Science.gov

Sample records for activity family history

  1. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  2. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) levels to physical activity and family history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, S; Elosua, R; Covas, M I; Pavesi, M; Vila, J; Marrugat, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of physical activity with serum lipoprotein(a) [La(a)] levels in individuals according to whether they had a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Lp(a) levels in 332 healthy Spanish men aged 20 to 60 years were measured. Physical activity and family history of CHD were assessed. RESULTS: For men with a family history of CHD, the odds ratio for Lp(a) levels above the median value was 0.13 (95% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.50) in very active men (energy expended in physical activity > 300 kcal/day) compared with active men (energy expended in physical activity < 300 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Regular daily physical activity in individuals with a family history of CHD could be useful for controlling Lp(a) levels. PMID:10076490

  3. Creating a Family Health History

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Creating a Family Health History Why Create a Family Health History? Click for more information A Family Tree for ... Click for more information What a Family Health History May Reveal You can use a family health ...

  4. Sexually Active Adolescent Women: Assessing Family and Peer Relationships Using Event History Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saftner, Melissa Ann; Martyn, Kristy Kiel; Lori, Jody Rae

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore family and peer relationships (including support and influence on risk behavior) among sexually active European American and African American adolescent girls in the context of risk behaviors documented on retrospective event history calendars (EHCs) and in interviews. The EHCs were completed by…

  5. Things Are Happening: A Survey Report of North American Family History Activity. Series 340.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennion, Roy B.; Nichols, Elizabeth L.

    To find out about grass roots activities and projects in family history, a survey form was distributed through periodicals and newsletters of genealogical and historical organizations and through general periodicals; telephone calls were made to all state boards of education; and data were gathered from projects already in the researchers'…

  6. Creating a family health history

    MedlinePlus

    Family health history; Create a family health history; Family medical history ... Many factors affect your health. These include your: Genes Diet and exercise habits Environment Family members tend to share certain behaviors, genetic traits, and habits. ...

  7. Family history of chronic disease and meeting public health guidelines for physical activity: the cooper center longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Shuval, Kerem; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Barlow, Carolyn E; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Balasubramanian, Bijal A

    2013-06-01

    We aimed to assess whether a family history of coronary heart disease, diabetes, or cancer is linked to meeting public health guidelines for health-promoting physical activity. To achieve this objective, we analyzed data on 29,513 adults who came to the Cooper Clinic (Dallas, Texas) between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2010, for a preventive medicine visit. Patients completed a comprehensive medical survey including information on family medical history, physical activity, and other lifestyle behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between having a family history of chronic disease and meeting physical activity guidelines. The results indicated that individuals with a family history of disease had reduced odds for meeting or exceeding physical activity guidelines. For example, participants with a family history of 3 diseases were 36% less likely to meet or exceed physical activity guidelines than their counterparts without a family history of disease (odds ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.58-0.72), while controlling for covariates. Among this large sample of adults, those with a family history of chronic disease were less inclined to regularly engage in physical activity. Thus, targeted programs encouraging adoption and maintenance of health-promoting physical activity might be warranted, specifically targeting individuals with familial history of disease.

  8. Sexually active adolescent women: assessing family and peer relationships using event history calendars.

    PubMed

    Saftner, Melissa Ann; Martyn, Kristy Kiel; Lori, Jody Rae

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore family and peer relationships (including support and influence on risk behavior) among sexually active European American and African American adolescent girls in the context of risk behaviors documented on retrospective event history calendars (EHCs) and in interviews. The EHCs were completed by the adolescents prior to a clinic visit with a nurse practitioner at a school-based clinic in Southeast Michigan, and interviews were conducted after the visit. Constant comparative analysis of EHCs and interview data of 19 sexually active 15 to 19-year-old girls revealed that those with positive familial and peer support were less likely to report risk behaviors compared to those with poor family and peer relationships. School nurses and other providers working with adolescents to prevent risk behaviors could utilize the EHC to determine risks and develop education plans and interventions to reduce risk behaviors.

  9. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  10. Family Histories: Collecting, Connecting, Celebrating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damkoehler, Dee; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an integrated curriculum for grade two at Metcalf Laboratory School, Normal, Illinois, that celebrates family histories and American immigration. Reports that the journey begins with the teachers sharing their own family backgrounds, followed by story reading, sharing the family history project with parents, collecting oral histories,…

  11. Predicting Adolescents' Organized Activity Involvement: The Role of Maternal Depression History, Family Relationship Quality, and Adolescent Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Martin, Nina C.; Garber, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Although the potential benefits of organized activity involvement during high school have been documented, little is known about what familial and individual characteristics are associated with higher levels of participation. Using structural equation modeling, this longitudinal study examined the extent to which maternal depression history (i.e.,…

  12. Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative

    MedlinePlus

    ... Start Your Family Health History My Family Health Portrait Tool English Web Tool Printable Versions Source Code ... your family's health history. My Family Health History Portrait Tool Find out about this web-based tool ...

  13. Family Health History and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... History Prevent Type 2 Diabetes in Your Family Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... encourages people to share this content freely. [ Top ] ​​​​​ Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  14. Gastric cancer and family history

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Identifying individuals at high risk is important for surveillance and prevention of gastric cancer. Having first-degree relatives diagnosed with gastric cancer is a strong and consistent risk factor for gastric cancer, but the pathogenic mechanisms behind this familial aggregation are unclear. Against this background, we reviewed the risk factors for gastric cancer in those with a first-degree relative with gastric cancer, and the possible causes for familial clustering of gastric cancer including bacterial factors, inherited genetic susceptibility, environmental factors or a combination thereof. Among individuals with a family history, current or past Helicobacter pylori infection, having two or more first-degree affected relatives or female gender was associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. To date, no specific single nucleotide polymorphism has been shown to be associated with familial clustering of gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is the most important strategy for preventing gastric cancer in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients, particularly those in their 20s and 30s. Early H. pylori eradication could prevent the progression to intestinal metaplasia and reduce the synergistic effect on gastric carcinogenesis in individuals with both H. pylori infection and a family history. Endoscopic surveillance is also expected to benefit individuals with a family history. Further large-scale, prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and optimal time point for endoscopy in this population. Moreover, genome-wide association studies that incorporate environmental and dietary factors on a ‘big data’ basis will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. PMID:27809451

  15. Medical History: Compiling Your Medical Family Tree

    MedlinePlus

    ... family medical history, sometimes called a medical family tree, is a record of illnesses and medical conditions ... to consult family documents, such as existing family trees, baby books, old letters, obituaries or records from ...

  16. Family History May Magnify Your Hangover

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164499.html Family History May Magnify Your Hangover People whose relatives ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers say people with a family history of alcoholism seem to recall the misery ...

  17. Selected Internet Resources on Family History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Provides a list of Internet resources on family history that cover topics such as colonial families, shifting family ideals, families in the Early Republic, families in bondage, westward migration, families during the Great Depression, journals, reference sources, and lesson plans. (CMK)

  18. Family History in Primary Care Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    McInerney, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    The family history has been called the first genetic test; it was a core element of primary care long before the current wave of genetics technologies and services became clinically relevant. Risk assessment based on family history allows providers to personalize and prioritize health messages, shifts the focus of health care from treatment to prevention, and can empower individuals and families to be stewards of their own health. In a world of rising health care costs, the family history is an important tool, with its primary cost being the clinician’s time. However, a recent National Institutes of Health conference highlighted the lack of substantive evidence to support the clinical utility of family histories. Annual collection of a comprehensive 3-generation family history has been held up as the gold standard for practice. However, interval family histories targeted to symptoms and family histories tailored to a child’s life stage (ie, age-based health) may be important and underappreciated methods of collecting family history that yield clinically actionable data and supplement existing family history information. In this article, we review the various applications, as well as capabilities and limitations, of the family history for primary care providers. PMID:24298128

  19. Family history in primary care pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Tarini, Beth A; McInerney, Joseph D

    2013-12-01

    The family history has been called the first genetic test; it was a core element of primary care long before the current wave of genetics technologies and services became clinically relevant. Risk assessment based on family history allows providers to personalize and prioritize health messages, shifts the focus of health care from treatment to prevention, and can empower individuals and families to be stewards of their own health. In a world of rising health care costs, the family history is an important tool, with its primary cost being the clinician's time. However, a recent National Institutes of Health conference highlighted the lack of substantive evidence to support the clinical utility of family histories. Annual collection of a comprehensive 3-generation family history has been held up as the gold standard for practice. However, interval family histories targeted to symptoms and family histories tailored to a child's life stage (ie, age-based health) may be important and underappreciated methods of collecting family history that yield clinically actionable data and supplement existing family history information. In this article, we review the various applications, as well as capabilities and limitations, of the family history for primary care providers.

  20. Instance testing of the family history ontology.

    PubMed

    Peace, Jane; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Brennan, Patti

    2008-11-06

    The Family History Ontology formalizes nursing conceptualization about family and family history. Traditional methods of instance testing were applied to evaluate the completeness of the ontology and demonstrated favorable domain coverage. Testing also revealed a need for a new category of instance test results, "by inference", for data that can be represented through the use of inference rules associated with the ontology rather than requiring direct manual entry.

  1. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  2. Family Oral Histories for Multicultural Curriculum Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Irma M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a rationale and an approach for helping teachers use the life histories of parents and members of the community as scaffolds to teach social studies and history concepts. Examples from a case study are presented involving an extended Puerto Rican family and abstracts of teacher reflections on the process. (GR)

  3. Why Is It Important to Know My Family Medical History?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to know my family medical history? Why is it important to know my family medical history? A ... certificates) can help complete a family medical history. It is important to keep this information up-to- ...

  4. Family Structure History and Adolescent Romance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crissey, Sarah R.; Raley, R. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between family structure history and adolescent romance. Using a national sample drawn from Add Health (N = 13,570), family structure at Wave I was associated with the likelihood that adolescents were involved in a romantic relationship at Wave II and, among those in a relationship, the number of relationships…

  5. Digital family histories for data mining.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Robert; Linnville, Steven; Chung, Hui-Min; Hutfless, Brent; Rice, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    As we move closer to ubiquitous electronic health records (EHRs), genetic, familial, and clinical information will need to be incorporated into EHRs as structured data that can be used for data mining and clinical decision support. While the Human Genome Project has produced new and exciting genomic data, the cost to sequence the human personal genome is high, and significant controversies regarding how to interpret genomic data exist. Many experts feel that the family history is a surrogate marker for genetic information and should be part of any paper-based or electronic health record. A digital family history is now part of the Meaningful Use Stage 2 menu objectives for EHR reimbursement, projected for 2014. In this study, a secure online family history questionnaire was designed to collect data on a unique cohort of Vietnam-era repatriated male veterans and a comparison group in order to compare participant and family disease rates on common medical disorders with a genetic component. This article describes our approach to create the digital questionnaire and the results of analyzing family history data on 319 male participants.

  6. Bipolar II disorder family history using the family history screen: findings and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Franco

    2004-01-01

    Psychiatric family history of bipolar II disorder is understudied. The aims of the current study were to find the psychiatric family history of bipolar II patients using a new structured interview, the Family History Screen by Weissman et al (2000), and to find bipolar disorders family history predicting power for the diagnosis of bipolar II. One hundred sixty-four consecutive unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) and 241 consecutive bipolar II major depressive episode (MDE) outpatients were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). The Family History Screen was used. Sensitivity and specificity of predictors of the diagnosis of bipolar II (bipolar [type I and II] family history, bipolar II family history, atypical depression, depressive mixed state, many MDE recurrences, early onset) were studied. Bipolar II subjects had significantly more bipolar I, more bipolar II (50.7%), more MDE, and more social phobia in first-degree relatives than did unipolar subjects. Bipolar II subjects had many more first-degree relatives with bipolar II than with bipolar I. Among the predictors of the diagnosis of bipolar II, bipolar II family history had the highest specificity (82.8%), while early onset had the highest sensitivity. Discriminant analysis of predictor variables found that bipolar II family history and early onset were highly significant predictors. In conclusion, bipolar II family history was common in bipolar II patients, and it had high specificity for predicting bipolar II. If detected, it could reduce bipolar II misdiagnosis by inducing careful probing for a history of hypomania.

  7. Pattern of family history in stone patients.

    PubMed

    Marickar, Y M Fazil; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

    2009-12-01

    Genetic predisposition to urolithiasis is a much discussed topic. The objective of this paper is to identify the types of family members of proved urinary stone patients, who have a history of urinary stone formation. The study population consisted of 2,157 urinary stone patients interviewed in 2003-2007 in the urinary stone clinic. Family members with stone history were classified as group 1--first order single (one person in the immediate family-father, mother, siblings, or children), group 2--first order multiple (more than one member in the above group), group 3--second order single (one person in the blood relatives in family--grandparents, grandchildren, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc.) and group 4--second order multiple (more than one member in the above group). Of the 2,157 patients studied, 349 patients gave positive history of stone disease constituting 16.18%. Of these, 321 were males and 28 were females. Subdivision of the family members showed that 282 patients (80.80%) had single family member with stones and the rest 67 (19.20%) had multiple family members with history of stone disease. Group 1 which constituted one family member in the immediate family had 255 involvements (father: 88, mother: 16, brother: 135, sister: 2, son: 10, and daughter: 4); Group 2 with multiple members in the immediate family constituted 51 relatives; of these, father and brother combination was the most common with 35 occurrences. Group 3 with one person in the distant relatives in family namely grandparents, grand children, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc. constituted 27 occurrences and Group 4 with more than one member in the distant family constituted 16 occurrences. It is concluded that single family member involvement was more than multiple involvements. Males predominated. Stone occurrence was more in the immediate family members than distant relatives. Brothers formed the most common group to be involved with stone disease. Study of stone risk in the family members should

  8. Increased Forebrain Activations in Youths with Family Histories of Alcohol and Other Substance Use Disorders Performing a Go/No Go Task

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Ashley; Tagaments, Malle; Rowland, Laura M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Wright, Susan N.; Hong, L. Elliot; Kochunov, Peter; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Youths with a family history of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) are at a greater risk of developing substance use disorders than their peers with no such family histories (FH−), and this increased risk may be related to impaired maturation of forebrain circuitry. FH+ individuals have shown altered forebrain activity at rest and while performing cognitive tasks. However, it is not fully understood how forebrain activity is altered in FH+ individuals and ultimately how these alterations may contribute to substance use disorder risk. Methods In the present study, we tested 72 FH+ and 32 FH− youths performing a go/no-go task and examined activations in blocks with only go trials (Go Only), blocks with 50% go and 50% no go trials (Go/NoGo), and a contrast of those 2 blocks. Results FH+ youths had significantly greater cerebral activations in both the Go and Go/NoGo blocks than FH− youths in regions including the posterior cingulate/precuneus, bilateral middle/superior temporal gyrus, and medial superior frontal gyrus with no significant group differences in the subtraction between Go Only and Go/NoGo blocks. Additionally, FH+ youths had moderately slower reaction times on go trials in the Go Only blocks. Conclusions Our findings suggest that global activation increases in FH+ youths are modulated by FH density and are not specific to the inhibitory components of the task. This pattern of increased activations in FH+ youths may be at least partially due to impaired forebrain white matter development leading to greater activations/less efficient neural communication during task performance. PMID:25406902

  9. Let's Move Together: A Randomized Trial of the Impact of Family Health History on Encouragement and Co-Engagement in Physical Activity of Mexican-Origin Parents and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Heer, Hendrik Dirk; de la Haye, Kayla; Skapinsky, Kaley; Goergen, Andrea F.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Due to shared health behaviors and disease risk, families may be more effective targets for health promotion. This study assessed whether providing family health history (FHH)-based risk information for heart disease and diabetes affected encouragement to engage in physical activity (PA) and healthy weight (HW) maintenance and…

  10. Teaching Family History: Papers from Old Sturbridge Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Family History, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Essays in this special issue of the "Journal of Family History" focus on the teaching of family history by using artifacts. The articles were written by the staff at Old Sturbridge Village (OSV). The first article discusses how family history is taught at OSV. Students study a real family using demographic information and artifacts such as…

  11. Family History in Patients with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    ÖZDEMİR, Osman; COŞKUN, Salih; AKTAN MUTLU, Elif; ÖZDEMİR, Pınar Güzel; ATLI, Abdullah; YILMAZ, Ekrem; KESKİN, Sıddık

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we aimed to better understand the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder by examining the family history of patients. Methods Sixty-three patients with bipolar disorder and their families were included. The final sample comprised 156 bipolar patients and their family members. An inclusion criterion was the presence of bipolar disorder history in the family. The diagnosis of other family members was confirmed by analyzing their files, hospital records, and by calling them to the hospital. Results Sixty-five patients were women (41.6%) and 91 were men (58.3%) (ratio of men/women: 1.40). When analyzing the results in terms of the transition of disease from the mother’s or father’s side, similar results were obtained: 25 patients were from the mother’s side and 25 patients were from the father’s side in 63 cases. Conclusion The results of our study support the fact that a significant relationship exists between the degree of kinship and the heritability of bipolar disorder and, furthermore, that the effect of the maternal and paternal sides is similar on the transmission of genetic susceptibility. PMID:28373808

  12. Practising family history: 'identity' as a category of social practice.

    PubMed

    Bottero, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Research on family history argues it performs the task of anchoring a sense of 'self' through tracing ancestral connection and cultural belonging, seeing it as a form of storied 'identity-work'. This paper draws on a small-scale qualitative study to think further on the identity-work of family history. Using practice theory, and a disaggregated notion of 'identity', it explores how the storying of family histories relates to genealogy as a leisure hobby, a form of historical research, and an information-processing activity; and examines the social organization of that narrativity, where various practical engagements render certain kinds of genealogical information more, or less, 'storyable'. Key features of 'identity-work' in family history, such as the construction of genealogy as a personal journey of discovery and identification with particular ancestors, emerge as a consequence of the procedures of family history, organized as a set of practical tasks. The paper explores 'identity-work' as a consequence of people's engagement in specific social practices which provide an internal logic to their actions, with various components of 'identity' emerging as categories of practice shaped within, and for, use. Focusing on 'identity' as something produced when we are engaged in doing other things, the paper examines how the practical organization of 'doing other things' helps produce 'identity' in particular ways.

  13. Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164202.html Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- If you've got a family history of colon or rectal cancers, you probably ...

  14. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Genomic Resources Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. February 2016. Family Health History, Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk, and ...

  15. Family Ties: The Role of Family Context in Family Health History Communication about Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Vivian M.; Corona, Rosalie; Bodurtha, Joann N.; Quillin, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Family health history about cancer is an important prevention and health promotion tool. Yet, few studies have identified family context factors that promote such discussions. We explored relations among family context (cohesion, flexibility, and openness), self-efficacy, and cancer communication (gathering family history, sharing cancer risk information, and frequency) in a diverse group of women enrolled in a randomized control trial. Baseline survey data for 472 women were analyzed. Average age was 34 years, 59% identified as Black, 31% graduated high school, and 75% reported a family history of any cancer. Results showed that greater family cohesion and flexibility were related to higher communication frequency and sharing cancer information. Women who reported greater self-efficacy were more likely to have gathered family history, shared cancer risk information, and communicated more frequently with relatives. Openness was not associated with communication but was related to greater family cohesion and flexibility. Adjusting for demographic variables, self-efficacy and family cohesion significantly predicted communication frequency. Women with higher self-efficacy were also more likely to have gathered family health history about cancer and shared cancer risk information. Future research may benefit from considering family organization and self-efficacy when developing psychosocial theories that, in turn, inform cancer prevention interventions. PMID:26735646

  16. Family history and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lesko, S M; Rosenberg, L; Shapiro, S

    1996-12-01

    The authors examined the relation between family history of prostate cancer and the risk of this cancer in a population-based case-control study conducted in Massachusetts between December 1992 and October 1994. Cases were all incident cases of prostate cancer in men younger than 70 years (n = 563); controls were men with no history of the disease matched to the cases on age and town of residence (n = 703). Prostate cancer risk was increased among men who reported a history of this cancer in either their fathers or brothers (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-3.3). Risk varied with the number of relatives affected and their relationship to the case. For a history of prostate cancer in one relative, the OR was 2.2 (95% CI 1.5-3.2); if two or more relatives were affected, it was 3.9 (95% CI 1.7-5.2). For prostate cancer in the father, the OR was 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0); for prostate cancer in a brother, it was 3.0 (95% CI 1.8-4.9). Risk was inversely related to the subject's age and to age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in his affected relative. Among probands younger than 60 years, the OR was 5.3 (95% CI 2.5-12); for those 60-64 years of age, the OR was 2.7 (95% CI 1.3-5.5); and for those 65 years of age and older, the OR was 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.5). For prostate cancer diagnosed in a relative before age 65, the OR was 4.1 (95% CI 2.3-7.3); for detection of the disease after age 74, the OR was 0.76 (95% CI 0.38-1.5). The association was present both among men with local and advanced stage disease and among men whose prostate cancer was detected either by screening or because of symptoms. These data provide evidence that after controlling for diet and other potential confounders, familial factors are significantly associated with the risk of prostate cancer.

  17. A Qualitative Study of Early Family Histories and Transitions of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    Using intensive qualitative interviews with 40 homeless youth, this study examined their early family histories for abuse, neglect, and other family problems and the number and types of transitions that youth experienced. Multiple forms of child maltreatment, family alcoholism, drug use, and criminal activity characterized early family histories…

  18. Striatal activity and reduced white matter increase frontal activity in youths with family histories of alcohol and other substance-use disorders performing a go/no-go task

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Ashley; Tagamets, Malle A; Winkler, Anderson; Rowland, Laura M; Mathias, Charles W; Wright, Susan N; Hong, L Elliot; Kochunov, Peter; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Youths with a family history of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) are at greater risk of developing substance-use disorders relative to those with no such family histories (FH−). We previously reported that FH+ youths have elevated activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and dorsal striatum while performing go/no-go tasks and have reduced frontal white matter integrity. A better understanding of relationships between these variables would provide insight into how frontostriatal circuitry is altered in FH+ youths, which may be an important contributor to their elevated risk. Methods In this study, we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test interactions between activity in the SMA and dorsal striatum in 72 FH+ and 32 FH− youths during go/no-go task performance and to determine whether increased activity in these regions in FH+ youths can be at least partially explained by reduced frontal white matter integrity, as indexed by anterior corona radiata fractional anisotropy and N-acetylaspartate. Results Increased dorsal striatum activity explained most (∽75%) of the elevated SMA activity in FH+ youths, and the combined contributions of increased dorsal striatal activity, and decreased white matter integrity fully explained the elevated SMA activity. Conclusions These results suggest the elevated frontal cortical activity in FH+ youths is driven both by their increased striatal activity via downstream projections and reduced white matter integrity in frontal cortical projections, the latter likely increasing frontal cortical activity due to increased energy demands required for action potential propagation. As part of our ongoing longitudinal studies we will examine how these frontostriatal alterations relate to risk for developing substance-use disorders. PMID:26221573

  19. Announcement: National Family History Day - November 24, 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-11-25

    In 2004, the U.S. Surgeon General declared that Thanksgiving would be National Family History Day, a day designed to encourage American families to learn about and create a written record of their family health history. Family history can identify those persons with a higher-than-average risk for many common diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Having at least one first-degree relative with a disease can increase a person's risk twofold or more (1). Family history is also a determinant of less common diseases like sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis (1). Persons who might be at increased risk because of family history might benefit from screening or other interventions to prevent disease or detect it earlier.

  20. A Course in Latin American Family History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmori, Diana

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliographic review essay on Latin American families. The essay is presented in three major categories: (1) the family and enterprise; (2) the family--different regions, time periods, and socioeconomic conditions and (3) family networks. Entries include historical literature and articles in the English language, films, and novels. (DB)

  1. Nme protein family evolutionary history, a vertebrate perspective

    PubMed Central

    Desvignes, Thomas; Pontarotti, Pierre; Fauvel, Christian; Bobe, Julien

    2009-01-01

    Background The Nme family, previously known as Nm23 or NDPK, is involved in various molecular processes including tumor metastasis and some members of the family, but not all, exhibit a Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase (NDPK) activity. Ten genes are known in humans, in which some members have been extensively studied. In non-mammalian species, the Nme protein family has received, in contrast, far less attention. The picture of the vertebrate Nme family remains thus incomplete and orthology relationships with mammalian counterparts were only partially characterized. The present study therefore aimed at characterizing the Nme gene repertoire in vertebrates with special interest for teleosts, and providing a comprehensive overview of the Nme gene family evolutionary history in vertebrates. Results In the present study, we present the evolutionary history of the Nme family in vertebrates and characterize the gene family repertoire for the first time in several non-mammalian species. Our observations show that vertebrate Nme genes can be separated in two evolutionary distinct groups. Nme1, Nme2, Nme3, and Nme4 belong to Group I while vertebrate Nme5, Nme6, Nme7, Nme8, and Nme9 belong to Group II. The position of Nme10 is in contrast more debatable due to its very specific evolutionary history. The present study clearly indicates that Nme5, Nme6, Nme7, and Nme8 originate from duplication events that occurred before the chordate radiation. In contrast, Nme genes of the Group I have a very different evolutionary history as our results suggest that they all arise from a common gene present in the chordate ancestor. In addition, expression patterns of all zebrafish nme transcripts were studied in a broad range of tissues by quantitative PCR and discussed in the light of the function of their mammalian counterparts. Conclusion This work offers an evolutionary framework that will pave the way for future studies on vertebrate Nme proteins and provides a unified vertebrate Nme

  2. Genealogy and Family History in the Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, David G.

    1985-01-01

    Addresses public and scholarly interest in the fields of family history and genealogy. Highlights include attitudes before and after publication of Alex Haley's "Roots," library literature on genealogy, history of the family as a field of study, and academic library collection development and services. Twenty-five references are provided. (EJS)

  3. Understanding family member suicide narratives by investigating family history.

    PubMed

    Ratnarajah, Dorothy; Maple, Myfanwy; Minichiello, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The complex family environments in which a suicide death had previously occurred were explored in a qualitative study of narratives of suicide-bereaved participants. The participants searched for reasons why the suicide occurred in their family. Family patterning stories and the context of the environment in which the suicide death occurred provided an additional depth of meaning into the relational aspects of the family. Fractured families emerged as an important theme. Shared in the narratives were stories of conditions within the family that may have contributed to vulnerability towards persistent negative feelings about their lives, their family, and their future. The study also identifies the strengths of family culture that led to resilience in the suicide bereaved. These stories highlight the importance of support for those bereaved by the suicide of a close family member and the issues that places people in vulnerable situations that perhaps may explain the increased risk of suicide for those bereaved family members.

  4. Evolutionary history of the Asr gene family.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Nicolás; Carrari, Fernando; Hasson, Esteban; Iusem, Norberto D

    2006-08-15

    The Asr gene family is widespread in higher plants. Most Asr genes are up-regulated under different environmental stress conditions and during fruit ripening. ASR proteins are localized in the nucleus and their likely function is transcriptional regulation. In cultivated tomato, we identified a novel fourth family member, named Asr4, which maps close to its sibling genes Asr1-Asr2-Asr3 and displays an unshared region coding for a domain containing a 13-amino acid repeat. In this work we were able to expand our previous analysis for Asr2 and investigated the coding regions of the four known Asr paralogous genes in seven tomato species from different geographic locations. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic analysis on ASR proteins. The first conclusion drawn from this work is that tomato ASR proteins cluster together in the tree. This observation can be explained by a scenario of concerted evolution or birth and death of genes. Secondly, our study showed that Asr1 is highly conserved at both replacement and synonymous sites within the genus Lycopersicon. ASR1 protein sequence conservation might be associated with its multiple functions in different tissues while the low rate of synonymous substitutions suggests that silent variation in Asr1 is selectively constrained, which is probably related to its high expression levels. Finally, we found that Asr1 activation under water stress is not conserved between Lycopersicon species.

  5. Accuracy of reporting of family history of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, R J; Brewster, D; Campbell, H; Porteous, M E M; Wyllie, A H; Bird, C C; Dunlop, M G

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: Family history is used extensively to estimate the risk of colorectal cancer but there is considerable potential for recall bias and inaccuracy. Hence we systematically assessed the accuracy of family history reported at interview compared with actual cancer experience in relatives. Methods: Using face to face interviews, we recorded family history from 199 colorectal cancer cases and 133 community controls, totalling 5637 first and second degree relatives (FDRs/SDRs). We linked computerised cancer registry data to interview information to determine the accuracy of family history reporting. Results: Cases substantially underreported colorectal cancer arising both in FDRs (sensitivity 0.566 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.433, 0.690); specificity 0.990 (95% CI 0.983, 0.994)) and SDRs (sensitivity 0.271 (95% CI 0.166, 0.410); specificity 0.996 (95% CI 0.992, 0.998)). There was no observable difference in accuracy of reporting family history between case and control interviewees. Control subjects similarly underreported colorectal cancer in FDRs (sensitivity 0.529 (95% CI 0.310, 0.738); specificity 0.995 (95% CI 0.989, 0.998)) and SDRs (sensitivity 0.333 (95% CI 0.192, 0.512); specificity 0.995 (95% CI 0.991, 0.995)). To determine practical implications of inaccurate family history, we applied family history criteria before and after record linkage. Only two of five families reported at interview to meet surveillance criteria did so after validation, whereas only two of six families that actually merited surveillance were identified by interview. Conclusions: This study has quantified the inaccuracy of interview in identifying people at risk of colorectal cancer due to a family history. Colorectal cancer was substantially underreported and so family history information should be interpreted with caution. These findings have considerable relevance to identifying patients who merit surveillance colonoscopy and to epidemiological studies. PMID

  6. The context of collecting family health history: examining definitions of family and family communication about health among African American women.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Tess; Seo, Joann; Griffith, Julia; Baxter, Melanie; James, Aimee; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2015-04-01

    Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on family health history discussion and collection, however, has predominantly involved White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women-16 with a history of cancer-analyzed participants' definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of family health history information. Family was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g., biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g., sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g., trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to "own" or "claim" a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal family health history records. Results suggest family health history initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of family health history information.

  7. Family history influences the early onset of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chung-Hwa; Jeong, Seung-Hee; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Jin Dong; Bae, Si Hyun; Choi, Jong Young; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between a positive family history of primary liver cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in Korean HCC patients. METHODS: We studied a total of 2242 patients diagnosed with HCC between January 1990 and July 2008, whose family history of primary liver cancer was clearly described in the medical records. RESULTS: Of the 2242 patients, 165 (7.4%) had a positive family history of HCC and 2077 (92.6%) did not. The male to female ratio was 3.6:1, and the major causes of HCC were chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 75.1%, chronic hepatitis C virus infection in 13.2% and alcohol in 3.1%. The median ages at diagnosis in the positive- and negative-history groups were 52 years (range: 29-79 years) and 57 years (range: 18-89 years), respectively (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, among 1713 HCC patients with HBV infection, the number of patients under 45 years of age out of 136 patients with positive family history was 26 (19.1%), whereas those out of 1577 patients with negative family history was 197 (12.5%), suggesting that a positive family history may be associated with earlier development of HCC in the Korean population (P = 0.0028). CONCLUSION: More intensive surveillance maybe recommended to those with a positive family history of HCC for earlier diagnosis and proper management especially when HBV infection is present. PMID:22690075

  8. Talking (or Not) about Family Health History in Families of Latino Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Rosalie; Rodríguez, Vivian; Quillin, John; Gyure, Maria; Bodurtha, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Although individuals recognize the importance of knowing their family's health history for their own health, relatively few people (e.g., less than a third in one national survey) collect this type of information. This study examines the rates of family communication about family health history of cancer, and predictors of communication in a…

  9. Interrogating Identity and Social Contexts through "Critical Family History"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John; Sleeter, Christine; Kumashiro, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Tracing one's family genealogy is a complex process that requires situating a family's narratives within a historical context. This article reviews the use of critical family history research in an undergraduate Asian American studies course to examine not only the diversity and experiences of Asian Americans but also the unspoken narratives that…

  10. Maternal family history of hypertension attenuates neonatal pain response.

    PubMed

    France, Christopher R; Taddio, Anna; Shah, Vibhuti S; Pagé, M Gabrielle; Katz, Joel

    2009-04-01

    Reduced sensitivity to naturally occurring and laboratory pain stimuli has been observed in individuals with hypertension, high-normal blood pressure, and a family history of hypertension. The present study sought to extend these findings by examining the relationship between familial history of hypertension and pain responsivity in neonates. Eighty infants had intramuscular (IM) injections of vitamin K performed in the delivery room within 1h of birth as per institutional practice. Video recordings of the injection procedure were used by trained observers to code infant pain responses using facial grimacing and cry duration. Prior to the birth of the child, the infants' parents each completed a family blood pressure history survey and these responses were used to identify infants with and without a maternal and paternal family history of hypertension. As compared to infants without a maternal family history of hypertension, infants with a maternal family history of hypertension had significantly shorter crying times, F(1,74)=6.96, p=.01, eta(2)=.086, and marginally lower facial grimacing scores, F(1,74)=2.68, p=.10, eta(2)=.035, during vitamin K injection. The presence of attenuated responses to the IM injection in neonates with a maternal family history of hypertension provides important and novel evidence that reduced pain responding in individuals at risk for hypertension is not a learned response style, but rather may arise from prenatal or genetic influences.

  11. Familial aggregation and coaggregation of history of hypertension and stroke.

    PubMed

    Kondo, T; Toyoshima, H; Tsuzuki, Y; Hori, Y; Yatsuya, H; Tamakoshi, K; Tamakoshi, A; Ohno, Y

    2005-02-01

    We attempted to evaluate familial aggregation and coaggregation of history of hypertension and stroke. Past and family history of hypertension and stroke for 83 089 probands and their relatives were obtained from a data set for the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk sponsored by the Ministry of Education (JACC Study), which was initiated from 1988 to 1990. First, evaluation was performed for familial aggregation of each of two disorders using ordinal logistic regression of the generalized estimation equations (GEE) to account for dependence of observations within families. Secondly, in order to evaluate the familial congregation of the history of hypertension and stroke, a GEE-based multivariate probed predictive model was applied. After adjusting for the proband's age, level of obesity, smoking status, drinking status, habitation area, and the gender and type of the relatives, the estimated odds ratios for the intraindividual clustering and familial aggregation of the disease history showed statistically significant relationships. In addition, the history of the two disorders showed a significant relationship in terms of familial coaggregation independently of the aggregation of each disorder itself. Our results confirmed that hypertension and stroke coaggregate strongly within families through possible effects of genetic factors, which, alone or in conjunction with environmental factors, influence susceptibility to both hypertension and stroke.

  12. Family History Is Important for Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... death certificates and family medical records, if possible. Collect information about your grandparents, parents, aunts and uncles, nieces and nephews, siblings, and children. The type of information to collect includes • major medical conditions and causes of death, • ...

  13. The role of pediatricians in families with a history of familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Augustyn, Ann Marie; Wallerstein, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Colon cancer is not an entity that pediatricians routinely confront; however, a family history of colon cancer can have pediatric implications when it is part of familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. Colonic (multiple intestinal polyps) and extracolonic manifestations (such as hepatoblastoma or brain tumors) can be the presenting features in children. The authors present 2 patients from different families with familial adenomatous polyposis who presented with the extracolonic manifestation of this syndrome and a family history of colon cancer. Identification of these families and education of their primary care givers can lead to improved screening and management of these high-risk individuals.

  14. Family Structure History and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    As patterns of union formation and dissolution in adult lives become complex, the living arrangements of American children are becoming increasingly fluid. With a sample (N = 12,843) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study attempted to capture this complexity by mapping out children's family structure histories…

  15. Influence of Family History of Cancer on Engagement in Protective Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amuta, Ann O.; Barry, Adam E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 1580 people die from cancer each day. Family history is highlighted as an especially important indicator of cancer risk. Purpose: To determine whether having a family member with cancer influences preventive behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical activity, and screenings). Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis…

  16. Cabbage family affairs: the evolutionary history of Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Franzke, Andreas; Lysak, Martin A; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A; Koch, Marcus A; Mummenhoff, Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Life without the mustard family (Brassicaceae) would be a world without many crop species and the model organism Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that has revolutionized our knowledge in almost every field of modern plant biology. Despite this importance, research breakthroughs in understanding family-wide evolutionary patterns and processes within this flowering plant family were not achieved until the past few years. In this review, we examine recent outcomes from diverse botanical disciplines (taxonomy, systematics, genomics, paleobotany and other fields) to synthesize for the first time a holistic view on the evolutionary history of the mustard family.

  17. Warfarin: history, tautomerism and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, William R.

    2010-06-01

    The anticoagulant drug warfarin, normally administered as the racemate, can exist in solution in potentially as many as 40 topologically distinct tautomeric forms. Only 11 of these forms for each enantiomer can be distinguished by selected computational software commonly used to estimate octanol-water partition coefficients and/or ionization constants. The history of studies on warfarin tautomerism is reviewed, along with the implications of tautomerism to its biological properties (activity, protein binding and metabolism) and chemical properties (log P, log D, p K a). Experimental approaches to assessing warfarin tautomerism and computational results for different tautomeric forms are presented.

  18. Family history of suicide and interpersonal functioning in suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Rajalin, Mia; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Salander Renberg, Ellinor; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in interpersonal relationships are associated with a wide range of psychiatric diagnoses and have been reported as a trigger for suicidal behavior, too. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal problems and family history of suicide in suicide attempters and to describe relevant patterns of interpersonal problems in this patient group. The study involves 181 patients having their clinical follow-up after a suicide attempt. Family history of suicide was assessed by using the Karolinska Self Harm History Interview or retrieved in patient records. The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems was used to assess personal style in an interpersonal context. Suicide attempters with a family history of suicide had significantly more often an intrusive personal style. The results remained significant after adjustment for personality disorder. The specific interpersonal patterns associated with family history of suicide may interfere with the ability to create stable, long-lasting relationships. In regards to treatment, these personal qualities could cause difficulties in the alliance with health care personnel and make it harder for suicide attempters to accept or benefit from treatment. Attention to suicide attempters' interpersonal problems is of importance to lower their distress.

  19. Notes for a cultural history of family therapy.

    PubMed

    Beels, C Christian

    2002-01-01

    The official history of family therapy describes its beginnings as a daring technical and philosophical departure from traditional individual treatment in the 1960s, inspired especially by the "system thinking" of Gregory Bateson. This celebrated origin story needs to be supplemented with a longer and larger history of both practice and thought about the family, and that is the subject of this article. The longer history goes back to the founding of social work by Mary Richmond, of pragmatism by William James, and of the organic view of social systems intervention by John Dewey. Seen against this background, family therapy is, among other things, a consequence of the development of persistent elements of American professional culture, experience, and philosophy. The taking of this historical-anthropological view discloses also the origins of two other histories that have made their contribution to the development of family therapy: a science of observing communication processes that starts with Edward Sapir and leads to contemporary conversation analysis, and a history of mesmerism in the United States that culminates in Milton Erickson and his followers.

  20. Exploring Gaps of Family History Documentation in EHR for Precision Medicine -A Case Study of Familial Hypercholesterolemia Ascertainment

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Wang, Yanshan; Ihrke, Donna; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    In the era of precision medicine, accurately identifying familial conditions is crucial for providing target treatment. However, it is challenging to identify familial conditions without detailed family history information. In this work, we studied the documentation of family history of premature cardiovascular disease and hypercholesterolemia. The information on patients’ family history of stroke within the Patient-provided information (PPI) forms was compared with the information gathered by clinicians in clinical notes. The agreement between PPI and clinical notes on absence of family history information in PPI was substantially higher compared to presence of family history. PMID:27570664

  1. Family History in Patients Who Present with Functional Articulation Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Kamal, Sana Mohammed; Qa'dan, Wa'el Nafith; Haj-Tas, Maisa Atef

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine family history of functional articulation disorders (FAD) among Jordanian patients who present with FAD, as well as to investigate the relation of other factors related to the disorder (age, gender, genetic connection between parents, sounds affected, and type of disorder). A convenience sample of 45 patients (ages…

  2. Strong family history and early onset of schizophrenia: about 2 families in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nuhu, Folorunsho Tajudeen; Eseigbe, Edwin Ehi; Issa, Baba Awoye; Gomina, Michael Omeiza

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychotic disorder and high genetic loading is associated with early onset of the disease. The outcome of schizophrenia has also been linked with the age of onset as well as the presence of family history of the disease. Therefore families with patients with early onset Schizophrenia are subpopulations for genetic studies. We present 2 families with heavy genetic loading who have adolescents with schizophrenia. PMID:28154637

  3. Importance of updating family cancer history in childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Russo, Selena; Warby, Meera; Tucker, Katherine M; Wakefield, Claire E; Cohn, Richard J

    2017-04-12

    Estimates of the number of childhood cancers with a genetic basis range from 5-8.5% found in germline samples to 29% based on clinical criteria. Family history-taking practice is a fundamental first step in detecting at risk individuals and families. This study focused on Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS), a highly penetrant cancer syndrome. Reported family history in a cohort of 648 of cancer survivor cohort (CCS) was examined. Eligible CCS were: (i) aged up to 14 years at diagnosis; (ii) more than 5 years postdiagnosis; (iii) treated for a childhood cancer at the study hospitals in NSW, Australia; (iv) in remission for more than 3 years. CCS completed self-administered questionnaires. Medical records confirmed diagnosis and treatment-related information. Our findings reveal an increased cancer risk among sibling and relatives of CCS. 91% of siblings diagnosed with cancer were diagnosed under the age of 40 and about 30% diagnosed under the aged of 15 revealing a 5- (RR = 5.1; 95% CI, 3.3-7.9) and 44-fold (RR = 44.6; 95% CI, 18.4-108.3) increased risked of cancer compared with the Australian population, respectively. About 2% of CCS reported that they had been diagnosed with a genetic cancer syndrome. However, 11% of survivors described a family history pattern which met Chompret criteria for screening for TP53 mutations associated with LFS. Our data suggests that familial cancer predispositions may be initially overlooked. Aperiodic and accurate ascertainment of family cancer history of childhood cancer patients and survivors is therefore recommended.

  4. Correlates of Family Health History Discussions between College Students and Physicians: Does Family Cancer History Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Sosa, Erica T.; Hochhalter, Angela K.; Covin, Julie; Ory, Marcia G.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2011-01-01

    Effective communication between young adults and their healthcare providers can contribute to early detection of risk for developing cancer and establishment of lifelong habits for engagement in healthcare and health promotion behaviors. Our objectives were to examine factors influencing family health history discussions between college students…

  5. A primary care audit of familial risk in patients with a personal history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Paul; Ahluwalia, Aneeta; Chorley, Wendy

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, both in the UK and worldwide. A small proportion of women are at very high risk of breast cancer, having a particularly strong family history. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has advised that practitioners should not, in most instances, actively seek to identify women with a family history of breast cancer. An audit was undertaken at an urban primary care practice of 15,000 patients, using a paper-based, self-administered questionnaire sent to patients identified with a personal history of breast cancer. The aim of this audit was to determine whether using targeted screening of relatives of patients with breast cancer to identify familial cancer risk is worthwhile in primary care. Since these patients might already expected to have been risk assessed following their initial diagnosis, this audit acts as a quality improvement exercise. The audit used a validated family history questionnaire and risk assessment tool as a screening approach for identifying and grading familial risk in line with the NICE guidelines, to guide referral to the familial cancer screening service. The response rate to family history questionnaires was 54 % and the majority of patients responded positively to their practitioner seeking to identify familial cancer risks in their family. Of the 57 returned questionnaires, over a half (54 %) contained pedigrees with individuals eligible for referral. Patients and their relatives who are often registered with the practice welcome the discussion. An appropriate referral can therefore be made. The findings suggest a role for primary care practitioners in the identification of those at higher familial risk. However integrated systems and processes need designing to facilitate this work.

  6. Family history and psychiatric comorbidity in persons with kleptomania.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E

    2003-01-01

    The current study was constructed to examine the family history and psychiatric comorbidity of a group of persons with kleptomania. Thirty-one subjects with DSM-IV kleptomania were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Minnesota Impulse Disorders Inventory (MIDI). The Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria (FH-RDC) were used to collect information about psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives. Subjects with kleptomania were more likely than comparison subjects to have any lifetime impulse-control disorder (chi2=12.569; df=1; P<.001) and to have a first-degree relative with an alcohol use disorder (chi2=6.994; df=1; P=.008) or any psychiatric disorder (chi2=12.056; df=1; P=.001). Persons with kleptomania appear to have a higher lifetime prevalence of impulse-control disorders and are more likely to have first-degree relatives with alcohol problems than are comparison subjects.

  7. Impact of national guidelines on family history breast cancer surveillance.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, J D; Garrett, R M; Snaddon, L; Longmuir, M; Bradshaw, N; Watt, C; George, W D; Wilson, C R; Doughty, J C; Stallard, S; Reid, I; Murday, V; Davidson, R

    2011-11-01

    The breast cancer risk of women already under family history surveillance was accurately assessed according to national guidelines in an attempt to rationalize the service. Women attending two breast units in Glasgow between November 2003 and February 2005 were included. One thousand and five women under annual surveillance were assessed and had their relatives diagnoses verified. Four hundred and ninety-seven women were at significantly increased risk and eligible for follow-up. Five hundred and eight (50%) women attending were not eligible for family history surveillance, and 498 (98%) of these women accepted discharge. In conclusion, national guidelines have helped to more clearly define women who should undergo surveillance. This avoids unnecessary and potentially harmful routine investigations, and the service has been improved.

  8. Family history in breast cancer is not a prognostic factor?

    PubMed

    Jobsen, J J; Meerwaldt, J H; van der Palen, J

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if breast conservative treatment is justified for patients with a positive family history of breast cancer and to investigate whether they have a worse prognosis. We performed a prospective cohort study of breast cancer patients, treated with breast conservative treatment with radiotherapy at the Radiotherapy Department of the Medisch Spectrum Twente. Between 1984 and 1996, 1204 patients with T1 and T2 < or =3 cm were treated. Family history (FH) was recorded according to first degree relative (FDR). Treatment consisted of lumpectomy with axillary dissection followed by radiotherapy to the whole breast with a boost to the primary area. Adjuvant systemic therapy was given to patients with positive nodes. A positive FH was noted in 243 (20.5%) patients, of whom 208 (17.6%) had one FDR, and 35 (3.0%) > or =2 FDRs. The local recurrence rate was 4.1%, with similar rates for all groups. In young patients, < or =40 years, a significant relation between local recurrence and FH was found. The distant metastasis rate was 15.5%, with the lowest rate (5.7%) among patients with > or =2 FDRs. Patients with a positive FH had significantly more contralateral tumours. The 5-year corrected survival was 91.3%. Among patients with a positive FH, a 5-year corrected survival of 91% was observed and the survival 100% among patients with one and > or =2 FDR. Family history is not a contraindication for breast conservative treatment and is not associated with a worse prognosis. Family history is not a prognostic factor for local recurrence rate in patients older than 40 years.

  9. Sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, medical and family history, and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ghadirian, P; Lacroix, A; Perret, C; Maisonneuve, P; Boyle, P

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, family history of cancer, medical history, and reproductive factors and breast cancer was investigated in a population-based case-control study of French Canadians in Montreal. In this study, a total of 414 French-Canadian cases and 429 age- and language-matched population controls were interviewed. Ever-married women showed significantly lower risk (OR: 0.64 [0.45-0.92]) for breast cancer, as did smokers (OR: 0.73 [0.55-0.98]), particularly of nonfilter cigarettes (OR: 0.36 [0.17-0.72]). Weight history, both for the year before the diagnosis of breast cancer and 10 years previously, was associated with risk for the disease. A strong inverse relationship was found between the number of full-term pregnancies (OR: 0.48 [0.28-0.82]) and the risk of breast cancer, while the p trend for late age at first pregnancy (p = 0.02) and menopause (p = 0.004) was statistically significant. A history of breast problems (OR: 1.87 [1.34-2.60]) and a history of breast cancer in relatives (OR: 2.95 [1.63-5.34]) were strongly associated with risk. This study confirms the risk factors of late age at first full-term pregnancy, nulliparity, late age at menopause, and positive family history of breast cancer in the etiology of this disease. Perhaps the protective effect of smoking against breast cancer could be due to its antiestrogenic influence.

  10. The Context of Collecting Family Health History: Examining Definitions of Family and Family Communication About Health Among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    THOMPSON, TESS; SEO, JOANN; GRIFFITH, JULIA; BAXTER, MELANIE; JAMES, AIMEE; KAPHINGST, KIMBERLY A.

    2015-01-01

    Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history (FHH) information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on FHH discussion and collection, however, has involved predominantly White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women, 16 with a history of cancer, analyzed participants’ definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of FHH information. “Family” was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g. biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g. sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g. trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to “own” or “claim” a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal FHH records. Results suggest FHH initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of FHH information. PMID:25730634

  11. Family history of cardiovascular disease is associated with cardiovascular responses to stress in healthy young men and women.

    PubMed

    Wright, Caroline E; O'Donnell, Katie; Brydon, Lena; Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    Heightened cardiovascular stress responsivity is associated with cardiovascular disease, but the origins of heightened responsivity are unclear. The present study investigated whether disturbances in cardiovascular responsivity were evident in individuals with a family history of cardiovascular disease risk. Data were collected from 60 women and 31 men with an average age of 21.4 years. Family history of cardiovascular disease risk was defined by the presence of coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes or high cholesterol in participants' parents and grandparents; 75 participants had positive, and 16 had negative family histories. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate and heart rate variability were measured continuously for 5 min periods at baseline, during two mental stress tasks (Stroop and speech task) and at 10-15 min, 25-30 min and 40-45 min post-stress. Individuals with a positive family history exhibited significantly greater diastolic BP reactivity and poorer systolic and diastolic BP recovery from the stressors in comparison with family history negative individuals. In addition, female participants with a positive family history had heightened heart rate and heart rate variability reactivity to stressors. These effects were independent of baseline cardiovascular activity, body mass index, waist to hip ratio and smoking status. Family history of hypertension alone was not associated with stress responsivity. The findings indicate that a family history of cardiovascular disease risk influences stress responsivity which may in turn contribute to risk of future cardiovascular disorders.

  12. Wildfire: A Family Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    This family activity book provides information for discovering and demonstrating the science of fire--how firefighters decide which fires to let burn and which to put out, how fires start and spread, and what to do when they flare up. Chapters include: (1) "A Game about Wildfire"; (2) "Create a Fire Safety Commercial"; (3)…

  13. Creating Chicago History: Making Outreach Craft Activities Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to having a traveling outreach activity for a museum, a craft can seem like the perfect solution. It can seemingly be all things at once--educational, quick and fun. But, if poorly constructed, crafts can also have serious fallbacks. Using the Chicago History Museum and the Millennium Park Family Fun Festival as a case study, this…

  14. Family history in public health practice: a genomic tool for disease prevention and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Rodolfo; Yoon, Paula W; Qureshi, Nadeem; Green, Ridgely Fisk; Khoury, Muin J

    2010-01-01

    Family history is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Professional guidelines usually include family history to assess health risk, initiate interventions, and motivate behavioral changes. The advantages of family history over other genomic tools include a lower cost, greater acceptability, and a reflection of shared genetic and environmental factors. However, the utility of family history in public health has been poorly explored. To establish family history as a public health tool, it needs to be evaluated within the ACCE framework (analytical validity; clinical validity; clinical utility; and ethical, legal, and social issues). Currently, private and public organizations are developing tools to collect standardized family histories of many diseases. Their goal is to create family history tools that have decision support capabilities and are compatible with electronic health records. These advances will help realize the potential of family history as a public health tool.

  15. Gastric cancer risk factors in subjects with family history.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, S E; Ferraroni, M; La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A

    1997-02-01

    Until now, it has been unclear whether there are differences in various risk factor profiles for familial gastric cancer, i.e., gastric cancer among subjects with a family history of the disease. A total of 722 gastric cancer patients and 2024 controls were admitted between 1985 and 1992 to a network of hospitals in the Greater Milan area. Of these, 88 cases and 103 controls who reported a family history of gastric cancer in first degree relatives were considered in the present analysis. There was no relationship between gastric cancer risk and tobacco smoking or alcohol drinking. Shorter duration of electrical refrigerator use was related to a nonsignificant increased risk and a high daily meal frequency was associated with an increased gastric cancer risk. Significant direct trends of risk were observed for pasta (odds ratio, OR = 4.20 for the highest versus the lowest tertile), bread (OR, 2.86), red meat (OR, 3.38), and preserved meat (OR, 1.90). Inverse associations were observed for increasing consumption of selected vegetables and fruits, chiefly peppers (OR = 0.31), total fruits (OR, 0.47), and citrus fruits (OR, 0.38). With reference to selected micronutrients, a significant inverse trend in risk with increasing consumption for beta-carotene (OR, 0.27) and ascorbic acid (OR, 0.20) was observed. These results suggest that dietary risk factors for subjects with a family history of gastric cancer in first-degree relatives are not appreciably different from well-established risk factors of the disease in the general population.

  16. The Effect of Positive Family History of Autoimmunity in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Characteristics; a Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Mehdi; Ziaee, Vahid; Moradinejad, Mohamad-Hassan; Parvaneh, Nima

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) patients with and without family history of autoimmune disease with respect to clinical features and laboratory data. Methods Sixteen JIA patients with family history of autoimmune disease were identified during study, 32 patients were chosen for comparative group from referred patients to the rheumatology clinic according to the date of referral. Two groups were compared with respect to age of onset, sex, subtype, disease activity, duration of active disease and laboratory variables. Findings The age of onset was significantly lower in JIA patients with family history of autoimmunity (4.7 years vs. 7.0 years; P=0.02), polyarthicular subtype was more frequent in patients with positive family history (50% vs.25%; P=0.04) most of JIA patients with positive family history were in the active phase at the time of study (64% vs 25%; P=0.02) and had a longer duration of active disease (21.0 months vs 12.3 months; P=0.04). Patients with positive family history had more positive ANA (43.5%% vs 12.5%; P=0.01) and also more positive ADA (75% vs 20.8%; P=0.002). Two groups were similar according to sex, and other laboratory variables. Conclusion JIA patients with family history of autoimmune disease seem to have a more severe disease than patients without such family history, they are younger at the onset, and have mostly poyarthicular subtype. They also have more ANA and ADA positivity. These findings are different from familial JIA case-control studies according to active disease duration, subtype, and ANA positivity. PMID:24800019

  17. Effects of Family History of Alcohol Use Disorders on Spatial Working Memory BOLD Response in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Spadoni, Andrea D.; Norman, Andria L.; Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    Background A positive family history (FH) of alcohol use disorders (AUD) has been linked to increased risk for the development of AUD, and neurocognitive factors have been postulated as important underlying mechanisms of familial alcoholism transmission. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a spatial working memory (SWM) and vigilance paradigm to investigate potential neurodevelopmental differences linked to familial density of AUD in 72 adolescents aged 12 to 14 years. Results Youth with denser family histories of AUD showed less activation during a simple vigilance condition relative to SWM in cingulate and medial frontal gyri (β = 0.28, p = 0.03), and a trend for more relative activity during rest (β = −0.25, p = 0.07) in this cluster. Conclusions Youth with greater familial densities of AUD may be less successful at modulating activity of the default network, potentially indicating a greater propensity for task-independent thought or reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant processing. Failure to moderate activation of the default network may have implications for cognitive efficiency and goal directed behavior in youth with dense FH. Further, aberrant activation in cingulate regions may be linked to genetic variation in GABA receptor units, suggesting a useful endophenotype for risk associated with alcohol dependence. PMID:18540914

  18. Connecting Family Learning and Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Mary

    2009-01-01

    In Ireland family learning and active citizenship has not been linked together until 2006. It was while the Clare Family Learning Project was involved in a family learning EU learning network project, that a suggestion to create a new partnership project linking both areas was made and FACE IT! was born (Families and Active Citizenship…

  19. Citizenship Related Activities in World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Pete

    1984-01-01

    A world history course is molded around broad instructional goals in which citizenship education can and should be included. Learning activities dealing with ancient Greece illustrate teaching strategies which can be used in high school world history courses to foster citizenship knowledge, skills, and attitudes. (RM)

  20. Identification and management of women with a family history of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heisey, Ruth; Carroll, June C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the best evidence on strategies to identify and manage women with a family history of breast cancer. Sources of information A PubMed search was conducted using the search terms breast cancer, guidelines, risk, family history, management, and magnetic resonance imaging screening from 2000 to 2016. Most evidence is level II. Main message Taking a good family history is essential when assessing breast cancer risk in order to identify women suitable for referral to a genetic counselor for possible genetic testing. Offering risk-reducing surgery (bilateral prophylactic mastectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) to women with BRCA genetic mutations can save lives. All women with a family history of breast cancer should be encouraged to stay active and limit alcohol intake to less than 1 drink per day; some will qualify for chemoprevention. Women with a 20% to 25% or greater lifetime risk of breast cancer should be offered enhanced screening with annual magnetic resonance imaging in addition to mammography. Conclusion Healthy living and chemoprevention (for suitable women) could reduce breast cancer incidence; enhanced screening could result in earlier detection. Referring women who carry BRCA mutations for risk-reducing surgery will save lives. PMID:27737975

  1. Evolutionary History of the Cancer Immunity Antigen MAGE Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Katsura, Yukako; Satta, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary mode of a multi-gene family can change over time, depending on the functional differentiation and local genomic environment of family members. In this study, we demonstrate such a change in the melanoma antigen (MAGE) gene family on the mammalian X chromosome. The MAGE gene family is composed of ten subfamilies that can be categorized into two types. Type I genes are of relatively recent origin, and they encode epitopes for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in cancer cells. Type II genes are relatively ancient and some of their products are known to be involved in apoptosis or cell proliferation. The evolutionary history of the MAGE gene family can be divided into four phases. In phase I, a single-copy state of an ancestral gene and the evolutionarily conserved mode had lasted until the emergence of eutherian mammals. In phase II, eight subfamily ancestors, with the exception for MAGE-C and MAGE-D subfamilies, were formed via retrotransposition independently. This would coincide with a transposition burst of LINE elements at the eutherian radiation. However, MAGE-C was generated by gene duplication of MAGE-A. Phase III is characterized by extensive gene duplication within each subfamily and in particular the formation of palindromes in the MAGE-A subfamily, which occurred in an ancestor of the Catarrhini. Phase IV is characterized by the decay of a palindrome in most Catarrhini, with the exception of humans. Although the palindrome is truncated by frequent deletions in apes and Old World monkeys, it is retained in humans. Here, we argue that this human-specific retention stems from negative selection acting on MAGE-A genes encoding epitopes of cancer cells, which preserves their ability to bind to highly divergent HLA molecules. These findings are interpreted with consideration of the biological factors shaping recent human MAGE-A genes. PMID:21695252

  2. Surveillance survey of family history in children with neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Dupépé, Esther B; Patel, Daxa M; Rocque, Brandon G; Hopson, Betsy; Arynchyna, Anastasia A; Bishop, E Ralee'; Blount, Jeffrey P

    2017-03-31

    OBJECTIVE Although there are known risk factors for the development of neural tube defects (NTDs), little is known regarding the role of family history. The authors' goal in this study is to describe the family history in their population of patients with NTDs. METHODS Surveys were completed for 254 patients who were accompanied by their biological mother during their annual visit to the multidisciplinary Spina Bifida Clinic at Children's of Alabama. An NTD has been diagnosed in all patients who are seen in this clinic (myelomeningocele, lipomeningocele, split cord malformation, and congenital dermal sinus tract). Each mother answered questions regarding known NTD risk factors and their pregnancy, as well as the family history of NTDs, other CNS disorders, and birth defects. RESULTS The overall prevalence of family history of NTDs in children with an NTD was 16.9% (n = 43), of which 3.1% (n = 8) were in first-degree relatives. In patients with myelomeningocele, 17.7% (n = 37) had a positive family history for NTDs, with 3.8% in first-degree relatives. Family history in the paternal lineage for all NTDs was 8.7% versus 10.6% in the maternal lineage. Twenty-two patients (8.7%) had a family history of other congenital CNS disorders. Fifteen (5.9%) had a family history of Down syndrome, 12 (4.7%) had a family history of cerebral palsy, and 13 (5.1%) patients had a family history of clubfoot. Fourteen (5.5%) had a family history of cardiac defect, and 13 (5.1%) had a family history of cleft lip or palate. CONCLUSIONS The family history of NTDs was 16.9% in children with NTD without a difference between maternal and paternal lineage. This high rate of positive family history suggests that genetics and epigenetics may play a larger role in the pathogenesis of NTD in the modern era of widespread folate supplementation.

  3. Temperature, activity, and lizard life histories.

    PubMed

    Adolph, S C; Porter, W P

    1993-08-01

    Lizard life-history characteristics vary widely among species and populations. Most authors seek adaptive or phylogenetic explanations for life-history patterns, which are usually presumed to reflect genetic differences. However, lizard life histories are often phenotypically plastic, varying in response to temperature, food availability, and other environmental factors. Despite the importance of temperature to lizard ecology and physiology, its effects on life histories have received relatively little attention. We present a theoretical model predicting the proximate consequences of the thermal environment for lizard life histories. Temperature, by affecting activity times, can cause variation in annual survival rate and fecundity, leading to a negative correlation between survival rate and fecundity among populations in different thermal environments. Thus, physiological and evolutionary models predict the same qualitative pattern of life-history variation in lizards. We tested our model with published life-history data from field studies of the lizard Sceloporus undulatus, using climate and geographical data to reconstruct estimated annual activity seasons. Among populations, annual activity times were negatively correlated with annual survival rate and positively correlated with annual fecundity. Proximate effects of temperature may confound comparative analyses of lizard life-history variation and should be included in future evolutionary models.

  4. Temperature, activity, and lizard life histories

    SciTech Connect

    Adolph, S.C.; Porter, W.P. )

    1993-08-01

    Lizard life-history characteristics vary widely among species and populations. Most authors seek adaptive or phylogenetic explanations for life-history patterns, which are usually presumed to reflect genetic differences. However, lizard life histories are often phenotypically plastic, varying in response to temperature, food availability, and other environmental factors. Despite the importance of temperature to lizard ecology and physiology, its effects on life histories have received relatively little attention. The authors present a theoretical model predicting the proximate consequences of the thermal environment for lizard life histories. Temperature, by affecting activity times, can cause variation in annual survival rate and fecundity, leading to a negative correlation between survival rate and fecundity among populations in different thermal environments. Thus, physiological and evolutionary models predict the same qualitative pattern of life-history variation in lizards. They tested their model with published life-history data from field studies of the lizard Sceloporus undulatus, using climate and geographical data to reconstruct estimated annual activity seasons. Among populations, annual activity times were negatively correlated with annual survival rate and positively correlated with annual fecundity. Proximate effects of temperature may confound comparative analyses of lizard life-history variation and should be included in future evolutionary models. 125 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Cancer Visibility among Iranian Familial Networks: To What Extent Can We Rely on Family History Reports?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients’ unawareness of their cancer diagnosis (PUAW) and their tendency for non-disclosure (TTND) to relatives leads to a lack of cancer visibility among familial networks. Lack of familial cancer visibility could affect the accuracy of family cancer history (FCH) reports. In this study, we investigated familial cancer visibility and its potential determinants. Patients and Methods A sample of patients with a confirmed cancer diagnosis was interviewed. Participants were asked about their number of relatives, number of their relatives who are aware about the cancer diagnosis, and the number of relatives from whom they intended to conceal their diagnosis. PUAW was also assessed. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the bootstrap technique. Multivariate analyses were conducted using mixed Poisson and logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 415 participants with a mean age of 53±15 years and a male to female ratio of 0.53 were enrolled in this study. The rates of PUAW, TTND, and familial cancer visibility in the total sample were 0.20 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16, 0.24), 0.16 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.19), and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.89), respectively. PUAW (adjusted rate ratio (RR) = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.38), TTND (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.93), and the patients’ gender (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.95) were the most important determinants of familial cancer visibility. Conclusion Familial cancer visibility may be a point of concern among the Iranian population. Self-reported cancer histories and FCHs may have low sensitivities (not exceeding 80% and 86%, respectively) in this population. However, these estimates may vary across different societies, because of societal and cultural contexts. PMID:26308087

  6. History, Pathogenesis, and Management of Familial Gastric Cancer: Original Study of John XXIII's Family

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Giovanni; Roncalli, Fabrizio; Marrelli, Daniele; Carneiro, Fátima; Roviello, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Background. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is associated with the E-cadherin germline mutations, but genetic determinants have not been identified for familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. The guidelines for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer are clearly established; however, there are no defined recommendations for the management of familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. Methods. In this study we describe Pope John XXIII's pedigree that harboured gastric cancer as well as six other family members. Family history was analysed according to the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium criteria, and gastric tumours were classified in accord with the last Japanese guidelines. Results. Seven out of 109 members in this pedigree harboured gastric cancer, affecting two consecutive generations. John XXIII's clinical tumour (cTN) was classified as cT4bN3a (IV stage). In two other cases, gastric carcinomas were classified as intestinal histotype and staged as pT1bN0 and pT2N2, respectively. Conclusions. Pope John XXIII's family presents a strong aggregation for gastric cancer affecting almost seven members; it spreads through two consecutive generations. In absence of defined genetic causes and considering the increased risk of gastric cancer's development in these families, as well as the high mortality rates and advanced stages, we propose an intensive surveillance protocol for asymptomatic members. PMID:23484115

  7. Family History Fails to Detect the Majority of Children with High Capillary Blood Total Cholesterol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Dennis M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    To examine the predictive value of family history in detecting children with high blood cholesterol, finger-stick screening was done in children (n=1,118) ages 9-10 with parental and grandparental history of cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Findings showed that screening only children with positive family histories will leave most problems…

  8. History and Forecast of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikushina, O. V.; Klimenko, V. V.; Dovgalyuk, V. V.

    From a new reconstruction of the radiocarbon production rate in the atmosphere we obtain a long history of maximum Wolf sunspot numbers. Based on this reconstruction as well as on the history of other indicators of solar activity (10Be, aurora borealis), we derive a long-period trend which together with the results of spectral analysis of maximum Wolf numbers series (1506-1993) form a basis for prediction of solar activity up to 2100. The resulting trigonometric trend points to an essential decrease in solar activity in the coming decades.

  9. The additive effect on suicidality of family history of suicidal behavior and early traumatic experiences.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Castroman, J; Guillaume, S; Olié, E; Jaussent, I; Baca-García, E; Courtet, P

    2015-01-01

    Family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood abuse are reported risk factors for suicide attempts and suicide completion. We aim to quantify the additive effect of family history of suicidal behavior and different subtypes of childhood abuse on suicidal behavior. We examined a sample of 496 suicide attempters, comparing individuals with family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood (physical or sexual) abuse, individuals with family history of suicidal behavior only, individuals with history of early traumatic experiences only, and individuals with none of these two risk factors with regards to suicidal features. An additive effect was found for the age at the first attempt in suicide attempters with both family history of suicidal behavior and either physical or sexual abuse. No significant interactions were found between family history of suicidal behavior and childhood trauma in relation to any characteristics of suicidal behavior. Subjects presenting family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse attempt suicide earlier in life than subjects with just one or none of them, particularly if they were sexually abused. Other suicidality indexes were only partially or not associated with this combination of risk factors. A careful assessment of patients with both family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse could help to prevent future suicide attempts, particularly in young people.

  10. Behavioural activation: history, evidence and promise.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Puspitasari, Ajeng J; Santos, Maria M; Nagy, Gabriela A

    2012-05-01

    Behavioural activation holds promise to reduce the global burden of depression as a treatment approach that is effective, easy to teach, scalable and acceptable to providers and patients across settings and cultures. This editorial reviews the history of behavioural activation, what it is, current evidence for its use and future directions.

  11. Active Learning in American History Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Describes the activities of a high school class that discovered the joy of history through experiential learning. Students learned traditional military tactics for their unit on the French and Indian Wars, and tried to apply them to a nearby woods. Includes similar activities for other historic periods. (MJP)

  12. Mammography Screening Among African-American Women With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    screening practices , beliefs, and psychosocial interventions targeting African-American women, especially those with a family history of breast cancer...knowledge about breast cancer screening practices and beliefs of women with a family history of the disease have focused primarily on white rather than...Among African-American Women with a Family History of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Isaac Lipkus, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Duke

  13. Phenylthiocarbamide tasting and family history of depression, revisited: low rates of depression in families of supertasters.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Thomas E; Perez, Marisol

    2004-04-15

    Past studies suggest that phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste status is related to vulnerability to depression, such that those sensitive to PTC are more vulnerable. We questioned this, reasoning that those insensitive to PTC may be more vulnerable (because they may have lower hedonic tone and higher risk for alcohol abuse). Forty-two volunteers responded to questionnaires regarding family history of depression, and were assigned to supertaster, taster, or non-taster categories based on taste reactions to a 3.80 x 1.43 cm piece of commercially prepared paper treated with PTC. Supertasters were significantly less likely to report first-degree relatives with a history of depression than were tasters and non-tasters. Supertasters may be afforded some protection from depression; elucidating the mechanisms of this protection is a potentially interesting avenue for future research.

  14. The effect of chronic disease family history on healthcare provider practice and patient behavior among Oregonians.

    PubMed

    Zlot, A I; Cox, S L; Silvey, K; Leman, R

    2012-01-01

    Family history is an independent risk factor for many chronic conditions. Therefore, efforts to prevent these diseases among asymptomatic people at high familial risk are justified to reduce the health burden of these chronic conditions. We analyzed 2006-2009 Oregon Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to examine associations between family history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer (BC), and: (1) patient-reported clinician recommendations, (2) adoption of preventive and screening behaviors, and (3) chronic disease risk factors among respondents without a personal history of the condition. A positive family history was associated with a higher likelihood of reported discussion by clinicians of CRC and BC screening and a greater likelihood of respondents having cholesterol and CRC screening. The combination of family history and clinician recommendations significantly increased the odds of CRC and BC screening compared to family history alone. A positive family history was also associated with respondents reporting lifestyle changes to prevent diabetes, CVD, and CRC, but not BC. Awareness of family history prompts clinicians to recommend screening and may motivate patients to be screened. Understanding positive family history may also motivate patients to adopt healthy lifestyles.

  15. Assessing family history of chronic disease in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, June C.; Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Permaul, Joanne A.; Myers, Jesse; Manca, Donna P.; Meaney, Christopher; Moineddin, Rahim; Grunfeld, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the proportion of primary care patients who report a family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, breast cancer, or colorectal cancer (CRC); assess concordance of FH information derived from the electronic medical record (EMR) compared with patient-completed health questionnaires; and assess whether appropriate screening was informed by risk based solely on FH. Design Data from the BETTER (Building on Existing Tools to Improve Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening in Primary Care) trial were used. Patients were mailed questionnaires. Baseline FH and screening data were obtained for enrolled patients from the EMR and health questionnaires. Setting Ontario and Alberta. Participants Randomly selected patients from 8 family practices. Main outcome measures Agreement on FH between the EMR and questionnaire was determined; logistic regression was used to assess significant predictors of screening. Results In total, 775 of 789 (98%) patients completed the health questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 52.5 years and 72% were female. A minimum of 12% of patients (range 12% to 36%) had a reported FH of 1 of 4 chronic diseases. Among patients with positive FH, the following proportions of patients had that FH recorded in the EMR compared with the questionnaire: diabetes, 24% in the EMR versus 36% on the questionnaire, κ = 0.466; coronary artery disease, 35% in the EMR versus 22% on the questionnaire, κ = 0.225; breast cancer, 21% in the EMR versus 22% on the questionnaire, κ = 0.241; and CRC, 12% in the EMR versus 14% on the questionnaire, κ = 0.510. There was moderate agreement for diabetes and CRC. The presence of FH was a significant predictor of CRC screening (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.1). Conclusion A moderate prevalence of FH was found for 4 conditions for which screening recommendations vary with risk based on FH. Having patients self-complete an FH was thought to be feasible; however, questions

  16. Germline BAP1 Mutational Landscape of Asbestos-Exposed Malignant Mesothelioma Patients with Family History of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohar, Jill A; Cheung, Mitchell; Talarchek, Jacqueline; Howard, Suzanne E; Howard, Timothy D; Hesdorffer, Mary; Peng, Hongzhuang; Rauscher, Frank J; Testa, Joseph R

    2016-01-15

    Heritable mutations in the BAP1 tumor suppressor gene predispose individuals to mesothelioma and other cancers. However, a large-scale assessment of germline BAP1 mutation incidence and associated clinical features in mesothelioma patients with a family history of cancer has not been reported. Therefore, we examined the germline BAP1 mutation status of 150 mesothelioma patients with a family history of cancer, 50 asbestos-exposed control individuals with a family history of cancers other than mesothelioma, and 153 asbestos-exposed individuals without familial cancer. No BAP1 alterations were found in control cohorts, but were identified in nine of 150 mesothelioma cases (6%) with a family history of cancer. Alterations among these cases were characterized by both missense and frameshift mutations, and enzymatic activity of BAP1 missense mutants was decreased compared with wild-type BAP1. Furthermore, BAP1 mutation carriers developed mesothelioma at an earlier age that was more often peritoneal than pleural (five of nine) and exhibited improved long-term survival compared to mesothelioma patients without BAP1 mutations. Moreover, many tumors harboring BAP1 germline mutations were associated with BAP1 syndrome, including mesothelioma and ocular/cutaneous melanomas, as well as renal, breast, lung, gastric, and basal cell carcinomas. Collectively, these findings suggest that mesothelioma patients presenting with a family history of cancer should be considered for BAP1 genetic testing to identify those individuals who might benefit from further screening and routine monitoring for the purpose of early detection and intervention.

  17. Germline BAP1 mutational landscape of asbestos-exposed malignant mesothelioma patients with family history of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ohar, Jill A.; Cheung, Mitchell; Talarchek, Jacqueline; Howard, Suzanne E.; Howard, Timothy D.; Hesdorffer, Mary; Peng, Hongzhuang; Rauscher, Frank J.; Testa, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Heritable mutations in the BAP1 tumor suppressor gene predispose individuals to mesothelioma and other cancers. However, a large-scale assessment of germline BAP1 mutation incidence and associated clinical features in mesothelioma patients with a family history of cancer has not been reported. Therefore, we examined the germline BAP1 mutation status of 150 mesothelioma patients with a family history of cancer, 50 asbestos-exposed control individuals with a family history of cancers other than mesothelioma, and 153 asbestos-exposed individuals without familial cancer. No BAP1 alterations were found in control cohorts, but were identified in 9 of 150 mesothelioma cases (6%) with a family history of cancer. Alterations among these cases were characterized by both missense and frameshift mutations, and enzymatic activity of BAP1 missense mutants was decreased compared to wild-type BAP1. Furthermore, BAP1 mutation carriers developed mesothelioma at an earlier age that was more often peritoneal than pleural (5 of 9), and exhibited improved long-term survival compared to mesothelioma patients without BAP1 mutations. Moreover, many tumors harboring BAP1 germline mutations were associated with BAP1 syndrome, including mesothelioma and ocular/cutaneous melanomas, as well as renal, breast, lung, gastric, and basal cell carcinomas. Collectively, these findings suggest that mesothelioma patients presenting with a family history of cancer should be considered for BAP1 genetic testing to identify those individuals who might benefit from further screening and routine monitoring for the purpose of early detection and intervention. PMID:26719535

  18. Family history of alcoholism interacts with alcohol to affect brain regions involved in behavioral inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kareken, David A.; Dzemidzic, Mario; Wetherill, Leah; Eiler, William; Oberlin, Brandon G.; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Wang, Yang; O’Connor, Sean J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Impulsive behavior is associated with both alcohol use disorders and a family history of alcoholism (FHA). One operational definition of impulsive behavior is the stop signal task (SST), which measures the time needed to stop a ballistic hand movement. Objective Employ functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study right frontal responses to stop signals in heavy drinking subjects with and without FHA, and as a function of alcohol exposure. Methods Twenty two family history positive (FHP; age = 22.7 years, SD= 1.9) and 18 family history negative (FHN; age = 23.7, SD= 1.8) subjects performed the SST in fMRI in two randomized visits: once during intravenous infusion of alcohol, clamped at a steady-state breath alcohol (BrAC) concentration of 60mg%, and once during infusion of placebo saline. An independent reference group (n= 13, age= 23.7, SD= 1.8) was used to identify a priori right prefrontal regions activated by successful inhibition (Inh) trials, relative to ‘Go’ trials that carried no need for inhibition (Inh > Go). Results FHA interacted with alcohol exposure in right prefrontal cortex, where alcohol reduced [Inh > Go] activation in FHN subjects, but not in FHP subjects. Within this right frontal cortical region, stop signal reaction time (SSRT) also correlated negatively with [Inh > Go] activation, suggesting that the [Inh > Go] activity was related to inhibitory behavior. Conclusions The results are consistent with the low level of response theory (Schuckit, 1980; Quinn & Fromme, 2011), with FHP being less sensitive to alcohol’s effects. PMID:23468100

  19. Family Structure History: Links to Relationship Formation Behaviors in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Schelar, Erin; Manlove, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Using data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 4,667), we examined the intergenerational link between parental family structure history and relationship formation in young adulthood. We investigated (a) whether parental family structure history is associated with young adults' own relationship formation…

  20. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  1. Writing the Social History of One's Family...Revised Guidelines for Faculty Members and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard; Hareven, Tamara K.

    The Anonymous Families History Project of the University of Minnesota developed guidelines for college students researching and writing the social histories of their families. Included in the guidelines are interview questions, tips for conducting an oral interview, a primary source list, and a bibliography of background reading. Question topics…

  2. Suicide Attempts and Family History of Suicide in Three Psychiatric Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremeau, Fabien; Staner, Luc; Duval, Fabrice; Correa, Humberto; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Darreye, Angelina; Czobor, Pal; Dessoubrais, Cecile; Macher, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The influence of a family history of suicide on suicide attempt rate and characteristics in depression, schizophrenia, and opioid dependence was examined. One hundred sixty inpatients with unipolar depression, 160 inpatients with schizophrenia, and 160 opioid-dependent patients were interviewed. Overall, a family history of suicide was associated…

  3. Opposite Cannabis-Cognition Associations in Psychotic Patients Depending on Family History

    PubMed Central

    González-Pinto, Ana; González-Ortega, Itxaso; Alberich, Susana; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Bernardo, Miguel; Bioque, Miquel; Cabrera, Bibiana; Corripio, Iluminada; Arango, Celso; Lobo, Antonio; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M.; Cuesta, Manuel J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate cognitive performance in a first-episode psychosis sample, when stratifying the interaction by cannabis use and familial or non-familial psychosis. Hierarchical-regression models were used to analyse this association in a sample of 268 first-episode psychosis patients and 237 controls. We found that cannabis use was associated with worse working memory, regardless of family history. However, cannabis use was clearly associated with worse cognitive performance in patients with no family history of psychosis, in cognitive domains including verbal memory, executive function and global cognitive index, whereas cannabis users with a family history of psychosis performed better in these domains. The main finding of the study is that there is an interaction between cannabis use and a family history of psychosis in the areas of verbal memory, executive function and global cognition: that is, cannabis use is associated with a better performance in patients with a family history of psychosis and a worse performance in those with no family history of psychosis. In order to confirm this hypothesis, future research should explore the actual expression of the endocannabinoid system in patients with and without a family history of psychosis. PMID:27513670

  4. Opposite Cannabis-Cognition Associations in Psychotic Patients Depending on Family History.

    PubMed

    González-Pinto, Ana; González-Ortega, Itxaso; Alberich, Susana; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Bernardo, Miguel; Bioque, Miquel; Cabrera, Bibiana; Corripio, Iluminada; Arango, Celso; Lobo, Antonio; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate cognitive performance in a first-episode psychosis sample, when stratifying the interaction by cannabis use and familial or non-familial psychosis. Hierarchical-regression models were used to analyse this association in a sample of 268 first-episode psychosis patients and 237 controls. We found that cannabis use was associated with worse working memory, regardless of family history. However, cannabis use was clearly associated with worse cognitive performance in patients with no family history of psychosis, in cognitive domains including verbal memory, executive function and global cognitive index, whereas cannabis users with a family history of psychosis performed better in these domains. The main finding of the study is that there is an interaction between cannabis use and a family history of psychosis in the areas of verbal memory, executive function and global cognition: that is, cannabis use is associated with a better performance in patients with a family history of psychosis and a worse performance in those with no family history of psychosis. In order to confirm this hypothesis, future research should explore the actual expression of the endocannabinoid system in patients with and without a family history of psychosis.

  5. Patterns of family health history communication among older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.

  6. Family history of cancer, personal history of medical conditions and risk of oral cavity cancer in France: the ICARE study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of family history of cancer and personal history of other medical conditions in the aetiology of the oral cavity cancer in France. Methods We used data from 689 cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and 3481 controls included in a population-based case–control study, the ICARE study. Odds-ratios (ORs) associated with family history of cancer and personal medical conditions and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression and were adjusted for age, gender, area of residence, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Results Personal history of oral candidiasis was related to a significantly increased risk of oral cavity cancer (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.1-12.1). History of head and neck cancers among the first-degree relatives was associated with an OR of 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.8). The risk increased with the number of first-degree relatives with head and neck cancer. Conclusion A family history of head and neck cancer is a marker of an increased risk of oral cavity cancer and should be taken into account to target prevention efforts and screening. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between oral cavity cancer and personal history of candidiasis. PMID:24286495

  7. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  8. Reflections on the Construction of a Digital Family Oral History and Its Impact on Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londt, Susan Cole

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Family Oral History Pilot (DFOHP) data were collected and catalogued on a private website blog for family members to learn about their grandfather (ALP) who died without telling his own story. This study examined the outcomes and perceptions of the family members who were engaged with the pilot. A self-selected sample of 17 family…

  9. Family Support in Nursing Homes Serving Residents with a Mental Health History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frahm, Kathryn; Gammonley, Denise; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Paek, Seung Chun

    2010-01-01

    Using 2003 nursing home data from the Minimum Data Set (MDS) database, this study investigated the role of family support among nursing homes serving residents with a mental health history. Exploratory factor analysis was used to create and test a conceptual model of family support using indicators located within the MDS database. Families were…

  10. Family Health History Communication Networks of Older Adults: Importance of Social Relationships and Disease Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication ("have shared" and "intend to share…

  11. Family history: an opportunity for early interventions and improved control of hypertension, obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    van der Sande, M. A.; Walraven, G. E.; Milligan, P. J.; Banya, W. A.; Ceesay, S. M.; Nyan, O. A.; McAdam, K. P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a family history of high-risk groups for major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) was a significant risk factor for these conditions among family members in a study population in the Gambia, where strong community and family coherence are important determinants that have to be taken into consideration in promoting lifestyle changes. METHODS: We questioned 5389 adults as to any first-degree family history of major noncommunicable diseases (hypertension, obesity, diabetes and stroke), and measured their blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI). Total blood cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, and creatinine concentrations were measured in a stratified subsample, as well as blood glucose (2 hours after ingesting 75 g glucose) in persons aged > or = 35 years. FINDINGS: A significant number of subjects reported a family history of hypertension (8.0%), obesity (5.4%), diabetes (3.3%) and stroke (1.4%), with 14.6% of participants reporting any of these NCDs. Subjects with a family history of hypertension had a higher diastolic BP and BMI, higher cholesterol and uric acid concentrations, and an increased risk of obesity. Those with a family history of obesity had a higher BMI and were at increased risk of obesity. Individuals with a family history of diabetes had a higher BMI and higher concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid, and their risk of obesity and diabetes was increased. Subjects with a family history of stroke had a higher BMI, as well as higher cholesterol, triglyceride and uric acid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: A family history of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, or stroke was a significant risk factor for obesity and hyperlipidaemia. With increase of age, more pathological manifestations can develop in this high-risk group. Health professionals should therefore utilize every opportunity to include direct family members in health education. PMID:11357211

  12. Evolutionary history of bovine endogenous retroviruses in the Bovidae family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are genomic elements of retroviral origin that are present in the genomes of almost all vertebrates. In cattle, more than 13,000 elements related to ERVs have been detected, and based on the pol gene, 24 families or groups of bovine ERVs have been described. However, information about ERVs in other bovids and the presence of families of related bovine ERVs in different species of the Bovidae family is scarce. Results The 24 families of bovine ERVs previously detected in cattle (Bos taurus) were also detected in zebus (Bos indicus) and yaks (Bos grunniens). In addition, six new families, named BoERV25 to BoERV30, were detected in the three Bos species. Five more ruminant species were screened for related ERVs: 26 families were detected in these species, but four families (BoERV24, BoERV26, BoERV28 and BoERV29) were specific to cattle, zebus, yaks and buffalo. An analysis of the homology of the ERVs of cattle, zebus and yaks revealed that the level of LTR divergence was similar between ERVs from cattle and zebus but was less similar between with ERVs from cattle and yaks. In addition, purifying selection was detected in the genes and retroviral regions of clusters of ERVs of cattle, zebus and yaks. Conclusions In this work, the 24 ERV families previously identified in cattle were also found in two other species in the Bos genus. In addition, six new bovine ERV families were detected. Based on LTR divergence, the most recently inserted families are from Class II. The divergence of the LTR, used as an indirect estimate of the ERV insertion time, seemed to be influenced by the differences in genome evolution since the divergence of the species. In addition, purifying selection could be acting on clusters of ERVs from different species. PMID:24256121

  13. Life Stress and Family History for Depression: The Moderating Role of Past Depressive Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Scott M.; Slavich, George M.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2014-01-01

    Three of the most consistently reported and powerful predictors of depression are a recent major life event, a positive family history for depression, and a personal history of past depressive episodes. Little research, however, has evaluated the inter-relations among these predictors in depressed samples. Such information is descriptively valuable and potentially etiologically informative. In the present article we summarize the existing literature and test four predictions in a sample of 62 clinically depressed individuals: (1) participants who experienced a major life event prior to onset would be less likely than participants who did not experience a major life event to have a positive family history for depression; (2) participants with a recent major life event would have fewer lifetime episodes of depression than would participants without; (3) participants with a positive family history for depression would have more lifetime episodes of depression than would participants with a negative family history for depression; and (4) we would obtain a 3-way interaction in which participants with a positive family history and without a major life event would have the most lifetime episodes, whereas participants with a negative family history and a major life event would have the fewest lifetime episodes. The first three predictions were confirmed, and the fourth prediction partially confirmed. These novel findings begin to elucidate the complex relations among these three prominent risk factors for depression, and point to avenues of research that may help illuminate the origins of depressive episodes. PMID:24308926

  14. Life stress and family history for depression: the moderating role of past depressive episodes.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Scott M; Slavich, George M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2014-02-01

    Three of the most consistently reported and powerful predictors of depression are a recent major life event, a positive family history for depression, and a personal history of past depressive episodes. Little research, however, has evaluated the inter-relations among these predictors in depressed samples. Such information is descriptively valuable and potentially etiologically informative. In the present article we summarize the existing literature and test four predictions in a sample of 62 clinically depressed individuals: (1) participants who experienced a major life event prior to onset would be less likely than participants who did not experience a major life event to have a positive family history for depression; (2) participants with a recent major life event would have fewer lifetime episodes of depression than would participants without; (3) participants with a positive family history for depression would have more lifetime episodes of depression than would participants with a negative family history for depression; and (4) we would obtain a 3-way interaction in which participants with a positive family history and without a major life event would have the most lifetime episodes, whereas participants with a negative family history and a major life event would have the fewest lifetime episodes. The first three predictions were confirmed, and the fourth prediction partially confirmed. These novel findings begin to elucidate the complex relations among these three prominent risk factors for depression, and point to avenues of research that may help illuminate the origins of depressive episodes.

  15. The relationship between type 2 diabetes family history, body composition and blood basal glycemia in sedentary people.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Antonino; Pomara, Francesco; Raccuglia, Margherita; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Filingeri, Davide; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether there is a positive correlation between family history to type 2 diabetes mellitus and body mass and composition, and alterations in blood basal glycaemia levels in sedentary male and female. Anthropometric variables, blood parameters, body composition and body surface area were evaluated on 183 male and 237 female sedentary individuals. Participants were classified into two groups: FH(+) (family history positive) and FH(-) (familiar history negative) according to their medical history. The FH(+) group showed higher values of body mass and body surface area than FH(-) group. These differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for the female subgroup. When compared to the FH(-) group, FH(+) female individuals showed a significantly greater fat mass (p < 0.01) and a significantly lower free fat mass-to-fat mass ratio (FFM/FM ratio) (p < 0.05). FH(+) female individuals showed significant lower levels of basal glucose values for Kg of FFM (p < 0.05), FM (p < 0.01) and BSA (p < 0.01) than FH(-) group. The results of this study indicate that body mass and composition correlate positively to family history to type 2 diabetes. The relationship between family history and body composition is particularly evident in young FH(+) female. Thus, as family history might represent a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, this could be considered as an important parameter able to predict the onset of the disease itself. This knowledge could be used to improve preventive interventions (i.e. increasing levels of physical activity) promoting healthy lifestyle.

  16. [The history and library the Goda family of medical doctors].

    PubMed

    Machi, Senjuro; Kosoto, Hiroshi; Amano, Yosuke; Hanawa, Toshihiko

    2005-12-01

    The Goda family discussed in this paper is a family lineage that served as the official physicians to the Sakakibara family that ruled Takada han in Echigo province from the middle of the Edo period. Last year old medical materials and writings that had been transmitted by the family were transferred to the Oriental Medicine Research Center of the Kitasato Institute. The authors have had the opportunity to study the family genealogy and collate these archives. The Goda family has continued through eight generations. These are, respectively- (1) the founder Heizo; (2) Chuzo; (3) Shojun; (4) Yoan; (5) Yoshinobu; (6) Hitoshi; (7) Hiroshi; and (8) the present head, Takashi. We have identified two lines of physicians in collateral families (from Susumu and Akira, both sons of Yoshinobu). The archive as received is comprised of 138 separate items from a total of 450 volumes. Of these, medical works constitute 102 items in 283 volumes. The library provides valuable material which sheds light on the standard of medicine in the Takada area of Echigo from the late Edo through the Meiji periods.

  17. MD Family Medicine - Calicut experience: History is made here

    PubMed Central

    Roshni, M.

    2016-01-01

    Government Medical College, Calicut, Kerala - the first medical college in India to start Doctor of Medicine (MD) in family medicine as a postgraduate course. This was in the year 2012. Till date, this is the only medical college to have MD Family Medicine program in India. The college was allowed two MD Family Medicine seats per year by the Medical Council of India, and this is a 3 year course. The first batch of MD Family Medicine students has passed out from the Government Medical College, Calicut in July 2015. In this article, the author, who has been working as an assistant professor in the Department of Family Medicine, ever since the department started in the year 2012, shares her experiences in setting up the department, its functioning and the achievement of bringing out the first batch of successful MD Family Medicine specialists. Another laurel, of which the institution is proud of, is that they were able to incorporate family medicine teaching program in the MBBS curriculum. A brief introduction about Government Medical College, Calicut, is also given. PMID:27843820

  18. Family History of Alcoholism: Are You at Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse or alcoholism: Al–Anon Family Group Headquarters Internet address: www.al–anon.alateen.org Makes referrals ... Anonymous (AA) World Services Phone: (212) 870–3400 Internet address: www.aa.org Makes referrals to local ...

  19. Placement History of Foster Children: A Study of Placement History and Outcomes in Long-Term Family Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strijker, Johan; Knorth, Erik J.; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The files of 419 children in family foster care and kinship foster care were used in a retrospective longitudinal design study that examined their placement histories in child welfare. Significant associations were found between the number of placements on one hand, and the prevalence of attachment disorders, severity of behavioral problems, and…

  20. Associations of phenylthiocarbamide tasting to alcohol problems and family history of alcoholism differ by gender.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Kimberly A; Perez, Marisol; Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Butler, Melanie; Joiner, Thomas E

    2006-06-30

    Past research associating phenylthiocarbamide/propylthiouracil (PTC/PROP) taste status with alcoholism has produced equivocal results. Some have found higher proportions of nontasters among those with a family history of alcoholism than controls, whereas others have not. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between PTC taste status, alcohol problems, and family history of alcoholism. A total of 244 undergraduate students participated in this study, with a gender distribution of 75% female and 25% male. We found support for our hypothesis that male supertasters would report fewer problems with alcohol and a less significant family history of alcoholism. Interestingly, we also found that female supertasters had a greater family history of alcoholism and more current problems associated with alcohol use. Implications for the genetic link between PTC taste status and alcoholism are discussed.

  1. Family History of Alcohol Abuse Moderates Effectiveness of a Group Motivational Enhancement Intervention in College Women

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Feres, Nashla; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether a self-reported family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) moderated the effects of a female-specific group motivational enhancement intervention with first-year college women. First-year college women (N= 287) completed an initial questionnaire and attended an intervention (n=161) or control (n=126) group session, of which 118 reported FH+. Repeated measures ANCOVA models were estimated to investigate whether the effectiveness of the intervention varied as a function of one’s reported family history of alcohol abuse. Results revealed that family history of alcohol abuse moderated intervention efficacy. Although the intervention was effective in producing less risky drinking relative to controls, among those participants who received the intervention, FH+ women drank less across five weeks of follow-up than FH− women. The current findings provide preliminary support for the differential effectiveness of motivational enhancement interventions with FH+ women. Keywords: college women, intervention, alcohol abuse, family history, motivational interviewing PMID:19162406

  2. Family History of Alzheimer's Disease and Cortical Thickness in Patients With Dementia.

    PubMed

    Ganske, Steffi; Haussmann, Robert; Gruschwitz, Antonia; Werner, Annett; Osterrath, Antje; Baumgaertel, Johanna; Lange, Jan; Donix, Katharina L; Linn, Jennifer; Donix, Markus

    2016-08-01

    A first-degree family history of Alzheimer's disease reflects genetic risks for the neurodegenerative disorder. Recent imaging data suggest localized effects of genetic risks on brain structure in healthy people. It is unknown whether this association can also be found in patients who already have dementia. Our aim was to investigate whether family history risk modulates regional medial temporal lobe cortical thickness in patients with Alzheimer's disease. We performed high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and cortical unfolding data analysis on 54 patients and 53 nondemented individuals. A first-degree family history of Alzheimer's disease was associated with left hemispheric cortical thinning in the subiculum among patients and controls. The contribution of Alzheimer's disease family history to regional brain anatomy changes independent of cognitive impairment may reflect genetic risks that modulate onset and clinical course of the disease.

  3. Family History of Cancer and Risk of Sporadic Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Li, Guojun; Wei, Qingyi; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Sturgis, Erich M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Thyroid cancer incidence in the United States, particularly in women, has increased dramatically since 1980s. While the causes of thyroid cancer in most patients remain largely unknown, evidence suggests the existence of an inherited predisposition to development of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Therefore, we explored the association between sporadic DTC and family history of cancer. METHODS In a retrospective hospital-based case-control study of prospectively recruited subjects who completed the study questionnaire upon enrollment, unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as estimates of the DTC risk associated with first-degree family history of cancer. RESULTS The study included 288 patients with sporadic DTC and 591 cancer-free controls. Family history of thyroid cancer in first-degree relatives was associated with increased DTC risk (adjusted OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.7–9.9). All DTC cases in patients with a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer were cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) (adjusted OR = 4.6, 95 CI%: 1.9–11.1). Notably, the risk of PTC was highest in subjects with a family history of thyroid cancer in siblings (OR = 7.4, 95% CI: 1.8–30.4). In addition, multifocal primary tumor was more common among PTC patients with first-degree family history of thyroid cancer than among PTC patients with no first-degree family history of thyroid cancer (68.8% vs. 35.5%, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that family history of thyroid cancer in first-degree relatives, particularly in siblings, is associated with an increased risk of sporadic PTC. PMID:21800288

  4. Family history of colorectal cancer: clinicians' preventive recommendations and patient behavior.

    PubMed

    Zlot, Amy I; Silvey, Kerry; Newell, Nanette; Coates, Ralph J; Leman, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Few population-based studies have addressed the role that family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) plays in clinician decision making or patient health choices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of family history of CRC on clinician practice, patient CRC screening, and patient preventive behavior. We analyzed 2008 Oregon Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to examine associations between family history of CRC and 1) patient-reported clinician recommendations, 2) perceived risk of developing CRC, 3) adoption of preventive and screening behaviors, and 4) CRC risk factors among 1,795 respondents without CRC. A family history of CRC was positively associated with a higher likelihood of respondents reporting that their clinicians discussed colorectal cancer screening (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.4-7.4) and of respondents having colorectal screening within the recommended time period (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9). A family history of CRC was also associated with respondents reporting lifestyle changes to prevent CRC (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.7-4.0). A family history of CRC may prompt clinicians to recommend screening and preventive behavior changes and motivate patients to adopt such strategies.

  5. Using family history information to promote healthy lifestyles and prevent diseases; a discussion of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A family history, reflecting genetic susceptibility as well as shared environmental and behavioral factors, is an important risk factor for common chronic multifactorial diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and many cancers. Discussion The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the evidence for the use of family history as a tool for primary prevention of common chronic diseases, in particular for tailored interventions aimed at promoting healthy lifestyles. The following questions are addressed: (1) What is the value of family history information as a determinant of personal disease risk?; (2)How can family history information be used to motivate at-risk individuals to adopt and maintain healthy lifestyles in order to prevent disease?; and (3) What additional studies are needed to assess the potential value of family history information as a tool to promote a healthy lifestyle? Summary In addition to risk assessment, family history information can be used to personalize health messages, which are potentially more effective in promoting healthy lifestyles than standardized health messages. More research is needed on the evidence for the effectiveness of such a tool. PMID:20465810

  6. Factors Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk Perception: The Role of Polyps and Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Jennifer Rider; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Costanza, Mary E.; Stoddard, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    It is unclear how objective risk factors influence the factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk perception. The goals of this study were to investigate factors associated with perceived risk of CRC and to explore how these relationships were modified by personal history of polyps or family history of CRC. The study involved a mailed…

  7. Building Community through Shared Aesthetic Experience: A Multimedia Family History Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrary, Nancye E.

    2012-01-01

    Family history projects have been used extensively in social studies education. They help to personalize history and mediate an awareness of self in relation to others. This article details how one such project, implemented in a teacher education program, promoted dialogues of respect and fostered community among pre-service teachers. It includes…

  8. Association between family history of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and lifestyle risk factors in the United States population: The 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Akhuemonkhan, Eboselume; Lazo, Mariana

    2017-03-01

    Family history is a well-known risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and modification of lifestyle risk factors can significantly lessen such risk. Our aim was to assess the association between family history of diabetes and/or CVD and lifestyle behaviors and risk factors (smoking, low physical activity, excessive dietary sodium and cholesterol intake and obesity) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2012. Family history, lifestyle behaviors and risk factors were defined using self-reported and physical examination data. The study sample included 10,988 participants with a mean age of 47years. Among the U.S. adult population, 29.5%, 5.7% and 6.5% had a family history of diabetes, CVD and both diseases respectively. Compared to participants with no family history, participants with a family history of diabetes, CVD and both diabetes and CVD were more likely to be current smokers (OR=1.18[95% CI, 1.03-1.35], OR=1.68[95% CI, 1.31-2.17] and OR=1.71[95% CI, 1.30-2.26] respectively). Participants with a family history of diabetes (OR=1.42[95% CI, 1.26-1.61]) and both diabetes and CVD were more likely to be overweight/obese (OR=2.06[95% CI, 1.57-2.69]). There was no association between family history and dietary factors or physical activity. In the U.S., there is a high prevalence of modifiable risk factors among persons with a family history of diabetes and/or CVD. Healthcare providers have a significant role to play in targeting these individuals for lifestyle changes.

  9. Associations between family support, family intimacy, and neighborhood violence and physical activity in urban adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Kuo, JoAnn; Voorhees, Carolyn C; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association between various dimensions of the family environment, including family intimacy and involvement in activities, family support for physical activity, and neighborhood violence (perceived and objective) and physical activity among urban, predominantly African American, ninth-grade girls in Baltimore, Md. Greater family intimacy (P = .05) and support (P = .01), but not neighborhood violence, was associated with physical activity. Family factors, including family intimacy and support, are potential targets in physical activity interventions for urban high-school girls.

  10. "That was grown folks' business": narrative reflection and response in older adults' family health history communication.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Jill; Hovick, Shelly R

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of family health history and the pivotal role of older adults in communicating it, this study examines how African American older adults (a) characterize their understandings of health-related conditions in their family histories and (b) rationalize their motivations and constraints for sharing this information with current family members. Using narrative theory as a framework, we illustrate how the participants reflect on prior health-related experiences within the family to respond to moral and practical calls for communicating family health information to current relatives. Specifically, our analysis highlights how storied family secrets--as constructed by 28 participants in group and individual interviews--reveal and inform shifting cultural and generational practices that shape the lived health behaviors and communication of older adults at greater risk for health disparities.

  11. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History.

    PubMed

    Giordimaina, Alicia M; Sheldon, Jane P; Kiedrowski, Lesli A; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-12-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey, nondiabetic Mexican Americans (n = 385), Blacks (n = 387), and Whites (n = 396) reported family histories of T2DM. Negative binomial regressions used age and gender to predict the number of affected relatives reported. Models were examined for the gender gap, parabolic age effect, and gender-by-age interaction predicted by kinkeeping. Results demonstrated support for gender and parabolic age effects but only among Whites. Kinkeeping may have application to the study of White family medical historians, but not Black or Mexican American historians, perhaps because of differences in family structure, salience of T2DM, and/or gender roles.

  12. Perceived Costs of Combining Career and Family Roles: The Influence of Early Family History on Adult Role Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Janet S.

    This study attempts to clarify part of the decision-making process centering around combining family and career. There are two aspects of the study. In the first, perceived costs of combining roles are assessed and evaluated in light of mother's employment history. The subjects in this part of the study were 141 single women and 43 married women.…

  13. Different evolutionary histories of two cation/proton exchanger gene families in plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gene duplication events have been proposed to be involved in the adaptation of plants to stress conditions; precisely how is unclear. To address this question, we studied the evolution of two families of antiporters. Cation/proton exchangers are important for normal cell function and in plants, Na+,K+/H+ antiporters have also been implicated in salt tolerance. Two well-known plant cation/proton antiporters are NHX1 and SOS1, which perform Na+ and K+ compartmentalization into the vacuole and Na+ efflux from the cell, respectively. However, our knowledge about the evolution of NHX and SOS1 stress responsive gene families is still limited. Results In this study we performed a comprehensive molecular evolutionary analysis of the NHX and SOS1 families. Using available sequences from a total of 33 plant species, we estimated gene family phylogenies and gene duplication histories, as well as examined heterogeneous selection pressure on amino acid sites. Our results show that, while the NHX family expanded and specialized, the SOS1 family remained a low copy gene family that appears to have undergone neofunctionalization during its evolutionary history. Additionally, we found that both families are under purifying selection although SOS1 is less constrained. Conclusions We propose that the different evolution histories are related with the proteins’ function and localization, and that the NHX and SOS1 families are examples of two different evolutionary paths through which duplication events may result in adaptive evolution of stress tolerance. PMID:23822194

  14. Implications of living with a strong family history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Maheu, Christine

    2009-06-01

    The findings presented here are from a qualitative study in which data were gathered from 20 women who had received inconclusive genetic testing results for inherited breast cancer susceptibility. Before describing the significance, for them, of their genetic test results, all of the participants related what it was like to live with a strong family history of breast cancer. The focus of this article is the women's experience of living with a personal and strong family history of breast cancer. For these women, having such a history had become a fact of life that could not be ignored.Three themes were identified in the data: expecting and dealing with a diagnosis of breast cancer protecting oneself and others, and increasing exposure to cancer screening procedures. These themes address the underlying reality that having a personal and family history of breast cancer is not an isolated situation but part of one's journey in choosing to undergo genetic testing for inherited breast cancer susceptibility.

  15. The application of computer-based tools in obtaining the genetic family history.

    PubMed

    Giovanni, Monica A; Murray, Michael F

    2010-07-01

    Family health history is both an adjunct to and a focus of current genetic research, having long been known to be a powerful predictor of individual disease risk. As such, it has been primarily used as a proxy for genetic information. Over the past decade, new roles for family history have emerged, perhaps most importantly as a primary tool for guiding decision-making on the use of expensive genetic testing. The collection of family history information is an important but time-consuming process. Efforts to engage the patient or research subject in preliminary data collection have the potential to improve data accuracy and allow clinicians and researchers more time for analytic tasks. The U.S. Surgeon General, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and others have developed tools for electronic family history collection. This unit describes the utility of the Web-based My Family Health Portrait (https://familyhistory.hhs.gov) as the prototype for patient-entered family history.

  16. Caring for families with a family history of cancer: why concerns about genetic predisposition are missing from the palliative agenda.

    PubMed

    Lillie, Alison Kate; Clifford, Collette; Metcalfe, Alison

    2011-03-01

    Care of the family is integral to palliative care, but little attention has been paid to the way nurses, or other healthcare professionals, are responding to the needs of families who are concerned about whether their family history of cancer is associated with an inherited genetic predisposition. This paper discusses how palliative care nurses perceive the care needs of patients with a family history of cancer. Data were collected through recorded, semi-structured interviews with 10 nurses who had worked in specialist palliative care. The findings show that there are cogent arguments and concerns about raising the issue of an inherited genetic predisposition at the end of life (especially when the patient is close to death and there is a lack of knowledge about genetics). Nevertheless, exemplar cases are used to illustrate the reasons why it is important that nurses working in specialist palliative care settings are aware of the needs of this patient group. The paper highlights that nurses not only need an appropriate knowledge base but also an insight of what can be achieved when supporting patients with a family history of cancer.

  17. [Inheritance of psoriasis. Analysis of 2035 family histories].

    PubMed

    Andressen, C; Henseler, T

    1982-04-01

    Detailed pedigrees were established in 2,035 families with psoriasis, including 30 twin pairs, and evaluated by means of computer analysis. The following results on the devolution of psoriasis were drawn: the hypotheses of the irregular dominant and the bifactorial recessive inheritance appear to be inacceptable. The findings suggest a multifactorial etiology of psoriasis with a polygenic mode of inheritance. The risk for relatives to be affected by psoriasis is calculated.

  18. Relationship between family history of alcohol addiction, parents' education level, and smartphone problem use scale scores.

    PubMed

    Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father's education level, mother's education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father's education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother's education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father's education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%-75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance.

  19. The evolutionary history of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene family in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Stearoyl-CoA desaturases (SCDs) are key enzymes involved in de novo monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis. They catalyze the desaturation of saturated fatty acyl-CoA substrates at the delta-9 position, generating essential components of phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesterol esters and wax esters. Despite being crucial for interpreting SCDs roles across species, the evolutionary history of the SCD gene family in vertebrates has yet to be elucidated, in particular their isoform diversity, origin and function. This work aims to contribute to this fundamental effort. Results We show here, through comparative genomics and phylogenetics that the SCD gene family underwent an unexpectedly complex history of duplication and loss events. Paralogy analysis hints that SCD1 and SCD5 genes emerged as part of the whole genome duplications (2R) that occurred at the stem of the vertebrate lineage. The SCD1 gene family expanded in rodents with the parallel loss of SCD5 in the Muridae family. The SCD1 gene expansion is also observed in the Lagomorpha although without the SCD5 loss. In the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis we find a single SCD1 gene but not SCD5, though this could be due to genome incompleteness. In the analysed teleost species no SCD5 is found, while the surrounding SCD5-less locus is conserved in comparison to tetrapods. In addition, the teleost SCD1 gene repertoire expanded to two copies as a result of the teleost specific genome duplication (3R). Finally, we describe clear orthologues of SCD1 and SCD5 in the chondrichthian, Scyliorhinus canicula, a representative of the oldest extant jawed vertebrate clade. Expression analysis in S. canicula shows that whilst SCD1 is ubiquitous, SCD5 is mainly expressed in the brain, a pattern which might indicate an evolutionary conserved function. Conclusion We conclude that the SCD1 and SCD5 genes emerged as part of the 2R genome duplications. We propose that the evolutionary conserved gene expression between distinct

  20. Accuracy of Family History of Hemochromatosis or Iron Overload: The Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study

    PubMed Central

    Acton, Ronald T.; Barton, James C.; Passmore, Leah V.; Adams, Paul C.; Mclaren, Gordon D.; Leiendecker–Foster, Catherine; Speechley, Mark R.; Harris, Emily L.; Castro, Oswaldo; Reiss, Jacob A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Harrison, Barbara W.; Mclaren, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims The aim of this study was to assess the analytic validity of self-reported family history of hemochromatosis or iron overload. Methods A total of 141 probands, 549 family members, and 641 controls participated in the primary care Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study. Participants received a postscreening clinical examination and completed questionnaires about personal and family histories of hemochromatosis or iron overload, arthritis, diabetes, liver disease, and heart disease. We evaluated sensitivities and specificities of proband-reported family history, and concordance of HFE genotype C282Y/C282Y in probands and siblings who reported having hemochromatosis or iron overload. Results The sensitivities of proband-reported family history ranged from 81.4% for hemochromatosis or iron overload to 18.4% for liver disease; specificities for diabetes, liver disease, and heart disease were greater than 94%. Hemochromatosis or iron overload was associated with a positive family history across all racial/ethnic groups in the study (odds ratio, 14.53; 95% confidence intervals, 7.41–28.49; P < .0001) and among Caucasians (odds ratio, 16.98; 95% confidence intervals, 7.53–38.32; P < .0001). There was 100% concordance of HFE genotype C282Y/C282Y in 6 probands and 8 of their siblings who reported having hemochromatosis or iron overload. Conclusions Self-reported family history of hemochromatosis or iron overload can be used to identify individuals whose risk of hemochromatosis or iron overload and associated conditions is increased. These individuals could benefit from further evaluation with iron phenotyping and HFE mutation analysis. PMID:18585964

  1. Secrets of Lost Empires: Family Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, John D.; Gaffney, Dennis

    This family activity book features information on the background and filming of five stories. "Pharaoh's Obelisk" questions how ancient Egyptians transported and raised stone obelisks. "Roman Bath" studies how Romans built bathhouses and attempts to build a working Roman bath. "China Bridge" investigates the structure…

  2. Women criminality--the influence of socio-familial history and status.

    PubMed

    Luta, Veronica; Pasca, Viorel; Enache, Alexandra; Ciopec, Flavius; Ursachi, Georgeta; Radu, Daniel; Stratul, Stefan; Zarie, Gabriela; Mutiu, Florentina

    2009-04-01

    Our interdisciplinary study aims at the influence of social and familial history and status in a sample of Romanian female offenders. We collected data regarding the social and familial environment and status in the moment of committing a crime from 235 women incarcerated in four Romanian prisons. We applied a 67 item questionnaire conceived by the members of the research group. The items we compared refer to: the type of offence, the offender's marital status and the number of children in the moment of committing the crime, the situation in the family of origin and the offender's evaluation of the relationship with the parents and brothers, the monthly income, the type of relationship with the partner as described by the offender, history of substance abuse and violence in the family of origin and in the own family. We also analyzed the answers regarding the motivation for the criminal act. The paper shows the distribution of various types of criminal offences in correlation with the level of education, the relevance of a stable familial environment and monthly income. The history of criminality, substance abuse and interpersonal violence in the families of origin is also taken into account.

  3. Learning from e-Family History: A Model of Online Family Historian Research Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on doctoral research which investigated the online research behaviour of family historians, from the overall perspective of local studies collections and developing online services for family historians. Method: A hybrid (primarily ethnographic) study was employed using qualitative diaries and shadowing, to examine…

  4. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  5. Digital Family History Data Mining with Neural Networks: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Robert; Linnville, Steven; Thaler, Stephen; Moore, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Following the passage of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, electronic health records were widely adopted by eligible physicians and hospitals in the United States. Stage 2 meaningful use menu objectives include a digital family history but no stipulation as to how that information should be used. A variety of data mining techniques now exist for these data, which include artificial neural networks (ANNs) for supervised or unsupervised machine learning. In this pilot study, we applied an ANN-based simulation to a previously reported digital family history to mine the database for trends. A graphical user interface was created to display the input of multiple conditions in the parents and output as the likelihood of diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease in male and female offspring. The results of this pilot study show promise in using ANNs to data mine digital family histories for clinical and research purposes.

  6. Digital Family History Data Mining with Neural Networks: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoyt, Robert; Linnville, Steven; Thaler, Stephen; Moore, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Following the passage of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, electronic health records were widely adopted by eligible physicians and hospitals in the United States. Stage 2 meaningful use menu objectives include a digital family history but no stipulation as to how that information should be used. A variety of data mining techniques now exist for these data, which include artificial neural networks (ANNs) for supervised or unsupervised machine learning. In this pilot study, we applied an ANN-based simulation to a previously reported digital family history to mine the database for trends. A graphical user interface was created to display the input of multiple conditions in the parents and output as the likelihood of diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease in male and female offspring. The results of this pilot study show promise in using ANNs to data mine digital family histories for clinical and research purposes. PMID:26903781

  7. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADULT MORTALITY RISK AND FAMILY HISTORY OF LONGEVITY: THE MODERATING EFFECTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS

    PubMed Central

    TEMBY, OWEN F.; SMITH, KEN R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Studies consistently show that increasing levels of socioeconomic status (SES) and having a familial history of longevity reduce the risk of mortality. But do these two variables interact, such that individuals with lower levels of SES, for example, may experience an attenuated longevity penalty by virtue of having long-lived relatives? This article examines this interaction by analysing survival past age 40 based on data from the Utah Population Database on an extinct cohort of men born from the years 1840 to 1909. Cox proportional hazards regression and logistic regression are used to test for the main and interaction mortality effects of SES and familial excess longevity (FEL), a summary measure of an individual’s history of longevity among his or her relatives. This research finds that the mortality hazard rate for men in the top 15th percentile of occupational status decreases more as FEL increases than it does among men in the bottom 15th percentile. In addition, the mortality hazard rate among farmers decreases more as FEL increases than it does for non-farmers. With a strong family history of longevity as a proxy for a genetic predisposition, this research suggests that a gene–environment interaction occurs whereby the benefits of familial excess longevity are more available to those who have occupations with more autonomy and greater economic resources and/or opportunities for physical activity. PMID:24103415

  8. The association between adult mortality risk and family history of longevity: the moderating effects of socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Temby, Owen F; Smith, Ken R

    2014-11-01

    Studies consistently show that increasing levels of socioeconomic status (SES) and having a familial history of longevity reduce the risk of mortality. But do these two variables interact, such that individuals with lower levels of SES, for example, may experience an attenuated longevity penalty by virtue of having long-lived relatives? This article examines this interaction by analysing survival past age 40 based on data from the Utah Population Database on an extinct cohort of men born from the years 1840 to 1909. Cox proportional hazards regression and logistic regression are used to test for the main and interaction mortality effects of SES and familial excess longevity (FEL), a summary measure of an individual's history of longevity among his or her relatives. This research finds that the mortality hazard rate for men in the top 15th percentile of occupational status decreases more as FEL increases than it does among men in the bottom 15th percentile. In addition, the mortality hazard rate among farmers decreases more as FEL increases than it does for non-farmers. With a strong family history of longevity as a proxy for a genetic predisposition, this research suggests that a gene-environment interaction occurs whereby the benefits of familial excess longevity are more available to those who have occupations with more autonomy and greater economic resources and/or opportunities for physical activity.

  9. Renal outcomes in children with lupus and a family history of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Apenteng, T; Kaplan, B; Meyers, K

    2006-01-01

    Genetic factors play an important role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility and development of lupus nephritis (LN). The significance, however, of a positive family history of autoimmune disease on renal outcome in SLE patients is unknown. This retrospective study of 64 children with LN investigates whether children with LN and a family history of AID (autoimmune disease; 34 patients) had worse renal outcomes when compared with children who did not have a family history (26 patients) of AID. In four patients the family history was unknown. The primary endpoint was doubling of serum creatinine (sCr) and the secondary endpoint was requiring dialysis or transplant (ESRD). Demographic variables for family history + versus mean age in years (range) at onset of LN were 13.5 (7.4-15.9) versus 13.2 (6.4-19.7); female 26: 34 (76%) versus 24: 26 (92%), P = 0.097; race Black 23 (68%), Caucasian 7 (21%), Asian 1 (2%), Hispanic 3(9%) versus Black 14 (54%), Caucasian 6 (23%), Asian 2 (8%), Hispanic 4 (15%). Three patients died (1.6%); sCr doubled in 6/34 (17.6%) versus 2/26 (7.7%), P = 0.45, followed for 2.8 years (0.8-5.8) and 1.8 years (1.8-1.9), respectively, P = 0.24; sCr doubled plus ESRD in 10/34 (29%) versus 6/26 (23%), P = 0.77, followed for 2.7 years (0.8-5.8) and 2.0 years (0.7-4.1) respectively, P = 0.29. In the family history + group, more Black versus non-Black patients doubled their sCr or reached ESRD, 8/23 (35%) versus 2/11 (18%), P = 0.44. More males and Black patients with LN had a positive family history for AID and were more likely to double their sCr or reach ESRD. These results suggest that a family history of AID impacts on renal outcome in children with SLE.

  10. Survey of family history taking and genetic testing in pediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Saul, Robert A; Trotter, Tracy; Sease, Kerry; Tarini, Beth

    2017-04-01

    Family health history collection and genetic testing are core elements for the successful translation of genomics into primary care practice. Yet, little is known about how pediatric providers implement these elements in practice. We surveyed the membership of the American Academy of Pediatrics regarding family health history (FHH) collection and genetic testing in the primary care setting. Three hundred forty-nine (349) responses were analyzed with the initial response rate of 43.3%. Four principal findings were noted-(1) family health history is still recognized as a critical part of the medical evaluation; (2) perceived obstacles for FHH are time in obtaining the FHH and concerns about the family's knowledge of their FHH; (3) a 3-generation family history is out of the scope of routine care and alternate methods should be considered; (4) most primary care providers (PCPs) do not feel comfortable ordering, interpreting, and counseling regarding current genetic testing. Expanded genetic/genomic education at multiple levels (undergraduate medical education, graduate medical education, and maintenance of certification) is clearly indicated to allow PCPs to integrate these vital elements into a current evaluation (acute care or health maintenance) in the primary care setting.

  11. Is a positive family history predictive for recurrent acute otitis media in children? An evidence-based case report.

    PubMed

    Albersen, Monique; Bulatović, Maja; Lindner, Sanneke H; van Stiphout, Feikje; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; Schilder, Anne G M; Rovers, Maroeska M

    2010-01-01

    In this evidence-based case report, we studied the clinical question: Is a positive family history of acute otitis media (AOM) predictive for recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM) in children between zero and two years of age? The search yielded 3178 articles, of which only two were relevant and had a high validity regarding our clinical question. Neither of these two studies provided the final answer to our clinical question because they did not report stratified absolute risks for a positive family history. Fortunately, we were able to study the absolute risks in one of the two studies. The absolute risk of rAOM without distinguishing family history was 33 percent; the risk was 27 percent for children without a family history and 45 percent for children with a positive family history. Family history increases the absolute risk, but not in a way that it will help to predict rAOM accurately.

  12. Active conformation of an insect neuropeptide family.

    PubMed Central

    Nachman, R J; Roberts, V A; Dyson, H J; Holman, G M; Tainer, J A

    1991-01-01

    To understand the structural and chemical basis for insect neuropeptide activity, we have designed, synthesized, and determined the conformation of a biologically active cyclic analog of the pyrokinins, an insect neuropeptide family that mediates myotropic (visceral muscle contractile) activity. Members of this insect neuropeptide family share the common C-terminal pentapeptide sequence Phe-Xaa-Pro-Arg-Leu-NH2 (Xaa = Ser, Thr, or Val). Circular dichroic, nuclear magnetic resonance, and molecular dynamics analyses of the conformationally restricted cyclic pyrokinin analog cyclo(-Asn-Thr-Ser-Phe-Thr-Pro-Arg-Leu-) indicated the presence of a beta-turn in the active core region encompassing residues Thr-Pro-Arg-Leu. The rigid cyclic analog retains biological activity, suggesting that its C-terminal beta-turn is the active pyrokinin conformation recognized by the myotropic receptor. As individual pyrokinins and pyrokinin-like neuropeptides demonstrate both oviduct-contractile and pheromone-biosynthesis activities in various insects, the biologically active beta-turn structure reported here holds broad significance for many biological processes. Images PMID:2034692

  13. Risk of Second Cancer in Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors and Influence of Family History.

    PubMed

    Sud, Amit; Thomsen, Hauke; Sundquist, Kristina; Houlston, Richard S; Hemminki, Kari

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Although advances in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment have led to improved disease-free survival, this has been accompanied by an increased risk of second cancers. We sought to quantify the second cancer risks and to investigate the impact of family history. Patients and Methods Using the Swedish Family-Cancer Project Database, we identified 9,522 individuals with primary HL diagnosed between 1965 and 2012. We calculated standardized incidence ratios and cumulative incidence of second cancer in HL survivors and compared the standardized incidence ratios of lung, breast, colorectal, and all second cancers in HL survivors with and without a site-specific family history of cancer. Interactions between family history of cancer and HL treatment were evaluated under additive and multiplicative models. Results Overall, the risk of a second cancer in HL survivors was increased 2.39-fold (95% CI, 2.29 to 2.53). The 30-year cumulative incidence of breast cancer in women diagnosed with HL at younger than 35 years of age was 13.8%. We observed no significant difference in cancer risk over successive time periods. The risk of all second cancers was 1.3-fold higher for HL survivors with a first-degree relative with cancer ( P < .001), with 3.3-fold, 2.1-fold, and 1.8-fold differences shown for lung, colorectal, and breast cancers, respectively. Moreover, a greater than additive interaction between family history of lung cancer and HL treatment was shown ( P = .03). Conclusion HL survivorship is associated with a substantive risk of a second cancer. Notably, the risk is higher in individuals with a family history of cancer. This information should be used to inform risk-adapted therapy and to assist in screening to reduce long-term morbidity and mortality in patients with HL.

  14. Speech and Language Difficulties in Children with and without a Family History of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Julia M.; Myers, Joanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Comorbidity between SLI and dyslexia is well documented. Researchers have variously argued that dyslexia is a separate disorder from SLI, or that children with dyslexia show a subset of the difficulties shown in SLI. This study examines these hypotheses by assessing whether family history of dyslexia and speech and language difficulties are…

  15. Early Predictors of Dyslexia in Chinese Children: Familial History of Dyslexia, Language Delay, and Cognitive Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y. C.; Wong, Terry T. Y.; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills.…

  16. Factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of Stroke 1

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Maria Jose Melo Ramos; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Florêncio, Raquel Sampaio; Braga, Predro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of stroke. Method: an analytical transversal study, with 579 young adults from state schools, with collection of sociodemographic, clinical and risk factor-related variables, analyzed using logistic regression (backward elimination). Results: a statistical association was detected between age, civil status, and classification of arterial blood pressure and abdominal circumference with knowledge of family history of stroke. In the final logistic regression model, a statistical association was observed between knowledge regarding family history of stroke and the civil status of having a partner (ORa=1.61[1.07-2.42]; p=0.023), abdominal circumference (ORa=0.98[0.96-0.99]; p=0.012) and normal arterial blood pressure (ORa=2.56[1.19-5.52]; p=0.016). Conclusion: an association was observed between socioeconomic factors and risk factors for stroke and knowledge of family history of stroke, suggesting the need for health education or even educational programs on this topic for the clientele in question. PMID:27878217

  17. Acceptability and feasibility of a virtual counselor (VICKY) to collect family health histories

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Catharine; Bickmore, Timothy; Bowen, Deborah J.; Norkunas, Tricia; Campion, MaryAnn; Cabral, Howard; Winter, Michael; Paasche-Orlow, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To overcome literacy-related barriers in the collection of electronic family health histories, we developed VICKY, an animated “virtual counselor”. This study examines the acceptability and accuracy of using VICKY to collect family histories, among underserved patients, compared to My Family Health Portrait (MFHP). Methods Participants were recruited from a patient registry at a safety net hospital and randomized to use either VICKY or MFHP. Accuracy was determined by comparing tool-collected histories to those obtained by a genetic counselor. Results A total of 70 participants completed this study. Participants rated VICKY easy to use (91%) and easy to follow (92%), would recommend VICKY to others (83%) and were highly satisfied (77%). VICKY identified 86% of first degree relatives, and 42% of second degree relatives; combined accuracy was 55%. Compared to MFHP, VICKY identified a greater number of health conditions overall (49% VICKY vs 31% MFHP, IRR: 1.59, 95% CI 1.13, 2.25, p=.008); in particular, hypertension (47% vs 15%; IRR = 3.18; 95% CI: 1.66, 6.10; p=.001) and type 2 diabetes (54% vs 22%; IRR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.33, 4.60; p=.004). Conclusion These results demonstrate that technological support for documenting family history risks can be highly accepted, feasible, and effective. PMID:25590980

  18. Alcohol expectancies: effects of gender, age, and family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, L H; Davis, T M; Adesso, V J; Lukas, S E

    1997-01-01

    To explore the effects of gender, age, and positive (FH+) and negative (FH-) family history of alcoholism on alcohol-related expectancies, the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) was administered to 627 college students (female n = 430). In an attempt to control for consumption effects, only individuals who described themselves as heavy drinkers were included in the study. A 2 (Family History) x 2 (Gender) x 2 (Age Range) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted on the six scales of the AEQ. Results indicated that FH+ females under the age of 20 years reported stronger expectancies of social and physical pleasure than did FH- females. Results also suggested that females over the age of 20 reported significantly lower expectancies of global, positive effects compared to all other subjects, regardless of family history of alcoholism. Finally, both male and female subjects under the age of 20 reported greater expectancies of global, positive effects, sexual enhancement, feelings of increased power and aggression, and social assertion compared to individuals over the age of 20. These results indicate that alcohol-related expectancies vary as a function of age, gender, and family history of alcoholism.

  19. Association of Family History of Epilepsy with Earlier Age Onset of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    NAJAFI, Mohammad Reza; NAJAFI, Mohammad Amin; SAFAEI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is supposedly the most frequent subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of JME and comparison of patients’ demographics as well as timeline of the disease between positive family history epileptic patients (PFHE) and negative family history epileptic patients (NFHE) among sample of Iranian epileptic patients. Materials & Methods From Feb. 2006 to Oct. 2009, 1915 definite epileptic patients (873 females) referred to epilepsy clinics in Isfahan, central Iran, were surveyed and among them, 194 JME patients were diagnosed. JME was diagnosed by its specific clinical and EEG criteria. Patients were divided into two groups as PFHE and NFHE and data were compared between them. Results JME was responsible for 10% (194 patients) of all types of epilepsies. Of JME patients, 53% were female. In terms of family history of epilepsy, 40% were positive. No significant differences was found between PFHE and NFHE groups as for gender (P>0.05). Age of epilepsy onset was significantly earlier in PFHE patients (15 vs. 22 yr, P<0.001). Occurrence of JME before 18 yr old among PFHE patients was significantly higher (OR=2.356, P=0.007). Conclusion A family history of epilepsy might be associated with an earlier age of onset in patients with JME. PMID:27247579

  20. "Object Lesson": Using Family Heirlooms to Engage Students in Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Marice

    2012-01-01

    This first written assignment of the semester for the author's undergraduate introductory art history class--an essay where students describe and reflect upon the significance of a family heirloom--is instrumental in meeting class objectives. The author's objectives in this class are for students: (1) to broaden their conception of what art is…

  1. Sweet preferences and analgesia during childhood: effects of family history of alcoholism and depression

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.; Pepino, M. Yanina; Lehmann-Castor, Sara M.; Yourshaw, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine whether depression and family history of alcoholism are associated with heightened sweet preferences in children, before they have experienced alcohol or tobacco and at a time during the life-span when sweets are particularly salient. Design Between- and within-subject experimental study. Participants Children, 5–12 years old (n = 300), formed four groups based on family history of alcohol dependence up to second-degree relatives [positive (FHP) versus negative (FHN)] and depressive symptoms as determined by the Pictorial Depression Scale [depressed (PDEP) versus non-depressed (NDEP)]. Measurements Children were tested individually to measure sucrose preferences, sweet food liking and, for a subset of the children, the analgesic properties of sucrose versus water during the cold pressor test. Findings The co-occurrence of having a family history of alcoholism and self-reports of depressive symptomatology was associated significantly with a preference for a more concentrated sucrose solution, while depressive symptomatology alone was associated with greater liking for sweet-tasting foods and candies and increased pain sensitivity. Depression antagonized the analgesic properties of sucrose. Conclusions While children as a group innately like sweets and feel better after eating them, the present study reveals significant contributions of family history of alcoholism and depression to this effect. Whether the heightened sweet preference and the use of sweets to alleviate depression are markers for developing alcohol-related problems or responses that are protective are important areas for future research. PMID:20148789

  2. History from Children's Perspectives: Learning to Read and Write Historical Accounts Using Family Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Maria Auxiliadora; Garcia, Tania Maria F. Braga

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation which was part of a project called "Recreating Histories". It is concerned with the analysis of historical narratives created by the children who participated in the project and an analysis of historical sources kept by families who live in Campina Grande do Sul (Brazil). It draws on…

  3. Family Foundations: A New Program for Pregnant and Parenting Women Offenders with Substance Abuse Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiewel, Brenda; Mosley, Toni

    2006-01-01

    A new program in California partners the California Department of Corrections with a non-profit drug treatment agency on behalf of pregnant or parenting women who are drug offenders with substance abuse histories. The women are sentenced to the family foundations facility for one year and receive a range of special services to prepare for…

  4. Real-Life Spatial Skills, Handedness, and Family History of Handedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecuyer-Dab, I.; Tremblay, T.; Joanette, Y.; Passini, R.

    2005-01-01

    According to Annett (1985), pronounced left hemisphere lateralization for language abilities in women, as in female absolute right-handers, limits their right hemisphere capacity and spatial abilities. This study examines the degree of handedness and the family history of non-right-handedness with respect to real-life spatial abilities in women.…

  5. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 “When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable” (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 “A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable” (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07–1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27–1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05–1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved. PMID:27338441

  6. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-06-22

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 "When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable" (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 "A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable" (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07-1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27-1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05-1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved.

  7. Personal Factors Associated with Reported Benefits of Huntington Disease Family History or Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Janet K.; Erwin, Cheryl; Juhl, Andrew; Mills, James; Brossman, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Aims: A family history of Huntington disease (HD) or receiving results of HD predictive genetic testing can influence individual well-being, family relationships, and social interactions in positive and negative ways. The aim of this study was to examine benefits reported by people with an HD family history or those who have undergone predictive HD testing, as well as the personal variables associated with perceived benefits. Methods: Seventy-four of 433 people completing the International Response of a Sample Population to HD risk (I-RESPOND-HD) survey reported benefits. Knowledge and understanding was perceived as the most common benefit from participants in both groups. The next most frequent perceived benefits from a family history were connecting with others and achieving life meaning and insights. The next most common perceived benefits from genetic testing were life planning and social support. The least common perceived benefit for both groups was renewed hope and optimism. Older age and spirituality were significantly associated with benefits in both groups. Conclusions: Perceptions of benefit may not be as likely until later years in people with prodromal HD. A developed sense of spirituality is identified as a personal resource associated with the perception of benefit from genetic testing for HD. Associations among spirituality, perceived benefits, and other indicators of personal and family well-being may be useful in genetic counseling and health care of people with prodromal HD. PMID:20722493

  8. Differentiation of alcoholics. Childhood history of minimal brain dysfunction, family history, and drinking pattern.

    PubMed

    Tarter, R E; McBride, H; Buonpane, N; Schneider, D U

    1977-07-01

    Alcoholics were differentiated into two subgroups on the basis of drinking patterns and subjective response to alcohol. Severe drinkers (primary alcoholics) retrospectively reported more symptoms of childhood minimal brain dysfunction than less severe drinkers (secondary alcoholics), psychiatric patients, and normals. The alcoholics as a group reported a greater incidence of familial alcohol abuse than the psychiatric subjects, but a difference on this factor was not observed between the primary and secondary subgroups. In terms of clinical status, the primary alcoholics presented Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory profile more indicative of normality than the other groups, but scored significantly higher on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale. These findings are discussed in light of further delineating a specific subtype of alcoholism that may have a genetic-constitutional relationship with other pathological disorders.

  9. CDC Grand Rounds: Family History and Genomics as Tools for Cancer Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Juan L; Thomas, Cheryll C; Massetti, Greta M; Duquette, Debra; Avner, Lindsay; Iskander, John; Khoury, Muin J; Richardson, Lisa C

    2016-11-25

    Although many efforts in cancer prevention and control have routinely focused on behavioral risk factors, such as tobacco use, or on the early detection of cancer, such as colorectal cancer screening, advances in genetic testing have created new opportunities for cancer prevention through evaluation of family history and identification of cancer-causing inherited mutations. Through the collection and evaluation of a family cancer history by a trained health care provider, patients and families at increased risk for a hereditary cancer syndrome can be identified, referred for genetic counseling and testing, and make informed decisions about options for cancer risk reduction (1). Although hereditary cancers make up a small proportion of all cancers, the number of affected persons can be large, and the level of risk among affected persons is high. Two hereditary cancer syndromes for which public health professionals have worked to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality are hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) and Lynch syndrome.

  10. The LEGACY Girls Study: Growth and development in the context of breast cancer family history

    PubMed Central

    John, Esther M.; Terry, Mary Beth; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Bradbury, Angela R.; Knight, Julia A.; Chung, Wendy K.; Frost, Caren J.; Lilge, Lothar; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa A.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Andrulis, Irene L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the timing of pubertal milestones has been associated with breast cancer risk, few studies of girls’ development include girls at increased breast cancer risk due to their family history. Methods The LEGACY (Lessons in Epidemiology and Genetics of Adult Cancer from Youth) Girls Study was initiated in 2011 in the USA and Canada to assess the relation between early-life exposures and intermediate markers of breast cancer risk (e.g., pubertal development, breast tissue characteristics) and to investigate psychosocial well-being and health behaviors in the context of family history. We describe the methods used to establish and follow a cohort of 1,040 girls ages 6–13 years at baseline, half with a breast cancer family history, and the collection of questionnaire data (family history, early-life exposures, growth and development, psychosocial and behavioral), anthropometry, biospecimens, and breast tissue characteristics using optical spectroscopy. Results During this initial 5-year phase of the study, follow-up visits are conducted every six months for repeated data and biospecimen collection. Participation in baseline components was high (98% for urine, 97.5% for blood or saliva, and 98% for anthropometry). At enrollment, 77% of girls were pre-menarcheal and 49% were at breast Tanner stage T1. Conclusions This study design allows thorough examination of events affecting girls’ growth and development and how they differ across the spectrum of breast cancer risk. A better understanding of early-life breast cancer risk factors will be essential to enhance prevention across the lifespan for those with and without a family history of the disease. PMID:26829160

  11. "Celebrate Women's History": Coloring Poster Activity Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthsdotter, Mary

    This booklet contains biographical information about Bessie Coleman, Nellie Bly, Gertrude Ederle, Sojourner Truth, Chien-Shiung Wu, Yoshiko Uchida, Madam C. J. Walker, Maria Martinez, Jovita Idar, Margaret Bourke-White, Sally Ride, and Sybil Ludington. These women are noted for their important contributions to United States history. It is hoped…

  12. Perception of risk and surveillance practices of women with a family history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Martin, Wanda; Degner, Lesley

    2006-01-01

    A retrospective study was designed to examine the relationship between perception of risk and surveillance activities (mammography and clinical breast examination) in women with a family history of breast cancer. The Revised Susceptibility, Benefits, and Barriers Scale for Mammography Screening, the Centre for Epidemiology Studies--Depression Scale (CES-D), and a demographic form were administered to a convenience sample of 56 women. There were no significant relationships between perceived risk and screening activities. No significant correlations were found between age or depressive symptoms with either perceived risk or screening behaviors. Women with postsecondary qualifications were more likely to obtain regular mammograms. A substantial portion (34.5%) of participants reported depressive symptoms at a level associated with clinically significant levels of depression (>or=16 on the CES-D). Women over age 50 reported significantly more depressive symptoms than younger women. Perceived risk was not associated with screening; however, depression should be considered closely when dealing with women with higher-than-average risk of breast cancer.

  13. Evolutionary History of Cathepsin L (L-like) Family Genes in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yao-Yang; Li, Qing-Yun; Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin L family, an important cysteine protease found in lysosomes, is categorized into cathepsins B, F, H, K, L, S, and W in vertebrates. This categorization is based on their sequence alignment and traditional functional classification, but the evolutionary relationship of family members is unclear. This study determined the evolutionary relationship of cathepsin L family genes in vertebrates through phylogenetic construction. Results showed that cathepsins F, H, S and K, and L and V were chronologically diverged. Tandem-repeat duplication was found to occur in the evolutionary history of cathepsin L family. Cathepsin L in zebrafish, cathepsins S and K in xenopus, and cathepsin L in mice and rats underwent evident tandem-repeat events. Positive selection was detected in cathepsin L-like members in mice and rats, and amino acid sites under positive selection pressure were calculated. Most of these sites appeared at the connection of secondary structures, suggesting that the sites may slightly change spatial structure. Severe positive selection was also observed in cathepsin V (L2) of primates, indicating that this enzyme had some special functions. Our work provided a brief evolutionary history of cathepsin L family and differentiated cathepsins S and K from cathepsin L based on vertebrate appearance. Positive selection was the specific cause of differentiation of cathepsin L family genes, confirming that gene function variation after expansion events was related to interactions with the environment and adaptability. PMID:26221069

  14. Evolutionary History of Cathepsin L (L-like) Family Genes in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yao-Yang; Li, Qing-Yun; Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin L family, an important cysteine protease found in lysosomes, is categorized into cathepsins B, F, H, K, L, S, and W in vertebrates. This categorization is based on their sequence alignment and traditional functional classification, but the evolutionary relationship of family members is unclear. This study determined the evolutionary relationship of cathepsin L family genes in vertebrates through phylogenetic construction. Results showed that cathepsins F, H, S and K, and L and V were chronologically diverged. Tandem-repeat duplication was found to occur in the evolutionary history of cathepsin L family. Cathepsin L in zebrafish, cathepsins S and K in xenopus, and cathepsin L in mice and rats underwent evident tandem-repeat events. Positive selection was detected in cathepsin L-like members in mice and rats, and amino acid sites under positive selection pressure were calculated. Most of these sites appeared at the connection of secondary structures, suggesting that the sites may slightly change spatial structure. Severe positive selection was also observed in cathepsin V (L2) of primates, indicating that this enzyme had some special functions. Our work provided a brief evolutionary history of cathepsin L family and differentiated cathepsins S and K from cathepsin L based on vertebrate appearance. Positive selection was the specific cause of differentiation of cathepsin L family genes, confirming that gene function variation after expansion events was related to interactions with the environment and adaptability.

  15. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... Compartir This page no longer exists in this location. If there is a problem with the automatic ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  16. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Research The Southern NH & Merrimack Valley Awareness Train Chair of Research TeamCindy Alcatraz Chair of Research ... of Research The Southern NH & Merrimack Valley Awareness Train Chair of Research TeamCindy Alcatraz Chair of Research ...

  17. Expanded IT-15 genes in patients without known family history of Huntington Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, J.A.; Klock, R.J.; Kennedu, D.

    1994-09-01

    The NYGH laboratory is funded by the Ontario Ministry of Health to provide DNA-based diagnostic and predictive testing for HD through a network of provincial Genetics centres. To date, samples from 146 apparently independent kindreds were received to test and/or bank for HD. Not all have been assayed for size of the IT-15 gene, but in 19 cases an expansion (> 39 CAG repeats) was found despite lack of known family history. These cases were classified according to the likelihood that they are true {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} full expansions in IT-15. Six were unlikely, due to a lack of information (adoption, history uncertain, or pedigree not provided). Ten cases were considered possible or probable based on a good negative family history with parents who were asymptomatic beyond age 50 but family samples unavailable. For one of those, parents are deceased, but inference of parental alleles from the proband`s sibship suggests a pre-mutation allele of approximately 30 repeats. In 3 cases, a new expansion was considered proven. One was first ascertained by another laboratory and reported elsewhere. For another, the proband`s father has one allele of about 35 repeats. In a third remarkable case, the proband has an expanded allele near 50 repeats and a normal sized allele that matches one maternal allele. The father`s larger allele has 30+/-1 repeats. Paternity was established by concordance of 10 independent polymorphic alleles. Additional family samples may help to assess the allelic stability. This prevalence of new HD cases was unanticipated before discovery of the predisposing gene, but has emerged over the first year of direct diagnostic testing and may foreshadow greater demand for testing as the extended families become aware of their risks. These cases provoke new questions about interpretation of DNA data for patients, raise ethical concerns about informing extended families, and special counselling issues for families to whom HD is a new entity.

  18. The modern Chinese family in light of economic and legal history.

    PubMed

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s.

  19. Using Family Health History for Chronic Disease Prevention in the Age of Genomics: Translation to Health Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Carl; Novilla, Lelinneth; Barnes, Michael; De La Cruz, Natalie; Meacham, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Advances in the field of human genomics have important implications for the prevention of chronic disease. In response to these advancements, public health professionals--including health educators--must become competent in the principles underlying the interface between genomics and the use of family health history. Family health history captures…

  20. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  1. Impact of family hypertension history on exercise-induced cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Baggish, Aaron L; Weiner, Rory B; Yared, Kibar; Wang, Francis; Kupperman, Eli; Hutter, Adolph M; Picard, Michael H; Wood, Malissa J

    2009-07-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is a well-established, but highly variable, finding among exercise-trained persons. The causes for the variability in LV remodeling in response to exercise training remain incompletely understood. The present study sought to determine whether a family history of hypertension is a determinant of the cardiac response to exercise training. The cardiac parameters in 60 collegiate rowers (30 men/30 women; age 19.8 +/- 1.1 years) with (family history positive [FH+], n = 22) and without (family history negative [FH-], n = 38) a FH of hypertension were studied with echocardiography before and after 90 days of rowing training. The LV mass increased significantly in both groups. However, the LV mass increased significantly more in FH- persons (Delta 17 +/- 5 g/m(2)) than in FH+ persons (Delta 9 +/- 6 g/m(2), p <0.001) with distinctly differently patterns of LV hypertrophy between the 2 groups. FH- athletes experienced eccentric LV hypertrophy (relative wall thickness index 0.39 +/- 0.4) characterized by LV dilation. In contrast, FH+ athletes developed concentric LV hypertrophy (relative wall thickness index 0.44 +/- 0.3; p <0.001) characterized by LV wall thickening. Furthermore, the eccentric LV remodeling in FH- athletes was associated with a more robust enhancement of LV diastolic function than the concentric LV remodeling that occurred in FH+ athletes. In conclusion, these findings suggest that patterns of exercise-induced LV remodeling are strongly associated with FH history status.

  2. Diet, Lifestyles, Family History, and Prostate Cancer Incidence in an East Algerian Patient Group

    PubMed Central

    Lassed, Somia; Deus, Cláudia M.; Lourenço, Nuno; Dahdouh, Abderrezak

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the fourth most common cancer in men and the sixth leading cause of death in Algeria. To examine the relationship between lifestyle factors, including diet, and family history and PC risk, a case-control study was performed in an eastern Algerian population, comprising 90 patients with histologically confirmed PC and 190 controls. Data collection was carried out through a structured questionnaire and statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the different variables. The data showed that consumption of lamb and beef meat and high intake of animal fat and dairy products increased PC risk. Seven to thirteen vegetables servings per week and fourteen or more servings decreased PC risk by 62% and 96%, respectively. Seven to fourteen fruit servings per week decrease PC risk by 98%. Green tea consumption reduced the risk of PC but the results were statistically borderline. Increased risk was observed for individuals with family history of PC in first and in second degree. A positive strong association was also found for alcohol and smoking intake and a dose-response relationship existed for quantity and history of smoking. This study suggests that dietary habits, lifestyle factors, and family history have influence on the development of PC in Algerian population. PMID:27975054

  3. Recurrence of Preterm Delivery in Women with a Family History of Preterm Delivery.

    PubMed

    Sherf, Yehonatan; Sheiner, Eyal; Vardi, Ilana Shoham; Sergienko, Ruslan; Klein, Jamie; Bilenko, Natalya

    2017-03-01

    Objective This study aims to evaluate the role of a family history of preterm delivery on the risk of preterm delivery in the next generation. Study Design A retrospective population-based study was conducted. Perinatal information was gathered from 2,303 familial triads, composed of mothers (F1), daughters (F2), and children (F3). All births occurred in the same regional medical center between the years 1991 and 2013. Statistical analysis using logistic regression was performed to define the risk of F2 delivering a preterm baby (F3) if she was born preterm herself, and then to define the risk of F2 delivering preterm if her mother (F1) gave birth preterm during any of her birthing events. Results The risk for preterm delivery of the F2 parturient was 34% greater if their mother (F1) at any of her births had delivered preterm, controlling for parity, maternal age at delivery, and preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio: 1.34, 95% confidence interval: -1.01 to 1.77; p = 0.042). Conclusion The family history of preterm delivery is an independent risk factor for preterm delivery. The family history includes the mother as well as one of the mother's sisters (F2 generation) being born preterm.

  4. Exploring eating and activity behaviors with parent-child dyads using event history calendars.

    PubMed

    Danford, Cynthia A; Martyn, Kristy K

    2013-08-01

    Despite advances in science, the prevalence of childhood obesity persists and outcomes remain inconsistent. An event history calendar (EHC) is a tool to facilitate understanding of family life dynamics influencing eating and activity choices. This tool uses reflection to assess temporally linked behavior in the context of life events so that choices related to eating and activity are more explicit. Fourteen parent-child (6-14 years) dyads completed an EHC and interview 2 months following a healthy eating/activity intervention. Phenomenological analysis revealed themes including "awareness" of activity/eating behaviors, "healthy lessons," "family time," and "barriers" to change. The EHC facilitated participant communication and understanding by making connections between behaviors, habits, and events in family context, so that eating and activity behaviors could be realistically reviewed. This tool has potential to guide development of individualized interventions through barrier identification and goal establishment in research and clinical settings to help counteract childhood obesity over time.

  5. Perceptions of family history and genetic testing and feasibility of pedigree development among African Americans with hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pettey, Christina M; McSweeney, Jean C; Stewart, Katharine E; Price, Elvin T; Cleves, Mario A; Heo, Seongkum; Souder, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Background Pedigree development, family history, and genetic testing are thought to be useful in improving outcomes of chronic illnesses such as hypertension (HTN). However, the clinical utility of pedigree development is still unknown. Further, little is known about African Americans’ (AAs’) perceptions of family history and genetic testing. Aims This study examined the feasibility of developing pedigrees for AAs with HTN and explored perceptions of family history and genetic research among AAs with HTN. Methods The US Surgeon General’s My Family Health Portrait was administered, and 30–60 minute in-person individual interviews were conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze pedigree data. Interview transcripts were analyzed with content analysis and constant comparison. Results Twenty-nine AAs with HTN were recruited from one free clinic (15 women, 14 men; mean age 49 years, SD 9.6). Twenty-six (90%) reported their family history in sufficient detail to develop a pedigree. Perceptions of family history included knowledge of HTN in the family, culturally influenced family teaching about HTN, and response to family history of HTN. Most participants agreed to future genetic testing and DNA collection because they wanted to help others; some said they needed more information and others expressed a concern for privacy. Conclusion The majority of AAs in this sample possessed extensive knowledge of HTN within their family and were able to develop a three generation pedigree with assistance. The majority were willing to participate in future genetic research. PMID:25322748

  6. Family history of hypertension and arterial elasticity characteristics in healthy young people.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Chen, Yuanyuan; Sun, Ningling; Liu, Xirong

    2008-05-01

    Family history of hypertension is a primary predictor of high blood pressure (BP). This study attempted to determine whether there is a gradual increase in BP and an early change in arterial elasticity characteristics between young healthy individuals with or without a family history of hypertension and whether or not this increase is apparent in males as well as in females. A total of 270 normotensive healthy individuals (112 men and 158 women, aged 16 to 30 years) with or without a family history of hypertension, participated in conventional BP measurement and completed questionnaires covering basic information and a detailed family history of cardiovascular disease. Large arterial (capacitive) compliance (C1) and small arterial (oscillatory or reflective) compliance (C2) were derived from HDI/PulseWave CR-2000 (Hypertension Diagnostics, Minneapolis, USA). Based on family history information about parents and grandparents, three groups were formed: subjects with at least one hypertensive parent (group A), subjects with only hypertensive grandparents (group B), and subjects with normotensive parents and grandparents (group C). Men in group A had lower C1 and C2 along with higher systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate than men in group C. Those in group B had intermediate C1, C2 and BP levels. C1 had a linear relationship with SBP, DBP, and heart rate. In the logistic regression model of family history of hypertension, C2 was lower in young normotensive males with parental hypertension (B = -0.315, exp B = 0.73, p = 0.03), independently of SBP, DBP, and heart rate. Among females, subjects with parental hypertension had higher systolic, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure (p < 0.05), and there were no significant differences in C1 and C2 between those with and those without parental hypertension. In conclusion, compared with normotensive offspring of normotensive parents, normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents had increased BP and

  7. Black History and Culture. Ideas and Activities for Studying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Roland; And Others

    This booklet contains information, ideas, and activities to help schools celebrate Black History Week. It is devoted to black achievements in the areas of music, politics, and business with the intention of developing respect for, awareness of, and a sense of the relationship between past and present events in the history of black Americans. There…

  8. Genome-wide association study reveals greater polygenic loading for schizophrenia in cases with a family history of illness.

    PubMed

    Bigdeli, Tim B; Ripke, Stephan; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Lee, Sang Hong; Wray, Naomi R; Gejman, Pablo V; Rietschel, Marcella; Cichon, Sven; St Clair, David; Corvin, Aiden; Kirov, George; McQuillin, Andrew; Gurling, Hugh; Rujescu, Dan; Andreassen, Ole A; Werge, Thomas; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Malhotra, Anil K; O'Donovan, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Fanous, Ayman H

    2016-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have yielded more than 100 common susceptibility variants, and strongly support a substantial polygenic contribution of a large number of small allelic effects. It has been hypothesized that familial schizophrenia is largely a consequence of inherited rather than environmental factors. We investigated the extent to which familiality of schizophrenia is associated with enrichment for common risk variants detectable in a large GWAS. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for cases reporting a family history of psychotic illness (N = 978), cases reporting no such family history (N = 4,503), and unscreened controls (N = 8,285) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC1) study of schizophrenia. We used a multinomial logistic regression approach with model-fitting to detect allelic effects specific to either family history subgroup. We also considered a polygenic model, in which we tested whether family history positive subjects carried more schizophrenia risk alleles than family history negative subjects, on average. Several individual SNPs attained suggestive but not genome-wide significant association with either family history subgroup. Comparison of genome-wide polygenic risk scores based on GWAS summary statistics indicated a significant enrichment for SNP effects among family history positive compared to family history negative cases (Nagelkerke's R(2 ) = 0.0021; P = 0.00331; P-value threshold <0.4). Estimates of variability in disease liability attributable to the aggregate effect of genome-wide SNPs were significantly greater for family history positive compared to family history negative cases (0.32 and 0.22, respectively; P = 0.031). We found suggestive evidence of allelic effects detectable in large GWAS of schizophrenia that might be specific to particular family history subgroups. However, consideration of a polygenic risk score indicated a significant

  9. Dissimilar evolutionary histories of two resistance gene families in the genus Solanum.

    PubMed

    Segura, Diana María; Masuelli, Ricardo Williams; Sanchez-Puerta, M Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Genomic analyses have shown that most genes in eukaryotic lineages belong to families. Gene families vary in terms of number of members, nucleotide similarity, gene integrity, expression, and function. Often, the members of gene families are arranged in clusters, which contribute to maintaining similarity among gene copies and also to generate duplicates through replication errors. Gene families offer us an opportunity to examine the forces involved in the evolution of the genomes and to study recombination events and genomic rearrangements. In this work, we focused on the evolution of two plant resistance gene families, Sw5 and Mi-1, and analyzed the completely sequenced nuclear genomes of potato and tomato. We first noticed that the potato genome carries larger resistance gene families than tomato, but all gene copies are pseudogenes. Second, phylogenetic analyses indicated that Sw5 and Mi-1 gene families had dissimilar evolutionary histories. In contrast to Sw5, Mi-1 homologues suffered repeated gene conversion events among the gene copies, particularly in the tomato genome.

  10. New technologies applied to family history: a particular case of southern Europe in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    García, Manuel Pérez

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how the support of new technologies has helped historians to develop their research over the last few decades. The author, therefore, summarizes the application of both database and genealogical programs for the southern Europe family studies as a methodological tool. First, the author will establish the importance of the creation of databases using the File Maker program, after which they will explain the value of using genealogical programs such as Genopro and Heredis. The main aim of this article is to give detail about the use of these new technologies as applied to a particular study of southern Europe, specifically the Crown of Castile, during the late modern period. The use of these computer programs has helped to develop the field of social sciences and family history, in particular, social history, during the last decade.

  11. Differences in DNA methylation by extent of breast cancer family history in unaffected women.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Wu, Hui-Chen; Liao, Yuyan; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2014-02-01

    Breast cancer clusters within families but genetic factors identified to date explain only a portion of this clustering. Lower global DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC) has been associated with increased breast cancer risk. We examined whether WBC DNA methylation varies by extent of breast cancer family history in unaffected women from high-risk breast cancer families. We evaluated DNA methylation levels in LINE-1, Alu and Sat2 in 333 cancer-free female family members of the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry, the minority of which were known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We used generalized estimated equation models to test for differences in DNA methylation levels by extent of their breast cancer family history after adjusting for age. All unaffected women had at least one sister affected with breast cancer. LINE-1 and Sat2 DNA methylation levels were lower in individuals with 3 or more (3+) first-degree relatives with breast cancer relative to women with only one first-degree relative. For LINE-1, Alu, and Sat2, having 3+ affected first-degree relatives was associated with a decrease of 23.4% (95%CI = -46.8%, 0.1%), 17.9% (95%CI = -39.5%, 3.7%) and 11.4% (95% CI = -20.3%, -2.5%), respectively, relative to individuals with only one affected first-degree relative, but the results were only statistically significant for Sat2. Individuals having an affected mother had 17.9% lower LINE-1 DNA methylation levels (95% CI = -28.8%, -7.1%) when compared with those not having an affected mother. No associations were observed for Alu or Sat2 by maternal breast cancer status. If replicated, these results indicate that lower global WBC DNA methylation levels in families with extensive cancer histories may be one explanation for the clustering of cancers in these families. Family clustering of disease may reflect epigenetic as well as genetic and shared environmental factors.

  12. Differences in DNA methylation by extent of breast cancer family history in unaffected women

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Wu, Hui-Chen; Liao, Yuyan; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer clusters within families but genetic factors identified to date explain only a portion of this clustering. Lower global DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC) has been associated with increased breast cancer risk. We examined whether WBC DNA methylation varies by extent of breast cancer family history in unaffected women from high-risk breast cancer families. We evaluated DNA methylation levels in LINE-1, Alu and Sat2 in 333 cancer-free female family members of the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry, the minority of which were known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We used generalized estimated equation models to test for differences in DNA methylation levels by extent of their breast cancer family history after adjusting for age. All unaffected women had at least one sister affected with breast cancer. LINE-1 and Sat2 DNA methylation levels were lower in individuals with 3 or more (3+) first-degree relatives with breast cancer relative to women with only one first-degree relative. For LINE-1, Alu, and Sat2, having 3+ affected first-degree relatives was associated with a decrease of 23.4% (95%CI = −46.8%, 0.1%), 17.9% (95%CI = −39.5%, 3.7%) and 11.4% (95% CI = −20.3%, −2.5%), respectively, relative to individuals with only one affected first-degree relative, but the results were only statistically significant for Sat2. Individuals having an affected mother had 17.9% lower LINE-1 DNA methylation levels (95% CI = −28.8%, −7.1%) when compared with those not having an affected mother. No associations were observed for Alu or Sat2 by maternal breast cancer status. If replicated, these results indicate that lower global WBC DNA methylation levels in families with extensive cancer histories may be one explanation for the clustering of cancers in these families. Family clustering of disease may reflect epigenetic as well as genetic and shared environmental factors. PMID:24172832

  13. Pulkovo Observatory: An essay on its history and scientific activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dadaev, A. N.

    1978-01-01

    A history of the observatory and of the development of astronomy in Russia during the past 150 years is presented. Scientific activity was traced from the earliest objectives of precise stellar coordinates to the problems of radio variabilities of quasars.

  14. Acculturation, Behavioral Factors, and Family History of Breast Cancer among Mexican and Mexican-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Nodora, Jesse N.; Cooper, Renee; Talavera, Gregory A.; Gallo, Linda; Montenegro, María Mercedes Meza; Komenaka, Ian; Natarajan, Loki; Millán, Luis Enrique Gutierrez; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Bondy, Melissa; Brewster, Abenaa; Thompson, Patricia; Martinez, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background Incidence rates for breast cancer are higher among Mexican-American (MA) women in the United States than women living in Mexico. Studies have shown higher prevalence of breast cancer risk factors in more acculturated than less acculturated Hispanic/Latinas in the United States. We compared the prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent. Methods Data were collected from 1,201 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients living in Mexico (n = 581) and MAs in the United States (n = 620). MA participants were categorized into three acculturation groups (Spanish dominant, bilingual, and English dominant); women living in Mexico were used as the referent group. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer were assessed according to acculturation level, adjusting for age at diagnosis and education. Results In the adjusted models, bilingual and English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or greater, consume more than one alcoholic beverage a week, and report having a family history of breast cancer than women living in Mexico. All three U.S. acculturation groups were significantly more likely to have lower total energy expenditure (≤533 kcal/d) than women in Mexico. English-dominant women were significantly less likely to ever smoke cigarettes than the Mexican group. Conclusions Our findings add to the limited scientific literature on the relationships among acculturation, health behavior, and family history of breast cancer in Mexican and MA women. PMID:26189937

  15. Lifestyle, family history, and risk of idiopathic Parkinson disease: a large Danish case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kenborg, Line; Lassen, Christina F; Ritz, Beate; Andersen, Klaus K; Christensen, Jane; Schernhammer, Eva S; Hansen, Johnni; Wermuth, Lene; Rod, Naja H; Olsen, Jørgen H

    2015-05-15

    The relationship between Parkinson disease (PD) and smoking has been examined in several studies, but little is known about smoking in conjunction with other behaviors and a family history of PD. Using unconditional logistic regression analysis, we studied individual and joint associations of these factors with idiopathic PD among 1,808 Danish patients who were diagnosed in 1996-2009 and matched to 1,876 randomly selected population controls. Although there was a downward trend in duration of smoking, this was not observed for daily tobacco consumption. A moderate intake of caffeine (3.1-5 cups/day) was associated with a lower odds ratio for PD (0.45, 95% confidence interval: 0.34, 0.62), as was a moderate intake of alcohol (3.1-7 units/week) (odds ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.58, 0.84); a higher daily intake did not reduce the odds further. When these behaviors were studied in combination with smoking, the odds ratios were lower than those for each one alone. Compared with never smokers with no family history of PD, never smokers who did have a family history had an odds ratio of 2.81 (95% confidence interval: 1.91, 4.13); for smokers with a family history, the odds ratio was 1.60 (95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.23). In conclusion, duration of smoking seems to be more important than intensity in the relationship between smoking and idiopathic PD. The finding of lower risk estimates for smoking in combination with caffeine or alcohol requires further confirmation.

  16. Family history of gynaecological cancers: relationships to the incidence of breast cancer prior to age 55.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W D; Schildkraut, J M

    1991-09-01

    As part of a multi-centre epidemiological study of cancer in women between the ages of 20 and 54, data were collected concerning family history of gynaecological cancers in the female relatives of 4730 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and the relatives of 4688 women from the general population. Women who were diagnosed with breast cancer prior to age 45 were more likely than controls to have a mother or sister with ovarian cancer (odds ratio (OR): 1.50), endometrial cancer (1.29), and cervical cancer (1.53), although none of these elevations achieved statistical significance. The corresponding odds ratios for women diagnosed with breast cancer between the ages of 45 and 54 were 1.88, 0.84 and 0.93. The association with ovarian cancer was statistically significant in this group (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-3.19). In this latter group, having a first degree relative with ovarian cancer was associated approximately as strongly with breast cancer as was having a first degree relative with breast cancer. The results suggest that there may be a shared genetic basis for some cancers of the breast and ovary. From a clinical perspective, the results indicate that in setting appropriate levels of screening for breast cancer and in establishing an appropriate age at which to begin such screening for a particular woman, her family history of ovarian cancer should be considered in addition to her family history of breast cancer.

  17. Assessment of the role of general, biochemical and family history characteristics in kidney stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Jabbar, Faiza; Asif, Muhammad; Dutani, Hajirah; Hussain, Abrar; Malik, Arif; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Rasool, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Aim The main objective of the study was to determine the urinary risk factors involved in kidney stone formation. Method In this study a total number of 101 patients (64 males and 37 females) between the age group 2 and 70 years were selected. Personal characteristics like age, family history, clinical sign and symptoms, education, monthly income, living style, smoking or tobacco chewing habit, dietary intake and daily amount of drinking water were recorded. Results The study showed that the risk of kidney stone formation was high in the median age group (16–25 years) both in male and female population. The most important factors associated with this were lack of drinking clean water, over weight and obesity as well as family history (37.5% and 27.02% in men and women, respectively). Conclusion Our study has confirmed that lack of drinking sufficient amount of water, increasing weight and obesity and family history are some major factors contributing to the increased risk of kidney stone formation. Therefore it is very important to live a healthy life, drink clean water and control weight to prevent such diseases. PMID:25561886

  18. Family History and Breast Cancer Hormone Receptor Status in a Spanish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Uribe, Elisabet; Rodriguez, Beatriz Fernandez; Muñoz, Catuxa Celeiro; Redondo, Carmen M.; Fernandez, Maite Peña; Dominguez, Alejandro Novo; Pereira, Carina Doris; Martínez, María Elena; García-Caballero, Tomás; Rodriguez, Máximo Fraga; Antúnez, José; Carracedo, Angel; Forteza-Vila, Jerónimo; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease that impacts racial/ethnic groups differently. Differences in genetic composition, lifestyles, reproductive factors, or environmental exposures may contribute to the differential presentation of breast cancer among Hispanic women. Materials and Methods A population-based study was conducted in the city of Santiago de Compostela, Spain. A total of 645 women diagnosed with operable invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2005 participated in the study. Data on demographics, breast cancer risk factors, and clinico-pathological characteristics of the tumors were collected. Hormone receptor negative tumors were compared with hormone receptor postive tumors on their clinico-pathological characteristics as well as risk factor profiles. Results Among the 645 breast cancer patients, 78% were estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) or progesterone receptor-positive (PR+), and 22% were ER−&PR−. Women with a family history of breast cancer were more likely to have ER−&PR− tumors than women without a family history (Odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.91–2.26). This association was limited to cancers diagnosed before age 50 (Odds ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.34–5.81). Conclusions An increased proportion of ER−&PR− breast cancer was observed among younger Spanish women with a family history of the disease. PMID:22238615

  19. The SU(11) family unified model and the thermal history of the very early universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jizong, Lu; Li, Xinzhou; Zhang, Guangyen

    1991-12-01

    Ellis and Steigman have shown that in the SU(5) grand unified theory (GUT) the thermal history of the very early universe is trivial, i.e. in thermal equilibrium. Ogino pointed out that if torsion particles were introduced in the SU(5) GUT, the thermal history of the very early universe would become complex. One of more realistic grand unified models is the SU(11) family unified model suggested by Georgi. In this paper, the authors discuss the thermal history of the very early universe in the frame of Georgi's SU(11) model. Because a lot of superheavy fermions will appear in the SU(11) model, Ogino's results must be modified. These quantitative modifications have been calculated.

  20. Rho family and Rap GTPase activation assays.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Richard T; Knaus, Ulla G

    2014-01-01

    The detection of Ras superfamily GTPase activity in innate immune cells is important when studying signaling events elicited by various ligands and cellular processes. The development of high-affinity probes detecting the activated, GTP-bound form of small GTPases has significantly enhanced our understanding of initiation and termination of GTPase-regulated signaling pathways. These probes are created by fusing a high-affinity GTPase-binding domain derived from a specific downstream effector protein to glutathione S-transferase (GST). Such domains bind preferentially to the GTP-bound form of the upstream Rho or Ras GTPase. Coupling these probes to beads enables extraction of the complex and subsequent quantification of the active GTP-binding protein by immunoblotting. Although effector domains that discriminate efficiently between GDP- and GTP-bound states and highly specific antibodies are not yet available for every small GTPase, analysis of certain members of the Rho and Ras GTPase family is now routinely performed. Here, we describe affinity-based pulldown assays for detection of Rho GTPase (Rac1/2, Cdc42, RhoA/B) and Rap1/2 activity in stimulated neutrophils or macrophages.

  1. Personal history of dieting and family history of obesity are unrelated: implications for understanding weight gain proneness.

    PubMed

    Lowe, M R; Shank, L M; Mikorski, R; Butryn, M L

    2015-04-01

    Identifying predictors of future weight gain is important in obesity prevention efforts. Both family history of obesity and personal dieting history have been established as predictors of future weight gain; however, it is unknown if they are independent or overlapping predictors. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of overlap between these two predictors using cross-sectional data. Baseline data from four studies were examined separately and in combination for a total of 561 female participants, and analyses were conducted to examine parent anthropometric variables by dieting status within and across studies. All participants were female university students between the ages of 17 and 30. For each study, as well as for the entire sample combined, parent anthropometric variables were examined by dieting status using factorial ANOVAs. No meaningful pattern was found when examining parent anthropometric variables by dieting status, which suggests that the two risk factors are largely independent. This suggests that the processes associated with the development of future weight gain by each variable are different; therefore, future research should use a longitudinal study to test the hypothesis that using both variables to predict future weight gain would account for more variance than using either variable alone.

  2. Learning from history: the legacy of Title VII in academic family medicine.

    PubMed

    Newton, Warren; Arndt, Jane E

    2008-11-01

    The current renaissance of interest in primary care could benefit from reviewing the history of federal investment in academic family medicine. The authors review 30 years of experience with the Title VII, Section 747 Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (Title VII) grant program, addressing three questions: (1) What Title VII grant programs were available to family medicine, and what were their goals? (2) How did Title VII change the discipline? and (3) What impact did Title VII family medicine programs have outside the discipline?Title VII grant programs evolved from broad support for the new discipline of family medicine to a sharper focus on specific national workforce objectives such as improving care for underserved and vulnerable populations and increasing diversity in the health professions. Grant programs were instrumental in establishing family medicine in nearly all medical schools and in supporting the educational underpinnings of the field. Title VII grants helped enhance the social capital of the discipline. Outside family medicine, Title VII fostered the development of innovative ambulatory education, institutional initiatives focusing on underserved and vulnerable populations, and primary care research capacity. Adverse effects include relative inattention to clinical and research missions in family medicine academic units and, institutionally, the development of medical education initiatives without core institutional support, which has put innovation and extension of education to communities at risk as grant funding has decreased. Reinvestment in academic family medicine can yield substantial benefits for family medicine and help reorient academic health centers. This article is part of a theme issue of Academic Medicine on the Title VII health professions training programs.

  3. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): A 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants

    PubMed Central

    Cerling, Thure E.; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2009-01-01

    The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C4 grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by ≈2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred ≈3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations. PMID:19365077

  4. Michigan Natural History. A Spring Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on the natural history of…

  5. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a patient with a family history of huntington disease: genetic counseling challenges.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrea L; Teener, James W; Callaghan, Brian C; Harrington, Jack; Uhlmann, Wendy R

    2014-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington disease (HD) are generally considered to be distinct and easily differentiated neurologic conditions. However, there are case reports of the co-occurrence of ALS with HD. We present a 57-year-old male with a clinical diagnosis of sporadic ALS in the context of a family history of HD. This case adds to the limited literature regarding individuals with a family history of HD who present with features of ALS. There were several genetic counseling challenges in counseling this patient including the diagnostic consideration of two fatal conditions, complex risk information, the personal and familial implications, and the patient's inability to communicate verbally or through writing due to disease progression. DNA banking effectively preserved the right of our patient and his wife not to learn his HD genetic status during a stressful time of disease progression while providing the option for family members to learn this information in the future if desired. We present lessons learned and considerations for other clinical genetics professionals who are presented with similar challenging issues.

  6. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Cocco, Pierluigi; La Vecchia, Carlo; Chang, Ellen T.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Kadin, Marshall E.; Spinelli, John J.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Kane, Eleanor V.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Kasten, Carol; Feldman, Andrew L.; Wang, Sophia S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome (MF/SS) are rare cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Their etiology is poorly understood. Methods A pooled analysis of 324 MF/SS cases and 17217 controls from 14 case–control studies from Europe, North America, and Australia, as part of the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) Subtypes Project, was carried out to investigate associations with lifestyle, medical history, family history, and occupational risk factors. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We found an increased risk of MF/SS associated with body mass index equal to or larger than 30kg/m2 (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.40), cigarette smoking for 40 years or more (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.31), eczema (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.73 to 3.29), family history of multiple myeloma (OR = 8.49, 95% CI = 3.31 to 21.80), and occupation as crop and vegetable farmers (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.14 to 4.92), painters (OR = 3.71, 95% CI = 1.94 to 7.07), woodworkers (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.18 to 4.08), and general carpenters (OR = 4.07, 95% CI = 1.54 to 10.75). We also found a reduced risk of MF/SS associated with moderate leisure time physical activity (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.97). Conclusions Our study provided the first detailed analysis of risk factors for MF/SS and further investigation is needed to confirm these findings in prospective data and in other populations. PMID:25174030

  7. Investigating uncertainty and emotions in conversations about family health history: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Emily A; Hesse, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Although the importance of being knowledgeable of one's family health history is widely known, very little research has investigated how families communicate about this important topic. This study investigated how young adults seek information from parents about family health history. The authors used the Theory of Motivated Information Management as a framework to understand the process of uncertainty discrepancy and emotion in seeking information about family health history. Results of this study show the Theory of Motivated Information Management to be a good model to explain the process young adults go through in deciding to seek information from parents about family health history. Results also show that emotions other than anxiety can be used with success in the Theory of Motivated Information Management framework.

  8. Mental health activities of family physicians.

    PubMed

    Cassata, D M; Kirkman-Liff, B L

    1981-04-01

    A questionnaire survey of residency trained graduates and nonresidency trained family physicians showed both groups reporting relatively infrequent practice of behavioral medicine. Referrals and counseling sessions/visits produce a combined total of 20 activities per month, or two to four percent of all patient encounters, even though the physicians in the sample reported that 33 percent of their diagnoses were behavioral/psychological. More than 85 percent of the physicians reported access to more than one mental health provider. The six most common health problems encountered in the office were depression, anxiety, obesity, marital discord, alcohol abuse, and sexual problems. Physicians responding to this survey expressed an interest in continuing education programs that emphasize individual, marital, and parenting counseling, and psychopharmacology. There is a major need to improve the mental health component of residency training, which will enable physicians to better manage psychosocial problems in practice settings.

  9. Family History Density of Alcoholism Relates to Left Nucleus Accumbens Volume in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Cservenka, Anita; Gillespie, Alicia J; Michael, Paul G; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A family history of alcoholism is a significant risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Because common structural abnormalities are present in reward and affective brain regions in alcoholics and those with familial alcoholism, the current study examined the relationship between familial loading of AUDs and volumes of the amygdala and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in largely alcohol-naive adolescents, ages 12–16 years (N = 140). Method: The amygdala and NAcc were delineated on each participant’s T1-weighted anatomical scan, using FMRIB Software Library’s FMRIB Integrated Registration & Segmentation Tool, and visually inspected for accuracy and volume outliers. In the 140 participants with accurate segmentation (75 male/65 female), subcortical volumes were represented as a ratio to intracranial volume (ICV). A family history density (FHD) score was calculated for each adolescent based on the presence of AUDs in first- and second-degree relatives (range: 0.03–1.50; higher scores represent a greater prevalence of familial AUDs). Multiple regressions, with age and sex controlled for, examined the association between FHD and left and right amygdala and NAcc volume/ICV. Results: There was a significant positive relationship between FHD and left NAcc volume/ICV (ΔR2 = .04, p = .02). Post hoc regressions indicated that this effect was only significant in females (ΔR2 = .11, p = .006). Conclusions: This finding suggests that the degree of familial alcoholism, genetic or otherwise, is associated with alterations in reward-related brain structure. Further work will be necessary to examine whether FHD is related to future alcohol-related problems and reward-related behaviors. PMID:25486393

  10. Putting Families Into Place: Using Neighborhood-Effects Research and Activity Spaces to Understand Families

    PubMed Central

    Noah, Aggie J.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood is an important context in which individuals and families are embedded. Yet family studies researchers have been relatively slow to incorporate spatial approaches into family science. Although limited theoretical and methodological attention has been devoted to families in neighborhood-effects research, family scholars can contribute greatly to theories about neighborhood effects, and neighborhood-effects research can help move the field of family studies forward. This article reviews the theories, applications, and limitations of research on neighborhood effects and discusses how family studies can benefit from incorporating a spatial perspective from neighborhood-effects research. I then present an innovative methodology—referred to as activity spaces—emerging in neighborhood-effects research, and I discuss how this approach can be used to better understand the complexity and heterogeneity of families. Last, I highlight ways to incorporate space into family studies by “putting families into place.” PMID:26681979

  11. Evolution of the protease-activated receptor family in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    JIN, MIN; YANG, HAI-WEI; TAO, AI-LIN; WEI, JI-FU

    2016-01-01

    Belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPcr) family, the protease-activated receptors (Pars) consist of 4 members, PAR1-4. PARs mediate the activation of cells via thrombin, serine and other proteases. Such protease-triggered signaling events are thought to be critical for hemostasis, thrombosis and other normal pathological processes. In the present study, we examined the evolution of PARs by analyzing phylogenetic trees, chromosome location, selective pressure and functional divergence based on the 169 functional gene alignment sequences from 57 vertebrate gene sequences. We found that the 4 PARs originated from 4 invertebrate ancestors by phylogenetic trees analysis. The selective pressure results revealed that only PAR1 appeared by positive selection during its evolution, while the other PAR members did not. In addition, we noticed that although these PARs evolved separately, the results of functional divergence indicated that their evolutional rates were similar and their functions did not significantly diverge. The findings of our study provide valuable insight into the evolutionary history of the vertebrate PAR family. PMID:26820116

  12. World History Plays, Puzzles and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lawrence

    This instructional resource, for grades 7-10, includes a collection of 10 plays with related learning activities. Units of study include: (1) "Alexander the Great and the Greeks"; (2) "The Black Death and the End of the Middle Ages"; (3) "Robert Clive and Imperialism"; (4) "Christopher Columbus and the Age of…

  13. New standards and enhanced utility for family health history information in the electronic health record: an update from the American Health Information Community's Family Health History Multi-Stakeholder Workgroup.

    PubMed

    Feero, W Gregory; Bigley, Mary Beth; Brinner, Kristin M

    2008-01-01

    Family health history is a complex, multifaceted tool for assessing disease risk that can offer insight into the interplay between inherited and social factors relevant to patient care. Family health history tools in electronic health records can enable the user to collect, represent, and interpret structured data that properly supports clinical decisions. If these data can be made interoperable, important health information can be shared with minimal duplication of effort among entities involved in the continuum of patient care. This paper reviews the efforts by the American Health Information Community's Family Health History Multi-Stakeholder Workgroup to create a core data set for family health history information and to determine requirements to promote incorporation of such information in electronic health records. The Workgroup is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Personalized Health Care Initiative.

  14. Lay perceptions of predictive testing for diabetes based on DNA test results versus family history assessment: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study assessed lay perceptions of issues related to predictive genetic testing for multifactorial diseases. These perceived issues may differ from the "classic" issues, e.g. autonomy, discrimination, and psychological harm that are considered important in predictive testing for monogenic disorders. In this study, type 2 diabetes was used as an example, and perceptions with regard to predictive testing based on DNA test results and family history assessment were compared. Methods Eight focus group interviews were held with 45 individuals aged 35-70 years with (n = 3) and without (n = 1) a family history of diabetes, mixed groups of these two (n = 2), and diabetes patients (n = 2). All interviews were transcribed and analysed using Atlas-ti. Results Most participants believed in the ability of a predictive test to identify people at risk for diabetes and to motivate preventive behaviour. Different reasons underlying motivation were considered when comparing DNA test results and a family history risk assessment. A perceived drawback of DNA testing was that diabetes was considered not severe enough for this type of risk assessment. In addition, diabetes family history assessment was not considered useful by some participants, since there are also other risk factors involved, not everyone has a diabetes family history or knows their family history, and it might have a negative influence on family relations. Respect for autonomy of individuals was emphasized more with regard to DNA testing than family history assessment. Other issues such as psychological harm, discrimination, and privacy were only briefly mentioned for both tests. Conclusion The results suggest that most participants believe a predictive genetic test could be used in the prevention of multifactorial disorders, such as diabetes, but indicate points to consider before both these tests are applied. These considerations differ with regard to the method of assessment (DNA test or obtaining

  15. Chinese Americans’ Views and Use of Family Health History: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei-Shih; Li, Ming; Talwar, Divya; Xu, Lei; Zhao, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Objective Family health history (FHH) plays a significant role in early disease detection and prevention. Although Asian Americans are the fastest growing U.S. immigrant group, no data exists regarding Chinese Americans’ (the largest Asian subgroup) views and use of FHH. This study examines this important issue. Methods Forty-nine adults from southern U.S. Chinese American communities participated in this qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interview study. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed with a content analysis approach. Results Although the majority of participants perceived the importance of collecting FHH, most lacked FHH knowledge and failed to collect FHH information. Barriers affecting FHH collection and discussion among family members included long-distance separation from family members, self-defined “healthy family,” and Chinese cultural beliefs. Lack of doctors’ inquiries, never/rarely visiting physicians, self-defined “healthy family,” perceived insignificance of discussing FHH with doctors, and Chinese cultural beliefs were the obstacles in communicating FHH with physicians. Conclusions Chinese Americans had limited usage of their FHH and faced cultural, distance, knowledge-, and healthcare system-related barriers that influenced their FHH use. Developing FHH education programs for Chinese Americans is highly recommended. PMID:27649411

  16. The association between family history of mental disorder and delusional-like experiences: a general population study.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Daniel; Saha, Sukanta; Scott, James D; Chan, Raymond C K; McGrath, John J

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have indicated that isolated delusional-like experiences (DLE) are common in the general population. Furthermore, there is preliminary evidence to suggest that these experiences are more common in those with a family history of mental disorders. We had the opportunity to explore the association between family history of a wide range of mental disorders and DLE in an Australian general population survey. The Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007 examined 8,841 adult community residents. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to generate various DSM-IV lifetime diagnoses and to assess DLE. The participants were asked to report mental disorders in their first-degree relatives. The influence of family history of mental disorders on DLE endorsement was assessed with logistic regression, with adjustments for age, sex, and the presence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in the respondents. A family history of anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or alcohol or illicit drug abuse/dependence was each significantly associated with endorsement of DLE, and these associations remained significant when we adjusted for the presence of mental illness in the respondents. When we examined a more restrictive definition of DLE, only a family history of depression and schizophrenia remained significantly associated with DLE. DLE are associated with a family history of a wide range of mental disorders. These findings suggest that familial factors associated with DLE may be shared with a wide range of common mental disorders.

  17. Jupiter-family comets in near-Earth orbits: Dynamical histories and potential source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, J.; Sosa, A.

    2014-07-01

    We analyze the dynamical histories of a sample of 58 Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) coming close to the Earth, namely with perihelion distances q < 1.3 au at the time of their discovery. We carry out orbit integrations for these objects for 10^4 yr in the past and in the future, considering the orbital elements provided by the NASA/JPL Small Body Database, and 50 clones of each comet whose orbital elements were taken randomly within their error bars. We find that most orbits are chaotic, where comets are subject to frequent close encounters with Jupiter. Therefore, it is difficult to follow accurately the trajectory of a given comet beyond a few hundred years. We then define a likely dynamical path, which is computed as the average of the orbits of a given comet and the set of 50 clones. In particular we measure the degree of instability of a comet orbit by the time it takes the average perihelion distance q of a comet and its 50 clones to decrease by 1 au previous to the discovery time. We define this time scale as the capture time within the near-Earth region. We find that most JFCs have short capture times, of a few hundred to a couple of thousands of years, suggesting a recent incorporation to the near-Earth region. This is what one should expect for bodies whose typical lifetimes as active comets should not exceed a few 10^3 yr. This behavior is in sharp contrast with near-Earth asteroids that show more stable orbits with much longer residence times in the near-Earth region. The most likely source region of most JFCs is the transneptunian region. On the other hand, we find that a few JFCs move on stable orbits over the studied period with capture times > 10^4 yr. These objects might have a different source region, probably the outer asteroid belt or the Jupiter Trojans.

  18. Home Renovation, Family History of Atopy, and Respiratory Symptoms and Asthma Among Children Living in China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Wang, Jing; Trevathan, Edwin; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui; Chen, Weiqing; Simckes, Maayan; Zelicoff, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association of indoor air pollution with the respiratory health of children, we evaluated the associations of children’s respiratory symptoms with asthma and recent home renovation. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a school recruitment sample of 31 049 children aged 2 to 14 years in 25 districts of 7 cities of northeast China in 2008–2009. The children’s parents completed standardized questionnaires characterizing the children’s histories of respiratory symptoms and illness, recent home renovation information, and other associated risk factors. Results. The effects of home renovation in the past 2 years were significantly associated with cough, phlegm, current wheeze, doctor-diagnosed asthma, and current asthma. The associations we computed when combining the status of home renovation and family history of atopy were higher than were those predicted from the combination of the separate effects. However, the interactions between home renovation and family history of atopy on a multiplicative scale were not statistically significant (P > .05). Conclusions. Home renovation is associated with increases in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma in children. The effects of different renovation materials on child respiratory health should be studied further. PMID:24228648

  19. Accommodation and resistance to the dominant cultural discourse on psychiatric mental health: oral history accounts of family members.

    PubMed

    Boschma, Geertje

    2007-12-01

    Oral history makes a critical contribution in articulating the perspectives of people often overlooked in histories written from the standpoint of dominating class, gender, ethnic or professional groups. Using three interrelated approaches - life stories, oral history, and narrative analysis - this paper analyzes family responses to psychiatric care and mental illness in oral history interviews with family members who experienced mental illness themselves or within their family between 1930 and 1975. Interviews with three family members in Alberta, Canada are the primary focus. These stories provide an important avenue to understand the meaning and transformations of mental health-care from the point of view of families. Family members' stories reveal contradictory responses to the dominant cultural discourse. Using a performative framework of interpretation, the narratives reveal a complex interplay between medical, social and cultural conceptions of mental illness, deepening our understanding of its meaning. The history of mental health-care can be substantially enriched by the analysis of family members' stories, not only revealing the constructed nature of mental illness, but also illustrating the family as a mediating context in which the meaning of mental illness is negotiated.

  20. Family health history communication networks of older adults: importance of social relationships and disease perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J

    2013-10-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships.

  1. Family Histories and Multiple Transitions Among Homeless Young Adults: Pathways to Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of these young people opted to leave home in search of an alternative living situation. The current findings also reveal that while some young adults ran away from home as adolescents, others were “pushed out” (i.e., told to leave), or removed by state agencies. Current study findings illustrate that young adults’ trajectories are marked by multiple living arrangements such as home, foster care, detention facility, and drug rehabilitation. Overall, study results show that young adults’ family histories place them on trajectories for early independence marked by multiple transitions and numerous living situations, culminating in a lack of a permanent residence to call home. PMID:24151346

  2. Childhood stress exposure among preadolescents with and without family histories of substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Nora E.; Ryan, Stacy R.; Acheson, Ashley; Mathias, Charles W.; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Having a family history of substance use disorders (FH+) increases risk for developing a substance use disorder. This risk may be at least partially mediated by increased exposure to childhood stressors among FH+ individuals. However, measures typically used to assess exposure to stressors are narrow in scope and vary across studies. The nature of stressors that disproportionately affect FH+ children, and how these stressors relate to later substance use in this population, are not well understood. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to a broad range of stressors among FH+ and FH− children to better characterize how exposure to childhood stressors relates to increased risk for substance misuse among FH+ individuals. Methods A total of 386 children (305 FH+, 81 FH−; ages 10-12) were assessed using the Stressful Life Events Schedule prior to the onset of regular substance use. Both the number and severity of stressors were compared. Preliminary follow-up analyses were done for 53 adolescents who subsequently reported initiation of substance use. Results FH+ children reported more frequent and severe stressors than did FH− children, specifically in the areas of housing, family, school, crime, peers, and finances. Additionally, risk for substance use initiation during early adolescence was influenced directly by having a family history of substance use disorders and also indirectly through increased exposure to stressors among FH+ individuals. Conclusions FH+ children experience greater stress across multiple domains, which contributes to their risk for substance misuse and related problems during adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:25134029

  3. Solar activity cycle - History and predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Withbroe, G.L. )

    1989-12-01

    The solar output of short-wavelength radiation, solar wind, and energetic particles depends strongly on the solar cycle. These energy outputs from the sun control conditions in the interplanetary medium and in the terrestrial magnetosphere and upper atmosphere. Consequently, there is substantial interest in the behavior of the solar cycle and its effects. This review briefly discusses historical data on the solar cycle and methods for predicting its further behavior, particularly for the current cycle, which shows signs that it will have moderate to exceptionally high levels of activity. During the next few years, the solar flux of short-wavelength radiation and particles will be more intense than normal, and spacecraft in low earth orbit will reenter earlier than usual. 46 refs.

  4. "Old Dead Guys": Using Activity Breaks to Teach History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holles, Joseph H.

    2009-01-01

    The people and history of chemical engineering surround us: Gibbs free energy, Arrhenius Equation, and Reynolds number. Since these seminal figures appear in almost every classroom lecture, they provide an opportunity for a historically focused activity break. Each activity break provides the students with an image of the historical figure along…

  5. Genetic counseling for women with an intermediate family history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Burke, W; Culver, J O; Bowen, D; Lowry, D; Durfy, S; McTiernan, A; Andersen, M R

    2000-02-28

    Women with a family history of breast cancer often over-estimate their personal risk for cancer and may view themselves as candidates for genetic testing even when the likelihood of an informative test result is low. We report here on genetic counseling of women with an intermediate family history of breast cancer, defined as women who have one or more biological relatives with breast cancer but whose pedigree suggests a low likelihood of autosomal dominant transmission. A genetic counseling protocol based on traditional genetic counseling strategies was developed with additional components added to address the needs of women with moderately increased breast cancer risk. These additional components included information about non-genetic risk factors, comparisons of high and moderate risk pedigrees, and evaluation of personal risk based on both genetic and nongenetic risk factors. Most participants liked the genetic counseling and found it useful. At baseline, participants over-estimated both their personal risk of breast cancer and that of the average woman. After counseling, estimates of personal and average risk of breast cancer were lower, although both remained higher than actual risk. Most participants reported that they felt less worried about breast cancer after receiving their personal-risk estimate. At baseline, most women judged themselves to be candidates for genetic testing and expressed interest in testing. The number who considered themselves candidates for testing was reduced after counseling (60% versus 82%) but still constituted a majority. Similarly, interest in testing was partially reduced by counseling (60% versus 91%). We conclude that genetic counseling can help women with an intermediate family history of breast cancer to develop more accurate views of their risk, reduce their breast cancer worry, and aid some of them in developing a more realistic view of genetic testing.

  6. Family history and apoE genotype interaction in Alzheimer`s disease (AD)

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvik, G.P.; Kukull, W.A.; Goddards, K.

    1994-09-01

    The apoE {epsilon}4 allele is associated with increased risk and decreased age of onset of AD. The {epsilon}4 allele may have opposing effects. We determined that family history of a parent or sib with memory problems (famhx+) modified the effect of apoE genotype in a population-based, case (n=165, 72 famhx+)-control (n=233, 73 famhx+) sample. Logistic regression analyses detected a significant apoE genotype (E) by family history (F) by age (A) interaction (ExFxA, p=0.003) and ExF interaction (p=0.0001) in the prediction of AD. ExFxA remained significant when only {epsilon}4+ genotypes were included (p<0.01). ExFxSex (p=0.04) and ExF (p<0.0001) were significant when only {epsilon}4- genotypes were included. Similary, multiple regression detected significant ExF interaction in the prediction of age of AD onset for {epsilon}4+ genotypes (p=0.04) or {epsilon}4- genotypes (p=0.04). Sex did not interact in the prediction of age of onset. Famhx+ increased risk of AD differentially and reduced age of onset except in {epsilon}2+ genotypes. Family history modifies the apoE genotype influence on risk and onset age of AD, suggesting that non-apoE genetic effects interact with apoE in AD. It is most predictive of risk in those with the {epsilon}2{epsilon}3 genotype. Variation in risk and onset among both {epsilon}4+ and {epsilon}4- genotypes demonstrate that {epsilon}2 and {epsilon}3 mediate {epsilon}4 allele effects in AD.

  7. Family Science Activities for Adult Basic and Literacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Action Southwest, Waynesburg, PA.

    A staff development project created a series of family science activities to be used in adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) and family literacy programs and a training guide for staff and volunteers. The training guide provides background principles and concepts for science activities. The activities identify materials and indicate ways the…

  8. Profiling Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) of Family Health History based on the Clinical Element Models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehoon; Hulse, Nathan C.; Wood, Grant M.; Oniki, Thomas A.; Huff, Stanley M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we developed a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) profile to support exchanging a full pedigree based family health history (FHH) information across multiple systems and applications used by clinicians, patients, and researchers. We used previously developed clinical element models (CEMs) that are capable of representing the FHH information, and derived essential data elements including attributes, constraints, and value sets. We analyzed gaps between the FHH CEM elements and existing FHIR resources. Based on the analysis, we developed a profile that consists of 1) FHIR resources for essential FHH data elements, 2) extensions for additional elements that were not covered by the resources, and 3) a structured definition to integrate patient and family member information in a FHIR message. We implemented the profile using an open-source based FHIR framework and validated it using patient-entered FHH data that was captured through a locally developed FHH tool. PMID:28269871

  9. Profiling Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) of Family Health History based on the Clinical Element Models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Hulse, Nathan C; Wood, Grant M; Oniki, Thomas A; Huff, Stanley M

    2016-01-01

    In this study we developed a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) profile to support exchanging a full pedigree based family health history (FHH) information across multiple systems and applications used by clinicians, patients, and researchers. We used previously developed clinical element models (CEMs) that are capable of representing the FHH information, and derived essential data elements including attributes, constraints, and value sets. We analyzed gaps between the FHH CEM elements and existing FHIR resources. Based on the analysis, we developed a profile that consists of 1) FHIR resources for essential FHH data elements, 2) extensions for additional elements that were not covered by the resources, and 3) a structured definition to integrate patient and family member information in a FHIR message. We implemented the profile using an open-source based FHIR framework and validated it using patient-entered FHH data that was captured through a locally developed FHH tool.

  10. Systemic inflammation and family history in relation to the prevalence of type 2 diabetes based on an alternating decision tree

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Hirokazu; Ghaibeh, A. Ammar; Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Bahari, Tirani; Ishizu, Masashi; Moriguchi, Hiroki; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate unknown patterns associated with type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population, we first used an alternating decision tree (ADTree) algorithm, a powerful classification algorithm from data mining, for the data from 1,102 subjects aged 35–69 years. On the basis of the investigated patterns, we then evaluated the associations of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as a biomarker of systemic inflammation and family history of diabetes (negative, positive or unknown) with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes because their detailed associations have been scarcely reported. Elevated serum hs-CRP levels were proportionally associated with the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for probable covariates, including body mass index and family history of diabetes (P for trend = 0.016). Stratified analyses revealed that elevated serum hs-CRP levels were proportionally associated with increased prevalence of diabetes in subjects without a family history of diabetes (P for trend = 0.020) but not in those with a family history or with an unknown family history of diabetes. Our study demonstrates that systemic inflammation was proportionally associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes even after adjusting for body mass index, especially in subjects without a family history of diabetes. PMID:28361994

  11. Systemic inflammation and family history in relation to the prevalence of type 2 diabetes based on an alternating decision tree.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Hirokazu; Ghaibeh, A Ammar; Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Bahari, Tirani; Ishizu, Masashi; Moriguchi, Hiroki; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2017-03-31

    To investigate unknown patterns associated with type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population, we first used an alternating decision tree (ADTree) algorithm, a powerful classification algorithm from data mining, for the data from 1,102 subjects aged 35-69 years. On the basis of the investigated patterns, we then evaluated the associations of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as a biomarker of systemic inflammation and family history of diabetes (negative, positive or unknown) with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes because their detailed associations have been scarcely reported. Elevated serum hs-CRP levels were proportionally associated with the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for probable covariates, including body mass index and family history of diabetes (P for trend = 0.016). Stratified analyses revealed that elevated serum hs-CRP levels were proportionally associated with increased prevalence of diabetes in subjects without a family history of diabetes (P for trend = 0.020) but not in those with a family history or with an unknown family history of diabetes. Our study demonstrates that systemic inflammation was proportionally associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes even after adjusting for body mass index, especially in subjects without a family history of diabetes.

  12. Family history of cancer and the risk of laryngeal cancer: a case-control study from Italy and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Garavello, Werner; Turati, Federica; Bosetti, Cristina; Talamini, Renato; Levi, Fabio; Lucenteforte, Ersilia; Chiesa, Fausto; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva

    2012-02-01

    Only limited data is available on the relationship between family history of laryngeal and other neoplasms and laryngeal cancer risk. We investigated the issue using data from a multicentre case-control study conducted in Italy and Switzerland between 1992 and 2009 including 852 cases with histologically confirmed laryngeal cancer and 1970 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non neoplastic conditions. Unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, study center, education, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and number of siblings were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of laryngeal cancer. The multivariate OR was 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-5.3) in subjects reporting a first-degree relative with laryngeal cancer, as compared to subjects with no family history. The OR was higher when the relative was diagnosed before 60 years of age (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.4-8.8). As compared to subjects without family history, non-smokers, and moderate drinkers, the OR was 37.1 (95% CI 9.9-139.4) for current smokers, heavy drinkers, with family history of laryngeal cancer. Family history of colorectal (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3) and kidney (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-12.1) cancer were also associated to an increased risk of laryngeal cancer, while no significant increase in risk was found for family history of cancer at all sites, excluding the larynx (OR = 1.1).

  13. The phylogeny and evolutionary history of the Lesion Simulating Disease (LSD) gene family in Viridiplantae.

    PubMed

    Cabreira, Caroline; Cagliari, Alexandro; Bücker-Neto, Lauro; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; de Freitas, Loreta B; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2015-12-01

    The Lesion Simulating Disease (LSD) genes encode a family of zinc finger proteins that play a role in programmed cell death (PCD) and other biological processes, such as plant growth and photosynthesis. In the present study, we report the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the LSD gene family in Viridiplantae. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the monocot and eudicot genes were distributed along the phylogeny, indicating that the expansion of the family occurred prior to the diversification between these clades. Sequences encoding proteins that present one, two, or three LSD domains formed separate groups. The secondary structure of these different LSD proteins presented a similar composition, with the β-sheets being their main component. The evolution by gene duplication was identified only to the genes that contain three LSD domains, which generated proteins with equal structure. Moreover, genes encoding proteins with one or two LSD domains evolved as single-copy genes and did not result from loss or gain in LSD domains. These results were corroborated by synteny analysis among regions containing paralogous/orthologous genes in Glycine max and Populus trichocarpa. The Ka/Ks ratio between paralogous/orthologous genes revealed that a subfunctionalization process possibly could be occurring with the LSD genes, explaining the involvement of LSD members in different biological processes, in addition to the negative regulation of PCD. This study presents important novelty in the evolutionary history of the LSD family and provides a basis for future research on individual LSD genes and their involvement in important pathway networks in plants.

  14. Relationship between Family Functioning and Parenting Beliefs and Feelings among Women Who Have a History of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Guadalupe; Lam, Brian Trung

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between family functioning and parenting beliefs and feelings among women with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study utilized secondary data obtained in 2001 from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect. The sample included 107 women. Most respondents had a highly functional family;…

  15. Impact of family history of alcoholism on glutamine/glutamate ratio in anterior cingulate cortex in substance-naïve adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Sneider, Jennifer T; Crowley, David J; Rosso, Isabelle M; Jensen, J Eric; Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies of individuals with family histories of alcoholism provide evidence suggesting neurobiological risk factors for alcoholism. Youth family history positive (FH+) for alcoholism exhibit increased impulsivity compared to family history negative (FH-) peers in conjunction with altered functional activation in prefrontal cortex, including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). This study examined glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln), amino acids vital to protein synthesis, cellular metabolism and neurotransmission, acquired from ACC and parieto-occipital cortex (POC) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 4T. Participants were 28 adolescents (13 male, 12-14 yrs) and 31 emerging adults (16 male, 18-25 yrs), stratified into FH- and FH+ groups. Significantly higher ACC Gln/Glu was observed in emerging adults versus adolescents in FH- but not FH+ groups. In FH- adolescents, higher impulsivity was significantly associated with higher ACC Gln/Glu. In FH+ emerging adults, higher impulsivity was negatively associated with ACC Gln/Glu. No differences or associations were observed for POC. These findings provide preliminary evidence that family history of alcoholism is associated with a neurochemical profile that may influence normative age differences in glutamatergic metabolites and their association with impulse control, which together could confer greater genetic risk of addiction later in life.

  16. Power analysis for case–control association studies of samples with known family histories

    PubMed Central

    Li, Biao; Han, Younghun; Amos, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide case–control studies have been widely used to identify genetic variants that predispose to human diseases. Such studies are powerful in detecting common genetic variants with moderate effects, but quickly lose power as allele frequency and genotype relative risk decrease. Because patients with one or more affected relatives are more likely to inherit disease-predisposing alleles of a genetic disease than patients without family histories of the disease, sampling patients with affected relatives almost always increases the frequency of disease predisposing alleles in cases and improves the power of case–control association studies. This paper evaluates the power of case–control studies that select cases and/or controls according to their family histories of disease. Our results showed that this study design can dramatically increase the power of a case–control association study for a wide range of disease types. Because each additional affected relative of a patient reduces the required sample size roughly by a pair of case and control, inclusion of cases with affected relatives can dramatically decrease the required sample size and thus the cost of such studies. PMID:20383776

  17. Family History of Alzheimer's Disease is Associated with Impaired Perceptual Discrimination of Novel Objects.

    PubMed

    Mason, Emily J; Hussey, Erin P; Molitor, Robert J; Ko, Philip C; Donahue, Manus J; Ally, Brandon A

    2017-03-10

    Early detection may be the key to developing therapies that will combat Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been consistently demonstrated that one of the main pathologies of AD, tau, is present in the brain decades before a clinical diagnosis. Tau pathology follows a stereotypical route through the medial temporal lobe beginning in the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices. If early pathology leads to very subtle changes in behavior, it may be possible to detect these changes in subjects years before a clinical diagnosis can currently be made. We aimed to discover if cognitively normal middle-aged adults (40-60 years old) at increased risk for AD due to family history would have impaired performance on a cognitive task known to challenge the perirhinal cortex. Using an oddity detection task, we found that subjects with a family history of AD had lowered accuracy without demonstrating differences in rate of acquisition. There were no differences between subjects' medial temporal lobe volume or cortical thickness, indicating that the changes in behavior were not due to significant atrophy. These results demonstrate that subtle changes in perceptual processing are detectable years before a typical diagnosis even when there are no differences detectable in structural imaging data. Anatomically-targeted cognitive testing may be useful in identifying subjects in the earliest stages of AD.

  18. Arterial hypertension in migraine: Role of familial history and cardiovascular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Babayan, Laura; Mamontov, Oleg V; Amelin, Alexander V; Bogachev, Mikhail; Kamshilin, Alexei A

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that migraine is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, links between autonomic cardiovascular regulation, arterial hypertension (AH) and migraine are still little explored. In this study, we evaluated autonomic regulation in migraine patients with and without hypertension. We studied 104 patients with migraine, aged 34±10 y, including 28 with and 76 without hypertension (M+AH and M-AH groups, respectively). The control group consisted of 88 healthy volunteers matched by age and sex. The autonomic regulation of circulation was examined with the tilt-table test, deep-breathing and Valsalva Maneuver, handgrip test, cold-stress induced vasoconstriction, arterial baroreflex, and blood pressure variability measurements. We found that migraine patients with concomitant hypertension demonstrated reduced arterial baroreflex, whereas other parameters of cardiac autonomic regulation were unchanged. In contrast, most indicators of vasomotor reactivity (blood pressure response to the hand-grip, Valsalva maneuver and cold vasoconstriction) were enhanced in migraine patients with no significant differences between migraine patients with and without hypertension. Patients from both M+AH and M-AH groups more commonly had a family history of cardiovascular disorders. Our data revealed increased vasomotor reactivity in migraine patients, with or without concomitant hypertension. This was associated with the family history of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. A Psycho-Educational Intervention for People with a Family History of Depression: Pilot Results.

    PubMed

    Meiser, Bettina; Peate, Michelle; Levitan, Charlene; Mitchell, Philip B; Trevena, Lyndal; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Dobbins, Timothy; Christensen, Helen; Sherman, Kerry A; Dunlop, Kate; Schofield, Peter R

    2017-04-01

    We developed and pilot-tested the first online psycho-educational intervention that specifically targets people with a family history of depression ('LINKS'). LINKS provides genetic risk information and evidence-rated information on preventive strategies for depression and incorporates a risk assessment tool and several videos using professional actors. LINKS was pilot-tested in the general practitioner (GP) setting. The patient sample included people with a family history of at least one first-degree relative (FDR) with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). Patients attending participating GP practices were invited to enroll in the study by letter from their GP. Patients who self-identified as having at least one first-degree relative (FDR) with MDD or BD were eligible. Patients completed questionnaires, pre-post viewing LINKS, with measures assessing satisfaction, relevance, emotional impact and perceived improvement of understanding. Six GP practices participated, and 24 patients completed both questionnaires. Of these, all reported that they were satisfied or very satisfied with LINKS, and 74 % reported that LINKS met their expectations, and 21 % that it exceeded their expectations. LINKS was judged highly acceptable by this sample of GP attendees, and results indicate that an assessment of its effectiveness in a larger controlled trial is warranted.

  20. Machine learning amplifies the effect of parental family history of Alzheimer's disease on list learning strategy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Timothy S; Coen, Michael H; La Rue, Asenath; Jonaitis, Erin; Koscik, Rebecca L; Hermann, Bruce; Sager, Mark A

    2012-05-01

    Identification of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an essential first step in developing interventions to prevent or delay disease onset. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that deeper analyses of traditional cognitive tests may be useful in identifying subtle but potentially important learning and memory differences in asymptomatic populations that differ in risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Subjects included 879 asymptomatic higher-risk persons (middle-aged children of parents with AD) and 355 asymptotic lower-risk persons (middle-aged children of parents without AD). All were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test at baseline. Using machine learning approaches, we constructed a new measure that exploited finer differences in memory strategy than previous work focused on serial position and subjective organization. The new measure, based on stochastic gradient descent, provides a greater degree of statistical separation (p = 1.44 × 10-5) than previously observed for asymptomatic family history and non-family history groups, while controlling for apolipoprotein epsilon 4, age, gender, and education level. The results of our machine learning approach support analyzing memory strategy in detail to probe potential disease onset. Such distinct differences may be exploited in asymptomatic middle-aged persons as a potential risk factor for AD.

  1. Resting state functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens in youth with a family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita; Casimo, Kaitlyn; Fair, Damien A; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2014-03-30

    Adolescents with a family history of alcoholism (FHP) are at heightened risk for developing alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a key brain region for reward processing, is implicated in the development of AUDs. Thus, functional connectivity of the NAcc may be an important marker of risk in FHP youth. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) was used to examine the intrinsic connectivity of the NAcc in 47 FHP and 50 family history negative (FHN) youth, ages 10-16 years old. FHP and FHN adolescents showed significant group differences in resting state synchrony between the left NAcc and bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the left postcentral gyrus (PG). Additionally, FHP youth differed from FHN youth in right NAcc functional connectivity with the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, left PG, and right occipital cortex. These results indicate that FHP youth have less segregation between the NAcc and executive functioning brain regions, and less integration with reward-related brain areas, such as the OFC. The findings of the current study highlight that premorbid atypical connectivity of appetitive systems, in the absence of heavy alcohol use, may be a risk marker in FHP adolescents.

  2. Integrating the Family and the Community into the History Classroom: An Oral History Project in Joliet, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, John F.

    2007-01-01

    History instructors working in a community college face two major challenges. First, to make history interesting and relevant to the students, many of whom have to take history courses as a requirement. And second, to fulfill one of the missions of a community college which is to forge a connection between the school and the people in the local…

  3. Microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity in gastric carcinoma in comparison to family history.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, G.; Rudelius, M.; Vogelsang, H.; Grimm, V.; Wilhelm, M. G.; Mueller, J.; Siewert, J. R.; Höfler, H.

    1998-01-01

    We compared 29 gastric carcinomas from patients with a variably strong family history for gastric cancer (group 1) with 36 gastric carcinomas from patients without a family history of this disease (group 2) for microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) with 12 microsatellite markers. Both study groups had similar proportions of histological types and tumor locations. Widespread MSI (alterations at > or = 6 loci) was seen in 5 of 29 (17%) of the tumors belonging to group 1 and in 4 of 36 (11%) group 2 tumors. MSI at a low level (alterations at 1 to 3 loci) was observed in 12 of 29 (41%) of tumors in group 1 and in 10 of 36 (28%) of tumors in group 2, differences that were not statistically significant. A significant difference with respect to low level MSI was observed between the two groups when considering the overall mutation rate of microsatellites. Seventeen of 281 (6%) analyzed microsatellite loci showed alterations in group 1 and 11 of 381 (2.9%) in group 2 (P = 0.046). Comparison of both types of MSI to the clinicopathological parameters in both groups revealed a significant association of low level MSI with advanced tumor stages (P = 0.046) in the group 2, whereas no such association was observed in group 1. In respect to LOH, a significant difference between the two groups was observed at chromosome 17p12, as 13 of 22 (59%) informative cases of group 1 showed LOH in comparison with 7 of 26 (27%) (P = 0.024) in group 2. No correlation of LOH at chromosome 17p12 to the pathological or clinical data was observed either in the two groups or in the study as a whole. Our data show that gastric carcinomas of patients with a positive family history of gastric cancer in group 1 are characterized by a higher mutation rate in respect to low level MSI, particularly at dinucleotide repeats, and by a higher frequency of LOH at chromosome 17p12, indicating that different genetic pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinomas

  4. Curriculum Activities Guide for Natural History Exhibits, Grades K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Wildlife Museum, Tucson, AZ.

    A natural history museum is a building where animals, plants, minerals, and other things in nature are kept and exhibited for study. This document is a curriculum guide to provide a variety of activities for educators and their students to use not only when visiting the International Wildlife Museum (Tuscon, Arizona), but also with natural history…

  5. Family history and disease outcomes in patients with Crohn’s disease: A comparison between China and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Qi; Hu, Jun; Al Kazzi, Elie S; Akhuemonkhan, Eboselume; Zhi, Min; Gao, Xiang; de Paula Pessoa, Raquel Holand; Ghazaleh, Sami; Cornelius, Tuhina; Sabunwala, Suhel Abbas; Ghadermarzi, Shadi; Tripathi, Kartikeya; Lazarev, Mark; Hu, Pin-Jin; Hutfless, Susan

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the differences in family history of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and clinical outcomes among individuals with Crohn’s disease (CD) residing in China and the United States. METHODS We performed a survey-based cross-sectional study of participants with CD recruited from China and the United States. We compared the prevalence of IBD family history and history of ileal involvement, CD-related surgeries and IBD medications in China and the United States, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS We recruited 49 participants from China and 145 from the United States. The prevalence of family history of IBD was significantly lower in China compared with the United States (China: 4.1%, United States: 39.3%). The three most commonly affected types of relatives were cousin, sibling, and parent in the United States compared with child and sibling in China. Ileal involvement (China: 63.3%, United States: 63.5%) and surgery for CD (China: 51.0%, United States: 49.7%) were nearly equivalent in the two countries. CONCLUSION The lower prevalence of familial clustering of IBD in China may suggest that the etiology of CD is less attributed to genetic background or a family-shared environment compared with the United States. Despite the potential difference in etiology, surgery and ileal involvement were similar in the two countries. Examining the changes in family history during the continuing rise in IBD may provide further insight into the etiology of CD. PMID:27867689

  6. [Metabolic syndrome prevalence in Chilean children and adolescent with family history of chronic noncommunicable diseases].

    PubMed

    Burrows, Raquel; Atalah, Eduardo; Leiva, Laura; Rojas, Pamela; Maza, María Pía de la; Vásquez, Fabian; Lera, Lydia; Díaz, Erick

    2012-06-01

    Family history (FH+) of non transmisible chronic diseases (NTCD) increase MetS risk. In Chile, the MetS affects 27% of overweight children, and fasting hyperglycemia is very low prevalent (4,0%). The objective was to study the prevalence of MetS and the cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in overweight children with a family background of NTCD and analyze its association with the number of relatives witth NTCD and with parental history (PH). In 183 overweight children (BMI > or = p85) mean age 11,8 +/- 1,8 (86 males) with a FH+ (parental or grandparental) of NTCD, were assessed the BMI z (CDC / NCHS), waist circumference, blood arterial pressure, fasting Glucose and Insulin (RIA), triglycerides, HDL chol. The MetS and the CVRF were diagnosed using the Cook phenotype and the insulin resistance (IR) through the HOMA-IR. Chi2, ANOVA, t Student and Willcoxon test were performed. The frequency of FH+ of DM2, hypertension and dyslipidemia were 81,4%, 88,0% and 71,6 % respectively. The MeTS prevalence was 46,5 % associated to overweight magnitude an parental history of NTCD. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was 54,6%, while fasting hyperglycemia affected 31,4% of the sample. There was no association between number of relatives with NTCD and CV risk profile. We conclude that in overweight children with FH+ of NTCD, the prevalence of MetS, dyslipidemia and fasting hyperglycemia are significantly higher, than those observed in the general population of obese children.

  7. Association Between Adolescent Pregnancy And a Family History of Teenage Births

    PubMed Central

    East, Patricia L.; Reyes, Barbara T.; Horn, Emily J.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT The extent to which young women’s risk of adolescent pregnancy is associated with having a mother who was a teenage parent, a sister who was a teenage parent or both is not known. METHODS A sample of 127 Latina and black adolescent females completed in-depth surveys at three time points between 1994 and 2000. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether socioeconomic factors, mothers’ parenting characteristics and certain sibling relationship qualities explain the association between a family history of teenage births and young women’s risk of pregnancy. RESULTS Compared with young women with no family history of teenage births, young women whose sister had had a teenage birth and those whose sister and mother both had had teenage births were significantly more likely to experience a teenage pregnancy (odds ratios, 4.8 and 5.1, respectively). Young women who had only a sister who had had a teenage birth had greater odds of pregnancy than young women who had only a mother who had had a teenage birth (4.5). Having both a mother and a sister who had had teenage births was independently associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.7), even after controlling for socioeconomic and mothers’ parenting characteristics. Frequent companionship with an older sister was associated with increased odds of teenage pregnancy (4.5); frequent conflict with an older sister who had had a teenage birth was marginally associated with decreased odds of the outcome (0.3). CONCLUSION Pregnancy prevention interventions targeting young women according to maternal and sibling teenage birth histories may be effective. PMID:17565624

  8. The value of family history in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children*

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Joana; Carvalho, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologically mediated disease resulting from the inhalation of organic substances that trigger an inflammatory response in the alveolar wall, bronchioles, and interstitium in susceptible individuals. Although HP is predominantly an occupational disease, seen in adulthood, cases in children have been described. The diagnosis of HP requires a high degree of suspicion. The treatment consists in avoiding contact with the antigen, and, in some cases, systemic corticosteroids might be necessary in order to prevent its progression to pulmonary fibrosis. We report the clinical cases of three children with a history of contact with birds and a family history of HP. All three patients presented with cough and dyspnea on exertion. The disease was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical history and ancillary diagnostic test results consistent with the diagnosis, including a predominance of lymphocytes (> 60%, CD8+ T lymphocytes in particular) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and a ground-glass pattern seen on HRCT of the chest. Early diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent HP from progressing to pulmonary fibrosis. Hereditary factors seem to influence the onset of the disease. PMID:24831404

  9. The relationship between religion, illness and death in life histories of family members of children with life-threatening diseases.

    PubMed

    Bousso, Regina Szylit; Serafim, Taís de Souza; Misko, Maira Deguer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to get to know the relationship between the experiences of families of children with a life-threatening disease and their religion, illness and life histories. The methodological framework was based on Oral History. The data were collected through interviews and the participants were nine families from six different religions who had lived the experience of having a child with a life-threatening disease. The interviews, held with one or two family members, were transcribed, textualized and, through their analysis, the Vital Tone was elaborated, representing the moral synthesis of each narrative. Three dimensions of spirituality were related to illness and death in their life histories: a Higher Being with a healing power; Development and Maintenance of a Connection with God and Faith Encouraging Optimism. The narratives demonstrated the family's search to attribute meanings to their experiences, based on their religious beliefs.

  10. Familial history of cancer and childhood acute leukemia: a French population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ripert, Mahaut; Menegaux, Florence; Perel, Yves; Méchinaud, Françoise; Plouvier, Emmanuel; Gandemer, Virginie; Lutz, Patrick; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Lamagnére, Jean-Pierre; Margueritte, Geneviève; Boutard, Patrick; Robert, Alain; Armari-Alla, Corinne; Munzer, Martine; Millot, Frédéric; de Lumley, Lionel; Berthou, Christian; Rialland, Xavier; Pautard, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Objective A case-control study was conducted to investigate the role of a familial history of cancer in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia (AL). Methods The history of cancer in the relatives of 472 cases was compared to that of 567 population-based controls. Recruitment was frequency matched on age, gender and region. The familial history of cancer in each child’s relatives was reported by the mother in response to a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Results A familial history of solid tumor in first- or second-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of ALL (OR=1.6 [1.2–2.1]), while a familial history of hematopoietic malignancies in first- or second-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of AML (OR=4.3 [1.4–13]). The ORs for the histories of cancer increased with the number of relatives with cancer (OR=1.5 [1.1–2.0] for one relative and OR=2.3 [1.3–3.8] for two relatives or more; ptrend<0.0001). Significant associations between childhood AL and familial history of genital cancers and brain tumor were also observed (OR=2.7 [1.2–5.8], OR=10.7 [1.3–86], respectively). Conclusion This study supports the hypothesis that a familial history of cancer may play a role in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia. It also evidences some specific associations that require further investigation. PMID:17923819

  11. S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins: evolutionary history and Gly132 polymorphism in colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Ali, Raja Hashim; Kashuba, Vladimir; Klein, George; Kashuba, Elena

    2016-08-23

    S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPS18, S18) consists of three members, S18-1 to -3. Earlier, we found that overexpression of S18-2 protein resulted in immortalization and eventual transformation of primary rat fibroblasts. The S18-1 and -3 have not exhibited such abilities. To understand the differences in protein properties, the evolutionary history of S18 family was analyzed. The S18-3, followed by S18-1 and S18-2 emerged as a result of ancient gene duplication in the root of eukaryotic species tree, followed by two metazoan-specific gene duplications. However, the most conserved metazoan S18 homolog is the S18-1; it shares the most sequence similarity with S18 proteins of bacteria and of other eukaryotic clades. Evolutionarily conserved residues of S18 proteins were analyzed in various cancers. S18-2 is mutated at a higher rate, compared with S18-1 and -3 proteins. Moreover, the evolutionarily conserved residue, Gly132 of S18-2, shows genetic polymorphism in colon adenocarcinomas that was confirmed by direct DNA sequencing.Concluding, S18 family represents the yet unexplored important mitochondrial ribosomal proteins.

  12. S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins: evolutionary history and Gly132 polymorphism in colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Ali, Raja Hashim; Kashuba, Vladimir; Klein, George; Kashuba, Elena

    2016-01-01

    S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPS18, S18) consists of three members, S18-1 to −3. Earlier, we found that overexpression of S18-2 protein resulted in immortalization and eventual transformation of primary rat fibroblasts. The S18-1 and −3 have not exhibited such abilities. To understand the differences in protein properties, the evolutionary history of S18 family was analyzed. The S18-3, followed by S18-1 and S18-2 emerged as a result of ancient gene duplication in the root of eukaryotic species tree, followed by two metazoan-specific gene duplications. However, the most conserved metazoan S18 homolog is the S18-1; it shares the most sequence similarity with S18 proteins of bacteria and of other eukaryotic clades. Evolutionarily conserved residues of S18 proteins were analyzed in various cancers. S18-2 is mutated at a higher rate, compared with S18-1 and −3 proteins. Moreover, the evolutionarily conserved residue, Gly132 of S18-2, shows genetic polymorphism in colon adenocarcinomas that was confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Concluding, S18 family represents the yet unexplored important mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. PMID:27489352

  13. [The combined effects of family history of cardiovascular disease and overweight on ischemic stroke incidence among the Mongolian population].

    PubMed

    Tian, Y F; Zhang, J H; Lu, H M; Liu, Y Y; Zhou, Y P; Lu, Q; Buren, Rbt; Zhang, Y H

    2016-09-06

    Objective: To investigate the cumulative effect of family history of cardiovascular disease(CVD)and overweight on ischemic stroke events in the Mongolian population. Methods: Study participants were recruited from 32 villages from May 2002 to August 2012 in Kezuohou Banner(county)and Naiman Banner in Inner Mongolia, China. Among 3 457 Mongolian people aged ≥20 years old living in these villages, 2 589 were selected to participate in this study. None of the participants had chronic kidney disease, malignant tumor, thyroid disease or adrenalopathy, or acute infectious disease. The 2 589 participants were followed for a mean of 9.2 years. Six participants were lost to follow up, resulting in a follow-up rate of 99.8%. Information collected included demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, history of disease, family history of CVD, and physical examination. Ischemic stroke incidence information was collected during follow-up. All participants were categorized into four subgroups according to family history of CVD and overweight status. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios(HR)and 95% CI of ischemic stroke events among subgroups, compared with the subgroup with no family history of CVD and body mass index(BMI)<24 kg/m(2)(the reference group). Results: Among 2 589 participants, 76 ischemic stroke events occurred after follow-up, and 8 were excluded because of lack of key data. Finally, 2 581 participants were included in the analysis, and the incidence density was 323/100 000 person-years. The cumulative incidence rates of ischemic stroke were 2.48%, 1.86%, 6.67% and 9.00% in the no family history of CVD and BMI <24 kg/m(2), no family history of CVD and BMI ≥24 kg/m(2), family history of CVD and BMI <24 kg/m(2) and family history of CVD and BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2) subgroups, respectively. Using the Cox proportional hazards model, after further adjustment for age, gender, smoking

  14. The evolutionary history of the catenin gene family during metazoan evolution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Catenin is a gene family composed of three subfamilies; p120, beta and alpha. Beta and p120 are homologous subfamilies based on sequence and structural comparisons, and are members of the armadillo repeat protein superfamily. Alpha does not appear to be homologous to either beta or p120 based on the lack of sequence and structural similarity, and the alpha subfamily belongs to the vinculin superfamily. Catenins link the transmembrane protein cadherin to the cytoskeleton and thus function in cell-cell adhesion. To date, only the beta subfamily has been evolutionarily analyzed and experimentally studied for its functions in signaling pathways, development and human diseases such as cancer. We present a detailed evolutionary study of the whole catenin family to provide a better understanding of how this family has evolved in metazoans, and by extension, the evolution of cell-cell adhesion. Results All three catenin subfamilies have been detected in metazoans used in the present study by searching public databases and applying species-specific BLAST searches. Two monophyletic clades are formed between beta and p120 subfamilies using Bayesian phylogenetic inference. Phylogenetic analyses also reveal an array of duplication events throughout metazoan history. Furthermore, numerous annotation issues for the catenin family have been detected by our computational analyses. Conclusions Delta2/ARVCF catenin in the p120 subfamily, beta catenin in the beta subfamily, and alpha2 catenin in the alpha subfamily are present in all metazoans analyzed. This implies that the last common ancestor of metazoans had these three catenin subfamilies. However, not all members within each subfamily were detected in all metazoan species. Each subfamily has undergone duplications at different levels (species-specific, subphylum-specific or phylum-specific) and to different extents (in the case of the number of homologs). Extensive annotation problems have been resolved in each of the

  15. The interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism in general community samples: Findings in a Midwestern US twin birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Mary; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Glowinski, Anne L.; Grant, Julia D.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Jacob, Theodore; Sher, Kenneth J.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although there is a long tradition in alcoholism research of using family history ratings, the interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism from general community samples has yet to be established. Methods Telephone interview data obtained from a large cohort of female like-sex twins (N = 3787, median age 22) and their biological parents (N = 2928, assessed at twins’ median age 15) were analyzed to determine agreement between parent self-report, parent ratings of coparent, and twin narrow (alcohol problems) versus broad (problem or excessive drinking) ratings of each parent. Results In European ancestry (EA) families, high tetrachoric correlations were observed between twin and cotwin ratings of parental alcohol problems, between twin and parent ratings of coparent alcohol problems using symptom-based and single-item assessments, as well as moderately high correlations between twin and both mother and father self-reports. In African American (AA) families, inter-rater agreement was substantially lower than for EA families, with no cases where father ratings of maternal alcohol problems agreed with either twin ratings or mother self-report; and both cotwin agreement and mother-twin agreement were reduced. Differences between EA and AA families were not explained by differences in years of cohabitation with father or mother’s education; however, underreporting of problems by AA parents may have contributed. Conclusions Results support the use of family history ratings of parental alcoholism in general community surveys for European ancestry families, but suggest that family history assessment in African American families requires improved methods. PMID:22235921

  16. History of family violence, childhood behavior problems, and adolescent high-risk behaviors as predictors of girls' repeated patterns of dating victimization in two developmental periods.

    PubMed

    Vézina, Johanne; Hébert, Martine; Poulin, François; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to document the prevalence of repeated patterns of dating victimization and to examine, within the frameworks of an ecological model and lifestyle/routine activities theories, associations between such patterns and family, peer, and individual factors. Dating victimization in adolescence (age 15) and early adulthood (age 21) was evaluated in 443 female participants. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that history of family violence, childhood behavior problems, and adolescent high-risk behaviors were associated with an increased risk for girls of being victimized (psychologically and/or physically/sexually) in their dating relationships, either in adolescence or early adulthood, or at both developmental periods.

  17. [A family with creatine transporter deficiency diagnosed with urinary creatine/creatinine ratio and the family history: the third Japanese familial case].

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Fumihito; Kumada, Tomohiro; Shibata, Minoru; Fujii, Tatsuya; Wada, Takahito; Osaka, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Creatine transporter deficiency (CRTR-D) is an X-linked disorder characterized by hypotonia, developmental delay, and seizures. We report the third Japanese family with CRTR-D. The proband was an 8-year-old boy who presented with hypotonia, severe intellectual disability and two episodes of seizures associated with/without fever. Among 7 siblings (4 males, 3 females), the eldest brother had severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and sudden death at 17 years of age, while 18-year-old third elder brother had severe intellectual disability, autism, and drug-resistant epilepsy. The proband's urinary creatine/creatinine ratio was increased. A reduced creatine peak on brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a known pathogenic mutation in the SLC6A8 gene (c.1661 C > T;p.Pro554Leu) confirmed the diagnosis of CRTR-D. The same mutation was found in the third elder brother. Their mother was a heterozygote. Symptoms of CRTR-D are non-specific. Urinary creatine/creatinine ratio should be measured in patients with hypotonia, developmental delay, seizure and autism whose family history indicates an X-linked inheritance.

  18. Risk of Breast Cancer Associated with Reproductive and Fertility Factors According to a Family History of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    mutation (C677T) in the MTHFR gene is associated with reduced enzyme ac- tions in one of five DNA-mismatch repair (MMR) genes (hMSH2, hMLH1, hPMS1,VyA... mutations than in noncarriers. 2 1 Since a family history of breast cancer may not only reflect shared genes but also shared exposures, a family study...unchanged. To study families most likely to be carrying a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2, analyses were conducted in high-risk families defined by the number

  19. The Holozoan Capsaspora owczarzaki Possesses a Diverse Complement of Active Transposable Element Families

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Martin; Suga, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Capsaspora owczarzaki, a protistan symbiont of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata, is the centre of much interest in evolutionary biology due to its close relationship to Metazoa. The whole genome sequence of this protist has revealed new insights into the ancestral genome composition of Metazoa, in particular with regard to gene families involved in the evolution of multicellularity. The draft genome revealed the presence of 23 families of transposable element, made up from DNA transposon as well as long terminal repeat (LTR) and non-LTR retrotransposon families. The phylogenetic analyses presented here show that all of the transposable elements identified in the C. owczarzaki genome have orthologous families in Metazoa, indicating that the ancestral metazoan also had a rich diversity of elements. Molecular evolutionary analyses also show that the majority of families has recently been active within the Capsaspora genome. One family now appears to be inactive and a further five families show no evidence of current transposition. Most individual element copies are evolutionarily young; however, a small proportion of inserts appear to have persisted for longer in the genome. The families present in the genome show contrasting population histories and appear to be in different stages of their life cycles. Transcriptome data have been analyzed from multiple stages in the C. owczarzaki life cycle. Expression levels vary greatly both between families and between different stages of the life cycle, suggesting an unexpectedly complex level of transposable element regulation in a single celled organism. PMID:24696401

  20. Frontoparietal connectivity in substance-naïve youth with and without a family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Bava, Sunita; Thompson, Wesley K; Boucquey, Veronique; Pulido, Carmen; Yang, Tony T; Tapert, Susan F

    2012-01-13

    Frontoparietal connections underlie key executive cognitive functions. Abnormalities in the frontoparietal network have been observed in chronic alcoholics and associated with alcohol-related cognitive deficits. It remains unclear whether neurobiological differences in frontoparietal circuitry exist in substance-naïve youth who are at-risk for alcohol use disorders. This study used functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging to examine frontoparietal connectivity and underlying white matter microstructure in 20 substance-naïve youth with a family history of alcohol dependence and 20 well-matched controls without familial substance use disorders. Youth with a family history of alcohol dependence showed significantly less functional connectivity between posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal seed regions (ps<.05), as compared to family history negative controls; however, they did not show differences in white matter architecture within tracts subserving frontoparietal circuitry (ps>.34). Substance-naïve youth with a family history of alcohol dependence show less frontoparietal functional connectivity in the absence of white matter microstructural abnormalities as compared to youth with no familial risk. This may suggest a potential neurobiological marker for the development of substance use disorders.

  1. Does family history of depression predict major depression in midlife women? Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Mental Health Study (SWAN MHS).

    PubMed

    Colvin, Alicia; Richardson, Gale A; Cyranowski, Jill M; Youk, Ada; Bromberger, Joyce T

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to determine whether family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women independent of psychosocial and health profiles at midlife. Participants were 303 African American and Caucasian women (42-52 years at baseline) recruited into the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) and the Women's Mental Health Study (MHS) in Pittsburgh. Major depression was assessed annually with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Family mental health history was collected at the ninth or tenth follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether family history of depression predicted major depression in midlife, adjusting for covariates. The odds of experiencing major depression during the study were three times greater for those with a family history than for those without a family history (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.95-5.31). Family history predicted depression (OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.50-4.78) after adjusting for lifetime history of depression, age, trait anxiety, chronic medical conditions, and stressful life events. In analyses stratified by lifetime history of depression, family history significantly predicted depression only among women with a lifetime history of depression. Family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women generally, but particularly in those with a lifetime history of depression prior to midlife.

  2. Limited significance of family history for presence of BRCA1 gene mutation in Polish breast and ovarian cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Brozek, Izabela; Ratajska, Magdalena; Piatkowska, Magdalena; Kluska, Anna; Balabas, Aneta; Dabrowska, Michalina; Nowakowska, Dorota; Niwinska, Anna; Rachtan, Jadwiga; Steffen, Jan; Limon, Janusz

    2012-09-01

    It is estimated that about 5-10% of ovarian and 2-5% of all breast cancer patients are carriers of a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation. Most families with detected BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation are qualified for molecular testing on the basis of family history of breast or ovarian cancers. The purpose of our study was to establish the frequency of positive family history of cancer in a series of Polish consecutive breast and ovarian cancer patients in two groups, with and without the BRCA1 gene mutations. We analysed the prevalence of four of the most common BRCA1 mutations: 5382insC (c.5266dupC), 300T>G (p.181T>G), 185delAG (c.68_69delAG) and 3819del5 (c.3700_3704del5). The patient group consisted of 1,845 consecutive female breast and 363 ovarian cancer cases. 19 out of 37 (51%) of BRCA1-positive ovarian cancer patients and 21 out of 55 (39%) BRCA1-positive breast cancer had negative family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer among first- and second-degree relatives. In ovarian cancer patients, negative family history was more frequent in those with 300T>G BRCA1 gene mutation than in 5382insC carriers. This finding indicates the necessity of searching for 300T>G mutation in families with a single diagnosis of ovarian cancer in family. The high frequency of mutations detected in breast cancer patients lacking obvious family history shows that breast cancer patients should be qualified for genetic testing on the basis of wide clinical and pathological criteria.

  3. Collecting Family Health History using an Online Social Network: a Nationwide Survey among Potential Users

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Brandon M.; O’Connell, Nathaniel S.; Qanungo, Suparna; Halbert-Hughes, Chanita; Schiffman, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Family health history (FHx) is one of the most important risk factors for disease. Unfortunately, collection and use of FHx is under-utilized in the clinical setting. Efforts to improve collection of FHx have had minimal impact. A novel approach to collect FHx using social networking capabilities is being explored. We conducted a nationwide survey of 5,258 respondents to 1- assess the interest in using an online social network for FHx, 2- identify if such a tool would have clinical utility, and 3- identify notable trends and potential concerns. We found survey respondents to be very supportive of the proposed approach and interesting trends related to age, education, and race were identified. Results from this survey will be used to guide future research and development of a proposed FHx social network application. PMID:26958272

  4. Implementation of health risk assessments with family health history: barriers and benefits.

    PubMed

    Wu, R Ryanne; Orlando, Lori A

    2015-09-01

    Health risk assessments provide an opportunity to emphasise health promotion and disease prevention for individuals and populations at large. A key component of health risk assessments is the detailed collection of family health history information. This information is helpful in determining risk both for common chronic conditions and more rare diseases as well. While the concept of health risk assessments has been around since the Framingham Heart Study was launched in the 1950s, and such assessments are commonly performed in the workplace today, the US healthcare system has been slow to embrace them and the emphasis on prevention that they represent. Before wider implementation of health risk assessments within healthcare can be seen, several concerns must be addressed: (1) provider impact, (2) patient impact, (3) validity of patient-entered data and (4) health outcomes effect. Here, we describe recent developments in health risk assessment design that are helping to address these issues.

  5. Family migration and employment: the importance of migration history and gender.

    PubMed

    Bailey, A J; Cooke, T J

    1998-01-01

    "This article uses event history data to specify a model of employment returns to initial migration, onward migration, and return migration among newly married persons in the U.S. Husbands are more likely to be full-time employed than wives, and being a parent reduces the employment odds among married women. Employment returns to repeated migration differ by gender, with more husbands full-time employed after onward migration and more wives full-time employed after return migration events. We interpret these empirical findings in the context of family migration theory, segmented labor market theory, and gender-based responsibilities." Data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth from 1979 to 1991.

  6. Heavy cigarette smoking is strongly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), particularly in patients without a family history of RA

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, D; Shepstone, L; Moots, R; Lear, J; Lynch, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate the potential relation between cumulative exposure to cigarette smoking in patients with or without rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and a positive family history of the disease.
METHODS—239 outpatient based patients with RA were compared with 239 controls matched for age, sex, and social class. A detailed smoking history was recorded and expressed as pack years smoked. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the association between RA and pack years smoked. The patients with RA were also interviewed about a family history of disease and recorded as positive if a first or second degree relative had RA. The smoking history at the time of the study of the patients with RA with or without a family history of the disease was compared directly with that of their respective controls. Patients with RA with or without a family history of the disease were also compared retrospectively for current smoking at the time of disease onset.
RESULTS—An increasing association between increased pack years smoked and RA was found. There was a striking association between heavy cigarette smoking and RA. A history for 41-50 pack years smoked was associated with RA (odds ratio (OR) 13.54, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.89 to 63.38; p<0.001). The association between ever having smoked and RA was modest (OR 1.81, CI 1.22 to 2.19; p=0.002). Furthermore, cigarette smoking in the patients with RA without a positive family history of RA was more prevalent than in the patients with a positive family history of RA for ever having smoked (72% v 54%; p=0.006), the number of pack years smoked (median 25.0 v 4.0; p<0.001), and for smoking at the time of disease onset (58% v 39%; p=0.003).
CONCLUSIONS—Heavy cigarette smoking, but not smoking itself, is strongly associated with RA requiring hospital follow up and is markedly more prevalent in patients with RA without a family history of RA.

 PMID:11171682

  7. Working Memory and Decision-Making Biases in Young Adults With a Family History of Alcoholism: Studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.; Yechiam, Eldad; Sorocco, Kristen H.; Vincent, Andrea S.; Collins, Frank L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse is more common in persons with a family history of alcoholism (FH+) than in those with no such history (FH−). Among FH+, behavioral disinhibition and male sex seem to signal the presence of an increased risk. Methods This study examined cognitive and behavioral characteristics of 175 nonabusing 18- to 30-year-olds, 87 FH+ and 88 FH−, who were further characterized by their degree of behavioral disinhibition using the Sociability scale of the California Personality Inventory. Working memory and decision making were tested using the Stroop Color-Word Test and the Iowa Gambling Task, a simulated card game. Results Persons with a family history of alcoholism who were behaviorally disinhibited displayed significantly greater interference on the Stroop task than the other subgroups. On the Iowa Gambling Task, FH+ males, but not the females, were significantly more attentive to financial gains than other subgroups, and they had greater consistency in their choice behaviors. Conclusions Persons with a family history of alcoholism, in combination with behavioral disinhibition, appears to signal working memory deficits and in combination with male sex indicates an attraction to the rewarding aspects of a risk-taking challenge. These findings are not secondary to heavy exposure to alcohol or other drugs, but instead reflect intrinsic risk-related familial and personal characteristics of the subjects. PMID:16634844

  8. Family history of atherosclerotic vascular disease is associated with the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zi; Bailey, Kent R; Austin, Erin; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether family history (FHx) of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) was associated with presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The study cohort comprised of 696 patients with AAA (70±8 years, 84% men) and 2686 controls (68±10 years, 61% men) recruited from noninvasive vascular and stress electrocardiogram (ECG) laboratories at Mayo Clinic. AAA was defined as a transverse diameter of abdominal aorta ⩾ 3 cm or history of AAA repair. Controls were not known to have AAA. FHx was defined as having at least one first-degree relative with aortic aneurysm or with onset of ASCVD (coronary, cerebral or peripheral artery disease) before age 65 years. FHx of aortic aneurysm or ASCVD were each associated with presence of AAA after adjustment for age, sex, conventional risk factors and ASCVD: adjusted odds ratios (OR; 95% confidence interval): 2.17 (1.66-2.83, p < 0.01) and 1.31 (1.08-1.59, p < 0.01), respectively. FHx of ASCVD remained associated with AAA after additional adjustment for FHx of aortic aneurysm: adjusted OR: 1.27 (1.05-1.55, p = 0.01). FHx of ASCVD in multiple arterial locations was associated with higher odds of having AAA: the adjusted odds were 1.23 times higher for each additionally affected arterial location reported in the FHx (1.08-1.40, p = 0.01). Our results suggest both unique and shared environmental and genetic factors mediating susceptibility to AAA and ASCVD.

  9. The effects of family history and personal experiences of illness on the inclination to change health-related behaviour.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Per; Sjöberg, Rickard L; Ohrvik, John; Leppert, Jerzy

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine how a personal experience of illness and a family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), adjusted for sex, level of education and nationality, affect risk behaviour. Participants were 1,011 and 1,043, 50-year-old men and women from Sweden and Poland, respectively, who were recruited from a primary health care screening programme. Family history, personal experience of illness and risk behaviour (smoking and exercise habits, BMI level) were self-reported. The results showed that smoking behaviour was affected by a personal experience of illness but not by a family history of CVD. No effects of these variables were found on the remaining risk-related variables tested in this study. These results suggest that individuals with a personal experience of illness may be more inclined to change smoking behaviour than the average person. Smoking prevention strategies may therefore benefit from targeting this group in particular.

  10. Impact of Genetic Counseling in Women with a Family History of Breast Cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Godino, Lea; Razzaboni, Elisabetta; Bianconi, Margherita; Turchetti, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    As the impact of breast cancer (BC) risk assessment in asymptomatic women with a family history of BC had never been explored in Italy, we performed a study on a retrospective series of women who had undergone BC risk assessment. To this aim, a semi-structured telephone interview was administered to 82 women. Most participants considered the information received as clear (96.2 %) and helpful (76.8 %). Thirty-eight (46.3 %) stated that their perceived risk of BC had changed after the counseling: for 40.2 % it had decreased, for 6.1 % increased; however, women highly overestimating their risk at the baseline (≥ 4-fold) failed to show improvements in risk perception accuracy. Sixty-six women (80.5 %) stated they had followed the recommended surveillance, while 19.5 % had not, mainly due to difficulties in arranging examinations. Most women (89.0 %) had shared the information with their relatives, with 57.3 % reporting other family members had undertaken the recommended surveillance. BC risk assessment was associated with high rates of satisfaction and had a favorable impact on risk perception in a subgroup of women. The impact on surveillance adhesion extended to relatives. Organized programs for identification and surveillance may help identify a larger fraction of at-risk women and overcome the reported difficulties in arranging surveillance.

  11. Microsatellite instability in adenocarcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Relation to clinicopathological data and family history.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, G.; Rotter, M.; Vogelsang, H.; Bischoff, P.; Becker, K. F.; Mueller, J.; Brauch, H.; Siewert, J. R.; Höfler, H.

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed 66 adenocarcinomas arising in the upper gastrointestinal tract for microsatellite instability at eight microsatellite loci to investigate the role of these genetic alterations in the etiology of these tumors. We identified alterations in at least one locus in 11/46 adenocarcinomas of the stomach, in 2/15 adenocarcinomas arising in Barrett's esophagus, and in 1/5 adenocarcinomas of the duodenum and jejunum. Microsatellite instability in gastric tumors was found in 5/22 of intestinal, 1/3 of mixed, and 5/21 of diffuse type tumors. No relationship to the tumor stage (TNM), age, and survival time of the patients was observed. One patient had two synchronous gastric tumors both exhibiting microsatellite instability at multiple loci. His family history revealed four individuals in the maternal line afflicted with gastric carcinoma in three generations. Our data show that microsatellite instability is a genetic event in 11 to 24% of tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The observation of microsatellite instability and a familial clustering of gastric tumors may suggest a genetic predisposition for a subset of gastric tumors, which may be identified by microsatellite analysis. Images Figure 1 PMID:7677173

  12. Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases: Dynamic History of Protein Family Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Mohsen, Al-Walid

    2014-01-01

    The acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) are enzymes that catalyze the α,β-dehydrogenation of acyl-CoA esters in fatty acid and amino acid catabolism. Eleven ACADs are now recognized in the sequenced human genome, and several homologs have been reported from bacteria, fungi, plants, and nematodes. We performed a systematic comparative genomic study, integrating homology searches with methods of phylogenetic reconstruction, to investigate the evolutionary history of this family. Sequence analyses indicate origin of the family in the common ancestor of Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota, illustrating its essential role in the metabolism of early life. At least three ACADs were already present at that time: ancestral glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCD), isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD), and ACAD10/11. Two gene duplications were unique to the eukaryotic domain: one resulted in the VLCAD and ACAD9 paralogs and another in the ACAD10 and ACAD11 paralogs. The overall patchy distribution of specific ACADs across the tree of life is the result of dynamic evolution that includes numerous rounds of gene duplication and secondary losses, interdomain lateral gene transfer events, alteration of cellular localization, and evolution of novel proteins by domain acquisition. Our finding that eukaryotic ACAD species are more closely related to bacterial ACADs is consistent with endosymbiotic origin of ACADs in eukaryotes and further supported by the localization of all nine previously studied ACADs in mitochondria. PMID:19639238

  13. Family History of Skin Cancer is Associated with Early-Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma Independent of MC1R Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Nicholas L.; Cartmel, Brenda; Leffell, David J.; Bale, Allen E.; Mayne, Susan T.; Ferrucci, Leah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background As a marker of genetic susceptibility and shared lifestyle characteristics, family history of cancer is often used to evaluate an individual’s risk for developing a particular malignancy. With comprehensive data on pigment characteristics, lifestyle factors, and melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence, we sought to clarify the role of family history of skin cancer in early-onset basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Materials and Methods Early onset BCC cases (n=376) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=383) under age 40 were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Self-report data on family history of skin cancer (melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer), including age of onset in relatives, was available from a structured interview. Participants also provided saliva samples for sequencing of MC1R. Results A family history of skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of early-onset BCC (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.80–3.45). In multivariate models, family history remained a strong risk factor for early-onset BCC after adjustment for pigment characteristics, UV exposure, and MC1R genotype (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.74–3.35). Conclusions Risk for BCC varied based upon the type and age of onset of skin cancer among affected relatives; individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with skin cancer prior to age 50 were at highest risk for BCC (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.90–7.90). Even after taking into account potential confounding effects of MC1R genotype and various lifestyle factors that close relatives may share, family history of skin cancer remained strongly associated with early-onset BCC. PMID:26381319

  14. History of a prolific family: the Hes/Hey-related genes of the annelid Platynereis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Hes superfamily or Hes/Hey-related genes encompass a variety of metazoan-specific bHLH genes, with somewhat fuzzy phylogenetic relationships. Hes superfamily members are involved in a variety of major developmental mechanisms in metazoans, notably in neurogenesis and segmentation processes, in which they often act as direct effector genes of the Notch signaling pathway. Results We have investigated the molecular and functional evolution of the Hes superfamily in metazoans using the lophotrochozoan Platynereis dumerilii as model. Our phylogenetic analyses of more than 200 Metazoan Hes/Hey-related genes revealed the presence of five families, three of them (Hes, Hey and Helt) being pan-metazoan. Those families were likely composed of a unique representative in the last common metazoan ancestor. The evolution of the Hes family was shaped by many independent lineage specific tandem duplication events. The expression patterns of 13 of the 15 Hes/Hey-related genes in Platynereis indicate a broad functional diversification. Nevertheless, a majority of these genes are involved in two crucial developmental processes in annelids: neurogenesis and segmentation, resembling functions highlighted in other animal models. Conclusions Combining phylogenetic and expression data, our study suggests an unusual evolutionary history for the Hes superfamily. An ancestral multifunctional annelid Hes gene may have undergone multiples rounds of duplication-degeneration-complementation processes in the lineage leading to Platynereis, each gene copies ensuring their maintenance in the genome by subfunctionalisation. Similar but independent waves of duplications are at the origin of the multiplicity of Hes genes in other metazoan lineages. PMID:25250171

  15. Effect of Family History on Outcomes in Patients Treated With Definitive Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Christopher A. Stock, Richard G.; Blacksburg, Seth R.; Stone, Nelson N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact familial prostate cancer has on prognosis in men treated with brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,738 consecutive patients with prostate cancer (cT1-3, N0/X, M0) received low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with external beam radiation therapy or hormone ablation from 1992 to 2005. The primary end-point was freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) using the Phoenix definition. Minimum follow-up was 2 years and the median follow-up was 60 months (range, 24-197 months). Results: A total of 187 of 1,738 men (11%) had a family history of prostate cancer in a first-degree relative. For the low-risk patients, both groups had similar actuarial 5-year FFBF (97.2% vs. 95.5%, p = 0.516). For intermediate-risk patients, there was a trend toward improved biochemical control in men positive for family history (5-yr FFBF 100% vs. 93.6%, p = 0.076). For the high-risk patients, men with a positive family history had similar 5-year FFBF (92.8% vs. 85.2%, p = 0.124). On multivariate analysis, family history was not significant; use of hormones, high biologic effective dose, initial prostate-specific antigen value, and Gleason score were the significant variables predicting biochemical control. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine the relationship of familial prostate cancer and outcomed in men treated with brachytherapy alone or in combination therapy. Men with a positive family history have clinicopathologic characteristics and biochemical outcomes similar to those with sporadic disease.

  16. Family history of suicide and high motor impulsivity distinguish suicide attempters from suicide ideators among college students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Guang; Chen, Shen; Xu, Zhi-Ming; Shen, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Yi-Quan; He, Xiao-Yan; Cao, Ri-Fang; Roberts, David L; Shi, Jian-Fei; Wang, Yi-Qiang

    2017-02-08

    Suicide in college students has become an important public health issue in China. The aim of this study was to identify the differences between suicide attempters and suicide ideators based on a cross-sectional survey. Our results indicate that although female gender, positive screening for psychiatric illness, positive family history of suicide, elevated overall impulsivity, and elevated motor impulsivity were correlated with suicidal ideation, only positive family history of suicide and high motor impulsivity could differentiate suicide attempters from suicidal ideators. Future research with a longitudinal and prospective study design should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  17. Something Old, Something New: Using Family History and Genetic Testing to Diagnose and Manage Athletes with Inherited Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Matthew J; Battle, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    A primary objective of the preparticipation physical examination is to identify athletes at increased risk for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Review of an athlete's family history may identify those at risk for SCA. Genetic testing for inherited cardiovascular disease has emerged as a valuable addition to the repertoire of cardiologists facing the decision of clearing athletes with concerning clinical signs and/or family histories. Genetic testing may lead to various outcomes for an athlete including: reassurance, diagnosis in those with borderline clinical features, finding disease predisposition prior to the onset of clinical signs (ie, genotype-positive/phenotype-negative), or continued uncertainty.

  18. Giuseppe and Aloysius Frari’s Works on Rabies and History of Frari Medical Family of Šibenik, Dalmatia

    PubMed Central

    Krnić, Anton

    2007-01-01

    This article is an attempt to reconstruct the family history of the Fraris, the famous Šibenik medical family. Three generations of physicians from the Frari family played an important role not only at medical and social scene of Šibenik in the 18th and 19th century, but also in Croatian and Italian medical history. I will try to provide important details on the lives, medical and social work, and publications of 5 members of the family, Giuseppe (Josip), Angelo Antonio (Anđeo Antun), Sebastiano (Sebastijan), Michele Carlo (Mihovil), and Aloysius (Luigi) Frari. I would also like to pay a special attention to the works on rabies, written by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari, which are among the earliest and most accurate Croatian works on the subject. To reconstruct the history of the family, I studied the relevant editions about the medical and social history of Šibenik, Dalmatia, Venice, and Croatia, together with the Fraris’ publications and reflections. This was the first time Italian and Latin language works by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari on rabies were analyzed. The story on Fraris also documents that medical publishing was a common practice in Dalmatia in the 18th and the 19th century. PMID:17589982

  19. Genetic variation at 8q24, family history of cancer, and upper gastrointestinal cancers in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Tarleton, Heather P; Chang, Shen-Chih; Park, Sungshim Lani; Cai, Lin; Ding, Baoguo; He, Na; Hussain, Shehnaz K; Jiang, Qingwu; Mu, Li-Na; Rao, Jianyu; Wang, Hua; You, Nai-Chieh Y; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Zhao, Jin-Kou; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Genetic variation at 8q24 is associated with prostate, bladder, breast, colorectal, thyroid, lung, ovarian, UADT, liver and stomach cancers. However, a role for variation at 8q24 in familial clustering of upper gastrointestinal cancers has not been studied. In order to explore potential inherited susceptibility, we analyzed epidemiologic data from a population-based case-control study of upper gastrointestinal cancers from Taixing, China. The study population includes 204 liver, 206 stomach, and 218 esophageal cancer cases and 415 controls. Associations between 8q24 rs1447295, rs16901979, rs6983267 and these cancers were stratified by family history of cancer. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for potential confounders: age, sex, education, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI at interview. We also adjusted for hepatitis B and aflatoxin (liver cancer) and Helicobacter pylori (stomach cancer). In a dominant model, among those with a family history of cancer, rs1447295 was positively associated with liver cancer (OR(adj) 2.80; 95% CI 1.15-6.80). Heterogeneity was observed (P(heterogeneity) = 0.029) with rs6983267 and liver cancer, with positive association in the dominant model among those with a family history of cancer and positive association in the recessive model among those without a family history of cancer. When considered in a genetic risk score model, each additional 8q24 risk genotype increased the odds of liver cancer by two-fold among those with a family history of cancer (OR(adj) 2.00; 95% CI 1.15-3.47). These findings suggest that inherited susceptibility to liver cancer may exist in the Taixing population and that variation at 8q24 might be a genetic component of that inherited susceptibility.

  20. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Benavente, Yolanda; Blair, Aaron; Vermeulen, Roel; Cerhan, James R.; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Monnereau, Alain; Nieters, Alexandra; Clavel, Jacqueline; Call, Timothy G.; Maynadié, Marc; Lan, Qing; Clarke, Christina A.; Lightfoot, Tracy; Norman, Aaron D.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Casabonne, Delphine; Cocco, Pierluigi; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are two subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A number of studies have evaluated associations between risk factors and CLL/SLL risk. However, these associations remain inconsistent or lacked confirmation. This may be due, in part, to the inadequate sample size of CLL/SLL cases. Methods We performed a pooled analysis of 2440 CLL/SLL cases and 15186 controls from 13 case-control studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We evaluated associations of medical history, family history, lifestyle, and occupational risk factors with CLL/SLL risk. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results We confirmed prior inverse associations with any atopic condition and recreational sun exposure. We also confirmed prior elevated associations with usual adult height, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, living or working on a farm, and family history of any hematological malignancy. Novel associations were identified with hairdresser occupation (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.98) and blood transfusion history (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.94). We also found smoking to have modest protective effect (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.99). All exposures showed evidence of independent effects. Conclusions We have identified or confirmed several independent risk factors for CLL/SLL supporting a role for genetics (through family history), immune function (through allergy and sun), infection (through hepatitis C virus), and height, and other pathways of immune response. Given that CLL/SLL has more than 30 susceptibility loci identified to date, studies evaluating the interaction among genetic and nongenetic factors are warranted. PMID:25174025

  1. Multiple myeloma and family history of lymphohaematopoietic cancers: Results from the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium.

    PubMed

    Schinasi, Leah H; Brown, Elizabeth E; Camp, Nicola J; Wang, Sophia S; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Chiu, Brian C; Miligi, Lucia; Beane Freeman, Laura E; de Sanjose, Silvia; Bernstein, Leslie; Monnereau, Alain; Clavel, Jacqueline; Tricot, Guido J; Atanackovic, Djordje; Cocco, Pierluigi; Orsi, Laurent; Dosman, James A; McLaughlin, John R; Purdue, Mark P; Cozen, Wendy; Spinelli, John J; de Roos, Anneclaire J

    2016-10-01

    Family clusters of multiple myeloma (MM) suggest disease heritability. Nevertheless, patterns of inheritance and the importance of genetic versus environmental risk factors in MM aetiology remain unclear. We pooled data from eleven case-control studies from the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium to characterize the association of MM risk with having a first-degree relative with a history of a lympho-haematapoietic cancer. Unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for study, sex, age and education level, were used to estimate associations between MM risk and having a first-degree relative with a history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, leukaemia or MM. Sex, African American race/ethnicity and age were explored as effect modifiers. A total of 2843 cases and 11 470 controls were included. MM risk was elevated in association with having a first-degree relative with any lympho-haematapoietic cancer (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1·29, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1·08-1·55). The association was particularly strong for having a first-degree relative with MM (OR = 1·90, 95% CI: 1·26-2·87), especially among men (OR = 4·13, 95% CI: 2·17-7·85) and African Americans (OR = 5·52, 95% CI: 1·87-16·27).These results support the hypothesis that genetic inheritance plays a role in MM aetiology. Future studies are warranted to characterize interactions of genetic markers with environmental exposures.

  2. Pectus Excavatum and Pectus Carinatum: Associated Conditions, Family History, and Postoperative Patient Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Kuru, Pinar; Cakiroglu, Aylin; Er, Aynur; Ozbakir, Hincal; Cinel, Ali Emin; Cangut, Busra; Iris, Merve; Canbaz, Berkay; Pıçak, Ebru; Yuksel, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Pectus excavatum (PE) and pectus carinatum (PC) are the most common chest wall deformities. In this study, we aimed to characterize how patients obtained information about these deformities, as well as patients’ family history, associated medical problems, and postoperative satisfaction after the Nuss and Abramson procedures. Methods This cross-sectional retrospective study included patients who were operated by a single surgeon between 2006 and 2013. Follow-up calls were made after approval of our institution’s ethics committee. We reached 207 of the 336 PE patients (61.6%) and 73 of the 96 PC patients (76%). Results The majority of the patients were male (85% of the PE patients and 91.8% of the PC patients). The age of diagnosis of PE was 14.52±0.51 years and the age at the time of operation was 17.89±0.42 years; for PC patients, the corresponding ages were 15.23±0.55 years and 16.77±0.55 years, respectively. A total of 70% of the PE patients and 63.8% of the PC patients obtained information about pectus deformities through the Internet. In 27.1% of the PE patients with an associated anomaly, 57.1% (n=13) had scoliosis, while 41.1% of the PC patients with an associated anomaly had kyphosis (n=5). Postoperative satisfaction, as evaluated on a scale from 0 to 10, was 8.17±0.15 for PE patients and 8.37±0.26 for PC patients. The postoperative pain duration was 51.93±5.18 days for PE patients and 38.5±6.88 days for PC patients. Conclusion In this study, we found that most patients with pectus deformities were male. The Internet was an important resource for patients to learn about their deformities. Family history and associated anomalies were identified as important aspects for consideration in the clinical setting. The patients reported high levels of postoperative satisfaction, and pain management was found to be one of the most important elements of postoperative care. PMID:26889443

  3. Income-generating activities for family planning acceptors.

    PubMed

    1989-07-01

    The Income Generating Activities program for Family Planning Acceptors was introduced in Indonesia in 1979. Capital input by the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordination Board and the UN Fund for Population Activities was used to set up small businesses by family planning acceptors. In 2 years, when the businesses become self-sufficient, the loans are repaid, and the money is used to set up new family planning acceptors in business. The program strengthens family planning acceptance, improves the status of women, and enhances community self-reliance. The increase in household income generated by the program raises the standards of child nutrition, encourages reliance on the survival of children, and decreases the value of large families. Approximately 18,000 Family Planning-Income Generating Activities groups are now functioning all over Indonesia, with financial assistance from the central and local governments, the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development, the UN Population Fund, the Government of the Netherlands, and the Government of Australia through the Association of South East Asian Nations.

  4. Association between Health Behaviors and a Family History of Cancer among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Youngsun; Oh, Hea Young; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the health-related behaviors related to a family history of cancer (FHCA) among Korean women underwent cancer screening. Materials and Methods A total of 8,956 women who underwent cancer screenings during 2001-2011 at the National Cancer Center, Korea, were analyzed. The association between health-related behaviors and a FHCA were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Compared to women with no FHCA, women with FHCA were more likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.65), to be exposed to passive smoking (aOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.65), and less likely to engage in regular exercise (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.41). Combined effects of selected health behaviors for FHCA were significant, although no statistically significant interactions were observed between selected health behaviors. Compared to women with no FHCA, women with FHCA were more likely to simultaneously smoke and be exposed to passive smoking (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.31) and to simultaneously smoke and be physically inactive (aOR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.64). Conclusion The study found that women with a FHCA exhibited unhealthy behaviors compared to women without FHCA. Higher emphasis on lifestyle modifications using a new standardized tool is strongly recommended for those with a FHCA, as well as individuals who are at high risk, together with their family members. PMID:26511810

  5. No differences in ventral striatum responsivity between adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism and controls.

    PubMed

    Müller, Kathrin U; Gan, Gabriela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with alcohol-dependent parents show an elevated risk of developing alcohol-related problems themselves. Modulations of the mesolimbic reward circuit have been postulated as a pre-existing marker of alcoholism. We tested whether a positive family history of alcoholism is correlated with ventral striatum functionality during a reward task. All participants performed a modified version of the monetary incentive delay task while their brain responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared 206 healthy adolescents (aged 13-15) who had any first- or second-degree relative with alcoholism to 206 matched controls with no biological relative with alcoholism. Reward anticipation as well as feedback of win recruited the ventral striatum in all participants, but adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism did not differ from their matched peers. Also we did not find any correlation between family history density and reward anticipation or feedback of win. This finding of no differences did not change when we analyzed a subsample of 77 adolescents with at least one parent with alcohol use disorder and their matched controls. Because this result is in line with another study reporting no differences between children with alcohol-dependent parents and controls at young age, but contrasts with studies of older individuals, one might conclude that at younger age the effect of family history has not yet exerted its influence on the still developing mesolimbic reward circuit.

  6. Factors from Durkheim's Family Integration Related to Suicidal Ideation among Men with Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Scott D.; Renner, Lynette M.

    2013-01-01

    Men who were sexually abused during childhood represent a highly stigmatized, marginalized population at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems. Using the family integration dimension of Durkheim's theory of suicide, factors associated with suicidal ideation among a purposive sample of 487 men with histories of child sexual…

  7. Voices of Our Past: Using Oral History To Explore Funds of Knowledge within a Puerto Rican Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Irma M.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an educational rationale for using oral history to teach students that there are multiple sources of information and multiple ways to seek it. The case study of an extended Puerto Rican family is used to explore the funds of knowledge available in this way as well as to challenge some stereotypes about Latinas. (SLD)

  8. Use of Family History Information for Neural Tube Defect Prevention: Integration into State-Based Recurrence Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ridgely Fisk; Ehrhardt, Joan; Ruttenber, Margaret F.; Olney, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    A family history of neural tube defects (NTDs) can increase the risk of a pregnancy affected by an NTD. Periconceptional folic acid use decreases this risk. Purpose: Our objective was to determine whether second-degree relatives of NTD-affected children showed differences in folic acid use compared with the general population and to provide them…

  9. Bcl-2-family proteins and hematologic malignancies: history and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Reed, John C

    2008-04-01

    BCL-2 was the first antideath gene discovered, a milestone that effectively launched a new era in cell death research. Since its discovery more than 2 decades ago, multiple members of the human Bcl-2 family of apoptosis-regulating proteins have been identified, including 6 antiapoptotic proteins, 3 structurally similar proapoptotic proteins, and several structurally diverse proapoptotic interacting proteins that operate as upstream agonists or antagonists. Bcl-2-family proteins regulate all major types of cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. As such, they operate as nodal points at the convergence of multiple pathways with broad relevance to biology and medicine. Bcl-2 derives its name from its original discovery in the context of B-cell lymphomas, where chromosomal translocations commonly activate the BCL-2 protooncogene, endowing B cells with a selective survival advantage that promotes their neoplastic expansion. The concept that defective programmed cell death contributes to malignancy was established by studies of Bcl-2, representing a major step forward in current understanding of tumorigenesis. Experimental therapies targeting Bcl-2 family mRNAs or proteins are currently in clinical testing, raising hopes that a new class of anticancer drugs may be near.

  10. Distal and proximal factors related to aggression severity among patients in substance abuse treatment: family history, alcohol use and expectancies.

    PubMed

    Chermack, Stephen T; Wryobeck, John M; Walton, Maureen A; Blow, Frederic C

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the relationships among distal (paternal and maternal family history of alcohol problems and violence) and proximal (general alcohol use, acute use associated with conflict incidents, alcohol-aggression expectancies) factors and physical aggression severity among 125 men and 125 women recruited from substance abuse treatment. Paternal alcohol problem history (PA) was related to alcohol-aggression expectancies, but no family history factors were related to general or acute alcohol use. Separate analyses examining predictors of aggression were conducted, one with general alcohol use and one with acute alcohol use. In both analyses, alcohol use and the maternal violence (MV) by PA interaction were significant. Specifically, MV was associated with aggression severity for those with a history of PA. The general alcohol use model also revealed significant alcohol by expectancy and MV by gender interactions. The findings suggest that expectancies are not the primary mediator of the alcohol-aggression relationship, alcohol use measurement issues may impact whether expectancies are observed to moderate the alcohol-aggression relationship, and that both maternal and paternal family history factors appear to impact aggression severity.

  11. A History of Classified Activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Quist, A.S.

    2001-01-30

    The facilities that became Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were created in 1943 during the United States' super-secret World War II project to construct an atomic bomb (the Manhattan Project). During World War II and for several years thereafter, essentially all ORNL activities were classified. Now, in 2000, essentially all ORNL activities are unclassified. The major purpose of this report is to provide a brief history of ORNL's major classified activities from 1943 until the present (September 2000). This report is expected to be useful to the ORNL Classification Officer and to ORNL's Authorized Derivative Classifiers and Authorized Derivative Declassifiers in their classification review of ORNL documents, especially those documents that date from the 1940s and 1950s.

  12. STEM learning activity among home-educating families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachman, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning was studied among families in a group of home-educators in the Pacific Northwest. Ethnographic methods recorded learning activity (video, audio, fieldnotes, and artifacts) which was analyzed using a unique combination of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and Mediated Action (MA), enabling analysis of activity at multiple levels. Findings indicate that STEM learning activity is family-led, guided by parents' values and goals for learning, and negotiated with children to account for learner interests and differences, and available resources. Families' STEM education practice is dynamic, evolves, and influenced by larger societal STEM learning activity. Parents actively seek support and resources for STEM learning within their home-school community, working individually and collectively to share their funds of knowledge. Home-schoolers also access a wide variety of free-choice learning resources: web-based materials, museums, libraries, and community education opportunities (e.g. afterschool, weekend and summer programs, science clubs and classes, etc.). A lesson-heuristic, grounded in Mediated Action, represents and analyzes home STEM learning activity in terms of tensions between parental goals, roles, and lesson structure. One tension observed was between 'academic' goals or school-like activity and 'lifelong' goals or everyday learning activity. Theoretical and experiential learning was found in both activity, though parents with academic goals tended to focus more on theoretical learning and those with lifelong learning goals tended to be more experiential. Examples of the National Research Council's science learning strands (NRC, 2009) were observed in the STEM practices of all these families. Findings contribute to the small but growing body of empirical CHAT research in science education, specifically to the empirical base of family STEM learning practices at home. It also fills a

  13. Family history of immigration from a tuberculosis endemic country and low family income are associated with a higher BCG vaccination coverage in Ile-de-France region, France.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Chauvin, Pierre; Le Strat, Yann; Soler, Marion; Fonteneau, Laure; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2013-11-19

    After withdrawal of multipuncture BCG device from the French market in January 2006, vaccination coverage (VC) with the intradermal device has dropped and since remained sub-optimal in Ile-de-France, the only region of mainland France where BCG is recommended to all children. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify socio-economic factors associated with BCG VC in children of Paris metropolitan area born after January 2006. Two-stage random sampling was used to include 425 children up to 5 years old from Paris and its suburbs. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and vaccination status confirmed by a vaccination document. Poisson regression analyzed the association between VC and potential determinants. VC of children from families with the lowest incomes (first quartile of family income/consumption unit (CU) (<883 €) was close to 100% regardless of family origin. In families with higher incomes (≥ 883 €/CU), VC was significantly higher among children born to families from a tuberculosis highly endemic country (98.2%) compared with other children (76.2%) (p=0.004). Children of low socio-economic background as well as those with a family history of immigration, regardless of family income, are correctly identified as being at high risk of tuberculosis and properly vaccinated with BCG in this area.

  14. Development and Validation of a Primary Care-Based Family Health History and Decision Support Program (MeTree)

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Lori A.; Buchanan, Adam H.; Hahn, Susan E.; Christianson, Carol A.; Powell, Karen P.; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chesnut, Blair; Blach, Colette; Due, Barbara; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Henrich, Vincent C.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Family health history is a strong predictor of disease risk. To reduce the morbidity and mortality of many chronic diseases, risk-stratified evidence-based guidelines strongly encourage the collection and synthesis of family health history to guide selection of primary prevention strategies. However, the collection and synthesis of such information is not well integrated into clinical practice. To address barriers to collection and use of family health histories, the Genomedical Connection developed and validated MeTree, a Web-based, patient-facing family health history collection and clinical decision support tool. MeTree is designed for integration into primary care practices as part of the genomic medicine model for primary care. METHODS We describe the guiding principles, operational characteristics, algorithm development, and coding used to develop MeTree. Validation was performed through stakeholder cognitive interviewing, a genetic counseling pilot program, and clinical practice pilot programs in 2 community-based primary care clinics. RESULTS Stakeholder feedback resulted in changes to MeTree’s interface and changes to the phrasing of clinical decision support documents. The pilot studies resulted in the identification and correction of coding errors and the reformatting of clinical decision support documents. MeTree’s strengths in comparison with other tools are its seamless integration into clinical practice and its provision of action-oriented recommendations guided by providers’ needs. LIMITATIONS The tool was validated in a small cohort. CONCLUSION MeTree can be integrated into primary care practices to help providers collect and synthesize family health history information from patients with the goal of improving adherence to risk-stratified evidence-based guidelines. PMID:24044145

  15. Vascular and baroreceptor abnormalities in young males with a family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Boutcher, Yati N; Park, Young J; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2009-12-01

    Vascular and baroreceptor abnormalities in 44 young males, mean age 21 years, comprising of offspring with (FH(+); n = 22) and without (FH(-); n = 22) hypertensive parents, were investigated. Peak forearm blood flow (FBF), which was defined as the highest blood flow obtained following reactive hyperaemia, was assessed using strain gauge plethysmography following 5 min of ischemia. Cardiopulmonary baroreceptor sensitivity was assessed using lower body negative pressure for 5 min at -20 mmHg and was determined by calculating change of stroke volume and forearm vascular resistance (FVR) to lower body negative pressure. Carotid baroreceptor sensitivity was assessed using neck suction at -20, -40, -60, and -80 mmHg and was calculated by dividing RR interval by systolic blood pressure. Augmentation index, a measure of wave reflection, was assessed using applanation tonometry and was calculated as the ratio of augmented pressure and pulse pressure. Peak FBF of FH(+) was 19% lower than the FH(-) (p = 0.02). Also FH(+) had 17% higher peak FVR compared to FH(-) (p = 0.04). However, there were no significant differences between groups for cardiopulmonary, carotid baroreceptor sensitivity, and augmentation index. These results suggest that peripheral vascular dysfunction appears earlier than abnormal baroreceptor sensitivity in young males with a family history of hypertension.

  16. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH.

  17. Evolutionary History of the Nesophontidae, the Last Unplaced Recent Mammal Family.

    PubMed

    Brace, Selina; Thomas, Jessica A; Dalén, Love; Burger, Joachim; MacPhee, Ross D E; Barnes, Ian; Turvey, Samuel T

    2016-12-01

    The mammalian evolutionary tree has lost several major clades through recent human-caused extinctions. This process of historical biodiversity loss has particularly affected tropical island regions such as the Caribbean, an area of great evolutionary diversification but poor molecular preservation. The most enigmatic of the recently extinct endemic Caribbean mammals are the Nesophontidae, a family of morphologically plesiomorphic lipotyphlan insectivores with no consensus on their evolutionary affinities, and which constitute the only major recent mammal clade to lack any molecular information on their phylogenetic placement. Here, we use a palaeogenomic approach to place Nesophontidae within the phylogeny of recent Lipotyphla. We recovered the near-complete mitochondrial genome and sequences for 17 nuclear genes from a ∼750-year-old Hispaniolan Nesophontes specimen, and identify a divergence from their closest living relatives, the Solenodontidae, more than 40 million years ago. Nesophontidae is thus an older distinct lineage than many extant mammalian orders, highlighting not only the role of island systems as "museums" of diversity that preserve ancient lineages, but also the major human-caused loss of evolutionary history.

  18. My Family Medical History and Me: A pilot feasibility study of a cardiovascular risk reduction intervention

    PubMed Central

    Imes, Christopher C.; Lewis, Frances M.; Austin, Melissa A.; Dougherty, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a behaviorally-focused intervention designed to increase perceived cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in young adults with a family history (FH) of CVD/CHD. Design Single group, pre-post-test design. Sample Fifteen, mostly female (n=13, 86.7%), White, young adults (mean age 20.8 years) with a minimum of a high school education with a FH of CVD/CHD. Measurements Feasibility examined the recruitment strategy, study procedures, appropriateness and quality of the study instruments, and problems that occurred during delivery of the intervention. Acceptability examined participants' engagement in the in person sessions and at home exercises and their feedback about the intervention. Intervention Two, in person sessions provided personalized, tailored messages about ten-year and lifetime CHD risk based on risk factors, FH from a three-generation pedigree, lipid levels, blood pressure, and smoking status, and brief counseling about how to engage in a healthy lifestyle to decrease CVD/CHD risk. Results The intervention was feasible and acceptable. Participants requested more information on healthy food choices, including which foods to avoid and which exercises most improve cardiovascular health. Conclusions Although requiring refinement, the intervention has potential public health implications and deserves further testing. PMID:24840334

  19. Beer Flavor Provokes Striatal Dopamine Release in Male Drinkers: Mediation by Family History of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Oberlin, Brandon G; Dzemidzic, Mario; Tran, Stella M; Soeurt, Christina M; Albrecht, Daniel S; Yoder, Karmen K; Kareken, David A

    2013-01-01

    Striatal dopamine (DA) is increased by virtually all drugs of abuse, including alcohol. However, drug-associated cues are also known to provoke striatal DA transmission- a phenomenon linked to the motivated behaviors associated with addiction. To our knowledge, no one has tested if alcohol's classically conditioned flavor cues, in the absence of a significant pharmacologic effect, are capable of eliciting striatal DA release in humans. Employing positron emission tomography (PET), we hypothesized that beer's flavor alone can reduce the binding potential (BP) of [11C]raclopride (RAC; a reflection of striatal DA release) in the ventral striatum, relative to an appetitive flavor control. Forty-nine men, ranging from social to heavy drinking, mean age 25, with a varied family history of alcoholism underwent two [11C]RAC PET scans: one while tasting beer, and one while tasting Gatorade. Relative to the control flavor of Gatorade, beer flavor significantly increased self-reported desire to drink, and reduced [11C]RAC BP, indicating that the alcohol-associated flavor cues induced DA release. BP reductions were strongest in subjects with first-degree alcoholic relatives. These results demonstrate that alcohol-conditioned flavor cues can provoke ventral striatal DA release, absent significant pharmacologic effects, and that the response is strongest in subjects with a greater genetic risk for alcoholism. Striatal DA responses to salient alcohol cues may thus be an inherited risk factor for alcoholism. PMID:23588036

  20. Pancreatic cancer screening in different risk individuals with family history of pancreatic cancer-a prospective cohort study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ming-Chu; Wu, Chih-Horng; Yang, Shih-Hung; Liang, Po-Chin; Chen, Bang-Bin; Jan, I-Shiow; Chang, Yu-Ting; Jeng, Yung-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is usually diagnosed at advanced stage. Our aim was to investigate the risk of malignant and premalignant pancreatic lesions in individuals with family history of PC. Individuals at risk of PC were enrolled prospectively in a screening program in Taiwan. All risk individuals received genetic testing of cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene and the serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) gene. They were stratified into three risk groups (high, moderate, and low) based on the family history and genetic testing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatogram (MRCP) were performed in all screened individuals. A total of three hundred and three risk individuals in 165 families were enrolled with the mean age of 51.1 years, 38.3% of whom were male. A total of 24 of 303 (7.9%) screened individuals had the PRSS1 mutation, and 7/234 (0.3%) had the SPINK1 mutation. Nineteen (6.3%) risk individuals had pancreatic pathology including seven with pancreatic cancer, and four with pancreatic mucinous neoplasms. The earliest age of onset of PC in affected members was an independent factor associated with risk of developing PC in all risk groups. DM was associated with much-increased risk of developing PC in low and moderate risk groups (OR45.8. 95% CI. 13.82-151.64, P=0.001). Combined family history of non-PC malignancy in the family in the low-risk individual was associated with abnormal findings on MRI (OR8.4, 95% CI 3.29-21.88, P < 0.0001). There was no any complication of screening. In summary, pancreatic cancer screening may benefit in risk individuals with family history of pancreatic cancer in our population. The diagnostic yield is similar to prior studies. MRCP as initial screening modality is safe and effective. Future study will be needed to tailor PC screening strategy in different risk populations. PMID:28337383

  1. Connecting Children and Family with Nature-Based Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, M. Ryan; Moore, Rebecca W.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Belonga, Joyce; Navarre, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Background: As the obesity epidemic expands to include younger Americans, there is greater need to understand youth experiences and to identify innovative strategies to promote physical activity in children and adolescents. Connecting children and families with nature-based activities is an example of a strategy that may promote physical activity…

  2. Activity screening of environmental metagenomic libraries reveals novel carboxylesterase families

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Ana; Hai, Tran; Tchigvintsev, Anatoly; Hajighasemi, Mahbod; Nocek, Boguslaw; Khusnutdinova, Anna N.; Brown, Greg; Glinos, Julia; Flick, Robert; Skarina, Tatiana; Chernikova, Tatyana N.; Yim, Veronica; Brüls, Thomas; Paslier, Denis Le; Yakimov, Michail M.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshina, Olga V.; Savchenko, Alexei; Golyshin, Peter N.; Yakunin, Alexander F.

    2017-01-01

    Metagenomics has made accessible an enormous reserve of global biochemical diversity. To tap into this vast resource of novel enzymes, we have screened over one million clones from metagenome DNA libraries derived from sixteen different environments for carboxylesterase activity and identified 714 positive hits. We have validated the esterase activity of 80 selected genes, which belong to 17 different protein families including unknown and cyclase-like proteins. Three metagenomic enzymes exhibited lipase activity, and seven proteins showed polyester depolymerization activity against polylactic acid and polycaprolactone. Detailed biochemical characterization of four new enzymes revealed their substrate preference, whereas their catalytic residues were identified using site-directed mutagenesis. The crystal structure of the metal-ion dependent esterase MGS0169 from the amidohydrolase superfamily revealed a novel active site with a bound unknown ligand. Thus, activity-centered metagenomics has revealed diverse enzymes and novel families of microbial carboxylesterases, whose activity could not have been predicted using bioinformatics tools. PMID:28272521

  3. Preferences regarding targeted education and risk assessment in people with a family history of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Veronica; Meiser, Bettina; Wilde, Alex; Cousins, Zoe; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Mitchell, Philip B; Schofield, Peter R

    2014-10-01

    Genetic testing for susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD) is not available for clinical use at present. Given this, family history remains the best predictor for development of MDD, and family-history-based risk assessment and information about familial aspects of MDD may be useful to clients at increased risk for MDD attending for genetic counseling. This study uses a mixed-methods design to assess the information needs and preferences of people at increased familial risk for MDD. Telephone interviews were conducted with 23 individuals, who had at least one first-degree relative with MDD and were recruited through advertisements placed on depression education websites. The most preferred way to access depression information was via the internet (87 % of participants), although this preference may have been due to the internet-based recruitment method. The second most preferred dissemination strategy (56 %) was face-to-face delivery through a health professional, including genetic counselors. Individuals reported a need for information about etiology and development of MDD, reproductive decision-making, early detection of symptoms and risk-reducing strategies. Nearly all participants expressed an interest in risk assessment. The present study found evidence of a high level of interest for information targeted to people at increased familial risk for MDD. Genetic counselors are likely to be called upon increasingly to provide supportive counseling to assist clients at increased familial risk in interpreting and contextualizing such information once it becomes available.

  4. Presymptomatic identification of CDH1 germline mutation in a healthy korean individual with family history of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Jung; Ki, Chang-Seok; Suh, Soon-Pal; Kim, Jong-Won

    2014-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers with high morbidity and mortality. Familial GC is seen in 10% of cases, and approximately 3% of familial GC cases arise owing to hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). CDH1, which encodes the protein E-cadherin, is the only gene whose mutations are associated with HDGC. Screening for the familial GC-predisposing gene has been neglected in high-risk countries such as Korea, China, and Japan, where all the cases have been attributed to Helicobacter pylori or other carcinogens. Screening for the GC-causing CDH1 mutation may provide valuable information for genetic counseling, testing, and risk-reduction management for the as-yet unaffected family members. An asymptomatic 44-yr-old Korean male visited our genetic clinic for consultation owing to his family history of GC. Eventually, c.1018A>G in CDH1, a known disease-causing mutation, was found. As of the publication time, the individual is alive without the evidence of GC, and is on surveillance. To our knowledge, this is the first Korean case of presymptomatic detection of CDH1 mutation, and it highlights the importance of genetic screening for individuals with a family history of GC, especially in high-risk geographical areas.

  5. "It runs in my family …": The association of perceived family history with body dissatisfaction and weight bias internalization among overweight women.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Miriam H; Street, Richard L; Persky, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Aspects of poor body acceptance (BA), such as internalized weight bias and dissatisfaction with one's shape and size, are the strongest predictors of disordered eating and are associated with reduced engagement in healthy behaviors. Perceiving oneself as having a family history of overweight (PFH) could boost BA by increasing attributions for inherited, biological causes of weight. A community sample of 289 women who were overweight from the Washington, DC metropolitan area who were dissatisfied with their current weight (68% Black; 32% White) enrolled in this study in 2012. PFH of overweight was associated with decreased internalized weight bias among white women and marginally increased body shape satisfaction generally. The relationship between PFH and BA was not explained by biological attributions for weight. Perceptions that overweight runs in one's family can be protective with respect to BA. This is suggestive of the potential benefit of integrating family-based approaches into weight management interventions.

  6. Veterans’ experience in using the online Surgeon General’s family health history tool

    PubMed Central

    Arar, Nedal; Seo, Joann; Abboud, Hanna E; Parchman, Michael; Noel, Polly

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess veterans’ experience and satisfaction in using the Surgeon General’s (SG) online family health history (FHH) tool, and determine the perceived facilitators and barriers to using the online SG-FHH tool. Materials & methods A mixed-method using both qualitative and quantitative approaches was employed in this study. A total of 35 veterans at the VA Medical Center in San Antonio, Texas, USA were invited to enter their FHH information using the online SG-FHH tool, complete the study’s satisfaction survey and participate in a short semi-structured interview. The goal of the semi-structured interviews was to assess participants perceived facilitators and barriers to using the online SG-FHH tool. All participants were also provided with a printed copy of their pedigree, which was generated by the SG-FHH tool and were encouraged to share it with their relatives and providers. Results The majority of participants (91%) said that they had access to a computer with internet capability and 77% reported that they knew how to use a computer. More than two-thirds of the participants felt that items on the SG-FHH tool were easy to read and felt that FHH categories were relevant to their family’s health. Approximately 94% of participants viewed the SG-FHH tool as useful, and the majority of participants (97%) indicated that they were likely to recommend the tool to others. Content analysis of the semi-structured interviews highlighted several barriers to veterans’ use of the SG-FHH tool and their FHH information. These included: lack of patients’ knowledge regarding their relatives’ FHH, and privacy and confidentiality concerns. Conclusion This study provides information on the performance and functionality of an inexpensive and widely accessible method for FHH collection. Furthermore, our findings highlight several opportunities and challenges facing the utilization of FHH information as a clinical and genomic tool at the Veterans Health Administration

  7. CTA Characteristics of the Circle of Willis and Intracranial Aneurysm in a Chinese Crowd with Family History of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhang-ning; Dong, Wen-tao; Cai, Xin-wang; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Li-tong; Gao, Feng; Kang, Xiao-kui; Li, Jia; Wang, Hai-ning; Gao, Nan-nan; Ning, Xian-jia; Tu, Jun; Li, Feng-tan; Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Ying-jian; Li, Nai-xin; Yang, Shu-yuan; Zhang, Jian-ning; Wang, Jing-hua; Yang, Xin-yu

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The vascular morphology in crowd with family history of stroke remains unclear. The present study clarified the characteristics of the intracranial vascular CoW and prevalence of intracranial aneurysms in subjects with family history of stroke. Methods. A stratified cluster, random sampling method was used for subjects with family history of stroke among rural residents in Jixian, Tianjin, China. All the subjects underwent a physical examination, head computed tomography (CT) scan, and cephalic and cervical computed tomography angiography (CTA) scan. Anatomic variations in the Circle of Willis and cerebrovascular disease in this population were analyzed. Results. In the crowd with similar living environment, stable genetic background, and family history of stroke and without obvious nerve function impairment (1) hypoplasia or absence of A1 segment was significantly different in gender (male versus female: 9.8% versus 18.8%, p = 0.031), especially the right-side A1 (male versus female: 5.9% versus 16.4%, p = 0.004). (2) Hypoplasia or absence of bilateral posterior communicating arteries was more common in men than women (58.2% versus 45.3%, p = 0.032). Unilateral fetal posterior cerebral artery was observed more often in women than men (17.2% versus 8.5%, p = 0.028). (3) The percentage of subjects with incomplete CoW did not increase significantly with age. Compared to healthy Chinese people, the crowd had a higher percentage of incomplete CoW (p < 0.001). (4) No obvious correlation between risk factors and CoW was found. (5) The prevalence of aneurysm was 10.3% in the special crowd. Conclusions. The certain variations of CoW showed significant relation to gender, but not to age in people with family history of stroke. The incomplete circle may be a dangerous factor that is independent of common risk factors for stroke and tend to lead to cerebral ischemia in the crowd with family history of stroke. The prevalence of intracranial aneurysm is

  8. Family Ecological Predictors of Physical Activity Parenting in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Lawson, Hal A.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting, or strategies parents use to promote PA in children, has been associated with increased PA in children of all ages, including preschool-aged children. However, little is known about the circumstances under which parents adopt such behaviors. This study examined family ecological factors associated with PA…

  9. Family history of hypertension and left ventricular mass in youth: possible mediating parameters.

    PubMed

    Cook, B B; Treiber, F A; Mensah, G; Jindal, M; Davis, H C; Kapuku, G K

    2001-04-01

    Whether positive family history (FH) of essential hypertension (EH) in normotensive youth is associated with increased left ventricular mass (LVM) and hemodynamic, anthropometric, and demographic parameters previously associated with increased LVM in adults is unknown. To examine these issues, 323 healthy youth (mean age, 13.6 +/- 1.3 years), 194 with positive FH of EH (61% African Americans, 39% whites) and 129 with negative FH of EH (33% African Americans, 67% whites) were evaluated. Hemodynamics were measured at rest and during four stressors (ie, postural change, car driving simulation, video game, forehead cold). Echocardiographic-derived measures of LVM were indexed separately to body surface area and height(2.7). Controlling for age and race differences (ie, 74% of African Americans v 47% of whites had positive FH), the positive FH group exhibited greater LVM/height(2.7), LVM/body surface area, higher systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP), and total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) and lower cardiac index at rest (P < .05 for all). The positive FH group also displayed higher peak SBP or DBP and higher TPRI increases to each stressor and came from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds (P < .05 for all). Regression analyses indicated that FH of EH was not a significant determinant of LVM/height(2.7) after accounting for contributions of gender (greater in men), general adiposity, resting cardiac index and blood pressure (BP), and TPRI responsivity to video game and cold stimulation (P < .05 for all). Thus, greater LVM index in positive FH of EH youth appears in part related to their greater BP and TPRI at rest and during stress.

  10. Family Instability and Early Initiation of Sexual Activity in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological, economic, and social forces have produced high levels of volatility in family and household structure for young people growing up in sub-Saharan Africa in recent decades. However, scholarship on the family to date has not examined the influence of this family instability on young people’s well-being. The current study employs unique life history calendar data from Western Kenya to investigate the relationship between instability in caregiving and early initiation of sexual activity. It draws on a body of work on parental union instability in the United States, and examines new dimensions of family change. Analyses reveal a positive association between transitions in primary caregiver and the likelihood of early sexual debut that is rapidly manifested following caregiver change and persists for a short period. The association is strongest at early ages, and there is a cumulative effect of multiple caregiver changes. The results highlight the importance of studying family stability in sub-Saharan Africa, as distinct from family structure, and for attention to dimensions such as age and recency. PMID:23055236

  11. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Kricker, Anne; Paltiel, Ora; Flowers, Christopher R.; Wang, Sophia S.; Monnereau, Alain; Blair, Aaron; Maso, Luigino Dal; Kane, Eleanor V.; Nieters, Alexandra; Foran, James M.; Miligi, Lucia; Clavel, Jacqueline; Bernstein, Leslie; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Skibola, Christine F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although risk factors for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have been suggested, their independent effects, modification by sex, and association with anatomical sites are largely unknown. Methods In a pooled analysis of 4667 cases and 22639 controls from 19 studies, we used stepwise logistic regression to identify the most parsimonious multivariate models for DLBCL overall, by sex, and for selected anatomical sites. Results DLBCL was associated with B-cell activating autoimmune diseases (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.80 to 3.09), hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.47 to 2.76), family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.47), higher young adult body mass index (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.23, for 35+ vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m2), higher recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.89), any atopic disorder (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.89), and higher socioeconomic status (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.94). Additional risk factors for women were occupation as field crop/vegetable farm worker (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22 to 2.60), hairdresser (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.41), and seamstress/embroider (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.97), low adult body mass index (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.74, for <18.5 vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m2), hormone replacement therapy started age at least 50 years (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.88), and oral contraceptive use before 1970 (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62 to 1.00); and for men were occupation as material handling equipment operator (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.44), lifetime alcohol consumption (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.75, for >400kg vs nondrinker), and previous blood transfusion (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.83). Autoimmune disease, atopy, and family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma showed similar associations across selected anatomical sites, whereas smoking was associated with central nervous system, testicular and cutaneous DLBCLs

  12. Effect of Socioeconomic Factors and Family History on the Incidence of Diabetes in an Adult Diabetic Population from Algeria

    PubMed Central

    FERDI, Nour El Houda; ABLA, Khalida; CHENCHOUNI, Haroun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a serious public health problem worldwide and particularly in developing countries. In Algeria, this metabolic disorder occurs with a wide variety or atypical forms that linked to multiple risk factors including local habits and traditions. This study aimed to determine the impact of risk factors (metabolic syndrome, social, cultural, physical activity, family history and the treatment used) on the incidence of diabetes. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 on a random sample from a resident population in Tebessa, Northeast Algeria, which underwent a significant expanding of diabetes prevalence conditioned by profound socioeconomic changes. The survey included 200 subjects, randomly selected; with 100 controls and 100 diabetic patients, (26 diabetic subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus ‘T1DM’ and 74 subjects with type two diabetes mellitus ‘T2DM’). Results: Diabetic subjects were significantly affected by all these risk factors, including metabolic syndrome that was higher in women. The most common treatment among surveyed T1DM subjects was insulin, whereas T2DM patients used metformin. In addition, the duration from T1DM onset in the surveyed subjects is older than T2DM onset. The incidence of diabetes is significantly in close relationship between the majorities of these factors of risk. Conclusion: Subjects with a high socioeconomic status can afford a healthier way of life to avoid the risk of developing diabetes compared to subjects with lower social level. PMID:28053930

  13. Economic activity, family environment and children's education in Ouagadougou.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    For almost all African countries, data are lacking on children's economic activities. It is clear, however, that the significant rise in child labor in urban areas in response to economic hardship documented in several recent studies may jeopardize the expected rapid implementation of universal primary education. Indeed, there has been a relative deschooling in some African countries, due in part to cuts in public spending on education and in part to the increasing educational investment costs for many families who rely more upon child labor for daily familial survival. A 1993 survey conducted in Ouagadougou found that girls have less opportunity for education and engage more and at earlier ages than boys in economic activities. Girls also dropped out of school faster than boys. The survey also found boys to be more actively engaged in monogamous households, while the activity of girls is similar in monogamous and polygamous households. Children's involvement in economic activities varies according to their relationship with the household head.

  14. An Ecostructural Family Therapy Approach to the Rehabilitation of the Latino Drug Abuser: History and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scopetta, Mercedes A.

    An approach to the treatment of Hispanic (particularly Cuban) American families with drug abusing members is presented in this paper. The approach, developed by the Spanish Family Guidance Center in Miami, Florida, views dysfunctionality and drug abuse as emerging from a family's internal disorganization and ecological imbalance. In order to treat…

  15. Family Environment in Hispanic College Females with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen C.; McEachern, Adriana Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to examine the family environments of a sample of Hispanic women who reported childhood sexual abuse. Eighteen women, taken from a larger college sample, were individually interviewed and administered the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994). Cultural values and the relationship of family characteristics to the…

  16. Cardenolides from the Apocynaceae family and their anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shiyuan; Chen, Yanyan; Lu, Yunfang; Wang, Yuefei; Ding, Liqin; Jiang, Miaomiao

    2016-07-01

    Cardenolides, as a group of natural products that can bind to Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with an inhibiting activity, are traditionally used to treat congestive heart failure. Recent studies have demonstrated that the strong tumor cytotoxicities of cardenolides are mainly due to inducing the tumor cells apoptosis through different expression and cellular location of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunits. The leaves, flesh, seeds and juices of numerous plants from the genera of Nerium, Thevetia, Cerbera, Apocynum and Strophanthus in Apocynaceae family, are the major sources of natural cardenolides. So far, 109 cardenolides have been isolated and identified from this family, and about a quarter of them are reported to exhibit the capability to regulate cancer cell survival and death through multiple signaling pathways. In this review, we compile the phytochemical characteristics and anticancer activity of the cardenolides from this family.

  17. Prostate Cancer in a Patient with a Family History of BRCA Mutation: a Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    One of the most significant risk factors for prostate cancer (PC) is a family history of the disease, with germ-line mutations in the breast cancer predisposition gene (BRCA) 2 conferring the highest risk. We here report a 56-year-old man presented with painful gait disturbance and diagnosed PC with multiple disseminated bone metastases. The patient had a strong family history of breast cancer with his 2 nieces affected. Furthermore, his aunts and uncles from both sides were diagnosed with stomach, ovarian, and colorectal cancers. His genomic sequencing analysis of the BRCA genes revealed the same BRCA2 deleterious mutation that his breast cancer-affected nieces carried. Previous studies have suggested that BRCA2-mutated PC is associated with a more aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis. Our experience in the present case also indicated the urgent needs for novel treatment modality and PC screening in this high-risk group of patients. PMID:28049253

  18. Prostate Cancer in a Patient with a Family History of BRCA Mutation: a Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Song, Won Hoon; Kim, Sung Han; Joung, Jae Young; Park, Weon Seo; Seo, Ho Kyung; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2017-02-01

    One of the most significant risk factors for prostate cancer (PC) is a family history of the disease, with germ-line mutations in the breast cancer predisposition gene (BRCA) 2 conferring the highest risk. We here report a 56-year-old man presented with painful gait disturbance and diagnosed PC with multiple disseminated bone metastases. The patient had a strong family history of breast cancer with his 2 nieces affected. Furthermore, his aunts and uncles from both sides were diagnosed with stomach, ovarian, and colorectal cancers. His genomic sequencing analysis of the BRCA genes revealed the same BRCA2 deleterious mutation that his breast cancer-affected nieces carried. Previous studies have suggested that BRCA2-mutated PC is associated with a more aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis. Our experience in the present case also indicated the urgent needs for novel treatment modality and PC screening in this high-risk group of patients.

  19. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Marginal Zone Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Benavente, Yolanda; Turner, Jennifer J.; Paltiel, Ora; Slager, Susan L.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Norman, Aaron D.; Cerhan, James R.; Chiu, Brian C. H.; Becker, Nikolaus; Cocco, Pierluigi; Dogan, Ahmet; Nieters, Alexandra; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Kane, Eleanor V.; Smedby, Karin E.; Maynadié, Marc; Spinelli, John J.; Roman, Eve; Glimelius, Bengt; Wang, Sophia S.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Background Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), comprised of nodal, extranodal, and splenic subtypes, accounts for 5%–10% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. A detailed evaluation of the independent effects of risk factors for MZL and its subtypes has not been conducted. Methods Data were pooled from 1052 MZL cases (extranodal [EMZL] = 633, nodal [NMZL] = 157, splenic [SMZL] = 140) and 13766 controls from 12 case–control studies. Adjusted unconditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Novel findings for MZL subtypes include increased risk for B-cell activating autoimmune conditions (EMZL OR = 6.40, 95% CI = 4.24 to 9.68; NMZL OR = 7.80, 95% CI = 3.32 to 18.33; SMZL OR = 4.25, 95% CI = 1.49 to 12.14), hepatitis C virus seropositivity (EMZL OR = 5.29, 95% CI = 2.48 to 11.28), self-reported peptic ulcers (EMZL OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.35 to 2.49), asthma without other atopy (SMZL OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.23 to 4.23), family history of hematologic cancer (EMZL OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.37 to 2.62) and of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NMZL OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.33 to 5.98), permanent hairdye use (SMZL OR = 6.59, 95% CI = 1.54 to 28.17), and occupation as a metalworker (NMZL OR = 3.56, 95% CI = 1.67 to 7.58). Reduced risks were observed with consumption of any alcohol (EMZL fourth quartile OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.82) and lower consumption of wine (NMZL first to third quartile ORs < 0.45) compared with nondrinkers, and occupation as a teacher (EMZL OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.88). Conclusion Our results provide new data suggesting etiologic heterogeneity across MZL subtypes although a common risk of MZL associated with B-cell activating autoimmune conditions was found. PMID:25174026

  20. A Family History of Substance Dependence Obscures the Group Differences in Brain Function Associated with HIV-1 and ART

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, L.O.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recently, the NIH called for additional research on the topic of viral and host factors contributing to impaired cognitive and neural function in HIV/AIDS patients and their response to antiretroviral treatment. This investigation responds to that call by examining a host factor, a family history of substance dependence, often overlooked in cognitive and neuroimaging studies of HIV/AIDS. METHODS We categorized 146 HIV-1 seropositive patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 92 seronegative volunteers by the presence or absence of alcohol, cocaine, or heroin dependence affecting a biological parent. Seropositive patients were further categorized by the estimated ability of their individual ART regimens to penetrate the CNS. The indicator of brain function was a 3–7 Hz oscillatory electroencephalographic response (theta ERO) evoked by target stimuli presented during a simple selective attention task. RESULTS The analysis revealed that the presence of a family history of substance dependence obscured the reduction in frontal theta ERO power accompanying the presence of HIV-1 as well as the improvement in frontal theta ERO power accompanying treatment with ART agents estimated to have greater (n=41) versus lesser (n=105) CNS penetrance. Secondary analyses employing sLORETA source localization techniques revealed that the source of the theta ERO response was similarly reduced by the presence of either HIV-1 or a family history of substance dependence. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that a family history of substance dependence complicates and obscures the subtle neurophysiological changes which typically accompany HIV/AIDS and ART. Studies of new therapeutic agents for HIV-1-associated cognitive and neurophysiological impairments must consider this complication and exclude or control it. PMID:22749564

  1. Experience with family activation of rapid response teams.

    PubMed

    Bogert, Soudi; Ferrell, Carmen; Rutledge, Dana N

    2010-01-01

    Condition H allows family activation of a rapid response team in a hospital setting. Systematic implementation of Condition H at a 500-bed Magnet community hospital led to varied types of calls, all of which met the policy criteria. Many communication issues were discovered through this process.

  2. The transtheoretical model, health belief model, and breast cancer screening among Iranian women with a family history of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Farajzadegan, Ziba; Fathollahi-Dehkordi, Fariba; Hematti, Simin; Sirous, Reza; Tavakoli, Neda; Rouzbahani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Participation of Iranian women with a family history of breast cancer in breast cancer screening programs is low. This study evaluates the compliance of women having a family history of breast cancer with clinical breast exam (CBE) according to the stage of transtheoretical model (TTM) and health belief model (HBM). Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we used Persian version of champion's HBM scale to collect factors associated with TTM stages applied to screening from women over 20 years and older. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS, using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, independent t-test, and analysis of covariance. Results: Final sample size was 162 women. Thirty-three percent were in action/maintenance stage. Older women, family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives, personal history of breast disease, insurance coverage, and a history of breast self-examination were associated with action/maintenance stage. Furthermore, women in action/maintenance stages had significantly fewer perceived barriers in terms of CBE in comparison to women in other stages (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in other HBM subscales scores between various stages of CBE screening behavior (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The finding indicates that the rate of women in action/maintenance stage of CBE is low. Moreover, results show a strong association between perceived barriers and having a regular CBE. These clarify the necessity of promoting national target programs for breast cancer screening, which should be considered as the first preference for reducing CBE barriers.

  3. Family ecological predictors of physical activity parenting in low-income families.

    PubMed

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Lawson, Hal A; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting, or strategies parents use to promote PA in children, has been associated with increased PA in children of all ages, including preschool-aged children. However, little is known about the circumstances under which parents adopt such behaviors. This study examined family ecological factors associated with PA parenting. Low-income parents (N = 145) of preschool-aged children (aged 2 to 5 years) were recruited from five Head Start centers in upstate New York. Guided by the family ecological model (FEM), parents completed surveys assessing PA parenting and relevant family and community factors. Hierarchical regression analysis identified independent predictors of PA parenting. Parent depressive symptoms, life pressures that interfere with PA and perceived empowerment to access PA resources were associated with PA parenting. Community factors, including neighborhood play safety and social capital, were not independently associated with PA parenting in the multivariate model. Together, family ecological factors accounted for a large proportion of the variance in PA parenting (R (2) = .37). Findings highlight the need to look beyond cognitive predictors of PA parenting in low-income families and to examine the impact of their broader life circumstances including indicators of stress.

  4. Breast cancer risk perception and lifestyle behaviors among White and Black women with a family history of the disease.

    PubMed

    Spector, Denise; Mishel, Merle; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Deroo, Lisa A; Vanriper, Marcia; Sandler, Dale P

    2009-01-01

    Although researchers have investigated the relationships between perceived risk and behavioral risk factors for breast cancer, few qualitative studies have addressed the meaning of risk and its impact on decision making regarding lifestyle behaviors. This qualitative study explored factors involved in the formulation of perceived breast cancer risk and associations between risk perception and lifestyle behaviors in white and black women with a family history of breast cancer. Eligible participants were North Carolina residents in the Sister Study, a nationwide study of risk factors for breast cancer among women who have at least 1 sister diagnosed with breast cancer. Personal interviews were conducted with 32 women. Although most had heightened perceived risk, almost 20% considered themselves below-to-average risk. Participants with moderate-to-high perceived risk were more likely to report an affected sister and mother, a first-degree relative's diagnosis within 4 years, and death of a first-degree relative from breast cancer. Many women were unaware of associations between lifestyle behaviors and breast cancer risk. Only one-third of the women reported healthy lifestyle changes because of family history; dietary change was most frequently reported. Findings may be important for cancer nurses involved in developing breast cancer education programs for women with a family history of breast cancer.

  5. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Family History of Breast Cancer and Risk Perception and Impacts on Repetition of Mammography.

    PubMed

    Khoshravesh, Sahar; Taymoori, Parvaneh; Roshani, Daem

    2016-01-01

    Since the mean age of breast cancer in women living in developing countries, compared with those in developed countries, is lower by about 10 years, repetition of mammography can play an important role in reducing morbidity and mortality. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between family history of breast cancer and risk perception and its impact on repetition of mammography. In this cross-sectional study, 1,507 women aged 50 years and older, referred to the mammography center of Regions 1 and 6 in Tehran, Iran, were enrolled. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS and LISREL. According to our findings, knowledge about the time interval of mammography was found to have the highest correlation with repetition of mammography (r =0.4). Among the demographic variables, marital status (β= -0.1) and family history of breast cancer (β=0.1) had the most direct and significant impact on repetition of mammography (P <0.05). Among the other variables studied, knowledge (β=-0.5) had the highest direct and significant impact on repetition of mammography (P <0.05). Family history of breast cancer was one of the predictors of repetition of mammography, but the results did not prove any relationship with risk perception. Further studies are needed to assess the effect of risk perception and knowledge about time interval on the initiation and continuation of mammography.

  6. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Sporadic Burkitt Lymphoma/Leukemia: The Interlymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Chang, Ellen T.; Costas, Laura; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Lightfoot, Tracy; Kelly, Jennifer; Friedberg, Jonathan W.; Cozen, Wendy; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Slager, Susan L.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiologic role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors in sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is unknown, but epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that risk factors may vary by age. Methods We investigated risk factors for sporadic BL in 295 cases compared with 21818 controls in a pooled analysis of 18 case–control studies in the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). Cases were defined to include typical BL or Burkitt-like lymphoma. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations were calculated separately for younger (<50 years) and older (≥50 years) BL using multivariate logistic regression. Results Cases included 133 younger BL and 159 older BL (age was missing for three cases) and they were evenly split between typical BL (n = 147) and Burkitt-like lymphoma (n = 148). BL in younger participants was inversely associated with a history of allergy (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.32 to 1.05), and positively associated with a history of eczema among individuals without other atopic conditions (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.20 to 5.40), taller height (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.08 to 4.36), and employment as a cleaner (OR = 3.49; 95% CI = 1.13 to 10.7). BL in older participants was associated with a history of hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR = 4.19; 95% CI = 1.05 to 16.6) based on three exposed cases. Regardless of age, BL was inversely associated with alcohol consumption and positively associated with height. Conclusions Our data suggest that BL in younger and older adults may be etiologically distinct. PMID:25174031

  7. Temperament and IQ mediate the effects of family history of substance abuse and family dysfunction on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Blackson, T C

    1995-01-01

    In this study of sons of substance-abusing (n = 57) and normal (n = 71) fathers, it was hypothesized that sons' positive affective temperament (PAT) and intellectual ability (FSIQ) would mediate the effects of paternal substance abuse and family dysfunction on sons' reading achievement scores. Hierarchical, linear, and path analytic regression analyses were computed to test the hypotheses. It was found that (1) sons' FSIQ and PAT each partially mediated the effects of paternal substance abuse on sons' reading achievement scores and (2) that sons' PAT mediated the relationship between family dysfunction and their reading achievement scores. Because reading achievement is pivotal to academic success and school failure is associated with early age substance use, the importance of identifying processes that promote academic success is discussed.

  8. Associations of personal and family preeclampsia history with the risk of early-, intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Heather A; Tahir, Hassaan; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2013-12-01

    Preeclampsia encompasses multiple conditions of varying severity. We examined the recurrence and familial aggregation of preeclampsia by timing of onset, which is a marker for severity. We ascertained personal and family histories of preeclampsia for women who delivered live singletons in Denmark in 1978-2008 (almost 1.4 million pregnancies). Using log-linear binomial regression, we estimated risk ratios for the associations between personal and family histories of preeclampsia and the risk of early-onset (before 34 weeks of gestation, which is typically the most severe), intermediate-onset (at 34-36 weeks of gestation), and late-onset (after 36 weeks of gestation) preeclampsia. Previous early-, intermediate-, or late-onset preeclampsia increased the risk of recurrent preeclampsia with the same timing of onset 25.2 times (95% confidence interval (CI): 21.8, 29.1), 19.7 times (95% CI: 17.0, 22.8), and 10.3 times (95% CI: 9.85, 10.9), respectively, compared with having no such history. Preeclampsia in a woman's family was associated with a 24%-163% increase in preeclampsia risk, with the strongest associations for early- and intermediate-onset preeclampsia in female relatives. Preeclampsia in the man's family did not affect a woman's risk of early-onset preeclampsia and was only weakly associated with her risks of intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia. Early-onset preeclampsia appears to have the largest genetic component, whereas environmental factors likely contribute most to late-onset preeclampsia. The role of paternal genes in the etiology of preeclampsia appears to be limited.

  9. Comparing mirror neuron system activity between sporadic and familial cases of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sayantanava; Nizamie, S Haque; Goyal, Nishant; Tikka, Sai Krishna; Kavoor, Anjana Rao

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogenous disorder, and has often been subtyped on the basis of family history of psychotic disorders. Compared to those without, a positive family history is associated with an earlier age of onset, greater structural brain abnormalities and poorer clinical course. Given recent emphasis on mirror neuron system (MNS) in attempting to explain psychopathology in schizophrenia; present analysis tried to tease out differences in MNS functioning between these two groups. With ethical approval, 10 consenting right-handed patients with schizophrenia (ICD-10-DCR; M=8; Drug-naïve=2) were recruited and divided into two groups of five each (M=4, F=1): those with (age 29.40±5.85 years, duration of illness 50.80±30.84 months) and without (age 29.60±5.77 years, duration of illness 43.20±43.76 months) family history of schizophrenic illness (group difference p>0.05). MNS activity was assessed using event-related desynchronization of EEG Mu waves in response to biological motion on 192-channel EEG Neurofax EEG-1100K. On comparison, while patients had significantly lower mu suppression compared to controls (p<0.001); two schizophrenia groups did not differ between themselves, neither on MNS activity nor on psychopathology (p>0.05). Present study replicates finding of a dysfunctional MNS in schizophrenia patients, and represents a preliminary attempt at comparing two groups of symptomatic schizophrenia patients. In both these groups, MNS dysfunctions were comparable, and commensurate with respect to psychopathology. Thus, MNS dysfunction in schizophrenia might either be inherited or acquired. However, this abnormality forms a common base, and ultimate vulnerability marker, for development of psychopathology during active disease states.

  10. Dynamic Evolution of Immune System Regulators: The History of the Interferon Regulatory Factor Family

    PubMed Central

    Nehyba, Jiří; Hrdličková, Radmila

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript presents the first extensive phylogenetics analysis of a key family of immune regulators, the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family. The IRF family encodes transcription factors that play important roles in immune defense, stress responses, reproduction, development, and carcinogenesis. Several times during their evolution, the IRF genes have undergone expansion and diversification. These genes were also completely lost on two separate occasions in large groups of metazoans. The origin of the IRF family coincides with the appearance of multicellularity in animals. IRF genes are present in all principal metazoan groups, including sea sponges, placozoans, comb jellies, cnidarians, and bilaterians. Although the number of IRF family members does not exceed two in sponges and placozoans, this number reached five in cnidarians. At least four additional independent expansions lead up to 11 members in different groups of bilaterians. In contrast, the IRF genes either disappeared or mutated beyond recognition in roundworms and insects, the two groups that include most of the metazoan species. The IRF family separated very early into two branches ultimately leading to vertebrate IRF1 and IRF4 supergroups (SGs). Genes encoding the IRF-SGs are present in all bilaterians and cnidarians. The evolution of vertebrate IRF family members further proceeded with at least two additional steps. First, close to the appearance of the first vertebrate, the IRF family probably expanded to four family members, predecessors of the four vertebrate IRF groups (IRF1, 3, 4, 5 groups). In the second step, 10 vertebrate family members evolved from these four genes, likely as a result of the 2-fold duplication of the entire genome. Interestingly, the IRF family coevolved with the Rel/NF-κB family with which it shares some important evolutionary characteristics, including roles in defense responses, metazoan specificity, extensive diversification in vertebrates, and elimination

  11. Frequency of family history of acute myocardial infarction in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Argentine FRICAS (Factores de Riesgo Coronario en America del Sur) Investigators.

    PubMed

    Ciruzzi, M; Schargrodsky, H; Rozlosnik, J; Pramparo, P; Delmonte, H; Rudich, V; Piskorz, D; Negri, E; Soifer, S; La Vecchia, C

    1997-07-15

    The relation between family history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the risk of AMI was analyzed using data of a case-control study conducted in Argentina between 1992 and 1994. Case patients were 1,060 subjects with AMI admitted to 35 coronary care units, and controls were 1,071 subjects admitted to the same network of hospitals where cases had been identified, for a wide spectrum of acute conditions unrelated to known or likely risk factors for AMI: 31% of cases versus 15% of controls reported > or = 1 first-degree relative with history of AMI. Compared with subjects without family history of AMI, the odds ratio (OR) of AMI, after allowance for age, sex, cholesterolemia, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, education, social class, and physical exercise, was 2.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74 to 2.74) for those with family history of AMI. The OR was 2.04 (95% CI 1.60 to 2.60) for subjects with 1 relative, and 3.18 (95% C 1.86 to 5.44) for those reporting > or = 2 relatives with AMI. In women the OR for any family history of AMI was 2.83, and in men 2.01. The association was of similar magnitude if the mother (OR 1.98), the father (OR 2.13), or a sibling (OR 2.48) had had an AMI. The association with family history was stronger at a younger age because the OR for subjects reporting > or = 2 more relatives with a history of AMI was 4.42 for subjects aged < 55 years, and 3.00 for those aged > or = 55 years. The association between AMI and family history of AMI was consistent across separate strata of education, social class, smoking, and serum cholesterol, but was less strong in subjects with history of diabetes and hypertension. When the interaction of known risk factors with family history of AMI was analyzed, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and smoking had approximately multiplicative effects on the relative risk. The OR was 4.50 for subjects with family history and cholesterol > or = 240 ml/dl, 4.52 for those with hypertension, and

  12. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma/Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Landgren, Ola; McMaster, Mary L.; Slager, Susan L.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Smith, Alex; Staines, Anthony; Dogan, Ahmet; Ansell, Stephen M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Linet, Martha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (LPL/WM), a rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtype, shows strong familial aggregation and a positive association with chronic immune stimulation, but evidence regarding other risk factors is very limited. Methods The International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) pooled data from 11 predominantly population-based case–control studies from North America, Europe, and Australia to examine medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for LPL/WM. Age-, sex-, race/ethnicity-, and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression for a total of 374 LPL/WM cases and 23 096 controls. Results In multivariate analysis including all putative risk factors, LPL/WM risk was associated with history of Sjögren’s syndrome (OR = 14.0, 95% CI = 3.60 to 54.6), systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 8.23, 95% CI = 2.69 to 25.2), hay fever (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.99), positive hepatitis C serology (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.03 to 6.17), hematologic malignancy in a first-degree relative (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.64), adult weight (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.85 for highest vs. lowest quartile), duration of cigarette smoking (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.05 for ≥ 40 years vs. nonsmokers), and occupation as a medical doctor (OR = 5.54, 95% CI = 2.19 to 14.0). There was no association with other medical conditions, lifestyle factors, or occupations. Conclusions This pooled analysis confirmed associations with immune conditions and family history of hematologic malignancy, and identified new associations with hay fever, weight, smoking, and occupation, and no association with other lifestyle factors. These findings offer clues to LPL/WM biology and prevention. PMID:25174029

  13. Does history of childhood maltreatment make a difference in prison? A hierarchical approach on early family events and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Sakelliadis, Emmanouil I; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Goutas, Nikolaos; Sergentanis, Ioannis N; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Papadodima, StavroulaA

    2014-12-30

    This study attempts to assess childhood maltreatment in prison through a hierarchical approach. The hierarchical approach principally aims to disentangle the independent effects of childhood maltreatment upon psychiatric morbidity/personality traits, if any, from the burden that the adverse family conditions have already imposed to the mental health of the maltreated individual-prisoner. To this direction, a conceptual framework with five hierarchical levels was constructed, namely: immutable demographic factors; family conditions; childhood maltreatment (physical abuse, neglect and sexual abuse); personality traits, habits and psychiatric morbidity; prison-related variables. A self-administered, anonymous set (battery) of questionnaires was administered to 173 male prisoners in the Chalkida prison, Greece; 26% of prisoners disclosed childhood maltreatment. Psychiatric condition in the family, parental alcoholism and parental divorce correlated with childhood maltreatment. After adjustment for immutable demographic factors and family conditions, childhood maltreatment was associated with aggression (both in terms of Lifetime History of Aggression and Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire scores), illicit substance use, personal history of psychiatric condition, current smoking, impulsivity and alcohol abuse. In conclusion, childhood maltreatment represents a pivotal, determining factor in the life course of male prisoners. Delinquents seem to suffer from long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment in terms of numerous mental health aspects.

  14. Association between family history of psychiatric disorders and long-term outcome in schizophrenia - The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study.

    PubMed

    Käkelä, Juha; Marttila, Riikka; Keskinen, Emmi; Veijola, Juha; Isohanni, Matti; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Haapea, Marianne; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko

    2017-03-01

    Family history of psychiatric disorders has been associated with impaired outcome in schizophrenia, but very few studies have investigated its long-term social and occupational outcome. We investigated the association of family history of psychiatric disorders, especially psychosis, with long-term social, occupational, clinical and global outcome in schizophrenia. The study sample comprises of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Cohort members with psychosis were detected by Finnish national registers. Altogether 69 individuals with schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis participated, mean age 43, after on average 17 years since onset of illness. The information regarding family history of psychiatric disorders were gathered from registers and interviews. A Strauss-Carpenter Outcome Scale, PANSS and SOFAS were conducted to assess the outcome. Results showed that the family history of any psychiatric disorder was associated with more severe positive and emotional symptoms in PANSS. The family history of psychosis was not associated with outcomes. These findings suggest that family history of psychiatric disorders has a small association with outcome in schizophrenia. Despite family history of psychosis being a strong risk factor for schizophrenia, after years of illness it does not seem to affect outcome.

  15. A positive family history of hypertension might be associated with an accelerated onset of type 2 diabetes: Results from the National Center Diabetes Database (NCDD-02).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Mori, Yasumichi; Yamashita, Shigeo; Yoshida, Yoko; Kawazu, Shoji; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko; Kajio, Hiroshi; Yanai, Hidekatsu; Mishima, Shuichi; Handa, Nobuhiro; Shimokawa, Kotaro; Yoshida, Akiko; Watanabe, Hiroki; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Shimbo, Takuro; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2017-03-18

    Type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by a combination of decreased insulin secretion and decreased insulin sensitivity, can be delayed or prevented by healthy lifestyle behaviors. Therefore, it is important that the population in general understands their personal risk at an early age to reduce their chances of ever developing the disease. A family history of hypertension is known to be associated with insulin resistance, but the effect of a family history of hypertension on the onset of type 2 diabetes has not well been examined. We performed a retrospective study examining patient age at the time of the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes by analyzing a dataset of 1,299 patients (1,021 men and 278 women) who had been diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes during a health checkup. The mean ± standard deviation of the patient age at the time of the diagnosis of diabetes was 49.1 ± 10.4 years for patients with a family history of hypertension and 51.8 ± 11.4 years for patients without a family history of hypertension (p < 0.001). A multivariate linear regression analysis showed a significant association between a family history of hypertension and a younger age at the time of the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, independent of a family history of diabetes mellitus and a male sex, suggesting that a positive family history of hypertension might be associated with the accelerated onset of type 2 diabetes.

  16. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Mantle Cell Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Joshua N.; Turner, Jennifer J.; Slager, Susan L.; Maynadié, Marc; Roman, Eve; Habermann, Thomas M.; Flowers, Christopher R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bracci, Paige M.; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiology of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a distinctive subtype accounting for 2%–10% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is not known. Methods We investigated associations with self-reported medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors in a pooled analysis of 557 patients with MCL and 13766 controls from 13 case–control studies in Europe, North America, and Australia. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with each exposure were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. Results The median age of the MCL patients was 62 years and 76% were men. Risk of MCL was inversely associated with history of hay fever (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.82), and the association was independent of other atopic diseases and allergies. A hematological malignancy among first-degree relatives was associated with a twofold increased risk of MCL (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.39 to 2.84), which was stronger in men (OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.44 to 3.38) than women (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 0.82 to 3.19). A modestly increased risk of MCL was also observed in association with ever having lived on a farm (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.90). Unlike some other non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes, MCL risk was not statistically significantly associated with autoimmune disorders, tobacco smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, or ultraviolet radiation. Conclusions The novel observations of a possible role for atopy and allergy and farm life in risk of MCL, together with confirmatory evidence of a familial link, suggest a multifactorial etiology of immune-related environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility. These findings provide guidance for future research in MCL etiology. PMID:25174028

  17. Family history of cancer and risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Pooled Analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan)

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Eric J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Fuchs, Charles S.; LaCroix, Andrea; McWilliams, Robert R.; Steplowski, Emily; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Arslan, Alan A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gross, Myron; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Petersen, Gloria; Zheng, Wei; Agalliu, Ilir; Allen, Naomi E.; Amundadottir, Laufey; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Buring, Julie E.; Canzian, Federico; Clipp, Sandra; Dorronsoro, Miren; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hartge, Patricia; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jenab, Mazda; Kraft, Peter; Kooperberg, Charles; Lynch, Shannon M.; Sund, Malin; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Mouw, Tracy; Newton, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Thomas, Gilles; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wolpin, Brian M.; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne

    2010-01-01

    A family history of pancreatic cancer has consistently been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer. However, uncertainty remains about the strength of this association. Results from previous studies suggest a family history of select cancers (i.e. ovarian, breast, and colorectal) could also be associated, although not as strongly, with increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We examined the association between a family history of five types of cancer (pancreas, prostate, ovarian, breast, and colorectal) and risk of pancreatic cancer using data from a collaborative nested case-control study conducted by the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium. Cases and controls were from cohort studies from the United States, Europe, and China, and a case-control study from the Mayo Clinic. Analyses of family history of pancreatic cancer included 1,183 cases and 1,205 controls. A family history of pancreatic cancer in a parent, sibling, or child was associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer (multivariate-adjusted OR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.19–2.61). A family history of prostate cancer was also associated with increased risk (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.12–1.89). There were no statistically significant associations with a family history of ovarian cancer (OR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.52–1.31), breast cancer (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.97–1.51), or colorectal cancer (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.93–1.47). Our results confirm a moderate sized association between a family history of pancreatic cancer and risk of pancreatic cancer and also provide evidence for an association with a family history of prostate cancer worth further study. PMID:20049842

  18. Family environment in Hispanic college females with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Maureen C; McEachern, Adriana Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to examine the family environments of a sample of Hispanic women who reported childhood sexual abuse. Eighteen women, taken from a larger college sample, were individually interviewed and administered the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994). Cultural values and the relationship of family characteristics to the individual's experience of sexual abuse were explored. The abused women obtained significantly higher scores on the Achievement-Orientation subscale of the FES than the normative group. Qualitative data revealed some patterns in these families regarding sexual discussions and poor conflict resolution skills. Implications for treatment of Hispanic victims are discussed.

  19. The impact of reproductive life on breast cancer risk in women with family history or BRCA mutation.

    PubMed

    Toss, Angela; Grandi, Giovanni; Cagnacci, Angelo; Marcheselli, Luigi; Pavesi, Silvia; De Matteis, Elisabetta; Razzaboni, Elisabetta; Tomasello, Chiara; Cascinu, Stefano; Cortesi, Laura

    2017-02-07

    Reproductive history and exogenous hormonal exposures are acknowledged risk factors for breast cancer in the general population. In women at increased breast cancer risk for genetic predisposition or positive family history, data regarding these risk factors are limited or conflicting, and recommendations for these categories are unclear. We evaluated the characteristics of reproductive life in 2522 women at increased genetic or familial breast cancer risk attending our Family Cancer Center. Breast cancers in BRCA mutation carriers were more likely to be hormone receptor negative, diagnosed at 35 years or before and multiple during the lifetime than tumors in women at increased familial risk, while the distribution of invasive cancers and HER2 positive tumors was similar in the different risk groups. At least one full-term pregnancy (HR 0.27; 95% CI 0.12-0.58; p = 0.001), breastfeeding either less (HR 0.24; 95% CI 0.09-0.66; p = 0.005) or more (HR 0.25; 95% IC 0.08-0.82; p = 0.022) than one year and late age at menopause (HR 0.10; 95% CI 0.01-0.82; p = 0.033) showed to be protective factors in BRCA mutation carriers, while in women at increased familial risk early age at first full-term pregnancy (HR 0.62; 95% IC 0.38-0.99; p = 0.048) and late menarche (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.42-0.85; p = 0.004) showed to be the main protective factors. Finally, for the entire population, combined hormonal contraceptives demonstrated to do not increase breast cancer risk. The results of our study suggest that women at high familial risk and mutation carries develop tumors with different clinical-pathological characteristics and, consequently, are influenced by different protective and risk factors.

  20. All in the family? Analyzing the impact of family history in addition to genotype on medullary thyroid carcinoma aggressiveness in MEN2A patients.

    PubMed

    Long, Kristin L; Etzel, Carol; Rich, Thereasa; Hyde, Samuel; Perrier, Nancy D; Graham, Paul H; Lee, Jeffrey E; Hu, Mimi I; Cote, Gilbert J; Gagel, Robert; Grubbs, Elizabeth G

    2017-04-01

    Several guidelines for patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A (MEN2A) take into account genotype and family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) disease aggressiveness. We sought to determine if an association exists independent of genotype, which could provide important information for counseling MEN2A patients in management of their MTC. Pedigrees of patients with ≥5 family members with MEN2A were retrospectively reviewed. Analysis was performed among kindreds with the most frequently observed codon mutation (RET 634). Familial MTC disease aggressiveness was evaluated using: (1) mean age at diagnosis of MTC, (2) current mean age of carriers without MTC, (3) proportion of kindred with MTC with metastatic disease at diagnosis, (4) proportion of kindred with MTC with metastasis/death from MTC as worst outcome, and (5) proportion of kindred with disease progression. 170 affected patients from 12 different MEN2A kindreds met inclusion criteria. The number of affected family members available for study per kindred ranged from 8 to 43 individuals. A difference in mean age of MTC diagnosis was found in screened patients (p = 0.01); mean age of MTC-free patients did not differ (p = 0.93). No differences were noted among kindreds in disease stage at presentation, worst outcome, or progression; marked variation in these measures was noted within families. In conclusion, a difference in age of MTC diagnosis among different RET 634 kindreds was identified. In contrast, notable intra-familial variability in disease aggressiveness was observed. Based on these findings, we recommend counseling patients with codon 634 mutations that their MTC disease course cannot be predicted by that of their relatives.

  1. A Comparison of Activity Levels among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Family Homes and Out-of-Family Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, David; Perry, Jonathan; Kerr, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: The quality of life of adults with intellectual disabilities living in the family home is an under-researched area. The current study compared indicators of household and community activity between adults living in family homes and those in out-of-family placements. Methods: Four datasets were merged to produce information on the…

  2. The LBP/BPI multigenic family in invertebrates: Evolutionary history and evidences of specialization in mollusks.

    PubMed

    Baron, Olga Lucia; Deleury, Emeline; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Coustau, Christine

    2016-04-01

    LBPs (lipopolysaccharide binding proteins) and BPIs (bactericidal permeability increasing proteins) are important proteins involved in defense against bacterial pathogens. We recently discovered a novel biocidal activity of a LBP/BPI from the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata and demonstrated its role in parental immune protection of eggs, highlighting the importance of LBP/BPIs in invertebrate immunity. Here we characterize four additional LBP/BPI from B. glabrata, presenting conserved sequence architecture and exon-intron structure. Searches of invertebrate genomes revealed that existence of LBP/BPIs is not a conserved feature since they are absent from phyla such as arthropods and platyhelminths. Analyses of LBP/BPI transcripts from selected mollusk species showed recent parallel duplications in some species, including B. glabrata. In this snail species, LBP/BPI members vary in their expression tissue localization as well as their change in expression levels after immune challenges (Gram-negative bacterium; Gram-positive bacterium or yeast). These results, together with the predicted protein features provide evidences of functional specialization of LBP/BPI family members in molluscs.

  3. Family history is an independent risk factor for the progression of gastric atrophy among patients with Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Sakitani, Kosuke; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Yoshida, Shuntaro; Hata, Keisuke; Kanazawa, Takamitsu; Fujiwara, Naoto; Kanai, Takanori; Yahagi, Naohisa; Toyoshima, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Risk factors for progression of gastric atrophy have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for the development of atrophic gastritis in patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) infection. Methods We reviewed 206 H. pylori-infected patients retrospectively. Endoscopic gastric atrophy was classified into closed- and open-type. We conducted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses on the contribution of age, sex, body mass index, past history of cancer, the first-degree family history of gastric cancer, habitual smoking and alcohol drinking, and endoscopic findings of gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer for open-type gastric atrophy. Results On multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio = 1.079, 95% confidence interval = 1.048–1.11, p < 0.001), family history of gastric cancer (odds ratio = 3.967, 95% confidence interval = 1.414–10.6, p = 0.006) and duodenal ulcer (odds ratio = 0.834, 95% confidence interval = 0.711–0.977, p = 0.024) were the factors independently associated with open-type gastric atrophy. Conclusions A first-degree family history of gastric cancer, absence of duodenal ulcer, and old age were independent risk factors for the progression of gastric atrophy among H. pylori-infected patients. Careful examination with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is necessary in patients with such risk factors.

  4. Family history of cancer and childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group and the Utah Population Database

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Philip J; Danysh, Heather E; Plon, Sharon E; Curtin, Karen; Malkin, David; Hettmer, Simone; Hawkins, Douglas S; Skapek, Stephen X; Spector, Logan G; Papworth, Karin; Melin, Beatrice; Erhardt, Erik B; Grufferman, Seymour; Schiffman, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the epidemiology and factors underlying susceptibility to childhood rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). To better characterize genetic susceptibility to childhood RMS, we evaluated the role of family history of cancer using data from the largest case–control study of RMS and the Utah Population Database (UPDB). RMS cases (n = 322) were obtained from the Children's Oncology Group (COG). Population-based controls (n = 322) were pair-matched to cases on race, sex, and age. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between family history of cancer and childhood RMS. The results were validated using the UPDB, from which 130 RMS cases were identified and matched to controls (n = 1300) on sex and year of birth. The results were combined to generate summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Having a first-degree relative with a cancer history was more common in RMS cases than controls (ORs = 1.39, 95% CI: 0.97–1.98). Notably, this association was stronger among those with embryonal RMS (ORs = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.54–3.86). Moreover, having a first-degree relative who was younger at diagnosis of cancer (<30 years) was associated with a greater risk of RMS (ORs = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.34–4.18). In the largest analysis of its kind, we found that most children diagnosed with RMS did not have a family history of cancer. However, our results indicate an increased risk of RMS (particularly embryonal RMS) in children who have a first-degree relative with cancer, and among those whose relatives were diagnosed with cancer at <30 years of age. PMID:25809884

  5. The Role of "Family Snapshots" in Teaching Art History within a Dialogic Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Studying images of families in works of art and in snapshots is compelling, and the author wondered if looking at both types of images side by side might help students understand both kinds of images more fully. Snapshots often prompt detailed and vivid stories among family members and friends. Therefore, she wondered if dialogue about snapshots…

  6. Validity of the family history method for diagnosing schizophrenia, schizophrenia-related psychoses, and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia probands.

    PubMed

    Fogelson, David L; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Asarnow, Robert F; Payne, Diana L; Subotnik, Kenneth L

    2004-06-01

    This study examined the validity of the family history method for diagnosing schizophrenia, schizophrenia-related psychoses, and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia probands. This is the first large-scale study that examined the validity of the family history method for diagnosing DSM-III-R personality disorders. The best estimate DSM-III-R diagnoses of 264 first-degree relatives of 117 adult-onset schizophrenia probands based on direct structured diagnostic interviews, family history interview, and medical records were compared to Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria (FH-RDC) diagnoses based on the NIMH Relative Psychiatric History Interview and to family history Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R: Personality Disorders (SCID-II) diagnoses based on the SCID-II adapted to a third person format. Diagnoses of relatives were made blind to proband diagnostic status. The median sensitivity for schizophrenia and the related psychoses was 29% (range 0-50%), the median specificity 99% (range 98-100%), and the median positive predictive value (PPV) 67% (range 20-80%). The median sensitivity for the personality diagnoses was 25% (range 14-71%), the median specificity 100% (range 99-100%), and the median PPV 100% (range 67-100%). The family history method has low sensitivity but has excellent specificity and PPV for schizophrenia, schizophrenia-related psychoses, and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders. The kappa coefficient for the family history method was moderately good for the psychoses (0.598) and for paranoid and schizotypal personality disorder (0.576). Using the family history method, the validity of making schizophrenia-related personality disorder diagnoses was comparable to that of making psychotic disorder diagnoses.

  7. The effect of 4 weeks of aerobic exercise on vascular and baroreflex function of young men with a family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M J; Boutcher, S H; Boutcher, Y N

    2012-11-01

    The effect of short-term aerobic exercise on vascular function of young individuals with a family history of hypertension was investigated. Thirty young men with a family history of hypertension were randomly assigned to either an exercise (n=15) or control (n=15) group. Exercise subjects performed 30 min of supervised cycle training at 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), three times per week for 4 weeks. Control subjects were asked to maintain their normal levels of physical activity. Peak leg and forearm blood flow were assessed using plethysmography and was determined as the highest blood flow following 5 min of reactive hyperemia. Cardiopulmonary baroreceptor (CPBR) sensitivity was measured using lower body negative pressure (LBNP) for 5 min at -20 mm Hg. CPBR was determined by calculating change of stroke volume and forearm vascular resistance at baseline and during LBNP. Carotid baroreceptor (CBR) sensitivity was assessed using neck suction at -20, -40, -60 and -80 mm Hg pressures, and was determined from RR interval divided by systolic blood pressure. Augmentation index (AIx), a measure of arterial stiffness, was assessed using applanation tonometry and was calculated as the ratio of augmented pressure and pulse pressure. The major findings were that the exercise group showed increase in leg vasodilation, reduction in AIx and increase in VO(2max) compared with the control group (P<0.05). However, there was no significant change for CPBR and CBR. A short-term moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention in young men with a family history of hypertension significantly reduced arterial stiffness and increased aerobic fitness.

  8. Genetic counselors' current use of personal health records-based family histories in genetic clinics and considerations for their future adoption.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Chaney; Deshazo, Jonathan P; Bodurtha, Joann; Quillin, John; Creswick, Heather

    2013-06-01

    Given the widespread adoption of electronic medical records and recent emergence of electronic family history tools, we examined genetic counselors' perspectives on the emerging technology of the personal health record (PHR)-based family history tool that links to an electronic medical record (EMR). Two-hundred thirty-three genetic counselors responded to an on-line survey eliciting current use of electronic family history (EFH) tools and familiarity with PHR-based family history tools. Additionally, after being shown a series of screen shots of a newly developed PHR-based family history tool based on the U.S. Surgeon General's My Family Health Portrait (United States Department of Health and Human Services 2009), participants were surveyed about the perceived usefulness, ease of use, and impact on current workflow that this kind of tool would have in their practices. Eighty-three percent reported that their institution has an EMR, yet only 35 % have a dedicated space for family history. Eighty-two percent reported that less than 5 % of their patients have a PHR, and only 16 % have worked with patients who have a PHR. Seventy-two percent or more agreed that a PHR-based family history tool would facilitate communication, increase accuracy of information, ensure consistency in recording information, increase focus on actual counseling, reduce repetitive questions, improve efficiency, and increase the legibility and clarity. Our findings suggest that participants were familiar with existing EFH tools, but that the majority did not use them in practice. Genetic counselors' adoption of such tools is limited due to non-existence of this kind of technology or inability to integrate it into their clinics. They are also strongly in favor of adopting a PHR-based family history tool in genetics clinics, but have practical concerns that must be addressed before the tool can be implemented.

  9. Motivation to Pursue Genetic Testing in Individuals with a Personal or Family History of Cardiac Events or Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Erskine, Kathleen E.; Hidayatallah, Nadia Z.; Walsh, Christine A.; McDonald, Thomas V.; Cohen, Lilian; Marion, Robert W.; Dolan, Siobhan M.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic testing is becoming increasingly available for cardiac channelopathies, such as long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome, which can lead to sudden cardiac death. Test results can be used to shape an individual’s medical management and to identify at-risk family members. In our qualitative study, all participants had a personal or family history of a diagnosed cardiac arrhythmia syndrome or sudden cardiac death. Open-ended interviews were conducted individually and in focus groups. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a qualitative grounded-theory approach. Of 50 participants, 37 described their motivations for pursuing genetic testing for long QT syndrome or another cardiac channelopathy. Participants’ motivations included: to find an explanation for a family member’s sudden death, to relieve uncertainty regarding a diagnosis, to guide future medical management, to allay concern about children or other family members, and to comply with recommendations of physicians or family members. Perceived reasons not to pursue genetic testing included denial, fear, and lack of information. The genetic counseling and informed consent process can be enhanced by understanding and addressing an individual’s internal and external motivations either for or against pursuing genetic testing. PMID:24664857

  10. Structure and evolutionary history of a large family of NLR proteins in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Julia; Kondrashov, Fyodor

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular eukaryotes have evolved a range of mechanisms for immune recognition. A widespread family involved in innate immunity are the NACHT-domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR) proteins. Mammals have small numbers of NLR proteins, whereas in some species, mostly those without adaptive immune systems, NLRs have expanded into very large families. We describe a family of nearly 400 NLR proteins encoded in the zebrafish genome. The proteins share a defining overall structure, which arose in fishes after a fusion of the core NLR domains with a B30.2 domain, but can be subdivided into four groups based on their NACHT domains. Gene conversion acting differentially on the NACHT and B30.2 domains has shaped the family and created the groups. Evidence of positive selection in the B30.2 domain indicates that this domain rather than the leucine-rich repeats acts as the pathogen recognition module. In an unusual chromosomal organization, the majority of the genes are located on one chromosome arm, interspersed with other large multigene families, including a new family encoding zinc-finger proteins. The NLR-B30.2 proteins represent a new family with diversity in the specific recognition module that is present in fishes in spite of the parallel existence of an adaptive immune system. PMID:27248802

  11. Astronomy Outreach Activities for Special Needs Children and Their Families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.

    2010-08-01

    I present the results of two NASA-IDEAS/STScI sponsored astronomy outreach programs for seriously ill children and their families staying at the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY) and for children hospitalized at the Children's Medical Center, Winthrop University Hospital (Mineola, NY). These programs are designed for children of all ages and include STSCi's Tonight's Sky (monthly guide to the sky); telescope observations of the Moon, Sun, planets, nebulae, and stars; and hands-on activities. During cloudy weather remote/robotic telescope observations are shown. Edible demonstrations using chocolate, marshmallows, and popcorn are used to stimulate interest. The staff at the Ronald McDonald House and Children's Medical Center are being trained to use the telescope and to do demonstrations. These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time.

  12. Autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among individuals with a family history of alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Ji, Jianguang

    2014-08-19

    Recent studies suggest de novo mutations may involve the pathogenesis of autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Based on the evidence that excessive alcohol consumption may be associated with an increased rate of de novo mutations in germ cells (sperms or eggs), we examine here whether the risks of autism and ADHD are increased among individuals with a family history of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of autism and ADHD among individuals with a biological parental history of AUDs were 1.39 (95% CI 1.34-1.44) and 2.19 (95% CI 2.15-2.23), respectively, compared to individuals without an affected parent. Among offspring whose parents were diagnosed with AUDs before their birth, the corresponding risks were 1.46 (95% CI 1.36-1.58) and 2.70 (95% CI 2.59-2.81), respectively. Our study calls for extra surveillance for children with a family history of AUDs, and further studies examining the underlying mechanisms are needed.

  13. The roles of family history of dyslexia, language, speech production and phonological processing in predicting literacy progress.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Julia M; Mundy, Ian R; Cunningham, Anna J

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that speech, language and phonological skills are closely associated with literacy, and that children with a family risk of dyslexia (FRD) tend to show deficits in each of these areas in the preschool years. This paper examines what the relationships are between FRD and these skills, and whether deficits in speech, language and phonological processing fully account for the increased risk of dyslexia in children with FRD. One hundred and fifty-three 4-6-year-old children, 44 of whom had FRD, completed a battery of speech, language, phonology and literacy tasks. Word reading and spelling were retested 6 months later, and text reading accuracy and reading comprehension were tested 3 years later. The children with FRD were at increased risk of developing difficulties in reading accuracy, but not reading comprehension. Four groups were compared: good and poor readers with and without FRD. In most cases good readers outperformed poor readers regardless of family history, but there was an effect of family history on naming and nonword repetition regardless of literacy outcome, suggesting a role for speech production skills as an endophenotype of dyslexia. Phonological processing predicted spelling, while language predicted text reading accuracy and comprehension. FRD was a significant additional predictor of reading and spelling after controlling for speech production, language and phonological processing, suggesting that children with FRD show additional difficulties in literacy that cannot be fully explained in terms of their language and phonological skills.

  14. Rewriting the history of Chinese families in nineteenth-century Australia.

    PubMed

    Bagnall, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The nineteenth-century Chinese population in Australia was made up mostly of men, drawing many commentators to the conclusion these men faced an absence of family life, resulting in prostitution, gambling, opium use and other so-called vices. Recent research has, however, expanded and complicated our knowledge of Chinese families in New South Wales and Victoria, particularly concerning the extent to which Chinese men and white Australian women formed intimate relationships. This article traces the origins of the misconceptions about Chinese families in nineteenth-century Australia, and considers how new directions in scholarship over the past decade are providing methods for enlarging our knowledge. It argues that instead of being oddities or exceptions, Chinese-European families were integral to the story of Australia's early Chinese communities.

  15. Web-Based Risk Appraisal Tool Increases Capture of Family History Data in Electronic Health Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... outcomes of adults with post-traumatic stress disorder School-based interventions show promise for helping children after trauma not due to family violence Telemedicine may be a useful tool for managing ...

  16. Perspectives:The Strength of a People: Exploring the Impact of History and Culture on African American Families Who Are Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Tabitha; Diamond-Berry, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The authors share their perspective on how the history of African American's in the U.S., and an awareness of the role of African cultural traditions, can provide insight on working effectively with African American families.

  17. Active Site and Laminarin Binding in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 55*

    PubMed Central

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S.; Yik, Eric J.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 β-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100–10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ∼30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  18. Infant information processing and family history of specific language impairment: converging evidence for RAP deficits from two paradigms.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Naseem; Leppanen, Paavo H T; Leevers, Hilary J; Benasich, April A

    2007-03-01

    An infant's ability to process auditory signals presented in rapid succession (i.e. rapid auditory processing abilities [RAP]) has been shown to predict differences in language outcomes in toddlers and preschool children. Early deficits in RAP abilities may serve as a behavioral marker for language-based learning disabilities. The purpose of this study is to determine if performance on infant information processing measures designed to tap RAP and global processing skills differ as a function of family history of specific language impairment (SLI) and/or the particular demand characteristics of the paradigm used. Seventeen 6- to 9-month-old infants from families with a history of specific language impairment (FH+) and 29 control infants (FH-) participated in this study. Infants' performance on two different RAP paradigms (head-turn procedure [HT] and auditory-visual habituation/recognition memory [AVH/RM]) and on a global processing task (visual habituation/recognition memory [VH/RM]) was assessed at 6 and 9 months. Toddler language and cognitive skills were evaluated at 12 and 16 months. A number of significant group differences were seen: FH+ infants showed significantly poorer discrimination of fast rate stimuli on both RAP tasks, took longer to habituate on both habituation/recognition memory measures, and had lower novelty preference scores on the visual habituation/recognition memory task. Infants' performance on the two RAP measures provided independent but converging contributions to outcome. Thus, different mechanisms appear to underlie performance on operantly conditioned tasks as compared to habituation/recognition memory paradigms. Further, infant RAP processing abilities predicted to 12- and 16-month language scores above and beyond family history of SLI. The results of this study provide additional support for the validity of infant RAP abilities as a behavioral marker for later language outcome. Finally, this is the first study to use a battery of

  19. Reliability and validity of the March of dimes preconception/prenatal family health history questionnaire: The Persian version.

    PubMed

    Mashhadi Abdolahi, Hossein; Kargar Maher, Mohammad Hassan; Karamouz, Majid; Khosroshahi, Hossein; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a remarkable gap between rapid advancements in genetic technology and public health practice. Looking at the familial health history may bridge this gap for easier and cheaper diagnosis and prevention of congenital anomalies. The aim of this study was to validate and culturally adapt the March of Dimes Preconception/Prenatal Family Health History Questionnaire for the Iranian population. After obtaining written permission from March of Dimes, the translation-back translation of the original questionnaire was performed. The content validity was assessed by a team of 12 experts. Based on a sample of 50 general practitioners and 100 subjects referred to health centers from September to November 2014 in Tabriz, Iran, test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability were evaluated by Kappa and Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Content validity of the Persian version of the questionnaire was confirmed according to the modified kappa value above 0.76 for all the items included in this tool. Inter-rater reliability assessment yielded a kappa value between 0.62 and 0.92 for variables with dichotomous measurement scales and ICC ranged from 0.6 to 0.9 for variables with numeric scales. Test-retest re-administration produced kappa ranging from 0.62 to 0.92 for variables with dichotomous measurement scales and ICC from 0.6 to 0.9 for variables with numeric scales. The Persian version of the March of Dimes preconception/prenatal family health history questionnaire showed acceptable reliability and validity and may be used as a simple tool for the detection of risk factors of birth defects in Iranian population.

  20. The evolutionary history of human DNA transposons: evidence for intense activity in the primate lineage.

    PubMed

    Pace, John K; Feschotte, Cédric

    2007-04-01

    Class 2, or DNA transposons, make up approximately 3% of the human genome, yet the evolutionary history of these elements has been largely overlooked and remains poorly understood. Here we carried out the first comprehensive analysis of the activity of human DNA transposons over the course of primate evolution using three independent computational methods. First, we conducted an exhaustive search for human DNA transposons nested within L1 and Alu elements known to be primate specific. Second, we assessed the presence/absence of 794 human DNA transposons at orthologous positions in 10 mammalian species using sequence data generated by The ENCODE Project. These two approaches, which do not rely upon sequence divergence, allowed us to classify DNA transposons into three different categories: anthropoid specific (40-63 My), primate specific (64-80 My), and eutherian wide (81-150 My). Finally, we used this data to calculate the substitution rates of DNA transposons for each category and refine the age of each family based on the average percent divergence of individual copies to their consensus. Based on these combined methods, we can confidently estimate that at least 40 human DNA transposon families, representing approximately 98,000 elements ( approximately 33 Mb) in the human genome, have been active in the primate lineage. There was a cessation in the transpositional activity of DNA transposons during the later phase of the primate radiation, with no evidence of elements younger than approximately 37 My. This data points to intense activity of DNA transposons during the mammalian radiation and early primate evolution, followed, apparently, by their mass extinction in an anthropoid primate ancestor.

  1. A large family of anti-activators accompanying XylS/AraC family regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Araceli E; Yan, Michael B; Tran, Minh; Wright, Nathan; Luzader, Deborah H; Kendall, Melissa M; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Nataro, James P

    2016-07-01

    AraC Negative Regulators (ANR) suppress virulence genes by directly down-regulating AraC/XylS members in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we sought to investigate the distribution and molecular mechanisms of regulatory function for ANRs among different bacterial pathogens. We identified more than 200 ANRs distributed in diverse clinically important gram negative pathogens, including Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Yersinia spp., Citrobacter spp., enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and members of the Pasteurellaceae. By employing a bacterial two hybrid system, pull down assays and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis, we demonstrate that Aar (AggR-activated regulator), a prototype member of the ANR family in EAEC, binds with high affinity to the central linker domain of AraC-like member AggR. ANR-AggR binding disrupted AggR dimerization and prevented AggR-DNA binding. ANR homologs of Vibrio cholerae, Citrobacter rodentium, Salmonella enterica and ETEC were capable of complementing Aar activity by repressing aggR expression in EAEC strain 042. ANR homologs of ETEC and Vibrio cholerae bound to AggR as well as to other members of the AraC family, including Rns and ToxT. The predicted proteins of all ANR members exhibit three highly conserved predicted α-helices. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that at least predicted α-helices 2 and 3 are required for Aar activity. In sum, our data strongly suggest that members of the novel ANR family act by directly binding to their cognate AraC partners.

  2. A large family of anti‐activators accompanying XylS/AraC family regulatory proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Michael B.; Tran, Minh; Wright, Nathan; Luzader, Deborah H.; Kendall, Melissa M.; Ruiz‐Perez, Fernando; Nataro, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary AraC Negative Regulators (ANR) suppress virulence genes by directly down‐regulating AraC/XylS members in Gram‐negative bacteria. In this study, we sought to investigate the distribution and molecular mechanisms of regulatory function for ANRs among different bacterial pathogens. We identified more than 200 ANRs distributed in diverse clinically important gram negative pathogens, including Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Yersinia spp., Citrobacter spp., enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and members of the Pasteurellaceae. By employing a bacterial two hybrid system, pull down assays and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis, we demonstrate that Aar (AggR‐activated regulator), a prototype member of the ANR family in EAEC, binds with high affinity to the central linker domain of AraC‐like member AggR. ANR‐AggR binding disrupted AggR dimerization and prevented AggR‐DNA binding. ANR homologs of Vibrio cholerae, Citrobacter rodentium, Salmonella enterica and ETEC were capable of complementing Aar activity by repressing aggR expression in EAEC strain 042. ANR homologs of ETEC and Vibrio cholerae bound to AggR as well as to other members of the AraC family, including Rns and ToxT. The predicted proteins of all ANR members exhibit three highly conserved predicted α‐helices. Site‐directed mutagenesis studies suggest that at least predicted α‐helices 2 and 3 are required for Aar activity. In sum, our data strongly suggest that members of the novel ANR family act by directly binding to their cognate AraC partners. PMID:27038276

  3. BRIP1/FANCJ Mutation Analysis in a Family with History of Male and Female Breast Cancer in India

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshwari, Ananthapur; Clark, David Wayne; Nallari, Pratibha; Vinod, Cingeetham; Kumarasamy, Thangaraj; Reddy, Goverdhan; Jyothy, Akka; Kumar, Malladi Vijay; Ramaiyer, Raghuraman

    2017-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare and poorly studied disease that is a growing global health problem. Interestingly, both the molecular basis of MBC and its histological profile are often quite distinct from the far more prevalent female breast cancer, emphasizing the need for increased focus on MBC. Here, we present a case report of an MBC patient from India with a strong familial history of breast cancer. This patient was normal for BRCA1/2 and many other common breast cancer-associated genes. However, upon further analysis, the individual was found to possess two mutations in the DNA helicase and tumor suppressor gene BRIP1, including a silent mutation at residue 879 as well as a P919S variant. Other family members were also screened for these mutations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of BRIP1 mutation in MBC in the Indian population. PMID:28382101

  4. BRIP1/FANCJ Mutation Analysis in a Family with History of Male and Female Breast Cancer in India.

    PubMed

    Venkateshwari, Ananthapur; Clark, David Wayne; Nallari, Pratibha; Vinod, Cingeetham; Kumarasamy, Thangaraj; Reddy, Goverdhan; Jyothy, Akka; Kumar, Malladi Vijay; Ramaiyer, Raghuraman; Palle, Komaraiah

    2017-03-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare and poorly studied disease that is a growing global health problem. Interestingly, both the molecular basis of MBC and its histological profile are often quite distinct from the far more prevalent female breast cancer, emphasizing the need for increased focus on MBC. Here, we present a case report of an MBC patient from India with a strong familial history of breast cancer. This patient was normal for BRCA1/2 and many other common breast cancer-associated genes. However, upon further analysis, the individual was found to possess two mutations in the DNA helicase and tumor suppressor gene BRIP1, including a silent mutation at residue 879 as well as a P919S variant. Other family members were also screened for these mutations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of BRIP1 mutation in MBC in the Indian population.

  5. Health Heritage© a web-based tool for the collection and assessment of family health history: initial user experience and analytic validity.

    PubMed

    Cohn, W F; Ropka, M E; Pelletier, S L; Barrett, J R; Kinzie, M B; Harrison, M B; Liu, Z; Miesfeldt, S; Tucker, A L; Worrall, B B; Gibson, J; Mullins, I M; Elward, K S; Franko, J; Guterbock, T M; Knaus, W A

    2010-01-01

    A detailed family health history is currently the most potentially useful tool for diagnosis and risk assessment in clinical genetics. We developed and evaluated the usability and analytic validity of a patient-driven web-based family health history collection and analysis tool. Health Heritage(©) guides users through the collection of their family health history by relative, generates a pedigree, completes risk assessment, stratification, and recommendations for 89 conditions. We compared the performance of Health Heritage to that of Usual Care using a nonrandomized cohort trial of 109 volunteers. We contrasted the completeness and sensitivity of family health history collection and risk assessments derived from Health Heritage and Usual Care to those obtained by genetic counselors and genetic assessment teams. Nearly half (42%) of the Health Heritage participants reported discovery of health risks; 63% found the information easy to understand and 56% indicated it would change their health behavior. Health Heritage consistently outperformed Usual Care in the completeness and accuracy of family health history collection, identifying 60% of the elevated risk conditions specified by the genetic team versus 24% identified by Usual Care. Health Heritage also had greater sensitivity than Usual Care when comparing the identification of risks. These results suggest a strong role for automated family health history collection and risk assessment and underscore the potential of these data to serve as the foundation for comprehensive, cost-effective personalized genomic medicine.

  6. Influence of family history of major depression, bipolar disorder, and suicide on clinical features in patients with major depression and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Serretti, Alessandro; Chiesa, Alberto; Calati, Raffaella; Linotte, Sylvie; Sentissi, Othman; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Kasper, Siegfried; Zohar, Joseph; De Ronchi, Diana; Mendlewicz, Julien; Amital, Daniela; Montgomery, Stuart; Souery, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The extent to which a family history of mood disorders and suicide could impact on clinical features of patients suffering from major depression (MD) and bipolar disorder (BD) has received relatively little attention so far. The aim of the present work is, therefore, to assess the clinical implications of the presence of at least one first- and/or second-degree relative with a history of MD, BD and suicide in a large sample of patients with MD or BD. One thousand one hundred and fifty-seven subjects with MD and 686 subjects with BD were recruited within the context of two large projects. The impact of a family history of MD, BD, and suicide-considered both separately and together-on clinical and socio-demographic variables was investigated. A family history of MD, BD, and suicide was more common in BD patients than in MD patients. A positive family history of mood disorders and/or suicide as well as a positive family history of MD and BD separately considered, but not a positive history of suicide alone, were significantly associated with a comorbidity with several anxiety disorders and inversely associated with age of onset. The clinical implications as well as the limitations of our findings are discussed.

  7. Enhancer hijacking activates GFI1 family oncogenes in medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Northcott, Paul A; Lee, Catherine; Zichner, Thomas; Stütz, Adrian M; Erkek, Serap; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Shih, David J H; Hovestadt, Volker; Zapatka, Marc; Sturm, Dominik; Jones, David T W; Kool, Marcel; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence M G; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Bader, Gary D; VandenBerg, Scott; Esparza, Lourdes Adriana; Ryzhova, Marina; Wang, Wei; Wittmann, Andrea; Stark, Sebastian; Sieber, Laura; Seker-Cin, Huriye; Linke, Linda; Kratochwil, Fabian; Jäger, Natalie; Buchhalter, Ivo; Imbusch, Charles D; Zipprich, Gideon; Raeder, Benjamin; Schmidt, Sabine; Diessl, Nicolle; Wolf, Stephan; Wiemann, Stefan; Brors, Benedikt; Lawerenz, Chris; Eils, Jürgen; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Risch, Thomas; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Weber, Ursula D; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; von Kalle, Christof; Turányi, Eszter; Hauser, Peter; Sanden, Emma; Darabi, Anna; Siesjö, Peter; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Sumerauer, David; van Sluis, Peter; Versteeg, Rogier; Volckmann, Richard; Koster, Jan; Schuhmann, Martin U; Ebinger, Martin; Grimes, H Leighton; Robinson, Giles W; Gajjar, Amar; Mynarek, Martin; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pietsch, Torsten; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Kulozik, Andreas E; von Deimling, Andreas; Witt, Olaf; Eils, Roland; Gilbertson, Richard J; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D; Lichter, Peter; Korbel, Jan O; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Pfister, Stefan M

    2014-07-24

    Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour currently treated with a combination of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, posing a considerable burden of toxicity to the developing child. Genomics has illuminated the extensive intertumoral heterogeneity of medulloblastoma, identifying four distinct molecular subgroups. Group 3 and group 4 subgroup medulloblastomas account for most paediatric cases; yet, oncogenic drivers for these subtypes remain largely unidentified. Here we describe a series of prevalent, highly disparate genomic structural variants, restricted to groups 3 and 4, resulting in specific and mutually exclusive activation of the growth factor independent 1 family proto-oncogenes, GFI1 and GFI1B. Somatic structural variants juxtapose GFI1 or GFI1B coding sequences proximal to active enhancer elements, including super-enhancers, instigating oncogenic activity. Our results, supported by evidence from mouse models, identify GFI1 and GFI1B as prominent medulloblastoma oncogenes and implicate 'enhancer hijacking' as an efficient mechanism driving oncogene activation in a childhood cancer.

  8. Serving Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Geoffrey; Beggs, Marjorie; Seiderman, Ethel

    Parent Services Project (PSP), the first comprehensive program of resources and mental health activities for parents offered at child care centers in the San Francisco Bay Area (California), has expanded to centers in six states, serving over 19,000 families. This report describes the program's history, aims, and achievements, along with specific…

  9. Wounded Healers: Graduate Students with Histories of Trauma in a Family Violence Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Social work students are witness to a variety of challenges from course content through scenarios, videos, role-plays, and field practice. Students may be vulnerable to experiencing vicarious traumatization from this exposure. Some students, however, may have personal histories of trauma and may therefore experience posttraumatic stress reactions…

  10. Our History of Educational Freedom: What It Should Mean for Families Today. Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gryphon, Marie; Meyer, Emily A.

    This paper examines the American tradition of educational freedom, following its ebb and flow at various points in history. America's ethos of educational freedom has always been strong, tied to its values of pluralism, tolerance, and free inquiry. However, its legacy of freedom has suffered repeated assaults by individuals and groups who wish to…

  11. "My Grandfather Slammed the Door in Winston Churchill's Face!" Using Family History to Provoke Rigorous Enquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The idea of using "little stories" to illuminate the "big pictures" of the past was creatively explored in "Teaching History 107," which offered teachers a wealth of detailed vignettes with which to kindle young people's interest and illuminate major historical events. Paul Barrett builds on the ideas explored in that issue in two important ways.…

  12. Family Environments, Adrenarche, and Sexual Maturation: A Longitudinal Test of a Life History Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2007-01-01

    Life history theorists have proposed that humans have evolved to be sensitive to specific features of early childhood environments and that exposure to different environments biases children toward development of different reproductive strategies, including differential pubertal timing. The current research provides a longitudinal test of this…

  13. The history of the family in Spain: past development, present realities, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Reher, D

    1998-01-01

    "The article presents a brief overview of the historical study of the family in Spain, and deals with household work patterns, labor migration, adaptive strategies of households, and property devolution. From a belated and rater timid beginnings in the early part of the 1980s, the growth of this field in recent years has been noteworthy. The articles included in this volume are fitting testimony to the maturity achieved by this discipline in a very short amount of time. There are many important methodological and conceptual challenges facing family historians in Spain today. If they are able to respond to them successfully, the future of the discipline will be a bright one indeed."

  14. Passive resting state and history of antagonist muscle activity shape active extensions in an insect limb

    PubMed Central

    Ache, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Limb movements can be driven by muscle contractions, external forces, or intrinsic passive forces. For lightweight limbs like those of insects or small vertebrates, passive forces can be large enough to overcome the effects of gravity and may even generate limb movements in the absence of active muscle contractions. Understanding the sources and actions of such forces is therefore important in understanding motor control. We describe passive properties of the femur-tibia joint of the locust hind leg. The resting angle is determined primarily by passive properties of the relatively large extensor tibiae muscle and is influenced by the history of activation of the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron. The resting angle is therefore better described as a history-dependent resting state. We selectively stimulated different flexor tibiae motor neurons to generate a range of isometric contractions of the flexor tibiae muscle and then stimulated the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron to elicit active tibial extensions. Residual forces in the flexor muscle have only a small effect on subsequent active extensions, but the effect is larger for distal than for proximal flexor motor neurons and varies with the strength of flexor activation. We conclude that passive properties of a lightweight limb make substantial and complex contributions to the resting state of the limb that must be taken into account in the patterning of neuronal control signals driving its active movements. Low variability in the effects of the passive forces may permit the nervous system to accurately predict their contributions to behavior. PMID:22357791

  15. Associations among Measures of Sequential Processing in Motor and Linguistics Tasks in Adults with and without a Family History of Childhood Apraxia of Speech: A Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, Le; Peter, Beate; Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the hypothesis that childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is influenced by an underlying deficit in sequential processing that is also expressed in other modalities. In a sample of 21 adults from five multigenerational families, 11 with histories of various familial speech sound disorders, 3 biologically…

  16. Exploring Perspectives of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Histories of Challenging Behaviors about Family Relationships: An Emergent Topic in a Grounded Theory Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie F.; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie; Maramaldi, Peter; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    2016-01-01

    The perspectives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) about family relationships are underrepresented in the literature. The topic of family relationships emerged in a grounded theory exploratory focus group study that involved thirty dually diagnosed participants with moderate or mild intellectual disabilities and histories of…

  17. Child and Parental Literacy Levels within Families with a History of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F.; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben; van der Leij, Aryan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study concerns literacy and its underlying cognitive skills in Dutch children who differ in familial risk (FR) for dyslexia. Previous studies with FR-children were inconclusive regarding the performance of FR-children without dyslexia as compared to the controls. Moreover, van Bergen et al. (2011) recently showed that…

  18. "We're Locking the Door": Family Histories in a Sample of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvi, Shahid; Scott, Hannah; Stanyon, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the pathways to homelessness for young people are embedded in often ongoing negative childhood experiences. Many of these experiences are rooted in multiple and intersecting problems including, but not limited to: family conflict, abuse, addictions, and mental health issues. The authors draw upon qualitative interviews…

  19. The Garbers: Using Digital History To Recreate a 19th-Century Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Cheryl L.; Carter, Alice

    1999-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which students read a letter from the Web site "Valley of the Shadow: Two Communities during the American Civil War," an interactive archive of digitized primary sources. Students search the site's 1860 population census to learn about Thomas Garber and his family. Students also learn about life in the 19th century.…

  20. Profiles in the Development of Behavior Disorders among Youths with Family Maltreatment Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desbiens, Nadia; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2007-01-01

    Violent conduct by youths ranks among the types of inappropriate behavior generally originating in difficult family and social contexts. A proper understanding of the development of violent conduct must consider the situation taken as a whole. This article documents the results of a qualitative study which aimed to determine the psychosocial…

  1. Cephalic phase of insulin secretion in response to a meal is unrelated to family history of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rawshani, Araz; Axelsen, Mette; Hammarstedt, Ann; Smith, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    The pre-absorptive cephalic phase of insulin secretion is elicited during the first ten min of a meal and before glucose levels rise. Its importance for insulin release during the post-absorptive phase has been well documented in animals but its presence or importance in man has become increasingly controversial. We here examined the presence of an early cephalic phase of insulin release in 31 well matched individuals without (n = 15) or with (n = 16) a known family history of type 2 diabetes (first-degree relatives; FDR). We also examined the potential differences in individuals with or without impaired fasting (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We here demonstrate that a cephalic phase of insulin secretion was present in all individuals examined and without any differences between control persons and FDR or IFG/IGT. However, the overall importance of the cephalic phase is conjectural since it was unrelated to the subsequent post-absorptive insulin release or glucose tolerance. One of the best predictors of the incremental cephalic phase of insulin release was fasting insulin level and, thus, a relation to degree of insulin sensitivity is likely. In conclusion, an early pre-absorptive and cephalic phase of insulin release is robustly present in man. However, we could not document any relation to family history of Type 2 diabetes nor to the post-absorptive phase and, thus, confirm its importance for subsequent degree of insulin release or glucose tolerance. PMID:28288176

  2. Accuracy of reported family history and effectiveness of medical record requests in genetic counseling for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Emily L R; Butler, Rachel K; Guimond, Colleen; Butler, Blair; Sadovnick, A Dessa

    2011-04-01

    The University of British Columbia Hospital Clinic for Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders (UBCH-CARD) invests significant effort to obtain medical records for the confirmation of patient-reported family histories of dementia. The effectiveness of requesting these records was assessed through a review of the 275 requests made by UBCH-CARD genetic counselors during the 24-month period of January 1, 2005-December 31, 2006. The results were categorized according to outcome. Useful medical records were obtained from 92 (33.5%) requests: 77 (28%) records supported, and 15 (5.5%) records did not support, the patient-reported information. An additional 20 (7.5%) requests yielded only vague information. When verification was possible, patient-reported family histories of Alzheimer disease, dementia, or memory loss were accurate in 84% of cases. During the study period, almost 500 h of genetic counselor work time was spent obtaining, reviewing, and following-up on records received. Changes made to UBCH-CARD procedure in response to these findings are discussed.

  3. Cephalic phase of insulin secretion in response to a meal is unrelated to family history of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, Björn; Rawshani, Araz; Axelsen, Mette; Hammarstedt, Ann; Smith, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    The pre-absorptive cephalic phase of insulin secretion is elicited during the first ten min of a meal and before glucose levels rise. Its importance for insulin release during the post-absorptive phase has been well documented in animals but its presence or importance in man has become increasingly controversial. We here examined the presence of an early cephalic phase of insulin release in 31 well matched individuals without (n = 15) or with (n = 16) a known family history of type 2 diabetes (first-degree relatives; FDR). We also examined the potential differences in individuals with or without impaired fasting (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We here demonstrate that a cephalic phase of insulin secretion was present in all individuals examined and without any differences between control persons and FDR or IFG/IGT. However, the overall importance of the cephalic phase is conjectural since it was unrelated to the subsequent post-absorptive insulin release or glucose tolerance. One of the best predictors of the incremental cephalic phase of insulin release was fasting insulin level and, thus, a relation to degree of insulin sensitivity is likely. In conclusion, an early pre-absorptive and cephalic phase of insulin release is robustly present in man. However, we could not document any relation to family history of Type 2 diabetes nor to the post-absorptive phase and, thus, confirm its importance for subsequent degree of insulin release or glucose tolerance.

  4. Family History and the History of Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selleck, R. J. W.

    2004-01-01

    The State Library of Victoria, which opened its doors in Melbourne in 1856, was designed and built in a confident and expansive decade. Even as war clouds gathered in 1913 the Library's confidence remained strong and it added a magnificent domed reading room, designed with the British Museum Library very much in mind. In the Library's genealogical…

  5. Rapid human-induced divergence of life-history strategies in Bahamian livebearing fishes (family Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Riesch, Rüdiger; Easter, Tara; Layman, Craig A; Langerhans, Randall Brian

    2015-11-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) can have dramatic impacts on ecosystems, leading to rapid trait changes in some organisms and extinction in others. Such changes in traits signify that human actions can lead to cases of increased phenotypic diversity and consequently can strongly impact population-, community- and ecosystem-level dynamics. Here, we examine whether the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation have led to changes in the life histories of three native species of mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) inhabiting tidal creeks on six different Bahamian islands. We address two important questions: (i) How predictable and parallel are life-history changes in response to HIREC across islands and species, and (ii) what is the relative importance of shared (i.e. parallel) responses to fragmentation, differences between species or islands and species- or island-specific responses to fragmentation? Phenotypic differences between fragmentation regimes were as great or greater than differences between species or islands. While some adult life histories (lean weight and fat content) showed strong, shared responses to fragmentation, offspring-related life histories (embryo fat and fecundity) exhibited idiosyncratic, island-specific responses. While shared responses to fragmentation appeared largely driven by a reduction in piscivorous fish density, increased conspecific density and changes in salinity, we found some evidence that among-population variation in male reproductive investment and embryo fat content may have arisen via variation in conspecific density. Our results suggest that phenotypic responses to HIREC can be complex, with the predictability of response varying across traits. We therefore emphasize the need for more theoretical and empirical work to better understand the predictability of phenotypic responses to human-induced disturbances.

  6. Gravity: The Glue of the Universe. History and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Harry; Smith, Diana Gilbert

    This book presents a story of the history of gravity, the glue of the universe, and is based on two premises: (1) an understanding of mathematics is not required to grasp the concepts and implications of relativity; and (2) relativity has altered forever the perceptions of gravity, space, time, and how the universe works. A narrative text section…

  7. The Short and Active History of The Agnew Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronner, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The field of business education has been driven by the needs of society since the beginnings of the nation's history--from apprenticeship training, to factory vestibule settings, to the emergence of the for-profit private business schools, to specialized vocational high schools, to the comprehensive secondary school, to business teacher…

  8. American Society of Indexers: History, Activities and Relationship to ASIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bella Hass

    1993-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the American Society of Indexers (ASI) and assesses its position among other organizations, such as ASIS, involved with the organization of information. Topics discussed include the annual award for best monograph index; the ASI newsletter; and publicity to convey the importance of quality indexing. (LRW)

  9. Assessing the family dynamics of childhood maltreatment history with the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS)

    PubMed Central

    Frewen, Paul; Brown, Matthew; DePierro, Jonathan; D'Andrea, Wendy; Schore, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background Existing survey measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to take into account the relational-socioecological environment in which childhood maltreatment occurs. Variables such as the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim, the emotional availability of caregivers, witnessing the abuse of others, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment are rarely assessed by current measures. Methods To address these concerns, the current study further investigated the family dynamics of childhood maltreatment using the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS) in 1,782 persons assessed online. Results Paired differences in means between item-rated descriptiveness of self, mothers, and fathers suggested that respondents’ relationship with their biological fathers was less positive and secure than their relationship with their biological mothers, and that biological fathers were more often the perpetrator of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse than biological mothers. However, results further suggested that ratings between self, mothers, and fathers were positively correlated such that, for example, reports of a mother's or a respondent's own abusive behavior were more likely in the presence of reports of a father's abusive behavior. In addition, analyses evaluating witnessing violence demonstrated that fathers were rated as more often violent toward mothers than the reverse, although intimate partner violence was also frequently bidirectional. Analyses of sibling ratings further demonstrated that older brothers were either as or more frequently abusive when compared with parents. Finally, results suggested that childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse were much more often perpetrated by family members than extra-familial and non-family members. Conclusions In so far as these findings are consistent with the prior childhood trauma and attachment literature, the current study

  10. A poxvirus Bcl-2-like gene family involved in regulation of host immune response: sequence similarity and evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Poxviruses evade the immune system of the host through the action of viral encoded inhibitors that block various signalling pathways. The exact number of viral inhibitors is not yet known. Several members of the vaccinia virus A46 and N1 families, with a Bcl-2-like structure, are involved in the regulation of the host innate immune response where they act non-redundantly at different levels of the Toll-like receptor signalling pathway. N1 also maintains an anti-apoptotic effect by acting similarly to cellular Bcl-2 proteins. Whether there are related families that could have similar functions is the main subject of this investigation. Results We describe the sequence similarity existing among poxvirus A46, N1, N2 and C1 protein families, which share a common domain of approximately 110-140 amino acids at their C-termini that spans the entire N1 sequence. Secondary structure and fold recognition predictions suggest that this domain presents an all-alpha-helical fold compatible with the Bcl-2-like structures of vaccinia virus proteins N1, A52, B15 and K7. We propose that these protein families should be merged into a single one. We describe the phylogenetic distribution of this family and reconstruct its evolutionary history, which indicates an extensive gene gain in ancestral viruses and a further stabilization of its gene content. Conclusions Based on the sequence/structure similarity, we propose that other members with unknown function, like vaccinia virus N2, C1, C6 and C16/B22, might have a similar role in the suppression of host immune response as A46, A52, B15 and K7, by antagonizing at different levels with the TLR signalling pathways. PMID:20230632

  11. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the reef fish family Labridae.

    PubMed

    Westneat, Mark W; Alfaro, Michael E

    2005-08-01

    The family Labridae (including scarines and odacines) contains 82 genera and about 600 species of fishes that inhabit coastal and continental shelf waters in tropical and temperate oceans throughout the world. The Labridae (the wrasses) is the fifth largest fish family and second largest marine fish family, and is one of the most morphologically and ecologically diversified families of fishes in size, shape, and color. Labrid phylogeny is a long-standing problem in ichthyology that is part of the larger question of relationships within the suborder Labroidei. A phylogenetic analysis of labrids was conducted to investigate relationships among the six classical tribes of wrasses, the affinities of the wrasses to the parrotfishes (scarines), and the broad phylogenetic structure among labrid genera. Four gene fragments were sequenced from 98 fish species, including 84 labrid fishes and 14 outgroup taxa. Taxa were chosen from all major labrid clades and most major global ocean regions where labrid fishes exist, as well as cichlid, pomacentrid, and embiotocid outgroups. From the mitochondrial genome we sequenced portions of 12S rRNA (1000 bp) and 16S rRNA (585 bp), which were aligned by using a secondary structure model. From the nuclear genome, we sequenced part of the protein-coding genes RAG2 (846 bp) and Tmo4C4 (541 bp). Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses on the resulting 2972 bp of DNA sequence produced similar topologies that confirm the monophyly of a family Labridae that includes the parrotfishes and butterfishes and strong support for many previously identified taxonomic subgroups. The tribe Hypsigenyini (hogfishes, tuskfishes) is the sister group to the remaining labrids and includes odacines and the chisel-tooth wrasse Pseudodax moluccanus, a species previously considered close to scarines. Cheilines and scarines are sister-groups, closely related to the temperate Labrini, and pseudocheilines and cheilines are split in all phylogenies

  12. Differences in the distribution of cytogenetic subtypes between multiple myeloma patients with and without a family history of monoclonal gammopathy and multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Alexandra J; Cousin, Margot; Kumar, Shaji; Ketterling, Rhett P; Knudson, Ryan A; Larson, Dirk; Colby, Colin; Scott, Christopher; Vachon, Celine M; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2013-09-01

    We previously reported an increased risk of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) in first-degree relatives of MGUS and multiple myeloma patients. Here, we examine whether primary cytogenetic categories of myeloma differ between patients with and without a family history of MGUS or myeloma. We studied 201 myeloma patients with available data on family history and molecular cytogenetic classification. Myeloma with trisomies was more common in probands who had an affected first-degree relative with MGUS or myeloma compared with those without a family history (46.9% vs. 33.5%, P = 0.125); however, the difference was not statistically significant. Additional studies on the cytogenetic types of myeloma associated with familial tendency are needed.

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Vitamin and Supplement Usage among Men with a Family History of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christina M.; Ishak, Miriam B.; Johnson, Emilie K.; Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L.; Cooney, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypotheses Men who have a brother with prostate cancer have a two-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer. Strategies employed by these men to reduce prostate cancer risk are not well understood. Preliminary studies have shown that men with a family history of prostate cancer have a high rate of vitamin and supplement usage aimed at the prevention of prostate cancer. Study Design We analyzed data from a cross-sectional study of men with familial and hereditary prostate cancer and their unaffected brothers. We interviewed 542 unaffected men who had at least one brother who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer regarding their use of vitamins and supplements, as well as the motivation for use. Methods The associations between subject characteristics and vitamin and supplement use were evaluated using an unconditional logistic regression modeling approach. Results Overall, 59.2 and 36.5 percent of men reported ever using and currently using, respectively, one or more vitamins or supplements (including multivitamins). One-third of men took a vitamin or supplement that has been targeted for prostate health or cancer prevention, including green tea, magnesium, male hormones, saw palmetto, selenium, soy, vitamins A, C, E and zinc. Increasing age at time of survey was associated with vitamin/supplement use (OR=1.03; 95% CI=1.01–1.0). After adjusting for age at time of survey, being younger than an affected brother was associated with vitamin and supplement use (OR=1.51; 95% CI=1.01–2.25). 25% of men reported obtaining information from books or articles as the most common source of information. Conclusions Our findings indicate that men at an increased risk for prostate cancer report a high rate of vitamin and supplement use, including supplements targeted for prostate cancer prevention. Men with a family history of prostate cancer represent a target population for future chemopreventative agents. PMID:21821653

  14. A cryptic familial rearrangement of 11p15.5, involving both imprinting centers, in a family with a history of short stature.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lindsay A; Rupps, Rosemarie; Peñaherrera, Maria S; Robinson, Wendy P; Patel, Millan S; Eydoux, Patrice; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2014-06-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features and body asymmetry. Both hypomethylation of the telomeric imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) at 11p15.5 and maternal duplication of 11p15.5 have been implicated in the etiology of this disorder. Here we report the origin and segregation of the first reported between-arm intrachromosomal insertion of 11p15.5 that encompasses both ICR1 and ICR2 in a multigenerational family with a history of short stature. One (or any odd number) crossover within the centromeric segment during meiosis would produce recombinant chromosomes; one with a duplication of the inserted segment and the other a deletion. In this 4-generation family, there were six instances of transmission of the recombinant chromosome with duplication of the11p15.5 segment, which leads to a SRS phenotype when maternally inherited and a Beckwith-Wiedemann phenotype when paternally transmitted. The size of the duplicated region is ~1.9 Mb as determined by microarray analysis. This study provides further evidence that maternally inherited duplications of 11p15.5 result in a SRS phenotype that includes short stature and other variable features. The methylation status of the extra copy of the duplicated region of 11p15.5 ultimately predicts the resulting phenotype. Thus, the different phenotype based on parental mode of transmission is of importance in the genetic counseling of these patients.

  15. Significance of a positive family history for coronary heart disease in patients with a zero coronary artery calcium score (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Randy; Budoff, Matthew; McClelland, Robyn L; Sillau, Stefan; Burke, Gregory; Blaha, Michael; Szklo, Moyses; Uretsky, Seth; Rozanski, Alan; Shea, Steven

    2014-10-15

    Although a coronary artery calcium (CAC) score of 0 is associated with a very low 10-year risk for cardiac events, this risk is nonzero. Subjects with a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with more subclinical atherosclerosis than subjects without a family history of CHD. The purpose of this study was to assess the significance of a family history for CHD in subjects with a CAC score of 0. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort includes 6,814 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline. Positive family history was defined as reporting a parent, sibling, or child who had a heart attack. Time to incident CHD or CVD event was modeled using the multivariable Cox regression; 3,185 subjects were identified from the original Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort as having a baseline CAC score of 0 (mean age 58 years, 37% men). Over a median follow-up of 10 years, 101 participants (3.2%) had CVD events and 56 (1.8%) had CHD events. In age- and gender-adjusted analyses, a family history of CHD was associated with an ∼70% increase in CVD (hazard ratio 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 2.56) and CHD (hazard ratio 1.72, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 2.91) events. CVD events remained significant after further adjustment for ethnicity, risk factors, and baseline medication use. In conclusion, asymptomatic subjects with a 0 CAC score and a positive family history of CHD are at increased risk for CVD and CHD events compared with those without a family history of CHD, although absolute event rates remain low.

  16. Family history of colorectal cancer and its impact on survival in patients with resected stage III colon cancer: results from NCCTG Trial N0147 (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Jansson-Knodell, Claire L.; Foster, Nathan R.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Limburg, Paul J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Sinicrope, Frank A.; Jahagirdar, Balkrishna; Goldberg, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Family history of colon cancer often portends increased risk of disease development; however, the prognostic significance of family history related to disease and survival outcomes is unclear. Methods To investigate the relationship between family history of colorectal cancer and survival outcomes in stage III colon cancer patients, a prospective cohort of 1,935 patients with resected stage III colon cancer enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (N0147), comparing the standard of care FOLFOX to FOLFOX with cetuximab, was studied. Patients completed a baseline questionnaire on family history and were followed every 6 months until death or 5 years after randomization. Results We examined the endpoints of disease-free survival (DFS), time to recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS), comparing patients with a positive versus negative family history of colorectal cancer. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for patients with a positive family history were 0.95 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78–1.16] for DFS, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.76–1.16) for TTR, and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.74–1.15) for OS (all adjusted P>0.47). A non-significant trend toward improved DFS (P=0.17; adjusted P=0.34) was observed when 2 or more relatives were affected as compared to 0 relatives (multivariate HR: 0.72; 95% CI, 0.45–1.15), whereas subjects with histories of 0 or 1 affected relatives had similar DFS (multivariate HR for 1 vs. 0: 1.00; 95% CI, 0.81–1.24). Interactions of the molecular factors KRAS, BRAF, and MMR with family history were also explored. The only significant interaction was for deficient MMR (dMMR) and first-degree relatives with a family history of colorectal cancer (0 vs. 1 vs. 2+ relatives) for a benefit on OS (univariate P=0.001), which remained significant after adjusting for other factors (P=0.029). Conclusions Among patients with stage III resected colon cancer treated with adjuvant FOLFOX, a family history of colorectal cancer did not significantly impact DFS

  17. Team Up at Home. Team Nutrition Activity Booklet. Fun Nutrition Activities for the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide booklet helps parents teach their children about healthy nutrition at home. It is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Team Nutrition, which is designed to improve the health and education of children and which actively involves children and their families in nutrition education activities in the school, community, and home. The…

  18. A family of homozygous familial hyperalphalipoproteinemia with complete deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer activity.

    PubMed

    Eto, M; Miyata, O; Noda, K; Makino, I

    1990-01-01

    The propositus was a 43-year-old Japanese male with a plasma total cholesterol (chol) level of 252 mg/dl and a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-chol of 169 mg/dl. His brother also had a markedly higher HDL-chol level of 149 mg/dl. In addition, his mother, sister and all 3 children had higher HDL-chol levels of 75-91 mg/dl. These data suggest that the propositus and his brother were homozygous for familial hyperalphalipoproteinemia (FHALP), whereas his mother, sister and 3 children were heterozygous for FHALP. None had any clinical signs of atherosclerosis. The propositus and his brother (homozygous FHALP) also showed markedly higher levels of apo AI (greater than or equal to 190 mg/dl) and E (greater than 16 mg/dl). Ultracentrifugal analysis disclosed an increase of HDL2-chol in the propositus. Cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) was completely absent in the propositus (0.0% transfer/5 microliters/18 hr) and his brother (0.3% transfer/5 microliters/18 hr). It is concluded that this case is a family of homozygous FHALP probably caused by complete deficiency of CETA.

  19. Evolutionary History of Chordate PAX Genes: Dynamics of Change in a Complex Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2013-01-01

    Paired box (PAX) genes are transcription factors that play important roles in embryonic development. Although the PAX gene family occurs in animals only, it is widely distributed. Among the vertebrates, its 9 genes appear to be the product of complete duplication of an original set of 4 genes, followed by an additional partial duplication. Although some studies of PAX genes have been conducted, no comprehensive survey of these genes across the entire taxonomic unit has yet been attempted. In this study, we conducted a detailed comparison of PAX sequences from 188 chordates, which revealed restricted variation. The absence of PAX4 and PAX8 among some species of reptiles and birds was notable; however, all 9 genes were present in all 74 mammalian genomes investigated. A search for signatures of selection indicated that all genes are subject to purifying selection, with a possible constraint relaxation in PAX4, PAX7, and PAX8. This result indicates asymmetric evolution of PAX family genes, which can be associated with the emergence of adaptive novelties in the chordate evolutionary trajectory. PMID:24023886

  20. Complete mitochondrial genomes reveal phylogeny relationship and evolutionary history of the family Felidae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W Q; Zhang, M H

    2013-09-03

    Many mitochondrial DNA sequences are used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among animal taxa and perform molecular phylogenetic evolution analysis. With the continuous development of sequencing technology, numerous mitochondrial sequences have been released in public databases, especially complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Using multiple sequences is better than using single sequences for phylogenetic analysis of animals because multiple sequences have sufficient information for evolutionary process reconstruction. Therefore, we performed phylogenetic analyses of 14 species of Felidae based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences, with Canis familiaris as an outgroup, using neighbor joining, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian inference methods. The consensus phylogenetic trees supported the monophyly of Felidae, and the family could be divided into 2 subfamilies, Felinae and Pantherinae. The genus Panthera and species tigris were also studied in detail. Meanwhile, the divergence of this family was estimated by phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method with a relaxed molecular clock, and the results shown were consistent with previous studies. In summary, the evolution of Felidae was reconstructed by phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial genome sequences. The described method may be broadly applicable for phylogenetic analyses of anima taxa.

  1. Activities of the O&M committee history & future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Poulis, D.S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Committee on Operation and Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants, hereafter referred to as the O&M Committee, formed in June 1975 when the American National Standard Institute`s Committee on Reactor Plants and their Maintenance was disbanded. The O&M Committee`s history, structure, current focus and future perspectives will be presented. The purpose of this paper is to give information to industry and the public of the Committee`s on-going effort to make accurate and timely responses to the needs of the nuclear industry.

  2. Employing Genetic "Moments" in the History of Mathematics in Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmaki, Vassiliki; Paschos, Theodorus

    2007-01-01

    The integration of history into educational practice can lead to the development of activities through the use of genetic "moments" in the history of mathematics. In the present paper, we utilize Oresme's genetic ideas--developed during the fourteenth century, including ideas on the velocity-time graphical representation as well as geometric…

  3. Familial syringoma. Case history and application of monoclonal anti-eccrine gland antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, K; Blum, D; Fukaya, T; Eto, H

    1985-06-01

    We studied a family with dominantly inherited eruptive syringoma. The father and the older daughter had chest and neck as well as eyelid lesions. The chest lesions seemed to develop continuously by new formation of eccrine germlike budding from the epidermis. Monoclonal antikeratin antibody EKH4, which predominantly labels the basal layers of the epidermis, stained positively in the cordlike epithelial structure and peripheral cells of the walls of cystic lesions. Staining with EKH6, which recognizes normal eccrine secretory and ductal structures--particularly luminal borders--was positive along the luminal borders of the cystic lesions; staining with EKH5, which labels eccrine secretory portion, was entirely negative in the lesions. These findings further supported the theory that syringoma of the eyelids and eruptive syringoma, which mainly involves the anterior neck and upper chest, are essentially the same tumor and that these appendage tumors are of eccrine ductal differentiation.

  4. Familial Lung Cancer: A Brief History from the Earliest Work to the Most Recent Studies

    PubMed Central

    Musolf, Anthony M.; Simpson, Claire L.; de Andrade, Mariza; Mandal, Diptasri; Gaba, Colette; Yang, Ping; Li, Yafang; You, Ming; Kupert, Elena Y.; Anderson, Marshall W.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Pinney, Susan M.; Amos, Christopher I.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer in the United States, killing roughly one of four cancer patients in 2016. While it is well-established that lung cancer is caused primarily by environmental effects (particularly tobacco smoking), there is evidence for genetic susceptibility. Lung cancer has been shown to aggregate in families, and segregation analyses have hypothesized a major susceptibility locus for the disease. Genetic association studies have provided strong evidence for common risk variants of small-to-moderate effect. Rare and highly penetrant alleles have been identified by linkage studies, including on 6q23–25. Though not common, some germline mutations have also been identified via sequencing studies. Ongoing genomics studies aim to identify additional high penetrance germline susceptibility alleles for this deadly disease. PMID:28106732

  5. Witness to History: Using Hands-On Activities, A Guidebook for High School History Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Suzanne

    This guidebook is intended to help high school students discover the connection between themselves and the people from the past by being engaged in hands-on activities. The guidebook allows students to create artifacts or recreate a process known well to people from times past. The guide is arranged to provide historical background, materials…

  6. MIF family members cooperatively inhibit p53 expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Brock, Stephanie E; Rendon, Beatriz E; Xin, Dan; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Mitchell, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is induced by genotoxic stress in both normal and transformed cells and serves to transcriptionally coordinate cell cycle checkpoint control and programmed cell death responses. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an autocrine and paracrine acting cytokine/growth factor that promotes lung adenocarcinoma cell motility, anchorage-independence and neo-angiogenic potential. Several recent studies indicate that the only known homolog of MIF, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT - also referred to as MIF-2), has functionally redundant activities with MIF and cooperatively promotes MIF-dependent pro-tumorigenic phenotypes. We now report that MIF and D-DT synergistically inhibit steady state p53 phosphorylation, stabilization and transcriptional activity in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The combined loss of MIF and D-DT by siRNA leads to dramatically reduced cell cycle progression, anchorage independence, focus formation and increased programmed cell death when compared to individual loss of MIF or D-DT. Importantly, p53 mutant and p53 null lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were only nominally rescued from the cell growth effects of MIF/D-DT combined deficiency suggesting only a minor role for p53 in these transformed cell growth phenotypes. Finally, increased p53 activation was found to be independent of aberrantly activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that occurs in response to MIF/D-DT-deficiency but is dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate aberrant AMPK activation in these cells. Combined, these findings suggest that both p53 wildtype and mutant human lung adenocarcinoma tumors rely on MIF family members for maximal cell growth and survival.

  7. The Predictive Power of Family History Measures of Alcohol and Drug Problems and Internalizing Disorders In A College Population

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  8. Family Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotkin, Amy J.; Baker, Holly C.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the Family Folklore Program of the Smithsonian Institution's annual Festival of American Folklife, in which the whole family can be involved in tracing family history through story telling, photographs, etc. (MS)

  9. Characterization of abandoned rocket body families for active removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2016-09-01

    A new ranking index was developed and applied to a wide set of rocket body families, characterized by stage dry masses greater than 500 kg and by the presence of at least 5 stages abandoned in LEO. The upper stages selected accounted for more than 80% of the unclassified rocket bodies in LEO and nearly 95% of the associated dry mass. The detailed results obtained for 657 objects clearly identified the most critical altitude-inclination bands and stage models, to be targeted first if and when a debris remediation strategy including the active removal of intact abandoned objects were deemed necessary. Apart from the evaluation of the criticality regarding the long-term evolution of the debris environment, resulting in a priority listing for optimal active removal, the application of the new ranking index is not limited to debris remediation. In fact, if applied before launch to spacecraft and rocket bodies to be disposed in orbit, at the end of mission, it would provide an additional debris mitigation analysis tool for evaluating competing disposal options. Concerning the rocket bodies abandoned in LEO, 274 resulted to have a criticality equal or larger than the average intact object abandoned in an 800 km sun-synchronous orbit. Among them, 243 belonged to the Russian Federation and Ukraine, 25 to China, 5 to Europe and 1 to Japan. In addition to being concentrated in relatively few and narrow altitude-inclinations bands, the most numerous rocket body families often present a quite uniform distribution in right ascension of the ascending node, which is especially convenient for multiple target removal missions.

  10. The impact of family history of breast cancer on knowledge, attitudes, and early detection practices of Mexican women along the Mexico-US border.

    PubMed

    Bird, Yelena; Banegas, Matthew P; Moraros, John; King, Sasha; Prapasiri, Surasri; Thompson, Beti

    2011-10-01

    Rates of breast cancer (BC) have increased in Mexico, with the highest incidence and mortality rates observed in the northern Mexican states. This study aimed to describe the BC knowledge, attitudes and screening practices among Mexican women with and without a family history of BC residing along the Mexico-US border, and identify factors associated with screening behaviors. One hundred and twenty eight Mexican women aged 40 and older completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, family history, and screening practices. There were no significant differences between Mexican women with and without a family history. Over 60% of women in both groups had never had a mammogram/breast ultrasound, and more than 50% had never obtained a clinical breast exam. Age, marital status, insurance, and breast cancer knowledge significantly influenced BC screening behaviors among Mexican women. Further research is needed to examine other key factors associated with screening utilization, in effort of improving BC rates.

  11. The Impact of Family History of Breast Cancer on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Early Detection Practices of Mexican Women Along the Mexico-US Border

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; King, Sasha; Prapasiri, Surasri; Thompson, Beti

    2014-01-01

    Rates of breast cancer (BC) have increased in Mexico, with the highest incidence and mortality rates observed in the northern Mexican states. This study aimed to describe the BC knowledge, attitudes and screening practices among Mexican women with and without a family history of BC residing along the Mexico-US border, and identify factors associated with screening behaviors. One hundred and twenty eight Mexican women aged 40 and older completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, family history, and screening practices. There were no significant differences between Mexican women with and without a family history. Over 60% of women in both groups had never had a mammogram/breast ultrasound, and more than 50% had never obtained a clinical breast exam. Age, marital status, insurance, and breast cancer knowledge significantly influenced BC screening behaviors among Mexican women. Further research is needed to examine other key factors associated with screening utilization, in effort of improving BC rates. PMID:21104130

  12. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Christopher R.; Kadin, Marshall E.; Chang, Ellen T.; Hughes, Ann Maree; Ansell, Stephen M.; Feldman, Andrew L.; Lightfoot, Tracy; Boffetta, Paolo; Melbye, Mads; Lan, Qing; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Zhang, Yawei; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accounting for 10%–15% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas in Western populations, peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are the most common T-cell lymphoma but little is known about their etiology. Our aim was to identify etiologic risk factors for PTCL overall, and for specific PTCL subtypes, by analyzing data from 15 epidemiologic studies participating in the InterLymph Consortium. Methods A pooled analysis of individual-level data for 584 histologically confirmed PTCL cases and 15912 controls from 15 case–control studies conducted in Europe, North America, and Australia was undertaken. Data collected from questionnaires were harmonized to permit evaluation of a broad range of potential risk factors. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Results Risk factors associated with increased overall PTCL risk with a P value less than .05 included: a family history of hematologic malignancies (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.30 to 2.84); celiac disease (OR = 17.8, 95% CI = 8.61 to 36.79); eczema (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.85); psoriasis (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.17 to 3.32); smoking 40 or more years (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.41 to 2.62); and employment as a textile worker (ever) (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.38) and electrical fitter (ever) (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.41 to 5.95). Exposures associated with reduced overall PTCL risk included a personal history of allergies (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.87), alcohol consumption (ever) (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.82), and having ever lived or worked on a farm (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.55% to 0.95%). We also observed the well-established risk elevation for enteropathy-type PTCL among those with celiac disease in our data. Conclusions Our pooled analyses identified a number of new potential risk factors for PTCL and require further validation in independent series. PMID:25174027

  13. Familial adenomatous polyposis in pediatrics: natural history, emerging surveillance and management protocols, chemopreventive strategies, and areas of ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Septer, Seth; Lawson, Caitlin E; Anant, Shrikant; Attard, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary condition with a near 100 % lifetime risk of colorectal cancer without prophylactic colectomy. Most patients with FAP have a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene on chromosome 5q22. This condition frequently presents in children with polyps developing most frequently in the second decade of life and surveillance colonoscopy is required starting at age ten. Polyps are found not only in the colon, but in the stomach and duodenum. Knowledge of the natural history of FAP is important as there are several extra-colonic sequelae which also require surveillance. In infants and toddlers, there is an increased risk of hepatoblastoma, while in teenagers and adults duodenal carcinomas, desmoid tumors, thyroid cancer and medulloblastoma are more common in FAP than in the general population. Current chemopreventive strategies include several medications and natural products, although to this point there is no consensus on the most efficacious and safe agent. Genetic counseling is an important part of the diagnostic process for FAP. Appropriate use and interpretation of genetic testing is best accomplished with genetic counselor involvement as many families also have concerns regarding future insurability or discrimination when faced with genetic testing.

  14. Blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis responsivity to stress in persons with a family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Sorocco, Kristen H; Lovallo, William R; Vincent, Andrea S; Collins, Frank L

    2006-03-01

    Abstinent alcoholics show a blunted stress cortisol response that may be a consequence of drinking or a preexisting risk marker. We tested cortisol responses to psychological stress in 186 18-30 year-old, healthy social drinkers having no personal history of alcohol or drug dependence, 91 of whom had one or two alcoholic parents (FH+) and 95 having no family alcoholism for two generations (FH-). We predicted that, similar to alcoholic patients, the FH+ would have reduced stress cortisol responses that would be partially determined by their temperament characteristics, specifically antisocial tendencies as measured by the California Psychological Inventory. On a stress day, subjects performed continuous simulated public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks for 45 min, and on a control day they sat and rested for the same time period. The FH+ who were low in sociability had smaller cortisol responses than FH-, high-sociability persons (t=2.27, p=.02). These two groups were not different in diurnal cortisol secretion patterns or affective responses to the stressors. Persons with a familial risk for alcoholism who have more antisocial tendencies may have altered central nervous system responses to emotionally relevant social challenges. Disrupted cortisol stress responses may serve as a risk marker for the development of substance use disorders.

  15. Novel mutations in the RB1 gene from Chinese families with a history of retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leilei; Jia, Renbing; Zhao, Junyang; Fan, Jiayan; Zhou, YiXiong; Han, Bing; Song, Xin; Wu, Li; Zhang, He; Song, Huaidong; Ge, Shengfang; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-04-01

    Retinoblastoma is an aggressive eye cancer that develops during infancy and is divided into two clinical types, sporadic and heritable. RB1 has been identified as the only pathological gene responsible for heritable retinoblastoma. Here, we identified 11 RB1 germline mutations in the Han pedigrees of 17 bilateral retinoblastoma patients from China. Four mutations were nonsense mutations, five were splice site mutations, and two resulted in a frame shift due to an insertion or a deletion. Three of the mutations had not been previously reported, and the p.Q344L mutation occurred in two generations of retinoblastoma patients. We investigated phenotypic-genotypic relationships for the novel mutations and showed that these mutations affected the expression, location, and function of the retinoblastoma protein. Abnormal protein localization was observed after transfection of the mutant genes. In addition, changes in the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis rates were observed when the Saos-2 cell line was transfected with plasmids encoding the mutant RB1 genes. Our findings expand the spectrum of known RB1 mutations and will benefit the investigation of RB1 mutation hotspots. Genetic counseling can be offered to families with heritable RB1 mutations.

  16. Case-control association mapping by proxy using family history of disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jimmy Z; Erlich, Yaniv; Pickrell, Joseph K

    2017-03-01

    Collecting cases for case-control genetic association studies can be time-consuming and expensive. In some situations (such as studies of late-onset or rapidly lethal diseases), it may be more practical to identify family members of cases. In randomly ascertained cohorts, replacing cases with their first-degree relatives enables studies of diseases that are absent (or nearly absent) in the cohort. We refer to this approach as genome-wide association study by proxy (GWAX) and apply it to 12 common diseases in 116,196 individuals from the UK Biobank. Meta-analysis with published genome-wide association study summary statistics replicated established risk loci and yielded four newly associated loci for Alzheimer's disease, eight for coronary artery disease and five for type 2 diabetes. In addition to informing disease biology, our results demonstrate the utility of association mapping without directly observing cases. We anticipate that GWAX will prove useful in future genetic studies of complex traits in large population cohorts.

  17. Familial Vulnerability to ADHD Affects Activity in the Cerebellum in Addition to the Prefrontal Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martijn J.; Baeyens, Dieter; Davidson, Matthew C.; Casey, B. J.; Van Den Ban, Els; Van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether cerebellar systems are sensitive to familial risk for ADHD in addition to frontostriatal circuitry. The results conclude that familial vulnerability to ADHD affects activity in both the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum.

  18. Sports, Physical Activity and Recreation in Early American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballou, Ralph B.

    Sports and physical recreation activities have been part of American life since the days of the early settlers. Although the settlers were faced with problems of survival, accounts of life in the colonies in the 1600's carry mention of bowling in the streets, play with bows and arrows, and ice skating. Other activities to gain popularity before…

  19. Associations among measures of sequential processing in motor and linguistics tasks in adults with and without a family history of childhood apraxia of speech: A replication study

    PubMed Central

    BUTTON, LE; PETER, BEATE; STOEL-GAMMON, CAROL; RASKIND, WENDY H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the hypothesis that childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is influenced by an underlying deficit in sequential processing that is also expressed in other modalities. In a sample of 21 adults from five multigenerational families, 11 with histories of various familial speech sound disorders, 3 biologically related adults from a family with familial CAS showed motor sequencing deficits in an alternating motor speech task. Compared with the other adults, these three participants showed deficits in tasks requiring high loads of sequential processing, including nonword imitation, nonword reading and spelling. Qualitative error analyses in real word and nonword imitations revealed group differences in phoneme sequencing errors. Motor sequencing ability was correlated with phoneme sequencing errors during real word and nonword imitation, reading and spelling. Correlations were characterized by extremely high scores in one family and extremely low scores in another. Results are consistent with a central deficit in sequential processing in CAS of familial origin. PMID:23339292

  20. Associations among measures of sequential processing in motor and linguistics tasks in adults with and without a family history of childhood apraxia of speech: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Button, Le; Peter, Beate; Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Raskind, Wendy H

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the hypothesis that childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is influenced by an underlying deficit in sequential processing that is also expressed in other modalities. In a sample of 21 adults from five multigenerational families, 11 with histories of various familial speech sound disorders, 3 biologically related adults from a family with familial CAS showed motor sequencing deficits in an alternating motor speech task. Compared with the other adults, these three participants showed deficits in tasks requiring high loads of sequential processing, including nonword imitation, nonword reading and spelling. Qualitative error analyses in real word and nonword imitations revealed group differences in phoneme sequencing errors. Motor sequencing ability was correlated with phoneme sequencing errors during real word and nonword imitation, reading and spelling. Correlations were characterized by extremely high scores in one family and extremely low scores in another. Results are consistent with a central deficit in sequential processing in CAS of familial origin.

  1. The History of Commercial Recreation and Its Role in the Provision of Family Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, E. Taylor

    Commercial recreation is the provision of facilities, equipment, and programs that satisfy public demand for activities during unobligated time and are profitable to the supplier. The term "commercial recreation" has been given a negative connotation in the field of recreation and leisure. This negative concept of commercial recreation…

  2. Life history of the deep-sea cephalopod family Histioteuthidae in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quetglas, Antoni; de Mesa, Aina; Ordines, Francesc; Grau, Amàlia

    2010-08-01

    The life cycle of the two species of the deep-sea family Histioteuthidae inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea ( Histioteuthis reversa and Histioteuthis bonnellii) was studied from monthly samples taken throughout the year during daytime hours by bottom trawl gears. A small sample of individuals found floating dead on the sea surface was also analyzed. Both species were caught exclusively on the upper slope at depths greater than 300 m. Their frequency of occurrence increased with depth and showed two different peaks, at 500-600 m and 600-700 m depth in H. bonnellii and H. reversa, respectively, which might indicate spatial segregation. Maturity stages were assigned using macroscopic determination and confirmed with histological analyses. Although mature males were caught all year round, no mature females were found, which suggests that their sexual maturation in the western Mediterranean takes place deeper than the maximum depth sampled (800 m). In fact, the increase in mean squid size with increasing depth in H. reversa indicates an ontogenetic migration to deeper waters. The individuals of both species found floating dead on the sea surface were spent females which had a relatively large cluster of small atresic eggs and a small number of remaining mature eggs scattered in the ovary and mantle cavity. The sizes of these females were clearly larger than the largest individuals caught with bottom trawls. A total of 12 and 7 different types of prey, belonging to three major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes and cephalopods), were identified in the stomach contents of H. reversa and H. bonnellii, respectively. In both species fishes were by far the main prey followed by crustaceans, whereas cephalopods were found only occasionally. The preys identified, mainly myctophids and natantian crustaceans, indicate that both histioteuthids base their diet on pelagic nictemeral migrators.

  3. A prospective study of cognitive health in the elderly (Oregon Brain Aging Study): effects of family history and apolipoprotein E genotype.

    PubMed Central

    Payami, H; Grimslid, H; Oken, B; Camicioli, R; Sexton, G; Dame, A; Howieson, D; Kaye, J

    1997-01-01

    The oldest old are the fastest-growing segment of our population and have the highest prevalence of dementia. Little is known about the genetics of cognitive health in the very old. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genetic risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD)--namely, apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele and a family history of dementia-continue to be important factors in the cognitive health of the very old. Case-control studies suggest that the effect of genetic factors diminishes at age >75 years. The present prospective study provided evidence to the contrary. We studied 114 Caucasian subjects who were physically healthy and cognitively intact at age 75 years and who were followed, for an average of 4 years, with neurological, psychometric, and neuroimaging examinations. Excellent health at entry did not protect against cognitive decline. Incidence of cognitive decline rose sharply with age. epsilon4 and a family history of dementia (independent of epsilon4) were associated with an earlier age at onset of dementia. Subjects who had epsilon4 or a family history of dementia had a ninefold-higher age-specific risk for dementia than did those who had neither epsilon4 nor a family history of dementia. These observations suggest that the rate of cognitive decline increases with age and that APOE and other familial/genetic factors influence the onset age throughout life. PMID:9106542

  4. A prospective study of cognitive health in the elderly (Oregon Brain Aging Study): effects of family history and apolipoprotein E genotype.

    PubMed

    Payami, H; Grimslid, H; Oken, B; Camicioli, R; Sexton, G; Dame, A; Howieson, D; Kaye, J

    1997-04-01

    The oldest old are the fastest-growing segment of our population and have the highest prevalence of dementia. Little is known about the genetics of cognitive health in the very old. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genetic risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD)--namely, apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele and a family history of dementia-continue to be important factors in the cognitive health of the very old. Case-control studies suggest that the effect of genetic factors diminishes at age >75 years. The present prospective study provided evidence to the contrary. We studied 114 Caucasian subjects who were physically healthy and cognitively intact at age 75 years and who were followed, for an average of 4 years, with neurological, psychometric, and neuroimaging examinations. Excellent health at entry did not protect against cognitive decline. Incidence of cognitive decline rose sharply with age. epsilon4 and a family history of dementia (independent of epsilon4) were associated with an earlier age at onset of dementia. Subjects who had epsilon4 or a family history of dementia had a ninefold-higher age-specific risk for dementia than did those who had neither epsilon4 nor a family history of dementia. These observations suggest that the rate of cognitive decline increases with age and that APOE and other familial/genetic factors influence the onset age throughout life.

  5. Relative Contributions of Specific Activity Histories and Spontaneous Processes to Size Remodeling of Glutamatergic Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Dvorkin, Roman; Ziv, Noam E.

    2016-01-01

    The idea that synaptic properties are defined by specific pre- and postsynaptic activity histories is one of the oldest and most influential tenets of contemporary neuroscience. Recent studies also indicate, however, that synaptic properties often change spontaneously, even in the absence of specific activity patterns or any activity whatsoever. What, then, are the relative contributions of activity history-dependent and activity history-independent processes to changes synapses undergo? To compare the relative contributions of these processes, we imaged, in spontaneously active networks of cortical neurons, glutamatergic synapses formed between the same axons and neurons or dendrites under the assumption that their similar activity histories should result in similar size changes over timescales of days. The size covariance of such commonly innervated (CI) synapses was then compared to that of synapses formed by different axons (non-CI synapses) that differed in their activity histories. We found that the size covariance of CI synapses was greater than that of non-CI synapses; yet overall size covariance of CI synapses was rather modest. Moreover, momentary and time-averaged sizes of CI synapses correlated rather poorly, in perfect agreement with published electron microscopy-based measurements of mouse cortex synapses. A conservative estimate suggested that ~40% of the observed size remodeling was attributable to specific activity histories, whereas ~10% and ~50% were attributable to cell-wide and spontaneous, synapse-autonomous processes, respectively. These findings demonstrate that histories of naturally occurring activity patterns can direct glutamatergic synapse remodeling but also suggest that the contributions of spontaneous, possibly stochastic, processes are at least as great. PMID:27776122

  6. Cytotoxicity and Antioxidant Activity of 23 Plant Species of Leguminosae Family

    PubMed Central

    Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Ahvazi, Maryam; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Taghizadeh, Mitra; Yazdani, Darab; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Shahram; Bidel, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have been focused on natural anticarcinogenic agents. Many antioxidants have been identified as anticarcinogens. Antimutagens have also been proposed as cancer chemopreventive agents. The use of natural products as anticancer has a long history that began with traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity of twenty-three plant species of Leguminosae family from different regions of Iran. Twenty-three plant species of Leguminosae family were collected in May-June 2009 from different regions of Iran.Methanol extracts of these species were tested through the brine shrimp lethality assay in order to detect potential sources of novel cytotoxic compounds. The total antioxidant activity was evaluated with DPPH free radical-scavenging method. The extracts of twelve species showed moderate cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (LC50 between 30 and 50 μg/mL). The extracts of Taverniera spartea and Tephrosia persica showed significant cytotoxicity (LC50 < 30 μg/mL) with LC50 values of 0.34 and 2.43 μg/mL, respectively, whereas the positive control, thymol showed a LC50 value of 1.37 μg/mL. The chloroform fractions of the latter two species were subjected to the brine shrimp lethality assay with LC50 values of 113.79 and 1.23 μg/mL, respectively. In comparing antioxidant capacities, Gleditschia caspica and Taverniera spartea showed significant antioxidant activity (IC50 < 50 μg/mL) with LC50 values of 14.54 and 20.32 μg/mL, respectively. It could be seen among 23 tested plant species that Taverniera spartea had the most cytotoxic and antioxidant activity and was the best candidate for these effects. Further investigations are necessary for chemical characterization of the active compounds and more comprehensive biological assays. PMID:24250452

  7. History of Mathematics: Three Activities to Use with Undergraduate Students and In-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loats, Jim; White, Diana; Rubino, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    We provide in-depth information and analysis on three activities for use in History of Mathematics courses taught either in a traditional semester format for undergraduates or in a summer professional development course for middle school teachers. These activities require students to be active participants in their own learning. They also…

  8. Teaching the History of Technology. A Cooperative Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Gregory R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of the historical context of technology and offers a cooperative-learning activity that highlights Elijah McCoy, a black inventor who was a notable contributor to technological development in the 1800s. (JOW)

  9. Impact of Familial Loading on Prefrontal Activation in Major Psychiatric Disorders: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ohi, Kazutaka; Shimada, Takamitsu; Kihara, Hiroaki; Yasuyama, Toshiki; Sawai, Kazuyuki; Matsuda, Yukihisa; Oshima, Kazuaki; Okubo, Hiroaki; Nitta, Yusuke; Uehara, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Family history (FH) is predictive of the development of major psychiatric disorders (PSY). Familial psychiatric disorders are largely a consequence of genetic factors and typically exhibit more severe impairments. Decreased prefrontal activity during verbal fluency testing (VFT) may constitute an intermediate phenotype for PSY. We investigated whether familial PSY were associated with a greater severity of prefrontal dysfunction in accordance with genetic loading. We measured prefrontal activity during VFT using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ, n = 45), major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 26) or bipolar disorder (BIP, n = 22) and healthy controls (HC, n = 51). We compared prefrontal activity among patients with or without FH and HC. Patients in the SCZ, MDD and BIP patient groups had lower prefrontal activity than HC subjects. Patients with and without FH in all diagnostic groups had lower prefrontal activity than HC subjects. Moreover, SCZ patients with FH had lower prefrontal activity than SCZ patients without FH. When we included patients with SCZ, MDD or BIP in the group of patients with PSY, the effects of psychiatric FH on prefrontal activity were enhanced. These findings demonstrate the association of substantially more severe prefrontal dysfunction with higher genetic loading in major psychiatric disorders. PMID:28295013

  10. Early active sun - Radiation history of distinct components in fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, G.; Taylor, G. J.; Walker, R. M.; Seitz, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    Plagioclase feldspars were separated from lunar soil samples and their compositions were determined by electron-microprobe analysis followed by etching and track counting in an effort to find effects of early solar activity. The feldspars were assigned on this basis to three major lithologies: mare basalts, anorthositic rocks, and KREEP rock. The results are in sharp contrast to Poupeau et al.'s (1973) observations on track densities in plagioclase crystals in the Luna 16 soil: no evidence is found for an early active sun, although the evidence does not preclude this possibility, either.

  11. History of human activity in coastal southern Brazil from sediment.

    PubMed

    Niencheski, L F; Moore, W S; Windom, H L

    2014-01-15

    This study reports results of analysis of sediment cores collected from the Patos Lagoon estuary. This estuary receives materials from land runoff into Patos and Mirim lagoons and from exchange with the adjacent South Atlantic Ocean through a narrow inlet. Sediment from these sources is mostly natural, but additional contributions associated with source/activities related to the port of Rio Grande. The aim of this study was to estimate rates of accumulation of the sediments and to assess the significance of metal inputs from these activities relative to natural inputs. Our results indicate an average sedimentation rate of 0.3 cm/yr and that the transport of suspended solids from offshore sources into the estuary was enhanced after the deepening of the channel and construction of the breakwaters (in the early 1900). Results for metal accumulation in these sediments suggest that there have been only minor enrichments which can be attributed to anthropogenic sources.

  12. Family History of Education Predicts Eating Disorders across Multiple Generations among 2 Million Swedish Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Anna; Heshmati, Amy; Koupil, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate which facets of parent and grandparent socio-economic position (SEP) are associated with eating disorders (ED), and how this varies by ED subtype and over time. Methods Total-population cohort study of 1,040,165 females and 1,098,188 males born 1973–1998 in Sweden, and followed for inpatient or outpatient ED diagnoses until 2010. Proportional hazards models estimated associations with parental education, income and social class, and with grandparental education and income. Results 15,747 females and 1051 males in our sample received an ED diagnosis, with rates increasing in both sexes over time. ED incidence in females was independently predicted by greater educational level among the father, mother and maternal grandparents, but parent social class and parental income showed little or no independent effect. The associations with education were equally strong for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and ED not-otherwise-specified, and had increased over time. Among males, an apparently similar pattern was seen with respect to anorexia nervosa, but non-anorexia ED showed no association with parental education and an inverse association with parental income. Conclusions Family history of education predicts ED in gender- and disorder-specific ways, and in females the effect is observed across multiple generations. Particularly given that these effects may have grown stronger in more recent cohorts, these findings highlight the need for further research to clarify the underlying mechanisms and identify promising targets for prevention. Speculatively, one such mechanism may involve greater internal and external demands for academic success in highly educated families. PMID:25162402

  13. Family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), perceived CVD risk, and health-related behavior: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Imes, Christopher C.; Lewis, Frances Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Background Over 82 million Americans have one or more forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), accounting for 32.8% of all deaths in the United States. Although the evidence for the familial aggregation of CVD is strong, the relationship between family history (FH) of CVD, perceived risk for CVD and their relationship to health-related behavior is poorly understood. Objective The objective of this article is to review and summarize the published research on the relationship between a FH of CVD, an individual’s perceived risk, and health-related behavior in order to make recommendations for clinical practice and future research. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL Plus, and PsycINFO to identify articles that examined the relationship between a FH of CVD, perceived CVD risk, and health-promoting behaviors. A total of 263 unique articles were reviewed. Two hundred thirty-eight were excluded, resulting in a total of 25 articles included in the paper. Results There was a positive relationship between a reported FH of CVD and perceived risk. However, the relationship between a FH of CVD and health-related behavior change and perceived risk and behavior change was inconsistent. Conclusions A person’s awareness of their FH of CVD or their own risk for CVD is not a sufficient predictor of changes in their health-related behavior. Future studies are needed to better explain the processes by which perceived CVD risk or FH of CVD can be used to affect health-related behavior changes. It appears that both FH and perceived personal risk for CVD are necessary but not sufficient conditions to change health-related behavior in high-risk populations. Future studies should also test interventions that help individuals with a FH of CVD attribute increased personal risk to themselves for developing CVD, while providing lifestyle management options to minimize their risk. PMID:23321782

  14. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multi-Family Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore multiple family members’ perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthy eating and physical activity in the home. Design Ten multi-family focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting Community setting. Participants Primarily Black and White families. Family members (n = 103) were between the ages of 8–61 years. Analysis A grounded hermeneutic approach. Phenomenon of Interest Risk and protective factors for healthy eating and physical activity in the home environment. Results Ten major themes were identified by family members related to health behaviors in the home environment, including: (a) accessibility to healthy foods and activity, (b) time constraints, (c) stage of youth development, (d) individual investment in health behaviors, (e) family investment in health behaviors, (f) family meals and shared activities, (g) parent modeling, (h) making health behaviors fun, (i) making health behaviors part of the family lifestyle, and (j) community investment in family health behaviors. Conclusions and Implications This study identified the importance of the family system and the reciprocal influences within the home environment on health behaviors. In addition, individual and community-level suggestions were identified. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the prevention of youth obesity. PMID:22192951

  15. 77 FR 27542 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10- 21081(NR). OMB Control Number... VA Form 10-21081(NR) will be use to survey family members of deceased veterans on their...

  16. Effect of a family history of psoriasis and age on comorbidities and quality of life in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis: Results from the ARIZONA study.

    PubMed

    López-Estebaranz, Jose Luis; Sánchez-Carazo, Jose Luis; Sulleiro, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease whose clinical characteristics vary from patient to patient. We aimed to analyze how comorbidities and quality of life (QoL, as per the Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI]) may be affected by a family history of psoriasis and by age. The ARIZONA study was a multicenter, cross-sectional study in 1022 adult patients diagnosed with moderate to severe psoriasis at least 6 months prior to inclusion. The severity of psoriasis and the proportion of patients with comorbidities were not affected by the presence of a family history. The regression analysis revealed that the presence of a family history of psoriasis was associated with the effect on the patient's QoL (P = 0.002), regardless of disease severity. The mean DLQI total score varied significantly across age groups (5.1 ± 5.3 for the 18-30-year group, 5.7 ± 6.5 for the 31-60-year group and 3.8 ± 5.1 for the >60-year group; P = 0.001). In conclusion, the presence of a family history of psoriasis appears to disrupt QoL in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis, but it hardly affected the prevalence of comorbid conditions. The effect of age on QoL was particularly noticeable in younger patients, highlighting its negative impact. As expected, older patients appeared to be burdened with a higher number of comorbidities than their younger counterparts.

  17. Knowledge about type 2 diabetes risk and prevention of African-American and Hispanic adults and adolescents with family history of type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to assess type 2 diabetes knowledge, perceptions, risk factor awareness, and prevention practices among African-American and Hispanic families with a history of diabetes. Ninth and tenth grade Houston area students who had a parent who spoke English or Spanish and had a...

  18. A Growth Curve Analysis of the Course of Dysthymic Disorder: The Effects of Chronic Stress and Moderation by Adverse Parent-Child Relationships and Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Klein, Daniel N.; Davila, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    Using mixed effects models, the authors examined the effects of chronic stress, adverse parent-child relationships, and family history on the 7.5-year course of dysthymic disorder. Participants included 97 outpatients with early-onset dysthymia who were assessed with semistructured interviews at baseline and 3 additional times at 30-month…

  19. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Vajdic, Claire M.; Morton, Lindsay M.; de Roos, Anneclaire J.; Skibola, Christine F.; Boffetta, Paolo; Cerhan, James R.; Flowers, Christopher R.; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Monnereau, Alain; Cocco, Pierluigi; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Smith, Alexandra G.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Clarke, Christina A.; Blair, Aaron; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Tongzhang; Miligi, Lucia; Clavel, Jacqueline; Benavente, Yolanda; Chiu, Brian C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Follicular lymphoma (FL) has been linked with cigarette smoking and, inconsistently, with other risk factors. Methods We assessed associations of medical, hormonal, family history, lifestyle, and occupational factors with FL risk in 3530 cases and 22639 controls from 19 case–control studies in the InterLymph consortium. Age-, race/ethnicity-, sex- and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Results Most risk factors that were evaluated showed no association, except for a few modest or sex-specific relationships. FL risk was increased in persons: with a first-degree relative with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.55 to 2.54); with greater body mass index as a young adult (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.27 per 5kg/m2 increase); who worked as spray painters (OR = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.36 to 5.24); and among women with Sjögren syndrome (OR = 3.37; 95% CI = 1.23 to 9.19). Lower FL risks were observed in persons: with asthma, hay fever, and food allergy (ORs = 0.79–0.85); blood transfusions (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.89); high recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.65 to 0.86, fourth vs first quartile); who worked as bakers or millers (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.93) or university/higher education teachers (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.41 to 0.83). Elevated risks specific to women included current and longer duration of cigarette use, whereas reduced risks included current alcohol use, hay fever, and food allergies. Other factors, including other autoimmune diseases, eczema, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, hormonal drugs, hair dye use, sun exposure, and farming, were not associated with FL risk. Conclusions The few relationships observed provide clues suggesting a multifactorial etiology of FL but are limited in the extent to which they explain FL occurrence. PMID:25174024

  20. Engaging the Families of ELLs: Ideas, Resources, and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Renee; Abrego, Michelle H.; Sutterby, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Learn how to involve the diverse families of English language learners with the effective, practical approaches in this book. This must-have resource for teachers and school leaders is packed with fresh ideas geared toward building a partnership between school communities and ELL families. The authors begin each chapter with realistic scenarios…

  1. Family Time Activities and Adolescents' Emotional Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offer, Shira

    2013-01-01

    The literature is divided on the issue of what matters for adolescents' well-being, with one approach focusing on quality and the other on routine family time. Using the experience sampling method, a unique form of time diary, and survey data drawn from the 500 Family Study ("N" = 237 adolescents with 8,122 observations), this study examined the…

  2. Family Influence on Teenage Participation in School Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashion, Barbara G.; Dager, Edward Z.

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between social participation and family structure. A theory is developed in the framework of George Herbert Mead's analysis on the development of a consistent self in response to a generalized other. According to this theory, the influence of the family is implicated as one of the social-psychological…

  3. Neuropsychological Performance and Family History in Children at Age 7 who Develop Adult Schizophrenia or Bipolar Psychosis in the New England Family Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, Larry J.; Cherkerzian, Sara; Goldstein, Jill M.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Tsuang, Ming T.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Persons developing schizophrenia (SCZ) manifest various premorbid neuropsychological deficits, studied most often by measures of IQ. Far less is known about premorbid neuropsychological functioning in individuals who later develop bipolar psychoses (BP). We evaluated the specificity and impact of family history (FH) of psychosis on premorbid neuropsychological functioning. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study investigating the associations of neuropsychological data systematically collected at age 7 years for 99 adults with psychotic diagnoses (including 45 SCZ and 35 BP) and 101 controls, drawn from the New England cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. A mixed model approach evaluated Full Scale IQ, four neuropsychological factors derived from principal components analysis, and the profile of 10 intelligence and achievement tests, controlling for maternal education, race, and intrafamilial correlation. We used a deviant responder approach (< 10%tile) to calculate rates of impairment. Results There was a significant linear trend, with the SCZ group performing worst. The profile of childhood deficits for persons with SCZ did not differ significantly from BP. 42.2% of SCZ, 22.9% of BP, and 7% of controls were neuropsychologically impaired. Presence of psychosis in first-degree relatives (FH+) significantly increased the severity of childhood impairment for SCZ but not for BP. Conclusions Premorbid neuropsychological deficits are found in a substantial proportion of children who later develop SCZ, especially in the SCZ FH+ subgroup, but less so in BP, suggesting especially impaired neurodevelopment underlying cognition in pre-SCZ children. Future work should assess genetic and environmental factors that explain this FH effect. PMID:22575089

  4. The Association of Family History of Premature Cardiovascular Disease or Diabetes Mellitus on the Occurrence of Gestational Hypertensive Disease and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong-Ju; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Heesun; Ahn, So-Yeon; Oh, Kyung Joon; Park, Hyun-Young; Lee, Hea Young; Cho, Myeong Chan; Chung, Ick-Mo; Shin, Mi-Seung; Park, Sung-Ji; Shim, Chi Young; Han, Seong Woo; Chae, In-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Gestational hypertensive diseases (GHD) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. However, the association between gestational medical diseases and familial history of CVD has not been investigated to date. In the present study, we examined the association between familial history of CVD and GHD or GDM via reliable questionnaires in a large cohort of registered nurses. Methods The Korean Nurses’ Survey was conducted through a web-based computer-assisted self-interview, which was developed through consultation with cardiologists, gynecologists, and statisticians. We enrolled a total of 9,989 female registered nurses who reliably answered the questionnaires including family history of premature CVD (FHpCVD), hypertension (FHH), and diabetes mellitus (FHDM) based on their medical knowledge. Either multivariable logistic regression analysis or generalized estimation equation was used to clarify the effect of positive family histories on GHD and GDM in subjects or at each repeated pregnancy in an individual. Results In this survey, 3,695 subjects had at least 1 pregnancy and 8,783 cumulative pregnancies. Among them, 247 interviewees (6.3%) experienced GHD and 120 (3.1%) experienced GDM. In a multivariable analysis adjusted for age, obstetric, and gynecologic variables, age at the first pregnancy over 35 years (adjusted OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.02–2.43) and FHpCVD (adjusted OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.16–2.22) were risk factors for GHD in individuals, whereas FHH was not. FHDM and history of infertility therapy were risk factors for GDM in individuals (adjusted OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.86–3.86; 1.84, 95% CI 1.05–3.23, respectively). In any repeated pregnancies in an individual, age at the current pregnancy and at the first pregnancy, and FHpCVD were risk factors for GHD, while age at the current pregnancy, history of infertility therapy, and FHDM were risk factors for GDM. Conclusions The FHpCVD and FHDM are

  5. An analysis of the history of dust activity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, L. J.; Zurek, R. W.

    1993-02-01

    A comprehensive list of dust storm activity on Mars has been compiled from various published lists and additional data. For uniformity and clarity, each event is classified using a new system that includes a well-defined nomenclature. Maps showing the reported locations of events have been compiled. Detailed commentaries describe the events and/or circumstances of their observation. The seasonal distribution of Martian dust events is diagrammed and discussed together with a seasonal and annual (Mars years) timeline that includes the frequency of photographic coverage. Regional dust storms tend to occur most frequently, and all planet-encircling dust storms have been observed during the southern spring and summer seasons, although there is significant interannual variability.

  6. Infant feeding patterns in families with a diabetes history – observations from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Sandra; Vehik, Kendra; Uusitalo, Ulla; McLeod, Wendy; Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Frank, Nicole; Gesualdo, Patricia; Yang, Jimin; Norris, Jill M; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between diabetes family history and infant feeding patterns. Design Data on breast-feeding duration and age at first introduction of cow’s milk and gluten-containing cereals were collected in 3-month intervals during the first 24 months of life. Setting Data from the multicentre TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study, including centres in the USA, Sweden, Finland and Germany. Subjects A total of 7026 children, including children with a mother with type 1 diabetes (T1D; n 292), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; n 404) or without diabetes but with a father and/or sibling with T1D (n 464) and children without diabetes family history (n 5866). Results While exclusive breast-feeding ended earlier and cow’s milk was introduced earlier in offspring of mothers with T1D and GDM, offspring of non-diabetic mothers but a father and/or sibling with T1D were exclusively breast-fed longer and introduced to cow’s milk later compared with infants without diabetes family history. The association between maternal diabetes and shorter exclusive breast-feeding duration was attenuated after adjusting for clinical variables (delivery mode, gestational age, Apgar score and birth weight). Country-specific analyses revealed differences in these associations, with Sweden showing the strongest and Finland showing no association between maternal diabetes and breast-feeding duration. Conclusions Family history of diabetes is associated with infant feeding patterns; however, the associations clearly differ by country, indicating that cultural differences are important determinants of infant feeding behaviour. These findings need to be considered when developing strategies to improve feeding patterns in infants with a diabetes family history. PMID:24477208

  7. [The history of family planning among women who opt for surgical sterilization in the Social Security Fund of Panama].

    PubMed

    Austin, K L; Grajales, B; De León, A O; Guerrero, F

    1994-05-01

    In this study, the previous history of family planning and prior usage of contraceptive methods are analyzed, in a sample of 175 women who voluntarily opted for surgical sterilization as a permanent method of fertility regulation, in the Panamanian Social Security System. A questionnaire was applied during the second trimester of pregnancy, by which information would be gathered in regard to knowledge, usage and adverse effects of the contraceptive methods used prior to the intervention. Results showed that 99% of the sample had heard, on some occasion about oral contraceptives (OC) and, in lesser proportion to intrauterine devices (IUD), barrier methods and hormonal inyectables. The first contraceptive method used, and the one of longest usage, was the combined OC, of which 43% begun between 17 and 25 years of age. In contrast, 7.4% initiated contraception with IUD, from the age of 26 years. The health personnel constituted the major source of recommendation for contraceptive usage and, despite the fact that 37% of the sample did not use contraception prior to the last pregnancy, over half of the subjects responded that combined OC were considered as the most secure method.

  8. Evolutionary history of the reprimo tumor suppressor gene family in vertebrates with a description of a new reprimo gene lineage.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Ignacio A; Zavala, Kattina; Hoffmann, Federico G; Vandewege, Michael W; Corvalán, Alejandro H; Amigo, Julio D; Owen, Gareth I; Opazo, Juan C

    2016-10-10

    Genes related to human diseases should be natural targets for evolutionary studies, since they could provide clues regarding the genetic bases of pathologies and potential treatments. Here we studied the evolution of the reprimo gene family, a group of tumor-suppressor genes that are implicated in p53-mediated cell cycle arrest. These genes, especially the reprimo duplicate located on human chromosome 2, have been associated with epigenetic modifications correlated with transcriptional silencing and cancer progression. We demonstrate the presence of a third reprimo lineage that, together with the reprimo and reprimo-like genes, appears to have been differentially retained during the evolutionary history of vertebrates. We present evidence that these reprimo lineages originated early in vertebrate evolution and expanded as a result of the two rounds of whole genome duplications that occurred in the last common ancestor of vertebrates. The reprimo gene has been lost in birds, and the third reprimo gene lineage has been retained in only a few distantly related species, such as coelacanth and gar. Expression analyses revealed that the reprimo paralogs are mainly expressed in the nervous system. Different vertebrate lineages have retained different reprimo paralogs, and even in species that have retained multiple copies, only one of them is heavily expressed.

  9. Characterization of BRCA1/2 mutations in patients with family history of breast cancer in Armenia

    PubMed Central

    Atshemyan, Sofi; Chavushyan, Andranik; Berberian, Nerses; Sahakyan, Arthur; Zakharyan, Roksana; Arakelyan, Arsen

    2017-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The germline mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the most significant and well characterized genetic risk factors for hereditary breast cancer. Intensive research in the last decades has demonstrated that the incidence of mutations varies widely among different populations. In this study we attempted to perform a pilot study for identification and characterization of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes among Armenian patients with family history of breast cancer and their healthy relatives.  Methods. We performed targeted exome sequencing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in 6 patients and their healthy relatives. After alignment of short reads to the reference genome, germline single nucleotide variation and indel discovery was performed using GATK software. Functional implications of identified variants were assessed using ENSEMBL Variant Effect Predictor tool.  Results. In total, 39 single nucleotide variations and 4 indels were identified, from which 15 SNPs and 3 indels were novel. No known pathogenic mutations were identified, but 2 SNPs causing missense amino acid mutations had significantly increased frequencies in the study group compared to the 1000 Genome populations.  Conclusions. Our results demonstrate the importance of screening of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene variants in the Armenian population in order to identity specifics of mutation spectrum and frequencies and enable accurate risk assessment of hereditary breast cancers. PMID:28357044

  10. Altered fronto-cerebellar connectivity in alcohol-naïve youth with a family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Herting, Megan M; Fair, Damien; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2011-02-14

    Fronto-cerebellar connections are thought to be involved in higher-order cognitive functioning. It is suspected that damage to this network may contribute to cognitive deficits in chronic alcoholics. However, it remains to be elucidated if fronto-cerebellar circuitry is altered in high-risk individuals even prior to alcohol use onset. The current study used functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to examine fronto-cerebellar circuitry in 13 alcohol-naïve, at-risk youth with a family history of alcoholism (FH+) and 14 age-matched controls. In addition, we examined how white matter microstructure, as evidenced by fractional anisotropy (FA), related to fcMRI. FH+youth showed significantly reduced functional connectivity between bilateral anterior prefrontal cortices and contralateral cerebellar seed regions compared to controls. We found that this reduction in connectivity significantly correlated with reduced FA in the anterior limb of the internal capsule and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Taken together, our findings reflect associated aberrant functional and structural connectivity in substance-naïve FH+adolescents, perhaps suggesting an identifiable neurophenotypic precursor to substance use. Given the role of frontal and cerebellar brain regions in subserving executive functioning, the presence of premorbid abnormalities in fronto-cerebellar circuitry may heighten the risk for developing an alcohol use disorder in FH+youth through atypical control processing.

  11. Health Behaviors and their Relationship with Disease Control in People Attending Genetic Clinics with a Family History of Breast or Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Annie S; Caswell, Stephen; Macleod, Maureen; Steele, Robert Jc; Berg, Jonathan; Dunlop, Jacqueline; Stead, Martine; Eadie, Douglas; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2017-02-01

    The current work aimed to assess health behaviors, perceived risk and control over breast/colorectal cancer risk and views on lifestyle advice amongst attendees at cancer family history clinics. Participants attending the East of Scotland Genetics Service were invited to complete a questionnaire (demographic data, weight and height, health behaviors and psycho-social measures of risk and perceived control) and to participate in an in-depth interview. The questionnaire was completed by 237 (49 %) of attendees, ranging from 18 to 77 years (mean age 46 (±10) years). Reported smoking rates (11 %) were modest, most (54 %) had a BMI > 25 kg/m(2), 55 % had low levels of physical activity, 58 % reported inappropriate alcohol intakes and 90 % had fiber intakes indicative of a low plant diet. Regression analysis indicated that belief in health professional control was associated with higher, and belief in fatalism with poorer health behavior. Qualitative findings highlighted doubts about the link between lifestyle and cancer, and few were familiar with the current evidence. Whilst lifestyle advice was considered interesting in general there was little appetite for non-tailored guidance. In conclusion, current health behaviors are incongruent with cancer risk reduction guidance amongst patients who have actively sought advice on disease risk. There are some indications that lifestyle advice would be welcomed but endorsement requires a sensitive and flexible approach, and the acceptability of lifestyle interventions remains to be explored.

  12. The integration of a family systems approach for understanding youth obesity, physical activity, and dietary programs.

    PubMed

    Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Wilson, Dawn K; St George, Sara M; Lawman, Hannah; Segal, Michelle; Fairchild, Amanda

    2010-09-01

    Rates of overweight in youth have reached epidemic proportions and are associated with adverse health outcomes. Family-based programs have been widely used to treat overweight in youth. However, few programs incorporate a theoretical framework for studying a family systems approach in relation to youth health behavior change. Therefore, this review provides a family systems theory framework for evaluating family-level variables in weight loss, physical activity, and dietary approaches in youth. Studies were reviewed and effect sizes were calculated for interventions that manipulated the family system, including components that targeted parenting styles, parenting skills, or family functioning, or which had novel approaches for including the family. Twenty-one weight loss interventions were identified, and 25 interventions related to physical activity and/or diet were identified. Overall, family-based treatment programs that incorporated training for authoritative parenting styles, parenting skills, or child management, and family functioning had positive effects on youth weight loss. Programs to improve physical activity and dietary behaviors that targeted the family system also demonstrated improvements in youth health behaviors; however, direct effects of parent-targeted programming is not clear. Both treatment and prevention programs would benefit from evaluating family functioning and parenting styles as possible mediators of intervention outcomes. Recommendations are provided to guide the development of future family-based obesity prevention and treatment programs for youth.

  13. Occupational activities associated with a reported history of malaria among women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Saloshni; London, Leslie; Burdorf, Alex; Naidoo, Rajen N; Kromhout, Hans

    2011-11-01

    Malaria-endemic agricultural communities are at risk for this disease because of crop and agricultural activities. A cross-sectional survey among women in small-scale agriculture on irrigated and dryland areas in Makhatini Flats, KwaZulu-Natal South Africa explored associations with self-reported history of malaria, including demographics, crop production, and specific agricultural activities. Ninety-eight (15.2%) of 644 women reported malaria while working in agriculture. More women working in drylands than women working in irrigation scheme reported disease (18.4% versus 10.9%; P < 0.05). Working self or family-owned farms (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-5.2), spraying pesticides (PR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.4-3.8), cultivating sugar cane (PR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.3), and cultivating cotton and mangoes (PR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.6) were positively associated with a history of malaria while working in agriculture. This study suggests that certain agricultural activities and types of crop production may increase the risk for malaria among women working in small-scale agriculture.

  14. Quantification of Cyclic Ground Reaction Force Histories During Daily Activity in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, G. A.; Whalen, R. T.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical models and experimental studies of bone remodeling suggest that bone density and structure are influenced by local cyclic skeletal tissue stress and strain histories. Estimation of long-term loading histories in humans is usually achieved by assessment of physical activity level by questionnaires, logbooks, and pedometers, since the majority of lower limb cyclic loading occurs during walking and running. These methods provide some indication of the mechanical loading history, but fail to consider the true magnitude of the lower limb skeletal forces generated by various daily activities. These techniques cannot account for individual gait characteristics, gait speed, and unpredictable high loading events that may influence bone mass significantly. We have developed portable instrumentation to measure and record the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRFz) during normal daily activity. This equipment allows long-term quantitative monitoring of musculoskeletal loads, which in conjunction with bone mineral density assessments, promises to elucidate the relationship between skeletal stresses and bone remodeling.

  15. Family Practice History: Bloodletting

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Peter

    1981-01-01

    For 2000 years bloodletting was an accepted form of treatment. During this time, the indications and philosophical basis for lancing, cupping, and the application of leeches evolved in conjunction with advances in anatomy and physiology. In the late 19th century discoveries by tissue pathologists using new diagnostic techniques undermined earlier dogma and bloodletting quickly became a highly suspect form of treatment. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:21289758

  16. History of settlement of villages from Central Tunisia by studying families sharing a common founder Glycogenosis type III mutation.

    PubMed

    Rhouma, Faten Ben; Messai, Habib; Hsouna, Sana; Halim, Nizar Ben; Cherif, Wafa; Fadhel, Sihem Ben; Tiar, Afaf; Nagara, Majdi; Azzouz, Hatem; Sfar, Mohamed-Tahar; Dridi, Marie-Françoise Ben; Tebib, Neji; Ayadi, Abdelkarim; Abdelhak, Sonia; Kefi, Rym

    2016-09-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III; Cori disease; Forbes disease) is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder resulting from deficient glycogen debrancher enzyme activity in liver and muscle. In this study, we focused on a single AGL gene mutation p.W1327X in 16 Tunisian patients from rural area surrounding the region of Mahdia in Central Tunisia. This constitutes the largest pool of patients with this mutation ever described. This study was performed to trace the history of the patients' ancestries in a single region. After extraction of genomic DNA, exon 31 of AGL gene was sequenced. The patients were investigated for the hypervariable segment 1 of mitochondrial DNA and 17 Y-STR markers. We found that the p.W1327X mutation was a founder mutation in Tunisia Analysis of maternal lineages shows an admixture of autochthonous North African, sub-Saharan and a predominance of Eurasian haplogroups. Heterogeneity of maternal haplogroups indicates an ancient settlement. However, paternal gene flow was highly homogeneous and originates from the Near East. We hypothesize that the p.W1327X mutation was introduced into the Tunisian population probably by a recent migration event; then the mutation was fixed in a small region due to the high rate of consanguineous marriages and genetic drift. The screening for this mutation should be performed in priority for GSD III molecular diagnosis, for patients from the region of Mahdia and those from regions sharing the same settlement history.

  17. Antioxidant Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Activity of Five Plants from the Commelinaceae Family

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Yap, Wei Jin; Tan, Shen Yeng; Lim, Yau Yan; Lee, Sui Mae

    2014-01-01

    Commelinaceae is a family of herbaceous flowering plants with many species used in ethnobotany, particularly in South America. However, thus far reports of their bioactivity are few and far between. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of five Commelinaceae methanolic leaf extracts. The antioxidant content was evaluated by the total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays. The antioxidant activities measured were DPPH free radical scavenging (FRS), ferric reducing power (FRP), and ferrous ion chelating (FIC); of the five plants, the methanolic leaf extract of Tradescantia zebrina showed the highest antioxidant content and activity, and exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of Gram-positive and two species of Gram-negative bacteria in a range of 5–10 mg/mL based on the broth microdilution method. PMID:26785239

  18. Educational Activities and the Role of the Parent in Homeschool Families with High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dan; Gann, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Using a qualitative case study approach, this study looked at the educational activities that constitute a typical day in a homeschool family and the role that the parent has within those activities. Three homeschooling families with high school students in a single community in a southern state in the United States participated in the case study.…

  19. Associations between Children's Physical Activities, Sedentary Behaviours and Family Structure: A Sequential Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, T.; Dagkas, S.; Bridge, M.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed method paper explored the effect of family structure on children's physical activities and sedentary pursuits. It furthers the limited understanding of how family structure impacts on children's time in, and reasons behind engaging in, certain physical activities. Children from three inner city comprehensive schools in the Midlands,…

  20. C-reactive protein, waist circumference, and family history of heart attack are independent predictors of body iron stores in apparently healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Ortegón, M F; Arbeláez, A; Mosquera, M; Méndez, F; Aguilar-de Plata, C

    2012-08-01

    Ferritin levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction of ferritin levels by variables related to cardiometabolic disease risk in a multivariate analysis. For this aim, 123 healthy women (72 premenopausal and 51 posmenopausal) were recruited. Data were collected through procedures of anthropometric measurements, questionnaires for personal/familial antecedents, and dietary intake (24-h recall), and biochemical determinations (ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP), glucose, insulin, and lipid profile) in blood serum samples obtained. Multiple linear regression analysis was used and variables with no normal distribution were log-transformed for this analysis. In premenopausal women, a model to explain log-ferritin levels was found with log-CRP levels, heart attack familial history, and waist circumference as independent predictors. Ferritin behaves as other cardiovascular markers in terms of prediction of its levels by documented predictors of cardiometabolic disease and related disorders. This is the first report of a relationship between heart attack familial history and ferritin levels. Further research is required to evaluate the mechanism to explain the relationship of central body fat and heart attack familial history with body iron stores values.

  1. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    PubMed

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder.

  2. The Y’s that bind: negative regulators of Src family kinase activity in platelets

    PubMed Central

    NEWMAN, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases play important roles in platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding how Src family kinase activity is regulated in general, to describe what is known about mechanisms underlying SFK activation in platelets, and to discuss platelet proteins that contribute to SFK inactivation, particularly those that use phosphotyrosine-containing sequences to recruit phosphatases and kinases to sites of SFK activity. PMID:19630799

  3. Calcium urolithiasis course in young stone formers is influenced by the strength of family history: results from a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Angela; Ticinesi, Andrea; Allegri, Franca; Nouvenne, Antonio; Pinelli, Silvana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2016-12-09

    The role of the strength of family history of stones (FHS), i.e., degree of relatives with the disease, on the course of calcium urolithiasis (CU) is not fully understood, particularly in young patients where genetic background has the greatest influence on disease expression. Thus, with a retrospective cross-sectional design, we examined baseline clinical parameters and urinary chemistries of 369 subjects (196 M) with CU and 96 controls (41 M) aged between 15 and 25 at the time of the first visit at our stone clinic. Subjects with metabolic syndrome traits, known causes of CU or CU onset before the age of 15 were excluded. Clinical and metabolic parameters were compared among stone formers (SF) and controls, stratified by gender, the presence and type of FHS determined through the kinship coefficient of relatives with stones. No significant differences in clinical course were found between SF with and without FHS, except for the presence of bilateral stones (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.20-3.39, p < 0.01). A significant age-, sex- and disease duration-adjusted trend for a higher number of colics (p for trend = 0.001), number of stones (p for trend = 0.002), stone rate (p for trend = 0.003) and the presence of retained stones (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.14-2.21, p = 0.006) was detected with increasing FHS strength. Urinary chemistries were unaffected by FHS in both SF and controls, except for a higher calcium excretion in females with FHS (p < 0.05). The type of FHS, thus, significantly influences the clinical course of CU in young SF, mainly irrespective of urinary factors.

  4. Lower CSF Aβ is Associated with HAND in HIV-Infected Adults with a Family History of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Pariya. L.; Moore, David J.; Franklin, Donald R.; Umlauf, Anya; Heaton, Robert K.; Collier, Ann C.; Marra, Christina M.; Clifford, David B.; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Sacktor, Ned C.; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M.; McCutchan, John A.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Both family history of dementia (FHD) and lower levels of Aβ-42 are indepentently associated with worse neurocognitive functioning in HIV-infected patients. Objective To examine the relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ-42 and FHD with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Methods One hundred eighty-three HIV+ adults underwent neuropsychological and neuromedical assessments, and determination of CSF Aβ-42 concentration and FHD (defined as a self-reported first or second-degree relative with a dementia diagnosis). Univariate analyses and multivariable logistic regressions were used. Results FHD was not associated with HAND (p = 0.24); however, CSF Aβ-42 levels were lower (p = 0.03) in the HAND group, but were not associated with FHD (p = 0.89). Multivariable models showed a main effect of CSF Aβ-42 (p = 0.03) and a trend-level (p = 0.06) interaction between FHD and CSF Aβ-42, such that lower CSF Aβ-42 was associated with HAND in those with FHD (p < 0.01) compared to those without FHD (p = 0.83). An analysis in those with follow-up data showed that higher baseline CSF Aβ-42 was associated with lower risk of neurocognitive decline (p = 0.02). While we did not find an FHD X CSF Aβ-42 interaction (p = 0.83), when analyses were stratified by FHD, lower CSF Aβ-42 was associated at the trend-level with neurocognitive decline in the FHD group (p = 0.08) compared to the no FHD group (p = 0.15). Conclusions FHD moderates the relationship between of CSF Aβ-42 and HAND. The findings highlight the complexities in interpreting the relationships between biomarkers of age-related neurodegeneration and HAND. PMID:26673902

  5. Germline mutations and genotype-phenotype associations in head and neck paraganglioma patients with negative family history in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W D; Wang, Z Y; Chai, Y C; Wang, X W; Chen, D Y; Wu, H

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of germline mutations and to explore genotype-phenotype associations in Chinese head and neck paraganglioma (HNPGL) patients without family history. Twenty-six Chinese patients with a diagnosis of HNPGL(14 male and 12 female, respectively)were recruited, who were followed up from 2000 to 2012. Genomic DNA was obtained from resected tumor tissues and peripheral blood samples. Seven genes, Succinate dehydrogenase complex A,B,C,D (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD), succinate dehydrogenase complex assembly factor 2 (SDHAF2), TMEM127 (transmembrane protein 127) and VHL (Von Hippel-Lindau), were screened by direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed to search for potential large deletions or duplications of SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF1 and SDHAF2. The total frequency of germline mutations was 30.8% (8/26), including 5 cases with missense mutation p.Met1Ile in SDHD, 1 case with missense mutation p.Tyr216Cys in SDHB, and 1 case with a novel truncation mutation p.Gln44Ter in SDHAF2. MLPA showed one patient with malignant HNPGL had heterozygous deletions of exon1, 2, 3, 7 and 8 in SDHB. Mutations in SDHD were the leading cause of HNPGL in this study. Mutation carriers were younger than non-mutation carriers (p < 0.01) and more likely to suffer from multiple tumors (p = 0.048), especially with mutations in SDHD. The presence of mutation was associated with the development of larger tumors (p = 0.021). This study confirmed that the missense mutation p.Met1Ile at the start codon in SDHD was a hotspot in chinese patients with HNPGLs. We recommend genetic analysis in patients below 45 years, especially SDHD gene.

  6. A Family History of Diabetes Modifies the Association between Elevated Urine Albumin Concentration and Hyperglycemia in Nondiabetic Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Corona, Aida; Ávila-Hermosillo, Antonio; Nelson, Robert G.; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    We examined the frequency of elevated urine albumin concentration (UAC) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic markers in 515 nondiabetic Mexican adolescents stratified by family history of diabetes (FHD). UAC was measured in a first morning urine sample and considered elevated when excretion was ≥20 mg/mL. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and lipids were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Elevated UAC was present in 12.4% and MetS was present in 8.9% of the adolescents. No association was found between elevated UAC and MetS. Among adolescents with FHD, 18.4% were overweight and 20.7% were obese, whereas, among those without a FHD, 15.9% were overweight and 7.5% were obese. Hyperglycemia was higher in those with elevated UAC than in those without (44.4% versus 5.1%, p = 0.003). Hyperglycemia (OR = 9.8, 95% CI 1.6–59.4) and number of MetS components (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.5–13.3) were independently associated with elevated UAC. Among female participants, abdominal obesity was associated with elevated UAC (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.2–16.9). Conclusion. Elevated UAC was associated neither with MetS nor with any metabolic markers in nondiabetic adolescents. However, FHD modified the association of elevated UAC with hyperglycemia and the number of MetS components. PMID:26347891

  7. Evolution of the KCS gene family in plants: the history of gene duplication, sub/neofunctionalization and redundancy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hai-Song; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Sun, Xiao-Qin; Li, Mi-Mi; Hang, Yue-Yu; Xue, Jia-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) play an important role in the survival and development of plants, and VLCFA synthesis is regulated by β-ketoacyl-CoA synthases (KCSs), which catalyze the condensation of an acyl-CoA with malonyl-CoA. Here, we present a genome-wide survey of the genes encoding these enzymes, KCS genes, in 28 species (26 genomes and two transcriptomes), which represents a large phylogenetic scale, and also reconstruct the evolutionary history of this gene family. KCS genes were initially single-copy genes in the green plant lineage; duplication resulted in five ancestral copies in land plants, forming five fundamental monophyletic groups in the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, KCS genes duplicated to generate 11 genes of angiosperm origin, expanding up to 20-30 members in further-diverged angiosperm species. During this process, tandem duplications had only a small contribution, whereas polyploidy events and large-scale segmental duplications appear to be the main driving force. Accompanying this expansion were variations that led to the sub- and neofunctionalization of different members, resulting in specificity that is likely determined by the 3-D protein structure. Novel functions involved in other physiological processes emerged as well, though redundancy is also observed, largely among recent duplications. Conserved sites and variable sites of KCS proteins are also identified by statistical analysis. The variable sites are likely to be involved in the emergence of product specificity and catalytic power, and conserved sites are possibly responsible for the preservation of fundamental function.

  8. Relation Between Family History of Premature Coronary Artery Disease and the Risk of Death in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Abdi-Ali, Ahmed; Shaheen, AbdelAziz; Southern, Danielle; Zhang, Mei; Knudtson, Merril; White, James; Graham, Michelle; James, Mathew T; Wilton, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    Family history (FHx) of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) is a risk factor for development of incident cardiovascular disease. However the association between FHx and outcomes in patients with established CAD is unclear. We followed 84,373 patients with angiographic CAD enrolled in the inclusive Alberta Provincial Project for Outcomes Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease registry between April 2002 and March 2013. Overall, 25,566 (30%) self-reported an FHx of CAD, defined as a first-degree relative with premature CAD (men, age <55 years; women, age <65 years). We tested the association between FHx and all-cause mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. After adjusting for baseline differences in clinical characteristics, indication, and extent of CAD, FHx was associated with reduced all-cause mortality over a median 5.6 years in follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 0.77 [95% CI 0.73 to 0.80]). The magnitude of this protective association was weaker in those with versus without a previous myocardial infarction (HR 0.87 [95% CI 0.81 to 0.93] versus 0.72 [0.69 to 0.76], interaction p <0.0001) and slightly stronger in those presenting with versus without an acute coronary syndrome (HR 0.74 [0.70 to 0.79] versus 0.80 [0.75 to 0.85], interaction p = 0.08). There was attenuation of association with increasing age, but FHx remained protective even in those aged older than 80 years (HR 0.86 [0.77 to 0.95]). In conclusion, in patients with angiographic CAD, self-reported FHx of premature CAD is associated with improved long-term survival rate, independent of clinical characteristics, mode of presentation, and extent of disease. Further investigation of potential patient- and system-level mediators of this seemingly paradoxical relation is required.

  9. A Family History of Diabetes Modifies the Association between Elevated Urine Albumin Concentration and Hyperglycemia in Nondiabetic Mexican Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Corona, Aida; Ávila-Hermosillo, Antonio; Nelson, Robert G; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    We examined the frequency of elevated urine albumin concentration (UAC) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic markers in 515 nondiabetic Mexican adolescents stratified by family history of diabetes (FHD). UAC was measured in a first morning urine sample and considered elevated when excretion was ≥20 mg/mL. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and lipids were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Elevated UAC was present in 12.4% and MetS was present in 8.9% of the adolescents. No association was found between elevated UAC and MetS. Among adolescents with FHD, 18.4% were overweight and 20.7% were obese, whereas, among those without a FHD, 15.9% were overweight and 7.5% were obese. Hyperglycemia was higher in those with elevated UAC than in those without (44.4% versus 5.1%, p = 0.003). Hyperglycemia (OR = 9.8, 95% CI 1.6-59.4) and number of MetS components (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.5-13.3) were independently associated with elevated UAC. Among female participants, abdominal obesity was associated with elevated UAC (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.2-16.9). Conclusion. Elevated UAC was associated neither with MetS nor with any metabolic markers in nondiabetic adolescents. However, FHD modified the association of elevated UAC with hyperglycemia and the number of MetS components.

  10. Smaller Feedback ERN Amplitudes During the BART are Associated with a Greater Family History Density of Alcohol Problems in Treatment-Naïve Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Chang, Maria

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcoholism is characterized by impaired decision-making (i.e., choosing intoxication in the face of mounting negative consequences). This impairment may involve a reduced brain response to the negative consequences of behavior, which supports an inclination to engage in risky behaviors. The feedback error-related negativity (F-ERN) is hypothesized to reflect the valence attached to the negative consequences of behavior. Performance on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) measures risk-taking propensity. We recorded F-ERNs during the BART and during a BART simulation, where individuals observed the rewards and consequences of (someone else’s) BART performance. METHODS EEGs were recorded on 22 actively drinking, treatment-naïve alcoholics during the BART and BART simulation. F-ERNs were measured and their association with psychological and alcohol use measures was examined. RESULTS F-ERNs over fronto-central electrode sites were observed to balloon pops in the BART and BART simulation. F-ERNs during the BART were more than twice the amplitude of F-ERNs during the BART simulation. Smaller F-ERN amplitudes from the BART (but not the BART simulation) were associated with a greater family history density of alcohol problems. CONCLUSION The results suggest a possible link between the genetic vulnerability toward developing alcoholism and the brain’s response to the negative consequences of behavior. PMID:17869027

  11. Conversations about Science across Activities in Mexican-Descent Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah R.; Esterly, Jennifer; Callanan, Maureen A.; Wright, Ramser; Navarro, Rocio

    2007-01-01

    Parent-child "everyday" conversations have been suggested as a source of children's early science learning. If such conversations are important, then it would be pertinent to know whether children from different family backgrounds have different experiences talking about science in informal settings. We focus on the relation between…

  12. Moving Souls: History Offers Insights into Physical Activity that Go beyond Fitness and Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydnor, Synthia

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at four theoretical themes that scholars insist on when studying history. The themes--social memory, liminality, community, and critique--may be useful in stimulating the direction, planning, and practice of physical activity in young adults. These particular themes were chosen because they seem to match some of the…

  13. Phenoloxidase activity in the infraorder Isoptera: unraveling life-history correlates of immune investment.

    PubMed

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B; Reichheld, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    Within the area of ecological immunology, the quantification of phenoloxidase (PO) activity has been used as a proxy for estimating immune investment. Because termites have unique life-history traits and significant inter-specific differences exist regarding their nesting and foraging habits, comparative studies on PO activity can shed light on the general principles influencing immune investment against the backdrop of sociality, reproductive potential, and gender. We quantified PO activity across four termite species ranging from the phylogenetically basal to the most derived, each with their particular nesting/foraging strategies. Our data indicate that PO activity varies across species, with soil-dwelling termites exhibiting significantly higher PO levels than the above-ground wood nester species which in turn have higher PO levels than arboreal species. Moreover, our comparative approach suggests that pathogenic risks can override reproductive potential as a more important driver of immune investment. No gender-based differences in PO activities were recorded. Although termite PO activity levels vary in accordance with a priori predictions made from life-history theory, our data indicate that nesting and foraging strategies (and their resulting pathogenic pressures) can supersede reproductive potential and other life-history traits in influencing investment in PO. Termites, within the eusocial insects, provide a unique perspective for inferring how different ecological pressures may have influenced immune function in general and their levels of PO activity, in particular.

  14. Phenoloxidase activity in the infraorder Isoptera: unraveling life-history correlates of immune investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Reichheld, Jennifer L.

    2016-02-01

    Within the area of ecological immunology, the quantification of phenoloxidase (PO) activity has been used as a proxy for estimating immune investment. Because termites have unique life-history traits and significant inter-specific differences exist regarding their nesting and foraging habits, comparative studies on PO activity can shed light on the general principles influencing immune investment against the backdrop of sociality, reproductive potential, and gender. We quantified PO activity across four termite species ranging from the phylogenetically basal to the most derived, each with their particular nesting/foraging strategies. Our data indicate that PO activity varies across species, with soil-dwelling termites exhibiting significantly higher PO levels than the above-ground wood nester species which in turn have higher PO levels than arboreal species. Moreover, our comparative approach suggests that pathogenic risks can override reproductive potential as a more important driver of immune investment. No gender-based differences in PO activities were recorded. Although termite PO activity levels vary in accordance with a priori predictions made from life-history theory, our data indicate that nesting and foraging strategies (and their resulting pathogenic pressures) can supersede reproductive potential and other life-history traits in influencing investment in PO. Termites, within the eusocial insects, provide a unique perspective for inferring how different ecological pressures may have influenced immune function in general and their levels of PO activity, in particular.

  15. A family history of serious complications due to BCG vaccination is a tool for the early diagnosis of severe primary immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Roxo-Junior, Pérsio; Silva, Jorgete; Andrea, Mauro; Oliveira, Larissa; Ramalho, Fernando; Bezerra, Thiago; Nunes, Altacílio A

    2013-09-10

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is one of the most severe forms of primary immunodeficiency (PID). Complications of BCG vaccination, especially disseminated infection and its most severe forms, are known to occur in immunodeficient patients, particularly in SCID. A carefully taken family history before BCG injection as well as delaying vaccination if PID is suspected could be a simple and effective method to avoid inappropriate vaccination of an immunodeficient child in some cases until the prospect of newborn screening for SCID has been fully developed. We describe a patient with a very early diagnosis of SCID, which was suspected on the basis of the previous death of two siblings younger than one year due to severe complications secondary to the BCG vaccine. We suggest that a family history of severe or fatal reactions to BCG should be included as a warning sign for an early diagnosis of SCID.

  16. Assessment of association of D3 dopamine receptor MscI polymorphism with schizophrenia: Analysis of symptom ratings, family history, age at onset, and movement disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitonde, E.J.; Mollon, J.D.; McKenna, P.J.

    1996-09-20

    Several studies have reported an association between schizophrenia and homozygosity for the MscI restriction site in exon 1 of the D3 dopamine receptor gene, but other studies have failed to find this association. Recent reports have suggested that the association is most salient in male patients with a family history of schizophrenia. We examined this restriction site in a group of schizophrenic patients (n = 84) and in normal controls (n = 77). Patients were subdivided according to demographic and clinical features, particular attention being paid to movement disorders. No significant difference in allelic or genotypic distribution was seen between the two groups. No association was seen between homozygosity and a positive family history, age at onset of illness, clinical subtype, negative symptom score, or movement disorder scores. 33 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Compound Heterozygosity of Dominant and Recessive COL7A Alleles in a Severely Affected Patient with a Family History of Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa: Clinical Findings, Genetic Testing, and Treatment Implications.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kendra D; Schoch, Jennifer J; Beek, Geoffrey J; Hand, Jennifer L

    2017-03-01

    An 8-year-old girl born to a family with more than three generations of dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DDEB) presented with life-threatening confluent skin erosions, mitten hand deformity, and failure to thrive. Reassessment of her family history and genetic testing showed compound heterozygous COL7A mutations, one inherited from her DDEB-affected mother and one from her unaffected, healthy father. This family illustrates the risk of unexpected, severe, autosomal recessive epidermolysis bullosa (EB) in a family with milder, multigenerational autosomal dominant EB. Clinicians should recognize the clinical spectrum of dystrophic EB and recommend genetic consultation when the phenotype conflicts with family history.

  18. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  19. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression is associated with a family history of upper gastrointestinal tract cancer in a high-risk population exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, M.J.; Wei, W.Q.; Baer, J.; Abnet, C.C.; Wang, G.Q.; Sternberg, L.R.; Warner, A.C.; Johnson, L.L.; Lu, N.; Giffen, C.A.; Dawsey, S.M.; Qiao, Y.L.; Cherry, J.

    2009-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and PAHs are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study measured the expression of AhR and related genes in frozen esophageal cell samples from patients exposed to different levels of indoor air pollution, who did or did not have high-grade squamous dysplasia and who did or did not have a family history of upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) cancer. 147 samples were evaluated, including 23 (16%) from patients with high-grade dysplasia and 48 (33%) from patients without dysplasia who heated their homes with coal, without a chimney (a 'high' indoor air pollution group), and 27 (18%) from patients with high-grade dysplasia and 49 (33%) from patients without dysplasia who did not heat their homes at all (a 'low' indoor air pollution group). Sixty-four (44%) had a family history of UGI cancer. RNA was extracted and quantitative PCR analysis was done. AhR gene expression was detectable in 85 (58%) of the samples and was >9-fold higher in those with a family history of UGI cancer (median expression (interquartile range), -1,964 (-18,000, -610) versus -18,000 (-18,000, -1036); P = 0.02, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Heating status, dysplasia category, age, gender, and smoking were not associated with AhR expression (linear regression; all P values {ge} 0.1). AhR expression was higher in patients with a family history of UGI cancer. Such individuals may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of PAH exposure, including PAH-induced cancer.

  20. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Vertebrates and Invertebrates Pacific Ocean Region. Report 5. The Parrotfishes, Family Scaridae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    AND ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS OF COASTAL VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES PACIFIC OCEAN REGION Report 5 THE PARROTFISHES , FAMILY SCARIDAE by R. E. Brock...necessary and Identify by block number) Parrotfishes are highly colorful species inhabiting coral reefs of the world’s trop- ical seas. They may usually be...confusion in the taxonomic literature; there are about 68 species of parrotfishes worldwide. Little is known about the life history of parrotfish

  1. Inherited Mutations in 17 Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes Among a Large Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cohort Unselected for Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Fergus J.; Hart, Steven N.; Sharma, Priyanka; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Wang, Xianshu; Miron, Penelope; Olson, Janet E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Olswold, Curtis; Slettedahl, Seth; Hallberg, Emily; Guidugli, Lucia; Davila, Jaime I.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Janni, Wolfgang; Rack, Brigitte; Ekici, Arif B.; Slamon, Dennis J.; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fostira, Florentia; Vratimos, Athanassios; Fountzilas, George; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Tapper, William J.; Durcan, Lorraine; Cross, Simon S.; Pilarski, Robert; Shapiro, Charles L.; Klemp, Jennifer; Yao, Song; Garber, Judy; Cox, Angela; Brauch, Hiltrud; Ambrosone, Christine; Nevanlinna, Heli; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Slager, Susan L.; Vachon, Celine M.; Eccles, Diana M.; Fasching, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent advances in DNA sequencing have led to the development of breast cancer susceptibility gene panels for germline genetic testing of patients. We assessed the frequency of mutations in 17 predisposition genes, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, in a large cohort of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) unselected for family history of breast or ovarian cancer to determine the utility of germline genetic testing for those with TNBC. Patients and Methods Patients with TNBC (N = 1,824) unselected for family history of breast or ovarian cancer were recruited through 12 studies, and germline DNA was sequenced to identify mutations. Results Deleterious mutations were identified in 14.6% of all patients. Of these, 11.2% had mutations in the BRCA1 (8.5%) and BRCA2 (2.7%) genes. Deleterious mutations in 15 other predisposition genes were detected in 3.7% of patients, with the majority observed in genes involved in homologous recombination, including PALB2 (1.2%) and BARD1, RAD51D, RAD51C, and BRIP1 (0.3% to 0.5%). Patients with TNBC with mutations were diagnosed at an earlier age (P < .001) and had higher-grade tumors (P = .01) than those without mutations. Conclusion Deleterious mutations in predisposition genes are present at high frequency in patients with TNBC unselected for family history of cancer. Mutation prevalence estimates suggest that patients with TNBC, regardless of age at diagnosis or family history of cancer, should be considered for germline genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Although mutations in other predisposition genes are observed among patients with TNBC, better cancer risk estimates are needed before these mutations are used for clinical risk assessment in relatives. PMID:25452441

  2. Genetic disorders with tau pathology: a review of the literature and report of two patients with tauopathy and positive family histories

    PubMed Central

    Tacik, Pawel; Sanchez-Contreras, Monica; Rademakers, Rosa; Dickson, Dennis W.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tauopathies are a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the pathologic accumulation of hyperphosphorylated and insoluble tau protein within neurons and glia. Although most cases are sporadic, hereditary tauopathies have also been reported. Summary In this article, we review genetic disorders in which tau pathology has been reported and present two novel families with primary tauopathies. Mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) cause a small subset of primary tauopathies. Mutations in 21 other genes and a 18q deletion syndrome have also been reported to be associated with tau pathology reminiscent of Alzheimer’s disease, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, argyrophilic grain disease, or Pick’s disease. In eight of the 21 genes, tau pathology was only seen in cases with some “specific” mutations. In the remaining genes, tau pathology, often in the form of Alzheimer-type neurofibrillary lesions, was a common finding but was “not mutation-specific”. The probands of the two families were diagnosed with progressive supranuclear palsy based on clinicopathological evaluation. Their family histories were relevant for parkinsonism in three siblings of Family 1 and one brother and the father from Family 2, but these were not autopsy-confirmed. DNA from the brains of the probands from these families was screened for MAPT and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene mutations, but no mutations were identified. PMID:26550830

  3. Evolutionary History of the Smyd Gene Family in Metazoans: A Framework to Identify the Orthologs of Human Smyd Genes in Drosophila and Other Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Calpena, Eduardo; Palau, Francesc; Espinós, Carmen; Galindo, Máximo Ibo

    2015-01-01

    The Smyd gene family code for proteins containing a conserved core consisting of a SET domain interrupted by a MYND zinc finger. Smyd proteins are important in epigenetic control of development and carcinogenesis, through posttranslational modifications in histones and other proteins. Previous reports indicated that the Smyd family is quite variable in metazoans, so a rigorous phylogenetic reconstruction of this complex gene family is of central importance to understand its evolutionary history and functional diversification or conservation. We have performed a phylogenetic analysis of Smyd protein sequences, and our results show that the extant metazoan Smyd genes can be classified in three main classes, Smyd3 (which includes chordate-specific Smyd1 and Smyd2 genes), Smyd4 and Smyd5. In addition, there is an arthropod-specific class, SmydA. While the evolutionary history of the Smyd3 and Smyd5 classes is relatively simple, the Smyd4 class has suffered several events of gene loss, gene duplication and lineage-specific expansions in the animal phyla included in our analysis. A more specific study of the four Smyd4 genes in Drosophila melanogaster shows that they are not redundant, since their patterns of expression are different and knock-down of individual genes can have dramatic phenotypes despite the presence of the other family members. PMID:26230726

  4. Using Activity Theory to Understand Intergenerational Play: The Case of Family Quest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyahhan, Sinem; Barab, Sasha A.; Downton, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    We implemented a five-week family program called "Family Quest" where parents and children ages 9 to 13 played Quest Atlantis, a multiuser 3D educational computer game, at a local after-school club for 90-minute sessions. We used activity theory as a conceptual and an analytical framework to study the nature of intergenerational play, the…

  5. 78 FR 38996 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life... days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and... is to advance understanding of the dynamic relationship between the environment, psychosocial...

  6. Family Outing Activities and Achievement among Fourth Graders in Compensatory Education Funded Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Philip A.

    This study sought to identify the relationship between operationally-defined family outing activities and measures of achievement among fourth grade students from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. The results, collected for four successive years from 1715 students in urban Los Angeles, indicated that: (1) participation in family activities…

  7. (Trans)National Language Ideologies and Family Language Practices: A Life History Inquiry of Judeo-Spanish in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seloni, Lisya; Sarfati, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the diminished use of Judeo-Spanish among Jews living in Turkey and asks the following research question: What factors, ideologies, and practices contribute to the demise of Judeo-Spanish? To address this question, we employed life history inquiry based on two oral history archives documenting elderly Turkish-Jewish community…

  8. Families Discover the Outdoors Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Polly

    1980-01-01

    An idea for hands-on activities for families