazard. Improving understanding of the behavior of these complex, gravitationally driven, multi-phase flows is key to mitigating the threat to communities at lahar-prone volcanoes. However, their complexity and evolving nature pose significant challenges to developing the models of flow behavior required for delineating their hazards and hazard zones.

  5. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  6. Defining geologic Hazards for natural resources management using tree-ring analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraff, J.V.; Agard, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    Landslides, avalanches, floods, and other geologic hazards impair natural resources management by jeopardizing public safety, damaging or restricting resource utilization, and necessitating expenditures for corrective measures The negative impact of geologic hazard events can be reduced by tailoring resources management to hazard potential of an area This requires assessment of where and how frequently the events occur National forests and other managed wildlands often lack monitoring or historical records to compute frequency of hazard occurrence Tree-ring analysis, based on internal growth response to external events such as tilting and abrasion, can provide frequency data Two examples of the use of tree-ring analysis to date landslide activity illustrate advantages and limitations of the technique An example from the Fishlake National Forest in central Utah illustrates assessment for planning purposes An example from the Sierra National Forest in east-central California shows assessment applied to project design Many geologic hazards in addition to landslides are suited to tree-ring analysis to establish frequency of occurrence Hazard reduction efforts in natural resources management could be enhanced by careful application of tree-ring analysis ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  7. Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors enhances persistent sodium current and rhythmic bursting in main olfactory bulb external tufted cells

    PubMed Central

    Ennis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Rhythmically bursting olfactory bulb external tufted (ET) cells are thought to play a key role in synchronizing glomerular network activity to respiratory-driven sensory input. Whereas spontaneous bursting in these cells is intrinsically generated by interplay of several voltage-dependent currents, bursting strength and frequency can be modified by local intrinsic and centrifugal synaptic input. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) engages a calcium-dependent cation current (ICAN) that increases rhythmic bursting, but mGluRs may also modulate intrinsic mechanisms involved in bursting. Here, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology in rat olfactory bulb slices to investigate whether mGluRs modulate two key intrinsic currents involved in ET cell burst initiation: persistent sodium (INaP) and hyperpolarization-activated cation (Ih) currents. Using a BAPTA-based internal solution to block ICAN, we found that the mGluR1/5 agonist DHPG enhanced INaP but did not alter Ih. INaP enhancement consisted of increased current at membrane potentials between −60 and −50 mV and a hyperpolarizing shift in activation threshold. Both effects would be predicted to shorten the interburst interval. In agreement, DHPG modestly depolarized (∼3.5 mV) ET cells and increased burst frequency without effect on other major burst parameters. This increase was inversely proportional to the basal burst rate such that slower ET cells exhibited the largest increases. This may enable ET cells with slow intrinsic burst rates to pace with faster sniff rates. Taken with other findings, these results indicate that multiple neurotransmitter mechanisms are engaged to fine-tune rhythmic ET cell bursting to context- and state-dependent changes in sniffing frequency. PMID:24225539

  8. Models of volcanic eruption hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Wohletz, K.H.

    1992-06-01

    Volcanic eruptions pose an ever present but poorly constrained hazard to life and property for geothermal installations in volcanic areas. Because eruptions occur sporadically and may limit field access, quantitative and systematic field studies of eruptions are difficult to complete. Circumventing this difficulty, laboratory models and numerical simulations are pivotal in building our understanding of eruptions. For example, the results of fuel-coolant interaction experiments show that magma-water interaction controls many eruption styles. Applying these results, increasing numbers of field studies now document and interpret the role of external water eruptions. Similarly, numerical simulations solve the fundamental physics of high-speed fluid flow and give quantitative predictions that elucidate the complexities of pyroclastic flows and surges. A primary goal of these models is to guide geologists in searching for critical field relationships and making their interpretations. Coupled with field work, modeling is beginning to allow more quantitative and predictive volcanic hazard assessments.

  9. Models of volcanic eruption hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Wohletz, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions pose an ever present but poorly constrained hazard to life and property for geothermal installations in volcanic areas. Because eruptions occur sporadically and may limit field access, quantitative and systematic field studies of eruptions are difficult to complete. Circumventing this difficulty, laboratory models and numerical simulations are pivotal in building our understanding of eruptions. For example, the results of fuel-coolant interaction experiments show that magma-water interaction controls many eruption styles. Applying these results, increasing numbers of field studies now document and interpret the role of external water eruptions. Similarly, numerical simulations solve the fundamental physics of high-speed fluid flow and give quantitative predictions that elucidate the complexities of pyroclastic flows and surges. A primary goal of these models is to guide geologists in searching for critical field relationships and making their interpretations. Coupled with field work, modeling is beginning to allow more quantitative and predictive volcanic hazard assessments.

  10. Earthquake Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neville

    1979-01-01

    Provides a survey and a review of earthquake activity and global tectonics from the advancement of the theory of continental drift to the present. Topics include: an identification of the major seismic regions of the earth, seismic measurement techniques, seismic design criteria for buildings, and the prediction of earthquakes. (BT)

  11. Volcanic activity in the Acambay Graben: a < 25 Ka subplinian eruption from the Temascalcingo volcano and implications for volcanic hazard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Aguirre Díaz, Gerardo; Sunyé Puchol, Ivan; Bartolini, Stefania; Geyer, Adelina

    2016-04-01

    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) contains a large number of stratovolcanoes, some well-known, as Popocatepetl, Iztaccihuatl, Nevado de Toluca, or Colima and many others of more modest dimensions that are not well known but constitute the majority in the TMVB. Such volcanoes are, for example, Tequila, San Juan, Sangangüey, Cerro Culiacán, Cerro Grande, El Zamorano, La Joya, Palo Huerfano, Jocotitlán, Altamirano and Temascalcingo, among many others. The Temascalcingo volcano (TV) is an andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) at the eastern part of the Acambay Graben (northwest portion of Estado de México). The TV is composed mainly by dacitic, porphyritic lavas, block and ash deposits and subordinate pumice fall deposits and ignimbrites (Roldán-Quintana et al., 2011). The volcanic structure includes a summit caldera that has a rectangular shape, 2.5×3.5 km, with the largest side oriented E-W, parallel to major normal faults affecting the edifice. The San Mateo Pumice eruption is one of the greatest paroxysmal episodes of this volcano with pumice deposits mainly exposed at the scarp of the Acambay-Tixmadeje fault and at the northern and northeastern flanks of TV. It overlies a paleosol dated at 25 Ka. A NE-trending dispersion was obtained from field data covering an area of at least 80 km2. These deposits overlie older lava flows and mud flows and are discontinuously covered and eroded by younger reworked deposits of Temascalcingo volcano. This event represents a highly explosive phase that generated a relatively thick and widespread pumice fallout deposit that may occur again in future eruptions. A similar eruption today would have a significantly impact in the region, overall due to the fact that there has been no systematic assessment of the volcanic hazard in any of the studies that have been conducted so far in the area. So, this is a pending and urgent subject that must be tackled without delay. Financed by

  12. From convenience to hazard: a short history of the emergence of the menstrual activism movement, 1971-1992.

    PubMed

    Bobel, Chris

    2008-08-01

    In this article, I explore the early history of contemporary menstrual activism in the United States by looking through the lens of the first seven editions of the feminist women's health classic, Our Bodies, Ourselves (OBOS). This analysis illustrates the development of a critical menstrual consciousness as three key phases of the emerging movement, offers a representation of the dynamic nature of feminist health consciousness, and highlights the importance of linking current activism to its past.

  13. Assessing the Internal and External Validity of Mobile Health Physical Activity Promotion Interventions: A Systematic Literature Review Using the RE-AIM Framework

    PubMed Central

    Zoellner, Jamie; Berrey, Leanna M; Alexander, Ramine; Fanning, Jason; Hill, Jennie L; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) interventions are effective in promoting physical activity (PA); however, the degree to which external validity indicators are reported is unclear. Objective The purpose of this systematic review was to use the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework to determine the extent to which mHealth intervention research for promoting PA reports on factors that inform generalizability across settings and populations and to provide recommendations for investigators planning to conduct this type of research. Methods Twenty articles reflecting 15 trials published between 2000 and 2012 were identified through a systematic review process (ie, queries of three online databases and reference lists of eligible articles) and met inclusion criteria (ie, implementation of mobile technologies, target physical activity, and provide original data). Two researchers coded each article using a validated RE-AIM data extraction tool (reach, efficacy/effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). Two members of the study team independently abstracted information from each article (inter-rater reliability >90%) and group meetings were used to gain consensus on discrepancies. Results The majority of studies were randomized controlled trials (n=14). The average reporting across RE-AIM indicators varied by dimension (reach=53.3%, 2.67/5; effectiveness/efficacy=60.0%, 2.4/4; adoption=11.1%, 0.7/6; implementation=24.4%, 0.7/3; maintenance=0%, 0/3). While most studies described changes in the primary outcome (effectiveness), few addressed the representativeness of participants (reach) or settings (adoption) and few reported on issues related to maintenance and degree of implementation fidelity. Conclusions This review suggests that more focus is needed on research designs that highlight and report on both internal and external validity indicators. Specific recommendations are provided to encourage future m

  14. Toxic Hazards Research Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macewen, J. D.; Vernot, E. H.

    1971-01-01

    The activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period of June 1970 through May 1971 reviewed. Modification of the animal exposure facilities primarily for improved human safety but also for experimental integrity and continuity are discussed. Acute toxicity experiments were conducted on hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) both singly and in combination with carbon dioxide (CO). Additional acute toxicity experiments were conducted on oxygen difluoride (OF2) and chlorine pentafluoride (ClF5). Subacute toxicity studies were conducted on methylisobutylketone and dichloromethane (methylene dichloride). The interim results of further chronic toxicity experiments on monomethylhydrazine (MMH) are also described.

  15. Singing-related neural activity distinguishes two putative pallidal cell types in the songbird basal ganglia: comparison to the primate internal and external pallidal segments

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Jesse H.; Adler, Avital; Bergman, Hagai; Fee, Michale S.

    2010-01-01

    The songbird area X is a basal ganglia homologue that contains two pallidal cell types—local neurons that project within the basal ganglia and output neurons that project to the thalamus. Based on these projections, it has been proposed that these classes are structurally homologous to the primate external (GPe) and internal (GPi) pallidal segments. To test the hypothesis that the two area X pallidal types are functionally homologous to GPe and GPi neurons, we recorded from neurons in area X of singing juvenile male zebra finches, and directly compare their firing patterns to neurons recorded in the primate pallidus. In area X, we find two cell classes that exhibited high firing (HF) rates (>60Hz) characteristic of pallidal neurons. HF-1 neurons, like most GPe neurons we examined, exhibited large firing rate modulations, including bursts and long pauses. In contrast, HF-2 neurons, like GPi neurons, discharged continuously without bursts or long pauses. To test if HF-2 neurons were the output neurons that project to the thalamus, we next recorded directly from pallidal axon terminals in thalamic nucleus DLM, and found that all terminals exhibited singing-related firing patterns indistinguishable from HF-2 neurons. Our data show that singing-related neural activity distinguishes two putative pallidal cell types in area X: thalamus-projecting neurons that exhibit activity similar to the primate GPi, and non-thalamus-projecting neurons that exhibit activity similar to the primate GPe. These results suggest that song learning in birds and motor learning in mammals employ conserved basal ganglia signaling strategies. PMID:20484651

  16. (222)Rn activity in groundwater of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, eastern Canada: relation with local geology and health hazard.

    PubMed

    Pinti, Daniele L; Retailleau, Sophie; Barnetche, Diogo; Moreira, Floriane; Moritz, Anja M; Larocque, Marie; Gélinas, Yves; Lefebvre, René; Hélie, Jean-François; Valadez, Arisai

    2014-10-01

    One hundred ninety-eight groundwater wells were sampled to measure the (222)Rn activity in the region between Montreal and Quebec City, eastern Canada. The aim of this study was to relate the spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity to the geology and the hydrogeology of the study area and to estimate the potential health risks associated with (222)Rn in the most populated area of the Province of Quebec. Most of the groundwater samples show low (222)Rn activities with a median value of 8.6 Bq/L. Ninety percent of samples show (222)Rn activity lower than 100 Bq/L, the exposure limit in groundwater recommended by the World Health Organization. A few higher (222)Rn activities (up to 310 Bq/L) have been measured in wells from the Appalachian Mountains and from the magmatic intrusion of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, known for its high level of indoor radon. The spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity seems to be related mainly to lithology differences between U-richer metasediments of the Appalachian Mountains and magmatic intrusions and the carbonaceous silty shales of the St. Lawrence Platform. Radon is slightly enriched in sodium-chlorine waters that evolved at contact with clay-rich formations. (226)Ra, the parent element of (222)Rn could be easily adsorbed on clays, creating a favorable environment for the production and release of (222)Rn into groundwater. The contribution of groundwater radon to indoor radon or by ingestion is minimal except for specific areas near Mont-Saint-Hilaire or in the Appalachian Mountains where this contribution could reach 45% of the total radioactive annual dose.

  17. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, L.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Studies from the natural hazards literature indicate that many natural processes, including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow and earthquakes, show evidence of nonstationary behavior such as trends in magnitudes through time. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on partial duration series (PDS) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance is constant through time. Given evidence of trends and the consequent expected growth in devastating impacts from natural hazards across the world, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (x) with its failure time series (t), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose PDS magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Poisson-GP model. We derive a 2-parameter Generalized Pareto hazard model and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series x, with corresponding failure time series t, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards.

  18. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  19. Feasibility of externally activated self-repairing concrete with epoxy injection network and Cu-Al-Mn superelastic alloy reinforcing bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareek, Sanjay; Shrestha, Kshitij C.; Suzuki, Yusuke; Omori, Toshihiro; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Araki, Yoshikazu

    2014-10-01

    This paper studies the effectiveness of an externally activated self-repairing technique for concrete members with epoxy injection network and Cu-Al-Mn superelastic alloy (SEA) reinforcing bars (rebars). Compared to existing crack self-repairing and self-healing techniques, the epoxy injection network has the following strengths: (1) Different from the self-repairing methods using brittle containers or tubes for adhesives, the proposed self-repair process can be performed repeatedly and is feasible for onsite concrete casting. (2) Different from the autogenic self-healing techniques, full strength recovery can be achieved in a shorter time period without the necessity of water. This paper attempts to enhance the self-repairing capability of the epoxy injection network by reducing residual cracks by using cost-effective Cu-based SEA bars. The effectiveness of the present technique is examined using concrete beam specimens reinforced by 3 types of bars. The first specimen is reinforced by steel deformed bars, the second by steel threaded bars, and finally by SEA threaded rebars. The tests were performed with a 3 point cyclic loading with increasing amplitude. From the test results, effective self-repairing was confirmed for small deformation levels irrespective of the reinforcement types. Effective self-repairing was observed in the SEA reinforced specimen even under much larger deformations. Nonlinear finite element analysis was performed to confirm the experimental findings.

  20. Hydro-meteorological hazards associated with extreme precipitation events in a geomorphological-active area of Europe: Vrancea-Buzau Seismic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragota, C.; Micu, D.; Zarea, R.; Micu, M.

    2012-04-01

    When a high incidence of hydro-meteorological hazards characterizes a region where its coping capacity is poorly developed, the elements at risk vulnerability may notable increase. This is the case of Vrancea-Buzau Seismic Region, located in the Curvature Carpathians and Subcarpathians of Romania. This region is one of Europe's most landslide-prone areas, which also experiences propitious conditions for flash-floods, and is at the same time, the most active cub-crustal province of Europe. This paper aims at presenting the meteorological framework of heavy rain events occurrence, highlighting their role in the region's hydrology and geomorphology. The paper outlines some typical synoptic conditions favourable for triggering severe flash-flood and multiple-landslides events (e.g. Mediterranean fronts, retrograde Cyclones or trans-Carpathian air mass advections). By selecting several case studies (i.e. 1975 and 2005, considered the wettest years from the observational data in the region), characterizing both the Carpathian mountains and the Subcarpathian hills and depressions, a preliminary inventory of damages caused by such processes was undertaken, as a basis for a future vulnerability assessment in the region. The presence of numerous elements at risk (e.g. a dense and sometimes continuous network of villages or scattered households) overlaps one of Europe's most reduced income/family areas. Consequently, an increase of the potential losses value was observed in the last decades due to heavy rain episodes. The paper offers important results for the assessment of the flash-flood and landslide hazard at regional level (FP7 MC-ITN CHANGES Project), as a necessary input for the local strategies of risk reduction, by determining the potential recurrence intervals for certain thresholds of one of the most important triggering factors such as precipitation.

  1. Early GABAergic transmission defects in the external globus pallidus and rest/activity rhythm alteration in a mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhuowei; Chazalon, Marine; Bestaven, Emma; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Baufreton, Jérôme; Cazalets, Jean-René; Cho, Yoon H; Garret, Maurice

    2016-08-04

    Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by progressive motor symptoms preceded by cognitive deficits and is regarded as a disorder that primarily affects the basal ganglia. The external globus pallidus (GPe) has a central role in the basal ganglia, projects directly to the cortex, and is majorly modulated by GABA. To gain a better understanding of the time course of HD progression and gain insight into the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed GABAergic neurotransmission in the GPe of the R6/1 mouse model at purportedly asymptomatic and symptomatic stages (i.e., 2 and 6months). Western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses revealed alterations in the GPe of male R6/1 mice compared with wild-type littermates. Expression of proteins involved in pre- and post-synaptic GABAergic compartments as well as synapse number were severely decreased at 2 and 6months. At both ages, patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings showed a decrease of spontaneous and miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) suggesting that HD mutation has an early effect on the GABA signaling in the brain. Therefore, we performed continuous locomotor activity recordings from 2 to 4months of age. Actigraphy analyses revealed rest/activity fragmentation alterations that parallel GABAergic system impairment at 2months, while the locomotor deficit is evident only at 3months in R6/1 mice. Our results reveal early deficits in HD and support growing evidence for a critical role played by the GPe in physiological and pathophysiological states. We suggest that actimetry may be used as a non-invasive tool to monitor early disease progression.

  2. Volcanic-ash hazard to aviation during the 2003-2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, M.; Ewert, J.W.; Gallina, G.M.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Swanson, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    Within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Anatahan is one of nine active subaerial volcanoes that pose hazards to major air-traffic routes from airborne volcanic ash. The 2003-2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano affected the region's aviation operations for 3 days in May 2003. On the first day of the eruption (10 May 2003), two international flights from Saipan to Japan were cancelled, and several flights implemented ash-avoidance procedures. On 13 May 2003, a high-altitude flight through volcanic gas was reported, with no perceptible damage to the aircraft. TOMS and MODIS analysis of satellite data strongly suggests that no significant ash and only minor amounts of SO2 were involved in the incident, consistent with crew observations. On 23 May 2003, airport operations were disrupted when tropical-cyclone winds dispersed ash to the south, dusting Saipan with light ashfall and causing flight cancellations there and at Guam 320 km south of the volcano. Operational (near-real-time) monitoring of ash clouds produced by Anatahan has been conducted since the first day of the eruption on 10 May 2003 by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). The VAAC was among the first groups outside of the immediate area of the volcano to detect and report on the unexpected eruption of Anatahan. After being contacted about an unusual cloud by National Weather Service forecasters in Guam at 1235 UTC on 10 May 2003, the VAAC analyzed GOES 9 images, confirming Anatahan as the likely source of an ash cloud and estimating that the eruption began at about 0730 UTC. The VAAC issued its first Volcanic Ash Advisory for Anatahan at 1300 UTC on 10 May 2003 more than 5 h after the start of the eruption, the delay reflecting the difficulty of detecting and confirming a surprise eruption at a remote volcano with no in situ real-time geophysical monitoring. The initial eruption plume reached 10.7-13.4 km (35,000-44,000 ft), well into jet cruise altitudes

  3. Volcanic-ash hazard to aviation during the 2003 2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Ewert, John W.; Gallina, Gregory M.; Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Swanson, Grace L.

    2005-08-01

    Within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Anatahan is one of nine active subaerial volcanoes that pose hazards to major air-traffic routes from airborne volcanic ash. The 2003-2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano affected the region's aviation operations for 3 days in May 2003. On the first day of the eruption (10 May 2003), two international flights from Saipan to Japan were cancelled, and several flights implemented ash-avoidance procedures. On 13 May 2003, a high-altitude flight through volcanic gas was reported, with no perceptible damage to the aircraft. TOMS and MODIS analysis of satellite data strongly suggests that no significant ash and only minor amounts of SO 2 were involved in the incident, consistent with crew observations. On 23 May 2003, airport operations were disrupted when tropical-cyclone winds dispersed ash to the south, dusting Saipan with light ashfall and causing flight cancellations there and at Guam 320 km south of the volcano. Operational (near-real-time) monitoring of ash clouds produced by Anatahan has been conducted since the first day of the eruption on 10 May 2003 by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). The VAAC was among the first groups outside of the immediate area of the volcano to detect and report on the unexpected eruption of Anatahan. After being contacted about an unusual cloud by National Weather Service forecasters in Guam at 1235 UTC on 10 May 2003, the VAAC analyzed GOES 9 images, confirming Anatahan as the likely source of an ash cloud and estimating that the eruption began at about 0730 UTC. The VAAC issued its first Volcanic Ash Advisory for Anatahan at 1300 UTC on 10 May 2003 more than 5 h after the start of the eruption, the delay reflecting the difficulty of detecting and confirming a surprise eruption at a remote volcano with no in situ real-time geophysical monitoring. The initial eruption plume reached 10.7-13.4 km (35,000-44,000 ft), well into jet cruise altitudes

  4. 49 CFR 195.559 - What coating material may I use for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What coating material may I use for external... (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... material may I use for external corrosion control? Coating material for external corrosion control...

  5. Active Fault Mapping of Naga-Disang Thrust (Belt of Schuppen) for Assessing Future Earthquake Hazards in NE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.

    2014-12-01

    We observe the geodynamic appraisal of Naga-Disang Thrust North East India. The Disang thrust extends NE-SW over a length of 480 km and it defines the eastern margin of Neogene basin. It branches out from Haflong-Naga thrust and in the NE at Bulbulia in the right bank of Noa Dihing River, it is terminated by Mishmi thrust, which extends into Myanmar as 'Sagaing fault,which dip generally towards SE. It extends between Dauki fault in the SW and Mishmi thrust in the NE. When the SW end of 'Belt of Schuppen' moved upwards and towards east along the Dauki fault, the NE end moved downwards and towards west along the Mishmi thrust, causing its 'S' shaped bending. The SRTM generated DEM is used to map the topographic expression of the schuppen belt, where these thrusts are significantly marked by topographic break. Satellite imagery map also shows presence lineaments supporting the post tectonic activities along Naga-Disang Thrusts. The southern part of 'Belt of Schuppen' extends along the sheared western limb of southerly plunging Kohima synform, a part of Indo Burma Ranges (IBR) and it is seismically active.The crustal velocity at SE of Schuppen is 39.90 mm/yr with a azimuth of 70.780 at Lumami, 38.84 mm/yr (Azimuth 54.09) at Senapati and 36.85 mm/yr (Azimuth 54.09) at Imphal. The crustal velocity at NW of Schuppen belt is 52.67 mm/yr (Azimuth 57.66) near Dhauki Fault in Meghalaya. It becomes 43.60 mm/yr (Azimuth76.50) - 44.25 (Azimuth 73.27) at Tiding and Kamlang Nagar around Mishmi thrust. The presence of Schuppen is marked by a change in high crustal velocity from Indian plate to low crustal velocity in Mishmi Suture as well as Indo Burma Ranges. The difference in crustal velocities results in building up of strain along the Schuppen which may trigger a large earthquake in the NE India in future. The belt of schuppean seems to be seismically active, however, the enough number of large earthquakes are not recorded. These observations are significant on Naga

  6. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels and radiation hazards due to cement industry.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A; Makhluf, S; Nossair, A; Abdel Halim, A S

    2010-01-01

    The cement industry is considered as one of the basic industries that plays an important role in the national economy of developing countries. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in Assiut cement and other local cement types from different Egyptian factories has been measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The measured activity concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data for other countries. The average values obtained for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentration in different types of cement are lower than the corresponding global values reported in UNSCEAR publications. The obtained results show that the averages of radiation hazard parameters for Assiut cement factory are lower than the acceptable level of 370Bqkg(-1) for radium equivalent Ra(eq), 1 for level index Igammar, the external hazard index Hex hazard parameters. Cement does not pose a significant radiological hazard when used for construction of buildings.

  7. Health Care Wide Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... Electrical Ergonomics Fire Hazards Glutaraldehyde Hazardous Chemicals Infection Seasonal Flu MDRO - Multidrug-Resistant Organisms MRSA - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Latex Allergy Legionnaires' Disease Needlesticks Noise Mercury Inappropriate PPE Slips/ ...

  8. Hazardous Waste Generators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many industries generate hazardous waste. EPA regulates hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to ensure these wastes are managed in ways that are protective of human health and the environment.

  9. Hazardous Waste Permitting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To provide RCRA hazardous waste permitting regulatory information and resources permitted facilities, hazardous waste generators, and permit writers. To provide the public with information on how they can be involved in the permitting process.

  10. External radiation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  11. Hazard interactions and interaction networks (cascades) within multi-hazard methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2016-08-01

    This paper combines research and commentary to reinforce the importance of integrating hazard interactions and interaction networks (cascades) into multi-hazard methodologies. We present a synthesis of the differences between multi-layer single-hazard approaches and multi-hazard approaches that integrate such interactions. This synthesis suggests that ignoring interactions between important environmental and anthropogenic processes could distort management priorities, increase vulnerability to other spatially relevant hazards or underestimate disaster risk. In this paper we proceed to present an enhanced multi-hazard framework through the following steps: (i) description and definition of three groups (natural hazards, anthropogenic processes and technological hazards/disasters) as relevant components of a multi-hazard environment, (ii) outlining of three types of interaction relationship (triggering, increased probability, and catalysis/impedance), and (iii) assessment of the importance of networks of interactions (cascades) through case study examples (based on the literature, field observations and semi-structured interviews). We further propose two visualisation frameworks to represent these networks of interactions: hazard interaction matrices and hazard/process flow diagrams. Our approach reinforces the importance of integrating interactions between different aspects of the Earth system, together with human activity, into enhanced multi-hazard methodologies. Multi-hazard approaches support the holistic assessment of hazard potential and consequently disaster risk. We conclude by describing three ways by which understanding networks of interactions contributes to the theoretical and practical understanding of hazards, disaster risk reduction and Earth system management. Understanding interactions and interaction networks helps us to better (i) model the observed reality of disaster events, (ii) constrain potential changes in physical and social vulnerability

  12. Success in transmitting hazard science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J. G.; Garside, T.

    2010-12-01

    Money motivates mitigation. An example of success in communicating scientific information about hazards, coupled with information about available money, is the follow-up action by local governments to actually mitigate. The Nevada Hazard Mitigation Planning Committee helps local governments prepare competitive proposals for federal funds to reduce risks from natural hazards. Composed of volunteers with expertise in emergency management, building standards, and earthquake, flood, and wildfire hazards, the committee advises the Nevada Division of Emergency Management on (1) the content of the State’s hazard mitigation plan and (2) projects that have been proposed by local governments and state agencies for funding from various post- and pre-disaster hazard mitigation programs of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Local governments must have FEMA-approved hazard mitigation plans in place before they can receive this funding. The committee has been meeting quarterly with elected and appointed county officials, at their offices, to encourage them to update their mitigation plans and apply for this funding. We have settled on a format that includes the county’s giving the committee an overview of its infrastructure, hazards, and preparedness. The committee explains the process for applying for mitigation grants and presents the latest information that we have about earthquake hazards, including locations of nearby active faults, historical seismicity, geodetic strain, loss-estimation modeling, scenarios, and documents about what to do before, during, and after an earthquake. Much of the county-specific information is available on the web. The presentations have been well received, in part because the committee makes the effort to go to their communities, and in part because the committee is helping them attract federal funds for local mitigation of not only earthquake hazards but also floods (including canal breaches) and wildfires, the other major concerns in

  13. Hazardous Waste Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Americans generate approximately 1.6 million tons of hazardous household waste every year. When most people think of hazardous waste, they generally think of materials used in construction, the defense industry, mining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Few people think of hazardous substances…

  14. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  15. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, L. K.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Generalized Pareto (GP) model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series X, with corresponding failure time series T, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with rich opportunities for future extensions.

  16. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    DOE PAGES

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-11

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field ofmore » hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. As a result, our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.« less

  17. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-11

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. As a result, our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  18. Chemical Safety Alert: Fire Hazard from Carbon Adsorption Deodorizing Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Activated carbon systems used to adsorb vapors for odor control may pose a fire hazard when used for certain types of substances, such as crude sulfate turpentine. Facilities should take precautions and proper procedures to avoid or mitigate these hazards.

  19. 32 CFR 935.161 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire hazards. 935.161 Section 935.161 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.161 Fire hazards. (a) Each person engaged in a business or other activity on Wake Island shall, at his expense, provide and maintain (in an accessible location)...

  20. 32 CFR 935.161 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire hazards. 935.161 Section 935.161 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.161 Fire hazards. (a) Each person engaged in a business or other activity on Wake Island shall, at his expense, provide and maintain (in an accessible location)...

  1. 32 CFR 935.161 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire hazards. 935.161 Section 935.161 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.161 Fire hazards. (a) Each person engaged in a business or other activity on Wake Island shall, at his expense, provide and maintain (in an accessible location)...

  2. 32 CFR 935.161 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire hazards. 935.161 Section 935.161 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.161 Fire hazards. (a) Each person engaged in a business or other activity on Wake Island shall, at his expense, provide and maintain (in an accessible location)...

  3. 32 CFR 935.161 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire hazards. 935.161 Section 935.161 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.161 Fire hazards. (a) Each person engaged in a business or other activity on Wake Island shall, at his expense, provide and maintain (in an accessible location)...

  4. Military hazardous wastes: an overview and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaoka, K.E.; Malloy, M.C.; Dever, G.L.; Weinberger, L.P.

    1981-12-01

    The report describes and analyzes the management activities and motivating factors of the military in dealing with its hazardous waste streams. Findings and conclusions in areas of concern are given to provide information that may be of value to the future management of military hazardous wastes.

  5. Hazard of pharmaceuticals for aquatic environment: Prioritization by structural approaches and prediction of ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sangion, Alessandro; Gramatica, Paola

    2016-10-01

    Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) are recognized as Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CEC) since they are detected in the environment in increasing amount, mainly in aquatic compartment, where they may be hazardous for wildlife. The huge lack of experimental data for a large number of end-points requires tools able to quickly highlight the potentially most hazardous and toxic pharmaceuticals, focusing experiments on the prioritized compounds. In silico tools, like QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) models based on structural molecular descriptors, can predict missing data for toxic end-points necessary to prioritize existing, or even not yet synthesized chemicals for their potential hazard. In the present study, new externally validated QSAR models, specific to predict acute toxicity of APIs in key organisms of the three main aquatic trophic levels, i.e. algae, Daphnia and two species of fish, were developed using the QSARINS software. These Multiple Linear regressions - Ordinary Least Squares (MLR-OLS) models are based on theoretical molecular descriptors calculated by free PaDEL-Descriptor software and selected by Genetic Algorithm. The models are statistically robust, externally predictive and characterized by a wide structural applicability domain. They were applied to predict acute toxicity for a large set of APIs without experimental data. Then predictions were processed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a trend, driven by the combination of toxicities for all the studied organisms, was highlighted. This trend, named Aquatic Toxicity Index (ATI), allowed the raking of pharmaceuticals according to their potential toxicity upon the whole aquatic environment. Finally a QSAR model for the prediction of this Aquatic Toxicity Index (ATI) was proposed to be applicable in QSARINS for the screening of existing APIs for their potential hazard and the a priori chemical design of not environmentally hazardous APIs.

  6. Volcanic hazard management in dispersed volcanism areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Jose Manuel; Garcia, Alicia; Ortiz, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Traditional volcanic hazard methodologies were developed mainly to deal with the big stratovolcanoes. In such type of volcanoes, the hazard map is an important tool for decision-makers not only during a volcanic crisis but also for territorial planning. According to the past and recent eruptions of a volcano, all possible volcanic hazards are modelled and included in the hazard map. Combining the hazard map with the Event Tree the impact area can be zoned and defining the likely eruptive scenarios that will be used during a real volcanic crisis. But in areas of disperse volcanism is very complex to apply the same volcanic hazard methodologies. The event tree do not take into account unknown vents, because the spatial concepts included in it are only related with the distance reached by volcanic hazards. The volcanic hazard simulation is also difficult because the vent scatter modifies the results. The volcanic susceptibility try to solve this problem, calculating the most likely areas to have an eruption, but the differences between low and large values obtained are often very small. In these conditions the traditional hazard map effectiveness could be questioned, making necessary a change in the concept of hazard map. Instead to delimit the potential impact areas, the hazard map should show the expected behaviour of the volcanic activity and how the differences in the landscape and internal geo-structures could condition such behaviour. This approach has been carried out in La Palma (Canary Islands), combining the concept of long-term hazard map with the short-term volcanic scenario to show the expected volcanic activity behaviour. The objective is the decision-makers understand how a volcanic crisis could be and what kind of mitigation measurement and strategy could be used.

  7. The transportation external coordination working group

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    In an effort to improve coordinated interactions between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and external groups interested in transportation activities, DOE established the Transportation External Coordination Working Group (TEC/WG). Membership includes representatives from State, Tribal and local governments, industry, and professional organizations. All DOE programs with significant transportation programs participate.

  8. External approach to rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Wilfred S; Charbonneau, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    The technique of external rhinoplasty is outlined. Having reviewed 74 cases, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Reluctance to use this external approach seems to be based on emotional rather than radical grounds, for its seems to be the procedure of choice for many problems.

  9. Measurement of radioactivity levels and assessment of radioactivity hazards of soil samples in Karaman, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Agar, O; Boztosun, I; Korkmaz, M E; Özmen, S F

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the levels of the natural and artificial radioactivity in soil samples collected from surrounding of Karaman in Turkey were measured. Activity concentrations of the concerned radionuclides were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium detector with a relative efficiency of 40 % at 1.332 MeV. The results obtained for the (238)U series ((226)Ra, (214)Pb and (214)Bi), (232)Th series ((228)Ac), (40)K and fission product (137)Cs are discussed. To evaluate the radiological hazard of radioactivity in samples, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose and the external (Hex) and internal hazard index (Hin) were calculated and presented in comparison with the data collected from different areas in the world and Turkey.

  10. Martian external magnetic field proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlais, Benoit; Civet, Francois

    2015-04-01

    Mars possesses no dynamic magnetic field of internal origin as it is the case for the Earth or for Mercury. Instead Mars is characterized by an intense and localized magnetic field of crustal origin. This field is the result of past magnetization and demagnetization processes, and reflects its evolution. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) interacts with Mars' ionized environment to create an external magnetic field. This external field is weak compared to lithospheric one but very dynamic, and may hamper the detailed analysis of the internal magnetic field at some places or times. Because there are currently no magnetic field measurements made at Mars' surface, it is not possible to directly monitor the external field temporal variability as it is done in Earth's ground magnetic observatories. In this study we examine to indirect ways of quantifying this external field. First we use the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission which measures the solar wind about one hour upstream of the bow-shock resulting from the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's internal magnetic field. These measurements are extrapolated to Mars' position taking into account the orbital configurations of the Mars-Earth system and the velocity of particles carrying the IMF. Second we directly use Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field measurements to quantify the level of variability of the external field. We subtract from the measurements the internal field which is otherwise modeled, and bin the residuals first on a spatial and then on a temporal mesh. This allows to compute daily or semi daily index. We present a comparison of these two proxies and demonstrate their complementarity. We also illustrate our analysis by comparing our Martian external field proxies to terrestrial index at epochs of known strong activity. These proxies will especially be useful for upcoming magnetic field measurements made around or at the surface of Mars.

  11. Detection device for hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Partin, Judy K.; Grey, Alan E.

    1994-04-05

    A detection device that is activated by the interaction of a hazardous chcal with a coating interactive with said chemical on an optical fiber thereby reducing the amount of light passing through the fiber to a light detector. A combination of optical filters separates the light into a signal beam and a reference beam which after detection, appropriate amplification, and comparison with preset internal signals, activates an alarm means if a predetermined level of contaminant is observed.

  12. Detection device for hazardous material

    SciTech Connect

    Partin, J.K.; Grey, A.E.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a detection device that is activated by the interaction of a hazardous chemical with a coating interactive with said chemical on an optical fiber thereby reducing the amount of light passing through the fiber to a light detector. A combination of optical filters separates the light into a signal beam and a reference beam which after detection, appropriate amplification, and comparison with preset internal signals, activates an alarm means if a predetermined level of contaminant is observed.

  13. Detection device for hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Partin, Judy K.; Grey, Alan E.

    1994-01-01

    A detection device that is activated by the interaction of a hazardous chcal with a coating interactive with said chemical on an optical fiber thereby reducing the amount of light passing through the fiber to a light detector. A combination of optical filters separates the light into a signal beam and a reference beam which after detection, appropriate amplification, and comparison with preset internal signals, activates an alarm means if a predetermined level of contaminant is observed.

  14. Sports: The Infectious Hazards.

    PubMed

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K

    2015-10-01

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  15. Determination of specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K for assessment of radiation hazards from Turkish pumice samples.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Seref; Gündüz, Lüfullah

    2008-02-01

    The specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in 52 Turkish pumice samples collected from 11 geographical areas located in Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, Mediterranean and Aegean regions was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K ranged from 12.7+/-0.5 to 256.2+/-9.1Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 89.1+/-65.2Bqkg(-1), 12.3+/-1.0 to 237.9+/-12.2Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 87.0+/-61.4Bqkg(-1) and 300.1+/-5.5 to 1899.0+/-30.8Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 1211.9+/-419.8Bqkg(-1), respectively. Elemental concentrations were determined for U (from 1.0 to 20.7ppm with a mean of 7.2+/-5.3ppm), Th (from 3.0 to 58.6ppm with a mean of 21.4+/-15.1ppm) and K (from 1.0 to 6.1% with a mean of 3.9+/-1.3%). The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the activity index, the emanation coefficient, the (222)Rn mass exhalation rate, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the effective dose rate were estimated for the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in all samples. The calculated mean Ra(eq) value was 306.6+/-177.7Bqkg(-1) (54.6+/-5.5 to 737.6+/-49.0Bqkg(-1)) for all pumice samples. This value is lower than the recommended limit value of 370Bqkg(-1) for building raws and products. The emanation coefficient and the (222)Rn mass exhalation rate of all samples ranged from 29.4 to 42.9% with a mean of 36.2% and from 11.0 to 196.4microBqkg(-1)s(-1) with a mean of 73.5microBqkg(-1)s(-1), respectively. The mean indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding mean effective dose rate were 274.6+/-153.6nGyh(-1) (50.4-644.6nGyh(-1)) and 1.35+/-0.75mSvy(-1) (0.24-3.16mSvy(-1)), respectively. For all pumice samples the mean indoor absorbed dose rate is about three times higher than the population-weighted average of 84nGyh(-1), while the mean effective dose rate values except for PUM 05, PUM 06, PUM 10 and PUM 15 exceed the dose criterion of 1mSvy(-1).

  16. A platelet alpha granule membrane protein that is associated with the plasma membrane after activation. Characterization and subcellular localization of platelet activation-dependent granule-external membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, C L; Yeo, E L; Wencel-Drake, J D; Furie, B C; Ginsberg, M H; Furie, B

    1986-01-01

    We have identified and purified a platelet integral membrane protein (140,000 mol wt), using the KC4 monoclonal antibody specific for activated platelets, that is internal in resting platelets but exposed on activated platelets (Hsu-Lin S.-C., C.L. Berman, B.C. Furie, D. August, and B. Furie, 1984, J. Biol. Chem. 259: 9121-9126.). The expression of the protein on the platelet surface is secretion-dependent. This protein has been named platelet activation-dependent granule-external membrane (PADGEM) protein. PADGEM protein is distinct from the surface glycoproteins of resting platelets, but identical to the S12 antigen, GMP-140. Using immunofluorescent staining, resting platelets failed to stain for PADGEM protein with the KC4 antibody, but after permeabilization showed a punctate staining of the cell interior. Thrombin-stimulated intact platelets stained with a peripheral rim pattern thus demonstrating the translocation of PADGEM protein from an internal location to the cell surface. PADGEM protein expression on the platelet surface at varying thrombin concentrations correlated with alpha granule release, as measured by the secretion of platelet factor 4. Further evidence for an alpha granule localization of PADGEM protein was provided by nitrogen cavitation of resting platelets followed by metrizamide density gradient centrifugation; PADGEM protein codistributed with platelet factor 4. Using immunoelectron microscopy, the protein was localized to the alpha granule in frozen ultrathin sections of resting platelets labeled using rabbit anti-PADGEM protein antibodies, whereas in thrombin-activated platelets, the plasma membrane was labeled. These studies indicate that PADGEM protein is a component of the alpha granule membrane of resting platelets and is incorporated into the plasma membrane upon activation and secretion. Images PMID:2941452

  17. Contrasting styles of Mount Vesuvius activity in the period between the Avellino and Pompeii Plinian eruptions, and some implications for assessment of future hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, Daniele; Cioni, Raffaello

    2002-09-01

    Intense explosive activity occurred repeatedly at Vesuvius during the nearly 1,600-year period between the two Plinian eruptions of Avellino (3.5 ka) and Pompeii (79 A.D.). By correlating stratigraphic sections from more than 40 sites around the volcano, we identify the deposits of six main eruptions (AP1-AP6) and of some minor intervening events. Several deposits can be traced up to 20 km from the vent. Their stratigraphic and dispersal features suggest the prevalence of two main contrasting eruptive styles, each involving a complex relationship between magmatic and phreatomagmatic phases. The two main eruption styles are (1) sub-Plinian to phreato-Plinian events (AP1 and AP2 members), where deposits consist of pumice and scoria fall layers alternating with fine-grained, vesiculated, accretionary lapilli-bearing ashes; and (2) mixed, violent Strombolian to Vulcanian events (AP3-AP6 members), which deposited a complex sequence of fallout, massive to thinly stratified, scoria-bearing lapilli layers and fine ash beds. Morphology and density variations of the juvenile fragments confirm the important role played by magma-water interaction in the eruptive dynamics. The mean composition of the ejected material changes with time, and shows a strong correlation with vent position and eruption style. The ranges of intensity and magnitude of these events, derived by estimations of peak column height and volume of the ejecta, are significantly smaller than the values for the better known Plinian and sub-Plinian eruptions of Vesuvius, enlarging the spectrum of the possible eruptive scenarios at Vesuvius, useful in the assessment of its potential hazard.

  18. Hazards Control Department 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.W.

    1996-09-19

    This annual report of the Hazards Control Department activities in 1995 is part of the department`s efforts to foster a working environment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where every person desire to work safely.

  19. Software safety hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

  20. Migration and Environmental Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations. PMID:21886366

  1. Future of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  2. Volcano Hazards Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Myers, Bobbie; Driedger, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Diagram of common volcano hazards. The U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) monitors unrest and eruptions at U.S. volcanoes, assesses potential hazards, responds to volcanic crises, and conducts research on how volcanoes work. When conditions change at a monitored volcano, the VHP issues public advisories and warnings to alert emergency-management authorities and the public. See http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/ to learn more about volcanoes and find out what's happening now.

  3. Hazards in the theater.

    PubMed

    Rossol, M; Hinkamp, D

    2001-01-01

    The authors offer a survey of the myriad and unique safety and health hazards faced past and present by performers and theatrical workers, from preproduction work, through the show, and during the strike (dismantling). Special emphasis is given to health hazards posed by the many new plastic resin systems and adhesives used in set, prop, and costume construction; the hazards of special-effect fogs, smokes, haze, dusts, and pyrotechnic emissions; and theatrical makeup.

  4. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-08-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites.

  5. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

  6. Hazardous Materials Management Program Report- 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2005-06-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Hazardous Materials Management Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2005 program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  7. 10 CFR 851.21 - Hazard identification and assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Procedures must include methods to: (1) Assess worker exposure to chemical, physical, biological, or safety workplace hazards through appropriate workplace monitoring; (2) Document assessment for chemical, physical... hazards; (6) Perform routine job activity-level hazard analyses; (7) Review site safety and...

  8. 14 CFR 417.409 - System hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or release of energy or hazardous materials; (2) Ensure each hazard control used to provide fault... one inhibit. A launch operator must prevent inadvertent activation of hazard control devices such as... to electrical or mechanical systems that can release electrical or mechanical energy during...

  9. 14 CFR 417.409 - System hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or release of energy or hazardous materials; (2) Ensure each hazard control used to provide fault... one inhibit. A launch operator must prevent inadvertent activation of hazard control devices such as... to electrical or mechanical systems that can release electrical or mechanical energy during...

  10. 14 CFR 417.409 - System hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or release of energy or hazardous materials; (2) Ensure each hazard control used to provide fault... one inhibit. A launch operator must prevent inadvertent activation of hazard control devices such as... to electrical or mechanical systems that can release electrical or mechanical energy during...

  11. 14 CFR 417.409 - System hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or release of energy or hazardous materials; (2) Ensure each hazard control used to provide fault... one inhibit. A launch operator must prevent inadvertent activation of hazard control devices such as... to electrical or mechanical systems that can release electrical or mechanical energy during...

  12. Management of hazardous wastes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, C.S.

    1993-11-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), during the course of numerous research activities, generates hazardous, radioactive, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The management of these waste materials is highly regulated in the United States (US). This paper focuses on the hazardous waste regulations that limit and prescribe waste management at LLNL.

  13. RCRA Part A Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Part B Permit Application Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, Nevada Test Site, and Part B Permit Application - Explosives Ordnance Disposal Unit (EODU)

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-06-17

    The Area 5 Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) was established to support testing, research, and remediation activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a large-quantity generator of hazardous waste. The HWSU, located adjacent to the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), is a prefabricated, rigid steel-framed, roofed shelter used to store hazardous nonradioactive waste generated on the NTS. No offsite generated wastes are managed at the HWSU. Waste managed at the HWSU includes the following categories: Flammables/Combustibles; Acid Corrosives; Alkali Corrosives; Oxidizers/Reactives; Toxics/Poisons; and Other Regulated Materials (ORMs). A list of the regulated waste codes accepted for storage at the HWSU is provided in Section B.2. Hazardous wastes stored at the HWSU are stored in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) compliant containers, compatible with the stored waste. Waste transfer (between containers) is not allowed at the HWSU and containers remain closed at all times. Containers are stored on secondary containment pallets and the unit is inspected monthly. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  14. Estimation of radioactivity level and associated radiological hazards of limestone and gypsum used as raw building materials in Rawalpindi/Islamabad region of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Gul, Rahmat; Ali, Safdar; Hussain, Manzur

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to asses the radioactivity level of limestone and gypsum and its associated radiological hazard due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials. Representative samples of limestone and gypsum were collected from cement factories located in the Rawalpindi/Islamabad region of Pakistan and were analysed by using an N-type high-purity germanium detector of 80 % relative efficiency. The average activity concentration of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were 60.22±3.47, 29.25±5.23 and 4.07±3.31 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in limestone and 70.86±4.1, 5.01±2.10 and 4.49±3.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in gypsum. The radiological hazard parameters radium equivalent activities, absorbed dose rate in air, external hazard index, internal hazard index, annual effective dose equivalent, gamma index and alpha index were computed. The results of the average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th and radiological hazard parameters were within the range of the reported average worldwide/United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation values. It is concluded that limestone and gypsum used in the Rawalpindi/Islamabad region does not pose any excessive radiological health hazard as a building raw materials and in industrial uses.

  15. External Tank GH2 Vent Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, G. E.; Glassburn, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Because the venting of free hydrogen gas to the atmosphere presents an extremely hazardous situation, it was necessary to devise a means for safe, controlled venting of the shuttle external tank gaseous hydrogen during and after liquid hydrogen tank loading. Several design concepts that were considered initially were discarded as unfeasible because of vehicle weight restrictions, high cost, and because the proposed structure was itself deemed a hazard due to the vehicle's nonvertical launch trajectory. These design concepts are discussed. A design employing a support structure/access arm attached to the fixed service structure was finally selected. The various design problems resolved included vent arm disconnect/drop interference, minimizing refurbishment due to launch damage, disconnect reliability, vehicle movement tracking, minimizing vent line pressure drop, and the presence of other vehicle services at the same centralized supply area. Six launches have proven the system to be reliable, efficient, and of nearly zero refurbishment cost.

  16. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, L.G.; Hunter, A.J.R.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    We are part-way through the second phase of a 4-year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Our analysis approach is to excite atomic and molecular fluorescence by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET). The active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier (D-B) discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Only a few emission lines or bands are excited for each hazardous species, so spectral resolution requirements are greatly simplified over those of other spectroscopic techniques. The D-B discharge is compact, 1 to 2 cm in diameter and 1 to 10 cm long. Furthermore, the discharge power requirements are quite modest, so that the unit can be powered by batteries. Thus an instrument based on ANET can readily be made portable. Our results indicate that ANET is a very sensitive technique for monitoring heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. We have demonstrated an overall detection sensitivity for most species that is at or below ppb levels. ANET alone, however, appears to be most successful in treating hazardous species that have been atomized. We are therefore developing a hybrid technique which combines a miniature, solid-state laser for sample collection and vaporization with ANET for subsequent detection. This approach requires no special sample preparation, can operate continuously, and lends itself well to compact packaging.

  17. The importance of earthquake-induced landslides to long-term slope erosion and slope-failure hazards in seismically active regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a general method for determining the amount of earthquake-induced landsliding that occurs in a seismically active region over time; this determination can be used as a quantitative measure of the long-term hazard from seismically triggered landslides as well as a measure of the importance of this process to regional slope-erosion rates and landscape evolution. The method uses data from historical earthquakes to relate total volume of landslide material dislodged by an earthquake to the magnitude, M, and seismic moment, M0, of the earthquake. From worldwide data, a linear-regression relation between landslide volume, V, and M0 is determined as: V = M0/1018.9(?? 0.13), where V is measured in m3 and M0 is in dyn-cm. To determine the amount of earthquake-generated landsliding over time, this relation is combined with data on seismic-moment release for a particular region, which may be derived from either earthquake-history or fault-slip data. The form of the M0-V relation allows the rate of production of earthquake-induced landslides over time to be determined from total rate of seismic-moment release without regard to the distribution of individual events, thus simplifying and generalizing the determination. Application of the method to twelve seismically active regions, with areas ranging from 13,275 to 2,308,000 km2, shows that erosion rates from earthquake-induced landslides vary significantly from region to region. Of the regions studied, the highest rates were determined for the island of Hawaii, New Zealand, western New Guinea, and the San Francisco Bay region of California. Significantly lower rates were determined for Iran, Tibet, the Sierra Nevada-Great Basin region of California, and central Japan (for the time period from 715 AD to the present). Intermediate rates were determined for Peru, southern California, onshore California, Turkey, and central Japan (for the time period from 1586 AD to the present). To determine the relative, long

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methanol (Noncancer) (Revised External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is seeking additional public comment and external peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of methanol (noncancer).

  1. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-06-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today’s waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous longterm management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by externalintrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the longterm success of the prescribed system. In fact

  2. Fault zone regulation, seismic hazard, and social vulnerability in Los Angeles, California: Hazard or urban amenity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toké, Nathan A.; Boone, Christopher G.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón

    2014-09-01

    Public perception and regulation of environmental hazards are important factors in the development and configuration of cities. Throughout California, probabilistic seismic hazard mapping and geologic investigations of active faults have spatially quantified earthquake hazard. In Los Angeles, these analyses have informed earthquake engineering, public awareness, the insurance industry, and the government regulation of developments near faults. Understanding the impact of natural hazards regulation on the social and built geography of cities is vital for informing future science and policy directions. We constructed a relative social vulnerability index classification for Los Angeles to examine the social condition within regions of significant seismic hazard, including areas regulated as Alquist-Priolo (AP) Act earthquake fault zones. Despite hazard disclosures, social vulnerability is lowest within AP regulatory zones and vulnerability increases with distance from them. Because the AP Act requires building setbacks from active faults, newer developments in these zones are bisected by parks. Parcel-level analysis demonstrates that homes adjacent to these fault zone parks are the most valuable in their neighborhoods. At a broad scale, a Landsat-based normalized difference vegetation index shows that greenness near AP zones is greater than the rest of the metropolitan area. In the parks-poor city of Los Angeles, fault zone regulation has contributed to the construction of park space within areas of earthquake hazard, thus transforming zones of natural hazard into amenities, attracting populations of relatively high social status, and demonstrating that the distribution of social vulnerability is sometimes more strongly tied to amenities than hazards.

  3. Magnetic storms and induction hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua; Pulkkinen, Antti; Balch, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic storms are potentially hazardous to the activities and technological infrastructure of modern civilization. This reality was dramatically demonstrated during the great magnetic storm of March 1989, when surface geoelectric fields, produced by the interaction of the time-varying geomagnetic field with the Earth's electrically conducting interior, coupled onto the overlying Hydro-Québec electric power grid in Canada. Protective relays were tripped, the grid collapsed, and about 9 million people were temporarily left without electricity [Bolduc, 2002].

  4. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  5. Danger: Hazardous Gifts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Mary Ann; Englezos, Gay

    1991-01-01

    Under existing laws, the federal and some state and local agencies can hold current real estate owners liable for cleaning up property contaminated with hazardous wastes. This applies whether the property is purchased or comes as a gift. Schools should develop hazardous-gift policies and investigation procedures. (MSE)

  6. Hazardous Waste Manifest System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s hazardous waste manifest system is designed to track hazardous waste from the time it leaves the generator facility where it was produced, until it reaches the off-site waste management facility that will store, treat, or dispose of the waste.

  7. A Natural Hazards Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred

    This paper discusses the development of and provides examples of exercises from a student workbook for a college-level course about natural hazards. The course is offered once a year to undergraduates at Western Illinois University. Students are introduced to 10 hazards (eight meteorological plus earthquakes and volcanoes) through slides, movies,…

  8. Avoiding the Hazards of Hazardous Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Under a 1980 law, colleges and universities can be liable for cleanup of hazardous waste on properties, in companies, and related to stocks they invest in or are given. College planners should establish clear policy concerning gifts, investigate gifts, distance university from business purposes, sell real estate gifts quickly, consult a risk…

  9. A Windshear Hazard Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hinton, David A.; Bowles, Roland L.

    2000-01-01

    An aircraft exposed to hazardous low-level windshear may suffer a critical loss of airspeed and altitude, thus endangering its ability to remain airborne. In order to characterize this hazard, a nondimensional index was developed based oil aerodynamic principals and understanding of windshear phenomena, 'This paper reviews the development and application of the Bowles F-tactor. which is now used by onboard sensors for the detection of hazardous windshear. It was developed and tested during NASA/I:AA's airborne windshear program and is now required for FAA certification of onboard radar windshear detection systems. Reviewed in this paper are: 1) definition of windshear and description of atmospheric phenomena that may cause hazardous windshear. 2) derivation and discussion of the F-factor. 3) development of the F-factor hazard threshold, 4) its testing during field deployments, and 5) its use in accident reconstructions,

  10. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  11. Hazard identification for contaminants.

    PubMed

    Iscan, Mümtaz

    2004-12-15

    In recent years, the recognition of generation of large quantities of toxicants and their by-products due to the industrial and/or cultural activities and transport and their persistence in the environment and biological activities brings out the necessity and importance of their assessment of risk they pose to the ecosystems (e.g. aquatic environment-coastal waters, rivers, lakes and ground water). Indeed, understanding the impacts of contaminants on the environment, including the organisms which live in it, is rather complicated. Nevertheless, the need for protection of the scarce natural resources in the environment and wiser use of them brings the necessity and importance of focusing more attention to the issue. Accordingly the process of ecological risk assessment (ERA) has evolved rapidly since the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a framework for ecological risk assessment in 1992. The ecological risk assessment involves three stages in a continuous process: (1) problem formulation (problem identification-hazard identification), (2) the analysis of exposure and effects and (3) risk characterisation. Risk management follows the risk characterisation. Of these stages, problem identification is the most critical one which establishes the direction and scope of the ecological risk assessment. The stage involves identifying the actual environmental value(s) to be protected (assessment endpoints) and selecting ways in which these can be measured and evaluated (measurement endpoints). The accuracy of the risk estimation is largely based on the availability of the key information about the contaminant characteristics, ecosystem at risk and ecological effects and the less uncertainty associated with them. The key information required during this phase of the risk assessment process are as follows: (a) potential/actual contaminant of concern, (b) source of contaminant; current and historic use, (c) mode of action of the contaminant, (d) contaminant

  12. The Integrated Hazard Analysis Integrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry; Massie, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Hazard analysis addresses hazards that arise in the design, development, manufacturing, construction, facilities, transportation, operations and disposal activities associated with hardware, software, maintenance, operations and environments. An integrated hazard is an event or condition that is caused by or controlled by multiple systems, elements, or subsystems. Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is especially daunting and ambitious for large, complex systems such as NASA s Constellation program which incorporates program, systems and element components that impact others (International Space Station, public, International Partners, etc.). An appropriate IHA should identify all hazards, causes, controls and verifications used to mitigate the risk of catastrophic loss of crew, vehicle and/or mission. Unfortunately, in the current age of increased technology dependence, there is the tendency to sometimes overlook the necessary and sufficient qualifications of the integrator, that is, the person/team that identifies the parts, analyzes the architectural structure, aligns the analysis with the program plan and then communicates/coordinates with large and small components, each contributing necessary hardware, software and/or information to prevent catastrophic loss. As viewed from both Challenger and Columbia accidents, lack of appropriate communication, management errors and lack of resources dedicated to safety were cited as major contributors to these fatalities. From the accident reports, it would appear that the organizational impact of managers, integrators and safety personnel contributes more significantly to mission success and mission failure than purely technological components. If this is so, then organizations who sincerely desire mission success must put as much effort in selecting managers and integrators as they do when designing the hardware, writing the software code and analyzing competitive proposals. This paper will discuss the necessary and

  13. An Assessment of Radiological Hazards from Gold Mine Tailings in the Province of Gauteng in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Radiological hazards associated with exposure to Naturally Occurring Radionuclides Materials from gold mine tailings in the province of Gauteng in South Africa were evaluated. A comparison was made with soil samples from a control area. In this study, gamma spectroscopy was used to measure the activity concentrations of these radionuclides in 56 soil samples from the mine tailings and 10 soil samples from the control area. The average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg−1 for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the mine tailings were found to be 785.3 ± 13.7, 43.9 ± 1.0 and 427.0 ± 13.1, respectively. On the other hand, the average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg−1 for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the control area were found to be 17.0.1 ± 0.4, 22.2 ± 0.5 and 496.8 ± 15.2, respectively. Radiological hazard parameters calculated from these activity concentrations were higher than recommended safe limits. In particular, calculated average values for the external hazard (Hex) and the internal hazard (Hin) from the mine tailings were found to be 2.4 and 4.5. Both these values were higher than unity, posing a significant health risk to the population in the area. PMID:26797624

  14. Neural correlates of sound externalization.

    PubMed

    Callan, Akiko; Callan, Daniel E; Ando, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    When we listen to sounds through headphones without utilizing special transforms, sound sources seem to be located inside our heads. The sound sources are said to be lateralized to one side or the other to varying degree. This internal lateralization is different than sound source localization in the natural environment in which the sound is localized distal to the head. We used fMRI to investigate difference in neural responses between lateralization and localization. Individualized binaural recordings were used as externalized auditory stimuli and stereo recordings were used as internalized auditory stimuli. Brain activity was measured while 14 participants performed an active auditory localization task and while 12 participants performed a stimulus type identification task. Irrespective of the task condition, we observed enhanced activity in the bilateral posterior temporal gyri (pSTG) for the externalized stimuli relative to the internalized stimuli. Region of interest analysis indicated that both left and right pSTG were more sensitive to sound sources in contra- than ipsilateral hemifields. Moreover, greater back than front activity was also found in the left pSTG. Compared to impoverished spatial auditory stimuli, realistic spatial auditory stimuli enhance neural responses in the pSTG. This may be why we could observe contralateral hemifield preference in bilateral pSTG that many previous studies have failed to observe. Overall, the results indicate the importance of using ecologically valid stimuli for investigating neural processes in human cortex.

  15. Monogenetic volcanic hazards and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, C.; Connor, L. J.; Richardson, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Many of the Earth's major cities are build on the products of monogenetic volcanic eruptions and within geologically active basaltic volcanic fields. These cities include Mexico City (Mexico), Auckland (New Zealand), Melbourne (Australia), and Portland (USA) to name a few. Volcanic hazards in these areas are complex, and involve the potential formation of new volcanic vents and associated hazards, such as lava flows, tephra fallout, and ballistic hazards. Hazard assessment is complicated by the low recurrence rate of volcanism in most volcanic fields. We have developed a two-stage process for probabilistic modeling monogenetic volcanic hazards. The first step is an estimation of the possible locations of future eruptive vents based on kernel density estimation and recurrence rate of volcanism using Monte Carlo simulation and accounting for uncertainties in age determinations. The second step is convolution of this spatial density / recurrence rate model with hazard codes for modeling lava inundation, tephra fallout, and ballistic impacts. A methodology is presented using this two-stage approach to estimate lava flow hazard in several monogenetic volcanic fields, including at a nuclear power plant site near the Shamiram Plateau, a Quaternary volcanic field in Armenia. The location of possible future vents is determined by estimating spatial density from a distribution of 18 mapped vents using a 2-D elliptical Gaussian kernel function. The SAMSE method, a modified asymptotic mean squared error approach, uses the distribution of known eruptive vents to optimally determine a smoothing bandwidth for the Gaussian kernel function. The result is a probability map of vent density. A large random sample (N=10000) of vent locations is drawn from this probability map. For each randomly sampled vent location, a lava flow inundation model is executed. Lava flow input parameters (volume and average thickness) are determined from distributions fit to field observations of the low

  16. Ascorbate-apatite composite and ascorbate-FGF-2-apatite composite layers formed on external fixation rods and their effects on cell activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiupeng; Ito, Atsuo; Sogo, Yu; Li, Xia; Tsurushima, Hideo; Oyane, Ayako

    2009-09-01

    Ascorbate-apatite and ascorbate-fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)-apatite composite layers were successfully formed on anodically oxidized Ti rods clinically used for external fixation by a one-step procedure at 25 degrees C, using a metastable supersaturated calcium phosphate solution supplemented with l-ascorbic acid phosphate magnesium salt n-hydrate (AsMg) and FGF-2. The AsMg-apatite and AsMg-FGF-2-apatite composite layers were evaluated in vitro using fibroblastic NIH3T3 and osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. The AsMg-FGF-2-apatite composite layer markedly enhanced the NIH3T3 cell proliferation and procollagen type capital I, Ukrainian gene expression. Without FGF-2, the AsMg-apatite composite layer whose ascorbate content was 3.64+/-1.27microgcm(-2) obviously enhanced osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation. However, the AsMg-FGF-2-apatite composite layers whose FGF-2 contents were from 0.15+/-0.03 to 0.31+/-0.04microgcm(-2) inhibited osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. Thus, the AsMg-FGF-2-apatite composite layer should be precipitated on the surface of external fixators attached to skin and soft tissue. On the other hand, the AsMg-apatite composite layer should be precipitated at the part attached to bone tissue.

  17. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1996-12-31

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  18. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, William H.; Ganoe, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  19. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  20. Considerable hazards produced by heavy fuel oil in operating thermal power plant in Assiut, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasab, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M

    2013-09-01

    Heavy fuel oil and ash samples were collected from the Assiut thermal power plant in Egypt and subjected to gamma spectrometry analysis for natural radioactivity contents. Considerable results were observed where the ash contains nearly 1,000 times natural radionuclides more than raw oil. The results were confirmed by measuring the samples via using different devices in different institutions. All ash samples had radium equivalent activities and external hazard index values more than 370 Bq/kg and unity respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was10,650 nGy/h which is nearly 190 times higher than the global average value of 55 nGy/h. The corresponding annual external effective dose is estimated to be 13 mSv/year, which is nearly 30 times higher than that in areas of natural background radiation (0.46 mSv/year).

  1. Technology transfer in hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Drucker, H.

    1989-01-01

    Hazardous waste is a growing problem in all parts of the world. Industrialized countries have had to deal with the treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes for many years. The newly industrializing countries of the world are now faced with immediate problems of waste handling. The developing nations of the world are looking at increasing quantities of hazardous waste generation as they move toward higher levels of industrialization. Available data are included on hazardous waste generation in Asia and the Pacific as a function of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Although there are many inconsistencies in the data (inconsistent hazardous waste definitions, inconsistent reporting of wastes, etc.) there is definite indication that a growing economy tends to lead toward larger quantities of hazardous waste generation. In developing countries the industrial sector is growing at a faster rate than in the industrialized countries. In 1965 industry accounted for 29% of GDP in the developing countries of the world. In 1987 this had grown to 37% of GDP. In contrast, industry accounted for 40% of GDP in 1965 in industrialized countries and dropped to 35% in 1987. This growth in industrial activity in the developing countries brings an increase in the need to handle hazardous wastes. Although hazardous wastes are ubiquitous, the control of hazardous wastes varies. The number of regulatory options used by various countries in Asia and the Pacific to control wastes are included. It is evident that the industrialized countries, with a longer history of having to deal with hazardous wastes, have found the need to use more mechanisms to control them. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Working with External Evaluators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Lauren; Burg, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Hiring an external evaluator is not right for every museum or every project. Evaluations are highly situational, grounded in specific times and places; each one is unique. The museum and the evaluator share equal responsibility in an evaluation's success, so it is worth investing time and effort to ensure that both are clear about the goals,…

  3. [Internal and external haemorrhoids].

    PubMed

    Schuurman, J P; Go, P M N Y H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present 3 cases of patients with different types of haemorrhoidal disease. The first patient is a 27-year-old woman who had been experiencing incidental rectal blood loss without pain during defecation for 3 months. The second patient is a 76-year-old woman who had been bothered by varying degrees of pain from a swelling nearby the anus for 1 year. The third case involves a 31-year-old man who had had continuous severe pain in the anal area for 3 consecutive days. The first patient appeared to have internal hemorrhoids, whereas different forms of external hemorrhoids affected the patients in the other 2 cases. Internal haemorrhoids develop from the intraluminal corpus cavernosum recti; external haemorrhoids from the perianal marginal veins. Patients with internal haemorrhoids present with symptoms that include blood loss and prolaps feeling during defecation. In patients with external haemorrhoids pain is the prominent symptom. Internal haemorrhoids are treated either conservatively or surgically, depending upon their severity. Considering external haemorrhoidal disease surgical treatment provides the most rapid and persistent relief of symptoms.

  4. External College Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    This report presents the results of a community survey which attempted to determine the demand for another college in the Los Angeles Community College District. The function of this "community campus" or "external college" would be to serve members of the community who are not already served by the eight existing colleges. Questionnaires received…

  5. External Interest Group Impingements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Richard M.

    The history of the interrelation among state approval, accreditation, and institutional eligibility is considered. It is suggested that faculty and college administrators can be either an internal or external group in relationship to the planning process. The federal government, or the state government, passes legislation that may have both…

  6. Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP)

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    techniques have refractory angina pectoris. It has been estimated that greater than 100,000 patients each year in the US may be diagnosed as having this condition. (3) Patients with refractory angina have marked limitation of ordinary physical activity or are unable to perform any ordinary physical activity without discomfort (CCS functional class III/IV). Also, there must be some objective evidence of ischemia as demonstrated by exercise treadmill testing, stress imaging studies or coronary physiologic studies. (1) Dejongste et al. (4)estimated that the prevalence of chronic refractory angina is about 100,000 patients in the United States. This would correspond to approximately 3,800 (100,000 x 3.8% [Ontario is approximately 3.8% of the population of the United States]) patients in Ontario having chronic refractory angina. Heart Failure Heart failure results from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to act as a pump. A recent study (5) revealed 28,702 patients were hospitalized for first-time HF in Ontario between April 1994 and March 1997. Women comprised 51% of the cohort. Eighty-five percent were aged 65 years or older, and 58% were aged 75 years or older. Patients with chronic HF experience shortness of breath, a limited capacity for exercise, high rates of hospitalization and rehospitalization, and die prematurely. (6) The New York Heart Association (NYHA) has provided a commonly used functional classification for the severity of HF (7): Class I: No limitation of physical activity. No symptoms with ordinary exertion. Class II: Slight limitations of physical activity. Ordinary activity causes symptoms. Class III: Marked limitation of physical activity. Less than ordinary activity causes symptoms. Asymptomatic at rest. Class IV: Inability to carry out any physical activity without discomfort. Symptoms at rest. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (7) estimates that 35% of patients with HF are in functional NYHA

  7. Space Debris Hazard Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Elmer H.; Winslow, Paul C., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    The hazard to space vehicles from natural space debris has been explored. A survey of the available information pertinent to this problem is presented. The hope is that this presentation gives a coherent picture of the knowledge to date in terms of the topic covered. The conclusion reached is that a definite hazard exists but that it can only be poorly assessed on the basis of present information. The need for direct measurement of this hazard is obvious, and some of the problems involved in making these direct measurements have been explored.

  8. Elimination of the hazards from hazardous wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Gloyna, E F; Taylor, R D

    1978-01-01

    The "hazard" associated with a waste essentially controls the overall engineering approach to finding suitable alternatives for solving potential disposal problems. It should be recognized that all factors affecting environmental equilibrium must be considered, including product sales, process design, financing, pre- and end-of-pipe treatment, residuals management, and ultimate bioaccumulation of residuals. To meet this challenge, a systems approach to waste treatment and residuals disposal provides a logical approach, but this management concept requires a thorough understanding of the important physical and chemical aspects of the problem, as well as many social implications of the resulting decisions. Thus waste management within a plant necessarily involves process control, pretreatment and end-of-pipe treatment. Further, it follows that residuals management from a disposal point-of-view must ultimately embrace what is called the "multi-barrier concept." In essence, hazard elimination occurs in varying degrees during each phase of a properly engineered system. PMID:738249

  9. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Robert A.; Steckel, Phyllis; Schweig, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project will produce digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. They can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes.

  10. A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

    2014-11-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence-based decision-making regarding risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time-independent forecasts of tsunami hazards at the coast using data from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting the larger maximum magnitudes. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 0.5 m at the coast is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national-scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  11. 49 CFR 195.573 - What must I do to monitor external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What must I do to monitor external corrosion... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.573 What must I do to monitor external corrosion control? (a) Protected pipelines. You must do the following to...

  12. 49 CFR 195.573 - What must I do to monitor external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What must I do to monitor external corrosion... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.573 What must I do to monitor external corrosion control? (a) Protected pipelines. You must do the following to...

  13. 49 CFR 195.561 - When must I inspect pipe coating used for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.561 Section 195.561 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.561 When must I inspect pipe coating used for external corrosion control? (a) You must inspect all external pipe...

  14. 49 CFR 195.559 - What coating material may I use for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.559 Section 195.559 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.559 What coating material may I use for external corrosion control? Coating material for external corrosion control...

  15. 49 CFR 195.561 - When must I inspect pipe coating used for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.561 Section 195.561 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.561 When must I inspect pipe coating used for external corrosion control? (a) You must inspect all external pipe...

  16. 49 CFR 195.561 - When must I inspect pipe coating used for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.561 Section 195.561 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.561 When must I inspect pipe coating used for external corrosion control? (a) You must inspect all external pipe...

  17. 49 CFR 195.559 - What coating material may I use for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.559 Section 195.559 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.559 What coating material may I use for external corrosion control? Coating material for external corrosion control...

  18. 49 CFR 195.573 - What must I do to monitor external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What must I do to monitor external corrosion... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.573 What must I do to monitor external corrosion control? (a) Protected pipelines. You must do the following to...

  19. 49 CFR 195.561 - When must I inspect pipe coating used for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.561 Section 195.561 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.561 When must I inspect pipe coating used for external corrosion control? (a) You must inspect all external pipe...

  20. 49 CFR 195.573 - What must I do to monitor external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must I do to monitor external corrosion... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.573 What must I do to monitor external corrosion control? (a) Protected pipelines. You must do the following to...

  1. 49 CFR 195.559 - What coating material may I use for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.559 Section 195.559 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.559 What coating material may I use for external corrosion control? Coating material for external corrosion control...

  2. 49 CFR 195.561 - When must I inspect pipe coating used for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.561 Section 195.561 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.561 When must I inspect pipe coating used for external corrosion control? (a) You must inspect all external pipe...

  3. 49 CFR 195.559 - What coating material may I use for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.559 Section 195.559 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.559 What coating material may I use for external corrosion control? Coating material for external corrosion control...

  4. Natural radioactivity and radiation hazards in some building materials used in Isparta, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavi, B.; Akkurt, I.

    2010-09-01

    The activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium can vary from material to material and it should be measured as the radiation is hazardous for human health. Thus first studies have been planned to obtain radioactivity of building material used in the Isparta region of Turkey. The radioactivity of some building materials used in this region has been measured using a γ-ray spectrometry, which contains a NaI(Tl) detector connected to MCA. The specific activity for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, from the selected building materials, were in the range 17.91-58.88, 6.77-19.49 and 65.72-248.76 Bq/kg, respectively. Absorbed dose rate in air ( D), annual effective dose (AED), radium equivalent activities (Ra eq), and external hazard index ( Hex) associated with the natural radionuclide are calculated to assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in the building materials. It was found that none of the results exceeds the recommended limit value.

  5. Developing hazardous waste programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  6. Household Hazards to Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... follow label instructions before using any type of pesticide in your pet’s environment. For example, flea and ... when ingested. Hazards in the Garage & Yard Antifreeze, Herbicides and Insecticides Ethylene glycol-containing antifreeze and coolants, ...

  7. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  8. Household Hazardous Waste (HHW)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page gives an overview of how to safely manage household hazardous wastes like cleaners, paints and oils. Information is also provided on how to find recycling and disposal options for these products, as well as natural alternatives.

  9. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  10. Safety design approach for external events in Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yamano, H.; Kubo, S.; Tani, A.; Nishino, H.; Sakai, T.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a safety design approach for external events in the design study of Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor. An emphasis is introduction of a design extension external condition (DEEC). In addition to seismic design, other external events such as tsunami, strong wind, abnormal temperature, etc. were addressed in this study. From a wide variety of external events consisting of natural hazards and human-induced ones, a screening method was developed in terms of siting, consequence, frequency to select representative events. Design approaches for these events were categorized on the probabilistic, statistical and deterministic basis. External hazard conditions were considered mainly for DEECs. In the probabilistic approach, the DEECs of earthquake, tsunami and strong wind were defined as 1/10 of exceedance probability of the external design bases. The other representative DEECs were also defined based on statistical or deterministic approaches. (authors)

  11. Integrating waste management with Job Hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The web-based Automated Job Hazard Analysis (AJHA) system is a tool designed to help capture and communicate the results of the hazard review and mitigation process for specific work activities. In Fluor Hanford's day-to-day work planning and execution process, AJHA has become the focal point for integrating Integrated Safety Management (ISM) through industrial health and safety principles; environmental safety measures; and involvement by workers, subject-matter experts and management. This paper illustrates how AJHA has become a key element in involving waste-management and environmental-control professionals in planning and executing work. To support implementing requirements for waste management and environmental compliance within the core function and guiding principles of an integrated safety management system (ISMS), Fluor Hanford has developed the a computer-based application called the 'Automated Job Hazard Analysis' (AJHA), into the work management process. This web-based software tool helps integrate the knowledge of site workers, subject-matter experts, and safety principles and requirements established in standards, and regulations. AJHA facilitates a process of work site review, hazard identification, analysis, and the determination of specific work controls. The AJHA application provides a well-organized job hazard analysis report including training and staffing requirements, prerequisite actions, notifications, and specific work controls listed for each sub-task determined for the job. AJHA lists common hazards addressed in the U.S. Occupational, Safety, and Health Administration (OSHA) federal codes; and State regulations such as the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Administration (WISHA). AJHA also lists extraordinary hazards that are unique to a particular industry sector, such as radiological hazards and waste management. The work-planning team evaluates the scope of work and reviews the work site to identify potential hazards. Hazards

  12. Assessment of the natural radioactivity and its radiological hazards in Shewa-Shahbaz Garhi igneous complex, Peshawar Plain, NW Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amanat; Orfi, S D; Qureshi, A A

    2002-01-01

    Forty-two representative rock samples used for construction purpose were collected from the quarries and outcrops of the rock units forming the Shewa-Shahbaz Garhi igneous complex, North-West Pakistan. Radioactivity of terrestrial radionuclides (238U, 232Th, and 40K) was measured in these samples using gamma ray spectrometry system with an HPGe detector. The samples showed fairly high mean concentrations of 51 +/- 16 Bq kg(-1) of 238U, 70 +/- 20 Bq kg(-1) of 232Th and 1,272 +/- 367 Bq kg(-1) of 40K. Mean absorbed gamma dose rate in air of 119 +/- 29 nGy h(-1) was found. Assessment of radiological hazards was made by calculating radium equivalent activities with external and internal hazard indices. The calculations showed radium equivalent activity ranging from 52 to 346 Bq kg(-1). External and internal hazard indices ranging from 0.14 to 0.94 and 0.17 to 1.1, respectively, were found.

  13. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  14. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  15. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  16. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Results of the environmental health activities and needs assessment of the South Carolina statewide family practice system for the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program: EHAP Volume 1, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Musham, C.; Hainer, B.

    1993-05-01

    An activities and needs assessment was conducted to determine what each of the seven family practice residency programs in South Carolina is providing in environmental health education. In addition, this study was designed to determine: what are the barriers to greater emphasis on environmental health in family practice residency programs and, what the basic environmental health educational goals for family practice residency programs should be.

  17. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  18. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  19. Update of map the volcanic hazard in the Ceboruco volcano, Nayarit, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Camarena-Garcia, M. A.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Ceboruco Volcano (21° 7.688 N, 104° 30.773 W) is located in the northwestern part of the Tepic-Zacoalco graben. Its volcanic activity can be divided in four eruptive cycles differentiated by their VEI and chemical variations as well. As a result of andesitic effusive activity, the "paleo-Ceboruco" edifice was constructed during the first cycle. The end of this cycle is defined by a plinian eruption (VEI between 3 and 4) which occurred some 1020 years ago and formed the external caldera. During the second cycle an andesitic dome built up in the interior of the caldera. The dome collapsed and formed the internal caldera. The third cycle is represented by andesitic lava flows which partially cover the northern and south-southwestern part of the edifice. The last cycle is represented by the andesitic lava flows of the nineteenth century located in the southwestern flank of the volcano. Actually, moderate fumarolic activity occurs in the upper part of the volcano showing temperatures ranging between 20° and 120°C. Some volcanic high frequency tremors have also been registered near the edifice. Shows the updating of the volcanic hazard maps published in 1998, where we identify with SPOT satellite imagery and Google Earth, change in the land use on the slope of volcano, the expansion of the agricultural frontier on the east sides of the Ceboruco volcano. The population inhabiting the area is 70,224 people in 2010, concentrated in 107 localities and growing at an annual rate of 0.37%, also the region that has shown an increased in the vulnerability for the development of economic activities, supported by highway, high road, railroad, and the construction of new highway to Puerto Vallarta, which is built in the southeast sector of the volcano and electrical infrastructure that connect the Cajon and Yesca Dams to Guadalajara city. The most important economic activity in the area is agriculture, with crops of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum), corn, and jamaica

  20. Externally triggered microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing one or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug or drug precursor are contained in a liquid phase. The microparticles also contain magnetic particles that can be heated by application of an external magnetic field and thus heated to a predetermined Curie temperature. Heating of the particles melts the polymer shell and releases the drug without causing heating of surrounding tissues.

  1. Preliminary hazards analysis for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J.

    1993-10-01

    This report documents the Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In summary, it provides: a general description of the facility and its operation; identification of hazards at the facility; and details of the hazards analysis, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions. As part of the safety analysis procedure set forth by DOE, a PHA must be performed for the NIF. The PHA characterizes the level of intrinsic potential hazard associated with a facility, and provides the basis for hazard classification. The hazard classification determines the level of safety documentation required, and the DOE Order governing the safety analysis. The hazard classification also determines the level of review and approval required for the safety analysis report. The hazards of primary concern associated with NIF are radiological and toxicological in nature. The hazard classification is determined by comparing facility inventories of radionuclides and chemicals with threshold values for the various hazard classification levels and by examining postulated bounding accidents associated with the hazards of greatest significance. Such postulated bounding accidents cannot take into account active mitigative features; they must assume the unmitigated consequences of a release, taking into account only passive safety features. In this way, the intrinsic hazard level of the facility can be ascertained.

  2. [The external quality assessment schemes for lead in blood organized by the French national agency for medicine and health product safety: a synthesis of 15 years of activity].

    PubMed

    Pineau, Alain; Otz, Jocelyne; Guillard, Olivier; Fauconneau, Bernard; Dumont, Gilles; François-Burg, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    In 1992, at the request of the French labor ministry following questions on the ability of medical biology laboratories to satisfactorily measure blood lead level (PbB), a national PbB quality control came into being. Only in 1996 did this external quality control include a number of laboratories sufficient to allow for a significant retrospective evaluation. After fifteen years (1996-2011), The French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety wished to exploit the database collected. The number of participating laboratories went down from 73 to 41. On the other hand, the key finding pertained to the highly improved performance of the laboratories, which was associated with a spread decrease of the results over the entire range of tested PbBs (9 to 700 μg/L). Since 2006, we have observed increasing use of the inductively coupled plasma with mass spectrometry and decreasing use of electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Provided that they rely on identical metrology expertise, the two analytical techniques lead to results on all the tested concentrations that are not statistically different.

  3. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  4. Innovative hazardous waste treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.M.; Sferra, P.R. . Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    This book contains information about the latest developments in destroying hazardous wastes by incineration or pyrolysis. Topics include: hydrogenation and reuse of hazardous organic wastes; catalytic incineration of gaseous wastes; oxygen enhancement of hazardous waste incineration; and thermal fixation of hazardous metal sludges in an alumina-silicate matrix.

  5. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELIMINARY DESIGN HAZARD ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENT 1

    SciTech Connect

    FRANZ GR; MEICHLE RH

    2011-07-18

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  6. The California Hazards Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  7. The Influence of External Loads on Movement Precision During Active Shoulder Internal Rotation Movements as Measured by 3 Indices of Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Brindle, Timothy J; Uhl, Timothy L; Nitz, Arthur J; Shapiro, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Context: Using constant, variable, and absolute error to measure movement accuracy might provide a more complete description of joint position sense than any of these values alone. Objective: To determine the effect of loaded movements and type of feedback on shoulder joint position sense and movement velocity. Design: Applied study with repeated measures comparing type of feedback and the presence of a load. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty healthy subjects (age = 27.2 ± 3.3 years, height = 173.2 ± 18.1 cm, mass = 70.8 ± 14.5 kg) were seated with their arms in a custom shoulder wheel. Intervention(s): Subjects internally rotated 27° in the plane of the scapula, with either visual feedback provided by a video monitor or proprioceptive feedback provided by prior passive positioning, to a target at 48° of external rotation. Subjects performed the internal rotation movements with video feedback and proprioceptive feedback and with and without load (5% of body weight). Main Outcome Measure(s): High-speed motion analysis recorded peak rotational velocity and accuracy. Constant, variable, and absolute error for joint position sense was calculated from the final position. Results: Unloaded movements demonstrated significantly greater variable error than for loaded movements (2.0 ± 0.7° and 1.5 ± 0.4°, respectively) (P < .05), but there were no differences in constant or absolute error. Peak velocity was greater for movements with proprioceptive feedback (45.6 ± 2.9°/s) than visual feedback (39.1 ± 2.1°/s) and for unloaded (47.8 ± 3.6°/s) than loaded (36.9 ± 1.0°/s) movements (P < .05). Conclusions: Shoulder joint position sense demonstrated greater variable error unloaded versus loaded movements. Both visual feedback and additional loads decreased peak rotational velocity. PMID:16619096

  8. Nationwide Assessment of Seismic Hazard for Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, N. S.; Varazanashvili, O.; Mumladze, T.

    2014-12-01

    The work presents a framework for assessment of seismic hazards on national level for the Georgia. Based on a historical review of the compilation of seismic hazard zoning maps for the Georgia became evident that there were gaps in seismic hazard assessment and the present normative seismic hazard map needed a careful recalculation. The methodology for the probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard used here includes the following steps: produce comprehensive catalogue of historical earthquakes (up to 1900) and the period of instrumental observations with uniform scale of magnitudes; produce models of seismic source zones (SSZ) and their parameterization; develop appropriate ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) models; develop seismic hazard curves for spectral amplitudes at each period and maps in digital format. Firstly, the new seismic catalog of Georgia was created, with 1700 eqs from ancient times on 2012, Mw³4.0. Secondly, were allocated seismic source zones (SSZ). The identification of area SSZ was obtained on the bases of structural geology, parameters of seismicity and seismotectonics. In constructing the SSZ, the slope of the appropriate active fault plane, the width of the dynamic influence of the fault, power of seismoactive layer are taken into account. Finally each SSZ was defined with the parameters: the geometry, the percentage of focal mechanism, predominant azimuth and dip angle values, activity rates, maximum magnitude, hypocenter depth distribution, lower and upper seismogenic depth values. Thirdly, seismic hazard maps were calculated based on modern approach of selecting and ranking global and regional ground motion prediction equation for region. Finally, probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in terms of ground acceleration were calculated for the territory of Georgia. On the basis of obtained area seismic sources probabilistic seismic hazard maps were calculated showing peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral accelerations (SA) at

  9. External Ballistics. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-11

    clcsely related with aezodyzasics, ky gzavtaetry and the thecry cf the figure of Earth , by metecrology. Ballistic calculatica Sives all the bamic data...external tallistics. %he conteaFcrary state of the sciemce of the action cf rcckets and artillery ste]l cf different t)pes is such, that many of the e...height. L- 14near distance ovX tOf surface of thq Earth . ol - crbital velocity. V-1 - escape velocity. 2v_ - range angle. S- eaight of projqctile. Q

  10. External split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas George [Knoxville, TN; Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Vass, Arpad Alexander [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  11. DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

    1987-01-01

    Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

  12. The Framework of a Coastal Hazards Model - A Tool for Predicting the Impact of Severe Storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; O'Reilly, Bill; van Ormondt, Maarten; Elias, Edwin; Ruggiero, Peter; Erikson, Li H.; Hapke, Cheryl; Collins, Brian D.; Guza, Robert T.; Adams, Peter N.; Thomas, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project in Southern California (Jones and others, 2007) is a five-year project (FY2007-FY2011) integrating multiple USGS research activities with the needs of external partners, such as emergency managers and land-use planners, to produce products and information that can be used to create more disaster-resilient communities. The hazards being evaluated include earthquakes, landslides, floods, tsunamis, wildfires, and coastal hazards. For the Coastal Hazards Task of the Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project in Southern California, the USGS is leading the development of a modeling system for forecasting the impact of winter storms threatening the entire Southern California shoreline from Pt. Conception to the Mexican border. The modeling system, run in real-time or with prescribed scenarios, will incorporate atmospheric information (that is, wind and pressure fields) with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models (that is, tide, surge, and wave) to enable detailed prediction of currents, wave height, wave runup, and total water levels. Additional research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure will also be performed. Initial model testing, performance evaluation, and product development will be focused on a severe winter-storm scenario developed in collaboration with the Winter Storm Working Group of the USGS Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project in Southern California. Additional offline model runs and products will include coastal-hazard hindcasts of selected historical winter storms, as well as additional severe winter-storm simulations based on statistical analyses of historical wave and water-level data. The coastal-hazards model design will also be appropriate for simulating the impact of storms under various sea level rise and climate-change scenarios. The operational capabilities of this modeling system are designed to provide emergency planners with

  13. Hazardous materials dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Parallel growth of the chemical industry of emergency response capabilities in the public and private sectors has created a new need for improved communications. A new vocabulary of important terms is emerging in each of the industries that transport, store and handle hazardous materials. This dictionary, representing a compilation of words and phrases from many relevant sources, will help document and standardize the nomenclature of hazardous materials. The authors have screened the technical discourse of the chemical, transportation, petroleum and medical fields, both governmental and private, to determine the most current expressions and their uses. The lexicographic goal has been to identify key terms, ambiguous and multiple meaning words, acronyms, symbols and even slang referring to hazardous materials reactions, storing and handling procedures.

  14. Hazardous-Materials Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1995-01-01

    Remotely controlled mobile robot used to locate, characterize, identify, and eventually mitigate incidents involving hazardous-materials spills/releases. Possesses number of innovative features, allowing it to perform mission-critical functions such as opening and unlocking doors and sensing for hazardous materials. Provides safe means for locating and identifying spills and eliminates risks of injury associated with use of manned entry teams. Current version of vehicle, called HAZBOT III, also features unique mechanical and electrical design enabling vehicle to operate safely within combustible atmosphere.

  15. Hazard Communication Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab.

  16. [External pancreatic fistulas management].

    PubMed

    Stepan, E V; Ermolov, A S; Rogal', M L; Teterin, Yu S

    2017-01-01

    The main principles of treatment of external postoperative pancreatic fistulas are viewed in the article. Pancreatic trauma was the reason of pancreatic fistula in 38.7% of the cases, operations because of acute pancreatitis - in 25.8%, and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - in 35.5%. 93 patients recovered after the treatment. Complex conservative treatment of EPF allowed to close fistulas in 74.2% of the patients with normal patency of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The usage of octreotide 600-900 mcg daily for at least 5 days to decrease pancreatic secretion was an important part of the conservative treatment. Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in patients with major duodenal papilla obstruction and interruption of transporting of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Stent of the main pancreatic duct was indicated in patients with extended pancreatic duct stenosis to normalize transport of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Surgical formation of anastomosis between distal part of the main pancreatic duct and gastro-intestinal tract was carried out when it was impossible to fulfill endoscopic stenting of pancreatic duct either because of its interruption and diastasis between its ends, or in the cases of unsuccessful conservative treatment of external pancreatic fistula caused by drainage of pseudocyst.

  17. Hazard Analysis for Building 34 Vacuum Glove Box Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meginnis, Ian

    2014-01-01

    One of the characteristics of an effective safety program is the recognition and control of hazards before mishaps or failures occur. Conducting potentially hazardous tests necessitates a thorough hazard analysis in order to prevent injury to personnel, and to prevent damage to facilities and equipment. The primary purpose of this hazard analysis is to define and address the potential hazards and controls associated with the Building 34 Vacuum Glove Box Assembly, and to provide the applicable team of personnel with the documented results. It is imperative that each member of the team be familiar with the hazards and controls associated with his/her particular tasks, assignments and activities while interfacing with facility test systems, equipment and hardware. In fulfillment of the stated purposes, the goal of this hazard analysis is to identify all hazards that have the potential to harm personnel, damage the facility or its test systems or equipment, test articles, Government or personal property, or the environment. This analysis may also assess the significance and risk, when applicable, of lost test objectives when substantial monetary value is involved. The hazards, causes, controls, verifications, and risk assessment codes have been documented on the hazard analysis work sheets in Appendix A of this document. The preparation and development of this report is in accordance with JPR 1700.1, "JSC Safety and Health Handbook" and JSC 17773 Rev D "Instructions for Preparation of Hazard Analysis for JSC Ground Operations".

  18. Seismotectonics and seismic Hazard map of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumaya, Abdelkader; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Kadri, Ali; Zargouni, Fouad; Ghanmi, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    One natural hazard in Tunisia is caused by earthquakes and one way to measure the shaking risk is the probabilistic seismic-hazard map. The study of seismic hazard and risk assessment in Tunisia started in 1990 within the framework of the National Program for Assessment of Earthquake Risk. Because earthquakes are random events characterized by specific uncertainties, we used a probabilistic method to build the seismic hazard map of Tunisia. Probabilities were derived from the available seismic data and from results of neotectonic, geophysical and geological studies on the main active domains of Tunisia. This map displays earthquake ground motions for various probability levels across Tunisia and it is used in seismic provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessment and other public management activities. The product is a seismotectonic map of Tunisia summarizing the available datasets (e.g., active fault, focal mechanism, instrumental and historical seismicity, peak ground acceleration). In addition, we elaborate some thematic seismic hazard maps that represent an important tool for the social and economic development.

  19. Communicating Volcanic Hazards in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehn, J.; Webley, P.; Cunningham, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    For over 25 years, effective hazard communication has been key to effective mitigation of volcanic hazards in the North Pacific. These hazards are omnipresent, with a large event happening in Alaska every few years to a decade, though in many cases can happen with little or no warning (e.g. Kasatochi and Okmok in 2008). Here a useful hazard mitigation strategy has been built on (1) a large database of historic activity from many datasets, (2) an operational alert system with graduated levels of concern, (3) scenario planning, and (4) routine checks and communication with emergency managers and the public. These baseline efforts are then enhanced in the time of crisis with coordinated talking points, targeted studies and public outreach. Scientists naturally tend to target other scientists as their audience, whereas in effective monitoring of hazards that may only occur on year to decadal timescales, details can distract from the essentially important information. Creating talking points and practice in public communications can help make hazard response a part of the culture. Promoting situational awareness and familiarity can relieve indecision and concerns at the time of a crisis.

  20. Early identification systems for emerging foodborne hazards.

    PubMed

    Marvin, H J P; Kleter, G A; Prandini, A; Dekkers, S; Bolton, D J

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides a non-exhausting overview of early warning systems for emerging foodborne hazards that are operating in the various places in the world. Special attention is given to endpoint-focussed early warning systems (i.e. ECDC, ISIS and GPHIN) and hazard-focussed early warning systems (i.e. FVO, RASFF and OIE) and their merit to successfully identify a food safety problem in an early stage is discussed. Besides these early warning systems which are based on monitoring of either disease symptoms or hazards, also early warning systems and/or activities that intend to predict the occurrence of a food safety hazard in its very beginning of development or before that are described. Examples are trend analysis, horizon scanning, early warning systems for mycotoxins in maize and/or wheat and information exchange networks (e.g. OIE and GIEWS). Furthermore, recent initiatives that aim to develop predictive early warning systems based on the holistic principle are discussed. The assumption of the researchers applying this principle is that developments outside the food production chain that are either directly or indirectly related to the development of a particular food safety hazard may also provide valuable information to predict the development of this hazard.

  1. Latest Pleistocene-Holocene debris flow activity, Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona; Implications for modern debris-flow hazards under a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youberg, Ann M.; Webb, Robert H.; Fenton, Cassandra R.; Pearthree, Philip A.

    2014-08-01

    Hazard mitigation for extreme events such as debris flows requires geologic mapping and chronologic information, particularly for alluvial fans near mountain fronts in the southwestern United States. In July 2006, five consecutive days of monsoonal storms caused hundreds of debris flows in southeastern Arizona, particularly in the southern Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson. Before 2006, no historical debris flows from the Santa Catalina Mountains reached the populated mountain front, although abundant evidence of prehistoric debris flows is present on downslope alluvial fans. We used a combination of surficial geologic mapping and 10Be exposure dating to produce a debris-flow history for Pima and Finger Rock Canyons. The largest debris flows, of latest Pleistocene to early Holocene age, covered much of the apices of alluvial fans formed at the mouths of these canyons and extended up to 3 km downslope. These debris-flow deposits were inset against higher and older alluvial surfaces with few debris-flow deposits of late Pleistocene age. The 10Be ages in this study have considerable scatter for surfaces believed to be of uniform age, indicating the dual possibilities of inheritance from previous cosmic-ray exposure, as well as the potential for composite deposits derived from numerous debris flows. We then used an empirical inundation model, LAHARZ, to assess probable magnitudes of the older debris flows to evaluate possible initiation mechanisms. In-channel and terrace storage within the canyons is not sufficient to generate volumes likely needed to produce the larger late Pleistocene to early Holocene debris-flow deposits. The abundance of latest Pleistocene and early Holocene deposits suggests that large debris flows were generated during the instability associated with climate and vegetation changes at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Under present watershed conditions with limited sediment supplies, modern debris-flow hazards are generally limited to

  2. Seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment in Multi-Hazard Prone Urban Areas: The Case Study of Cologne, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagunov, S.; Fleming, K.; Parolai, S.; Pittore, M.; Vorogushyn, S.; Wieland, M.; Zschau, J.

    2012-04-01

    Most hazard and risk assessment studies usually analyze and represent different kinds of hazards and risks separately, although risk assessment and mitigation programs in multi-hazard prone urban areas should take into consideration possible interactions of different hazards. This is particularly true for communities located in seismically active zones, where, on the one hand, earthquakes are capable of triggering other types of hazards, while, on the other hand, one should bear in mind that temporal coincidence or succession of different hazardous events may influence the vulnerability of the existing built environment and, correspondingly, the level of the total risk. Therefore, possible inter-dependencies and inter-influences of different hazards should be reflected properly in the hazard, vulnerability and risk analyses. This work presents some methodological aspects and preliminary results of a study being implemented within the framework of the MATRIX (New Multi-Hazard and Multi-Risk Assessment Methods for Europe) project. One of the test cases of the MATRIX project is the city of Cologne, which is one of the largest cities of Germany. The area of Cologne, being exposed to windstorm, flood and earthquake hazards, has already been considered in comparative risk assessments. However, possible interactions of these different hazards have been neglected. The present study is aimed at the further development of a holistic multi-risk assessment methodology, taking into consideration possible time coincidence and inter-influences of flooding and earthquakes in the area.

  3. Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Yelagiri Hills, Tamil Nadu, India and the associated radiation hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravisankar, R.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.; Senthilkumar, G.; Eswaran, P.; Rajalakshmi, A.

    2012-12-01

    The natural radioactivity of soils at Yelagiri hills has been studied in this paper. The radioactivities of 25 samples have been measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K ranged from ≤2.17 to 53.23, 13.54 to 89.89 and from 625.09 to 2207.3 Bq kg-1, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with world average activity of soil. The average activity concentration of 232Th in the present study is 1.19 times higher than world median value while the activity of 238U and 40K is found to be lower. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity Raeq, the absorbed dose rate DR, the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index (Hex) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. The study provides background radioactivity concentrations in Yelagiri hills.

  4. Assessment of natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in some building materials used in Kilpenathur, Tiruvannamalai dist, Tamilnadu, India

    SciTech Connect

    Raghu, Y.; Harikrishnan, N.; Ravisankar, R.; Chandrasekaran, A.

    2015-08-28

    The present study aimed to measure the radioactivity concentration of naturally occuring radionuclides in the locally used building materials from Kilpenthaur, Tiruvannmalai Dist, Tamilnadu, India. This study will also evaluate the radiation hazard arising due to the use of these materials in the construction of dwellings. The concentrations of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in five types of building materials have been measured by gamma spectrometry using NaI (Tl) 3” x 3”detector. The estimated radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}), indoor absorbed gamma dose rate (D{sub R}), annual effective dose rate (H{sub R}) and the external hazard indexes(H{sub ex}) were lower than the recommended safe limit and are comparable with results from similar studies conducted in other countries. Therefore, the use of these building material samples under investigation in the construction of dwellings is considered to be safe for inhabitants.

  5. Managing Academe's Hazardous Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Fay

    1991-01-01

    Those responsible for planning and management of colleges and universities must plan comprehensively for hazardous waste disposal. Federal and state regulations are increasing, landfill area is becoming scarce, and incineration costs are rising fast. High-level institutional commitment to a sound campus environment policy is essential. (MSE)

  6. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  7. Hazardous Wastes from Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, John

    The management of waste materials has become more complex with the increase in human population and the development of new substances. This illustrated booklet traces the history of waste management and provides guidelines for individuals and communities in disposing of certain hazardous wastes safely. It addresses such topics as: (1) how people…

  8. Hazardous solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-11-01

    Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is `What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?`You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product`s constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace.

  9. Hazards of Mercury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Research, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Common concern for the protection and improvement of the environment and the enhancement of human health and welfare underscore the purpose of this special report on the hazards of mercury directed to the Secretary's Pesticide Advisory Committee, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The report summarizes the findings of a ten-member study…

  10. Health Hazard Evaluations

    MedlinePlus

    ... provide assistance and information by phone and in writing, or may visit the workplace to assess exposure and employee health. Based on their findings, NIOSH will recommend ways to reduce hazards and prevent work-related illness. The evaluation is done at no cost to the employees, ...

  11. Cables and fire hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanelli, C.; Philbrick, S.; Beretta, G.

    1986-01-01

    Besides describing the experiments conducted to develop a nonflammable cable, this article discusses several considerations regarding other hazards which might result from cable fires, particularly the toxicity and opacity of the fumes emitted by the burning cable. In addition, this article examines the effects of using the Oxygen Index as a gauge of quality control during manufacture.

  12. The Impact Hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David

    1994-01-01

    The Earth has been subject to hypervelocity impacts from comets and asteroids since its formation, and such impacts have played an important role in the evolution of life on our planet. We now recognize not only the historical role of impacts, but the contemporary hazard posed by such events. In the absence of a complete census of potentially threatening Earth-crossing asteroids or comets (called collectively Near Earth Objects, or NEOs), or even of a comprehensive cur-rent search program to identify NEOs, we can consider the hazard only from a probabilistic perspective. We know the steep power-law relationship between NEO numbers and size, with many more small bodies than large ones. We also know that few objects less than about 50 m in diameter (with kinetic energy near 10 megatons) penetrate the atmosphere and are capable of doing surface damage. But there is a spectrum of possible impact hazards associated with objects from this 10-megaton threshold all the way up to NEOs 5 km or larger in diameter, which are capable of inflicting severe damage on the environment, leading to mass extinction's of species. Detailed analysis has shown that, in general, the larger the object the greater the hazard, even when allowance is made for the infrequency of large impacts. Most of the danger to human life is associated with impacts by objects roughly 2 km or larger (energy greater than 1 million megatons), which can inject sufficient submicrometer dust into the atmosphere to produce a severe short-term global cooling with subsequent loss of crops, leading to starvation. Hazard estimates suggest that the chance of such an event occurring during a human lifetime is about 1:5000, and the global probability of death from such impacts is of the order of 1:20000, values that can be compared with risks associated with other natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe storms. However, the impact hazard differs from the others in that it can be largely

  13. Bevalac external beamline optics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  14. External Measures of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cairό, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex, and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind. PMID:22065955

  15. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hypes, Philip A.

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  17. External Community Review Committee:

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives: We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods: Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results: This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions: The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice. PMID:24056512

  18. Tank farms hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-30

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ``Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001`` as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process.

  19. Electroencephalography and externalizing behavior: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rudo-Hutt, Anna S

    2015-02-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) has been used to examine the possibility of dysfunctional brain activity in externalizing behavior, but findings across studies have been inconsistent. Furthermore, studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus other externalizing behaviors, such as disruptive behavior disorders or antisocial behavior, have developed parallel literatures. The purpose of the present study was to reconcile these two literatures. A meta-analysis of 62 studies of EEG power at rest in relationship to externalizing behaviors was performed. Results of the meta-analyses showed significantly higher delta (Hedges's g=0.25) and theta power (g=0.40) and lower beta power (g=-0.22) in externalizing participants compared to controls. Alpha (g=-0.26) and gamma power (g=-0.26) were marginally lower in externalizing samples. Results were not moderated by type of externalizing behavior. Overall, the results of the meta-analyses were consistent with the hypoarousal theory of externalizing behavior.

  20. Assessments of radioactivity concentration of natural radionuclides and radiological hazard indices in sediment samples from the East coast of Tamilnadu, India with statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Ravisankar, R; Chandramohan, J; Chandrasekaran, A; Prince Prakash Jebakumar, J; Vijayalakshmi, I; Vijayagopal, P; Venkatraman, B

    2015-08-15

    This paper reports on the distribution of three natural radionuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in coastal sediments from Pattipulam to Devanampattinam along the East coast of Tamilnadu to establish baseline data for future environmental monitoring. Sediment samples were collected by a Peterson grab samples from 10m water depth parallel to the shore line. Concentration of natural radionuclides were determined using a NaI(Tl) detector based γ-spectrometry. The mean activity concentration is ⩽2.21, 14.29 and 360.23Bqkg(-1) for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The average activity of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K is lower when compared to the world average value. Radiological hazard parameters were estimated based on the activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K to find out any radiation hazard associated with the sediments. The radiological hazard parameters such as radium equivalent activity (Raeq), absorbed gamma dose rates in air (DR), the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE), annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), external hazard index (Hex) internal hazard index (Hin), activity utilization index (AUI) and excess lifetime cancer (ELCR) associated with the radionuclides were calculated and compared with internationally approved values and the recommended safety limits. Pearson correlation, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) have been applied in order to recognize and classify radiological parameters in sediments collected at 22 sites on East coast of Tamilnadu. The values of radiation hazard parameters were comparable to the world averages and below the recommended values. Therefore, coastal sediments do not to pose any significant radiological health risk to the people living in nearby areas along East coast of Tamilnadu. The data obtained in this study will serve as a baseline data in natural radionuclide concentration in sediments along the coastal East coast of Tamilnadu.

  1. EVA Hazards due to TPS Inspection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2007-01-01

    Tile inspection and repair activities have implicit hazards associated with them. When an Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) crewmember and associated hardware are added into the equation, additional hazards are introduced. Potential hazards to the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Orbiter or the crew member themselves are created. In order to accurately assess the risk of performing a TPS inspection or repair, an accurate evaluation of potential hazards and how adequately these hazards are controlled is essential. The EMU could become damaged due to sharp edges, protrusions, thermal extremes, molten metal or impact with the Orbiter. Tools, tethers and the presence of a crew member in the vicinity of the Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) pose hazards to the Orbiter. Hazards such as additional tile or Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) damage from a loose tool, safety tethers, crewmember or arm impact are introduced. Additionally, there are hazards to the crew which should be addressed. Crew hazards include laser injury, electrical shock, inability to return to the airlock for EMU failures or Orbiter rapid safing scenarios, as well as the potential inadvertent release of a crew member from the arm/boom. The aforementioned hazards are controlled in various ways. Generally, these controls are addressed operationally versus by design, as the majority of the interfaces are to the Orbiter and the Orbiter design did not originally account for tile repair. The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), for instance, was originally designed to deploy experiments, and therefore has insufficient design controls for retention of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS). Although multiple methods to repair the Orbiter TPS exist, the majority of the hazards are applicable no matter which specific repair method is being performed. TPS Inspection performed via EVA also presents some of the same hazards. Therefore, the hazards common to all TPS inspection or repair methods will

  2. Genetics Reasoning with Multiple External Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

    2003-01-01

    Explores a case study of a class of 10th grade students whose learning of genetics involved activities using BioLogica, a computer program that features multiple external representations (MERs). Findings indicate that the MERs in BioLogica contributed to students' development of genetics reasoning by engendering their motivation and interest but…

  3. Above 20% external quantum efficiency in novel hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes having green thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo Seong; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2014-01-01

    High efficiency hybrid type white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) combining a green thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) emitting material with red/blue phosphorescent emitting materials were developed by manipulating the device architecture of WOLEDs. Energy transfer between a blue phosphorescent emitting material and a green TADF emitter was efficient and could be managed by controlling the doping concentration of emitters. A high quantum efficiency above 20% was achieved in the hybrid WOLEDs by optimizing the device structure of the hybrid type WOLEDs for the first time and the device performances of the hybrid WOLEDs were comparable to those of all phosphorescent WOLEDs. PMID:25317855

  4. Above 20% external quantum efficiency in novel hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes having green thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bo Seong; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2014-08-01

    High efficiency hybrid type white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) combining a green thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) emitting material with red/blue phosphorescent emitting materials were developed by manipulating the device architecture of WOLEDs. Energy transfer between a blue phosphorescent emitting material and a green TADF emitter was efficient and could be managed by controlling the doping concentration of emitters. A high quantum efficiency above 20% was achieved in the hybrid WOLEDs by optimizing the device structure of the hybrid type WOLEDs for the first time and the device performances of the hybrid WOLEDs were comparable to those of all phosphorescent WOLEDs.

  5. Systemic delivery and activation of the TRAIL gene in lungs, with magnetic nanoparticles of chitosan controlled by an external magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Alvizo-Baez, Cynthia A; Luna-Cruz, Itza E; Vilches-Cisneros, Natalia; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Alcocer-González, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Recently, functional therapies targeting a specific organ without affecting normal tissues have been designed. The use of magnetic force to reach this goal is studied in this work. Previously, we demonstrated that nanocarriers based on magnetic nanoparticles could be directed and retained in the lungs, with their gene expression under the control of a promoter activated by a magnetic field. Magnetic nanoparticles containing the TRAIL gene and chitosan were constructed using the ionic gelation method as a nanosystem for magnetofection and were characterized by microscopy, ζ-potential, and retention analysis. Magnetofection in the mouse melanoma cell line B16F10 in vitro induced TRAIL-protein expression and was associated with morphological changes indicative of apoptosis. Systemic administration of the nanosystem in the tail vein of mice with melanoma B16F10 at the lungs produced a very significant increase in apoptosis in tumoral cells that correlated with the number of melanoma tumor foci observed in the lungs. The high levels of apoptosis detected in the lungs were partially related to mouse survival. The data presented demonstrate that the magnetofection nanosystem described here efficiently induces apoptosis and growth inhibition of melanoma B16F10 in the lungs. This new approach for systemic delivery and activation of a gene based in a nanocomplex offers a potential application in magnetic gene delivery for cancer. PMID:27980403

  6. Counterfactual Volcano Hazard Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Gordon

    2013-04-01

    The historical database of past disasters is a cornerstone of catastrophe risk assessment. Whereas disasters are fortunately comparatively rare, near-misses are quite common for both natural and man-made hazards. The word disaster originally means 'an unfavourable aspect of a star'. Except for astrologists, disasters are no longer perceived fatalistically as pre-determined. Nevertheless, to this day, historical disasters are treated statistically as fixed events, although in reality there is a large luck element involved in converting a near-miss crisis situation into a disaster statistic. It is possible to conceive a stochastic simulation of the past to explore the implications of this chance factor. Counterfactual history is the exercise of hypothesizing alternative paths of history from what actually happened. Exploring history from a counterfactual perspective is instructive for a variety of reasons. First, it is easy to be fooled by randomness and see regularity in event patterns which are illusory. The past is just one realization of a variety of possible evolutions of history, which may be analyzed through a stochastic simulation of an array of counterfactual scenarios. In any hazard context, there is a random component equivalent to dice being rolled to decide whether a near-miss becomes an actual disaster. The fact that there may be no observed disaster over a period of time may belie the occurrence of numerous near-misses. This may be illustrated using the simple dice paradigm. Suppose a dice is rolled every month for a year, and an event is recorded if a six is thrown. There is still an 11% chance of no events occurring during the year. A variety of perils may be used to illustrate the use of near-miss information within a counterfactual disaster analysis. In the domain of natural hazards, near-misses are a notable feature of the threat landscape. Storm surges are an obvious example. Sea defences may protect against most meteorological scenarios. However

  7. Hazardous Waste: Cleanup and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve; Cronin, Nancy L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Superfund, a federal cleanup program created in response to growing public concern over the health and environmental risks posed by hazardous waste sites. Discusses sources, disposal, and movement and risk of hazardous waste. (JRH)

  8. Household Hazardous Waste and Demolition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Household wastes that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, or reactive are known as Household Hazardous Waste (HHW). Household Hazardous Waste may be found during residential demolitions, and thus require special handling for disposal.

  9. Health Hazards of Hospital Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Clever, Linda Hawes

    1981-01-01

    Health care workers historically have faced serious health problems, such as exposure to patients with tuberculosis. For hospital personnel today, a number of hazards exist. These range from toxic substance exposure to safety hazards presented by patients themselves. PMID:7281652

  10. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  11. Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future NASA space crafts will be able to safely land on the Moon, Marsand even an asteroid, in potentially hazardous terrain areas, allautonomously. And NASA’s Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidan...

  12. Similarities between recent seismic activity and paleoseismites during the late miocene in the external Betic Chain (Spain): relationship by 'b' value and the fractal dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Pascua, M. A.; De Vicente, G.; Calvo, J. P.; Pérez-López, R.

    2003-05-01

    A paleoseismic data set derived from the relationship between the thickness of seismites, 'mixed layers' in lacustrine Miocene deposits and the magnitude of the earthquakes is presented. The relationship between both parameters was calibrated by the threshold of fluidification limits in the interval of magnitude 5 and 5.5. The mixed layers (deformational sediment structures due to seismic activity) were observed in varved sediments from three Neogene lacustrine basins near Hellı´n (Albacete, Spain), El Cenajo, Elche de la Sierra and Hı´jar, and are interpreted as liquefaction features due to seismic phenomena. These paleoseismic structures were dated (relative values) by measurements of cyclic annual sedimentation in the varved sediments. From these observations, we are able to establish a recurrence interval of 130 years with events for magnitude bigger than or equal to four. Both paleoseismicity and instrumental seismicity data sets obey the Gutenberg-Richter law and the 'b' value is close to 0.86. The fractal dimension (dimension of capacity) of spatial distribution of potentially active faults (faults oriented according to the stress tensor regime in the area) was measured by the box-counting technique ( D0=1.73). According to the Aki empirical relation ( D0=2 b) for the instrumental seismicity and paleoseismic data sets in the area, the fractal dimension is close to 1.72. The similar value of the fractal dimension obtained by both techniques shows homogeneous seismic dynamics during the studied time interval. Moreover, the better established 'b' value of the paleoseismic data sets (0.86) compared with the 'b' value for the incomplete historic seismicity (<0.5) in the area increases the seismic series beyond the historic seismic record.

  13. Assessment of natural radioactivity and radiological hazards in building materials used in Yan'an, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Caifeng

    2013-03-01

    The concentration of natural radionuclides in commonly used building materials collected from Yan'an, China, was determined using gamma ray spectroscopy with a NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentration of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K in the studied building materials ranges from 9.4-73.1, 11.5-86.9, and 258.9-1,055.1 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and the world mean values for soil. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), internal hazard index (Hin), indoor air absorbed dose rate, and annual effective dose rate due to natural radionuclides in samples were estimated to assess radiological hazards for people living in dwellings made of the studied building materials. The calculated Raeq values of all building materials (75.7-222.1 Bq kg⁻¹) are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg⁻¹. The values of Hex and Hin are less than unity. The mean values of indoor air absorbed dose rates of all building materials (101.0 ± 14.1-177.0 ± 6.8 nGy h⁻¹) are higher than the world population-weighted average of 84 nGy h⁻¹, while the mean values of annual effective dose range from 0.50 ± 0.07-0.87 ± 0.03 mSv y⁻¹, which are lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y⁻¹. It is found that these materials may be used safely as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards to inhabitants.

  14. Coastal Hazards: Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Coastal Erosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Details an ocean-based lesson and provides background information on the designation of 1998 as the "Year of the Ocean" by the United Nations. Contains activities on the poster insert that can help raise student awareness of coastal-zone hazards. (DDR)

  15. Interval Estimation of Seismic Hazard Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Lasocki, Stanislaw

    2017-03-01

    The paper considers Poisson temporal occurrence of earthquakes and presents a way to integrate uncertainties of the estimates of mean activity rate and magnitude cumulative distribution function in the interval estimation of the most widely used seismic hazard functions, such as the exceedance probability and the mean return period. The proposed algorithm can be used either when the Gutenberg-Richter model of magnitude distribution is accepted or when the nonparametric estimation is in use. When the Gutenberg-Richter model of magnitude distribution is used the interval estimation of its parameters is based on the asymptotic normality of the maximum likelihood estimator. When the nonparametric kernel estimation of magnitude distribution is used, we propose the iterated bias corrected and accelerated method for interval estimation based on the smoothed bootstrap and second-order bootstrap samples. The changes resulted from the integrated approach in the interval estimation of the seismic hazard functions with respect to the approach, which neglects the uncertainty of the mean activity rate estimates have been studied using Monte Carlo simulations and two real dataset examples. The results indicate that the uncertainty of mean activity rate affects significantly the interval estimates of hazard functions only when the product of activity rate and the time period, for which the hazard is estimated, is no more than 5.0. When this product becomes greater than 5.0, the impact of the uncertainty of cumulative distribution function of magnitude dominates the impact of the uncertainty of mean activity rate in the aggregated uncertainty of the hazard functions. Following, the interval estimates with and without inclusion of the uncertainty of mean activity rate converge. The presented algorithm is generic and can be applied also to capture the propagation of uncertainty of estimates, which are parameters of a multiparameter function, onto this function.

  16. Determination of radioactivity levels and hazards of soil and sediment samples in Firtina Valley (Rize, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Kurnaz, A; Küçükömeroğlu, B; Keser, R; Okumusoglu, N T; Korkmaz, F; Karahan, G; Cevik, U

    2007-11-01

    The natural radioactivity levels in soil and sediment samples of Firtina Valley have been determined. To our knowledge, there seems to be no information about radioactivity level in the Firtina Valley soils and sediments so far. For this reason, soil and sediment samples were collected along the Firtina Valley and analysis on the collected samples were carried out to determine 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs radioisotopes using high purity germanium detector. The activity concentrations obtained for 226Ra, 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 208Tl, 40K and 137Cs are given in the unit of Bq/kg. The results have been compared with other radioactivity measurements in different country's soils and sediments. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the external hazard index (Hex), the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) and the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) were also calculated and compared with the international recommended values.

  17. Hazardous Waste: Cleanup and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve; Cronin, Nancy L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses hazardous waste, waste disposal, unsafe exposure, movement of hazardous waste, and the Superfund clean-up process that consists of site discovery, site assessment, clean-up method selection, site clean up, and site maintenance. Argues that proper disposal of hazardous waste is everybody's responsibility. (JRH)

  18. Identifying and modeling safety hazards

    SciTech Connect

    DANIELS,JESSE; BAHILL,TERRY; WERNER,PAUL W.

    2000-03-29

    The hazard model described in this paper is designed to accept data over the Internet from distributed databases. A hazard object template is used to ensure that all necessary descriptors are collected for each object. Three methods for combining the data are compared and contrasted. Three methods are used for handling the three types of interactions between the hazard objects.

  19. Hazard Maps in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes the use of geophysical hazard maps and illustrates how they can be used in the classroom from kindergarten to college level. Depicts ways that hazard maps of floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, and multi-hazards can be integrated into classroom instruction. Tells how maps may be obtained. (SLM)

  20. Mitigation of EMU Glove Cut Hazard by MMOD Impact Craters on Exposed ISS Handrails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Ryan, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Recent cut damages to crewmember extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) gloves during extravehicular activity (EVA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) has been found to result from contact with sharp edges or pinch points rather than general wear or abrasion. One possible source of cut-hazards are protruding sharp edged crater lips from impact of micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) particles on external metallic handrails along EVA translation paths. During impact of MMOD particles at hypervelocity an evacuation flow develops behind the shock wave, resulting in the formation of crater lips that can protrude above the target surface. In this study, two methods were evaluated to limit EMU glove cut-hazards due to MMOD impact craters. In the first phase, four flexible overwrap configurations are evaluated: a felt-reusable surface insulation (FRSI), polyurethane polyether foam with beta-cloth cover, double-layer polyurethane polyether foam with beta-cloth cover, and multi-layer beta-cloth with intermediate Dacron netting spacers. These overwraps are suitable for retrofitting ground equipment that has yet to be flown, and are not intended to protect the handrail from impact of MMOD particles, rather to act as a spacer between hazardous impact profiles and crewmember gloves. At the impact conditions considered, all four overwrap configurations evaluated were effective in limiting contact between EMU gloves and impact crater profiles. The multi-layer beta-cloth configuration was the most effective in reducing the height of potentially hazardous profiles in handrail-representative targets. In the second phase of the study, four material alternatives to current aluminum and stainless steel alloys were evaluated: a metal matrix composite, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), fiberglass, and a fiber metal laminate. Alternative material handrails are intended to prevent the formation of hazardous damage profiles during MMOD impact and are suitable for flight

  1. A determination of the external forces required to move the benchmark active controls testing model in pure plunge and pure pitch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dcruz, Jonathan

    1993-01-01

    In view of the strong need for a well-documented set of experimental data which is suitable for the validation and/or calibration of modern Computational Fluid Dynamics codes, the Benchmark Models Program was initiated by the Structural Dynamics Division of the NASA Langley Research Center. One of the models in the program, the Benchmark Active Controls Testing Model, consists of a rigid wing of rectangular planform with a NACA 0012 profile and three control surfaces (a trailing-edge control surface, a lower-surface spoiler, and an upper-surface spoiler). The model is affixed to a flexible mount system which allows only plunging and/or pitching motion. An approximate analytical determination of the forces required to move this model, with its control surfaces fixed, in pure plunge and pure pitch at a number of test conditions is included. This provides a good indication of the type of actuator system required to generate the aerodynamic data resulting from pure plunging and pure pitching motion, in which much interest was expressed. The analysis makes use of previously obtained numerical results.

  2. Microfluidic fabrication of polymersomes enclosing an active Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction: Effect on their stability of solute concentrations in the external media.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuandu; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-10-01

    Core/shell double emulsions were fabricated using glasscapillary based microfluidic techniques. Poly(butadiene) 46-bpoly(ethylene oxide)30 in mixture with cyclo-hexane/chloroform were contained as the shell part of droplets, whose core part was the full 1,4-cyclohexadiene based Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction solution of unknown osmolality. The droplets were collected in solutions of both low and relatively high concentrations of salt. This resulted in the respective increase or decrease of the core part diameter. In both cases, after an incubation period, the droplets eventually evolved into polymer vesicles. In solutions with low concentration of salt, the droplets evolved into polymer vesicles after the evaporation of the vola-tile solvent contained in the shell part. Due to the dewetting of the shell and core parts,droplets in solutions of relatively high salt concentration evolved into polymer vesicles only after three days of incubation. The dewetted shell part displayed crescent-moon-shapes with different curvatures. The final diameter of the vesicles differed from the diameter of the initial core droplets. We demonstrate that vesicles with unknown osmolality core parts are formed in both solutions of very low or relatively high concentration of salt; furthermore, we also demonstrate that they follow different formation pathways. In the appropriate conditions, the vesicles experienced a form of "collapsing" behavior due to the activity of the entrapped chemical reaction.

  3. California's potential volcanic hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, P.

    1989-01-01

    This is a summary of "Potential Hazards from Future Volcanic Eruptions in California' (USGS Bulletin No. 1847: price $4.75). The chief areas of danger are Lassen Peak, Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake Highland in the north; Clear Lake, Mono Lake and Long Valley in the centre; and Owen's River-Death Valley, Amboy Crater and the Saltan Butter in the south of the State. -A.Scarth

  4. Job Hazard Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    lifting heavy objects? • Do environmenta on, welding rays, heat, or excessiv Job Hazard Analysis U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and...Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration 200 Constitution Avenue Washington, DC...not itself alter or determine compliance responsibilities, which are set forth in OSHA standards themselves and the Occupational Safety and Health Act

  5. Nitrous Oxide Explosive Hazards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    may be the only way to ensure large N2O system safety. Prior hazard and monopropellant decomposition studies largely indicated that N2O was...difficult to initiate into dangerous monopropellant decompositions. Based on prior studies and use of N2O for decades in dental practice without serious... monopropellant decomposition studies largely indicated that N2O was difficult to initiate into dangerous monopropellant decompositions. Based on prior

  6. Publication: Evansville hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Evansville (Indiana) Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project was completed in February 2012. It was a collaborative effort among the U.S. Geological Survey and regional partners Purdue University; the Center for Earthquake Research and Information at the University of Memphis; the state geologic surveys of Kentucky, Illinois, and Indiana; the Southwest Indiana Disaster Resistant Community Corporation; and the Central U.S. Earthquake Consortium state geologists.

  7. Prioritizing industrial chemical hazards.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Bratt, Gary M

    This article describes the approach used to develop a prioritized list of toxic and hazardous industrial chemical hazards considered to pose substantial risk to deployed troops and military operations. The U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine published the prioritized list in November 2003. The work was performed as part of a multinational military effort supported by Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Previous chemical priority lists had been developed to support military as well as homeland defense research, development, and acquisition communities to determine enhanced detection and protection needs. However, there were questions as to the adequacy of the methodologies and focus of the previous efforts. This most recent effort is a more extensive evaluation of over 1700 industrial chemicals, with a modified methodology that includes not only the assessment of acute inhalation toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), but also chemicals/compounds that pose substantial physical risk (from fire/explosion) and those that may pose acute ingestion risks (such as in water supplies). The methodology was designed to rank such hazards from a strategic (global) military perspective, but it may be adapted to address more site/user specific needs. Users of this or any other chemical priority list are cautioned that the derivation of such lists is largely influenced by subjective decisions and significant variability in chemical-specific data availability and quality.

  8. 16 CFR 1000.25 - Office of Hazard Identification and Reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Hazard Identification and Reduction, under the direction of the Assistant Executive Director for Hazard..., Engineering Sciences, and Laboratory Sciences. The Office develops strategies for and implements the agency's..., the coordination of voluntary standards activities, and providing overall direction and evaluation...

  9. NGNP SITE 2 HAZARDS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Moe

    2011-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project initiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the U.S. Department of Energy pursuant to the 2005 Energy Policy Act, is based on research and development activities supported by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. The principal objective of the NGNP Project is to support commercialization of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology. The HTGR is a helium-cooled and graphite-moderated reactor that can operate at temperatures much higher than those of conventional light water reactor (LWR) technologies. Accordingly, it can be applied in many industrial applications as a substitute for burning fossil fuels, such as natural gas, to generate process heat in addition to producing electricity, which is the principal application of current LWRs. Nuclear energy in the form of LWRs has been used in the U.S. and internationally principally for the generation of electricity. However, because the HTGR operates at higher temperatures than LWRs, it can be used to displace the use of fossil fuels in many industrial applications. It also provides a carbon emission-free energy supply. For example, the energy needs for the recovery and refining of petroleum, for the petrochemical industry and for production of transportation fuels and feedstocks using coal conversion processes require process heat provided at temperatures approaching 800 C. This temperature range is readily achieved by the HTGR technology. This report summarizes a site assessment authorized by INL under the NGNP Project to determine hazards and potential challenges that site owners and HTGR designers need to be aware of when developing the HTGR design for co-location at industrial facilities, and to evaluate the site for suitability considering certain site characteristics. The objectives of the NGNP site hazard assessments are to do an initial screening of representative sites in order to identify potential challenges and restraints

  10. 42 CFR 84.52 - Respiratory hazards; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory hazards; classification. 84.52 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Classification of Approved Respirators; Scope of Approval; Atmospheric Hazards; Service Time § 84.52...

  11. 42 CFR 84.52 - Respiratory hazards; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Respiratory hazards; classification. 84.52 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Classification of Approved Respirators; Scope of Approval; Atmospheric Hazards; Service Time § 84.52...

  12. 42 CFR 84.52 - Respiratory hazards; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Respiratory hazards; classification. 84.52 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Classification of Approved Respirators; Scope of Approval; Atmospheric Hazards; Service Time § 84.52...

  13. 42 CFR 84.52 - Respiratory hazards; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Respiratory hazards; classification. 84.52 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Classification of Approved Respirators; Scope of Approval; Atmospheric Hazards; Service Time § 84.52...

  14. 42 CFR 84.52 - Respiratory hazards; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Respiratory hazards; classification. 84.52 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Classification of Approved Respirators; Scope of Approval; Atmospheric Hazards; Service Time § 84.52...

  15. United States National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey?s maps of earthquake shaking hazards provide information essential to creating and updating the seismic design provisions of building codes and insurance rates used in the United States. Periodic revisions of these maps incorporate the results of new research. Buildings, bridges, highways, and utilities built to meet modern seismic design provisions are better able to withstand earthquakes, not only saving lives but also enabling critical activities to continue with less disruption. These maps can also help people assess the hazard to their homes or places of work and can also inform insurance rates.

  16. Externalities of oil imports revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.

    1980-09-01

    A re-analysis of the externalities associated with oil imports reaffirms the major findings of an earlier study: (1) The current externalities of oil imports are large even after several favorable assumptions are made, including the existence of a large buffer stock and enlightened monetary and fiscal policy. (2) The large externalities of oil imports call for increased domestic supplies, including conservation, if they are cost-effective and based on marginal social costs. (3) A corrective public policy could involve oil-import taxes and the subsidization of new domestic energy sources without large government externalities. 20 references.

  17. Probabilistic hazard assessment for skin sensitization potency by dose–response modeling using feature elimination instead of quantitative structure–activity relationships

    PubMed Central

    McKim, James M.; Hartung, Thomas; Kleensang, Andre; Sá-Rocha, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Supervised learning methods promise to improve integrated testing strategies (ITS), but must be adjusted to handle high dimensionality and dose–response data. ITS approaches are currently fueled by the increasing mechanistic understanding of adverse outcome pathways (AOP) and the development of tests reflecting these mechanisms. Simple approaches to combine skin sensitization data sets, such as weight of evidence, fail due to problems in information redundancy and high dimension-ality. The problem is further amplified when potency information (dose/response) of hazards would be estimated. Skin sensitization currently serves as the foster child for AOP and ITS development, as legislative pressures combined with a very good mechanistic understanding of contact dermatitis have led to test development and relatively large high-quality data sets. We curated such a data set and combined a recursive variable selection algorithm to evaluate the information available through in silico, in chemico and in vitro assays. Chemical similarity alone could not cluster chemicals’ potency, and in vitro models consistently ranked high in recursive feature elimination. This allows reducing the number of tests included in an ITS. Next, we analyzed with a hidden Markov model that takes advantage of an intrinsic inter-relationship among the local lymph node assay classes, i.e. the monotonous connection between local lymph node assay and dose. The dose-informed random forest/hidden Markov model was superior to the dose-naive random forest model on all data sets. Although balanced accuracy improvement may seem small, this obscures the actual improvement in misclassifications as the dose-informed hidden Markov model strongly reduced "false-negatives" (i.e. extreme sensitizers as non-sensitizer) on all data sets. PMID:26046447

  18. Probabilistic hazard assessment for skin sensitization potency by dose-response modeling using feature elimination instead of quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Luechtefeld, Thomas; Maertens, Alexandra; McKim, James M; Hartung, Thomas; Kleensang, Andre; Sá-Rocha, Vanessa

    2015-11-01

    Supervised learning methods promise to improve integrated testing strategies (ITS), but must be adjusted to handle high dimensionality and dose-response data. ITS approaches are currently fueled by the increasing mechanistic understanding of adverse outcome pathways (AOP) and the development of tests reflecting these mechanisms. Simple approaches to combine skin sensitization data sets, such as weight of evidence, fail due to problems in information redundancy and high dimensionality. The problem is further amplified when potency information (dose/response) of hazards would be estimated. Skin sensitization currently serves as the foster child for AOP and ITS development, as legislative pressures combined with a very good mechanistic understanding of contact dermatitis have led to test development and relatively large high-quality data sets. We curated such a data set and combined a recursive variable selection algorithm to evaluate the information available through in silico, in chemico and in vitro assays. Chemical similarity alone could not cluster chemicals' potency, and in vitro models consistently ranked high in recursive feature elimination. This allows reducing the number of tests included in an ITS. Next, we analyzed with a hidden Markov model that takes advantage of an intrinsic inter-relationship among the local lymph node assay classes, i.e. the monotonous connection between local lymph node assay and dose. The dose-informed random forest/hidden Markov model was superior to the dose-naive random forest model on all data sets. Although balanced accuracy improvement may seem small, this obscures the actual improvement in misclassifications as the dose-informed hidden Markov model strongly reduced " false-negatives" (i.e. extreme sensitizers as non-sensitizer) on all data sets.

  19. Hazardous waste minimization at Oak Ridge National Laboratory during 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, C.M.

    1988-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility owned and operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed under subcontract by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Its primary role is the support of energy technology through applied research and engineering development and scientific research in basic and physical sciences. ORNL also is a valuable resource in the solution of problems of national importance, such as nuclear and chemical waste management. In addition, useful radioactive and stable isotopes which are unavailable from the private sector are produced at ORNL. A formal hazardous waste minimization program for ORNL was launched in mid-1985 in response to the requirements of Section 3002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The plan for waste minimization has been modified several times and continues to be dynamic. During 1986, a task plan was developed. The six major tasks include: planning and implementation of a laboratory-wide chemical inventory and the subsequent distribution, treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) of unneeded chemicals; establishment and implementation of a system for distributing surplus chemicals to other (internal and external) organizations; training and communication functions necessary to inform and motivate laboratory personnel; evaluation of current procurement and tracking systems for hazardous materials and recommendation and implementation of improvements; systematic review of applicable current and proposed ORNL procedures and ongoing and proposed activities for waste volume and/or toxicity reduction potential; and establishment of criteria by which to measure progress and reporting of significant achievements. Progress is being made toward completing these tasks and is described in this report. 13 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  20. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Logan

    2001-07-30

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents.

  1. Hazardous waste regulations: an interpretive guide

    SciTech Connect

    Mallow, A.

    1981-01-01

    Compliance with hazardous-waste laws has been made difficult by new, lengthy, and complicated Environmental Protection Agency regulations. This book analyzes and reorganizes the 150 pages of three-column regulations, clarifying all aspects of the requirements. Paralleling the related sections of the law (Subtitle C of the Resources Act), the book begins with an overview of the law and regulations and an identification and listing of hazardous wastes. There are guidelines for authorized state programs along with notification requirements for those in hazardous-waste activities. A checklist format, using five different scenarios offers a practical approach to analyzing the unique requirements for generators and transporters as well as owners and operators. 3 figures.

  2. Optical modulation goes external

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loni, A.

    1995-02-01

    Digital or analog modulation of continuous-wave laser sources forms the basis of encoding and transmitting of information through optical fiber link systems. In digital systems, data are formatted in a simple periodic two-bit configuration, represented by high or low light intensities, whereas in analog systems data are represented by selective portions of a time-varying electronic waveform applied to the optical carrier. High speed optical communications and the distribution of cable television (CATV) signals are just two examples of digital and analog systems, respectively, that involve the transmission of data, voice and video over fiber networks. The basic layout of a fiber-optic link system is presented. The optical source wavelength is determined by the characteristics of the optical fiber. If the optical sources used is a semiconductor laser diode, information can be imprinted on the optical output by directly modulating the laser drive current with a radio frequency (RF) signal. In digital systems, the low (off) state generally corresponds to a position just below the lasing threshold on the characteristic intensity-current curve of the diode. This position is preferred to the zero current locus because the turn-on delays are then minimized. Analog systems require a bias current in addition to the threshold current in order to push the modulation into the linear region of the power-current curve. The main disadvantages associated with the direct modulation approach are discussed. The main disadvantage of the solid-state approach is its inability to modulate directly the laser at the data rates nominally entailed in optical communications. This inability causes further limitations associated with the inherently long excited state lifetime of the lasing species. External modulation overcomes this drawback by modulating the optical output from the laser rather than the material properties of the laser itself, and consequently, is set to play an increasingly

  3. H.R. 4984: A Bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to regulate the use of hazardous waste as fuel for energy recovery, the operation of cement kilns that burn hazardous waste as fuel, the disposal of cement kiln dust waste, and related activities. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, August 18, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The report H.R. 4984 is a bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to regulate the use of hazardous waste as fuel for energy recovery, the operation of cement kilns that burn hazardous waste as fuel, the disposal of cement kiln dust waste. The proposed legislative text is provided.

  4. Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity.

  5. Multiscale seismic imaging of active fault zones for hazard assessment: A case study of the Santa Monica fault zone, Los Angeles, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, T.L.; Dolan, J.F.; Odum, J.K.; Stephenson, W.J.; Williams, R.A.; Templeton, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles at two different scales were acquired across the transpressional Santa Monica Fault of north Los Angeles as part of an integrated hazard assessment of the fault. The seismic data confirm the location of the fault and related shallow faulting seen in a trench to deeper structures known from regional studies. The trench shows a series of near-vertical strike-slip faults beneath a topographic scarp inferred to be caused by thrusting on the Santa Monica fault. Analysis of the disruption of soil horizons in the trench indicates multiple earthquakes have occurred on these strike-slip faults within the past 50 000 years, with the latest being 1000 to 3000 years ago. A 3.8-km-long, high-resolution seismic reflection profile shows reflector truncations that constrain the shallow portion of the Santa Monica Fault (upper 300 m) to dip northward between 30?? and 55??, most likely 30?? to 35??, in contrast to the 60?? to 70?? dip interpreted for the deeper portion of the fault. Prominent, nearly continuous reflectors on the profile are interpreted to be the erosional unconformity between the 1.2 Ma and older Pico Formation and the base of alluvial fan deposits. The unconformity lies at depths of 30-60 m north of the fault and 110-130 m south of the fault, with about 100 m of vertical displacement (180 m of dip-slip motion on a 30??-35?? dipping fault) across the fault since deposition of the upper Pico Formation. The continuity of the unconformity on the seismic profile constrains the fault to lie in a relatively narrow (50 m) zone, and to project to the surface beneath Ohio Avenue immediately south of the trench. A very high-resolution seismic profile adjacent to the trench images reflectors in the 15 to 60 m depth range that are arched slightly by folding just north of the fault. A disrupted zone on the profile beneath the south end of the trench is interpreted as being caused by the deeper portions of the trenched strike

  6. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the

  7. External Examining: Fit for Purpose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Price, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In a context of international concern about academic standards, the practice of external examining is widely admired for its role in defending standards. Yet a contradiction exists between this faith in examining and continuing concerns about standards. This article argues that external examining rests on assumptions about standards which are…

  8. Choosing a Truly External Evaluator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    This scenario discusses a situation in which a proposal has been published by a consortium of foundations for an "external" evaluator to evaluate a replication at two new sites of a program they have been funding for many years. A proposal is received from Dr. Porto-Novo, who has been the external evaluator of the initial program for about 10…

  9. Natural Hazards Science at the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Suzanne C.; Jones, Lucile M.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the USGS in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. The USGS conducts hazard research and works closely with stakeholders and cooperators to inform a broad range of planning and response activities at individual, local, State, national, and international levels. It has critical statutory and nonstatutory roles regarding floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, coastal erosion, volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and magnetic storms. USGS science can help to understand and reduce risks from natural hazards by providing the information that decisionmakers need to determine which risk management activities are worth­while.

  10. Radiation Hazard Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA technology has made commercially available a new, inexpensive, conveniently-carried device for protection, of people exposed to potentially dangerous levels of microwave radiation. Microwaves are radio emissions of extremely high frequency. They can be hazardous but the degree of hazard is not yet well understood. Generally, it is believed that low intensity radiation of short duration is not harmful but that exposure to high levels can induce deep internal burns, affecting the circulatory and nervous systems, and particularly the eyes. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established an allowable safe threshold of exposure. However, people working near high intensity sources of microwave energy-for example, radar antennas and television transmitters-may be unknowingly exposed to radiation levels beyond the safe limit. This poses not only a personal safety problem but also a problem for employers in terms of productivity loss, workman's compensation claims and possible liability litigation. Earlier-developed monitoring devices which warn personnel of dangerous radiation levels have their shortcomings. They can be cumbersome and awkward to use while working. They also require continual visual monitoring to determine if a person is in a dangerous area of radiation, and they are relatively expensive, another deterrent to their widespread adoption. In response to the need for a cheaper and more effective warning system, Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed, under NASA auspices, a new, battery-powered Microwave Radiation Hazard Detector. To bring the product to the commercial market, California Institute Research Foundation, the patent holder, granted an exclusive license to Cicoil Corporation, Chatsworth, California, an electronic components manufacturer.

  11. Rocket plume burn hazard.

    PubMed

    Stoll, A M; Piergallini, J R; Chianta, M A

    1980-05-01

    By use of miniature rocket engines, the burn hazard posed by exposure to ejection seat rocket plume flames was determined in the anaesthetized rat. A reference chart is provided for predicting equivalent effects in human skin based on extrapolation of earlier direct measurements of heat input for rat and human burns. The chart is intended to be used in conjunction with thermocouple temperature measurements of the plume environment for design and modification of escape seat system to avoid thermal injury on ejection from multiplace aircraft.

  12. Hazards of geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Geomagnetic storms are large and sometimes rapid fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field that are related to disturbances on the Sun's surface. Although it is not widely recognized, these transient magnetic disturbances can be a significant hazard to people and property. Many of us know that the intensity of the auroral lights increases during magnetic storms, but few people realize that these storms can also cause massive power outages, interrupt radio communications and satellite operations, increase corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and lead to spuriously high rejection rates in the manufacture of sensitive electronic equipment. 

  13. Landing Hazard Avoidance Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, Michael Franklin (Inventor); Hirsh, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Landing hazard avoidance displays can provide rapidly understood visual indications of where it is safe to land a vehicle and where it is unsafe to land a vehicle. Color coded maps can indicate zones in two dimensions relative to the vehicles position where it is safe to land. The map can be simply green (safe) and red (unsafe) areas with an indication of scale or can be a color coding of another map such as a surface map. The color coding can be determined in real time based on topological measurements and safety criteria to thereby adapt to dynamic, unknown, or partially known environments.

  14. Hazardous Environment Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed video overlay calibration and demonstration techniques for ground-based telerobotics. Through a technology sharing agreement with JPL, Deneb Robotics added this as an option to its robotics software, TELEGRIP. The software is used for remotely operating robots in nuclear and hazardous environments in industries including automotive and medical. The option allows the operator to utilize video to calibrate 3-D computer models with the actual environment, and thus plan and optimize robot trajectories before the program is automatically generated.

  15. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.

  16. Hazard assessment of explosive volcanism at Somma-Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrolorenzo, G.; Pappalardo, L.

    2010-12-01

    A probabilistic approach based on the available volcanological data on past Somma-Vesuvius eruptions has been developed to produce hazard-zone maps for fallout, pyroclastic density currents (PDCs), and secondary mass flows by using numerical simulations. The hazard maps have been incorporated in a GIS, making them accessible to casual and expert users for risk mitigation and education management. The results allowed us to explore the hazard related to different scenarios from all possible eruptions, ranked according to volcanic explosivity index (VEI) class, in the Vesuvius area and its surroundings including Naples. Particularly, eruptions with VEI ≤ 3 would produce a fallout hazard within about 10 km mostly east of the volcano and a PDC hazard within about 2 km from the crater. Large-scale events (4 ≤ VEI ≤ 5) would produce a fallout hazard up to 80 km from the vent and a PDC hazard at distances exceeding 15 km. Particularly, the territory northwest of Vesuvius, including metropolitan Naples, featuring a low hazard level for fallout accumulation, is exposed to PDCs also consistent with field evidence and archeological findings. Both volcano flanks and surrounding plains, hills, and mountains are exposed to a moderate-high level of hazard for the passage of secondary mass flows. With the present level of uncertainty in forecasting future eruption type and size on the basis of statistical analysis as well as precursory activity, our results indicate that the reference scenario in the emergency plan should carefully match the worst-case VEI 5 probabilistic scenario.

  17. Hazard maps of Colima volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero Ayala, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Colima volcano, also known as Volcan de Fuego (19° 30.696 N, 103° 37.026 W), is located on the border between the states of Jalisco and Colima and is the most active volcano in Mexico. Began its current eruptive process in February 1991, in February 10, 1999 the biggest explosion since 1913 occurred at the summit dome. The activity during the 2001-2005 period was the most intense, but did not exceed VEI 3. The activity resulted in the formation of domes and their destruction after explosive events. The explosions originated eruptive columns, reaching attitudes between 4,500 and 9,000 m.a.s.l., further pyroclastic flows reaching distances up to 3.5 km from the crater. During the explosive events ash emissions were generated in all directions reaching distances up to 100 km, slightly affected nearby villages as Tuxpan, Tonila, Zapotlán, Cuauhtemoc, Comala, Zapotitlan de Vadillo and Toliman. During the 2005 this volcano has had an intense effusive-explosive activity, similar to the one that took place during the period of 1890 through 1900. Intense pre-plinian eruption in January 20, 1913, generated little economic losses in the lower parts of the volcano due to low population density and low socio-economic activities at the time. Shows the updating of the volcanic hazard maps published in 2001, where we identify whit SPOT satellite imagery and Google Earth, change in the land use on the slope of volcano, the expansion of the agricultural frontier on the east and southeast sides of the Colima volcano, the population inhabiting the area is approximately 517,000 people, and growing at an annual rate of 4.77%, also the region that has shown an increased in the vulnerability for the development of economic activities, supported by the construction of highways, natural gas pipelines and electrical infrastructure that connect to the Port of Manzanillo to Guadalajara city. The update the hazard maps are: a) Exclusion areas and moderate hazard for explosive events

  18. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency.

  19. Has Clinton made externalities extraneous

    SciTech Connect

    Haites, E.

    1993-08-01

    Over the past several years state utility regulators have become increasingly concerned with the environmental externalities associated with electricity generation. Currently, 26 states have requirements in place, although these vary considerably in scope and complexity. The vast majority apply only to the selection of new resources; the most detailed specify a monetary value for each discharge to the environment. Regulatory concern with environmental externalities stems from the desire to minimize the cost of electricity service to society. Externalities requirements focus on the residual discharges after environmental regulations are complied with. Ignoring externalities leads to inefficient use of resources and environmental damage beyond with may be called a [open quotes]socially optimal[close quotes] level of pollution. Adjusting to the cost options for environmental externalities should lead utilities to select a combination of resources that is closer to the socially optimal mix. President Bill Clinton's recent announcement that the United States will limit its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) to 1990 levels by 2000 may make externalities regulation superfluous. National limits on sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]), nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]), and CO[sub 2] emissions by utilities will likely be in effect by 2000. It will not be possible to comply with emissions limits solely through changes to the mix of resource additions, even though consideration of environmental externalities in resource addition decisions can reduce incremental emissions. Other strategies to reduce the emissions of existing generating stations, as well as new sources, will be needed.

  20. Maternal regulation of child affect in externalizing and typically-developing children.

    PubMed

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Hollenstein, Tom; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Granic, Isabela

    2015-02-01

    Temporal contingencies between children's affect and maternal behavior play a role in the development of children's externalizing problems. The goal of the current study was to use a microsocial approach to compare dyads with externalizing dysregulation (N =191) to healthy controls (N = 54) on maternal supportive regulation of children's negative and positive affect. Children were between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Mother-child dyads participated in conflict and positive discussions, and child affect and maternal supportive affect regulation were coded in real time. First, no group differences on overall levels of mother supportive regulation or child affect were found. Second, three event history analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework were used to predict the hazard rate of (a) maternal supportiveness, and of children's transitions (b) out of negative affect and (c) into positive affect. The hazard rate of maternal supportiveness, regardless of child affect, was not different between groups. However, as expected, the likelihood of mothers' supportive responses to children's negative affect was lower in externalizing than comparison dyads. In addition, children with externalizing problems were significantly less likely than typically developing children to transition out of negative affect in response to maternal supportiveness. The likelihood of both typically developing children and children with externalizing problems transitioning into positive affect were not related to specific occurrences of maternal supportiveness. Results of the current study show the importance of temporal dynamics in mother-child interactions in the emergence of children's externalizing problems.