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Sample records for activity family history

  1. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Family Health History Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Family Health History The Basics Family Health History & Chronic Disease Planning ...

  2. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  3. Family History Predicts Stress Fracture in Active Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Loud, Keith J.; Micheli, Lyle J.; Bristol, Stephanie; Austin, S. Bryn; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Increased physical activity and menstrual irregularity have been associated with increased risk for stress fracture among adult women active in athletics. The purposes of this study were to determine whether menstrual irregularity is also a risk factor for stress fracture in active female adolescents and to estimate the quantity of exercise associated with an increased risk for this injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS A case-control study was conducted of 13- to 22-year-old females diagnosed with their first stress fracture, each matched prospectively on age and self-reported ethnicity with 2 controls. Patients with chronic illnesses or use of medications known to affect bone mineral density were excluded, including use of hormonal preparations that could alter menstrual cycles. The primary outcome, stress fracture in any extremity or the spine, was confirmed radiographically. Girls with stress fracture had bone mineral density measured at the lumbar spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS The mean ± SD age of the 168 participants was 15.9 ± 2.1 years; 91.7% were postmenarchal, with a mean age at menarche of 13.1 ± 1.1 years. The prevalence of menstrual irregularity was similar among cases and controls. There was no significant difference in the mean hours per week of total physical activity between girls in this sample with stress fracture (8.2 hours/week) and those without (7.4 hours/week). In multivariate models, case subjects had nearly 3 times the odds of having a family member with osteoporosis or osteopenia. In secondary analyses, participants with stress fracture had a low mean spinal bone mineral density for their age. CONCLUSIONS Among highly active female adolescents, only family history was independently associated with stress fracture. The magnitude of this association suggests that further investigations of inheritable skeletal factors are warranted in this population, along with evaluation of bone mineral density in girls with stress

  4. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) levels to physical activity and family history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, S; Elosua, R; Covas, M I; Pavesi, M; Vila, J; Marrugat, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of physical activity with serum lipoprotein(a) [La(a)] levels in individuals according to whether they had a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Lp(a) levels in 332 healthy Spanish men aged 20 to 60 years were measured. Physical activity and family history of CHD were assessed. RESULTS: For men with a family history of CHD, the odds ratio for Lp(a) levels above the median value was 0.13 (95% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.50) in very active men (energy expended in physical activity > 300 kcal/day) compared with active men (energy expended in physical activity < 300 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Regular daily physical activity in individuals with a family history of CHD could be useful for controlling Lp(a) levels. PMID:10076490

  5. Things Are Happening: A Survey Report of North American Family History Activity. Series 340.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennion, Roy B.; Nichols, Elizabeth L.

    To find out about grass roots activities and projects in family history, a survey form was distributed through periodicals and newsletters of genealogical and historical organizations and through general periodicals; telephone calls were made to all state boards of education; and data were gathered from projects already in the researchers'…

  6. Family History Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookmark, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The 12 articles in this issue focus on the theme of family history resources: (1) "Introduction: Family History Resources" (Joseph F. Shubert); (2) "Work, Credentials, and Expectations of a Professional Genealogist" (Coreen P. Hallenbeck and Lewis W. Hallenbeck); (3) "Computers and Genealogy" (Theresa C. Strasser); (4) "Finding Historical Records…

  7. Creating a Family Health History

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health History? Click for more information A Family Tree for Health A family health history is a ... family members grew up. It's like a family tree for health. Click for more information What a ...

  8. Atypical frontal lobe activity during verbal working memory in youth with a family history of alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Cservenka, Anita; Herting, Megan M.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Abnormal brain functioning during verbal working memory tasks has been shown in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Since adolescents with a familial history of alcoholism (FHP) are at high risk for developing an AUD, it is important to consider whether atypical brain activity during verbal working memory may help to explain FHP vulnerability toward developing alcoholism. Methods To that end, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined brain response during a verbal working memory 2-back task in 19 FHP adolescents and 16 age and gender-matched family history negative (FHN) controls. Results Despite no group differences in task accuracy, FHP youth had significantly slower average reaction time when making correct responses during the 2-back condition than FHN youth. In contrast to a vigilance control condition, while covarying for reaction time, FHP adolescents showed less activation during verbal working memory than FHN youth in multiple areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) – a brain region crucial to intact working memory skills. Conclusions These results suggest that even prior to heavy alcohol use, FHP adolescents show atypical executive brain functioning during verbal working memory, and that these differences are independent of slower working memory reaction time in FHP youth. Given the importance of working memory in numerous areas of day-to-day functioning, such as adaptive decision-making, these abnormalities may contribute to FHP youth vulnerability toward developing AUDs. PMID:22088655

  9. Internet-based physical activity intervention for women with a family history of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Sheri J.; Dunsiger, Shira I.; Marinac, Catherine R.; Marcus, Bess H.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Gans, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Physical activity interventions that can be delivered through the Internet have the potential to increase participant reach. The efficacy of an Internet-based physical activity intervention was tested in a sample of women at an elevated risk for breast cancer. Methods A total of 55 women with at least one first-degree relative with breast cancer (but no personal history of breast cancer) were randomized to a 3-month theoretically grounded Internet-based physical activity intervention or an active control arm. Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, psychosocial mediators of physical activity adoption and maintenance, as well as worry and perceived risk of developing breast cancer were assessed at baseline, 3-month, and 5-month follow up. Results Participants were on average 46.2 (SD=11.4) years old with a BMI of 27.3 (SD=4.8) kg/m2. The intervention arm significantly increased minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity compared to the active control arm at 3 months (213 vs. 129 min/week) and 5 months (208 vs. 119 min/week; both p<.001). Regression models indicated that participants in the intervention had significantly higher self-efficacy for physical activity at 3 months (p<.01) and borderline significantly higher self-efficacy at 5 months (p=0.05). Baseline breast cancer worry and perceived risk were not associated with physical activity. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that an Internet-based physical activity intervention may substantially increase physical activity in women with a family history of breast cancer. PMID:26651471

  10. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term. PMID:25520676

  11. The Challenge of Family History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coontz, Stephanie

    2001-01-01

    Explains how the experience of discussing family issues in the public arena, especially on radio talk shows, has caused the author to rethink her approach to teaching family history. Discusses two techniques that can assist students in keeping their feelings about their own family experiences from interfering with their understanding of history.…

  12. Predicting Adolescents' Organized Activity Involvement: The Role of Maternal Depression History, Family Relationship Quality, and Adolescent Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Martin, Nina C.; Garber, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Although the potential benefits of organized activity involvement during high school have been documented, little is known about what familial and individual characteristics are associated with higher levels of participation. Using structural equation modeling, this longitudinal study examined the extent to which maternal depression history (i.e.,…

  13. Introducing Students to Family History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Describes a family history course for first-year college students that emphasizes critical thinking skills. The course is organized first chronologically, through three historically-ideal types of families, and then by topics, such as generational relations and courtship. Includes a list of concepts and words students must know. (CMK)

  14. Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative

    MedlinePlus

    ... Versions Source Code The Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative To help focus attention on the importance of family history, the Surgeon General, in cooperation with other agencies ...

  15. Family Health History and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... History Prevent Type 2 Diabetes in Your Family Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... encourages people to share this content freely. [ Top ] ​​​​​ Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  16. Selected Internet Resources on Family History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Provides a list of Internet resources on family history that cover topics such as colonial families, shifting family ideals, families in the Early Republic, families in bondage, westward migration, families during the Great Depression, journals, reference sources, and lesson plans. (CMK)

  17. Family History in Primary Care Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    McInerney, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    The family history has been called the first genetic test; it was a core element of primary care long before the current wave of genetics technologies and services became clinically relevant. Risk assessment based on family history allows providers to personalize and prioritize health messages, shifts the focus of health care from treatment to prevention, and can empower individuals and families to be stewards of their own health. In a world of rising health care costs, the family history is an important tool, with its primary cost being the clinician’s time. However, a recent National Institutes of Health conference highlighted the lack of substantive evidence to support the clinical utility of family histories. Annual collection of a comprehensive 3-generation family history has been held up as the gold standard for practice. However, interval family histories targeted to symptoms and family histories tailored to a child’s life stage (ie, age-based health) may be important and underappreciated methods of collecting family history that yield clinically actionable data and supplement existing family history information. In this article, we review the various applications, as well as capabilities and limitations, of the family history for primary care providers. PMID:24298128

  18. Teaching Family History: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography on teaching family history, organized by eight approaches to the topic: (1) chronological; (2) multicultural families (comparative); (3) the life-cycle (4) gender; (5) impact of major historical events on families; (6) family and public policy; (7) family rituals; and (8) genealogical. (CMK)

  19. History repeats itself: the family medication history and pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thomas R; Kearney, Elizabeth; Hulick, Peter J; Kisor, David F

    2016-05-01

    Related to many drug gene-product interactions, application of pharmacogenomics can lead to improved medication efficacy while decreasing or avoiding adverse drug reactions. However, utilizing pharmacogenomics without other information does not allow for optimal medication therapy. Currently, there is a lack of documentation of family medication history, in other words, inefficacy and adverse reactions across family members throughout generations. The family medication history can serve as an impetus for pharmacogenomic testing to explain lack of medication efficacy or an adverse drug reaction and pre-emptive testing can drive recognition and documentation of medication response in family members. We propose combining the family medication history via pedigree construction with pharmacogenomics to further optimize medication therapy. We encourage clinicians to combine family medication history with pharmacogenomics. PMID:27143300

  20. Why Is It Important to Know My Family Medical History?

    MedlinePlus

    ... history? Why is it important to know my family medical history? A family medical history is a ... a healthcare professional regularly. For more information about family medical history: NIHSeniorHealth, a service of the National ...

  1. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  2. Family Structure History and Adolescent Romance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crissey, Sarah R.; Raley, R. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between family structure history and adolescent romance. Using a national sample drawn from Add Health (N = 13,570), family structure at Wave I was associated with the likelihood that adolescents were involved in a romantic relationship at Wave II and, among those in a relationship, the number of relationships…

  3. Coalescent histories for caterpillar-like families.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2013-01-01

    A coalescent history is an assignment of branches of a gene tree to branches of a species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree occur. The number of coalescent histories for a pair consisting of a labeled gene tree topology and a labeled species tree topology is important in gene tree probability computations, and more generally, in studying evolutionary possibilities for gene trees on species trees. Defining the Tr-caterpillar-like family as a sequence of n-taxon trees constructed by replacing the r-taxon subtree of n-taxon caterpillars by a specific r-taxon labeled topology Tr, we examine the number of coalescent histories for caterpillar-like families with matching gene tree and species tree labeled topologies. For each Tr with size r≤8, we compute the number of coalescent histories for n-taxon trees in the Tr-caterpillar-like family. Next, as n→∞, we find that the limiting ratio of the numbers of coalescent histories for the Tr family and caterpillars themselves is correlated with the number of labeled histories for Tr. The results support a view that large numbers of coalescent histories occur when a tree has both a relatively balanced subtree and a high tree depth, contributing to deeper understanding of the combinatorics of gene trees and species trees. PMID:24524157

  4. Digital Family Histories for Data Mining

    PubMed Central

    Hoyt, Robert; Linnville, Steven; Chung, Hui-Min; Hutfless, Brent; Rice, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    As we move closer to ubiquitous electronic health records (EHRs), genetic, familial, and clinical information will need to be incorporated into EHRs as structured data that can be used for data mining and clinical decision support. While the Human Genome Project has produced new and exciting genomic data, the cost to sequence the human personal genome is high, and significant controversies regarding how to interpret genomic data exist. Many experts feel that the family history is a surrogate marker for genetic information and should be part of any paper-based or electronic health record. A digital family history is now part of the Meaningful Use Stage 2 menu objectives for EHR reimbursement, projected for 2014. In this study, a secure online family history questionnaire was designed to collect data on a unique cohort of Vietnam-era repatriated male veterans and a comparison group in order to compare participant and family disease rates on common medical disorders with a genetic component. This article describes our approach to create the digital questionnaire and the results of analyzing family history data on 319 male participants. PMID:24159269

  5. Differential impact of serotonin transporter activity on temperament and behavior in persons with a family history of alcoholism in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns project

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Yechiam, Eldad; Glahn, David C.; Acheson, Ashley; Sorocco, Kristen H.; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Kim, Bojeong; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Vincent, Andrea S.; Goldman, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Central serotonergic (5-HT) function is implicated in pathways to alcohol dependence, including dysphoria manifested by symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, little is known about genetic variation in central 5-HT function and its potential impact on temperament and behavior in persons with a family history of alcoholism (FH+). Methods We tested 314 healthy young adults (23.5 yr of age, 57% female; 193 FH− and 121 FH+) enrolled in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns project, a study of alcoholism risk in relation to temperament and behavioral dyscontrol. Dysphoria was assessed using the Eysenck neuroticism and Beck depression scales, and Cloninger’s Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Risk taking was assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Balloon Analogue Response Task (BART). All subjects were genotyped for a functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SCL6A4). Results FH+ subjects with the gain-of-function 5-HTTLPR genotype scored higher in neuroticism, harm avoidance, and symptoms of Depression (p values ≤ .03). No effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype was seen in FH−. FH+ carriers of the gain-of-function 5-HTTLPR genotype played to minimize their frequency of losses in the IGT whereas FH− carriers played a balanced strategy (p < .003). No 5-HTTLPR effects were seen in the BART. Results were unaffected by sex, education, drug use, and antisocial characteristics. Conclusions The functional 5-HTTLPR polymorphism predicted significant variation in negative moods and poorer affect regulation in FH+ persons, with possible consequences for behavior, as seen in a simulated gambling task. This pattern may contribute to a drinking pattern that is compensatory for such affective tendencies. PMID:24796636

  6. Individuals with a family history of ESRD are a high-risk population for CKD: implications for targeted surveillance and intervention activities.

    PubMed

    McClellan, William M; Satko, Scott G; Gladstone, Elisa; Krisher, Jenna O; Narva, Andrew S; Freedman, Barry I

    2009-03-01

    Activities intended to improve the detection, treatment, and control of chronic kidney disease (CKD) should be incorporated into existing health care systems and targeted to high-risk populations to avoid redundancy and waste of resources. One high-risk population consists of first- or second-degree family members of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), who are 2 to 3 times as likely to have incident ESRD, have high rates of impaired kidney function and undetected and uncontrolled high blood pressure, and are more likely to be obese. These individuals usually are unaware of their underlying CKD and may discount their own risk of ESRD. The ESRD Network 6 Family History Project shows that the ESRD Networks, which constitute a national CKD surveillance system for patients with stage 5 CKD, may be an existing resource that can be used to identify relatives of incident patients with ESRD and provide these families with information about CKD. Nationally available resources have been developed by the National Kidney Disease Education Program for use with these at-risk families. Individuals interested in population-based CKD control activities should be aware of and use these resources. PMID:19231753

  7. Family History Is Important for Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/genomics/famhistory/famhist.htm • U.S. Surgeon General's Family History Initiative — www.hhs.gov/familyhistory/ • National Society for Genetic Counselors — www.nsgc.org/consumer/familytree/ For more information on CDC’s National Office ...

  8. Practising family history: 'identity' as a category of social practice.

    PubMed

    Bottero, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Research on family history argues it performs the task of anchoring a sense of 'self' through tracing ancestral connection and cultural belonging, seeing it as a form of storied 'identity-work'. This paper draws on a small-scale qualitative study to think further on the identity-work of family history. Using practice theory, and a disaggregated notion of 'identity', it explores how the storying of family histories relates to genealogy as a leisure hobby, a form of historical research, and an information-processing activity; and examines the social organization of that narrativity, where various practical engagements render certain kinds of genealogical information more, or less, 'storyable'. Key features of 'identity-work' in family history, such as the construction of genealogy as a personal journey of discovery and identification with particular ancestors, emerge as a consequence of the procedures of family history, organized as a set of practical tasks. The paper explores 'identity-work' as a consequence of people's engagement in specific social practices which provide an internal logic to their actions, with various components of 'identity' emerging as categories of practice shaped within, and for, use. Focusing on 'identity' as something produced when we are engaged in doing other things, the paper examines how the practical organization of 'doing other things' helps produce 'identity' in particular ways. PMID:26173995

  9. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Genomic Resources Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. February 2016. Family Health History, Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk, and ...

  10. American History Activators (Early American History).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Bill

    This document consists of a package of seven separately published "activities" or simulations that allow students to learn about and participate in many of the aspects of United States history that have influenced our present institutions and way of life. The seven units include: (1) First Americans Arrive: 11.000 BC; (2) Puritan General Court,…

  11. Family history and the natural history of colorectal cancer: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Henrikson, Nora B.; Webber, Elizabeth M.; Goddard, Katrina A.; Scrol, Aaron; Piper, Margaret; Williams, Marc S.; Zallen, Doris T.; Calonge, Ned; Ganiats, Theodore G.; Janssens, A. Cecile J.W.; Zauber, Ann; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Whitlock, Evelyn P.

    2016-01-01

    Family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) is a known risk factor for CRC, and encompasses both genetic and shared environmental risk. We conducted a systematic review to estimate the impact of family history on the natural history of CRC and adherence to screening. We found high heterogeneity in family history definitions, the most common definition being one or more first-degree relatives. The prevalence of family history may be lower than commonly cited 10%, and confirms evidence for increasing levels of risk associated with increasing family history burden. There is evidence for higher prevalence of adenomas and of multiple adenomas in people with family history of CRC, but no evidence for differential adenoma location or adenoma progression by family history. Limited data on the natural history of CRC by family history suggests a differential age or stage at cancer diagnosis and mixed evidence on tumor location. Adherence to recommended colonoscopy screening was higher in people with family history of CRC. Stratification based on polygenic and/or multifactorial risk assessment may mature to the point of displacing family history-based approaches, but for the foreseeable future family history may remain a valuable clinical tool for identifying individuals at increased risk of CRC. PMID:25590981

  12. A Qualitative Study of Early Family Histories and Transitions of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    Using intensive qualitative interviews with 40 homeless youth, this study examined their early family histories for abuse, neglect, and other family problems and the number and types of transitions that youth experienced. Multiple forms of child maltreatment, family alcoholism, drug use, and criminal activity characterized early family histories…

  13. Collecting and Understanding Your Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Check whether your family has existing family trees, charts, or listings of family members. Information may ... that have helpful resources for putting together family trees and you can find these site by searching ...

  14. Striatal activity and reduced white matter increase frontal activity in youths with family histories of alcohol and other substance-use disorders performing a go/no-go task

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Ashley; Tagamets, Malle A; Winkler, Anderson; Rowland, Laura M; Mathias, Charles W; Wright, Susan N; Hong, L Elliot; Kochunov, Peter; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Youths with a family history of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) are at greater risk of developing substance-use disorders relative to those with no such family histories (FH−). We previously reported that FH+ youths have elevated activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and dorsal striatum while performing go/no-go tasks and have reduced frontal white matter integrity. A better understanding of relationships between these variables would provide insight into how frontostriatal circuitry is altered in FH+ youths, which may be an important contributor to their elevated risk. Methods In this study, we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test interactions between activity in the SMA and dorsal striatum in 72 FH+ and 32 FH− youths during go/no-go task performance and to determine whether increased activity in these regions in FH+ youths can be at least partially explained by reduced frontal white matter integrity, as indexed by anterior corona radiata fractional anisotropy and N-acetylaspartate. Results Increased dorsal striatum activity explained most (∽75%) of the elevated SMA activity in FH+ youths, and the combined contributions of increased dorsal striatal activity, and decreased white matter integrity fully explained the elevated SMA activity. Conclusions These results suggest the elevated frontal cortical activity in FH+ youths is driven both by their increased striatal activity via downstream projections and reduced white matter integrity in frontal cortical projections, the latter likely increasing frontal cortical activity due to increased energy demands required for action potential propagation. As part of our ongoing longitudinal studies we will examine how these frontostriatal alterations relate to risk for developing substance-use disorders. PMID:26221573

  15. Maternal Family History is Associated with Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Honea, Robyn A.; Vidoni, Eric D.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    A family history of Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases one's risk of developing late-onset AD (LOAD), and a maternal family history of LOAD influences risk more than a paternal family history. Accumulating evidence suggests that a family history of dementia associates with AD-typical biomarker changes. We analyzed cross-sectional data from non-demented, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and LOAD participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) with PET imaging using Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB, n = 99) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis (n = 403) for amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and total tau. We assessed the relationship of CSF and PiB biomarkers and family history of dementia, as well as parent gender effects. In the larger analysis of CSF biomarkers, we assessed diagnosis groups individually. In the overall sample, CSF Aβ, tau/Aβ ratio, and global PiB uptake were significantly different between family history positive and negative groups, with markers of increased AD burden associated with a positive maternal family history of dementia. Moreover, a maternal family history of dementia was associated with significantly greater PiB Aβ load in the brain in the parietal cortex, precuneus, and sensorimotor cortex. Individuals with MCI positive for a maternal family history of dementia had significantly more markers of AD pathophysiology than individuals with no family history of dementia. A family history of dementia is associated with AD-typical biomarker changes. These biomarker associations are most robust in individuals with a maternal family history, suggesting that a maternally inherited factor influences AD risk. PMID:22669011

  16. Cancer family history reporting: impact of method and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; Remy, Amber; DeSimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-06-01

    Family history is one the greatest risk factors for disease and one of the most important informational tools in medical genetics for the purpose of diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention and treatment. However, research is needed on the comparability of different methods of cancer family history assessment and the influence of psychosocial factors in family history reports. The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals had discrepancies between written and interview reports of cancer family history and the role of psychosocial factors in these discrepancies. Oncology patients (n=104) were administered a survey to assess psychosocial factors (i.e., information-seeking, worry, perceived risk, and health literacy) and were asked to provide family history in a written and an interview form. Randomization determined which form individuals received first. No differences in the amount of missing data or the amount of unspecified data were noted between the written and interview method. Psychosocial factors did not differentiate between those who had discrepancies in family history reports and those who did not have discrepancies in family history reports; although there was a trend for those with lower literacy and those who were blunters to be more discrepant on type of cancer diagnosis. In sum, this preliminary study indicates that written and interview methods of family history assessment for first degree relatives may be used interchangeably. The ability to use written methods will facilitate collection of basic family history information in the oncology clinic. PMID:17318453

  17. Data-based considerations for electronic family health history applications.

    PubMed

    Peace, Jane; Valdez, Rupa Sheth; Lutz, Kristin F

    2012-01-01

    Family health history contains important information about the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to patterns of health and illness in families. Applications for collecting, managing, and analyzing family health history could be improved if their design were informed by an understanding of how consumers think about and report family health history. This article presents a descriptive analysis of themes from family health history interviews that have implications for development, selection, and use of family health history tools. Important themes included ways in which family is defined, including nonbiological family members and pets; ideas about health and disease, including degree of exposure and individual perceptions; and barriers to reporting family health history, including large biological families and uncertainty. Some themes identified (eg, uncertainty) have been recognized previously and continue to be important considerations. Other themes identified, such as perceptions about severity of illness or conditions and causal relationships, are newly recognized and may have implications for nurses and other providers designing, selecting, and using family health history applications. PMID:21915045

  18. Family portraits—a method of recording family history

    PubMed Central

    Cormack, J. J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Family doctors are particularly concerned with family relationships. Family relationships are generally poorly recorded in general practice in the traditional records. Conversion to A4 folders in the practice provided an opportunity to develop a diagramatic representation of family structure and thus create for each patient a family `portrait.' PMID:1195225

  19. Affective instability, family history of mood disorders, and neurodevelopmental disturbance.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, Howard; Bredemeier, Keith; Boden, M Tyler; Thompson, Renee J; Milanak, Melissa

    2011-07-01

    The association between affective instability and both family history of mood disorders and signs of neurodevelopmental disturbance was examined in a sample of 303 adults. Affective instability was measured using the borderline personality disorder "affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood" diagnostic criterion as assessed dimensionally using the Personality Disorder Interview--IV. Participants were interviewed concerning family history of mood disorders, with family history coded using the Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria. Minor physical anomalies, inconsistent hand use, and dermatoglyphic asymmetries were used to index neurodevelopmental disturbance. Affective instability was associated with elevated rates of family history of mood disorders, particularly among individuals who exhibited inconsistent hand use and greater minor physical anomalies. These associations could not be accounted for by shared variance with age, gender, negative affect, or personal history of mood disorders. PMID:22448768

  20. Family History Is a Risk Factor for COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hokanson, John E.; Lynch, David A.; Washko, George R.; Make, Barry J.; Crapo, James D.; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that family history is a risk factor for COPD, but have not accounted for family history of smoking. Therefore, we sought to identify the effects of family history of smoking and family history of COPD on COPD susceptibility. Methods: We compared 821 patients with COPD to 776 control smokers from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) Study. Questionnaires captured parental histories of smoking and COPD, as well as childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Socioeconomic status was defined by educational achievement. Results: Parental history of smoking (85.5% case patients, 82.9% control subjects) was more common than parental history of COPD (43.0% case patients, 30.8% control subjects). In a logistic regression model, parental history of COPD (OR, 1.73; P < .0001) and educational level (OR, 0.48 for some college vs no college; P < .0001) were significant predictors of COPD, but parental history of smoking and childhood ETS exposure were not significant. The population-attributable risk from COPD family history was 18.6%. Patients with COPD with a parental history had more severe disease, with lower lung function, worse quality of life, and more frequent exacerbations. There were nonsignificant trends for more severe emphysema and airway disease on quantitative chest CT scans. Conclusions: Family history of COPD is a strong risk factor for COPD, independent of family history of smoking, personal lifetime smoking, or childhood ETS exposure. Although further studies are required to identify genetic variants that influence COPD susceptibility, clinicians should question all smokers, especially those with known or suspected COPD, regarding COPD family history. PMID:21310839

  1. A Course in Latin American Family History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmori, Diana

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliographic review essay on Latin American families. The essay is presented in three major categories: (1) the family and enterprise; (2) the family--different regions, time periods, and socioeconomic conditions and (3) family networks. Entries include historical literature and articles in the English language, films, and novels. (DB)

  2. Genealogy and Family History in the Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, David G.

    1985-01-01

    Addresses public and scholarly interest in the fields of family history and genealogy. Highlights include attitudes before and after publication of Alex Haley's "Roots," library literature on genealogy, history of the family as a field of study, and academic library collection development and services. Twenty-five references are provided. (EJS)

  3. Understanding family member suicide narratives by investigating family history.

    PubMed

    Ratnarajah, Dorothy; Maple, Myfanwy; Minichiello, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The complex family environments in which a suicide death had previously occurred were explored in a qualitative study of narratives of suicide-bereaved participants. The participants searched for reasons why the suicide occurred in their family. Family patterning stories and the context of the environment in which the suicide death occurred provided an additional depth of meaning into the relational aspects of the family. Fractured families emerged as an important theme. Shared in the narratives were stories of conditions within the family that may have contributed to vulnerability towards persistent negative feelings about their lives, their family, and their future. The study also identifies the strengths of family culture that led to resilience in the suicide bereaved. These stories highlight the importance of support for those bereaved by the suicide of a close family member and the issues that places people in vulnerable situations that perhaps may explain the increased risk of suicide for those bereaved family members. PMID:25084708

  4. The context of collecting family health history: examining definitions of family and family communication about health among African American women.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Tess; Seo, Joann; Griffith, Julia; Baxter, Melanie; James, Aimee; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2015-04-01

    Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on family health history discussion and collection, however, has predominantly involved White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women-16 with a history of cancer-analyzed participants' definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of family health history information. Family was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g., biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g., sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g., trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to "own" or "claim" a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal family health history records. Results suggest family health history initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of family health history information. PMID:25730634

  5. Talking (or Not) about Family Health History in Families of Latino Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Rosalie; Rodríguez, Vivian; Quillin, John; Gyure, Maria; Bodurtha, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Although individuals recognize the importance of knowing their family's health history for their own health, relatively few people (e.g., less than a third in one national survey) collect this type of information. This study examines the rates of family communication about family health history of cancer, and predictors of communication in a…

  6. Interrogating Identity and Social Contexts through "Critical Family History"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John; Sleeter, Christine; Kumashiro, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Tracing one's family genealogy is a complex process that requires situating a family's narratives within a historical context. This article reviews the use of critical family history research in an undergraduate Asian American studies course to examine not only the diversity and experiences of Asian Americans but also the unspoken narratives that…

  7. Automated Extraction of Family History Information from Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Robert; Pakhomov, Serguei; Chen, Elizabeth S.; Winden, Tamara J.; Carter, Elizabeth W.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite increased functionality for obtaining family history in a structured format within electronic health record systems, clinical notes often still contain this information. We developed and evaluated an Unstructured Information Management Application (UIMA)-based natural language processing (NLP) module for automated extraction of family history information with functionality for identifying statements, observations (e.g., disease or procedure), relative or side of family with attributes (i.e., vital status, age of diagnosis, certainty, and negation), and predication (“indicator phrases”), the latter of which was used to establish relationships between observations and family member. The family history NLP system demonstrated F-scores of 66.9, 92.4, 82.9, 57.3, 97.7, and 61.9 for detection of family history statements, family member identification, observation identification, negation identification, vital status, and overall extraction of the predications between family members and observations, respectively. While the system performed well for detection of family history statements and predication constituents, further work is needed to improve extraction of certainty and temporal modifications. PMID:25954443

  8. Association Between Family History and Hypertension Among Chinese Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Wang, Jianhua; Wu, Lei; Wang, Yiyan; Zhang, Di; Zeng, Jing; Yao, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the association between family history and prevalence of hypertension among Chinese community elderly, and also explore the gender difference. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Miyun district of Beijing, in 2014. The family history information was obtained from each subject and was divided into 3 categories, no family history (FH0), 1 generation of first-degree relatives with hypertension (FH1), and 2 generations of first-degree relatives with hypertension (FH2). The prevalence of hypertension was 53.0%. Participants with positive family history had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (67.5%, 95% CI: 63.3–71.7) than those without (47.9%, 95% CI: 45.2–50.6), and even among participants without hypertension, the blood pressure levels were higher with positive FH. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a significantly linear-trend increase in hypertension according to family history of first degree relative numbers was observed in both genders (P for trend < 0.001). This study suggests that family history had not only a significant but also graded association with hypertension and with blood pressure levels, and this association exists even among those without hypertension. PMID:26632912

  9. A Family History Study of Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a childhood-onset disorder often described as a mild variant of autism. Although classified as a distinct disorder in the DSM-IV, its overlap with autism continues to be a matter of ongoing debate. While the family genetic origins of autism are well established, few studies have investigated this topic in AS using current…

  10. Family Structure History and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    As patterns of union formation and dissolution in adult lives become complex, the living arrangements of American children are becoming increasingly fluid. With a sample (N = 12,843) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study attempted to capture this complexity by mapping out children's family structure histories…

  11. Influence of Family History of Cancer on Engagement in Protective Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amuta, Ann O.; Barry, Adam E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 1580 people die from cancer each day. Family history is highlighted as an especially important indicator of cancer risk. Purpose: To determine whether having a family member with cancer influences preventive behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical activity, and screenings). Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis…

  12. Impact of Family History in Persons With Dual Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Camille S.; Bennett, Melanie E.; Bellack, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined relationships among family history of alcohol, drug, and psychiatric problems and substance use severity, interpersonal relationships, and service use in individuals with dual diagnosis. Methods Data were collected with the family history section of the Addiction Severity Index administered as part of three studies of individuals with dual disorders (N=413). Participants were categorized into family history risk groups for each problem domain based on the number of first and second degree relatives with alcohol, drug, or psychiatric problems. Results Rates of alcohol, drug, and psychiatric problems were high across family member categories and highest overall for siblings. Over two-thirds of the sample was categorized in the high-risk group in the alcohol problem domain, almost half of the sample was categorized as high-risk in the drug problem domain, and over a third of the sample was categorized as high-risk in the psychiatric problem domain. Across problem domains, individuals in the high-risk group reported more relationship problems with parents and siblings and higher rates of lifetime emotional, physical, and sexual abuse than did those in the low or moderate-risk groups. Conclusions Family history of alcohol, drug, and psychiatric problems is associated with greater rates of poor family relationships and history of abuse. Assessment of these different forms of family history in multiple family members can aid treatment providers in identifying individuals with dual disorders who may benefit from trauma-informed care as part of their overall mental health and substance abuse treatment services. PMID:23538687

  13. CXCR4 pathway associated with family history of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Qing; Han, Jiali; Widlund, Hans R.; Correll, Mick; Wang, Yaoyu E.; Quackenbush, John; Mihm, Martin C.; Canales, Alvaro Laga; Wu, Shaowei; Golub, Todd; Hoshida, Yujin; Hunter, David J.; Murphy, George; Kupper, Thomas S.; Qureshi, Abrar A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Genetic predisposition plays a major role in the etiology of melanoma, but known genetic markers only account for a limited fraction of family history-associated melanoma cases. Expression microarrays have offered the opportunity to identify further genomic profiles correlated with family history of melanoma. We aimed to distinguish mRNA expression signatures between melanoma cases with and without a family history of melanoma. Methods Based on the Nurses’ Health Study, family history was defined as having one or more first-degree family members diagnosed with melanoma. Melanoma diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing pathology reports and tumor blocks were collected by mail from across the United States. Genomic interrogation was accomplished through evaluating expression profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 78 primary cutaneous invasive melanoma cases, on either a 6K or whole-genome (24K) Illumina gene chip. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was performed for each batch to determine the differentially enriched pathways and key contributing genes. Results The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) pathway was consistently up-regulated within cases of familial melanoma in both platforms. Leading edge analysis showed four genes from the CXCR4 pathway, including MAPK1, PLCG1, CRK, and PTK2, were among the core members that contributed to the enrichment of this pathway. There was no association between the enrichment of CXCR4 pathway and NRAS, BRAF mutation, or Breslow thickness of the primary melanoma cases. Conclusions We found that the CXCR4 pathway might constitute a novel susceptibility pathway associated with family history of melanoma in first-degree relatives. PMID:24158781

  14. Notes for a cultural history of family therapy.

    PubMed

    Beels, C Christian

    2002-01-01

    The official history of family therapy describes its beginnings as a daring technical and philosophical departure from traditional individual treatment in the 1960s, inspired especially by the "system thinking" of Gregory Bateson. This celebrated origin story needs to be supplemented with a longer and larger history of both practice and thought about the family, and that is the subject of this article. The longer history goes back to the founding of social work by Mary Richmond, of pragmatism by William James, and of the organic view of social systems intervention by John Dewey. Seen against this background, family therapy is, among other things, a consequence of the development of persistent elements of American professional culture, experience, and philosophy. The taking of this historical-anthropological view discloses also the origins of two other histories that have made their contribution to the development of family therapy: a science of observing communication processes that starts with Edward Sapir and leads to contemporary conversation analysis, and a history of mesmerism in the United States that culminates in Milton Erickson and his followers. PMID:11924091

  15. Exploring Gaps of Family History Documentation in EHR for Precision Medicine -A Case Study of Familial Hypercholesterolemia Ascertainment

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Wang, Yanshan; Ihrke, Donna; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    In the era of precision medicine, accurately identifying familial conditions is crucial for providing target treatment. However, it is challenging to identify familial conditions without detailed family history information. In this work, we studied the documentation of family history of premature cardiovascular disease and hypercholesterolemia. The information on patients’ family history of stroke within the Patient-provided information (PPI) forms was compared with the information gathered by clinicians in clinical notes. The agreement between PPI and clinical notes on absence of family history information in PPI was substantially higher compared to presence of family history. PMID:27570664

  16. Inferring Gene Family Histories in Yeast Identifies Lineage Specific Expansions

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Ryan M.; Money, Daniel; Lovell, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    The complement of genes found in the genome is a balance between gene gain and gene loss. Knowledge of the specific genes that are gained and lost over evolutionary time allows an understanding of the evolution of biological functions. Here we use new evolutionary models to infer gene family histories across complete yeast genomes; these models allow us to estimate the relative genome-wide rates of gene birth, death, innovation and extinction (loss of an entire family) for the first time. We show that the rates of gene family evolution vary both between gene families and between species. We are also able to identify those families that have experienced rapid lineage specific expansion/contraction and show that these families are enriched for specific functions. Moreover, we find that families with specific functions are repeatedly expanded in multiple species, suggesting the presence of common adaptations and that these family expansions/contractions are not random. Additionally, we identify potential specialisations, unique to specific species, in the functions of lineage specific expanded families. These results suggest that an important mechanism in the evolution of genome content is the presence of lineage-specific gene family changes. PMID:24921666

  17. Family History in Patients Who Present with Functional Articulation Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Kamal, Sana Mohammed; Qa'dan, Wa'el Nafith; Haj-Tas, Maisa Atef

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine family history of functional articulation disorders (FAD) among Jordanian patients who present with FAD, as well as to investigate the relation of other factors related to the disorder (age, gender, genetic connection between parents, sounds affected, and type of disorder). A convenience sample of 45 patients (ages…

  18. Friend or foe? Evolutionary history of glycoside hydrolase family 32 genes encoding for sucrolytic activity in fungi and its implications for plant-fungal symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Parrent, Jeri Lynn; James, Timothy Y; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Taylor, Andrew FS

    2009-01-01

    Background Many fungi are obligate biotrophs of plants, growing in live plant tissues, gaining direct access to recently photosynthesized carbon. Photosynthate within plants is transported from source to sink tissues as sucrose, which is hydrolyzed by plant glycosyl hydrolase family 32 enzymes (GH32) into its constituent monosaccharides to meet plant cellular demands. A number of plant pathogenic fungi also use GH32 enzymes to access plant-derived sucrose, but less is known about the sucrose utilization ability of mutualistic and commensal plant biotrophic fungi, such as mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. The aim of this study was to explore the distribution and abundance of GH32 genes in fungi to understand how sucrose utilization is structured within and among major ecological guilds and evolutionary lineages. Using bioinformatic and PCR-based analyses, we tested for GH32 gene presence in all available fungal genomes and an additional 149 species representing a broad phylogenetic and ecological range of biotrophic fungi. Results We detected 9 lineages of GH32 genes in fungi, 4 of which we describe for the first time. GH32 gene number in fungal genomes ranged from 0–12. Ancestral state reconstruction of GH32 gene abundance showed a strong correlation with nutritional mode, and gene family expansion was observed in several clades of pathogenic filamentous Ascomycota species. GH32 gene number was negatively correlated with animal pathogenicity and positively correlated with plant biotrophy, with the notable exception of mycorrhizal taxa. Few mycorrhizal species were found to have GH32 genes as compared to other guilds of plant-associated fungi, such as pathogens, endophytes and lichen-forming fungi. GH32 genes were also more prevalent in the Ascomycota than in the Basidiomycota. Conclusion We found a strong signature of both ecological strategy and phylogeny on GH32 gene number in fungi. These data suggest that plant biotrophic fungi exhibit a wide range of ability

  19. Correlates of Family Health History Discussions between College Students and Physicians: Does Family Cancer History Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Sosa, Erica T.; Hochhalter, Angela K.; Covin, Julie; Ory, Marcia G.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2011-01-01

    Effective communication between young adults and their healthcare providers can contribute to early detection of risk for developing cancer and establishment of lifelong habits for engagement in healthcare and health promotion behaviors. Our objectives were to examine factors influencing family health history discussions between college students…

  20. Family history and oral health: findings from the Dunedin Study

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Dara M; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Poulton, Richie

    2011-01-01

    Context The effects of the oral health status of one generation on that of the next within families are unclear. Objective To determine whether parental oral health history is a risk factor for oral disease. Methods Oral examination and interview data were collected during the age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study. Parental data were also collected on this occasion. The sample was divided into two familial-risk groups for caries/tooth loss (high risk and low risk) based on parents’ self-reported history of tooth loss at the age-32 assessment interview. Main outcome measures Probands’ dental caries and tooth loss status at age 32, together with lifelong dental caries trajectory (age 5–32). Results Caries/tooth-loss risk analysis was conducted for 640 proband-parents groups. Referent groups were the low-familial-risk groups. After controlling for confounding factors (sex, episodic use of dental services, socio-economic status and plaque trajectory), the prevalence ratio (PR) for having lost 1+ teeth by age 32 for the high-familial-risk group was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05, 1.88) and the rate ratio for DMFS at age 32 was 1.41 (95% CI 1.24, 1.60). In the high-familial-risk group, the PR of following a high caries trajectory was 2.05 (95% CI 1.37, 3.06). Associations were strongest when information was available about both parents’ oral health. Nonetheless, when information was available for one parent only, associations were significant for some proband outcomes. Conclusions People with poor oral health tend to have parents with poor oral health. Family/parental history of oral health is a valid representation of the intricacies of the shared genetic and environmental factors that contribute to an individual’s oral health status. Associations were strongest when data from both parents can be obtained. PMID:22022823

  1. Impact of national guidelines on family history breast cancer surveillance.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, J D; Garrett, R M; Snaddon, L; Longmuir, M; Bradshaw, N; Watt, C; George, W D; Wilson, C R; Doughty, J C; Stallard, S; Reid, I; Murday, V; Davidson, R

    2011-11-01

    The breast cancer risk of women already under family history surveillance was accurately assessed according to national guidelines in an attempt to rationalize the service. Women attending two breast units in Glasgow between November 2003 and February 2005 were included. One thousand and five women under annual surveillance were assessed and had their relatives diagnoses verified. Four hundred and ninety-seven women were at significantly increased risk and eligible for follow-up. Five hundred and eight (50%) women attending were not eligible for family history surveillance, and 498 (98%) of these women accepted discharge. In conclusion, national guidelines have helped to more clearly define women who should undergo surveillance. This avoids unnecessary and potentially harmful routine investigations, and the service has been improved. PMID:22089040

  2. Family Activities for Fun and Good Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Partner Family Activities for Fun and Good Health Being physically active with your family is a ... or grandchild, you’ll be rewarded with improved health and time spent together. Family gatherings are the ...

  3. The Context of Collecting Family Health History: Examining Definitions of Family and Family Communication About Health Among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    THOMPSON, TESS; SEO, JOANN; GRIFFITH, JULIA; BAXTER, MELANIE; JAMES, AIMEE; KAPHINGST, KIMBERLY A.

    2015-01-01

    Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history (FHH) information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on FHH discussion and collection, however, has involved predominantly White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women, 16 with a history of cancer, analyzed participants’ definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of FHH information. “Family” was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g. biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g. sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g. trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to “own” or “claim” a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal FHH records. Results suggest FHH initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of FHH information. PMID:25730634

  4. Creating Chicago History: Making Outreach Craft Activities Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to having a traveling outreach activity for a museum, a craft can seem like the perfect solution. It can seemingly be all things at once--educational, quick and fun. But, if poorly constructed, crafts can also have serious fallbacks. Using the Chicago History Museum and the Millennium Park Family Fun Festival as a case study, this…

  5. Wildfire: A Family Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    This family activity book provides information for discovering and demonstrating the science of fire--how firefighters decide which fires to let burn and which to put out, how fires start and spread, and what to do when they flare up. Chapters include: (1) "A Game about Wildfire"; (2) "Create a Fire Safety Commercial"; (3) "Make a Fire Escape…

  6. Asteroid Family Identification: History and State of the Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knežević, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    The history of asteroid families, from their discovery back in 1918, until the present time, is briefly reviewed. Two threads have been followed: on the development of the theories of asteroid motion and the computation of proper elements, and on the methods of classification themselves. Three distinct periods can be distinguished: the first one until mid-1930s, devoted to discovery and first attempts towards understanding of the properties of families; the second one, until early 1980s, characterized by a growing understanding of their importance as key evidence of the collisional evolution; the third one, characterized by an explosion of work and results, comprises the contemporary era. An assessment is given of the state-of-the-art and possible directions for the future effort, focusing on the dynamical studies, and on improvements of classification methods to cope with ever increasing data set.

  7. Coevolutionary feedbacks between family interactions and life history.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Dimitri; Kölliker, Mathias

    2013-11-01

    Families with parental care show a parent-offspring conflict over the amount of parental investment. To date, the resolution of this conflict was modeled as being driven by either purely within-brood or between-brood competition. In reality the partitioning of parental resources within- versus between-broods is an evolving life history trait, which can be affected by parent-offspring interactions. This coevolutionary feedback between life history and family interactions may influence the evolutionary process and outcome of parent-offspring coadaptation. We used a genetic framework for a simulation model where we allowed parental parity to coevolve with traits that determine parental investment. The model included unlinked loci for clutch size, parental sensitivity, baseline provisioning, and offspring begging. The simulation showed that tight coadaptation of parent and offspring traits only occurred in iteroparous outcomes whereas semelparous outcomes were characterized by weak coadaptation. When genetic variation in clutch size was unrestricted in the ancestral population, semelparity and maximal begging with poor coadaptation evolved throughout. Conversely, when genetic variation was limited to iteroparous conditions, and/or when parental sensitivity was treated as an evolutionarily fixed sensory bias, coadapted outcomes were more likely. Our findings show the influence of a feedback between parity, coadaptation, and conflict on the evolution of parent-offspring interactions. PMID:24152003

  8. Connecting Family Learning and Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Mary

    2009-01-01

    In Ireland family learning and active citizenship has not been linked together until 2006. It was while the Clare Family Learning Project was involved in a family learning EU learning network project, that a suggestion to create a new partnership project linking both areas was made and FACE IT! was born (Families and Active Citizenship…

  9. Temperature, activity, and lizard life histories

    SciTech Connect

    Adolph, S.C.; Porter, W.P. )

    1993-08-01

    Lizard life-history characteristics vary widely among species and populations. Most authors seek adaptive or phylogenetic explanations for life-history patterns, which are usually presumed to reflect genetic differences. However, lizard life histories are often phenotypically plastic, varying in response to temperature, food availability, and other environmental factors. Despite the importance of temperature to lizard ecology and physiology, its effects on life histories have received relatively little attention. The authors present a theoretical model predicting the proximate consequences of the thermal environment for lizard life histories. Temperature, by affecting activity times, can cause variation in annual survival rate and fecundity, leading to a negative correlation between survival rate and fecundity among populations in different thermal environments. Thus, physiological and evolutionary models predict the same qualitative pattern of life-history variation in lizards. They tested their model with published life-history data from field studies of the lizard Sceloporus undulatus, using climate and geographical data to reconstruct estimated annual activity seasons. Among populations, annual activity times were negatively correlated with annual survival rate and positively correlated with annual fecundity. Proximate effects of temperature may confound comparative analyses of lizard life-history variation and should be included in future evolutionary models. 125 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Writing Activities in the World History Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Harry

    1982-01-01

    Examples of types of writing activities, including skill-drill, story pieces, scenario writing, and a letter to the editor, for use in secondary world history classes, are presented. A social studies writing model is also included. (RM)

  11. The promiscuous evolutionary history of the family Bromoviridae.

    PubMed

    Codoñer, Francisco M; Elena, Santiago F

    2008-07-01

    Recombination and segment reassortment are important contributors to the standing genetic variation of RNA viruses and are often involved in the genesis of new, emerging viruses. This study explored the role played by these two processes in the evolutionary radiation of the plant virus family Bromoviridae. The evolutionary history of this family has been explored previously using standard molecular phylogenetic methods, but incongruences have been found among the trees inferred from different gene sequences. This would not be surprising if RNA exchange was a common event, as it is well known that recombination and reassortment of genomes are poorly described by standard phylogenetic methods. In an attempt to reconcile these discrepancies, this study first explored the extent of segment reassortment and found that it was common at the origin of the bromoviruses and cucumoviruses and at least at the origin of alfalfa mosaic virus, American plum line pattern virus and citrus leaf rugose virus. Secondly, recombination analyses were performed on each of the three genomic RNAs and it was found that recombination was very common in members of the genera Bromovirus, Cucumovirus and Ilarvirus. Several cases of recombination involving species from different genera were also identified. Finally, a phylogenetic network was constructed reflecting these genetic exchanges. The network confirmed the taxonomic status of the different genera within the family, despite the phylogenetic noise introduced by genetic exchange. PMID:18559945

  12. Asteroid Families - History and State of the Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic, Zoran

    2015-08-01

    I first briefly review the history of asteroid families, from their discovery by K.Hirayama back in 1918, until the present times. In doing this, I follow two threads - one that pertains to the development of the theories of asteroid motion and the computation of proper elements that serve as parameters for classification of asteroids into families, and the other concerning the methods for classification themselves. Three distinct periods can be distingiushed in this respect: the first one, that lasts roughly to the mid-fifties of the 20th century, devoted to discovery and first attempts towards understanding of the origins and of the properties of families; the second one, lasting until nineties, which was characterized by a gradual increase of interest for the families and growing understanding of their importance as key evidence of the solar system collisional evolution, and which prepared explosion of work and results in the subsequent, third period, a contemporary era, that lasts until nowadays.Next, I give a personal view of the current situation in the field, describing the most important recent achievements and still open problems, in an attempt to summarize state-of-the-art and possible directions for the future effort. Here, because of the huge amount of work done in the past, focus is reduced mostly to the dynamical studies, impact of chaos and non gravitational effects that entered the "big picture" in the last decades, modifications and improvements of classification methods to cope with ever increasing data set, and similar.All this is illustrated with a number of examples and results.

  13. History, Pathogenesis, and Management of Familial Gastric Cancer: Original Study of John XXIII's Family

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Giovanni; Roncalli, Fabrizio; Marrelli, Daniele; Carneiro, Fátima; Roviello, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Background. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is associated with the E-cadherin germline mutations, but genetic determinants have not been identified for familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. The guidelines for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer are clearly established; however, there are no defined recommendations for the management of familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. Methods. In this study we describe Pope John XXIII's pedigree that harboured gastric cancer as well as six other family members. Family history was analysed according to the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium criteria, and gastric tumours were classified in accord with the last Japanese guidelines. Results. Seven out of 109 members in this pedigree harboured gastric cancer, affecting two consecutive generations. John XXIII's clinical tumour (cTN) was classified as cT4bN3a (IV stage). In two other cases, gastric carcinomas were classified as intestinal histotype and staged as pT1bN0 and pT2N2, respectively. Conclusions. Pope John XXIII's family presents a strong aggregation for gastric cancer affecting almost seven members; it spreads through two consecutive generations. In absence of defined genetic causes and considering the increased risk of gastric cancer's development in these families, as well as the high mortality rates and advanced stages, we propose an intensive surveillance protocol for asymptomatic members. PMID:23484115

  14. Family History Fails to Detect the Majority of Children with High Capillary Blood Total Cholesterol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Dennis M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    To examine the predictive value of family history in detecting children with high blood cholesterol, finger-stick screening was done in children (n=1,118) ages 9-10 with parental and grandparental history of cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Findings showed that screening only children with positive family histories will leave most problems…

  15. Active Learning in American History Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Describes the activities of a high school class that discovered the joy of history through experiential learning. Students learned traditional military tactics for their unit on the French and Indian Wars, and tried to apply them to a nearby woods. Includes similar activities for other historic periods. (MJP)

  16. The additive effect on suicidality of family history of suicidal behavior and early traumatic experiences.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Castroman, J; Guillaume, S; Olié, E; Jaussent, I; Baca-García, E; Courtet, P

    2015-01-01

    Family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood abuse are reported risk factors for suicide attempts and suicide completion. We aim to quantify the additive effect of family history of suicidal behavior and different subtypes of childhood abuse on suicidal behavior. We examined a sample of 496 suicide attempters, comparing individuals with family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood (physical or sexual) abuse, individuals with family history of suicidal behavior only, individuals with history of early traumatic experiences only, and individuals with none of these two risk factors with regards to suicidal features. An additive effect was found for the age at the first attempt in suicide attempters with both family history of suicidal behavior and either physical or sexual abuse. No significant interactions were found between family history of suicidal behavior and childhood trauma in relation to any characteristics of suicidal behavior. Subjects presenting family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse attempt suicide earlier in life than subjects with just one or none of them, particularly if they were sexually abused. Other suicidality indexes were only partially or not associated with this combination of risk factors. A careful assessment of patients with both family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse could help to prevent future suicide attempts, particularly in young people. PMID:25259671

  17. Using decision analytic methods to assess the utility of family history tools.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Anupam; Morris, Jill

    2003-02-01

    Family history may be a useful tool for identifying people at increased risk of disease and for developing targeted interventions for individuals at higher-than-average risk. This article addresses the issue of how to examine the utility of a family history tool for public health and preventive medicine. We propose the use of a decision analytic framework for the assessment of a family history tool and outline the major elements of a decision analytic approach, including analytic perspective, costs, outcome measurements, and data needed to assess the value of a family history tool. We describe the use of sensitivity analysis to address uncertainty in parameter values and imperfect information. To illustrate the use of decision analytic methods to assess the value of family history, we present an example analysis based on using family history of colorectal cancer to improve rates of colorectal cancer screening. PMID:12568827

  18. Back to the future: reflections on the history of the future of family medicine.

    PubMed

    Doohan, Noemi C; Endres, Jill; Koehn, Nerissa; Miller, John; Scherger, Joseph E; Martin, James; Devoe, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    These are historic times for family medicine. The profession is moving beyond the visionary blueprint of the Future of Family Medicine (FFM) report while working to harness the momentum created by the FFM movement. Preparing for, and leading through, the next transformative wave of change (FFM version 2.0) will require the engagement of multigenerational and multidisciplinary visionaries who bring wisdom from diverse experiences. Active group reflection on the past will potentiate the collective work being done to best chart the future. Historical competency is critically important for family medicine's future. This article describes the historical context of the development and launch of the FFM report, emphasizing the professional activism that preceded and followed it. This article is intended to spark intergenerational dialog by providing a multigenerational reflection on the history of FFM and the evolution that has occurred in family medicine over the past decade. Such intergenerational conversations enable our elders to share wisdom with our youth, while allowing our discipline to visualize history through the eyes of future generations. PMID:25381082

  19. Neural Correlates of Impulsivity in Healthy Males and Females with Family Histories of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    DeVito, Elise E; Meda, Shashwath A; Jiantonio, Rachel; Potenza, Marc N; Krystal, John H; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2013-01-01

    Individuals family-history positive (FHP) for alcoholism have increased risk for the disorder, which may be mediated by intermediate behavioral traits such as impulsivity. Given the sex differences in the risk for and clinical presentation of addictive disorders, risk for addiction may be differentially mediated by impulsivity within FHP males and females. FHP (N=28) and family-history negative (FHN, N=31) healthy, non-substance-abusing adults completed an fMRI Go/No-Go task and were assessed on impulsivity and alcohol use. Effects of family history and sex were investigated as were associations between neural correlates of impulse control and out-of-scanner measures of impulsivity and alcohol use. FHP individuals showed greater activation in the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus during successful inhibitions, an effect that was driven primarily by FHP males. Higher self-reported impulsivity and behavioral discounting impulsivity, but not alcohol use measures, were associated with greater BOLD signal in the region that differentiated the FHP and FHN groups. Impulsivity factors were associated with alcohol use measures across the FHP and FHN groups. These findings are consistent with increased risk for addiction among FHP individuals being conferred through disrupted function within neural systems important for impulse control. PMID:23584260

  20. The prognostic value of family history among patients with urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Egbers, Lieke; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Aben, Katja K; Alfred Witjes, J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Vermeulen, Sita H

    2015-03-01

    A history of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) in first-degree relatives increases UBC risk by twofold. The influence of positive family history on UBC prognosis is unknown. Here, we investigated association of first-degree UBC family history with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of UBC patients. Detailed clinical data of 1,465 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and 250 muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancer (MIBC) patients, diagnosed from 1995 to 2010, were collected through medical file review. Competing risk analyses were used to compare recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of NMIBC patients according to self-reported UBC family history. Overall survival in MIBC patients was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The added value of family history in prediction of NMIBC prognosis was quantified with Harrell's concordance-index. Hundred (6.8%) NMIBC and 14 (5.6%) MIBC patients reported UBC in first-degree relatives. Positive family history was statistically significantly associated with smaller tumor size and non-significantly with more favorable distribution of other tumor characteristics. In univariable analyses, positive family history correlated with longer RFS (p = 0.11) and PFS (p = 0.04). Hazard ratios for positive vs. negative family history after adjustment for clinicopathological characteristics were 0.75 (95% CI = 0.53-1.07) and 0.45 (95% CI = 0.18-1.12) for RFS and PFS, respectively. Five familial and 48 sporadic MIBC patients (Kaplan-Meier 10-year risk: 41% and 25%) died within 10 years. Family history did not improve the c-index of prediction models. This study shows that a first-degree family history of UBC is not clearly associated with NMIBC prognosis. Family history does not aid in prediction of NMIBC recurrence or progression. PMID:24978702

  1. Germline BAP1 Mutational Landscape of Asbestos-Exposed Malignant Mesothelioma Patients with Family History of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohar, Jill A; Cheung, Mitchell; Talarchek, Jacqueline; Howard, Suzanne E; Howard, Timothy D; Hesdorffer, Mary; Peng, Hongzhuang; Rauscher, Frank J; Testa, Joseph R

    2016-01-15

    Heritable mutations in the BAP1 tumor suppressor gene predispose individuals to mesothelioma and other cancers. However, a large-scale assessment of germline BAP1 mutation incidence and associated clinical features in mesothelioma patients with a family history of cancer has not been reported. Therefore, we examined the germline BAP1 mutation status of 150 mesothelioma patients with a family history of cancer, 50 asbestos-exposed control individuals with a family history of cancers other than mesothelioma, and 153 asbestos-exposed individuals without familial cancer. No BAP1 alterations were found in control cohorts, but were identified in nine of 150 mesothelioma cases (6%) with a family history of cancer. Alterations among these cases were characterized by both missense and frameshift mutations, and enzymatic activity of BAP1 missense mutants was decreased compared with wild-type BAP1. Furthermore, BAP1 mutation carriers developed mesothelioma at an earlier age that was more often peritoneal than pleural (five of nine) and exhibited improved long-term survival compared to mesothelioma patients without BAP1 mutations. Moreover, many tumors harboring BAP1 germline mutations were associated with BAP1 syndrome, including mesothelioma and ocular/cutaneous melanomas, as well as renal, breast, lung, gastric, and basal cell carcinomas. Collectively, these findings suggest that mesothelioma patients presenting with a family history of cancer should be considered for BAP1 genetic testing to identify those individuals who might benefit from further screening and routine monitoring for the purpose of early detection and intervention. PMID:26719535

  2. Bringing the History of American Family Law into the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossberg, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses three means for incorporating the study of U.S. family law within secondary and college classrooms: (1) studying the periods of family law; (2) exploring the themes of family law, such as judicial dominance; and (3) learning about particular episodes of family law, such as judicial construction of a particular doctrine. (CMK)

  3. Family Structure History: Links to Relationship Formation Behaviors in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Schelar, Erin; Manlove, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Using data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 4,667), we examined the intergenerational link between parental family structure history and relationship formation in young adulthood. We investigated (a) whether parental family structure history is associated with young adults' own relationship formation…

  4. Suicide Attempts and Family History of Suicide in Three Psychiatric Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremeau, Fabien; Staner, Luc; Duval, Fabrice; Correa, Humberto; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Darreye, Angelina; Czobor, Pal; Dessoubrais, Cecile; Macher, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The influence of a family history of suicide on suicide attempt rate and characteristics in depression, schizophrenia, and opioid dependence was examined. One hundred sixty inpatients with unipolar depression, 160 inpatients with schizophrenia, and 160 opioid-dependent patients were interviewed. Overall, a family history of suicide was associated…

  5. First-Year Medical Students' Knowledge of, Attitudes Toward, and Personal Histories of Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullinane, Paula M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Surveyed 370 first-year medical students concerning family violence of which 38% reported a history of personal abuse; only one-third of these were well-informed about family violence. Women felt more strongly than men about need for violence education. Students reporting a history of violence more strongly favored violence education and advocacy…

  6. Writing the Social History of One's Family...Revised Guidelines for Faculty Members and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard; Hareven, Tamara K.

    The Anonymous Families History Project of the University of Minnesota developed guidelines for college students researching and writing the social histories of their families. Included in the guidelines are interview questions, tips for conducting an oral interview, a primary source list, and a bibliography of background reading. Question topics…

  7. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  8. Opposite Cannabis-Cognition Associations in Psychotic Patients Depending on Family History

    PubMed Central

    González-Pinto, Ana; González-Ortega, Itxaso; Alberich, Susana; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Bernardo, Miguel; Bioque, Miquel; Cabrera, Bibiana; Corripio, Iluminada; Arango, Celso; Lobo, Antonio; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M.; Cuesta, Manuel J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate cognitive performance in a first-episode psychosis sample, when stratifying the interaction by cannabis use and familial or non-familial psychosis. Hierarchical-regression models were used to analyse this association in a sample of 268 first-episode psychosis patients and 237 controls. We found that cannabis use was associated with worse working memory, regardless of family history. However, cannabis use was clearly associated with worse cognitive performance in patients with no family history of psychosis, in cognitive domains including verbal memory, executive function and global cognitive index, whereas cannabis users with a family history of psychosis performed better in these domains. The main finding of the study is that there is an interaction between cannabis use and a family history of psychosis in the areas of verbal memory, executive function and global cognition: that is, cannabis use is associated with a better performance in patients with a family history of psychosis and a worse performance in those with no family history of psychosis. In order to confirm this hypothesis, future research should explore the actual expression of the endocannabinoid system in patients with and without a family history of psychosis. PMID:27513670

  9. Opposite Cannabis-Cognition Associations in Psychotic Patients Depending on Family History.

    PubMed

    González-Pinto, Ana; González-Ortega, Itxaso; Alberich, Susana; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Bernardo, Miguel; Bioque, Miquel; Cabrera, Bibiana; Corripio, Iluminada; Arango, Celso; Lobo, Antonio; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate cognitive performance in a first-episode psychosis sample, when stratifying the interaction by cannabis use and familial or non-familial psychosis. Hierarchical-regression models were used to analyse this association in a sample of 268 first-episode psychosis patients and 237 controls. We found that cannabis use was associated with worse working memory, regardless of family history. However, cannabis use was clearly associated with worse cognitive performance in patients with no family history of psychosis, in cognitive domains including verbal memory, executive function and global cognitive index, whereas cannabis users with a family history of psychosis performed better in these domains. The main finding of the study is that there is an interaction between cannabis use and a family history of psychosis in the areas of verbal memory, executive function and global cognition: that is, cannabis use is associated with a better performance in patients with a family history of psychosis and a worse performance in those with no family history of psychosis. In order to confirm this hypothesis, future research should explore the actual expression of the endocannabinoid system in patients with and without a family history of psychosis. PMID:27513670

  10. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    PubMed Central

    Mazefsky, C. A.; Williams, D. L.; Minshew, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age=18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about the presence of broader autism phenotype symptoms and major psychiatric disorders in first degree relatives. Adaptive behavior was assessed via the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Based on family history variables, age, and intelligence quotient (IQ), 87% of participants were correctly classified as having impaired or average VABS scores. Family history of depression and shyness accounted for the most variance in VABS scores, and they had the greatest influence on VABS Socialization scores in particular. Possible underlying mechanisms include genetics, psychosocial factors, and social resources. This study provides initial evidence of the importance of family history to adaptive behavior in autism and has implications for genetics and treatment. PMID:18188537

  11. Family history of cancer, personal history of medical conditions and risk of oral cavity cancer in France: the ICARE study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of family history of cancer and personal history of other medical conditions in the aetiology of the oral cavity cancer in France. Methods We used data from 689 cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and 3481 controls included in a population-based case–control study, the ICARE study. Odds-ratios (ORs) associated with family history of cancer and personal medical conditions and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression and were adjusted for age, gender, area of residence, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Results Personal history of oral candidiasis was related to a significantly increased risk of oral cavity cancer (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.1-12.1). History of head and neck cancers among the first-degree relatives was associated with an OR of 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.8). The risk increased with the number of first-degree relatives with head and neck cancer. Conclusion A family history of head and neck cancer is a marker of an increased risk of oral cavity cancer and should be taken into account to target prevention efforts and screening. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between oral cavity cancer and personal history of candidiasis. PMID:24286495

  12. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  13. Family Health History Communication Networks of Older Adults: Importance of Social Relationships and Disease Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication ("have shared" and "intend to share…

  14. Reflections on the Construction of a Digital Family Oral History and Its Impact on Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londt, Susan Cole

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Family Oral History Pilot (DFOHP) data were collected and catalogued on a private website blog for family members to learn about their grandfather (ALP) who died without telling his own story. This study examined the outcomes and perceptions of the family members who were engaged with the pilot. A self-selected sample of 17 family…

  15. Family Support in Nursing Homes Serving Residents with a Mental Health History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frahm, Kathryn; Gammonley, Denise; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Paek, Seung Chun

    2010-01-01

    Using 2003 nursing home data from the Minimum Data Set (MDS) database, this study investigated the role of family support among nursing homes serving residents with a mental health history. Exploratory factor analysis was used to create and test a conceptual model of family support using indicators located within the MDS database. Families were…

  16. Association of Family History with Cancer Recurrence and Survival Among Patients with Stage III Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jennifer A.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Hollis, Donna; Saltz, Leonard B.; Mayer, Robert J.; Thomas, James; Schaefer, Paul; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Goldberg, Richard M.; Warren, Robert S.; Bertagnolli, Monica; Fuchs, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    Context A family history of colorectal cancer in a first-degree relative increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, the influence of family history on cancer recurrence and survival among patients with established disease remains uncertain. Objective To examine the association of family history of colorectal cancer with cancer recurrence and survival of patients with colon cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective observational study of 1,087 patients with stage III colon cancer enrolled in a randomized adjuvant chemotherapy trial (CALGB 89803) between April 1999 and May 2001. Patients provided data on family history at baseline and were followed up until March 2007 for disease recurrence and death (median follow-up 5.6 years). In a subset of patients, we assessed microsatellite instability (MSI) and expression of the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, MLH1 and MSH2, in tumor specimens. Main Outcome Measure Disease-free survival, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival according to the presence or absence of a family history of colorectal cancer. Results Among 1,087 eligible patients, 195 (17.9%) reported a family history of colorectal cancer in a first-degree relative. Cancer recurrence or death occurred in 57/195 patients (29%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23%-36%) with a family history of colorectal cancer and 343/892 patients (38%; 95% CI, 35%-42%) without a family history. Compared to patients without a family history, the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) among those with ≥1 affected first-degree relatives were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54-0.96) for disease-free survival (DFS), 0.74 (95% CI, 0.55-0.99) for recurrence-free survival (RFS), and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.54-1.05) for overall survival (OS). This reduction in risk of cancer recurrence or death associated with a family history became stronger with an increasing number of affected first-degree relatives. Compared to participants without a family history of colorectal cancer, those with 1

  17. Family history of mental illness or alcohol abuse and the irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Knight, James R.; Locke, G. Richard; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Schleck, Cathy D.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We have observed that many patients with IBS drink very little alcohol, and postulated this may reflect membership in families affected by alcoholism and mental illness. We aimed to evaluate whether a family history of substance or alcohol abuse, or psychiatric illness, is associated with IBS. Methods A valid GI questionnaire was mailed to a randomly selected population-based cohort to identify IBS and healthy controls. The electronic medical record was reviewed to record the subjects’ self-reported personal and family health histories. Results 2300 subjects responded (response rate 55%; IBS 13% n=287). 230 subjects with IBS and 318 controls were eligible. Family history of alcohol/substance abuse was reported by 33% of cases and 25% of controls (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0–2.1, p=0.06). Family history of psychiatric illness was reported by 37% of cases and 22% of controls (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–2.9, p<0.001). In the absence of a personal history of alcohol use, a family history of alcohol/substance abuse was predictive of IBS status (OR adjusted for age and gender 1.5, 95% CI 1.0–2.3, p=0.05). In the absence of a personal history of alcohol use, reporting both a family history of alcohol/substance abuse and anxiety/depression/mental illness was clearly predictive of IBS status (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.5; p<0.005). Substance abuse as a child was associated with an increased risk of IBS (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.8; p<0.03). Conclusion IBS is independently associated with a family history of psychiatric illness and may be linked to a family history of alcohol/substance abuse. PMID:25582802

  18. Antioxidant defense system and family environment in adolescents with family history of psychosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our objective was to determine antioxidant defence activity in healthy controls (HC) and healthy unaffected second-degree relatives of patients with early onset psychosis (HC-FHP), and to assess its relationship with familiar environment measured using the Family Environment Scale (FES). Methods We included 82 HC and 14 HC-FHP aged between 9 and 17 years. Total antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione levels were determined in blood samples. Results There was a significant decrease in the total antioxidant level in the HC-FHP group compared with the HC group (OR = 2.94; p = 0.009), but no between-group differences in the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale scores. For the FES, the HC-FHP group had significantly higher scores in the cohesion (p = 0.007) and intellectual-cultural dimensions (p=0.025). After adjusting for these two FES dimensions, total antioxidant status remained significantly different between groups (OR = 10.86, p = 0.009). Conclusions Although causal relationships cannot be assumed, we can state that family environment is not playing a role in inducing oxidative stress in these healthy subjects. It could be hypothesized that families with affected relatives protect themselves from psychosis with positive environmental factors such as cohesion and intellectual-cultural activities. PMID:23158023

  19. Family history: an opportunity for early interventions and improved control of hypertension, obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    van der Sande, M. A.; Walraven, G. E.; Milligan, P. J.; Banya, W. A.; Ceesay, S. M.; Nyan, O. A.; McAdam, K. P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a family history of high-risk groups for major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) was a significant risk factor for these conditions among family members in a study population in the Gambia, where strong community and family coherence are important determinants that have to be taken into consideration in promoting lifestyle changes. METHODS: We questioned 5389 adults as to any first-degree family history of major noncommunicable diseases (hypertension, obesity, diabetes and stroke), and measured their blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI). Total blood cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, and creatinine concentrations were measured in a stratified subsample, as well as blood glucose (2 hours after ingesting 75 g glucose) in persons aged > or = 35 years. FINDINGS: A significant number of subjects reported a family history of hypertension (8.0%), obesity (5.4%), diabetes (3.3%) and stroke (1.4%), with 14.6% of participants reporting any of these NCDs. Subjects with a family history of hypertension had a higher diastolic BP and BMI, higher cholesterol and uric acid concentrations, and an increased risk of obesity. Those with a family history of obesity had a higher BMI and were at increased risk of obesity. Individuals with a family history of diabetes had a higher BMI and higher concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid, and their risk of obesity and diabetes was increased. Subjects with a family history of stroke had a higher BMI, as well as higher cholesterol, triglyceride and uric acid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: A family history of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, or stroke was a significant risk factor for obesity and hyperlipidaemia. With increase of age, more pathological manifestations can develop in this high-risk group. Health professionals should therefore utilize every opportunity to include direct family members in health education. PMID:11357211

  20. Analysis of Risk Alleles and Complement Activation Levels in Familial and Non-Familial Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saksens, Nicole T. M.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; Verbakel, Sanne K.; Groenewoud, Joannes M. M.; Daha, Mohamed R.; Schick, Tina; Fauser, Sascha; Boon, Camiel J. F.; Hoyng, Carel B.; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease, in which complement-mediated inflammation plays a pivotal role. A positive family history is an important risk factor for developing AMD. Certain lifestyle factors are shown to be significantly associated with AMD in non-familial cases, but not in familial cases. This study aimed to investigate whether the contribution of common genetic variants and complement activation levels differs between familial and sporadic cases with AMD. Methods and Results 1216 AMD patients (281 familial and 935 sporadic) and 1043 controls (143 unaffected members with a family history of AMD and 900 unrelated controls without a family history of AMD) were included in this study. Ophthalmic examinations were performed, and lifestyle and family history were documented with a questionnaire. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated with AMD were genotyped, and serum concentrations of complement components C3 and C3d were measured. Associations were assessed in familial and sporadic individuals. The association with risk alleles of the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) gene was significantly stronger in sporadic AMD patients compared to familial cases (p = 0.017 for all AMD stages and p = 0.003 for advanced AMD, respectively). ARMS2 risk alleles had the largest effect in sporadic cases but were not significantly associated with AMD in densely affected families. The C3d/C3 ratio was a significant risk factor for AMD in sporadic cases and may also be associated with familial cases. In patients with a densely affected family this effect was particularly strong with ORs of 5.37 and 4.99 for all AMD and advanced AMD respectively. Conclusion This study suggests that in familial AMD patients, the common genetic risk variant in ARMS2 is less important compared to sporadic AMD. In contrast, factors leading to increased complement activation appear to play a larger role in patients with a

  1. Family History and Functional Outcome in Korean Stroke Patients: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Jung; Kim, Tae Uk; Hyun, Jung Keun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of family history of stroke with functional outcomes in stroke patients in Korea. Methods A case-control study was conducted. A total of 170 patients who were admitted to a rehabilitation unit were included. Risk factors for stroke such as age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, smoking, high blood cholesterol and homocysteine level, obesity, and family history of stroke were taken into account. Stroke subtypes were the following: large vessel infarct, small vessel infarct, embolic infarct, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracranial hemorrhage. Stroke severity as assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), functional outcomes using the Korean version of the Modified Barthel index (K-MBI), Functional Independence Measurement (FIM), and cognitive function using the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) were assessed at admission and discharge. Results Subjects with a family history of stroke were more likely to have an ischemic stroke (90.7%) than were those without a family history (70.9%). The K-MBI, FIM, NIHSS, and K-MMSE scores did not show significant differences between patients with or without family history. Conclusion Family history of stroke was significantly associated with ischemic stroke, but not with functional outcomes. Other prognostic factors of stroke were not distributed differently between patients included in this study with or without a family history of stroke. PMID:26798613

  2. Race and colorectal cancer screening compliance among persons with a family history of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Thompson, Nicole; Williams, Carla D; Idowu, Kolapo A; Bull-Henry, Kathy; Sherif, Zaki A; Lee, Edward L; Brim, Hassan; Ashktorab, Hassan; Platz, Elizabeth A; Smoot, Duane T

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine compliance to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines among persons with a family history of any type of cancer and investigate racial differences in screening compliance. METHODS: We used the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey and identified 1094 (27.4%) respondents (weighted population size = 21959672) without a family history of cancer and 3138 (72.6%) respondents (weighted population size = 58201479) with a family history of cancer who were 50 years and older. We defined compliance with CRC screening as the use of fecal occult blood testing within 1 year, sigmoidoscopy within 5 years, or colonoscopy within 10 years. We compared compliance with CRC screening among those with and without a family member with a history of cancer. RESULTS: Overall, those with a family member with cancer were more likely to be compliant with CRC screening (64.9% vs 55.1%; OR = 1.45; 95%CI: 1.20-1.74). The absolute increase in screening rates associated with family history of cancer was 8.2% among whites. Hispanics had lowest screening rates among those without family history of cancer 41.9% but had highest absolute increase (14.7%) in CRC screening rate when they have a family member with cancer. Blacks had the lowest absolute increase in CRC screening (5.3%) when a family member has a known history of cancer. However, the noted increase in screening rates among blacks and Hispanics when they have a family member with cancer were not higher than whites without a family history of cancer: (54.5% vs 58.7%; OR = 1.16; 95%CI: 0.72-1.88) for blacks and (56.7% vs 58.7%; OR = 1.25; 95%CI: 0.72-2.18) for Hispanics. CONCLUSION: While adults with a family history of any cancer were more likely to be compliant with CRC screening guidelines irrespective of race/ethnicity, blacks and Hispanics with a family history of cancer were less likely to be compliant than whites without a family history. Increased burden from CRC among blacks may be related to poor

  3. Family History of Sudden Cardiac Death of the Young: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    White, Michelle J.; Duquette, Debra; Bach, Janice; Rafferty, Ann P.; Fussman, Chris; Sharangpani, Ruta; Russell, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death of the young (SCDY) is a devastating event for families and communities. Family history is a significant risk factor for this potentially preventable cause of death, however a complete and detailed family history is not commonly obtained during routine health maintenance visits. To estimate the proportion of adults with a family history of SCDY, the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) Genomics Program included two questions within the 2007 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey (MiBRFS). Prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Among adults in Michigan, 6.3% reported a family history of SCDY, with a greater prevalence among blacks, those with lower household income, and those with less education. Among those reporting a family history of SCDY, 42.3% had at least one first-degree relative and 26.2% had multiple affected family members. This is the first study to demonstrate the prevalence of family history of SCDY while also highlighting key sociodemographic characteristics associated with increased prevalence. These findings should guide evidence-based interventions to reach those at greatest risk.

  4. Disparities in Cancer Screening in Individuals with a Family History of Breast or Colorectal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Ninez A.; Tsui, Jennifer; Knight, Sara J.; Afable-Munsuz, Aimee; Ladabaum, Uri; Hiatt, Robert A.; Haas, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding racial/ethnic disparities in cancer screening by family history risk could identify critical opportunities for patient and provider interventions tailored to specific racial/ethnic groups. We evaluated whether breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities varied by family history risk using a large, multiethnic population-based survey. Methods Using the 2005 California Health Interview Survey, BC and CRC screening were evaluated separately with weighted multivariate regression analyses, and stratified by family history risk. Screening was defined for BC as mammogram within the past 2 years for women aged 40 to 64 years; for CRC, as annual fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy within the past 5 years, or colonoscopy within the past 10 years for adults aged 50 to 64 years. Results We found no significant BC screening disparities by race/ethnicity or income in both the family history risk groups. Racial/ethnic disparities were more evident in CRC screening, and the Latino-white gap widened among individuals with family history risk. Among adults with a family history for CRC, magnitude of the Latino-white difference in CRC screening (OR 0.28; 95%CI: 0.11 -0.60) was more substantial than that for individuals with no family history (OR 0.74; 95%CI: 0.59 -0.92). Conclusions Knowledge of their family history widened the Latino-white gap in CRC screening among adults. More aggressive interventions that enhance the communication between Latinos and their doctors about family history and cancer risk could reduce the substantial Latino-white screening disparity in Latinos most susceptible to CRC. PMID:22009719

  5. Life stress and family history for depression: the moderating role of past depressive episodes.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Scott M; Slavich, George M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2014-02-01

    Three of the most consistently reported and powerful predictors of depression are a recent major life event, a positive family history for depression, and a personal history of past depressive episodes. Little research, however, has evaluated the inter-relations among these predictors in depressed samples. Such information is descriptively valuable and potentially etiologically informative. In the present article we summarize the existing literature and test four predictions in a sample of 62 clinically depressed individuals: (1) participants who experienced a major life event prior to onset would be less likely than participants who did not experience a major life event to have a positive family history for depression; (2) participants with a recent major life event would have fewer lifetime episodes of depression than would participants without; (3) participants with a positive family history for depression would have more lifetime episodes of depression than would participants with a negative family history for depression; and (4) we would obtain a 3-way interaction in which participants with a positive family history and without a major life event would have the most lifetime episodes, whereas participants with a negative family history and a major life event would have the fewest lifetime episodes. The first three predictions were confirmed, and the fourth prediction partially confirmed. These novel findings begin to elucidate the complex relations among these three prominent risk factors for depression, and point to avenues of research that may help illuminate the origins of depressive episodes. PMID:24308926

  6. An Assessment of Family History Information Captured in an Electronic Health Record

    PubMed Central

    Polubriaginof, Fernanda; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Vawdrey, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Family history is considered a core element of clinical care. In this study we assessed the quality of family history data captured in an established commercial electronic health record (EHR) at a large academic medical center. Because the EHR had no centralized location to store family history information, it was collected as part of clinical notes in structured or free-text format. We analyzed differences between 10,000 free-text and 9,121 structured family history observations. Each observation was classified according to disease presence/absence and family member affected (e.g., father, mother, etc.). The structured notes did not collect a complete family history as defined by standards endorsed by the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; the free-text notes contained more information than the structured notes, but still not enough to be considered “complete.” Several barriers remain for collecting complete, useful family history data in electronic health records. PMID:26958303

  7. Association of Family History of ESRD, Prevalent Albuminuria, and Reduced GFR With Incident ESRD

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, William M.; Warnock, David G.; Judd, Suzanne; Muntner, Paul; Patzer, Rachel E.; Bradbury, Brian D.; McClure, Leslie A.; Newsome, Britt B.; Howard, George

    2013-01-01

    Background The contribution of albuminuria to the increased risk of incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in individuals with a family history of ESRD has not been well studied. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Study Setting & Participants We analyzed data for family history of ESRD collected from 19,409 participants of the Renal REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) cohort study. Predictor Family history of ESRD was ascertained by asking “Has anyone in your immediate family ever been told that he or she had kidney failure? This would be someone who is on or had been on dialysis or someone who had a kidney transplant.” Study Outcomes Incidence rate for ESRD. Measurements Morning urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Incident cases of ESRD were identified through the US Renal Data System. Results A family history of ESRD was reported by 11.1% of participants. Mean eGFRs for those with and without a family history of ESRD were 87.5 ± 22.2 (SD) and 86.5 ± 19.3 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively (P = 0.05) and the respective geometric mean ACRs were 12.2 and 9.7 mg/g (P < 0.001). ESRD incidence rates for those with and without a family history of ESRD were 244.3 and 106.1/100,000 person-years, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, and race, the ESRD HR for those with versus those without a family history of ESRD was 2.13 (95% CI, 1.18-3.83). Adjustment for comorbid conditions and socioeconomic status attenuated this association (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.00-3.28), and further adjustment for baseline eGFR and ACR completely attenuated the association between family history of ESRD and incident ESRD (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.69-1.80). Limitations The report of a family history of ESRD was not validated. Conclusion Family history of ESRD is common in older Americans and the increased risk of ESRD associated with a family history reflects lower GFR, higher albuminuria, and comorbid conditions

  8. Germline rearrangements in families with strong family history of glioma and malignant melanoma, colon, and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Cederquist, Kristina; Aradottir, Steina; Borg, Åke; Armstrong, Georgina N.; Shete, Sanjay; Lau, Ching C.; Bainbridge, Matthew N.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Lai, Rose; Il'yasova, Dora; Houlston, Richard S.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Olson, Sara H.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Lachance, Daniel H.; Wrensch, Margaret; Davis, Faith G.; Merrell, Ryan; Johansen, Christoffer; Sadetzki, Siegal; Bondy, Melissa L.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Adatto, Phyllis; Morice, Fabian; Payen, Sam; McQuinn, Lacey; McGaha, Rebecca; Guerra, Sandra; Paith, Leslie; Roth, Katherine; Zeng, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Yung, Alfred; Aldape, Kenneth; Gilbert, Mark; Weinberger, Jeffrey; Colman, Howard; Conrad, Charles; de Groot, John; Forman, Arthur; Groves, Morris; Levin, Victor; Loghin, Monica; Puduvalli, Vinay; Sawaya, Raymond; Heimberger, Amy; Lang, Frederick; Levine, Nicholas; Tolentino, Lori; Saunders, Kate; Thach, Thu-Trang; Iacono, Donna Dello; Sloan, Andrew; Gerson, Stanton; Selman, Warren; Bambakidis, Nicholas; Hart, David; Miller, Jonathan; Hoffer, Alan; Cohen, Mark; Rogers, Lisa; Nock, Charles J; Wolinsky, Yingli; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Barrett, Wendi; Shimmel, Kristen; Ostrom, Quinn; Barnett, Gene; Rosenfeld, Steven; Vogelbaum, Michael; Weil, Robert; Ahluwalia, Manmeet; Peereboom, David; Staugaitis, Susan; Schilero, Cathy; Brewer, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; McGraw, Mary; Naska, Theresa; Rosenfeld, Steven; Ram, Zvi; Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Bokstein, Felix; Umansky, Felix; Zaaroor, Menashe; Cohen, Avi; Tzuk-Shina, Tzeela; Voldby, Bo; Laursen, René; Andersen, Claus; Brennum, Jannick; Henriksen, Matilde Bille; Marzouk, Maya; Davis, Mary Elizabeth; Boland, Eamon; Smith, Marcel; Eze, Ogechukwu; Way, Mahalia; Lada, Pat; Miedzianowski, Nancy; Frechette, Michelle; Paleologos, Nina; Byström, Gudrun; Svedberg, Eva; Huggert, Sara; Kimdal, Mikael; Sandström, Monica; Brännström, Nikolina; Hayat, Amina; Tihan, Tarik; Zheng, Shichun; Berger, Mitchel; Butowski, Nicholas; Chang, Susan; Clarke, Jennifer; Prados, Michael; Rice, Terri; Sison, Jeannette; Kivett, Valerie; Duo, Xiaoqin; Hansen, Helen; Hsuang, George; Lamela, Rosito; Ramos, Christian; Patoka, Joe; Wagenman, Katherine; Zhou, Mi; Klein, Adam; McGee, Nora; Pfefferle, Jon; Wilson, Callie; Morris, Pagan; Hughes, Mary; Britt-Williams, Marlin; Foft, Jessica; Madsen, Julia; Polony, Csaba; McCarthy, Bridget; Zahora, Candice; Villano, John; Engelhard, Herbert; Borg, Ake; Chanock, Stephen K; Collins, Peter; Elston, Robert; Kleihues, Paul; Kruchko, Carol; Petersen, Gloria; Plon, Sharon; Thompson, Patricia; Johansen, C.; Sadetzki, S.; Melin, B.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Lau, Ching C.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Armstrong, Georgina N.; Liu, Yanhong; Shete, Sanjay; Yu, Robert K.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Weinberg, Jeffrey; Houlston, Richard S.; Hosking, Fay J.; Robertson, Lindsay; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Sloan, Andrew E.; Barnett, Gene; Devine, Karen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Lai, Rose; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Il'yasova, Dora; Schildkraut, Joellen; Sadetzki, Siegal; Yechezkel, Galit Hirsh; Bruchim, Revital Bar-Sade; Aslanov, Lili; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Kosteljanetz, Michael; Broholm, Helle; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Olson, Sara H.; Schubert, Erica; DeAngelis, Lisa; Jenkins, Robert B.; Yang, Ping; Rynearson, Amanda; Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Henriksson, Roger; Melin, Beatrice S.; Cederquist, Kristina; Aradottir, Steina; Borg, Åke; Merrell, Ryan; Lada, Patricia; Wrensch, Margaret; Wiencke, John; Wiemels, Joe; McCoy, Lucie; McCarthy, Bridget J.; Davis, Faith G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although familial susceptibility to glioma is known, the genetic basis for this susceptibility remains unidentified in the majority of glioma-specific families. An alternative approach to identifying such genes is to examine cancer pedigrees, which include glioma as one of several cancer phenotypes, to determine whether common chromosomal modifications might account for the familial aggregation of glioma and other cancers. Methods Germline rearrangements in 146 glioma families (from the Gliogene Consortium; http://www.gliogene.org/) were examined using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. These families all had at least 2 verified glioma cases and a third reported or verified glioma case in the same family or 2 glioma cases in the family with at least one family member affected with melanoma, colon, or breast cancer.The genomic areas covering TP53, CDKN2A, MLH1, and MSH2 were selected because these genes have been previously reported to be associated with cancer pedigrees known to include glioma. Results We detected a single structural rearrangement, a deletion of exons 1-6 in MSH2, in the proband of one family with 3 cases with glioma and one relative with colon cancer. Conclusions Large deletions and duplications are rare events in familial glioma cases, even in families with a strong family history of cancers that may be involved in known cancer syndromes. PMID:24723567

  9. Placement History of Foster Children: A Study of Placement History and Outcomes in Long-Term Family Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strijker, Johan; Knorth, Erik J.; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The files of 419 children in family foster care and kinship foster care were used in a retrospective longitudinal design study that examined their placement histories in child welfare. Significant associations were found between the number of placements on one hand, and the prevalence of attachment disorders, severity of behavioral problems, and…

  10. Family History of Alcoholism: Are You at Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse or alcoholism: Al–Anon Family Group Headquarters Internet address: www.al–anon.alateen.org Makes referrals ... Anonymous (AA) World Services Phone: (212) 870–3400 Internet address: www.aa.org Makes referrals to local ...

  11. Family History of Alzheimer's Disease and Cortical Thickness in Patients With Dementia.

    PubMed

    Ganske, Steffi; Haussmann, Robert; Gruschwitz, Antonia; Werner, Annett; Osterrath, Antje; Baumgaertel, Johanna; Lange, Jan; Donix, Katharina L; Linn, Jennifer; Donix, Markus

    2016-08-01

    A first-degree family history of Alzheimer's disease reflects genetic risks for the neurodegenerative disorder. Recent imaging data suggest localized effects of genetic risks on brain structure in healthy people. It is unknown whether this association can also be found in patients who already have dementia. Our aim was to investigate whether family history risk modulates regional medial temporal lobe cortical thickness in patients with Alzheimer's disease. We performed high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and cortical unfolding data analysis on 54 patients and 53 nondemented individuals. A first-degree family history of Alzheimer's disease was associated with left hemispheric cortical thinning in the subiculum among patients and controls. The contribution of Alzheimer's disease family history to regional brain anatomy changes independent of cognitive impairment may reflect genetic risks that modulate onset and clinical course of the disease. PMID:27303063

  12. Screening strategies for colorectal cancer among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and family history.

    PubMed

    Wong, Martin C S; Ching, Jessica Y L; Chan, Victor C W; Lam, Thomas Y T; Luk, Arthur K C; Wong, Sunny H; Ng, Siew C; Wong, Vincent W S; Ng, Simon S M; Wu, Justin C Y; Chan, Francis K L; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2016-02-01

    Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) are at higher risks but how they should be screened remains uncertain. Hence, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of CRC screening among patients with NAFLD and family history by different strategies. A hypothetical population of 100,000 subjects aged 40-75 years receive: (i) yearly fecal immunochemical test (FIT) at 50 years; (ii) flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) every 5 years at 50 years; (iii) colonoscopy 10 yearly at 50 years; (iv) colonoscopy 10 yearly at 50 years among those with family history/NAFLD and yearly FIT at 50 years among those without; (v) colonoscopy 10 yearly at 40 years among those with family history/NAFLD and yearly FIT at 50 years among those without and (vi) colonoscopy 10 yearly at 40 years among those with family history/NAFLD and colonoscopy 10 yearly at 50 years among those without. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was studied by Markov modeling. It was found that colonoscopy, FS and FIT reduced incidence of CRC by 49.5, 26.3 and 23.6%, respectively. Using strategies 4, 5 and 6, the corresponding reduction in CRC incidence was 29.9, 30.9 and 69.3% for family history, and 33.2, 34.7 and 69.8% for NAFLD. Compared with no screening, strategies 4 (US$1,018/life-year saved) and 5 (US$7,485) for family history offered the lowest ICER, whilst strategy 4 (US$5,877) for NAFLD was the most cost-effective. These findings were robust when assessed with a wide range of deterministic sensitivity analyses around the base case. These indicated that screening patients with family history or NAFLD by colonoscopy at 50 years was economically favorable. PMID:26289421

  13. Family history of Alzheimer’s disease limits improvement in cognitive function after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objective: Bariatric surgery can reverse cognitive impairments associated with obesity. However, such benefits may be attenuated in individuals with a predisposing risk for cognitive impairment such as family history of Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: In all, 94 bariatric surgery participants completed a computerized cognitive test battery before and 12 weeks after surgery. Family history of Alzheimer’s disease was obtained through self-report. Results: In the overall sample, cognitive function improved in memory and attention/executive function 12 weeks post-surgery. Repeated measures showed similar rates of improvements in attention/executive function between patients with and without a family history of Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast, only individuals without a family history of Alzheimer’s disease exhibited post-operative improvements in memory. A family history of Alzheimer’s disease was associated with greater post-surgery rates of cognitive impairment. Conclusions: Family history of Alzheimer’s disease may limit post-surgery cognitive benefits. Future studies should examine whether weight loss can modify the course of cognitive decline in patients at-risk for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26770731

  14. Factors Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk Perception: The Role of Polyps and Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Jennifer Rider; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Costanza, Mary E.; Stoddard, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    It is unclear how objective risk factors influence the factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk perception. The goals of this study were to investigate factors associated with perceived risk of CRC and to explore how these relationships were modified by personal history of polyps or family history of CRC. The study involved a mailed…

  15. Building Community through Shared Aesthetic Experience: A Multimedia Family History Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrary, Nancye E.

    2012-01-01

    Family history projects have been used extensively in social studies education. They help to personalize history and mediate an awareness of self in relation to others. This article details how one such project, implemented in a teacher education program, promoted dialogues of respect and fostered community among pre-service teachers. It includes…

  16. Family History of Speech and Language Impairment in African American Children: Implications for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Sonja L.; Garrity, April W.; Oetting, Janna B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We explored the prevalence of a positive family history of speech and language impairment in African American children as a function of their socioeconomic status (SES), receipt of speech-language services, and diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Data were collected in 2 phases. Phase 1 included family questionnaires…

  17. Identifying Family History and Substance Use Associations for Adult Epilepsy from the Electronic Health Record.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Elizabeth S; Leppik, Ilo; Pakhomov, Serguei; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Melton, Genevieve B

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a prevalent chronic neurological disorder afflicting about 50 million people worldwide. There is evidence of a strong relationship between familial risk factors and epilepsy, as well as associations with substance use. The goal of this study was to explore the interactions between familial risk factors and substance use based on structured data from the family and social history modules of an electronic health record system for adult epilepsy patients. A total of 8,957patients with 38,802 family history entries and 8,822 substance use entries were gathered and mined for associations at different levels of granularity for three age groupings (>18, 18-64, and ≥65 years old). Our results demonstrate the value of an association rule mining approach to validate knowledge of familial risk factors. The preliminary findings also suggest that substance use does not demonstrate significant association between social and familial risk factors for epilepsy. PMID:27570679

  18. "That was grown folks' business": narrative reflection and response in older adults' family health history communication.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Jill; Hovick, Shelly R

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of family health history and the pivotal role of older adults in communicating it, this study examines how African American older adults (a) characterize their understandings of health-related conditions in their family histories and (b) rationalize their motivations and constraints for sharing this information with current family members. Using narrative theory as a framework, we illustrate how the participants reflect on prior health-related experiences within the family to respond to moral and practical calls for communicating family health information to current relatives. Specifically, our analysis highlights how storied family secrets--as constructed by 28 participants in group and individual interviews--reveal and inform shifting cultural and generational practices that shape the lived health behaviors and communication of older adults at greater risk for health disparities. PMID:24580636

  19. Identifying Family History and Substance Use Associations for Adult Epilepsy from the Electronic Health Record

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Elizabeth S.; Leppik, Ilo; Pakhomov, Serguei; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a prevalent chronic neurological disorder afflicting about 50 million people worldwide. There is evidence of a strong relationship between familial risk factors and epilepsy, as well as associations with substance use. The goal of this study was to explore the interactions between familial risk factors and substance use based on structured data from the family and social history modules of an electronic health record system for adult epilepsy patients. A total of 8,957patients with 38,802 family history entries and 8,822 substance use entries were gathered and mined for associations at different levels of granularity for three age groupings (>18, 18-64, and ≥65 years old). Our results demonstrate the value of an association rule mining approach to validate knowledge of familial risk factors. The preliminary findings also suggest that substance use does not demonstrate significant association between social and familial risk factors for epilepsy. PMID:27570679

  20. Engaging Students: Discovering Family and Consumer Sciences History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickols, Sharon Y.; Sewell, Darby; Wilmarth, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The centennial of the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences (AAFCS) provides an opportunity to explore local as well as national aspects of the field. Studying events that shaped FCS and the women and men who provided early leadership reinforces the role of FCS in improving daily living conditions for the past century. Engaging…

  1. Rural Mexican-Americans' perceptions of family health history, genetics, and disease risk: implications for disparities-focused research dissemination.

    PubMed

    Malen, Rachel; Knerr, Sarah; Delgado, Fernanda; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Thompson, Beti

    2016-01-01

    Disseminating the results of transdisciplinary health disparities research will increasingly involve discussing family health history and/or genetic information with study participants and their communities. Often, individuals' familiarity and comfort with these topics will be unclear. To inform the dissemination activities of a Center for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) studying multilevel determinants of breast cancer disparities in Latinas, we talked with Spanish-speaking Mexican-Americans from a rural agricultural community about family health history, genetics, and disease risk. We found that participants had limited genetic literacy but were familiar with some concepts related to family health history. Participants emphasized the role of individual behavior in shaping health and expressed a strong desire for health-related information. This included genetic information about future disease risk, which participants were previously unaware of but thought could be useful for disease prevention. These findings suggest that for research dissemination to facilitate health promotion, gaps in knowledge, particularly genetic knowledge, will need to be overcome. Outreach to underserved Latino communities should take advantage of this existing knowledge of family health history and strong desire for health information, but also take care to not overstate the significance of unreplicated or low-penetrance genetic associations. PMID:26141228

  2. Predictors of Self-Reported Family Health History of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ricks-Santi, Luisel J; Thompson, Nicole; Ewing, Altovise; Harrison, Barbara; Higginbotham, Kimberly; Spencer, Cherie; Laiyemo, Adeyinka; DeWitty, Robert; Wilson, Lori; Horton, Sara; Dunmore-Griffith, Jacqueline; Williams, Carla; Frederick, Wayne

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of self-reported family health history of breast cancer in an ethnically diverse population of women participating in a breast cancer screening program. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about their demography, health, breast health and family health history of breast cancer. The association between family health history of breast cancer and categorical variables were analyzed using the T test, chi square, and multi-nominal logistic regression. Those who were least likely to report a family history of cancer were African Americans (p = 0.02), and immigrant women from South America (p < 0.001) and Africa (p = 0.04). However, 34.4 % reported having a second-degree maternal relative with breast cancer compared to 6.9 % who reported having a second degree paternal relative with breast cancer. Therefore, there is a need to increase efforts to educate families about the importance of collecting and sharing one's family health history. PMID:26201692

  3. A comparison of genetic risk score with family history for estimating prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Helfand, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) testing is recommended by most authoritative groups for high-risk men including those with a family history of the disease. However, family history information is often limited by patient knowledge and clinician intake, and thus, many men are incorrectly assigned to different risk groups. Alternate methods to assess PCa risk are required. In this review, we discuss how genetic variants, referred to as PCa-risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms, can be used to calculate a genetic risk score (GRS). GRS assigns a relatively unique value to all men based on the number of PCa-risk SNPs that an individual carries. This GRS value can provide a more precise estimate of a man's PCa risk. This is particularly relevant in situations when an individual is unaware of his family history. In addition, GRS has utility and can provide a more precise estimate of risk even among men with a positive family history. It can even distinguish risk among relatives with the same degree of family relationships. Taken together, this review serves to provide support for the clinical utility of GRS as an independent test to provide supplemental information to family history. As such, GRS can serve as a platform to help guide-shared decision-making processes regarding the timing and frequency of PCa testing and biopsies. PMID:27004541

  4. A new estimate of family disease history providing improved prediction of disease risks

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Rui; McClure, Leslie A.; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Howard, George

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Complex diseases often aggregate within families and using the history of family members’ disease can potentially increase the accuracy of the risk assessment and allow clinicians to better target on high risk individuals. However, available family risk scores do not reflect the age of disease onset, gender and family structures simultaneously. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach for a family risk score, the stratified log-rank family score (SLFS), which incorporates the age of disease onset of family members, gender differences and the relationship among family members. Via simulation, we demonstrate that the new SLFS is more closely associated with the true family risk for the disease and more robust to family sizes than two existing methods. We apply our proposed method and the two existing methods to a study of stroke and heart disease. The results show that assessing family history can improve the prediction of disease risks and the SLFS has strongest positive associations with both myocardial infarction and stroke. PMID:19170247

  5. Multigenerational Positive Family History of Psychiatric Disorders Is Associated With a Poor Prognosis in Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Leverich, Gabriele S; Nolen, Willem A

    2015-01-01

    The authors assessed how family history loading affected the course of illness in patients from the United States. A total of 676 outpatients with bipolar disorder from the United States rated their illness and provided a parental and grandparental history of mood disorder, substance abuse, and other clinical conditions. A positive family history for each illness was associated with almost all of the seven poor prognosis factors established in the study (abuse in childhood, early onset, anxiety and substance abuse comorbidity, rapid cycling, multiple episodes, and worsening of severity or frequency of episodes). Family history for psychiatric difficulties in parents and grandparents was associated with a more complex and difficult course of bipolar illness. PMID:26258489

  6. Affective disorders and associated psychopathology: a family history study.

    PubMed

    Dilsaver, S C; White, K

    1986-04-01

    A pedigree in which affective psychosis, obsessive-compulsive phenomena, panic attacks, and eating disorders cluster over three generations is presented. The index proband is a 17-year-old girl with schizoaffective disorder, depressed type, bulimia nervosa, panic attacks, and intraepisode obsessive-compulsive phenomena. She has two male siblings; one has bipolar II disorder and the other has had multiple episodes of major depression. Both have panic attacks and exhibit obsessive-compulsive phenomena while depressed. The phenomenologies of the siblings' illnesses incorporate features from both sides of the family. It is proposed that the association of affective disorders with other forms of psychopathology might best be demonstrated by studying families transgenerationally. PMID:3457005

  7. Comparison of family history and SNPs for predicting risk of complex disease.

    PubMed

    Do, Chuong B; Hinds, David A; Francke, Uta; Eriksson, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The clinical utility of family history and genetic tests is generally well understood for simple Mendelian disorders and rare subforms of complex diseases that are directly attributable to highly penetrant genetic variants. However, little is presently known regarding the performance of these methods in situations where disease susceptibility depends on the cumulative contribution of multiple genetic factors of moderate or low penetrance. Using quantitative genetic theory, we develop a model for studying the predictive ability of family history and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based methods for assessing risk of polygenic disorders. We show that family history is most useful for highly common, heritable conditions (e.g., coronary artery disease), where it explains roughly 20%-30% of disease heritability, on par with the most successful SNP models based on associations discovered to date. In contrast, we find that for diseases of moderate or low frequency (e.g., Crohn disease) family history accounts for less than 4% of disease heritability, substantially lagging behind SNPs in almost all cases. These results indicate that, for a broad range of diseases, already identified SNP associations may be better predictors of risk than their family history-based counterparts, despite the large fraction of missing heritability that remains to be explained. Our model illustrates the difficulty of using either family history or SNPs for standalone disease prediction. On the other hand, we show that, unlike family history, SNP-based tests can reveal extreme likelihood ratios for a relatively large percentage of individuals, thus providing potentially valuable adjunctive evidence in a differential diagnosis. PMID:23071447

  8. Role of family susceptibility, occupational and family histories and individuals' blood groups in the development of silicosis.

    PubMed

    Noweir, M H; Moselhi, M; Amine, E K

    1980-11-01

    A previous investigation has shown that family susceptibility and occupational and family histories have a decisive role in the development of byssinosis among workers exposed to flax dust. Results of investigation of silicosis in 814 male workers exposed to silica-bearing dust showed that family susceptibility has an important role in the development of silicosis among examined workers, and workers whose fathers had an occupational history of exposure to silica-bearing dust were more resistant to the development of the disease than those with non-exposed fathers. The degree of consanguinity of parents and individuals' blood groups, also, have a role. Workers with cousin parents were relatively highly susceptible to the development of silicosis as well as workers with blood groups "O" or "AB". It has been concluded that the investigated factors might have a role in the development of other occupational diseases and further investigations are indicated. PMID:6255981

  9. The evolutionary history of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene family in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Stearoyl-CoA desaturases (SCDs) are key enzymes involved in de novo monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis. They catalyze the desaturation of saturated fatty acyl-CoA substrates at the delta-9 position, generating essential components of phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesterol esters and wax esters. Despite being crucial for interpreting SCDs roles across species, the evolutionary history of the SCD gene family in vertebrates has yet to be elucidated, in particular their isoform diversity, origin and function. This work aims to contribute to this fundamental effort. Results We show here, through comparative genomics and phylogenetics that the SCD gene family underwent an unexpectedly complex history of duplication and loss events. Paralogy analysis hints that SCD1 and SCD5 genes emerged as part of the whole genome duplications (2R) that occurred at the stem of the vertebrate lineage. The SCD1 gene family expanded in rodents with the parallel loss of SCD5 in the Muridae family. The SCD1 gene expansion is also observed in the Lagomorpha although without the SCD5 loss. In the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis we find a single SCD1 gene but not SCD5, though this could be due to genome incompleteness. In the analysed teleost species no SCD5 is found, while the surrounding SCD5-less locus is conserved in comparison to tetrapods. In addition, the teleost SCD1 gene repertoire expanded to two copies as a result of the teleost specific genome duplication (3R). Finally, we describe clear orthologues of SCD1 and SCD5 in the chondrichthian, Scyliorhinus canicula, a representative of the oldest extant jawed vertebrate clade. Expression analysis in S. canicula shows that whilst SCD1 is ubiquitous, SCD5 is mainly expressed in the brain, a pattern which might indicate an evolutionary conserved function. Conclusion We conclude that the SCD1 and SCD5 genes emerged as part of the 2R genome duplications. We propose that the evolutionary conserved gene expression between distinct

  10. Genetic modifiers and subtypes in schizophrenia: investigations of age at onset, severity, sex and family history.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Sarah E; O'Dushlaine, Colm T; Lee, Phil H; Fanous, Ayman H; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Ripke, Stephan; Sullivan, Patrick F; Smoller, Jordan W; Purcell, Shaun M; Corvin, Aiden

    2014-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. Genetic risk factors for the disorder may differ between the sexes or between multiply affected families compared to cases with no family history. Additionally, limited data support a genetic basis for variation in onset and severity, but specific loci have not been identified. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) examining genetic influences on age at onset (AAO) and illness severity as well as specific risk by sex or family history status using up to 2762 cases and 3187 controls from the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). Subjects with a family history of schizophrenia demonstrated a slightly lower average AAO that was not significant following multiple testing correction (p=.048), but no differences in illness severity were observed by family history status (p=.51). Consistent with prior reports, we observed earlier AAO (p=.005) and a more severe course of illness for men (p=.002). Family history positive analyses showed the greatest association with KIF5C (p=1.96×10(-8)), however, genetic risk burden overall does not differ by family history. Separate association analyses for males and females revealed no significant sex-specific associations. The top GWAS hit for AAO was near the olfactory receptor gene OR2K2 (p=1.52×10(-7)). Analyses of illness severity (episodic vs. continuous) implicated variation in ST18 (p=8.24×10(-7)). These results confirm recognized demographic relationships but do not support a simplified genetic architecture for schizophrenia subtypes based on these variables. PMID:24581549

  11. Genetic modifiers and subtypes in schizophrenia: Investigations of age at onset, severity, sex and family history

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Sarah E.; O’Dushlaine, Colm T.; Lee, Phil H.; Fanous, Ayman H.; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Ripke, Stephan; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Corvin, Aiden

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. Genetic risk factors for the disorder may differ between the sexes or between multiply affected families compared to cases with no family history. Additionally, limited data support a genetic basis for variation in onset and severity, but specific loci have not been identified. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) examining genetic influences on age at onset (AAO) and illness severity as well as specific risk by sex or family history status using up to 2762 cases and 3187 controls from the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). Subjects with a family history of schizophrenia demonstrated a slightly lower average AAO that was not significant following multiple testing correction (p = .048), but no differences in illness severity were observed by family history status (p = .51). Consistent with prior reports, we observed earlier AAO (p = .005) and a more severe course of illness for men (p = .002). Family history positive analyses showed the greatest association with KIF5C (p = 1.96 × 10−8), however, genetic risk burden overall does not differ by family history. Separate association analyses for males and females revealed no significant sex-specific associations. The top GWAS hit for AAO was near the olfactory receptor gene OR2K2 (p = 1.52 × 10−7). Analyses of illness severity (episodic vs. continuous) implicated variation in ST18 (p = 8.24 × 10−7). These results confirm recognized demographic relationships but do not support a simplified genetic architecture for schizophrenia subtypes based on these variables. PMID:24581549

  12. FAMILY HISTORY OF CANCER: POOLED ANALYSIS IN THE INTERNATIONAL HEAD AND NECK CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY (INHANCE) CONSORTIUM

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Eva; Boffetta, Paolo; Berthiller, Julien; Castellsague, Xavier; Curado, Maria Paula; Maso, Luigino Dal; Daudt, Alexander W.; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Franceschi, Silvia; Hayes, Richard B.; Herrero, Rolando; Koifman, Sergio; Lazarus, Philip; Lence, Juan J.; Levi, Fabio; Mates, Dana; Matos, Elena; Menezes, Ana; Muscat, Joshua; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Olshan, Andrew F.; Rudnai, Peter; Shangina, Oxana; Sturgis, Erich M.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Talamini, Renato; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah M.; Zaridze, David; Lissowska, Jolanta; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Ferro, Gilles; Brennan, Paul; Vecchia, Carlo La; Hashibe, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol and tobacco consumption are well recognized risk factors for head and neck cancer (HNC). Evidence suggests that genetic predisposition may also play a role. Only a few epidemiologic studies, however, have considered the relation between HNC risk and family history of HNC and other cancers. We pooled individual- level data across 12 case-control studies including 8,967 HNC cases and 13,627 controls. We obtained pooled odds ratios (OR) using fixed and random effect models, and adjusting for potential confounding factors. All statistical tests were two-sided. A family history of HNC in first-degree relatives increased the risk of HNC (OR=1.7, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.2-2.3). The risk was higher when the affected relative was a sibling (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.6-3.1) rather than a parent (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.1-1.8), and for more distal HNC anatomic sites (hypopharynx and larynx). The risk was also higher, or limited to, subjects exposed to tobacco. The OR rose to 7.2 (95% CI 5.5-9.5) among subjects with family history, who were alcohol and tobacco users. A weak but significant association (OR=1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2) emerged for family history of other tobacco-related neoplasms, particularly with laryngeal cancer (OR=1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5). No association was observed for family history of non-tobacco related neoplasms and the risk of HNC (OR=1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1). Familial factors play a role in the etiology of HNC. In both subjects with and without family history of HNC, avoidance of tobacco and alcohol exposure may be the best way to avoid HNC. PMID:18814262

  13. Accuracy of Family History of Hemochromatosis or Iron Overload: The Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study

    PubMed Central

    Acton, Ronald T.; Barton, James C.; Passmore, Leah V.; Adams, Paul C.; Mclaren, Gordon D.; Leiendecker–Foster, Catherine; Speechley, Mark R.; Harris, Emily L.; Castro, Oswaldo; Reiss, Jacob A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Harrison, Barbara W.; Mclaren, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims The aim of this study was to assess the analytic validity of self-reported family history of hemochromatosis or iron overload. Methods A total of 141 probands, 549 family members, and 641 controls participated in the primary care Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study. Participants received a postscreening clinical examination and completed questionnaires about personal and family histories of hemochromatosis or iron overload, arthritis, diabetes, liver disease, and heart disease. We evaluated sensitivities and specificities of proband-reported family history, and concordance of HFE genotype C282Y/C282Y in probands and siblings who reported having hemochromatosis or iron overload. Results The sensitivities of proband-reported family history ranged from 81.4% for hemochromatosis or iron overload to 18.4% for liver disease; specificities for diabetes, liver disease, and heart disease were greater than 94%. Hemochromatosis or iron overload was associated with a positive family history across all racial/ethnic groups in the study (odds ratio, 14.53; 95% confidence intervals, 7.41–28.49; P < .0001) and among Caucasians (odds ratio, 16.98; 95% confidence intervals, 7.53–38.32; P < .0001). There was 100% concordance of HFE genotype C282Y/C282Y in 6 probands and 8 of their siblings who reported having hemochromatosis or iron overload. Conclusions Self-reported family history of hemochromatosis or iron overload can be used to identify individuals whose risk of hemochromatosis or iron overload and associated conditions is increased. These individuals could benefit from further evaluation with iron phenotyping and HFE mutation analysis. PMID:18585964

  14. Family history of rheumatoid arthritis: an old concept with new developments.

    PubMed

    Frisell, Thomas; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Askling, Johan

    2016-06-01

    Family history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a proxy for an individual's genetic and, in part, environmental risk of developing RA, and is a well-recognized predictor of disease onset. Although family history of RA is an old concept, the degree of familial aggregation of RA, whether it differs by age, sex, or serology, and what value it has for clinical decisions once a diagnosis of RA has been made remain unclear. New data have been emerging in parallel to substantial progress made in genetic association studies. In this Review, we describe the various ways that familial aggregation has been measured, and how the findings from these studies, whether they are based on twins, cohorts of first-degree relatives, or genetic data, correspond to each other and aid understanding of the aetiology of RA. In addition, we review the potential usefulness of family history of RA from a clinical point of view, demonstrating that, in the era of big data and genomics, family history still has a role in directing clinical decision-making and research. PMID:27098907

  15. The influence of family history on prostate cancer risk: implications for clinical management.

    PubMed

    Madersbacher, Stephan; Alcaraz, Antonio; Emberton, Mark; Hammerer, Peter; Ponholzer, Anton; Schröder, Fritz H; Tubaro, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    • The most recent evidence for the link between a family history of prostate cancer and individual risk for future disease was examined, with the aim of understanding what the existence and nature of a family history of prostate cancer does to a man's risk of developing the disease. • Our findings highlighted the clear association between a family history of prostate cancer and increased risk of developing the disease; with a greater proximity of relatedness, greater number of family members affected and/or earlier age at diagnosis of the family member elevating risk further. • These findings have important clinical implications for the identification and subsequent management of men deemed to be at increased risk of developing prostate cancer. The evidence for prostate cancer risk reduction with the mono 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) finasteride in a low-risk population and, more recently, with the dual 5ARI dutasteride in a population at increased risk of developing the disease, has potential to expand management options for men at risk of developing prostate cancer beyond more frequent and/or earlier surveillance. • Given that family history can be easily assessed in routine clinical practice, it should be regarded as an important parameter to consider alongside PSA level for prostate cancer risk assessment. PMID:21166744

  16. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  17. Secrets of Lost Empires: Family Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, John D.; Gaffney, Dennis

    This family activity book features information on the background and filming of five stories. "Pharaoh's Obelisk" questions how ancient Egyptians transported and raised stone obelisks. "Roman Bath" studies how Romans built bathhouses and attempts to build a working Roman bath. "China Bridge" investigates the structure of the China Bridge and…

  18. Roots run deep: Investigating psychological mechanisms between history of family aggression and abusive supervision.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Patrick Raymund James M; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D; Kiewitz, Christian; Scott, Kristin L; Tang, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we examine the relationships between supervisor-level factors and abusive supervision. Drawing from social learning theory (Bandura, 1973), we argue that supervisors' history of family aggression indirectly impacts abusive supervision via both hostile cognitions and hostile affect, with angry rumination functioning as a first-stage moderator. Using multisource data, we tested the proposed relationships in a series of 4 studies, each providing evidence of constructive replication. In Study 1, we found positive relationships between supervisors' history of family aggression, hostile affect, explicit hostile cognitions, and abusive supervision. We obtained the same pattern of results in Studies 2, 3, and 4 using an implicit measure of hostile cognitions and controlling for previously established antecedents of abusive supervision. Angry rumination moderated the indirect relationship between supervisors' history of family aggression and abusive supervision via hostile affect only. Overall, the results highlight the important role of supervisor-level factors in the abusive supervision dynamics. PMID:24731179

  19. Digital Family History Data Mining with Neural Networks: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoyt, Robert; Linnville, Steven; Thaler, Stephen; Moore, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Following the passage of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, electronic health records were widely adopted by eligible physicians and hospitals in the United States. Stage 2 meaningful use menu objectives include a digital family history but no stipulation as to how that information should be used. A variety of data mining techniques now exist for these data, which include artificial neural networks (ANNs) for supervised or unsupervised machine learning. In this pilot study, we applied an ANN-based simulation to a previously reported digital family history to mine the database for trends. A graphical user interface was created to display the input of multiple conditions in the parents and output as the likelihood of diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease in male and female offspring. The results of this pilot study show promise in using ANNs to data mine digital family histories for clinical and research purposes. PMID:26903781

  20. Learning from e-Family History: A Model of Online Family Historian Research Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on doctoral research which investigated the online research behaviour of family historians, from the overall perspective of local studies collections and developing online services for family historians. Method: A hybrid (primarily ethnographic) study was employed using qualitative diaries and shadowing, to examine…

  1. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADULT MORTALITY RISK AND FAMILY HISTORY OF LONGEVITY: THE MODERATING EFFECTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS

    PubMed Central

    TEMBY, OWEN F.; SMITH, KEN R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Studies consistently show that increasing levels of socioeconomic status (SES) and having a familial history of longevity reduce the risk of mortality. But do these two variables interact, such that individuals with lower levels of SES, for example, may experience an attenuated longevity penalty by virtue of having long-lived relatives? This article examines this interaction by analysing survival past age 40 based on data from the Utah Population Database on an extinct cohort of men born from the years 1840 to 1909. Cox proportional hazards regression and logistic regression are used to test for the main and interaction mortality effects of SES and familial excess longevity (FEL), a summary measure of an individual’s history of longevity among his or her relatives. This research finds that the mortality hazard rate for men in the top 15th percentile of occupational status decreases more as FEL increases than it does among men in the bottom 15th percentile. In addition, the mortality hazard rate among farmers decreases more as FEL increases than it does for non-farmers. With a strong family history of longevity as a proxy for a genetic predisposition, this research suggests that a gene–environment interaction occurs whereby the benefits of familial excess longevity are more available to those who have occupations with more autonomy and greater economic resources and/or opportunities for physical activity. PMID:24103415

  2. Obesity and its association with generalised epilepsy, idiopathic syndrome, and family history of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ladino, Lady D; Hernández-Ronquillo, Lizbeth; Téllez-Zenteno, José F

    2014-09-01

    Aim. Previous studies support the concept that obesity is a common comorbid condition in patients with epilepsy (PWE). In this study, we present the body mass index (BMI) and data from a survey to assess physical activity in a sample of PWE from an epilepsy clinic. Methods. Between June of 2011 and January of 2013, 100 PWE from an adult epilepsy clinic were included. We obtained BMI, waist circumference, and information regarding physical activity using a standardised questionnaire. Clinical, demographic, electrographic, and imaging parameters were collected from charts. Results. Mean age of patients was 40 ± 14 (18-77) years. The BMI distribution was as follows: 2 patients (2%) underweight, 26 (26%) normal weight, 34 (34%) overweight, 25 (25%) obese, and 13 (13%) with morbid obesity. In our study, obesity was defined as having a BMI ≥ 30. We found 38 (38%) patients in this range. There was no difference in the rate of drug-resistant epilepsy between obese and non-obese patients (55 vs. 55%; p=0.05). Leisure time habit was reported in 82% of obese patients and 79% of patients without obesity. Overall, the most frequent activity was walking (70%). Factors associated with obesity were generalised epilepsy (OR: 2.7, 1.1-6.6; p=0.012), idiopathic syndrome (OR: 2.7, 1.04-7; p=0.018), and family history of epilepsy (OR: 6.1, 1.5-24.2; p=0.002). Conclusion. Our study suggests an association between obesity, idiopathic generalised epilepsy, and family history of epilepsy. Our study shows that PWE are physically active and there is no clear relation between exercise and obesity. We could not identify any association between drug-resistant epilepsy and obesity. Absence of direct comparison with a control non-epileptic population; a cross-sectional design not allowing evaluation of a causal association among variables; and reliance on self-reported physical activity are to be considered as limitations of the present study. PMID:25179745

  3. Expectant parents' representations of early attachment relationships: associations with mental health and family history.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Shelley A; Jacobvitz, Deborah

    2002-02-01

    The association between adult representations of early attachment relationships and history of individual and family mental health was examined in a sample of 233 expectant mothers and fathers. As predicted, security of attachment was linked to mental health. Parents classified as Preoccupied were more likely than other parents to report suicidal ideation. Whereas parents classified as Unresolved more often reported suicidal ideation, emotional distress, and substance abuse. With respect to family history. Unresolved and Preoccupied attachment classifications were significantly related to child abuse involving a relative and parental separation or divorce. These findings support theoretical conceptualizations regarding the link between adult attachment and mental health in middle-class American adults. PMID:11860045

  4. The association between family history of mental disorders and general cognitive ability

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, J J; Wray, N R; Pedersen, C B; Mortensen, P B; Greve, A N; Petersen, L

    2014-01-01

    There is an emerging literature linking cognitive ability with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. These findings have led to the hypothesis that diminished ‘cognitive reserve' is a causal risk factor for psychiatric disorders. However, it is also feasible that a family history of mental disorders may confound this relationship, by contributing to both a slight impairment in cognitive ability, and an increased risk of psychiatric disorder. On the basis of a large, population-based sample of young adult male conscripts (n=160 608), we examined whether the presence of a family history of a range of mental disorders was associated with cognitive ability, as tested by the Børge Priens Prøve. In those with no individual-level history of mental disorder, a family-level history of a mental disorder was associated with a slight reduction in cognitive ability. In general, this pattern was found regardless of the nature of the psychiatric disorder in the family. Our study suggests that shared familial factors may underpin both cognitive ability and the risk of a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Convergent evidence from epidemiology and genetics suggests that shared genetic factors underpin an unexpectedly diverse range of psychiatric disorders. On the basis of the findings of the current study, we speculate that these same shared genetic factors also contribute to general cognitive ability. PMID:25050992

  5. Speech and Language Difficulties in Children with and without a Family History of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Julia M.; Myers, Joanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Comorbidity between SLI and dyslexia is well documented. Researchers have variously argued that dyslexia is a separate disorder from SLI, or that children with dyslexia show a subset of the difficulties shown in SLI. This study examines these hypotheses by assessing whether family history of dyslexia and speech and language difficulties are…

  6. Comparative Differences in the Psychological Histories of Sex Offenders, Victims, and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miccio-Fonseca, L. C.

    1996-01-01

    Presents the findings of a comprehensive seven-year research project which involved 656 participants (male, female, adolescent sex offenders, adult sex offenders, victims, and their families) ages 4-71. Comparative data are reported on age, marital status, educational level, psychological histories, violence, life stressors, sexual behavior and…

  7. "Object Lesson": Using Family Heirlooms to Engage Students in Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Marice

    2012-01-01

    This first written assignment of the semester for the author's undergraduate introductory art history class--an essay where students describe and reflect upon the significance of a family heirloom--is instrumental in meeting class objectives. The author's objectives in this class are for students: (1) to broaden their conception of what art is…

  8. Early Predictors of Dyslexia in Chinese Children: Familial History of Dyslexia, Language Delay, and Cognitive Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y. C.; Wong, Terry T. Y.; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills.…

  9. Real-Life Spatial Skills, Handedness, and Family History of Handedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecuyer-Dab, I.; Tremblay, T.; Joanette, Y.; Passini, R.

    2005-01-01

    According to Annett (1985), pronounced left hemisphere lateralization for language abilities in women, as in female absolute right-handers, limits their right hemisphere capacity and spatial abilities. This study examines the degree of handedness and the family history of non-right-handedness with respect to real-life spatial abilities in women.…

  10. Association of Family History of Epilepsy with Earlier Age Onset of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is supposedly the most frequent subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of JME and comparison of patients’ demographics as well as timeline of the disease between positive family history epileptic patients (PFHE) and negative family history epileptic patients (NFHE) among sample of Iranian epileptic patients. Materials & Methods From Feb. 2006 to Oct. 2009, 1915 definite epileptic patients (873 females) referred to epilepsy clinics in Isfahan, central Iran, were surveyed and among them, 194 JME patients were diagnosed. JME was diagnosed by its specific clinical and EEG criteria. Patients were divided into two groups as PFHE and NFHE and data were compared between them. Results JME was responsible for 10% (194 patients) of all types of epilepsies. Of JME patients, 53% were female. In terms of family history of epilepsy, 40% were positive. No significant differences was found between PFHE and NFHE groups as for gender (P>0.05). Age of epilepsy onset was significantly earlier in PFHE patients (15 vs. 22 yr, P<0.001). Occurrence of JME before 18 yr old among PFHE patients was significantly higher (OR=2.356, P=0.007). Conclusion A family history of epilepsy might be associated with an earlier age of onset in patients with JME. PMID:27247579

  11. History from Children's Perspectives: Learning to Read and Write Historical Accounts Using Family Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Maria Auxiliadora; Garcia, Tania Maria F. Braga

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation which was part of a project called "Recreating Histories". It is concerned with the analysis of historical narratives created by the children who participated in the project and an analysis of historical sources kept by families who live in Campina Grande do Sul (Brazil). It draws on the…

  12. Sweet preferences and analgesia during childhood: effects of family history of alcoholism and depression

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.; Pepino, M. Yanina; Lehmann-Castor, Sara M.; Yourshaw, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine whether depression and family history of alcoholism are associated with heightened sweet preferences in children, before they have experienced alcohol or tobacco and at a time during the life-span when sweets are particularly salient. Design Between- and within-subject experimental study. Participants Children, 5–12 years old (n = 300), formed four groups based on family history of alcohol dependence up to second-degree relatives [positive (FHP) versus negative (FHN)] and depressive symptoms as determined by the Pictorial Depression Scale [depressed (PDEP) versus non-depressed (NDEP)]. Measurements Children were tested individually to measure sucrose preferences, sweet food liking and, for a subset of the children, the analgesic properties of sucrose versus water during the cold pressor test. Findings The co-occurrence of having a family history of alcoholism and self-reports of depressive symptomatology was associated significantly with a preference for a more concentrated sucrose solution, while depressive symptomatology alone was associated with greater liking for sweet-tasting foods and candies and increased pain sensitivity. Depression antagonized the analgesic properties of sucrose. Conclusions While children as a group innately like sweets and feel better after eating them, the present study reveals significant contributions of family history of alcoholism and depression to this effect. Whether the heightened sweet preference and the use of sweets to alleviate depression are markers for developing alcohol-related problems or responses that are protective are important areas for future research. PMID:20148789

  13. Family Foundations: A New Program for Pregnant and Parenting Women Offenders with Substance Abuse Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiewel, Brenda; Mosley, Toni

    2006-01-01

    A new program in California partners the California Department of Corrections with a non-profit drug treatment agency on behalf of pregnant or parenting women who are drug offenders with substance abuse histories. The women are sentenced to the family foundations facility for one year and receive a range of special services to prepare for…

  14. Mathematical History: Activities, Puzzles, Stories, and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Merle

    Based on the history of mathematics, these materials have been planned to enrich the teaching of mathematics in grades four, five, and six. Puzzles and games are based on stories about topics such as famous mathematicians, numerals of ancient peoples, and numerology. The sheets are arranged by grade level and are designed for easy duplication.…

  15. Impact of gene family evolutionary histories on phylogenetic species tree inference by gene tree parsimony.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Complicated history of gene duplication and loss brings challenge to molecular phylogenetic inference, especially in deep phylogenies. However, phylogenomic approaches, such as gene tree parsimony (GTP), show advantage over some other approaches in its ability to use gene families with duplications. GTP searches the 'optimal' species tree by minimizing the total cost of biological events such as duplications, but accuracy of GTP and phylogenetic signal in the context of different gene families with distinct histories of duplication and loss are unclear. To evaluate how different evolutionary properties of different gene families can impact on species tree inference, 3900 gene families from seven angiosperms encompassing a wide range of gene content, lineage-specific expansions and contractions were analyzed. It was found that the gene content and total duplication number in a gene family strongly influence species tree inference accuracy, with the highest accuracy achieved at either very low or very high gene content (or duplication number) and lowest accuracy centered in intermediate gene content (or duplication number), as the relationship can fit a binomial regression. Besides, for gene families of similar level of average gene content, those with relatively higher lineage-specific expansion or duplication rates tend to show lower accuracy. Additional correlation tests support that high accuracy for those gene families with large gene content may rely on abundant ancestral copies to provide many subtrees to resolve conflicts, whereas high accuracy for single or low copy gene families are just subject to sequence substitution per se. Very low accuracy reached by gene families of intermediate gene content or duplication number can be due to insufficient subtrees to resolve the conflicts from loss of alternative copies. As these evolutionary properties can significantly influence species tree accuracy, I discussed the potential weighting of the duplication cost by

  16. Family history of esophageal cancer increases the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tiantian; Cheng, Hongwei; Chen, Xingdong; Yuan, Ziyu; Yang, Xiaorong; Zhuang, Maoqiang; Lu, Ming; Jin, Li; Ye, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    A population-based case-control was performed to explore familial aggregation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Family history of cancer was assessed by a structured questionnaire, and from which 2 cohorts of relatives of cases and controls were reconstructed. Unconditional logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression were applied for case-control design and reconstructed cohort design, respectively. We observed a close to doubled risk of ESCC associated with a positive family history of esophageal cancer among first degree relatives (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-2.41), after adjusting age, sex, family size and other confounders. The excess risks of ESCC increased with the increasing of first-degree relatives affected by esophageal cancer (p < 0.001). In particular, those individuals whose both parents with esophageal cancer had an 8-fold excess risk of ESCC (95% CI: 1.74-36.32). The reconstructed cohort analysis showed that the cumulative risk of esophageal cancer to age 75 was 12.2% in the first-degree relatives of cases and 7.0% in those of controls (hazard ratio = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.54-2.37). Our results suggest family history of esophageal cancer significantly increases the risk for ESCC. Future studies are needed to understand how the shared genetic susceptibility and/or environmental exposures contribute to the observed excess risk. PMID:26526791

  17. Assessing Disease Risk in Genome-wide Association Studies Using Family History

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arpita; Hartge, Patricia; Purdue, Mark P.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Amundadottir, Laufey; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Wacholder, Sholom

    2012-01-01

    We show how to use reports of cancer in family members to discover additional genetic associations or confirm previous findings in genome-wide association (GWA) studies conducted in case-control, cohort, or cross-sectional studies. Our novel family-history-based approach allows economical association studies for multiple cancers, without genotyping of relatives (as required in family studies), follow-up of participants (as required in cohort studies), or oversampling of specific cancer cases, (as required in case-control studies). We empirically evaluate the performance of the proposed family-history-based approach in studying associations with prostate and ovarian cancers, using data from GWA studies previously conducted within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. The family-history-based method may be particularly useful for investigating genetic susceptibility to rare diseases, for which accruing cases may be very difficult, by using disease information from non-genotyped relatives of participants in multiple case-control and cohort studies designed primarily for other purposes. PMID:22575968

  18. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 "When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable" (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 "A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable" (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07-1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27-1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05-1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved. PMID:27338441

  19. Educating women about breast cancer. An intervention for women with a family history of breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Ellen; Carroll, June C.; Heisey, Ruth E.; Goel, Vivek; Meschino, Wendy S.; Lickley, H. Lavina A.; Doan, Brian D.; Chart, Pamela L.; Orr, Vanessa; Lothian, Shelley

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an "information aid" for women with a family history of breast cancer. DESIGN: Before-after descriptive study. SETTING: Family practices in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Of 405 randomly selected Ontario physician members of the College of Family Physician's of Canada's National Research System, 97 agreed to participate and to recruit three consecutive female patients with any family history of breast cancer. INTERVENTIONS: Patients completed a baseline questionnaire and, after reviewing the information aid, a satisfaction questionnaire. Four weeks later, they completed a third questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient satisfaction, knowledge, worries related to breast cancer, risk perception, and attitudes toward screening. RESULTS: Of 203 patients recruited, 160 (79%) completed all three questionnaires. The information aid was rated excellent or very good by 91% of the women; 99% would recommend it to other women. Knowledge improved significantly; worry about breast cancer did not increase. CONCLUSION: The information aid is a useful resource for women and primary care physicians and could facilitate appropriate risk assessment and management of women with a family history of breast cancer. PMID:12602843

  20. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 “When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable” (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 “A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable” (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07–1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27–1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05–1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved. PMID:27338441

  1. The History of the Black Family (The Black Family in Historical Perspective)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John Henrik

    1975-01-01

    Argues that from the first slave ships to the present time, black families have been looking for better homes, better schools and a way to participate in the social order that rules over their lives: their problem has always been the same--the lack of power. Holds that this was what the Civil Rights, the black power and the black Studies Movements…

  2. Prevalence of Family History of Breast, Colorectal, Prostate, and Lung Cancer in a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mai, P.L.; Wideroff, L.; Greene, M.H.; Graubard, B.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background A positive family history is a known risk factor for several cancers; thus, obtaining a thorough family cancer history is essential in cancer risk evaluation and prevention management. Methods The Family Health Study, a telephone survey in Connecticut, was conducted in 2001. A total of 1,019 participants with demographic information and family cancer history were included in this study. Prevalence of a positive family history of breast, colorectal, prostate, and lung cancer for first- and second-degree relatives was estimated. Logistic regression was used to compare prevalence by demographic factors. Results A positive family history among first-degree relatives was reported by 10.9% (95% Confidence Interval, CI = 8.8–13.3) of respondents for breast cancer, 5.1% (95% CI = 3.9–6.7) for colorectal cancer, 7.0% (95% CI = 5.2–9.4) for prostate cancer, and 6.4% (95% CI = 4.9–8.3) for lung cancer. The reported prevalence of family history of specific cancers varied by sex, age and race/ethnicity of the respondents. Conclusion Family history prevalence for 4 of the most common adult solid tumors is substantial and the reported prevalence varied by respondent characteristics. Additional studies are needed to evaluate tools to promote accurate reporting of family history of cancer. PMID:20389042

  3. Phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity and family history in referred preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age) who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months) were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n=15; 60.0%), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (n=12; 48.0%), and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%). Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD. PMID:23173690

  4. Family history of breast and ovarian cancer and triple negative subtype in hispanic/latina women.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristin; Thompson, Patricia A; Wertheim, Betsy C; Martin, Lorena; Komenaka, Ian K; Bondy, Melissa; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutierrez-Millan, Luis Enrique; Brewster, Abenaa; Madlensky, Lisa; Tobias, Malaika; Natarajan, Loki; Martínez, María Elena

    2014-01-01

    Familial breast and ovarian cancer prevalence was assessed among 1150 women of Mexican descent enrolled in a case-only, binational breast cancer study. Logistic regression was conducted to compare odds of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) to non-TNBC according to family history of breast and breast or ovarian cancer among 914 of these women. Prevalence of breast cancer family history in a first- and first- or second-degree relative was 13.1% and 24.1%, respectively; that for breast or ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative was 14.9%. After adjustment for age and country of residence, women with a first-degree relative with breast cancer were more likely to be diagnosed with TNBC than non-TNBC (OR=1.98; 95% CI, 1.26-3.11). The odds of TNBC compared to non-TNBC were 1.93 (95% CI, 1.26-2.97) for women with a first-degree relative with breast or ovarian cancer. There were non-significant stronger associations between family history and TNBC among women diagnosed at age <50 compared to ≥50 years for breast cancer in a first-degree relative (P-interaction = 0.14) and a first- or second-degree relative (P-interaction = 0.07). Findings suggest that familial breast cancers are associated with triple negative subtype, possibly related to BRCA mutations in Hispanic/Latina women, which are strongly associated with TNBC. Family history is an important tool to identify Hispanic/Latina women who may be at increased risk of TNBC, and could benefit from prevention and early detection strategies. PMID:25713754

  5. Sympathetic reactivity in young women with a family history of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Jody L.; Matthews, Evan L.

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with a family history of hypertension (+FH) have increased risk of developing hypertension. Furthermore, the blood pressure (BP) response to sympathoexcitatory stimuli in young adults can predict the future development of hypertension. Therefore, we hypothesized young women with a +FH would have exaggerated cardiovascular and sympathetic reactivity compared with young women without a family history of hypertension (−FH). Beat-by-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured in 14 women +FH (22 ± 1 yr, 21 ± 1 kg/m2, MAP 80 ± 2 mmHg) and 15 women −FH (22 ± 1 yr, 22 ± 1 kg/m2, MAP 78 ± 2 mmHg) during acute sympathoexcitatory maneuvers: cold pressor test, 2 min of isometric handgrip (HG) exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, and 3 min of postexercise ischemia (PEI; isolated activation of the skeletal muscle metaboreflex). During cold pressor test, the increase in BP was greater in women +FH (ΔMAP: +FH 16 ± 2 vs. −FH 11 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05), which was accompanied by an exaggerated increase in MSNA (ΔMSNA: +FH 17 ± 2 vs. −FH 8 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). The increase in BP was greater in +FH during the last minute of HG (ΔMAP: +FH 23 ± 3 vs. −FH 12 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and during PEI (ΔMAP: +FH 17 ± 3 vs. −FH 9 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.05). Similarly, the increase in MSNA was greater in +FH during both HG (ΔMSNA: +FH 12 ± 2 vs. −FH 6 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05) and PEI (ΔMSNA: +FH 16 ± 2 vs. −FH 4 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that +FH women have greater BP and sympathetic reactivity compared with −FH women. PMID:25681430

  6. Sympathetic reactivity in young women with a family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Jody L; Matthews, Evan L; Wenner, Megan M

    2015-04-15

    Young adults with a family history of hypertension (+FH) have increased risk of developing hypertension. Furthermore, the blood pressure (BP) response to sympathoexcitatory stimuli in young adults can predict the future development of hypertension. Therefore, we hypothesized young women with a +FH would have exaggerated cardiovascular and sympathetic reactivity compared with young women without a family history of hypertension (-FH). Beat-by-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured in 14 women +FH (22 ± 1 yr, 21 ± 1 kg/m(2), MAP 80 ± 2 mmHg) and 15 women -FH (22 ± 1 yr, 22 ± 1 kg/m(2), MAP 78 ± 2 mmHg) during acute sympathoexcitatory maneuvers: cold pressor test, 2 min of isometric handgrip (HG) exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, and 3 min of postexercise ischemia (PEI; isolated activation of the skeletal muscle metaboreflex). During cold pressor test, the increase in BP was greater in women +FH (ΔMAP: +FH 16 ± 2 vs. -FH 11 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05), which was accompanied by an exaggerated increase in MSNA (ΔMSNA: +FH 17 ± 2 vs. -FH 8 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). The increase in BP was greater in +FH during the last minute of HG (ΔMAP: +FH 23 ± 3 vs. -FH 12 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and during PEI (ΔMAP: +FH 17 ± 3 vs. -FH 9 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.05). Similarly, the increase in MSNA was greater in +FH during both HG (ΔMSNA: +FH 12 ± 2 vs. -FH 6 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05) and PEI (ΔMSNA: +FH 16 ± 2 vs. -FH 4 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that +FH women have greater BP and sympathetic reactivity compared with -FH women. PMID:25681430

  7. [One hundred years' history of public health activities in Korea].

    PubMed

    Meng, K H

    1999-01-01

    In a dictionary of epidemiology, recently edited by John Last, public health was defined as one of the efforts organized by society to protest, promote, and restore the peoples' health. It is the combination of sciences, skills, and beliefs that is directed to the maintenance and improvement of the health of all the people through collective or social action. In most countries, the efforts to protect, promote, and restore the peoples' health are mostly organized by the government, and therefore, the history of public health in the respective countries is closely related to the state of government and its administrative structures. In this article, the history of public health activities in Korea during the last 100 years has been reviewed in four consecutive time periods from the end of Li Dynasty till now. The public health during the first some 50 years from 1897 when the Dae Han Empire began to 1945 when the Japanese colonial period ended can be characterized by enforcement of personal and environmental hygiene by the police. In those days, communicable disease control was the main purpose of such public health measures. Second phase of Korean public health from 1945 to the time of military coup in 1961 is characterized by enactment of various public health laws and the related public health practices. Major health related laws are communicable disease control law, environmental hygiene act, industrial safety and health law, and so on. Important public health practice in this time period was family planning. Third phase of public health history from 1962 to 1992 can be recorded as the time when the actual public health practices were fully developed. Because of well established health center activities throughout the country, basic public health services were provided together with primary medical care services to the people in rural areas. Since 1993, two civilian governments have been trying to change the concept of their health administration from providing

  8. Evolutionary History of Cathepsin L (L-like) Family Genes in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yao-Yang; Li, Qing-Yun; Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin L family, an important cysteine protease found in lysosomes, is categorized into cathepsins B, F, H, K, L, S, and W in vertebrates. This categorization is based on their sequence alignment and traditional functional classification, but the evolutionary relationship of family members is unclear. This study determined the evolutionary relationship of cathepsin L family genes in vertebrates through phylogenetic construction. Results showed that cathepsins F, H, S and K, and L and V were chronologically diverged. Tandem-repeat duplication was found to occur in the evolutionary history of cathepsin L family. Cathepsin L in zebrafish, cathepsins S and K in xenopus, and cathepsin L in mice and rats underwent evident tandem-repeat events. Positive selection was detected in cathepsin L-like members in mice and rats, and amino acid sites under positive selection pressure were calculated. Most of these sites appeared at the connection of secondary structures, suggesting that the sites may slightly change spatial structure. Severe positive selection was also observed in cathepsin V (L2) of primates, indicating that this enzyme had some special functions. Our work provided a brief evolutionary history of cathepsin L family and differentiated cathepsins S and K from cathepsin L based on vertebrate appearance. Positive selection was the specific cause of differentiation of cathepsin L family genes, confirming that gene function variation after expansion events was related to interactions with the environment and adaptability. PMID:26221069

  9. Personal and family history of cancer and the risk of Barrett's esophagus in men.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, N; Ramsey, D; Kramer, J R; El-Serag, H B

    2015-04-01

    The association between Barrett's esophagus (BE) and a personal or family history of cancer other than gastroesophageal remains unknown. To evaluate the effect of personal and family history of certain cancers and cancer treatments on the risk of BE, we analyzed data from a Veterans Affairs case-control study that included 264 men with definitive BE (cases) and 1486 men without BE (controls). Patients with history of esophageal or gastric cancer were excluded. Patients underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy or a study esophagogastroduodenoscopy concurrently with screening colonoscopy to determine BE status. Personal and family history of several types of cancer was obtained from self-reported questionnaires, supplemented and verified by electronic medical-record reviews. We estimated the association between personal and family history of cancer or radiation/chemotherapy, and BE. Personal history of oropharyngeal cancer (1.5% vs. 0.4%) or prostate cancer (7.2% vs. 4.4%) was more frequently present in cases than controls. The association between BE and prostate cancer persisted in multivariable analyses (adjusted odds ratio 1.90; 95% confidence interval 1.07-3.38, P = 0.028) while that with oropharyngeal cancer (adjusted odds ratio 3.63; 95% confidence interval 0.92-14.29, P = 0.066) was attenuated after adjusting for retained covariates of age, race, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia, and proton pump inhibitor use. Within the subset of patients with cancer, prior treatment with radiation or chemotherapy was not associated with BE. There were no significant differences between cases and controls in the proportions of subjects with several specific malignancies in first- or second-degree relatives. In conclusion, the risk of BE in men may be elevated with prior personal history of oropharyngeal or prostate cancer. However, prior cancer treatments and family history of cancer were not associated with increased risk of BE. Further studies are needed

  10. Pilot Trial of an Electronic Family Medical History in US Faith-Based Communities.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Patricia; Canclini, Sharon; Cauble, Denise; Raudonis, Barbara; Golden, Paulette

    2014-02-25

    In spite of the acknowledged importance of collecting family health information, methods of collecting, organizing, and storage of pedigree data are not uniformly utilized in practice, though several electronic tools have been developed for the purpose. Using electronic tools to gather health information may empower individuals to take responsibility in managing their family health history. The purpose of this study was to describe the feasibility and outcomes of introducing small groups to the My Family Health Portrait tool in faith-based communities using faith community nurses (FCNs). This pilot project adopted a mixed methods approach to assess the potential of an educational intervention delivered by FCNs for increasing the use of electronic technologies for organizing and storing family health histories among the general public. Treatment and control groups were recruited from four faith-based communities in north Texas using a parallel-groups quasi-experimental design. Qualitative data were gleaned from field notes made by investigators interacting with FCNs and observing their teaching. A majority of respondents believed that knowing one's health history and passing it on to family and medical personnel is important. Those receiving face-to-face instruction on the electronic tool were significantly more likely to have written down family health information than the control group who received only an informational handout (χ(2) = 5.96, P = .015). Barriers to teaching about and using the electronic tool included FCNs' lack of facility with computers in the educational context and FCN and respondent mistrust of electronic storage for family health information. PMID:24569130

  11. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... Volunteer Support TeamCindy Upcoming Events Past Events Support Canada Online Store About Us BAF at a Glance Board of Directors / Staff Medical Advisory Board Sponsors Publications BAF Newsletters Annual Reports News Public Service Announcements Press Releases Blog Administrative Tax ...

  12. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Christopher C. Getch, MD Chair of Research Carol W. Harvey Memorial Chair of Research The Karen ... The Christopher C. Getch, MD Chair of Research Carol W. Harvey Memorial Chair of Research The Karen ...

  13. Ascertainment through family history of disease often decreases the power of family-based association studies.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Manuel A R; Sham, Pak; Daly, Mark J; Purcell, Shaun

    2007-07-01

    Selection of cases with additional affected relatives has been shown to increase the power of the case-control association design. We investigated whether this strategy can also improve the power of family-based association studies that use the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), while accounting for the effects of residual polygenic and environmental factors on disease liability. Ascertainment of parent-offspring trios conditional on the proband having affected first-degree relatives almost always reduced the power of the TDT. For many disease models, this reduction was quite considerable. In contrast, for the same sample size, designs that analyzed more than one affected offspring per family often improved power when compared to the standard parent-offspring trio design. Together, our results suggest that (1) residual polygenic and environmental influences should be considered when estimating the power of the TDT for studies that ascertain families with multiple affected relatives; (2) if trios are selected conditional on having additional affected offspring, then it is important to genotype and include in the analysis the additional siblings; (3) the ascertainment strategy should be considered when interpreting results from TDT analyses. Our analytic approach to estimate the asymptotic power of the TDT is implemented online at http://pngu.mgh.harvard.edu/ ~purcell/gpc/. PMID:17372818

  14. The modern Chinese family in light of economic and legal history.

    PubMed

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s. PMID:22145178

  15. Using Family Health History for Chronic Disease Prevention in the Age of Genomics: Translation to Health Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Carl; Novilla, Lelinneth; Barnes, Michael; De La Cruz, Natalie; Meacham, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Advances in the field of human genomics have important implications for the prevention of chronic disease. In response to these advancements, public health professionals--including health educators--must become competent in the principles underlying the interface between genomics and the use of family health history. Family health history captures…

  16. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  17. Implications of living with a strong family history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Maheu, Christine

    2009-06-01

    The findings presented here are from a qualitative study in which data were gathered from 20 women who had received inconclusive genetic testing results for inherited breast cancer susceptibility. Before describing the significance, for them, of their genetic test results, all of the participants related what it was like to live with a strong family history of breast cancer. The focus of this article is the women's experience of living with a personal and strong family history of breast cancer. For these women, having such a history had become a fact of life that could not be ignored.Three themes were identified in the data: expecting and dealing with a diagnosis of breast cancer protecting oneself and others, and increasing exposure to cancer screening procedures. These themes address the underlying reality that having a personal and family history of breast cancer is not an isolated situation but part of one's journey in choosing to undergo genetic testing for inherited breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:19650516

  18. History and Evolution of Active Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beichner, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines active learning spaces as they have developed over the years. Consistently well-designed classrooms can facilitate active learning even though the details of implementing pedagogies may differ.

  19. Perceptions of family history and genetic testing and feasibility of pedigree development among African Americans with hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pettey, Christina M; McSweeney, Jean C; Stewart, Katharine E; Price, Elvin T; Cleves, Mario A; Heo, Seongkum; Souder, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Background Pedigree development, family history, and genetic testing are thought to be useful in improving outcomes of chronic illnesses such as hypertension (HTN). However, the clinical utility of pedigree development is still unknown. Further, little is known about African Americans’ (AAs’) perceptions of family history and genetic testing. Aims This study examined the feasibility of developing pedigrees for AAs with HTN and explored perceptions of family history and genetic research among AAs with HTN. Methods The US Surgeon General’s My Family Health Portrait was administered, and 30–60 minute in-person individual interviews were conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze pedigree data. Interview transcripts were analyzed with content analysis and constant comparison. Results Twenty-nine AAs with HTN were recruited from one free clinic (15 women, 14 men; mean age 49 years, SD 9.6). Twenty-six (90%) reported their family history in sufficient detail to develop a pedigree. Perceptions of family history included knowledge of HTN in the family, culturally influenced family teaching about HTN, and response to family history of HTN. Most participants agreed to future genetic testing and DNA collection because they wanted to help others; some said they needed more information and others expressed a concern for privacy. Conclusion The majority of AAs in this sample possessed extensive knowledge of HTN within their family and were able to develop a three generation pedigree with assistance. The majority were willing to participate in future genetic research. PMID:25322748

  20. Family history of hypertension and type 2 diabetes in relation to preeclampsia risk.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunfang; Williams, Michelle A; Leisenring, Wendy M; Sorensen, Tanya K; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Dempsey, Jennifer C; Luthy, David A

    2003-03-01

    In a case-control study of 190 preeclamptic patients and 373 control subjects, we assessed maternal family history of chronic hypertension and type 2 diabetes in relation to preeclampsia risk. Participants provided information on first-degree family history of the 2 conditions and other covariates during postpartum interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for confounding by age, race, and obesity. Compared with women with no parental history of hypertension, women with maternal only (odds ratio=1.9), paternal only (odds ratio=1.8), or both maternal and paternal history of hypertension (odds ratio=2.6) had a statistically significant increased risk of preeclampsia. The odds ratio for women with at least one hypertensive parent and a hypertensive sibling was 4.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 11.6). Both maternal only (odds ratio=2.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 4.6) and paternal only (odds ratio=1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 3.2) history of diabetes was associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. Women with a diabetic sibling had a 4.7-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 19.8). For women with at least one hypertensive parent and at least one diabetic parent, relative to those with parents with neither diagnosis, the odds ratio for preeclampsia was 3.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 6.2). Our results are consistent with the thesis that family history of hypertension and diabetes reflects genetic and behavioral factors whereby women may be predisposed to an increased preeclampsia risk. PMID:12623936

  1. Inpatient detection of cardiac-inherited disease: the impact of improving family history taking

    PubMed Central

    Waddell-Smith, Kathryn E; Donoghue, Tom; Oates, Stephanie; Graham, Amanda; Crawford, Jackie; Stiles, Martin K; Aitken, Andrew; Skinner, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives ‘Idiopathic’ cardiac conditions such as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and resuscitated sudden cardiac death (RSCD) may be familial. We suspected that inpatient cardiology services fail to recognise this. Our objective was to compare diagnostic value of family histories recorded by inpatient cardiology teams with a multigenerational family tree obtained by specially trained allied professionals. Methods 2 experienced cardiology nurses working in 2 tertiary adult cardiac units were trained in cardiac-inherited diseases and family history (FHx) taking, and established as regional coordinators for a National Cardiac Inherited Disease Registry. Over 6 months they sought ‘idiopathic’ cardiology inpatients with conditions with a possible familial basis, reviewed the FHx in the clinical records and pursued a minimum 3-generation family tree for syncope, young sudden death and cardiac disease (full FHx). Results 37 patients (22 males) were selected: mean age 51 years (range 15–79). Admission presentations included (idiopathic) RSCD (14), dyspnoea or heart failure (11), ventricular tachycardia (2), other (10). 3 patients had already volunteered their familial diagnosis to the admitting team. FHx was incompletely elicited in 17 (46%) and absent in 20 (54%). 29 patients (78%) provided a full FHx to the coordinator; 12 of which (41%) were strongly consistent with a diagnosis of a cardiac-inherited disease (DCM 7, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 3, long QT 1, left ventricular non-compaction 1). Overall, a familial diagnostic rate rose from 3/37(8%) to 12/37 (32%). Conclusions Adult cardiology inpatient teams are poor at recording FHx and need to be reminded of its powerful diagnostic value. PMID:26925241

  2. Genome-wide association study reveals greater polygenic loading for schizophrenia in cases with a family history of illness.

    PubMed

    Bigdeli, Tim B; Ripke, Stephan; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Lee, Sang Hong; Wray, Naomi R; Gejman, Pablo V; Rietschel, Marcella; Cichon, Sven; St Clair, David; Corvin, Aiden; Kirov, George; McQuillin, Andrew; Gurling, Hugh; Rujescu, Dan; Andreassen, Ole A; Werge, Thomas; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Malhotra, Anil K; O'Donovan, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Fanous, Ayman H

    2016-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have yielded more than 100 common susceptibility variants, and strongly support a substantial polygenic contribution of a large number of small allelic effects. It has been hypothesized that familial schizophrenia is largely a consequence of inherited rather than environmental factors. We investigated the extent to which familiality of schizophrenia is associated with enrichment for common risk variants detectable in a large GWAS. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for cases reporting a family history of psychotic illness (N = 978), cases reporting no such family history (N = 4,503), and unscreened controls (N = 8,285) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC1) study of schizophrenia. We used a multinomial logistic regression approach with model-fitting to detect allelic effects specific to either family history subgroup. We also considered a polygenic model, in which we tested whether family history positive subjects carried more schizophrenia risk alleles than family history negative subjects, on average. Several individual SNPs attained suggestive but not genome-wide significant association with either family history subgroup. Comparison of genome-wide polygenic risk scores based on GWAS summary statistics indicated a significant enrichment for SNP effects among family history positive compared to family history negative cases (Nagelkerke's R(2 ) = 0.0021; P = 0.00331; P-value threshold <0.4). Estimates of variability in disease liability attributable to the aggregate effect of genome-wide SNPs were significantly greater for family history positive compared to family history negative cases (0.32 and 0.22, respectively; P = 0.031). We found suggestive evidence of allelic effects detectable in large GWAS of schizophrenia that might be specific to particular family history subgroups. However, consideration of a polygenic risk score indicated a significant

  3. Pulkovo Observatory: An essay on its history and scientific activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dadaev, A. N.

    1978-01-01

    A history of the observatory and of the development of astronomy in Russia during the past 150 years is presented. Scientific activity was traced from the earliest objectives of precise stellar coordinates to the problems of radio variabilities of quasars.

  4. Childhood hemiplegia: is the side of lesion influenced by a family history of left-handedness?

    PubMed

    Goodman, R

    1994-05-01

    Family histories of left-handedness were obtained for 396 children with congenital or acquired hemiplegia. As in other studies, right-sided hemiplegia was substantially more common than left-sided hemiplegia. The excess of right hemiplegia was entirely accounted for by children with left-handed relatives. This is contrary to what would be expected if the preponderance of right hemiplegia reflected a greater vulnerability of the dominant hemisphere to early damage. Though the observed association between right hemiplegia and a family history of left-handedness may well have occurred by chance, it could potentially reflect some heritable aspect of cerebral asymmetry (such as slow development of the left hemisphere) that predisposes an individual both to left-handedness and to left-hemisphere injury. PMID:8168659

  5. Prostate cancer risk prediction based on complete prostate cancer family history

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Frederick; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Teerlink, Craig C; Lowrance, William T; Farnham, James M; Albright, Lisa A Cannon

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer (PC) relative risks (RRs) are typically estimated based on status of close relatives or presence of any affected relatives. This study provides RR estimates using extensive and specific PC family history. Methods A retrospective population-based study was undertaken to estimate RRs for PC based on complete family history of PC. A total of 635,443 males, all with ancestral genealogy data, were analyzed. RRs for PC were determined based upon PC rates estimated from males with no PC family history (without PC in first, second, or third degree relatives). RRs were determined for a variety of constellations, for example, number of first through third degree relatives; named (grandfather, father, uncle, cousins, brothers); maternal, paternal relationships, and age of onset. Results In the 635,443 males analyzed, 18,105 had PC. First-degree RRs ranged from 2.46 (=1 first-degree relative affected, CI = 2.39–2.53) to 7.65 (=4 first-degree relatives affected, CI = 6.28–9.23). Second-degree RRs for probands with 0 affected first-degree relatives ranged from 1.51 (≥1 second-degree relative affected, CI = 1.47–1.56) to 3.09 (≥5 second-degree relatives affected, CI = 2.32–4.03). Third-degree RRs with 0 affected first- and 0 affected second-degree relatives ranged from 1.15 (≥1 affected third-degree relative, CI = 1.12–1.19) to 1.50 (≥5 affected third-degree relatives, CI = 1.35–1.66). RRs based on age at diagnosis were higher for earlier age at diagnoses; for example, RR = 5.54 for ≥1 first-degree relative diagnosed before age 50 years (CI = 1.12–1.19) and RR = 1.78 for >1 second-degree relative diagnosed before age 50 years, CI = 1.33, 2.33. RRs for equivalent maternal versus paternal family history were not significantly different. Conclusions A more complete PC family history using close and distant relatives and age at diagnosis results in a wider range of estimates of individual RR

  6. Acculturation, Behavioral Factors, and Family History of Breast Cancer among Mexican and Mexican-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Nodora, Jesse N.; Cooper, Renee; Talavera, Gregory A.; Gallo, Linda; Montenegro, María Mercedes Meza; Komenaka, Ian; Natarajan, Loki; Millán, Luis Enrique Gutierrez; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Bondy, Melissa; Brewster, Abenaa; Thompson, Patricia; Martinez, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background Incidence rates for breast cancer are higher among Mexican-American (MA) women in the United States than women living in Mexico. Studies have shown higher prevalence of breast cancer risk factors in more acculturated than less acculturated Hispanic/Latinas in the United States. We compared the prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent. Methods Data were collected from 1,201 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients living in Mexico (n = 581) and MAs in the United States (n = 620). MA participants were categorized into three acculturation groups (Spanish dominant, bilingual, and English dominant); women living in Mexico were used as the referent group. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer were assessed according to acculturation level, adjusting for age at diagnosis and education. Results In the adjusted models, bilingual and English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or greater, consume more than one alcoholic beverage a week, and report having a family history of breast cancer than women living in Mexico. All three U.S. acculturation groups were significantly more likely to have lower total energy expenditure (≤533 kcal/d) than women in Mexico. English-dominant women were significantly less likely to ever smoke cigarettes than the Mexican group. Conclusions Our findings add to the limited scientific literature on the relationships among acculturation, health behavior, and family history of breast cancer in Mexican and MA women. PMID:26189937

  7. Lifestyle, Family History, and Risk of Idiopathic Parkinson Disease: A Large Danish Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kenborg, Line; Lassen, Christina F.; Ritz, Beate; Andersen, Klaus K.; Christensen, Jane; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Hansen, Johnni; Wermuth, Lene; Rod, Naja H.; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between Parkinson disease (PD) and smoking has been examined in several studies, but little is known about smoking in conjunction with other behaviors and a family history of PD. Using unconditional logistic regression analysis, we studied individual and joint associations of these factors with idiopathic PD among 1,808 Danish patients who were diagnosed in 1996–2009 and matched to 1,876 randomly selected population controls. Although there was a downward trend in duration of smoking, this was not observed for daily tobacco consumption. A moderate intake of caffeine (3.1–5 cups/day) was associated with a lower odds ratio for PD (0.45, 95% confidence interval: 0.34, 0.62), as was a moderate intake of alcohol (3.1–7 units/week) (odds ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.58, 0.84); a higher daily intake did not reduce the odds further. When these behaviors were studied in combination with smoking, the odds ratios were lower than those for each one alone. Compared with never smokers with no family history of PD, never smokers who did have a family history had an odds ratio of 2.81 (95% confidence interval: 1.91, 4.13); for smokers with a family history, the odds ratio was 1.60 (95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.23). In conclusion, duration of smoking seems to be more important than intensity in the relationship between smoking and idiopathic PD. The finding of lower risk estimates for smoking in combination with caffeine or alcohol requires further confirmation. PMID:25925389

  8. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Colonoscopic Examination of Individuals With a Family History of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Almario, Christopher V.; May, Folasade P.; Ponce, Ninez A.; Spiegel, Brennan M.R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Guidelines recommend that persons with a high-risk family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) undergo colonoscopy examinations every 5 y, starting when they are 40 y old. We investigated factors associated with colonoscopy screening of individuals with a family history of CRC, focusing on race and ethnicity. METHODS In a retrospective study, we analyzed data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey on persons 40–80 y old with a first-degree relative (mother, father, sibling or child) with CRC who had visited a physician within the past 5 y. Our study included an unweighted and population-weighted sample of 2539 and 870,214 individuals with a family history of CRC, respectively. We performed a survey-weighted logistic regression analyses to adjust for relevant demographic and socioeconomic variables and used estimates to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for colonoscopy examination within the past 5 y. RESULTS In the weighted sample, 60.0% of subjects received a colonoscopy within the past 5 y. A physician recommendation for CRC screening increased the odds that an individual would undergo colonoscopy examination (RR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.61–2.24). Latinos were 31% less likely to receive colonoscopies than Whites (95% CI, 7%–55%). Among individuals 40–49 y old, African Americans were 71% less likely to have had a colonoscopy than Whites (95% CI, 13%–96%). CONCLUSION Based on an analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey, less than two-thirds of individuals with a family history of CRC reported receiving guideline-recommended colonoscopy examinations within the past 5 y. We observed racial and ethnic disparities in colonoscopy screening of this high-risk group; Latinos and African Americans were less likely to have had a colonoscopy than Whites. PMID:25737445

  9. Assessment of the role of general, biochemical and family history characteristics in kidney stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Jabbar, Faiza; Asif, Muhammad; Dutani, Hajirah; Hussain, Abrar; Malik, Arif; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Rasool, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Aim The main objective of the study was to determine the urinary risk factors involved in kidney stone formation. Method In this study a total number of 101 patients (64 males and 37 females) between the age group 2 and 70 years were selected. Personal characteristics like age, family history, clinical sign and symptoms, education, monthly income, living style, smoking or tobacco chewing habit, dietary intake and daily amount of drinking water were recorded. Results The study showed that the risk of kidney stone formation was high in the median age group (16–25 years) both in male and female population. The most important factors associated with this were lack of drinking clean water, over weight and obesity as well as family history (37.5% and 27.02% in men and women, respectively). Conclusion Our study has confirmed that lack of drinking sufficient amount of water, increasing weight and obesity and family history are some major factors contributing to the increased risk of kidney stone formation. Therefore it is very important to live a healthy life, drink clean water and control weight to prevent such diseases. PMID:25561886

  10. Higher levels of central adiposity in healthy premenopausal women with family histories of premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, Lucia; James, Gary D; Britton, Julie A; Bovbjerg, Dana H

    2008-01-01

    Research strongly suggests that lower overall adiposity and higher central adiposity are independent risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer in the general population. We aimed to test the possibility that these factors may contribute to familial risk of premenopausal breast cancer. A convenience sample of healthy women, ages 25-49, was recruited to yield three study groups: (1) Women with first-degree family histories of premenopausal breast cancer, operationally defined as being diagnosed prior to age 50 (Group FH < 50, n = 39); (2) Women with first-degree family histories of postmenopausal breast cancer, operationally defined as being diagnosed at age 50 or after (Group FH > or = 50, n = 33); and (3) Women without a history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives (Group FH-, n = 132). Multinomial logistic regression analyses, including possible confounders, waist circumference, and BMI, revealed a lower BMI among FH < 50 compared to either FH- (OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.59-0.87), or FH > or = 50 women (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.60-0.95), and higher waist circumferences in FH < 50 compared to either FH- (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.06-1.25), or FH > or = 50 women (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.05-1.28). No group differences were seen for waist skinfold measures. These results support the possibility that differences in patterns of adiposity may contribute to familial risk of premenopausal breast cancer, and suggest the importance of conducting large scale, population-based studies of the link between body size characteristics and familial breast cancer risk. PMID:18161037

  11. Personal history of dieting and family history of obesity are unrelated: implications for understanding weight gain proneness.

    PubMed

    Lowe, M R; Shank, L M; Mikorski, R; Butryn, M L

    2015-04-01

    Identifying predictors of future weight gain is important in obesity prevention efforts. Both family history of obesity and personal dieting history have been established as predictors of future weight gain; however, it is unknown if they are independent or overlapping predictors. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of overlap between these two predictors using cross-sectional data. Baseline data from four studies were examined separately and in combination for a total of 561 female participants, and analyses were conducted to examine parent anthropometric variables by dieting status within and across studies. All participants were female university students between the ages of 17 and 30. For each study, as well as for the entire sample combined, parent anthropometric variables were examined by dieting status using factorial ANOVAs. No meaningful pattern was found when examining parent anthropometric variables by dieting status, which suggests that the two risk factors are largely independent. This suggests that the processes associated with the development of future weight gain by each variable are different; therefore, future research should use a longitudinal study to test the hypothesis that using both variables to predict future weight gain would account for more variance than using either variable alone. PMID:25725461

  12. Michigan Natural History. A Spring Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on the natural history of…

  13. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): A 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants

    PubMed Central

    Cerling, Thure E.; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2009-01-01

    The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C4 grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by ≈2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred ≈3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations. PMID:19365077

  14. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Cocco, Pierluigi; La Vecchia, Carlo; Chang, Ellen T.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Kadin, Marshall E.; Spinelli, John J.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Kane, Eleanor V.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Kasten, Carol; Feldman, Andrew L.; Wang, Sophia S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome (MF/SS) are rare cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Their etiology is poorly understood. Methods A pooled analysis of 324 MF/SS cases and 17217 controls from 14 case–control studies from Europe, North America, and Australia, as part of the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) Subtypes Project, was carried out to investigate associations with lifestyle, medical history, family history, and occupational risk factors. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We found an increased risk of MF/SS associated with body mass index equal to or larger than 30kg/m2 (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.40), cigarette smoking for 40 years or more (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.31), eczema (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.73 to 3.29), family history of multiple myeloma (OR = 8.49, 95% CI = 3.31 to 21.80), and occupation as crop and vegetable farmers (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.14 to 4.92), painters (OR = 3.71, 95% CI = 1.94 to 7.07), woodworkers (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.18 to 4.08), and general carpenters (OR = 4.07, 95% CI = 1.54 to 10.75). We also found a reduced risk of MF/SS associated with moderate leisure time physical activity (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.97). Conclusions Our study provided the first detailed analysis of risk factors for MF/SS and further investigation is needed to confirm these findings in prospective data and in other populations. PMID:25174030

  15. A History of Solar Activity over Millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    2013-03-01

    Presented here is a review of present knowledge of the long-term behavior of solar activity on a multi-millennial timescale, as reconstructed using the indirect proxy method. The concept of solar activity is discussed along with an overview of the special indices used to quantify different aspects of variable solar activity, with special emphasis upon sunspot number. Over long timescales, quantitative information about past solar activity can only be obtained using a method based upon indirect proxies, such as the cosmogenic isotopes 14C and 10Be in natural stratified archives (e.g., tree rings or ice cores). We give an historical overview of the development of the proxy-based method for past solar-activity reconstruction over millennia, as well as a description of the modern state. Special attention is paid to the verification and cross-calibration of reconstructions. It is argued that this method of cosmogenic isotopes makes a solid basis for studies of solar variability in the past on a long timescale (centuries to millennia) during the Holocene. A separate section is devoted to reconstructions of strong solar energetic-particle (SEP) events in the past, that suggest that the present-day average SEP flux is broadly consistent with estimates on longer timescales, and that the occurrence of extra-strong events is unlikely. Finally, the main features of the long-term evolution of solar magnetic activity, including the statistics of grand minima and maxima occurrence, are summarized and their possible implications, especially for solar/stellar dynamo theory, are discussed.

  16. World History Plays, Puzzles and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lawrence

    This instructional resource, for grades 7-10, includes a collection of 10 plays with related learning activities. Units of study include: (1) "Alexander the Great and the Greeks"; (2) "The Black Death and the End of the Middle Ages"; (3) "Robert Clive and Imperialism"; (4) "Christopher Columbus and the Age of Exploration"; (5) "Fall of the…

  17. Confirmation of Family Cancer History Reported in a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Garceau, Anne O.; Graubard, Barry I.; Dunn, Marsha; McNeel, Timothy S.; Gonsalves, Lou; Gail, Mitchell H.; Greene, Mark H.; Willis, Gordon B.; Wideroff, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Background Knowledge of family cancer history is essential for estimating an individual’s cancer risk and making clinical recommendations regarding screening and referral to a specialty cancer genetics clinic. However, it is not clear if reported family cancer history is sufficiently accurate for this purpose. Methods In the population-based 2001 Connecticut Family Health Study, 1019 participants reported on 20 578 first-degree relatives (FDR) and second-degree relatives (SDR). Of those, 2605 relatives were sampled for confirmation of cancer reports on breast, colorectal, prostate, and lung cancer. Confirmation sources included state cancer registries, Medicare databases, the National Death Index, death certificates, and health-care facility records. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated for reports on lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer and after stratification by sex, age, education, and degree of relatedness and used to estimate report accuracy. Pairwise t tests were used to evaluate differences between the two strata in each stratified analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Overall, sensitivity and positive predictive value were low to moderate and varied by cancer type: 60.2% and 40.0%, respectively, for lung cancer reports, 27.3% and 53.5% for colorectal cancer reports, 61.1% and 61.3% for breast cancer reports, and 32.0% and 53.4% for prostate cancer reports. Specificity and negative predictive value were more than 95% for all four cancer types. Cancer history reports on FDR were more accurate than reports on SDR, with reports on FDR having statistically significantly higher sensitivity for prostate cancer than reports on SDR (58.9% vs 21.5%, P = .002) and higher positive predictive value for lung (78.1% vs 31.7%, P < .001), colorectal (85.8% vs 43.5%, P = .004), and breast cancer (79.9% vs 53.6%, P = .02). Conclusions General population reports on family history for

  18. A family history of fracture and fracture risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kanis, J A; Johansson, H; Oden, A; Johnell, O; De Laet, C; Eisman, J A; McCloskey, E V; Mellstrom, D; Melton, L J; Pols, H A P; Reeve, J; Silman, A J; Tenenhouse, A

    2004-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine whether a parental history of any fracture or hip fracture specifically are significant risk factors for future fracture in an international setting, and to explore the effects of age, sex and bone mineral density (BMD) on this risk. We studied 34,928 men and women from seven prospectively studied cohorts followed for 134,374 person-years. The cohorts comprised the EPOS/EVOS study, CaMos, the Rotterdam Study, DOES and cohorts at Sheffield, Rochester and Gothenburg. The effect of family history of osteoporotic fracture or of hip fracture in first-degree relatives, BMD and age on all clinical fracture, osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture risk alone was examined using Poisson regression in each cohort and for each sex. The results of the different studies were merged from the weighted beta coefficients. A parental history of fracture was associated with a modest but significantly increased risk of any fracture, osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture in men and women combined. The risk ratio (RR) for any fracture was 1.17 (95% CI=1.07-1.28), for any osteoporotic fracture was 1.18 (95% CI=1.06-1.31), and for hip fracture was 1.49 (95% CI=1.17-1.89). The risk ratio was higher at younger ages but not significantly so. No significant difference in risk was seen between men and women with a parental history for any fracture (RR=1.17 and 1.17, respectively) or for an osteoporotic fracture (RR=1.17 and 1.18, respectively). For hip fracture, the risk ratios were somewhat higher, but not significantly higher, in men than in women (RR=2.02 and 1.38, respectively). A family history of hip fracture in parents was associated with a significant risk both of all osteoporotic fracture (RR 1.54; 95CI=1.25-1.88) and of hip fracture (RR=2.27; 95% CI=1.47-3.49). The risk was not significantly changed when BMD was added to the model. We conclude that a parental history of fracture (particularly a family history of hip fracture) confers an

  19. Evolution of the protease-activated receptor family in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    JIN, MIN; YANG, HAI-WEI; TAO, AI-LIN; WEI, JI-FU

    2016-01-01

    Belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPcr) family, the protease-activated receptors (Pars) consist of 4 members, PAR1-4. PARs mediate the activation of cells via thrombin, serine and other proteases. Such protease-triggered signaling events are thought to be critical for hemostasis, thrombosis and other normal pathological processes. In the present study, we examined the evolution of PARs by analyzing phylogenetic trees, chromosome location, selective pressure and functional divergence based on the 169 functional gene alignment sequences from 57 vertebrate gene sequences. We found that the 4 PARs originated from 4 invertebrate ancestors by phylogenetic trees analysis. The selective pressure results revealed that only PAR1 appeared by positive selection during its evolution, while the other PAR members did not. In addition, we noticed that although these PARs evolved separately, the results of functional divergence indicated that their evolutional rates were similar and their functions did not significantly diverge. The findings of our study provide valuable insight into the evolutionary history of the vertebrate PAR family. PMID:26820116

  20. Familiality of mood repair responses among youth with and without histories of depression.

    PubMed

    Bylsma, Lauren M; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kiss, Enikő; Kapornai, Krisztina; Halas, Kitti; Dochnal, Roberta; Lefkovics, Eszter; Baji, Ildikό; Vetrό, Ágnes; Kovacs, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Affect regulation skills develop in the context of the family environment, wherein youths are influenced by their parents', and possibly their siblings', regulatory responses and styles. Regulatory responses to sadness (mood repair) that exacerbate or prolong dysphoria (maladaptive mood repair) may represent one way in which depression is transmitted within families. We examined self-reported adaptive and maladaptive mood repair responses across cognitive, social and behavioural domains in Hungarian 11- to 19-year-old youth and their parents. Offspring included 214 probands with a history of childhood-onset depressive disorder, 200 never depressed siblings and 161 control peers. Probands reported the most problematic mood repair responses, with siblings reporting more modest differences from controls. Mood repair responses of parents and their offspring, as well as within sib-pairs, were related, although results differed as a function of the regulatory response domain. Results demonstrate familiality of maladaptive and adaptive mood repair responses in multiple samples. These familial associations suggest that relationships with parents and siblings within families may impact the development of affect regulation in youth. PMID:25849259

  1. Prospective surveillance of women with a family history of breast cancer: auditing the risk threshold

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, E; Berg, J; Black, R; Bradshaw, N; Campbell, J; Carnaghan, H; Cetnarkyj, R; Drummond, S; Davidson, R; Dunlop, J; Fordyce, A; Gibbons, B; Goudie, D; Gregory, H; Holloway, S; Longmuir, M; McLeish, L; Murday, V; Miedzybrodska, Z; Nicholson, D; Pearson, P; Porteous, M; Reis, M; Slater, S; Smith, K; Smyth, E; Snadden, L; Steel, M; Stirling, D; Watt, C; Whyte, C; Young, D

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate current guidelines criteria for inclusion of women in special ‘breast cancer family history' surveillance programmes, records were reviewed of women referred to Scottish breast cancer family clinics between January 1994 and December 2003 but discharged as at ‘less than ‘moderate' familial risk'. The Scottish Cancer Registry was then interrogated to determine subsequent age-specific incidence of breast cancer in this cohort and corresponding Scottish population figures. Among 2074 women, with an average follow-up of 4.0 years, 28 invasive breast cancers were recorded up to December 2003, where 14.4 were expected, a relative risk (RR) of 1.94. Eleven further breast cancers were recorded between January 2004 and February 2006 (ascertainment incomplete for this period). The overall RR for women in the study cohort exceeded the accepted ‘cutoff' level (RR=1.7) for provision of special counselling and surveillance. The highest RR was found for the age group 45–59 years and this group also generated the majority of breast cancers. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (‘NICE') guidelines appear to be more accurate than those of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (‘SIGN') in defining ‘moderate' familial risk, and longer follow-up of this cohort could generate an evidence base for further modification of familial breast cancer services. PMID:18283300

  2. "Old Dead Guys": Using Activity Breaks to Teach History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holles, Joseph H.

    2009-01-01

    The people and history of chemical engineering surround us: Gibbs free energy, Arrhenius Equation, and Reynolds number. Since these seminal figures appear in almost every classroom lecture, they provide an opportunity for a historically focused activity break. Each activity break provides the students with an image of the historical figure along…

  3. The evolutionary history of the amylase multigene family in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    PubMed

    Popadić, A; Norman, R A; Doanet, W W; Anderson, W W

    1996-07-01

    In Drosophila pseudoobscura, the amylase (Amy) multigene family is contained within a series of inversions, or gene arrangements, on the third chromosome. The Standard (ST), Santa Cruz (SC), and Tree Line (TL) inversions are central to the phylogeny of arrangements, and have clusters of other arrangements derived from them. The gene arrangements belonging to each of these three clusters have a characteristic number of Amy genes, ranging from three in ST to two in SC to one in TL. This distribution pattern can reflect a history of either duplications or deletions, although the data available in the past did not permit a decision between these alternatives. We provide unambiguous evidence that three Amy genes were present before the divergence of the ST, SC, and TL arrangements. Thus, the current status of the Amy multigene family is the result of deletions in the TL and SC arrangements, which created three new pseudogenes: TL Amy2-psi, TL Amy3-psi, and SC Amy3-psi. Analysis of pseudogene sequences revealed that, in the SC and ST arrangements, pseudogene evolution has been retarded, most likely due to the homogenization effect of gene conversion. Finally, by determining the original copy number, we have reconstructed the evolutionary history of the Amy multigene family and linked it with the evolution of the central gene arrangements. PMID:8754223

  4. Childhood stress exposure among preadolescents with and without family histories of substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Nora E.; Ryan, Stacy R.; Acheson, Ashley; Mathias, Charles W.; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Having a family history of substance use disorders (FH+) increases risk for developing a substance use disorder. This risk may be at least partially mediated by increased exposure to childhood stressors among FH+ individuals. However, measures typically used to assess exposure to stressors are narrow in scope and vary across studies. The nature of stressors that disproportionately affect FH+ children, and how these stressors relate to later substance use in this population, are not well understood. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to a broad range of stressors among FH+ and FH− children to better characterize how exposure to childhood stressors relates to increased risk for substance misuse among FH+ individuals. Methods A total of 386 children (305 FH+, 81 FH−; ages 10-12) were assessed using the Stressful Life Events Schedule prior to the onset of regular substance use. Both the number and severity of stressors were compared. Preliminary follow-up analyses were done for 53 adolescents who subsequently reported initiation of substance use. Results FH+ children reported more frequent and severe stressors than did FH− children, specifically in the areas of housing, family, school, crime, peers, and finances. Additionally, risk for substance use initiation during early adolescence was influenced directly by having a family history of substance use disorders and also indirectly through increased exposure to stressors among FH+ individuals. Conclusions FH+ children experience greater stress across multiple domains, which contributes to their risk for substance misuse and related problems during adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:25134029

  5. Behavior and sleep problems in children with a family history of autism.

    PubMed

    Schwichtenberg, Amy Jo; Young, Gregory S; Hutman, Ted; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Sigman, Marian; Rogers, Sally J; Ozonoff, Sally

    2013-06-01

    The present study explores behavioral and sleep outcomes in preschool-age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study focuses on behavior problems that are common in children with ASD, such as emotional reactivity, anxiety, inattention, aggression, and sleep problems. Infant siblings were recruited from families with at least one older child with ASD (high-risk group, n = 104) or families with no history of ASD (low-risk group, n = 76). As part of a longitudinal prospective study, children completed the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Social Communication Questionnaire at 36 months of age. This study focuses on developmental concerns outside of ASD; therefore, only siblings who did not develop an ASD were included in analyses. Negative binomial regression analyses revealed that children in the high-risk group were more likely to have elevated behavior problems on the CBCL Anxious/Depressed and Aggression subscales. To explore sleep problems as a correlate of these behavior problems, a second series of models was specified. For both groups of children, sleep problems were associated with elevated behavior problems in each of the areas assessed (reactivity, anxiety, somatic complaints, withdrawal, attention, and aggression). These findings support close monitoring of children with a family history of ASD for both behavioral and sleep issues. PMID:23436793

  6. Family Histories and Multiple Transitions Among Homeless Young Adults: Pathways to Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of these young people opted to leave home in search of an alternative living situation. The current findings also reveal that while some young adults ran away from home as adolescents, others were “pushed out” (i.e., told to leave), or removed by state agencies. Current study findings illustrate that young adults’ trajectories are marked by multiple living arrangements such as home, foster care, detention facility, and drug rehabilitation. Overall, study results show that young adults’ family histories place them on trajectories for early independence marked by multiple transitions and numerous living situations, culminating in a lack of a permanent residence to call home. PMID:24151346

  7. Mining and Visualizing Family History Associations in the Electronic Health Record: A Case Study for Pediatric Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Elizabeth S.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Wasserman, Richard C.; Rosenau, Paul T.; Howard, Diantha B.; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease and has seen increasing prevalence worldwide. While there is existing evidence of familial and other risk factors for pediatric asthma, there is a need for further studies to explore and understand interactions among these risk factors. The goal of this study was to develop an approach for mining, visualizing, and evaluating association rules representing pairwise interactions among potential familial risk factors based on information documented as part of a patient’s family history in the electronic health record. As a case study, 10,260 structured family history entries for a cohort of 1,531 pediatric asthma patients were extracted and analyzed to generate family history associations at different levels of granularity. The preliminary results highlight the potential of this approach for validating known knowledge and suggesting opportunities for further investigation that may contribute to improving prediction of asthma risk in children. PMID:26958171

  8. An ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure in a patient with a family history of malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Hofer, I S; Mahoney, B; Rebarber, A; Beilin, Y

    2013-04-01

    In the EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment) procedure, after uterine incision, uterine relaxation is maintained to prevent placental separation and the fetus is supported via the placenta until the airway is successfully established. The traditional method to maintain uterine relaxation is with the use of high-dose potent inhaled anesthetics during general anesthesia. A patient with a family history of malignant hyperthermia required an EXIT procedure. The history of malignant hyperthermia precluded the use of potent inhaled anesthetics and an alternate plan using propofol and remifentanil infusions for anesthesia and nitroglycerin 16 μg/kg/min for uterine relaxation allowed for good surgical conditions. The presence of malignant hyperthermia required an alternate plan and close collaboration in order to ensure good patient outcome. PMID:23481416

  9. Family history and apoE genotype interaction in Alzheimer`s disease (AD)

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvik, G.P.; Kukull, W.A.; Goddards, K.

    1994-09-01

    The apoE {epsilon}4 allele is associated with increased risk and decreased age of onset of AD. The {epsilon}4 allele may have opposing effects. We determined that family history of a parent or sib with memory problems (famhx+) modified the effect of apoE genotype in a population-based, case (n=165, 72 famhx+)-control (n=233, 73 famhx+) sample. Logistic regression analyses detected a significant apoE genotype (E) by family history (F) by age (A) interaction (ExFxA, p=0.003) and ExF interaction (p=0.0001) in the prediction of AD. ExFxA remained significant when only {epsilon}4+ genotypes were included (p<0.01). ExFxSex (p=0.04) and ExF (p<0.0001) were significant when only {epsilon}4- genotypes were included. Similary, multiple regression detected significant ExF interaction in the prediction of age of AD onset for {epsilon}4+ genotypes (p=0.04) or {epsilon}4- genotypes (p=0.04). Sex did not interact in the prediction of age of onset. Famhx+ increased risk of AD differentially and reduced age of onset except in {epsilon}2+ genotypes. Family history modifies the apoE genotype influence on risk and onset age of AD, suggesting that non-apoE genetic effects interact with apoE in AD. It is most predictive of risk in those with the {epsilon}2{epsilon}3 genotype. Variation in risk and onset among both {epsilon}4+ and {epsilon}4- genotypes demonstrate that {epsilon}2 and {epsilon}3 mediate {epsilon}4 allele effects in AD.

  10. Genetics: what advice for patients who present with a family history of melanoma?

    PubMed

    Newton Bishop, Julia A; Gruis, Nelleke A

    2007-12-01

    A significantly increased susceptibility to melanoma may manifest as a family history of melanoma (plus or minus pancreatic cancer), the development of multiple primary tumors, or melanoma in the context of numerous and clinically atypical moles (the atypical mole syndrome). In families, increased susceptibility may occur as a result of the inheritance of mutations at the CDKN2A locus or in the CDK4 gene. We describe what is known about these genes and discuss the implications for genetic counseling and gene testing. Lower levels of risk are associated with genetically determined pigmentary variation within populations. This variation is attributable to inheritance of variants in the MC1R gene and putatively other genes such as OCA2, which is discussed. Melanoma is causally related to sun exposure in the majority of patients, although the patterns of sun exposure, which are most important, remain controversial. The role of risk estimation for individuals in giving advice about sun exposure is considered. PMID:18083368

  11. Intergenerational continuity in periodontal health: findings from the Dunedin Family History Study

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Dara M; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Poulton, Richie

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether parental periodontal disease history is a risk factor for periodontal disease in adult offspring. Methods Proband periodontal examination (combined attachment loss (CAL) at age 32, and incidence of CAL from ages 26–32) and interview data were collected during the age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study. Parental data were also collected. The sample was divided into two familial-risk groups for periodontal disease (high- and low-risk) based on parents’ self-reported periodontal disease. Results Periodontal risk analysis involved 625 proband-parent(s) groups. After controlling for confounding factors, the high-familial-risk periodontal group was more likely to have 1+ sites with 4+mm CAL (RR 1.45; 95% CI 1.11–1.88), 2+ sites with 4+mm CAL (RR 1.45; 95% CI 1.03–2.05), 1+ sites with 5+mm CAL (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.02–2.50) and 1+ sites with 3+mm incident CAL (RR 1.64; 95% CI 1.01–2.66) than the low-familial-risk group. Predictive validity was enhanced when information was available from both parents. Conclusions Parents with poor periodontal health tend to have offspring with poor periodontal health. Family/parental history of oral health is a valid representation of the shared genetic and environmental factors that contribute to an individual’s periodontal status, and may help predict patient prognosis and preventive treatment need. PMID:21281332

  12. Family Science Activities for Adult Basic and Literacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Action Southwest, Waynesburg, PA.

    A staff development project created a series of family science activities to be used in adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) and family literacy programs and a training guide for staff and volunteers. The training guide provides background principles and concepts for science activities. The activities identify materials and indicate ways the…

  13. Relationship between Family Functioning and Parenting Beliefs and Feelings among Women Who Have a History of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Guadalupe; Lam, Brian Trung

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between family functioning and parenting beliefs and feelings among women with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study utilized secondary data obtained in 2001 from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect. The sample included 107 women. Most respondents had a highly functional family;…

  14. Effect of parental family history of Alzheimer’s disease on serial position profiles

    PubMed Central

    La Rue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce; Jones, Jana E.; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Background An exaggerated recency effect (i.e., disproportionate recall of last-presented items) has been consistently observed in the word list learning of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our study sought to determine if there were similar alterations in serial position learning among asymptomatic persons at risk for AD due to parental family history. Methods Subjects included 623 asymptomatic middle-aged children of patients with AD (median = 53 years) and 157 control participants whose parents survived to at least age 70 without AD or other memory disorders. All participants were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test which requires learning and recall of 15 unrelated nouns. Results There was no significant difference in total words recalled between the AD children and control groups. However, compared to controls, AD children showed a significantly greater tendency to recall words from the end (recency) versus beginning (primacy) of the list. Serial position effects were unrelated to apolipoprotein allele epsilon 4 (APOE ε4) or depressive symptoms. Conclusions Asymptomatic persons at risk for AD by virtue of family history do not show a difference in total words recalled compared to controls, but exhibit a distinctly different serial position curve suggesting greater reliance on immediate as opposed to episodic memory. This is the same serial position pattern observed in mild AD, seen here in reduced severity. Longitudinal follow-up is planned to determine whether changes in serial position patterns are a meaningful marker for preclinical detection of AD. PMID:18631980

  15. Integrating the Family and the Community into the History Classroom: An Oral History Project in Joliet, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, John F.

    2007-01-01

    History instructors working in a community college face two major challenges. First, to make history interesting and relevant to the students, many of whom have to take history courses as a requirement. And second, to fulfill one of the missions of a community college which is to forge a connection between the school and the people in the local…

  16. The KinFact Intervention – A Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Family Communication About Cancer History

    PubMed Central

    McClish, Donna; Gyure, Maria; Corona, Rosalie; Krist, Alexander H.; Rodríguez, Vivian M.; Maibauer, Alisa M.; Borzelleca, Joseph; Bowen, Deborah J.; Quillin, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Knowing family history is important for understanding cancer risk, yet communication within families is suboptimal. Providing strategies to enhance communication may be useful. Methods: Four hundred ninety women were recruited from urban, safety-net, hospital-based primary care women's health clinics. Participants were randomized to receive the KinFact intervention or the control handout on lowering risks for breast/colon cancer and screening recommendations. Cancer family history was reviewed with all participants. The 20-minute KinFact intervention, based in communication and behavior theory, included reviewing individualized breast/colon cancer risks and an interactive presentation about cancer and communication. Study outcomes included whether participants reported collecting family history, shared cancer risk information with relatives, and the frequency of communication with relatives. Data were collected at baseline, 1, 6, and 14 months. Results: Overall, intervention participants were significantly more likely to gather family cancer information at follow-up (odds ratio [OR]: 2.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01, 3.71) and to share familial cancer information with relatives (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.48). Communication frequency (1=not at all; 4=a lot) was significantly increased at follow-up (1.67 vs. 1.54). Differences were not modified by age, race, education, or family history. However, effects were modified by pregnancy status and genetic literacy. Intervention effects for information gathering and frequency were observed for nonpregnant women but not for pregnant women. Additionally, intervention effects were observed for information gathering in women with high genetic literacy, but not in women with low genetic literacy. Conclusions: The KinFact intervention successfully promoted family communication about cancer risk. Educating women to enhance their communication skills surrounding family history may allow them to partner

  17. Microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity in gastric carcinoma in comparison to family history.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, G.; Rudelius, M.; Vogelsang, H.; Grimm, V.; Wilhelm, M. G.; Mueller, J.; Siewert, J. R.; Höfler, H.

    1998-01-01

    We compared 29 gastric carcinomas from patients with a variably strong family history for gastric cancer (group 1) with 36 gastric carcinomas from patients without a family history of this disease (group 2) for microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) with 12 microsatellite markers. Both study groups had similar proportions of histological types and tumor locations. Widespread MSI (alterations at > or = 6 loci) was seen in 5 of 29 (17%) of the tumors belonging to group 1 and in 4 of 36 (11%) group 2 tumors. MSI at a low level (alterations at 1 to 3 loci) was observed in 12 of 29 (41%) of tumors in group 1 and in 10 of 36 (28%) of tumors in group 2, differences that were not statistically significant. A significant difference with respect to low level MSI was observed between the two groups when considering the overall mutation rate of microsatellites. Seventeen of 281 (6%) analyzed microsatellite loci showed alterations in group 1 and 11 of 381 (2.9%) in group 2 (P = 0.046). Comparison of both types of MSI to the clinicopathological parameters in both groups revealed a significant association of low level MSI with advanced tumor stages (P = 0.046) in the group 2, whereas no such association was observed in group 1. In respect to LOH, a significant difference between the two groups was observed at chromosome 17p12, as 13 of 22 (59%) informative cases of group 1 showed LOH in comparison with 7 of 26 (27%) (P = 0.024) in group 2. No correlation of LOH at chromosome 17p12 to the pathological or clinical data was observed either in the two groups or in the study as a whole. Our data show that gastric carcinomas of patients with a positive family history of gastric cancer in group 1 are characterized by a higher mutation rate in respect to low level MSI, particularly at dinucleotide repeats, and by a higher frequency of LOH at chromosome 17p12, indicating that different genetic pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinomas

  18. Gastric Carcinomas in Young (Younger than 40 Years) Chinese Patients: Clinicopathology, Family History, and Postresection Survival.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fan; Shi, Jiong; Fang, Cheng; Zou, Xiaoping; Huang, Qin

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about clinicopathological characteristics of gastric carcinoma (GC) in young (≤40 years) Chinese patients. We aimed in this study to analyze those features along with family history and prognostic factors after resection. We retrospectively reviewed all 4671 GC resections (surgical and endoscopic) performed at our center from 2004 to 2014 and identified 152 (3.2%) consecutive young patients. Patient demographics, clinical results, family history, and endoscopic-pathological findings were analyzed along with the older (>41 years) GC controls recruited in the same study period. Clinicopathological factors related to postresection outcomes were assessed statistically. The trend of GC resections in young patients was not changed over the study period. Compared to old GCs, the young GC cohort was predominant in women, positive family history, middle gastric location, the diffuse histology type, shorter duration of symptoms, and advanced stage (pIII+pIV, 53.3%). Radical resection was carried out in 90.1% (n = 137) with a better 5-year survival rate (70.3%) than palliative surgery (0%, n = 15). There was no significant difference in clinicopathological characteristics between familial GC (FGC, n = 38) and sporadic GC (SGC, n = 114) groups. Very young patients (≤ 30 years, n = 38) showed lower Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and significantly higher perineural invasion rates, compared to older (31-40 years) patients. Hp infection was more commonly seen in the Lauren's intestinal type and early pT stages (T1+T2). Independent prognostic factors for worse outcomes included higher serum CA 72-4, CA 125 levels, positive resection margin, and stage pIII-pIV tumors. The 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in patients with radical resection than those without. GCs in young Chinese patients were prevalent in women with advanced stages but showed no significant differences in clinicopathology between FGC and SGC groups. High serum

  19. The relationship between religion, illness and death in life histories of family members of children with life-threatening diseases.

    PubMed

    Bousso, Regina Szylit; Serafim, Taís de Souza; Misko, Maira Deguer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to get to know the relationship between the experiences of families of children with a life-threatening disease and their religion, illness and life histories. The methodological framework was based on Oral History. The data were collected through interviews and the participants were nine families from six different religions who had lived the experience of having a child with a life-threatening disease. The interviews, held with one or two family members, were transcribed, textualized and, through their analysis, the Vital Tone was elaborated, representing the moral synthesis of each narrative. Three dimensions of spirituality were related to illness and death in their life histories: a Higher Being with a healing power; Development and Maintenance of a Connection with God and Faith Encouraging Optimism. The narratives demonstrated the family's search to attribute meanings to their experiences, based on their religious beliefs. PMID:20549112

  20. The value of family history in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children*

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Joana; Carvalho, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologically mediated disease resulting from the inhalation of organic substances that trigger an inflammatory response in the alveolar wall, bronchioles, and interstitium in susceptible individuals. Although HP is predominantly an occupational disease, seen in adulthood, cases in children have been described. The diagnosis of HP requires a high degree of suspicion. The treatment consists in avoiding contact with the antigen, and, in some cases, systemic corticosteroids might be necessary in order to prevent its progression to pulmonary fibrosis. We report the clinical cases of three children with a history of contact with birds and a family history of HP. All three patients presented with cough and dyspnea on exertion. The disease was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical history and ancillary diagnostic test results consistent with the diagnosis, including a predominance of lymphocytes (> 60%, CD8+ T lymphocytes in particular) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and a ground-glass pattern seen on HRCT of the chest. Early diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent HP from progressing to pulmonary fibrosis. Hereditary factors seem to influence the onset of the disease. PMID:24831404

  1. Familial history of cancer and childhood acute leukemia: a French population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ripert, Mahaut; Menegaux, Florence; Perel, Yves; Méchinaud, Françoise; Plouvier, Emmanuel; Gandemer, Virginie; Lutz, Patrick; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Lamagnére, Jean-Pierre; Margueritte, Geneviève; Boutard, Patrick; Robert, Alain; Armari-Alla, Corinne; Munzer, Martine; Millot, Frédéric; de Lumley, Lionel; Berthou, Christian; Rialland, Xavier; Pautard, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Objective A case-control study was conducted to investigate the role of a familial history of cancer in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia (AL). Methods The history of cancer in the relatives of 472 cases was compared to that of 567 population-based controls. Recruitment was frequency matched on age, gender and region. The familial history of cancer in each child’s relatives was reported by the mother in response to a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Results A familial history of solid tumor in first- or second-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of ALL (OR=1.6 [1.2–2.1]), while a familial history of hematopoietic malignancies in first- or second-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of AML (OR=4.3 [1.4–13]). The ORs for the histories of cancer increased with the number of relatives with cancer (OR=1.5 [1.1–2.0] for one relative and OR=2.3 [1.3–3.8] for two relatives or more; ptrend<0.0001). Significant associations between childhood AL and familial history of genital cancers and brain tumor were also observed (OR=2.7 [1.2–5.8], OR=10.7 [1.3–86], respectively). Conclusion This study supports the hypothesis that a familial history of cancer may play a role in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia. It also evidences some specific associations that require further investigation. PMID:17923819

  2. Values of Alpha 1 Microglobulin Does Not Differ between Individuals with and without Family History of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Trnacevic, Senaid; Hodzic, Emir; Atic, Mirza; Dugonjic, Maida; Hasanovic, Evlijana

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to compare urinary alpha 1 microglobulin (A1MG) in healthy individuals with and without family burden for Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) in an endemic village. Methods. Otherwise healthy inhabitants with microalbuminuria or proteinuria were divided into two groups: with (n = 24) and without (n = 32) family BEN burden and screened for urinary A1MG and A1MG/urine creatinine ratio. Results. Average value of urinary A1MG was 10.35 ± 7.01 mg/L in group with and 10.79 ± 8.27 mg/L in group without family history for BEN (NS, P = 0.87). A1MG was higher than 10 mg/L in eight (33.33%) inhabitants with family history and in 12 (37.5%) without (NS, P = 0.187). Average values of urinary A1MG/creatinine ratio were 1.30 ± 1.59 and 0.94 ± 0.78 in group with and group without family BEN history (NS, P = 0.39, resp.). Elevated values of this ratio were found in 13 (54.17%) inhabitants with and 14 (43.75%) without family history for BEN (NS, P = 0.415). Conclusion. We did not find statistically significant difference in the examined markers between healthy individuals with and without family burden for BEN. We concluded that these markers are not predictive of risk for BEN. PMID:24563783

  3. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the Mesoamerican endemic freshwater fish family Profundulidae (Cyprinodontiformes: Actinopterygii).

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Felipe; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Alcaraz, Lourdes; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes of Profundulidae, which until now was composed of two subgenera, represent one of the few extant fish families endemic to Mesoamerica. In this study we investigated the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the eight recognized extant species (from 37 populations) of Profundulidae using three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene markers (∼2.9 Kbp). We applied a Bayesian species delimitation method as a first approach to resolving speciation patterns within Profundulidae considering two different scenarios, eight-species and twelve-species models, obtained in a previous phylogenetic analysis. Based on our results, each of the two subgenera was resolved as monophyletic, with a remarkable molecular divergence of 24.5% for mtDNA and 7.8% for nDNA uncorrected p distances, and thus we propose that they correspond to separate genera. Moreover, we propose a conservative taxonomic hypothesis with five species within Profundulus and three within Tlaloc, although both eight-species and twelve-species models were highly supported by the bayesian species delimitation analysis, providing additional evidence of higher taxonomic diversity than currently recognized in this family. According to our divergence time estimates, the family originated during the Upper Oligocene 26 Mya, and Profundulus and Tlaloc diverged in the Upper Oligocene or Lower Miocene about 20 Mya. PMID:26364972

  4. Knowledge of family history as a clinically useful index of psychological well-being and prognosis: A brief report.

    PubMed

    Duke, Marshall P; Lazarus, Amber; Fivush, Robyn

    2008-06-01

    Based on an instance of "clinical lore" we assess the efficacy of children's and adolescents' knowledge of family history as an index of psychological well-being and potential for positive change in clinical and educational settings. We report that knowledge of family history is significantly correlated with internal locus of control, higher self-esteem, better family functioning, greater family cohesiveness, lower levels of anxiety, and lower incidence of behavior problems. We suggest that through the use of a brief measure of family knowledge, practicing clinicians can rapidly generate a data-based correlate of children's well-being and likelihood of overcoming psychological and educational challenges. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122420

  5. Family history characteristics, tumor microsatellite instability and germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations in hereditary colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bapat, B V; Madlensky, L; Temple, L K; Hiruki, T; Redston, M; Baron, D L; Xia, L; Marcus, V A; Soravia, C; Mitri, A; Shen, W; Gryfe, R; Berk, T; Chodirker, B N; Cohen, Z; Gallinger, S

    1999-02-01

    Recent characterization of the molecular genetic basis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer provides an important opportunity for identification of individuals and their families with germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. Cancer family history criteria that accurately define hereditary colorectal cancer are necessary for cost-effective testing for germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. The present report describes the results of analysis of 33 colorectal cancer cases/families that satisfy our modified family history criteria (Mount Sinai criteria) for colorectal cancer. Fourteen of these families met the more stringent Amsterdam criteria. Germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations were identified by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the protein truncation test, and confirmed by sequencing. Microsatellite instability analysis was performed on available tumors from affected patients. MSH2 or MLH1 mutations were detected in 8 of 14 Amsterdam criteria families and in 5 of the remaining 19 cases/families that only satisfied the Mount Sinai criteria. Three of the latter families had features of the Muir-Torre syndrome. A high level of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) was detected in almost all (16/18) colorectal cancers from individuals with MSH2 and MLH1 mutations, and infrequently (1/21) in colorectal cancer specimens from cases without detectable mutations. Families with germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations tended to have individuals affected at younger ages and with multiple tumors. The Amsterdam criteria are useful, but not sufficient, for detecting hereditary colorectal cancer families with germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations, since a proportion of cases and families with mutations in mismatch repair genes will be missed. Further development of cancer family history criteria are needed, using unbiased prospectively collected cases, to define more accurately those who will benefit from MSH2 and MLH1 mutation analysis. PMID:10190329

  6. Premenopausal Trabecular Bone Loss is Associated with a Family History of Fragility Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Prior, J. C.; Hitchcock, C. L.; Vigna, Y. M.; Seifert-Klauss, V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although a fragility fracture family history (FFFH+) has repeatedly been shown to be associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), its relationship to human BMD change is unclear. Animal research, however, documented that different purebred strains within rodent species have wide ranges in rates of bone acquisition during growth as well as in change post-ovariectomy. Our objective was to compare the rate of premenopausal spinal trabecular BMD change between women with and without a general family history of fragility fracture. Participants and Methods: Healthy premenopausal community women participated in prospective observational studies at two academic medical research centres: Vancouver, Canada (n = 66) and Munich, Germany (n = 20). The primary outcome was annual spinal BMD change, measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT). The two studies employed similar methodologies for assessing QCT and FFFH. Results: Volunteer community participants had a mean age of 36.0 (SD, 6.9) years, body mass index 22.5 (2.4) and baseline QCT of 150.2 (22.5) mg/cm3 trabecular bone. The rates of BMD change were similar in both cities: − 3.5 (5.1)/year Vancouver, − 2.0 (3.4)/year Munich (95 % CI of difference: − 3.9, 0.9). Over a third of the women (31 of the 86, 36 %) reported FFFH+. Those with and without a FFFH were similar in demographics, nutrition, exercise, menstrual cycle and luteal phase lengths and physiological measures (serum calcium, osteocalcin and estradiol). However, women with FFFH+ lost trabecular BMD more rapidly: FFFH+, − 4.9 (5.0), FFFH−, − 2.2 (4.4) mg/cm3/year (95 % CI diff − 0.7 to − 4.8, F1.83 = 7.88, p = 0.006). FFFH+ explained 7.7 % of the variance in QCT volumetric trabecular spinal bone change/year in these healthy premenopausal women. Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that having a history of a fragility fracture in a family member is associated with a greater

  7. Family history unawareness of blood clot risk: links to misdiagnoses and illness uncertainties in personal and expert realms.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Roxanne; Hong, Soo Jung; Greenberg, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    The difficulty of diagnosing blood clots makes salient the question, "What role does family history awareness have for guiding lay and expert actions?" The authors examine the in-depth life reflection interviews of 20 women who experienced a first venous blood clot between the ages of 18 and 50 years, identifying causal attributions the women made for thrombosis after the event. Twelve participants described an understanding of the cascade of events linked to thrombosis, revealing that there is seldom a single cause. The other eight identified belief in a single determining cause for their thrombosis. The authors reflect on the symptoms the women experienced during the course of the clotting event, patterns of care that they executed to self-manage their blood clot, and their misdiagnoses associated with symptoms and care. The women recalled the patterns of care received through formal health care systems and the reported misdiagnoses linked to these interactions. The recollections reveal that the subtle nature of venous blood clot symptoms contributes to lay and expert misdiagnoses. Use of antibiotics and pain killers in the wake of misdiagnosis masks symptoms, contributing to costly delays in accurate diagnoses. Four women were aware of a family history of clotting when the event occurred, 13 had such a history but lacked awareness until the clotting event, and three had no known history. Among women with awareness of their family history, blood clot diagnosis occurred sooner, promoting survival and efficiencies in health care. Implications for communicating about family history of thrombosis are considered. PMID:24794077

  8. History of family violence, childhood behavior problems, and adolescent high-risk behaviors as predictors of girls' repeated patterns of dating victimization in two developmental periods.

    PubMed

    Vézina, Johanne; Hébert, Martine; Poulin, François; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to document the prevalence of repeated patterns of dating victimization and to examine, within the frameworks of an ecological model and lifestyle/routine activities theories, associations between such patterns and family, peer, and individual factors. Dating victimization in adolescence (age 15) and early adulthood (age 21) was evaluated in 443 female participants. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that history of family violence, childhood behavior problems, and adolescent high-risk behaviors were associated with an increased risk for girls of being victimized (psychologically and/or physically/sexually) in their dating relationships, either in adolescence or early adulthood, or at both developmental periods. PMID:25736801

  9. Using Family Leisure Activities to Support Families Living with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Robin H.; Hendricks, C. Bret; Bradley, Loretta J.; Layton, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Support for families of children with autism spectrum disorders continues to be important, but formal support groups may not ft every need. The authors describe Family Fun Days, a program that paired leisure activities with opportunities for support. There was an increase in the number of participants over traditional support meetings,…

  10. The Holozoan Capsaspora owczarzaki Possesses a Diverse Complement of Active Transposable Element Families

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Martin; Suga, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Capsaspora owczarzaki, a protistan symbiont of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata, is the centre of much interest in evolutionary biology due to its close relationship to Metazoa. The whole genome sequence of this protist has revealed new insights into the ancestral genome composition of Metazoa, in particular with regard to gene families involved in the evolution of multicellularity. The draft genome revealed the presence of 23 families of transposable element, made up from DNA transposon as well as long terminal repeat (LTR) and non-LTR retrotransposon families. The phylogenetic analyses presented here show that all of the transposable elements identified in the C. owczarzaki genome have orthologous families in Metazoa, indicating that the ancestral metazoan also had a rich diversity of elements. Molecular evolutionary analyses also show that the majority of families has recently been active within the Capsaspora genome. One family now appears to be inactive and a further five families show no evidence of current transposition. Most individual element copies are evolutionarily young; however, a small proportion of inserts appear to have persisted for longer in the genome. The families present in the genome show contrasting population histories and appear to be in different stages of their life cycles. Transcriptome data have been analyzed from multiple stages in the C. owczarzaki life cycle. Expression levels vary greatly both between families and between different stages of the life cycle, suggesting an unexpectedly complex level of transposable element regulation in a single celled organism. PMID:24696401

  11. Does family history of depression predict major depression in midlife women? Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Mental Health Study (SWAN MHS).

    PubMed

    Colvin, Alicia; Richardson, Gale A; Cyranowski, Jill M; Youk, Ada; Bromberger, Joyce T

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to determine whether family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women independent of psychosocial and health profiles at midlife. Participants were 303 African American and Caucasian women (42-52 years at baseline) recruited into the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) and the Women's Mental Health Study (MHS) in Pittsburgh. Major depression was assessed annually with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Family mental health history was collected at the ninth or tenth follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether family history of depression predicted major depression in midlife, adjusting for covariates. The odds of experiencing major depression during the study were three times greater for those with a family history than for those without a family history (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.95-5.31). Family history predicted depression (OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.50-4.78) after adjusting for lifetime history of depression, age, trait anxiety, chronic medical conditions, and stressful life events. In analyses stratified by lifetime history of depression, family history significantly predicted depression only among women with a lifetime history of depression. Family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women generally, but particularly in those with a lifetime history of depression prior to midlife. PMID:24952069

  12. Does Family History of Depression Predict Major Depression in Midlife Women? Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation Mental Health Study (SWAN MHS)

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Alicia; Richardson, Gale A.; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Youk, Ada; Bromberger, Joyce T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women independent of psychosocial and health profiles at midlife. Methods Participants were 303 African American and Caucasian women (42–52 years at baseline) recruited into the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) and the Women’s Mental Health Study (MHS) in Pittsburgh. Major depression was assessed annually with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Family mental health history was collected at the 9th or 10th follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether family history of depression predicted major depression in midlife, adjusting for covariates. Results The odds of experiencing major depression during the study were three times greater for those with a family history than for those without a family history (OR=3.22, 95% CI=1.95- 5.31). Family history predicted depression (OR=2.67, 95% CI=1.50–4.78) after adjusting for lifetime history of depression, age, trait anxiety, chronic medical conditions, and stressful life events. In analyses stratified by lifetime history of depression, family history significantly predicted depression only among women with a lifetime history of depression. Conclusions Family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women generally, but particularly in those with a lifetime history of depression prior to midlife. PMID:24952069

  13. Collecting Family Health History using an Online Social Network: a Nationwide Survey among Potential Users

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Brandon M.; O’Connell, Nathaniel S.; Qanungo, Suparna; Halbert-Hughes, Chanita; Schiffman, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Family health history (FHx) is one of the most important risk factors for disease. Unfortunately, collection and use of FHx is under-utilized in the clinical setting. Efforts to improve collection of FHx have had minimal impact. A novel approach to collect FHx using social networking capabilities is being explored. We conducted a nationwide survey of 5,258 respondents to 1- assess the interest in using an online social network for FHx, 2- identify if such a tool would have clinical utility, and 3- identify notable trends and potential concerns. We found survey respondents to be very supportive of the proposed approach and interesting trends related to age, education, and race were identified. Results from this survey will be used to guide future research and development of a proposed FHx social network application. PMID:26958272

  14. Validity of self-reported family history of cancer: A systematic literature review on selected cancers.

    PubMed

    Fiederling, Jonas; Shams, Ahmad Zia; Haug, Ulrike

    2016-10-01

    Evidence regarding validity of self-reported family history of cancer (FHC) has been reviewed only for breast, colorectal, prostate, ovarian, endometrial and uterine cancer. We aimed to systematically review studies assessing validity of self-reported family history for the remaining cancer sites. We searched the Medline database for relevant studies published by January 2016. We extracted information on the study design and the positive predictive value (PPV) of self-reported FHC, defined as the proportion of reported cancer diagnoses among relatives that was confirmed by a reference standard (as a measure of over-reporting). We also extracted information on sensitivity of self-reported FHC (as a measure of underreporting). Overall, 21 studies were included that provided information on the PPV of self-reported FHC for relevant cancers and four studies also provided information on sensitivity. The PPV was highest (mostly >70%) for pancreatic, lung, thyroid and urinary system cancers and for leukemia and lymphoma, while it was lowest for stomach and liver cancer. Sensitivity was highest (>70%) for pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, brain cancer, melanoma, leukemia and lymphoma. For several cancers, sample sizes were low and the number of studies limited, particularly regarding sensitivity of self-reported FHC. In conclusion, for some cancers (e.g., pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, leukemia, lymphoma) self-reported FHC can be considered sufficiently valid to be useful, for example, in preventive counseling. For several cancers, it is not sufficiently studied or the pattern is inconsistent. This needs to be taken into account when using self-reported information about FHC in clinical practice or epidemiological research. PMID:27222437

  15. [A pilot study on adolescents of both sexes. Correlation between phenotype, athletic performances and family history to type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Pomara, F; Grosso, F; Basile, D; Polizzi, V; Marcianò, C; Adamo, V; De Vita, A; Petrucci, M

    2010-10-01

    The authors have studied the influence of family history of type 2 diabetes on the physical phenotype of 47 health adolescents. In both sexes groups with positive family history (FH+) had the highest values of stature and body weight (P<0.05 for males, not significant for females), waist circumference (P<0.05 for males, not significant for females), and wrist circumference (P=0.05 for males, not significant for females). Considering athletic performance, FH+ males showed a significant higher performance in power exercises than FH- males; no significant differences were found between FH+ and FH- female groups. The study confirms that family history of type 2 diabetes can induce in both sexes precocious phenotype and athletic performances linked-related variations; larger studies are necessary to confirm these data and to verify preventive interventions promoting significant life-style changes. PMID:20940677

  16. Familial appearance of congenital penile curvature – case history of two brothers

    PubMed Central

    Matuszewski, Marcin; Krajka, Kazimierz; Rębała, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The true prevalence of congenital penile curvature (CPC) is difficult to determine. Some study reports suggests that this problem may occur in as many as 10% of the male population [1]. However, a literature search of the Medline database revealed no reference concerning familial appearance of congenital penile curvature. For that reason we would like to present our case series. Two brothers aged 25 and 26 respectively were admitted to the department of urology due to congenital penile curvature. Each patient was assessed by a history, physical examination, auto-photography of the erect penis, and a thorough sexual history. Concomitant anomalies of penile layers were absent in both cases. The Yachia [2] and Essed-Schroeder [3] corporoplasty technique were applied respectively. In follow-up both brothers reported straight erections. A survey of the fetal penis at different stages of development shows some degree of curvature in a considerable number of embryos [4]. Penile curvature may thus be considered almost physiological in embryos between 35 and 45 mm in length. Thus, it has also been proposed that penile curvature is secondary to an arrest in normal penile development [5]. Therefore, some form of congenital local androgen deficiency may be responsible for inherited penile curvature. PMID:24579033

  17. Working Memory and Decision-Making Biases in Young Adults With a Family History of Alcoholism: Studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.; Yechiam, Eldad; Sorocco, Kristen H.; Vincent, Andrea S.; Collins, Frank L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse is more common in persons with a family history of alcoholism (FH+) than in those with no such history (FH−). Among FH+, behavioral disinhibition and male sex seem to signal the presence of an increased risk. Methods This study examined cognitive and behavioral characteristics of 175 nonabusing 18- to 30-year-olds, 87 FH+ and 88 FH−, who were further characterized by their degree of behavioral disinhibition using the Sociability scale of the California Personality Inventory. Working memory and decision making were tested using the Stroop Color-Word Test and the Iowa Gambling Task, a simulated card game. Results Persons with a family history of alcoholism who were behaviorally disinhibited displayed significantly greater interference on the Stroop task than the other subgroups. On the Iowa Gambling Task, FH+ males, but not the females, were significantly more attentive to financial gains than other subgroups, and they had greater consistency in their choice behaviors. Conclusions Persons with a family history of alcoholism, in combination with behavioral disinhibition, appears to signal working memory deficits and in combination with male sex indicates an attraction to the rewarding aspects of a risk-taking challenge. These findings are not secondary to heavy exposure to alcohol or other drugs, but instead reflect intrinsic risk-related familial and personal characteristics of the subjects. PMID:16634844

  18. Asymmetry in Family History Implicates Nonstandard Genetic Mechanisms: Application to the Genetics of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Clarice R.; Shi, Min; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Taylor, Jack A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Umbach, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies typically target inherited autosomal variants, but less studied genetic mechanisms can play a role in complex disease. Sex-linked variants aside, three genetic phenomena can induce differential risk in maternal versus paternal lineages of affected individuals: 1. maternal effects, reflecting the maternal genome's influence on prenatal development; 2. mitochondrial variants, which are inherited maternally; 3. autosomal genes, whose effects depend on parent of origin. We algebraically show that small asymmetries in family histories of affected individuals may reflect much larger genetic risks acting via those mechanisms. We apply these ideas to a study of sisters of women with breast cancer. Among 5,091 distinct families of women reporting that exactly one grandmother had breast cancer, risk was skewed toward maternal grandmothers (p<0.0001), especially if the granddaughter was diagnosed between age 45 and 54. Maternal genetic effects, mitochondrial variants, or variant genes with parent-of-origin effects may influence risk of perimenopausal breast cancer. PMID:24651610

  19. History of a prolific family: the Hes/Hey-related genes of the annelid Platynereis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Hes superfamily or Hes/Hey-related genes encompass a variety of metazoan-specific bHLH genes, with somewhat fuzzy phylogenetic relationships. Hes superfamily members are involved in a variety of major developmental mechanisms in metazoans, notably in neurogenesis and segmentation processes, in which they often act as direct effector genes of the Notch signaling pathway. Results We have investigated the molecular and functional evolution of the Hes superfamily in metazoans using the lophotrochozoan Platynereis dumerilii as model. Our phylogenetic analyses of more than 200 Metazoan Hes/Hey-related genes revealed the presence of five families, three of them (Hes, Hey and Helt) being pan-metazoan. Those families were likely composed of a unique representative in the last common metazoan ancestor. The evolution of the Hes family was shaped by many independent lineage specific tandem duplication events. The expression patterns of 13 of the 15 Hes/Hey-related genes in Platynereis indicate a broad functional diversification. Nevertheless, a majority of these genes are involved in two crucial developmental processes in annelids: neurogenesis and segmentation, resembling functions highlighted in other animal models. Conclusions Combining phylogenetic and expression data, our study suggests an unusual evolutionary history for the Hes superfamily. An ancestral multifunctional annelid Hes gene may have undergone multiples rounds of duplication-degeneration-complementation processes in the lineage leading to Platynereis, each gene copies ensuring their maintenance in the genome by subfunctionalisation. Similar but independent waves of duplications are at the origin of the multiplicity of Hes genes in other metazoan lineages. PMID:25250171

  20. Effect of Family History on Outcomes in Patients Treated With Definitive Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Christopher A. Stock, Richard G.; Blacksburg, Seth R.; Stone, Nelson N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact familial prostate cancer has on prognosis in men treated with brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,738 consecutive patients with prostate cancer (cT1-3, N0/X, M0) received low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with external beam radiation therapy or hormone ablation from 1992 to 2005. The primary end-point was freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) using the Phoenix definition. Minimum follow-up was 2 years and the median follow-up was 60 months (range, 24-197 months). Results: A total of 187 of 1,738 men (11%) had a family history of prostate cancer in a first-degree relative. For the low-risk patients, both groups had similar actuarial 5-year FFBF (97.2% vs. 95.5%, p = 0.516). For intermediate-risk patients, there was a trend toward improved biochemical control in men positive for family history (5-yr FFBF 100% vs. 93.6%, p = 0.076). For the high-risk patients, men with a positive family history had similar 5-year FFBF (92.8% vs. 85.2%, p = 0.124). On multivariate analysis, family history was not significant; use of hormones, high biologic effective dose, initial prostate-specific antigen value, and Gleason score were the significant variables predicting biochemical control. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine the relationship of familial prostate cancer and outcomed in men treated with brachytherapy alone or in combination therapy. Men with a positive family history have clinicopathologic characteristics and biochemical outcomes similar to those with sporadic disease.

  1. Family Therapy: A Phenomenological and Active Directive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    1978-01-01

    A "third force" in family therapy is outlined in this paper, which combines a phenomenological-humanistic approach with a highly active-directive attempt to help family members surrender their misperceptions of themselves and others and to make profound philosophic changes in their intrapersonal and interpersonal attitudes and behaviors. (Author)

  2. Assessment of family history of substance abuse for preventive interventions with patients experiencing chronic pain: A quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Pestka, Elizabeth; Nash, Virginia; Evans, Michele; Cronin, Joan; Bee, Susan; King, Susan; Osborn, Kristine; Gehin, Jessica; Weis, Karen; Loukianova, Larissa

    2016-04-01

    This quality improvement project demonstrates that RN Care Managers, in a chronic pain programme, can assess for a family history of substance abuse in 5-10 min. Information informs treatment based on specific high risk criteria. Benefits include heightened awareness of the genetic and environmental risks associated with a family history of substance abuse, an opportunity to participate in motivational interventions to prevent or minimize consequences of substance use disorders, and likely substantial overall health-care cost savings. PMID:25963926

  3. Something Old, Something New: Using Family History and Genetic Testing to Diagnose and Manage Athletes with Inherited Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Matthew J; Battle, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    A primary objective of the preparticipation physical examination is to identify athletes at increased risk for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Review of an athlete's family history may identify those at risk for SCA. Genetic testing for inherited cardiovascular disease has emerged as a valuable addition to the repertoire of cardiologists facing the decision of clearing athletes with concerning clinical signs and/or family histories. Genetic testing may lead to various outcomes for an athlete including: reassurance, diagnosis in those with borderline clinical features, finding disease predisposition prior to the onset of clinical signs (ie, genotype-positive/phenotype-negative), or continued uncertainty. PMID:26100426

  4. Giuseppe and Aloysius Frari’s Works on Rabies and History of Frari Medical Family of Šibenik, Dalmatia

    PubMed Central

    Krnić, Anton

    2007-01-01

    This article is an attempt to reconstruct the family history of the Fraris, the famous Šibenik medical family. Three generations of physicians from the Frari family played an important role not only at medical and social scene of Šibenik in the 18th and 19th century, but also in Croatian and Italian medical history. I will try to provide important details on the lives, medical and social work, and publications of 5 members of the family, Giuseppe (Josip), Angelo Antonio (Anđeo Antun), Sebastiano (Sebastijan), Michele Carlo (Mihovil), and Aloysius (Luigi) Frari. I would also like to pay a special attention to the works on rabies, written by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari, which are among the earliest and most accurate Croatian works on the subject. To reconstruct the history of the family, I studied the relevant editions about the medical and social history of Šibenik, Dalmatia, Venice, and Croatia, together with the Fraris’ publications and reflections. This was the first time Italian and Latin language works by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari on rabies were analyzed. The story on Fraris also documents that medical publishing was a common practice in Dalmatia in the 18th and the 19th century. PMID:17589982

  5. The Family Life Course and Health: Partnership, Fertility Histories, and Later-Life Physical Health Trajectories in Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Flaherty, Martin; Baxter, Janeen; Haynes, Michele; Turrell, Gavin

    2016-06-01

    Life course perspectives suggest that later-life health reflects long-term social patterns over an individual's life: in particular, the occurrence and timing of key roles and transitions. Such social patterns have been demonstrated empirically for multiple aspects of fertility and partnership histories, including timing of births and marriage, parity, and the presence and timing of a marital disruption. Most previous studies have, however, addressed particular aspects of fertility or partnership histories singly. We build on this research by examining how a holistic classification of family life course trajectories from ages 18 to 50, incorporating both fertility and partnership histories, is linked to later-life physical health for a sample of Australian residents. Our results indicate that long-term family life course trajectories are strongly linked to later-life health for men but only minimally for women. For men, family trajectories characterized by early family formation, no family formation, an early marital disruption, or high fertility are associated with poorer physical health. Among women, only those who experienced both a disrupted marital history and a high level of fertility were found to be in poorer health. PMID:27189018

  6. Approaching 4 Decades of Legislation in the National Family Planning Program: An Analysis of Title X's History From 1970 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Ellen M.; Perrin, Kay M.; Mahan, Charles S.; Buhi, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    Family planning is an important public health activity. Title X (Pub L No. 91-572), enacted in 1970, remains the only national family planning program in the United States dedicated to providing voluntary and confidential services to all individuals. We conducted a thematic analysis of Title X's legislative history. Of 293 federal bills included in the legislative history, only 20 (6.8%) were enacted into law. Regardless of the proposed challenges, limited changes have been adopted. Except for technical amendments, bills involving restrictions accounted for the highest percentage of enacted bills, demonstrating efforts to undermine reproductive health rights. Title X requires political will and bipartisan support if it is to continue to protect individuals' reproductive rights. PMID:21940931

  7. Movement-related cortical activation in familial Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Delval, A; Defebvre, L; Labyt, E; Douay, X; Bourriez, J-L; Waucquiez, N; Derambure, P; Destée, A

    2006-09-26

    We sought to determine whether or not first-degree relatives of patients with familial Parkinson disease (FDRs) present impaired movement-related cortical activity. We studied 10 familial Parkinson disease subjects, 10 FDRs, and 10 controls and analyzed event-related mu desynchronization (ERD) and beta synchronization. Forty percent FDRs presented reduced premovement mu ERD latency, suggesting that premovement cortical activation is impaired in FDRs. PMID:17000986

  8. 5 Family Fitness Activities to Try Today | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    No time to exercise and spend quality time with your kids? Feeling like there is no way to squeeze in exercise and make room for fun time with the family? Do both—together! Being active with your family can be a fun way to get moving. You’ll be a great role model for your kids, and it’s a good way to help the important people in your life live healthy, active lives.

  9. Genetic variation at 8q24, family history of cancer, and upper gastrointestinal cancers in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Tarleton, Heather P; Chang, Shen-Chih; Park, Sungshim Lani; Cai, Lin; Ding, Baoguo; He, Na; Hussain, Shehnaz K; Jiang, Qingwu; Mu, Li-Na; Rao, Jianyu; Wang, Hua; You, Nai-Chieh Y; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Zhao, Jin-Kou; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Genetic variation at 8q24 is associated with prostate, bladder, breast, colorectal, thyroid, lung, ovarian, UADT, liver and stomach cancers. However, a role for variation at 8q24 in familial clustering of upper gastrointestinal cancers has not been studied. In order to explore potential inherited susceptibility, we analyzed epidemiologic data from a population-based case-control study of upper gastrointestinal cancers from Taixing, China. The study population includes 204 liver, 206 stomach, and 218 esophageal cancer cases and 415 controls. Associations between 8q24 rs1447295, rs16901979, rs6983267 and these cancers were stratified by family history of cancer. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for potential confounders: age, sex, education, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI at interview. We also adjusted for hepatitis B and aflatoxin (liver cancer) and Helicobacter pylori (stomach cancer). In a dominant model, among those with a family history of cancer, rs1447295 was positively associated with liver cancer (OR(adj) 2.80; 95% CI 1.15-6.80). Heterogeneity was observed (P(heterogeneity) = 0.029) with rs6983267 and liver cancer, with positive association in the dominant model among those with a family history of cancer and positive association in the recessive model among those without a family history of cancer. When considered in a genetic risk score model, each additional 8q24 risk genotype increased the odds of liver cancer by two-fold among those with a family history of cancer (OR(adj) 2.00; 95% CI 1.15-3.47). These findings suggest that inherited susceptibility to liver cancer may exist in the Taixing population and that variation at 8q24 might be a genetic component of that inherited susceptibility. PMID:24030569

  10. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Benavente, Yolanda; Blair, Aaron; Vermeulen, Roel; Cerhan, James R.; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Monnereau, Alain; Nieters, Alexandra; Clavel, Jacqueline; Call, Timothy G.; Maynadié, Marc; Lan, Qing; Clarke, Christina A.; Lightfoot, Tracy; Norman, Aaron D.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Casabonne, Delphine; Cocco, Pierluigi; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are two subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A number of studies have evaluated associations between risk factors and CLL/SLL risk. However, these associations remain inconsistent or lacked confirmation. This may be due, in part, to the inadequate sample size of CLL/SLL cases. Methods We performed a pooled analysis of 2440 CLL/SLL cases and 15186 controls from 13 case-control studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We evaluated associations of medical history, family history, lifestyle, and occupational risk factors with CLL/SLL risk. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results We confirmed prior inverse associations with any atopic condition and recreational sun exposure. We also confirmed prior elevated associations with usual adult height, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, living or working on a farm, and family history of any hematological malignancy. Novel associations were identified with hairdresser occupation (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.98) and blood transfusion history (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.94). We also found smoking to have modest protective effect (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.99). All exposures showed evidence of independent effects. Conclusions We have identified or confirmed several independent risk factors for CLL/SLL supporting a role for genetics (through family history), immune function (through allergy and sun), infection (through hepatitis C virus), and height, and other pathways of immune response. Given that CLL/SLL has more than 30 susceptibility loci identified to date, studies evaluating the interaction among genetic and nongenetic factors are warranted. PMID:25174025

  11. Family history of hormonal cancers and colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study conducted in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Cotterchio, Michelle; Gallinger, Steven; Knight, Julia A; Daftary, Darshana

    2009-08-15

    Aggregation of cancers among families with highly penetrant genetic mutations such as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is well-described. However, there is a paucity of data regarding familial aggregation of hormonal cancers (cancers of the breast, endometrial, ovarian and prostate) and colorectal cancer (CRC) in the general population. We investigated the association between having a first-degree family history of breast, endometrial, ovarian, or prostate cancer and CRC risk. Population-based CRC cases and controls were recruited by the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry (OFCCR). Logistic regression was conducted to obtain odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). First-degree family history of breast cancer was associated with a modest, borderline statistically significant increased CRC risk (age-, sex-adjusted OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0, 1.5). The magnitude of CRC risk was greatest if more than one first-degree kin had breast cancer (age-, sex-adjusted OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.0), as well as if the kin was diagnosed at >50 years of age (age-, sex-adjusted OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.8). Family history of ovarian cancer was associated with reduced CRC risk (multivariate-adjusted OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.3, 1.0). Although statistically significant increases in CRC risk were observed in the age-, sex-adjusted OR estimates for family history of endometrial and prostate cancers, the associations were no longer significant after multivariate-adjustment. In conclusion, individuals with a first-degree kin with breast cancer may have a modest increased risk for CRC compared to individuals without. PMID:19437533

  12. A History of Classified Activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Quist, A.S.

    2001-01-30

    The facilities that became Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were created in 1943 during the United States' super-secret World War II project to construct an atomic bomb (the Manhattan Project). During World War II and for several years thereafter, essentially all ORNL activities were classified. Now, in 2000, essentially all ORNL activities are unclassified. The major purpose of this report is to provide a brief history of ORNL's major classified activities from 1943 until the present (September 2000). This report is expected to be useful to the ORNL Classification Officer and to ORNL's Authorized Derivative Classifiers and Authorized Derivative Declassifiers in their classification review of ORNL documents, especially those documents that date from the 1940s and 1950s.

  13. Pectus Excavatum and Pectus Carinatum: Associated Conditions, Family History, and Postoperative Patient Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Kuru, Pinar; Cakiroglu, Aylin; Er, Aynur; Ozbakir, Hincal; Cinel, Ali Emin; Cangut, Busra; Iris, Merve; Canbaz, Berkay; Pıçak, Ebru; Yuksel, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Pectus excavatum (PE) and pectus carinatum (PC) are the most common chest wall deformities. In this study, we aimed to characterize how patients obtained information about these deformities, as well as patients’ family history, associated medical problems, and postoperative satisfaction after the Nuss and Abramson procedures. Methods This cross-sectional retrospective study included patients who were operated by a single surgeon between 2006 and 2013. Follow-up calls were made after approval of our institution’s ethics committee. We reached 207 of the 336 PE patients (61.6%) and 73 of the 96 PC patients (76%). Results The majority of the patients were male (85% of the PE patients and 91.8% of the PC patients). The age of diagnosis of PE was 14.52±0.51 years and the age at the time of operation was 17.89±0.42 years; for PC patients, the corresponding ages were 15.23±0.55 years and 16.77±0.55 years, respectively. A total of 70% of the PE patients and 63.8% of the PC patients obtained information about pectus deformities through the Internet. In 27.1% of the PE patients with an associated anomaly, 57.1% (n=13) had scoliosis, while 41.1% of the PC patients with an associated anomaly had kyphosis (n=5). Postoperative satisfaction, as evaluated on a scale from 0 to 10, was 8.17±0.15 for PE patients and 8.37±0.26 for PC patients. The postoperative pain duration was 51.93±5.18 days for PE patients and 38.5±6.88 days for PC patients. Conclusion In this study, we found that most patients with pectus deformities were male. The Internet was an important resource for patients to learn about their deformities. Family history and associated anomalies were identified as important aspects for consideration in the clinical setting. The patients reported high levels of postoperative satisfaction, and pain management was found to be one of the most important elements of postoperative care. PMID:26889443

  14. A family history of deoxyribonuclease II: surprises from Trichinella spiralis and Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    MacLea, Kyle S; Krieser, Ronald J; Eastman, Alan

    2003-02-13

    Deoxyribonuclease IIalpha (DNase IIalpha) is an acidic endonuclease found in lysosomes and nuclei, and it is also secreted. Though its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog, NUC-1, is required for digesting DNA of apoptotic cell corpses and dietary DNA, it is not required for viability. However, DNase IIalpha is required in mice for correct development and viability, because undigested cell corpses lead to lesions throughout the body. Recently, we showed that, in contrast to previous reports, active DNase IIalpha consists of one contiguous polypeptide. To better analyze DNase II protein structure and determine residues important for activity, extensive database searches were conducted to find distantly related family members. We report 29 new partial or complete homologs from 21 species. Four homologs with differences at the purported active site histidine residue were detected in the parasitic nematodes Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis. When these mutations were reconstructed in human DNase IIalpha, the expressed proteins were inactive. DNase II homologs were also identified in non-metazoan species. In particular, the slime-mold Dictyostelium, the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, and the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei all contain sequences with significant similarity and identity to previously cloned DNase II family members. We report an analysis of their sequences and implications for DNase II protein structure and evolution. PMID:12594037

  15. Association between Health Behaviors and a Family History of Cancer among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Youngsun; Oh, Hea Young; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the health-related behaviors related to a family history of cancer (FHCA) among Korean women underwent cancer screening. Materials and Methods A total of 8,956 women who underwent cancer screenings during 2001-2011 at the National Cancer Center, Korea, were analyzed. The association between health-related behaviors and a FHCA were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Compared to women with no FHCA, women with FHCA were more likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.65), to be exposed to passive smoking (aOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.65), and less likely to engage in regular exercise (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.41). Combined effects of selected health behaviors for FHCA were significant, although no statistically significant interactions were observed between selected health behaviors. Compared to women with no FHCA, women with FHCA were more likely to simultaneously smoke and be exposed to passive smoking (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.31) and to simultaneously smoke and be physically inactive (aOR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.64). Conclusion The study found that women with a FHCA exhibited unhealthy behaviors compared to women without FHCA. Higher emphasis on lifestyle modifications using a new standardized tool is strongly recommended for those with a FHCA, as well as individuals who are at high risk, together with their family members. PMID:26511810

  16. Factors from Durkheim's Family Integration Related to Suicidal Ideation among Men with Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Scott D.; Renner, Lynette M.

    2013-01-01

    Men who were sexually abused during childhood represent a highly stigmatized, marginalized population at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems. Using the family integration dimension of Durkheim's theory of suicide, factors associated with suicidal ideation among a purposive sample of 487 men with histories of child sexual…

  17. Anthropometry and physical fitness in individuals with family history of type-2 diabetes mellitus: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Padaki, Samata; Vijayakrishna, K.; Dambal, Amrut; Ankad, Roopa; Manjula, R.; Surekharani, Chinagudi; Herur, Anita; Patil, Shailaja

    2011-01-01

    Context: The risk of becoming a diabetic for an individual with a positive family history of diabetes increases by two- to fourfold. Aim: To record the anthropometric indices and the physical fitness in individuals with family history of type-2 diabetes mellitus and compare these results with those of controls. Settings and Design: This is a comparative study done in the department of physiology. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two apparently healthy medical students with family history of type-2 Diabetes Mellitus were chosen for the study and matched with equal number of controls. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, thigh circumference, upper segment and lower segment) were recorded. Body mass index (BMI), waist–hip ratio (WHR), waist–thigh ratio (WTR), and upper to lower segment ratio (US/LS ratio) were calculated. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured. Physical fitness was evaluated using Queen's College step test protocol. Rate Pressure Product (RPP) and Physical Fitness Index (PFI) were calculated before and after exercise. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: BMI, WHR, US/LS ratio, and RPP at rest were significantly higher (P < 0.05), whereas WTR, PFI, and RPP after exercise lower (P > 0.05) in cases as compared to controls. Conclusions: It can be concluded that apparently healthy individuals with family history of type-2 diabetes mellitus have higher anthropometric values and lower physical fitness than the controls. PMID:22029005

  18. Use of Family History Information for Neural Tube Defect Prevention: Integration into State-Based Recurrence Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ridgely Fisk; Ehrhardt, Joan; Ruttenber, Margaret F.; Olney, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    A family history of neural tube defects (NTDs) can increase the risk of a pregnancy affected by an NTD. Periconceptional folic acid use decreases this risk. Purpose: Our objective was to determine whether second-degree relatives of NTD-affected children showed differences in folic acid use compared with the general population and to provide them…

  19. No differences in ventral striatum responsivity between adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism and controls.

    PubMed

    Müller, Kathrin U; Gan, Gabriela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with alcohol-dependent parents show an elevated risk of developing alcohol-related problems themselves. Modulations of the mesolimbic reward circuit have been postulated as a pre-existing marker of alcoholism. We tested whether a positive family history of alcoholism is correlated with ventral striatum functionality during a reward task. All participants performed a modified version of the monetary incentive delay task while their brain responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared 206 healthy adolescents (aged 13-15) who had any first- or second-degree relative with alcoholism to 206 matched controls with no biological relative with alcoholism. Reward anticipation as well as feedback of win recruited the ventral striatum in all participants, but adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism did not differ from their matched peers. Also we did not find any correlation between family history density and reward anticipation or feedback of win. This finding of no differences did not change when we analyzed a subsample of 77 adolescents with at least one parent with alcohol use disorder and their matched controls. Because this result is in line with another study reporting no differences between children with alcohol-dependent parents and controls at young age, but contrasts with studies of older individuals, one might conclude that at younger age the effect of family history has not yet exerted its influence on the still developing mesolimbic reward circuit. PMID:24903627

  20. Formative Evaluation of Clinician Experience with Integrating Family History-Based Clinical Decision Support into Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Doerr, Megan; Edelman, Emily; Gabitzsch, Emily; Eng, Charis; Teng, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Family health history is a leading predictor of disease risk. Nonetheless, it is underutilized to guide care and, therefore, is ripe for health information technology intervention. To fill the family health history practice gap, Cleveland Clinic has developed a family health history collection and clinical decision support tool, MyFamily. This report describes the impact and process of implementing MyFamily into primary care, cancer survivorship and cancer genetics clinics. Ten providers participated in semi-structured interviews that were analyzed to identify opportunities for process improvement. Participants universally noted positive effects on patient care, including increases in quality, personalization of care and patient engagement. The impact on clinical workflow varied by practice setting, with differences observed in the ease of integration and the use of specific report elements. Tension between the length of the report and desired detail was appreciated. Barriers and facilitators to the process of implementation were noted, dominated by the theme of increased integration with the electronic medical record. These results fed real-time improvement cycles to reinforce clinician use. This model will be applied in future institutional efforts to integrate clinical genomic applications into practice and may be useful for other institutions considering the implementation of tools for personalizing medical management. PMID:25563219

  1. Metabolic rate and vascular function are reduced in women with a family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Olive, Jennifer L; Ballard, Kevin D; Miller, James J; Milliner, Beth A

    2008-06-01

    Metabolic and vascular abnormalities have been found in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Family history is often associated with increased risk of the development of T2D. We sought to determine if young, sedentary, insulin-sensitive individuals with a family history of T2D (FH+) have a reduced resting energy expenditure (REE) and vascular endothelial function compared with individuals who have no family history of T2D (FH-). The REE was determined in 18 FH+ individuals and 15 FH- individuals using indirect open-circuit calorimetry. Vascular endothelial function was measured via flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were also measured to look at vascular inflammation. Body composition was measured via bioelectrical impedance analysis to determine fat-free mass and fat mass for each individual. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment equation and fasting insulin and glucose concentrations. Subjects (n = 42) were approximately 26 years old and had normal fasting serum insulin or glucose concentrations. The REE normalized for body weight (kilocalories per day per kilogram body weight) was significantly reduced in the FH+ women compared with FH- women (P < .001) but not in the men. The FMD was significantly reduced (34.3%) in the FH+ group compared with the FH- in women (P = .002). However, no between-group difference in FMD was present in male subjects (P = .376). Young, healthy, insulin-sensitive women with a family history of T2D have reduced whole-body metabolic rate and vascular endothelial function compared with those with no family history of disease. These differences in whole-body metabolic rate and vascular endothelial function were not present in male subjects. PMID:18502267

  2. Risk of Thyroid Cancer in Euthyroid Asymptomatic Patients with Thyroid Nodules with an Emphasis on Family History of Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors–such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels–were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Results Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Conclusion Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients. PMID:26957911

  3. STEM learning activity among home-educating families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachman, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning was studied among families in a group of home-educators in the Pacific Northwest. Ethnographic methods recorded learning activity (video, audio, fieldnotes, and artifacts) which was analyzed using a unique combination of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and Mediated Action (MA), enabling analysis of activity at multiple levels. Findings indicate that STEM learning activity is family-led, guided by parents' values and goals for learning, and negotiated with children to account for learner interests and differences, and available resources. Families' STEM education practice is dynamic, evolves, and influenced by larger societal STEM learning activity. Parents actively seek support and resources for STEM learning within their home-school community, working individually and collectively to share their funds of knowledge. Home-schoolers also access a wide variety of free-choice learning resources: web-based materials, museums, libraries, and community education opportunities (e.g. afterschool, weekend and summer programs, science clubs and classes, etc.). A lesson-heuristic, grounded in Mediated Action, represents and analyzes home STEM learning activity in terms of tensions between parental goals, roles, and lesson structure. One tension observed was between 'academic' goals or school-like activity and 'lifelong' goals or everyday learning activity. Theoretical and experiential learning was found in both activity, though parents with academic goals tended to focus more on theoretical learning and those with lifelong learning goals tended to be more experiential. Examples of the National Research Council's science learning strands (NRC, 2009) were observed in the STEM practices of all these families. Findings contribute to the small but growing body of empirical CHAT research in science education, specifically to the empirical base of family STEM learning practices at home. It also fills a

  4. The CCC2000 Birth Cohort Study of Register-Based Family History of Mental Disorders and Psychotic Experiences in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Pia; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Clemmensen, Lars; Munkholm, Anja; Rimvall, Martin Kristian; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; van Os, Jim; Petersen, Liselotte; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2015-09-01

    Psychotic experiences (PE) in individuals of the general population are hypothesized to mark the early expression of the pathology underlying psychosis. This notion of PE as an intermediate phenotype is based on the premise that PE share genetic liability with psychosis. We examined whether PE in childhood was predicted by a family history of mental disorder with psychosis rather than a family history of nonpsychotic mental disorder and whether this association differed by severity of PE. The study examined data on 1632 children from a general population birth cohort assessed at age 11-12 years by use of a semistructured interview covering 22 psychotic symptoms. The Danish national registers were linked to describe the complete family history of hospital-based psychiatric diagnoses. Uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to test whether a family history of any mental disorder with psychosis, or of nonpsychotic mental disorder, vs no diagnoses was associated with increased risk of PE in offspring (hierarchical exposure variable). The occurrence of PE in offspring was significantly associated with a history of psychosis among the first-degree relatives (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.82-5.93). The risk increased for combined hallucinations and delusions (adjusted RR = 5.90, 95% CI: 2.64-13.16). A history of nonpsychotic mental disorders in first-degree relatives did not contribute to the risk of PE in offspring nor did any mental disorder among second-degree relatives. Our findings support the notion of PE as a vulnerability marker of transdiagnostic psychosis. The effect of psychosis in first-degree relatives may operate through shared genetic and environmental factors. PMID:25452427

  5. Complex I polymorphisms, bigenomic heterogeneity, and family history in Virginians with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, Russell H.; Weaver, Bradley; Grawey, Amy; Wenger, Connie; Freed, Eric; Worrall, Bradford B.

    2006-01-01

    The electron transport chain enzyme complex I may play a role in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Association studies considering whether or not complex I-relevant gene polymorphisms contribute to PD risk are discordant. We evaluated four complex I-relevant gene polymorphisms alternatively reported to associate and not associate with PD (tRNAGln T4336C, ND1 T4216C, ND2 G5460A, and the NDUFV2 exon 2 C182T transition). Our study included 111 PD subjects and 106 controls in central Virginia. Individuals with at least one copy of the NDUFV2 182T allele were more likely to report a PD family history than non-carriers, but aside from this no positive associations were found. Indeed, the tRNAGln 4336C variant occurred more frequently in controls. We also observed that individuals in both groups often carried more than one of the assayed polymorphisms, and for the first time show bigenomic polymorphic variation (between nuclear and mtDNA complex I subunit genes) commonly occurs within individuals. In an exploratory sub-analysis, more control than case women had an ND1 4216C, NDUFV2 homozygous 182C compound genotype. Complex I compound genotype variation commonly occurs and may explain why particular complex I gene polymorphisms associate with PD in some populations but not others. PMID:16784756

  6. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH. PMID:27039390

  7. Comparison of lifestyle risk factors by family history for gastric, breast, lung and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-En; Hirose, Kaoru; Wakai, Kenji; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Xiang, Jin; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tajima, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    To assess the theoretical impact of lifestyle of a cancer family history in first-degree relatives (CFH) and clarify interactions between CFH and lifestyle factors, hospital-based comparison and case-reference studies were conducted in Nagoya, Japan. Totals of 1988 gastric, 2455 breast, 1398 lung and 1352 colorectal cancer patients, as well as 50,706 non-cancer outpatients collected from 1988 to 1998, were checked for lifestyle factors, which included dietary and physical exercise habits, as well as smoking/drinking status. General lifestyle factors with non-cancer outpatients did not differ by the CFH status. Case-reference analyses showed that frequent intake of fruits, raw vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, cabbage and lettuce, as well as frequent physical exercise, were associated with decreased risk for all four sites of cancer, while habitual smoking increasing the risk of gastric, and more particularly, lung cancer. Interestingly, the study revealed the magnitude of odds ratios for the above lifestyle factors obtained from CFH positives to be similar to those from CFH negatives for these four sites of cancer. There were no significant interactions between CFH and any particular lifestyle factor. In conclusion, our results suggest no appreciable influence of CFH on lifestyle related risk factors for gastric, breast, lung, and colorectal cancer. Habitual smoking increased, while frequent physical exercise and raw vegetables intake decreased cancer risk, regardless of the CFH status. PMID:15546249

  8. Evolutionary history of the GH3 family of acyl adenylases in rosids.

    PubMed

    Okrent, Rachel A; Wildermuth, Mary C

    2011-08-01

    GH3 amino acid conjugases have been identified in many plant and bacterial species. The evolution of GH3 genes in plant species is explored using the sequenced rosids Arabidopsis, papaya, poplar, and grape. Analysis of the sequenced non-rosid eudicots monkey flower and columbine, the monocots maize and rice, as well as spikemoss and moss is included to provide further insight into the origin of GH3 clades. Comparison of co-linear genes in regions surrounding GH3 genes between species helps reconstruct the evolutionary history of the family. Combining analysis of synteny with phylogenetics, gene expression and functional data redefines the Group III GH3 genes, of which AtGH3.12/PBS3, a regulator of stress-induced salicylic acid metabolism and plant defense, is a member. Contrary to previous reports that restrict PBS3 to Arabidopsis and its close relatives, PBS3 syntelogs are identified in poplar, grape, columbine, maize and rice suggesting descent from a common ancestral chromosome dating to before the eudicot/monocot split. In addition, the clade containing PBS3 has undergone a unique expansion in Arabidopsis, with expression patterns for these genes consistent with specialized and evolving stress-responsive functions. PMID:21594748

  9. Developmental Change in Amygdala Reactivity during Adolescence: Effects of Family History for Depression and Stressful Life Events

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Johnna R.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Though heightened amygdala reactivity is observed in patients with major depression, two critical gaps in our knowledge remain. First, it is unclear whether heightened amygdala reactivity is a premorbid vulnerability or consequence of the disorder. Second, it is unknown how and when this neural phenotype develops. The objective of this study was to address these gaps by evaluating developmental change in threat-related amygdala reactivity in adolescents at high or low risk for depression based on family history, before the onset of disorder. Method Adolescents (initially aged 11–15 years) completed an fMRI paradigm that elicited threat-related amygdala reactivity at baseline and again 2 years later. After quality control, data from 232 adolescents at Wave 1 and 197 adolescents at Wave 2 were available. Longitudinal data (meeting quality control at both waves) were available for 157 of these participants. Change in amygdala reactivity was assessed as a function of family history of depression and stressful life event severity. Results Threat-related amygdala reactivity increased with age in those with a positive family history regardless of the severity of life stress reported, and in adolescents with a negative family history when they reported relatively severe life stress. Critically, these changes in amygdala reactivity with age occurred in the absence of clinical disorder or increases in depressive symptoms. Conclusions These results suggest that heightened amygdala reactivity emerges during adolescence prior to the development of depression as a function of familial risk or, in the absence of familial risk, stressful life events. PMID:25526599

  10. The Multiple Possibilities of Decency: Family and Society in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlossman, Steven L.

    This paper focuses on three family-related issues: (1) the extraordinary complexity with which families perform educational and socializing functions and the corresponding danger of using simplistic cause and effect models to explain family behavior; (2) the ability of historical and contemporary American families to adapt to massive changes in…

  11. History of Family Psychiatry: From the Social Reform Era to the Primate Social Organ System.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Douglas A

    2015-07-01

    From early twentieth century social reform movements emerged the ingredients for both child and family psychiatry. Both psychiatries that involve children, parents, and families began in child guidance clinics. Post-World War II intellectual creativity provided the epistemological framework for treating families. Eleven founders (1950-1969) led the development of family psychiatry. Child and family psychiatrists disagreed over the issues of individual and family group dynamics. Over the past 25 years the emerging sciences of interaction, in the context of the Primate Social Organ System (PSOS), have produced the evidence for the family being the entity of treatment in psychiatry. PMID:26092732

  12. Connecting Children and Family with Nature-Based Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, M. Ryan; Moore, Rebecca W.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Belonga, Joyce; Navarre, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Background: As the obesity epidemic expands to include younger Americans, there is greater need to understand youth experiences and to identify innovative strategies to promote physical activity in children and adolescents. Connecting children and families with nature-based activities is an example of a strategy that may promote physical activity…

  13. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Adult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Slager, Susan L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Lightfoot, Tracy; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) in adults is a rare malignancy with a poor clinical outcome, and few reported etiologic risk factors. Methods We performed an exploratory pooled study of 152 ALL cases and 23096 controls from 16 case–control studies to investigate the role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors and risk of ALL. Age- race/ethnicity-, sex-, and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Results An increased risk of ALL was found in those with a family history of a hematological malignancy (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.22 to 5.54) and in leather (OR = 3.91, 95% CI = 1.35 to 11.35) and sewing/embroidery workers (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.00 to 8.49). Consumers of alcohol had an increased risk of B-cell ALL (OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.18 to 6.95). Conclusions The small number of statistically significant risk factors identified out of the 112 variables examined could be chance findings and will require further replication to assess their role in the etiology of adult ALL. PMID:25174033

  14. [The cultural and medical significance of Xin an mingzuzhi(History of Famous Family in Xin'an)].

    PubMed

    Hu, A H; Wan, S M

    2016-01-28

    History of Famous Family in Xin'an includes abundant information and important value of the medical cultural history, including the medical family, medical ethics and the number of the famous doctors and its distribution, the medical books and its outline the medical ethics, the diseases. As for the 115 famous doctors recorded in this book, Shexian county owns the most while Jixi county owns the least, and of the average number of famous doctors among the 10, 000 local people, Yixian county owns the most while Xiuning county owns the least. History of Famous Family in Xin'an includes 26 medical books, ranging from medical literature study, gynecological treatment, external medical treatment, diagnosis and treatment of pediatric diseases, ancient medical case records, medical education, acu-moxibustion and summary of other medical experiences. The book also demonstrates the noble morality of doctors, development of doctor' family, and records of paralytic stroke, epistaxis, tuberculous consumptive diseases, furunculosis, dystocia and some infectious diseases. PMID:27049748

  15. Cost-effectiveness of family history-based colorectal cancer screening in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With 14.234 diagnoses and over 4047 deaths reported in 2007, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer and second most common cause of cancer-related mortality in Australia. The direct treatment cost has recently been estimated to be around AU$1.2 billion for the year 2011, which corresponds to a four-fold increase, compared the cost reported in 2001. Excluding CRCs due to known rare genetic disorders, 20% to 25% of all CRCs occur in a familial aggregation setting due to genetic variants or shared environmental risk factors that are yet to be characterised. A targeted screening strategy addressed to this segment of the population is a potentially valuable tool for reducing the overall burden of CRC. Methods We developed a Markov model to assess the cost-effectiveness of three screening strategies offered to people at increased risk due to a strong family history of CRC. The model simulated the evolution of a cohort of 10,000 individuals from age 50 to 90 years. We compared screening with biennial iFOBT, five-yearly colonoscopy and ten-yearly colonoscopy versus the current strategy of the Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (i.e. base case). Results Under the NBCSP scenario, 6,491 persons developed CRC with an average screening lifetime cost of AU$3,441 per person. In comparison, screening with biennial iFOBT, colonoscopy every ten years, and colonoscopy every five years reduced CRC incidence by 27%, 35% and 60%, and mortality by 15%, 26% and 46% respectively. All three screening strategies had a cost under AU$50,000 per life year gained, which is regarded as the upper limit of acceptable cost-effectiveness in the Australian health system. At AU$12,405 per life year gained and an average lifetime expectancy of 16.084 years, five-yearly colonoscopy screening was the most cost-effective strategy. Conclusion The model demonstrates that intensive CRC screening strategies targeting people at increased risk would be cost

  16. Astronomy Outreach Activities for Special Needs Children and Their Families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2008-05-01

    While there are outreach programs for the public and for children, there are few programs for special needs children. Here I describe two NASA-IDEAS/STSc funded outreach programs I created for special needs children using telescope observations (including remote and robotic observations) and hands-on astronomy activities. The target audience is seriously ill children and their families who are staying at the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island in conjunction the children's surgery and medical treatments or children hospitalized at the Hagedorn Pediatric Inpatient Center at Winthrop University Hospital. These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time. I have also conducted a similar program in camps for special needs children. These programs should be expanded so that special needs children and their families part of the IYA 2009 activities.

  17. Astronomy Outreach Activities for Special Needs Children and Their Families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.

    2008-11-01

    While there are outreach programs for the public and for children, there are few programs for special needs children. Here I describe two NASA-IDEAS/STScI funded outreach programs I created for special needs children using telescope observations (including remote observations) and hands-on astronomy activities. The target audience is seriously ill children and their families who are staying at the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island in conjunction the children's medical treatments or children hospitalized at the Children's Medical Center at Winthrop University Hospital. These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time. I have also conducted a similar program in camps for special needs children. These programs should be expanded so that special needs children and their families are part of the IYA2009 activities.

  18. CTA Characteristics of the Circle of Willis and Intracranial Aneurysm in a Chinese Crowd with Family History of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhang-ning; Dong, Wen-tao; Cai, Xin-wang; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Li-tong; Gao, Feng; Kang, Xiao-kui; Li, Jia; Wang, Hai-ning; Gao, Nan-nan; Ning, Xian-jia; Tu, Jun; Li, Feng-tan; Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Ying-jian; Li, Nai-xin; Yang, Shu-yuan; Zhang, Jian-ning; Wang, Jing-hua; Yang, Xin-yu

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The vascular morphology in crowd with family history of stroke remains unclear. The present study clarified the characteristics of the intracranial vascular CoW and prevalence of intracranial aneurysms in subjects with family history of stroke. Methods. A stratified cluster, random sampling method was used for subjects with family history of stroke among rural residents in Jixian, Tianjin, China. All the subjects underwent a physical examination, head computed tomography (CT) scan, and cephalic and cervical computed tomography angiography (CTA) scan. Anatomic variations in the Circle of Willis and cerebrovascular disease in this population were analyzed. Results. In the crowd with similar living environment, stable genetic background, and family history of stroke and without obvious nerve function impairment (1) hypoplasia or absence of A1 segment was significantly different in gender (male versus female: 9.8% versus 18.8%, p = 0.031), especially the right-side A1 (male versus female: 5.9% versus 16.4%, p = 0.004). (2) Hypoplasia or absence of bilateral posterior communicating arteries was more common in men than women (58.2% versus 45.3%, p = 0.032). Unilateral fetal posterior cerebral artery was observed more often in women than men (17.2% versus 8.5%, p = 0.028). (3) The percentage of subjects with incomplete CoW did not increase significantly with age. Compared to healthy Chinese people, the crowd had a higher percentage of incomplete CoW (p < 0.001). (4) No obvious correlation between risk factors and CoW was found. (5) The prevalence of aneurysm was 10.3% in the special crowd. Conclusions. The certain variations of CoW showed significant relation to gender, but not to age in people with family history of stroke. The incomplete circle may be a dangerous factor that is independent of common risk factors for stroke and tend to lead to cerebral ischemia in the crowd with family history of stroke. The prevalence of intracranial aneurysm is

  19. Association between Family Structure and Physical Activity of Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Qi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study examines the association between family structure and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of adolescents in China. Methods. The participants included 612 adolescents (317 boys and 295 girls) from Shanghai with ages ranging from 10 to 16 years. Accelerometers were used to measure the duration of MVPA of adolescents, and questionnaires on family structure were completed by the parents of these adolescents. Results. Findings suggested that family structure significantly increased the likelihood of adolescents engaging in physical activity (PA) and explained 6% of MPVA variance. Adolescents living in single-parent households and step families were more physically active than those living in two-parent homes and with biological parents, respectively. However, adolescents residing with grandparents were less active than those living with neither grandparent. No significant difference was found in MVPA time between adolescents living with one sibling and those without siblings. Conclusion. Family environment may be considered in the development of PA interventions and policies, and adolescents living with their grandparents may be targeted in PA promotion. PMID:27123446

  20. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Kricker, Anne; Paltiel, Ora; Flowers, Christopher R.; Wang, Sophia S.; Monnereau, Alain; Blair, Aaron; Maso, Luigino Dal; Kane, Eleanor V.; Nieters, Alexandra; Foran, James M.; Miligi, Lucia; Clavel, Jacqueline; Bernstein, Leslie; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Skibola, Christine F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although risk factors for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have been suggested, their independent effects, modification by sex, and association with anatomical sites are largely unknown. Methods In a pooled analysis of 4667 cases and 22639 controls from 19 studies, we used stepwise logistic regression to identify the most parsimonious multivariate models for DLBCL overall, by sex, and for selected anatomical sites. Results DLBCL was associated with B-cell activating autoimmune diseases (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.80 to 3.09), hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.47 to 2.76), family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.47), higher young adult body mass index (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.23, for 35+ vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m2), higher recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.89), any atopic disorder (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.89), and higher socioeconomic status (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.94). Additional risk factors for women were occupation as field crop/vegetable farm worker (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22 to 2.60), hairdresser (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.41), and seamstress/embroider (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.97), low adult body mass index (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.74, for <18.5 vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m2), hormone replacement therapy started age at least 50 years (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.88), and oral contraceptive use before 1970 (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62 to 1.00); and for men were occupation as material handling equipment operator (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.44), lifetime alcohol consumption (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.75, for >400kg vs nondrinker), and previous blood transfusion (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.83). Autoimmune disease, atopy, and family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma showed similar associations across selected anatomical sites, whereas smoking was associated with central nervous system, testicular and cutaneous DLBCLs

  1. Implementation of an electronic genomic and family health history tool in primary prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Emily A; Lin, Bruce K; Doksum, Teresa; Drohan, Brian; Edelson, Vaughn; Dolan, Siobhan M; Hughes, Kevin S; O'Leary, James; Galvin, Shelley L; Degroat, Nicole; Pardanani, Setul; Feero, W Gregory; Adams, Claire; Jones, Renee; Scott, Joan

    2014-03-01

    "The Pregnancy and Health Profile," (PHP) is a free genetic risk assessment software tool for primary prenatal providers that collects patient-entered family (FHH), personal, and obstetrical health history, performs risk assessment, and presents the provider with clinical decision support during the prenatal encounter. The tool is freely available for download at www.hughesriskapps.net. We evaluated the implementation of PHP in four geographically diverse clinical sites. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted for patients seen prior to the study period and for patients who used the PHP to collect data on documentation of FHH, discussion of cystic fibrosis (CF) and hemoglobinopathy (HB) carrier screening, and CF and HB interventions (tests, referrals). Five hundred pre-implementation phase and 618 implementation phase charts were reviewed. Documentation of a 3-generation FHH or pedigree improved at three sites; patient race/ethnicity at three sites, father of the baby (FOB) race/ethnicity at all sites, and ancestry for the patient and FOB at three sites (P < 0.001-0001). CF counseling improved for implementation phase patients at one site (8% vs. 48%, P < 0.0001) and CF screening/referrals at two (2% vs. 14%, P < 0.0001; 6% vs. 14%; P = 0.05). Counseling and intervention rates did not increase for HB. This preliminary study suggests that the PHP can improve documentation of FHH, race, and ancestry, as well as the compliance with current CF counseling and intervention guidelines in some prenatal clinics. Future evaluation of the PHP should include testing in a larger number of clinical environments, assessment of additional performance measures, and evaluation of the system's overall clinical utility. PMID:24616345

  2. Predictors of student outcomes on perceived knowledge and competence of genetic family history risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Collins, Cathleen A; Stiles, Anne S

    2011-01-01

    The publication of the human genome project has launched a number of discoveries set to change the landscape of healthcare. Unfortunately, nursing faculty across the United States report they are unprepared to teach students who will be practicing in the genomic era. The purpose of this study, utilizing Rogers' (2003) Diffusion of Innovation theory as a framework, was to determine the degree to which nursing school characteristics predict graduating undergraduate nursing students' perceived knowledge and competence of genetic family history risk assessment. School characteristics included school size, proximity to a large city, faculty's perceived barriers to diffusion of genomics into nursing practice, faculty innovativeness, faculty who have attended a genetics program for nursing faculty, and the integration of genomics into the curriculum. Faculty and students from 103 nursing schools across the United States participated in the study by completing online surveys. Hierarchical multiple regression was employed to determine how well the independent variables predicted student perceived knowledge and student perceived competence. No combination of the independent variables in this study predicted student knowledge or competence to the degree expected. This could be attributed to a lack of diffusion of genomics content across nursing curricula, based on Rogers' (2003) theory. Other findings included faculty continue to believe they are not competent to teach genomics, and the curriculum is too dense to include more content. However, contrary to prior research, faculty did believe genomics was valuable. The findings of this study give direction for further research into student outcomes and curriculum evaluation after 2011, when a consensus panel working to diffuse genomics into nursing curriculum and practice will have implemented their strategic plan for this diffusion. PMID:21420042

  3. Vascular function and nitric oxide production in chronic social-stress-exposed rats with various family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bernatowa, I; Csizmadiova, Z; Kopincova, J; Puzserova, A

    2007-09-01

    The study investigated the effect of chronic crowding stress on vascular function and nitric oxide (NO) production in rats with various family history of hypertension. Wistar (W), wBHR (offspring of W dams and spontaneously hypertensive sires), sBHR (offspring of spontaneously hypertensive dams and W sires) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were used. Twelve-week-old males were divided into the control or crowded group for eight weeks. Basal blood pressure (BP, determined by tail-cuff plethysmography) of W, wBHR, sBHR and SHR rats was 112 +/- 3, 129 +/- 2, 135 +/- 2 and 187 +/- 3 mmHg, respectively. Crowding increased BP and reduced aortic NO synthase activity only in sBHR and SHR rats, without alterations in hypothalamic NO production. Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation of the femoral artery of stress-exposed rats was improved in W, unaltered in wBHR and sBHR and reduced in SHR. Crowding reduced serotonin-induced vasoconstriction in W and wBHR rats but had no effect in sBHR and SHR rats. In conclusion, the results suggest that crowded offspring of normotensive mothers were able to modify their vascular function in order to maintain BP at normal levels. On the other hand, offspring of hypertensive mothers were unable of effective adaptation of vascular function in stressful conditions resulting in gradual development of hypertension. PMID:17928645

  4. Increased Pre- and Early-Adolescent Stress in Youth with a Family History of Substance Use Disorder and Early Substance Use Initiation.

    PubMed

    Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Bray, Bethany C; Ryan, Stacy R; Lake, Sarah L; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (Family History Positive) are more likely to have early-onset substance use (i.e., prior to age 15), which may contribute to their higher rates of substance use disorders. One factor that may differentiate Family History Positive youth who engage in early-onset substance use from other Family History Positive youth is exposure to stressors. The aim of this study was to quantify how exposure to stressors from age 11-15 varies as a function of family history of substance use disorders and early-onset substance use. Self-reported stressors were prospectively compared in a sample of predominately (78.9%) Hispanic youth that included 68 Family History Positive youth (50% female) who initiated substance use by age 15 and demographically matched non-users with (n = 136; 52.9% female) and without (n = 75; 54.7% female) family histories of substance use disorders. Stressors were assessed at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Both the severity of stressors and the degree to which stressors were caused by an individual's own behavior were evaluated. All three groups differed from one another in overall exposure to stressors and rates of increase in stressors over time, with Family History Positive youth who engaged in early-onset substance use reporting the greatest exposure to stressors. Group differences were more pronounced for stressors caused by the participants' behavior. Family History Positive users had higher cumulative severity of stressors of this type, both overall and across time. These results indicate greater exposure to stressors among Family History Positive youth with early-onset substance use, and suggest that higher rates of behavior-dependent stressors may be particularly related to early-onset use. PMID:25788123

  5. Family Ecological Predictors of Physical Activity Parenting in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Lawson, Hal A.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting, or strategies parents use to promote PA in children, has been associated with increased PA in children of all ages, including preschool-aged children. However, little is known about the circumstances under which parents adopt such behaviors. This study examined family ecological factors associated with PA…

  6. Greater Discounting of Delayed Rewards in Young Adults with Family Histories of Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders: Studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Ashley; Vincent, Andrea S.; Sorocco, Kristen H.; Lovallo, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased discounting of delayed rewards may be a premorbid characteristic and possible risk factor for alcohol and other drug use disorders; however, previous studies have found no or minimal differences in delay discounting in individuals at risk for substance use disorders based on family history. It is possible that increased delay discounting may be more closely associated with antisocial traits, evident in a subset of individuals with positive family histories of alcohol and drug use disorders, and that previous studies were underpowered for detecting subtle to modest overall group differences. Methods In this study, we compared 143 young adults with family histories of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) and 155 young adults with no such histories (FH−) on delay discounting and subsequently examined how delay discounting was related to antisocial traits and other selected psychological and demographic variables. Results The FH+ group discounted delayed rewards more than the FH− group. Subsequent analyses revealed that increased delay discounting was correlated with having more parents and grandparents with alcohol and drug use disorders, more antisocial traits, more depressive tendencies and lower IQs, and lower income. After controlling for all these relationships, more antisocial traits and lower IQ still predicted greater delay discounting, and subsequent analysis revealed that the greater delay discounting in the FH+ group was mediated by this group’s greater number of individuals with antisocial traits. Conclusion FH+ individuals who discount delayed rewards more may be at increased risk for developing alcohol and other drug use disorders; however, additional descriptive studies and longitudinal studies are needed. PMID:21599715

  7. An Ecostructural Family Therapy Approach to the Rehabilitation of the Latino Drug Abuser: History and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scopetta, Mercedes A.

    An approach to the treatment of Hispanic (particularly Cuban) American families with drug abusing members is presented in this paper. The approach, developed by the Spanish Family Guidance Center in Miami, Florida, views dysfunctionality and drug abuse as emerging from a family's internal disorganization and ecological imbalance. In order to treat…

  8. Role of family resources and paternal history of substance use problems in psychosocial adjustment among school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use problems) and their mothers. Results draw attention to the differences between the subjective experiences of the child and those of the mother, and by indicating that the effect of the interaction between the father's and the mother's control parenting style on the child's psychosocial outcome is greater than the sum total of influences of each of them separately. PMID:19157043

  9. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Marginal Zone Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Benavente, Yolanda; Turner, Jennifer J.; Paltiel, Ora; Slager, Susan L.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Norman, Aaron D.; Cerhan, James R.; Chiu, Brian C. H.; Becker, Nikolaus; Cocco, Pierluigi; Dogan, Ahmet; Nieters, Alexandra; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Kane, Eleanor V.; Smedby, Karin E.; Maynadié, Marc; Spinelli, John J.; Roman, Eve; Glimelius, Bengt; Wang, Sophia S.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Background Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), comprised of nodal, extranodal, and splenic subtypes, accounts for 5%–10% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. A detailed evaluation of the independent effects of risk factors for MZL and its subtypes has not been conducted. Methods Data were pooled from 1052 MZL cases (extranodal [EMZL] = 633, nodal [NMZL] = 157, splenic [SMZL] = 140) and 13766 controls from 12 case–control studies. Adjusted unconditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Novel findings for MZL subtypes include increased risk for B-cell activating autoimmune conditions (EMZL OR = 6.40, 95% CI = 4.24 to 9.68; NMZL OR = 7.80, 95% CI = 3.32 to 18.33; SMZL OR = 4.25, 95% CI = 1.49 to 12.14), hepatitis C virus seropositivity (EMZL OR = 5.29, 95% CI = 2.48 to 11.28), self-reported peptic ulcers (EMZL OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.35 to 2.49), asthma without other atopy (SMZL OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.23 to 4.23), family history of hematologic cancer (EMZL OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.37 to 2.62) and of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NMZL OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.33 to 5.98), permanent hairdye use (SMZL OR = 6.59, 95% CI = 1.54 to 28.17), and occupation as a metalworker (NMZL OR = 3.56, 95% CI = 1.67 to 7.58). Reduced risks were observed with consumption of any alcohol (EMZL fourth quartile OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.82) and lower consumption of wine (NMZL first to third quartile ORs < 0.45) compared with nondrinkers, and occupation as a teacher (EMZL OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.88). Conclusion Our results provide new data suggesting etiologic heterogeneity across MZL subtypes although a common risk of MZL associated with B-cell activating autoimmune conditions was found. PMID:25174026

  10. Cardenolides from the Apocynaceae family and their anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shiyuan; Chen, Yanyan; Lu, Yunfang; Wang, Yuefei; Ding, Liqin; Jiang, Miaomiao

    2016-07-01

    Cardenolides, as a group of natural products that can bind to Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with an inhibiting activity, are traditionally used to treat congestive heart failure. Recent studies have demonstrated that the strong tumor cytotoxicities of cardenolides are mainly due to inducing the tumor cells apoptosis through different expression and cellular location of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunits. The leaves, flesh, seeds and juices of numerous plants from the genera of Nerium, Thevetia, Cerbera, Apocynum and Strophanthus in Apocynaceae family, are the major sources of natural cardenolides. So far, 109 cardenolides have been isolated and identified from this family, and about a quarter of them are reported to exhibit the capability to regulate cancer cell survival and death through multiple signaling pathways. In this review, we compile the phytochemical characteristics and anticancer activity of the cardenolides from this family. PMID:27167183

  11. Family history of cancer and risk of pediatric and adolescent Hodgkin lymphoma: A Children's Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Linabery, Amy M; Erhardt, Erik B; Richardson, Michaela R; Ambinder, Richard F; Friedman, Debra L; Glaser, Sally L; Monnereau, Alain; Spector, Logan G; Ross, Julie A; Grufferman, Seymour

    2015-11-01

    Family history of lymphoid neoplasm (LN) is a strong and consistently observed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) risk factor, although it has been only marginally examined in pediatric/adolescent patients. Here, healthy control children identified by random digit dialing were matched on sex, race/ethnicity and age to HL cases diagnosed at 0-14 years at Children's Oncology Group institutions in 1989-2003. Detailed histories were captured by structured telephone interviews with parents of 517 cases and 783 controls. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) RNA detection was performed for 355 available case tumors. Two analytic strategies were applied to estimate associations between family cancer history and pediatric/adolescent HL. In a standard case-control approach, multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In a reconstructed cohort approach, each relative was included as a separate observation, and multivariate proportional hazards regression was used to produce hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Using the latter, pediatric/adolescent HL was associated with a positive family history (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06-1.36), particularly early-onset cancers (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06-1.59) and those in the paternal lineage (HR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.16-1.65), with a suggested association for LN in first-degree relatives (HR = 3.61, 95% CI: 0.87-15.01). There were no discernable patterns for EBV+ versus EBV- HL. The clustering of LN within pedigrees may signal shared genetic susceptibility or common environmental exposures. Heritable genetic risk variants have only recently begun to be discovered, however. These results are consistent with other studies and provide a compelling rationale for family-based studies to garner information about genetic susceptibility to HL. PMID:25940226

  12. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Sporadic Burkitt Lymphoma/Leukemia: The Interlymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Chang, Ellen T.; Costas, Laura; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Lightfoot, Tracy; Kelly, Jennifer; Friedberg, Jonathan W.; Cozen, Wendy; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Slager, Susan L.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiologic role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors in sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is unknown, but epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that risk factors may vary by age. Methods We investigated risk factors for sporadic BL in 295 cases compared with 21818 controls in a pooled analysis of 18 case–control studies in the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). Cases were defined to include typical BL or Burkitt-like lymphoma. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations were calculated separately for younger (<50 years) and older (≥50 years) BL using multivariate logistic regression. Results Cases included 133 younger BL and 159 older BL (age was missing for three cases) and they were evenly split between typical BL (n = 147) and Burkitt-like lymphoma (n = 148). BL in younger participants was inversely associated with a history of allergy (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.32 to 1.05), and positively associated with a history of eczema among individuals without other atopic conditions (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.20 to 5.40), taller height (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.08 to 4.36), and employment as a cleaner (OR = 3.49; 95% CI = 1.13 to 10.7). BL in older participants was associated with a history of hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR = 4.19; 95% CI = 1.05 to 16.6) based on three exposed cases. Regardless of age, BL was inversely associated with alcohol consumption and positively associated with height. Conclusions Our data suggest that BL in younger and older adults may be etiologically distinct. PMID:25174031

  13. Spatio-temporal history of the disjunct family Tecophilaeaceae: a tale involving the colonization of three Mediterranean-type ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Buerki, Sven; Manning, John C.; Forest, Félix

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Tecophilaeaceae (27 species distributed in eight genera) have a disjunct distribution in California, Chile and southern and tropical mainland Africa. Moreover, although the family mainly occurs in arid ecosystems, it has colonized three Mediterranean-type ecosystems. In this study, the spatio-temporal history of the family is examined using DNA sequence data from six plastid regions. Methods Modern methods in divergence time estimation (BEAST), diversification (LTT and GeoSSE) and biogeography (LAGRANGE) are applied to infer the evolutionary history of Tecophilaeaceae. To take into account dating and phylogenetic uncertainty, the biogeographical inferences were run over a set of dated Bayesian trees and the analyses were constrained according to palaeogeographical evidence. Key Results The analyses showed that the current distribution and diversification of the family were influenced primarily by the break up of Gondwana, separating the family into two main clades, and the establishment of a Mediterranean climate in Chile, coinciding with the radiation of Conanthera. Finally, unlike many other groups, no shifts in diversification rates were observed associated with the dispersals in the Cape region of South Africa. Conclusions Although modest in size, Tecophilaeaceae have a complex spatio-temporal history. The family is now most diverse in arid ecosystems in southern Africa, but is expected to have originated in sub-tropical Africa. It has subsequently colonized Mediterranean-type ecosystems in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, but well before the onset of the Mediterranean climate in these regions. Only one lineage, genus Conanthera, has apparently diversified to any extent under the impetus of a Mediterranean climate. PMID:23277471

  14. Gender differences in familial aggregation of objectively measured physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of health-risk factors have been shown to cluster within families. However, there have been few studies that have assessed the degree of correlation between parent and child physical activity levels. It is also unclear if gender of parent or child influences this relationship. PURPOSE: To d...

  15. Family Science Night: Fun Tips, Activities, and Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Shelley S.

    2013-01-01

    At last! A practical, readable guide for teachers, school leaders, and parent/teacher associations that shows how to plan fun, hands-on science nights! Get easy-to-implement, content-rich tips and ideas that will cultivate positive attitudes toward science! Learn how to involve and actively engage families in their children's science education.…

  16. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma/Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Landgren, Ola; McMaster, Mary L.; Slager, Susan L.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Smith, Alex; Staines, Anthony; Dogan, Ahmet; Ansell, Stephen M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Linet, Martha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (LPL/WM), a rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtype, shows strong familial aggregation and a positive association with chronic immune stimulation, but evidence regarding other risk factors is very limited. Methods The International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) pooled data from 11 predominantly population-based case–control studies from North America, Europe, and Australia to examine medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for LPL/WM. Age-, sex-, race/ethnicity-, and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression for a total of 374 LPL/WM cases and 23 096 controls. Results In multivariate analysis including all putative risk factors, LPL/WM risk was associated with history of Sjögren’s syndrome (OR = 14.0, 95% CI = 3.60 to 54.6), systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 8.23, 95% CI = 2.69 to 25.2), hay fever (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.99), positive hepatitis C serology (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.03 to 6.17), hematologic malignancy in a first-degree relative (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.64), adult weight (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.85 for highest vs. lowest quartile), duration of cigarette smoking (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.05 for ≥ 40 years vs. nonsmokers), and occupation as a medical doctor (OR = 5.54, 95% CI = 2.19 to 14.0). There was no association with other medical conditions, lifestyle factors, or occupations. Conclusions This pooled analysis confirmed associations with immune conditions and family history of hematologic malignancy, and identified new associations with hay fever, weight, smoking, and occupation, and no association with other lifestyle factors. These findings offer clues to LPL/WM biology and prevention. PMID:25174029

  17. Does history of childhood maltreatment make a difference in prison? A hierarchical approach on early family events and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Sakelliadis, Emmanouil I; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Goutas, Nikolaos; Sergentanis, Ioannis N; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Papadodima, StavroulaA

    2014-12-30

    This study attempts to assess childhood maltreatment in prison through a hierarchical approach. The hierarchical approach principally aims to disentangle the independent effects of childhood maltreatment upon psychiatric morbidity/personality traits, if any, from the burden that the adverse family conditions have already imposed to the mental health of the maltreated individual-prisoner. To this direction, a conceptual framework with five hierarchical levels was constructed, namely: immutable demographic factors; family conditions; childhood maltreatment (physical abuse, neglect and sexual abuse); personality traits, habits and psychiatric morbidity; prison-related variables. A self-administered, anonymous set (battery) of questionnaires was administered to 173 male prisoners in the Chalkida prison, Greece; 26% of prisoners disclosed childhood maltreatment. Psychiatric condition in the family, parental alcoholism and parental divorce correlated with childhood maltreatment. After adjustment for immutable demographic factors and family conditions, childhood maltreatment was associated with aggression (both in terms of Lifetime History of Aggression and Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire scores), illicit substance use, personal history of psychiatric condition, current smoking, impulsivity and alcohol abuse. In conclusion, childhood maltreatment represents a pivotal, determining factor in the life course of male prisoners. Delinquents seem to suffer from long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment in terms of numerous mental health aspects. PMID:25468626

  18. Comparing mirror neuron system activity between sporadic and familial cases of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sayantanava; Nizamie, S Haque; Goyal, Nishant; Tikka, Sai Krishna; Kavoor, Anjana Rao

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogenous disorder, and has often been subtyped on the basis of family history of psychotic disorders. Compared to those without, a positive family history is associated with an earlier age of onset, greater structural brain abnormalities and poorer clinical course. Given recent emphasis on mirror neuron system (MNS) in attempting to explain psychopathology in schizophrenia; present analysis tried to tease out differences in MNS functioning between these two groups. With ethical approval, 10 consenting right-handed patients with schizophrenia (ICD-10-DCR; M=8; Drug-naïve=2) were recruited and divided into two groups of five each (M=4, F=1): those with (age 29.40±5.85 years, duration of illness 50.80±30.84 months) and without (age 29.60±5.77 years, duration of illness 43.20±43.76 months) family history of schizophrenic illness (group difference p>0.05). MNS activity was assessed using event-related desynchronization of EEG Mu waves in response to biological motion on 192-channel EEG Neurofax EEG-1100K. On comparison, while patients had significantly lower mu suppression compared to controls (p<0.001); two schizophrenia groups did not differ between themselves, neither on MNS activity nor on psychopathology (p>0.05). Present study replicates finding of a dysfunctional MNS in schizophrenia patients, and represents a preliminary attempt at comparing two groups of symptomatic schizophrenia patients. In both these groups, MNS dysfunctions were comparable, and commensurate with respect to psychopathology. Thus, MNS dysfunction in schizophrenia might either be inherited or acquired. However, this abnormality forms a common base, and ultimate vulnerability marker, for development of psychopathology during active disease states. PMID:27208448

  19. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Mantle Cell Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Joshua N.; Turner, Jennifer J.; Slager, Susan L.; Maynadié, Marc; Roman, Eve; Habermann, Thomas M.; Flowers, Christopher R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bracci, Paige M.; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiology of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a distinctive subtype accounting for 2%–10% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is not known. Methods We investigated associations with self-reported medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors in a pooled analysis of 557 patients with MCL and 13766 controls from 13 case–control studies in Europe, North America, and Australia. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with each exposure were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. Results The median age of the MCL patients was 62 years and 76% were men. Risk of MCL was inversely associated with history of hay fever (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.82), and the association was independent of other atopic diseases and allergies. A hematological malignancy among first-degree relatives was associated with a twofold increased risk of MCL (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.39 to 2.84), which was stronger in men (OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.44 to 3.38) than women (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 0.82 to 3.19). A modestly increased risk of MCL was also observed in association with ever having lived on a farm (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.90). Unlike some other non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes, MCL risk was not statistically significantly associated with autoimmune disorders, tobacco smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, or ultraviolet radiation. Conclusions The novel observations of a possible role for atopy and allergy and farm life in risk of MCL, together with confirmatory evidence of a familial link, suggest a multifactorial etiology of immune-related environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility. These findings provide guidance for future research in MCL etiology. PMID:25174028

  20. Increased Mortality Exposure within the Family Rather than Individual Mortality Experiences Triggers Faster Life-History Strategies in Historic Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Störmer, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-01

    Life History Theory predicts that extrinsic mortality risk is one of the most important factors shaping (human) life histories. Evidence from contemporary populations suggests that individuals confronted with high mortality environments show characteristic traits of fast life-history strategies: they marry and reproduce earlier, have shorter birth intervals and invest less in their offspring. However, little is known of the impact of mortality experiences on the speed of life histories in historical human populations with generally higher mortality risk, and on male life histories in particular. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether individual-level mortality experiences within the family have a greater effect on life-history decisions or family membership explains life-history variation. In a comparative approach using event history analyses, we study the impact of family versus individual-level effects of mortality exposure on two central life-history parameters, ages at first marriage and first birth, in three historical human populations (Germany, Finland, Canada). Mortality experience is measured as the confrontation with sibling deaths within the natal family up to an individual's age of 15. Results show that the speed of life histories is not adjusted according to individual-level mortality experiences but is due to family-level effects. The general finding of lower ages at marriage/reproduction after exposure to higher mortality in the family holds for both females and males. This study provides evidence for the importance of the family environment for reproductive timing while individual-level mortality experiences seem to play only a minor role in reproductive life history decisions in humans. PMID:24421897

  1. The LBP/BPI multigenic family in invertebrates: Evolutionary history and evidences of specialization in mollusks.

    PubMed

    Baron, Olga Lucia; Deleury, Emeline; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Coustau, Christine

    2016-04-01

    LBPs (lipopolysaccharide binding proteins) and BPIs (bactericidal permeability increasing proteins) are important proteins involved in defense against bacterial pathogens. We recently discovered a novel biocidal activity of a LBP/BPI from the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata and demonstrated its role in parental immune protection of eggs, highlighting the importance of LBP/BPIs in invertebrate immunity. Here we characterize four additional LBP/BPI from B. glabrata, presenting conserved sequence architecture and exon-intron structure. Searches of invertebrate genomes revealed that existence of LBP/BPIs is not a conserved feature since they are absent from phyla such as arthropods and platyhelminths. Analyses of LBP/BPI transcripts from selected mollusk species showed recent parallel duplications in some species, including B. glabrata. In this snail species, LBP/BPI members vary in their expression tissue localization as well as their change in expression levels after immune challenges (Gram-negative bacterium; Gram-positive bacterium or yeast). These results, together with the predicted protein features provide evidences of functional specialization of LBP/BPI family members in molluscs. PMID:26608112

  2. Classroom Activities for Developing A Cohesive Understanding of History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Randy K.

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that the story of humanity can be presented as human groups solving the basic problems of human existence throughout time. Contends that delineating this basic theme of history can present students with a coherent view of history. Links the individual's story to the broader view and presents a teaching unit that conceptualizes this…

  3. The Role of "Family Snapshots" in Teaching Art History within a Dialogic Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Studying images of families in works of art and in snapshots is compelling, and the author wondered if looking at both types of images side by side might help students understand both kinds of images more fully. Snapshots often prompt detailed and vivid stories among family members and friends. Therefore, she wondered if dialogue about snapshots…

  4. [The Use of History in Family Therapy: A Rejoinder to Sluzki and a Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, John R.; Sluzki, Carlos E.

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary psychodynamic family clinicians emphasize intervening in the transmission of emotional patterning over generations in families. While differences exist between this model and "systems" approaches, it is argued that integration of the two is possible. Provides Sluzki's response that the two models are independent. (Author/RC)

  5. Family history of hypertension and diabetes in relation to preeclampsia risk in Peruvian women.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Zhang, Cuilin; Qiu, Chun-Fang; Williams, Michelle A

    2003-01-01

    In a case-control study of 169 preeclamptics and 201 controls, we assessed maternal parental history of chronic hypertension and diabetes in relation to preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. Participants provided information on parental history of the two conditions and other covariates during postpartum interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for confounding by age, parity and prepregnancy adiposity. In this population, women were more likely to know the diabetes status of their parents than their hypertension status. Compared with women without a parental history of hypertension, women with a parental history of hypertension experienced a 20% increased risk of preeclampsia (OR = 1.2; 95% CI 0.7-2.2) that did not reach statistical significance. Women with a positive parental history for diabetes had a 3.4-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% CI 1.4-8.4). Women with a positive parental history of both hypertension and diabetes, as compared with those whose parents had neither condition, experienced a 4.6- fold increased risk of preeclampsia (OR = 4.6; 95% CI 0.9-23.0). Our results are generally consistent with the thesis that parental history of hypertension and diabetes reflects genetic and behavioral factors whereby women may be predisposed to an increased risk of preeclampsia. PMID:14530611

  6. Motivation to Pursue Genetic Testing in Individuals with a Personal or Family History of Cardiac Events or Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Erskine, Kathleen E.; Hidayatallah, Nadia Z.; Walsh, Christine A.; McDonald, Thomas V.; Cohen, Lilian; Marion, Robert W.; Dolan, Siobhan M.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic testing is becoming increasingly available for cardiac channelopathies, such as long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome, which can lead to sudden cardiac death. Test results can be used to shape an individual’s medical management and to identify at-risk family members. In our qualitative study, all participants had a personal or family history of a diagnosed cardiac arrhythmia syndrome or sudden cardiac death. Open-ended interviews were conducted individually and in focus groups. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a qualitative grounded-theory approach. Of 50 participants, 37 described their motivations for pursuing genetic testing for long QT syndrome or another cardiac channelopathy. Participants’ motivations included: to find an explanation for a family member’s sudden death, to relieve uncertainty regarding a diagnosis, to guide future medical management, to allay concern about children or other family members, and to comply with recommendations of physicians or family members. Perceived reasons not to pursue genetic testing included denial, fear, and lack of information. The genetic counseling and informed consent process can be enhanced by understanding and addressing an individual’s internal and external motivations either for or against pursuing genetic testing. PMID:24664857

  7. Genetic counselors' current use of personal health records-based family histories in genetic clinics and considerations for their future adoption.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Chaney; Deshazo, Jonathan P; Bodurtha, Joann; Quillin, John; Creswick, Heather

    2013-06-01

    Given the widespread adoption of electronic medical records and recent emergence of electronic family history tools, we examined genetic counselors' perspectives on the emerging technology of the personal health record (PHR)-based family history tool that links to an electronic medical record (EMR). Two-hundred thirty-three genetic counselors responded to an on-line survey eliciting current use of electronic family history (EFH) tools and familiarity with PHR-based family history tools. Additionally, after being shown a series of screen shots of a newly developed PHR-based family history tool based on the U.S. Surgeon General's My Family Health Portrait (United States Department of Health and Human Services 2009), participants were surveyed about the perceived usefulness, ease of use, and impact on current workflow that this kind of tool would have in their practices. Eighty-three percent reported that their institution has an EMR, yet only 35 % have a dedicated space for family history. Eighty-two percent reported that less than 5 % of their patients have a PHR, and only 16 % have worked with patients who have a PHR. Seventy-two percent or more agreed that a PHR-based family history tool would facilitate communication, increase accuracy of information, ensure consistency in recording information, increase focus on actual counseling, reduce repetitive questions, improve efficiency, and increase the legibility and clarity. Our findings suggest that participants were familiar with existing EFH tools, but that the majority did not use them in practice. Genetic counselors' adoption of such tools is limited due to non-existence of this kind of technology or inability to integrate it into their clinics. They are also strongly in favor of adopting a PHR-based family history tool in genetics clinics, but have practical concerns that must be addressed before the tool can be implemented. PMID:23242928

  8. Structure and evolutionary history of a large family of NLR proteins in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Howe, Kerstin; Schiffer, Philipp H; Zielinski, Julia; Wiehe, Thomas; Laird, Gavin K; Marioni, John C; Soylemez, Onuralp; Kondrashov, Fyodor; Leptin, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Multicellular eukaryotes have evolved a range of mechanisms for immune recognition. A widespread family involved in innate immunity are the NACHT-domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR) proteins. Mammals have small numbers of NLR proteins, whereas in some species, mostly those without adaptive immune systems, NLRs have expanded into very large families. We describe a family of nearly 400 NLR proteins encoded in the zebrafish genome. The proteins share a defining overall structure, which arose in fishes after a fusion of the core NLR domains with a B30.2 domain, but can be subdivided into four groups based on their NACHT domains. Gene conversion acting differentially on the NACHT and B30.2 domains has shaped the family and created the groups. Evidence of positive selection in the B30.2 domain indicates that this domain rather than the leucine-rich repeats acts as the pathogen recognition module. In an unusual chromosomal organization, the majority of the genes are located on one chromosome arm, interspersed with other large multigene families, including a new family encoding zinc-finger proteins. The NLR-B30.2 proteins represent a new family with diversity in the specific recognition module that is present in fishes in spite of the parallel existence of an adaptive immune system. PMID:27248802

  9. Structure and evolutionary history of a large family of NLR proteins in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Julia; Kondrashov, Fyodor

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular eukaryotes have evolved a range of mechanisms for immune recognition. A widespread family involved in innate immunity are the NACHT-domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR) proteins. Mammals have small numbers of NLR proteins, whereas in some species, mostly those without adaptive immune systems, NLRs have expanded into very large families. We describe a family of nearly 400 NLR proteins encoded in the zebrafish genome. The proteins share a defining overall structure, which arose in fishes after a fusion of the core NLR domains with a B30.2 domain, but can be subdivided into four groups based on their NACHT domains. Gene conversion acting differentially on the NACHT and B30.2 domains has shaped the family and created the groups. Evidence of positive selection in the B30.2 domain indicates that this domain rather than the leucine-rich repeats acts as the pathogen recognition module. In an unusual chromosomal organization, the majority of the genes are located on one chromosome arm, interspersed with other large multigene families, including a new family encoding zinc-finger proteins. The NLR-B30.2 proteins represent a new family with diversity in the specific recognition module that is present in fishes in spite of the parallel existence of an adaptive immune system. PMID:27248802

  10. Geometric complexity identifies platelet activation in familial hypercholesterolemic patients.

    PubMed

    Bianciardi, Giorgio; Aglianò, Margherita; Volpi, Nila; Stefanutti, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a genetic disease, is associated with a severe incidence of athero-thrombotic events, related, also, to platelet hyperreactivity. A plethora of methods have been proposed to identify those activated circulating platelets, none of these has proved really effective. We need efficient methods to identify the circulating platelet status in order to follow the patients after therapeutic procedures. We propose the use of computerized fractal analysis for an objective characterization of the complexity of circulating platelet shapes observed by means of transmission electron microscopy in order to characterize the in vivo hyperactivated platelets of familial hypercholesterolemic patients, distinguishing them from the in vivo resting platelets of healthy individuals. Platelet boundaries were extracted by means of automatically image analysis. Geometric complexity (fractal dimension, D) by box counting was automatically calculated. The platelet boundary observed by electron microscopy is fractal, the shape of the circulating platelets is more complex in FH (n = 6) than healthy subjects (n = 5, P < 0.01), with 100% correct classification in selected individuals. In vitro activated platelets from healthy subjects show an analogous increase of D. The observed high D in the platelet boundary in FH originates from the in vivo platelet activation. Computerized fractal analysis of platelet shape observed by transmission electron microscopy can provide accurate, quantitative data to study platelet activation in familial hypercholesterolemia and after administration of drugs or other therapeutic procedures. PMID:25877374

  11. The roles of family history of dyslexia, language, speech production and phonological processing in predicting literacy progress.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Julia M; Mundy, Ian R; Cunningham, Anna J

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that speech, language and phonological skills are closely associated with literacy, and that children with a family risk of dyslexia (FRD) tend to show deficits in each of these areas in the preschool years. This paper examines what the relationships are between FRD and these skills, and whether deficits in speech, language and phonological processing fully account for the increased risk of dyslexia in children with FRD. One hundred and fifty-three 4-6-year-old children, 44 of whom had FRD, completed a battery of speech, language, phonology and literacy tasks. Word reading and spelling were retested 6 months later, and text reading accuracy and reading comprehension were tested 3 years later. The children with FRD were at increased risk of developing difficulties in reading accuracy, but not reading comprehension. Four groups were compared: good and poor readers with and without FRD. In most cases good readers outperformed poor readers regardless of family history, but there was an effect of family history on naming and nonword repetition regardless of literacy outcome, suggesting a role for speech production skills as an endophenotype of dyslexia. Phonological processing predicted spelling, while language predicted text reading accuracy and comprehension. FRD was a significant additional predictor of reading and spelling after controlling for speech production, language and phonological processing, suggesting that children with FRD show additional difficulties in literacy that cannot be fully explained in terms of their language and phonological skills. PMID:24581037

  12. Astronomy Outreach Activities for Special Needs Children and Their Families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.

    2010-08-01

    I present the results of two NASA-IDEAS/STScI sponsored astronomy outreach programs for seriously ill children and their families staying at the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY) and for children hospitalized at the Children's Medical Center, Winthrop University Hospital (Mineola, NY). These programs are designed for children of all ages and include STSCi's Tonight's Sky (monthly guide to the sky); telescope observations of the Moon, Sun, planets, nebulae, and stars; and hands-on activities. During cloudy weather remote/robotic telescope observations are shown. Edible demonstrations using chocolate, marshmallows, and popcorn are used to stimulate interest. The staff at the Ronald McDonald House and Children's Medical Center are being trained to use the telescope and to do demonstrations. These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time.

  13. Perspectives:The Strength of a People: Exploring the Impact of History and Culture on African American Families Who Are Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Tabitha; Diamond-Berry, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The authors share their perspective on how the history of African American's in the U.S., and an awareness of the role of African cultural traditions, can provide insight on working effectively with African American families.

  14. Previous reproductive history and post-natal family planning among HIV-infected women in Ukraine†

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, J.; Malyuta, R.; Semenenko, I.; Pilipenko, T.; Tereshenko, R.; Kulakovskaya, E.; Adejnova, I.; Kvasha, L.; Thorne, C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ukraine has the highest antenatal HIV prevalence in Europe. The national prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) programme has reduced the MTCT rate, but less attention has been given to the prevention of unintended pregnancy among HIV-positive women. Our objectives were to describe the reproductive health, condom use and family planning (FP) practices of HIV-positive childbearing Ukrainian women and to identify factors associated with different methods of post-natal contraception. METHODS HIV-infected childbearing women, diagnosed before or during pregnancy, were enrolled prospectively in a post-natal cohort study in four regional HIV/AIDS centres in Ukraine from December 2007. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with post-natal FP practices. RESULTS Data were available for 371 women enrolled by March 2009; 82% (n = 303) were married or cohabiting, 27% (97 of 363) reported a current HIV-negative sexual partner and 69% were diagnosed with HIV during their most recent pregnancy. Overall, 21% (75 of 349) of women were not using contraception post-natally (of whom 80% reported no current sexual activity), 50% (174 of 349) used condoms, 20% (74 of 349) relied solely/partially on coitus interruptus and 4% used hormonal methods or intrauterine device. Among married/cohabiting women, consistent use of condoms in the previous pregnancy [AOR 1.96 (95%CI 1.06–3.62)], having an HIV-positive partner [AOR 0.42 (0.20–0.87)], current sexual activity [AOR 4.53 (1.19–17.3)] and study site were significantly associated with post-natal condom use; 16% of those with HIV-negative partners did not use condoms. Risk factors for non-use of FP were lack of affordability [AOR 6.34 (1.73–23.2)] and inconsistent use of condoms in the previous pregnancy [AOR 7.25 (1.41–37.2)]. CONCLUSIONS More than 40% of HIV-positive women in this population are at risk of unintended pregnancy and the one in six women in HIV-discordant couples not

  15. Cortical thickness and VBM in young women at risk for familial depression and their depressed mothers with positive family history.

    PubMed

    Ozalay, Ozgun; Aksoy, Burcu; Tunay, Sebnem; Simsek, Fatma; Chandhoki, Swati; Kitis, Omer; Eker, Cagdas; Gonul, Ali Saffet

    2016-06-30

    It has been demonstrated that compared to low-risk subjects, high-risk subjects for depression have structural and functional alterations in their brain scans even before the disease onset. However, it is not known if these alterations are related to vulnerability to depression or epiphenomena. One way to resolve this ambiguity is to detect the structural alterations in the high-risk subjects and determine if the same alterations are present in the probands. In this study, we recruited 24 women with the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) with recurrent episodes and their healthy daughters (the high-risk for familial depression group; HRFD). We compared structural brain scans of the patients and HRFG group with those of 24 age-matched healthy mothers and their healthy daughters at similar ages to the HRFD group; respectively. Both cortical gray matter (GM) volume and thickness analyses revealed that HRFD daughters and their MDD mothers had similar GM differences in two regions: the right temporoparietal region and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. These results suggested that the observed alterations may be related to trait clinical and neurophysiological characteristics of MDD and may present before the onset of illness. PMID:27136662

  16. Antimicrobial activities of three species of family mimosaceae.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Adeel; Mahmood, Aqeel; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of crude methanolic extract of leaves of Acacia nilotica L., Albizia lebbeck L. and Mimosa himalayana Gamble belonging to family mimosaceae were investigated in this research work. Antibacterial activity was studied by agar well diffusion method against one gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and three gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. Crude extract of all plants showed best activity against gram-negative bacterial strains while minor inhibition zones were found against gram positive bacterial strains. Antifungal activity of crude plant extract was screened by agar tube dilution method against Aspergillus nigar and Aspergillus flavus. These results showed that these plants extracts have potential against bacterias, while against fungi their activity is not much effective. PMID:22186331

  17. Comparison of the effectiveness of duloxetine in depressed patients with and without a family history of affective disorders in first-degree relatives

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Shiliang; QIAN, Mincai; ZHONG, Hua; SONG, Guohua; LU, Meijuan; FENG, Rui; ZHANG, Lei; NI, Jianliang; CHEN, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background It remains unclear whether or not a positive family history of affective disorders predicts the effectiveness of antidepressant treatment of depression. Aims Assess the relationship of a family history of affective disorders to the efficacy of duloxetine in the treatment of depressive disorder. Methods Seventy-seven patients with depressive disorder (as defined by the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases, ICD-10) were enrolled in the study and treated with standard doses of duloxetine for 12 weeks. Among these patients 37 had a family history of affective disorder in first-degree relatives and 40 did not. The Hamilton Depression rating scale (HAMD-17), Hamilton Anxiety rating scale (HAMA), Side Effects Rating Scale (SERS), Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, and 12th week after enrollment. Repeated measures analysis of variance and logistic regression were used to analyze the association between a family history of affective disorders and the efficacy of duloxetine. Results Patients with a positive family history of affective disorders had an earlier age of onset, a longer duration of illness, a higher level of psychic anxiety, and more prominent anhedonia. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant improvement in the severity of depression over the 12 weeks but no differences in the magnitude or speed of improvement between the two groups. Treatment was considered effective (i.e., drop in baseline HAMD-17 total score of ≥50%) in 75.7% of those with a family history of affective disorders and in 77.5% of those without a family history (X2=0.04, p=0.850). Conclusions Family history of affective disorders is not associated with the effectiveness of duloxetine in the acute treatment of depressive disorder. PMID:26549960

  18. Active Site and Laminarin Binding in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 55*

    PubMed Central

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S.; Yik, Eric J.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 β-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100–10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ∼30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  19. Active site and laminarin binding in glycoside hydrolase family 55.

    PubMed

    Bianchetti, Christopher M; Takasuka, Taichi E; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S; Yik, Eric J; Bergeman, Lai F; Fox, Brian G

    2015-05-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 β-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100-10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ∼30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  20. Infant information processing and family history of specific language impairment: converging evidence for RAP deficits from two paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Naseem; Leppanen, Paavo H.T.; Leevers, Hilary J.; Benasich, April A.

    2007-01-01

    An infant’s ability to process auditory signals presented in rapid succession (i.e. rapid auditory processing abilities [RAP]) has been shown to predict differences in language outcomes in toddlers and preschool children. Early deficits in RAP abilities may serve as a behavioral marker for language-based learning disabilities. The purpose of this study is to determine if performance on infant information processing measures designed to tap RAP and global processing skills differ as a function of family history of specific language impairment (SLI) and/or the particular demand characteristics of the paradigm used. Seventeen 6- to 9-month-old infants from families with a history of specific language impairment (FH+) and 29 control infants (FH−) participated in this study. Infants’ performance on two different RAP paradigms (head-turn procedure [HT] and auditory-visual habituation/recognition memory [AVH/RM]) and on a global processing task (visual habituation/recognition memory [VH/RM]) was assessed at 6 and 9 months. Toddler language and cognitive skills were evaluated at 12 and 16 months. A number of significant group differences were seen: FH+ infants showed significantly poorer discrimination of fast rate stimuli on both RAP tasks, took longer to habituate on both habituation/recognition memory measures, and had lower novelty preference scores on the visual habituation/recognition memory task. Infants’ performance on the two RAP measures provided independent but converging contributions to outcome. Thus, different mechanisms appear to underlie performance on operantly conditioned tasks as compared to habituation/recognition memory paradigms. Further, infant RAP processing abilities predicted to 12- and 16-month language scores above and beyond family history of SLI. The results of this study provide additional support for the validity of infant RAP abilities as a behavioral marker for later language outcome. Finally, this is the first study to use a

  1. Risk prediction by genetic risk scores for coronary heart disease is independent of self-reported family history

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Hayato; Melander, Olle; Louie, Judy Z.; Catanese, Joseph J.; Rowland, Charles M.; Devlin, James J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Shiffman, Dov

    2016-01-01

    Aims Genetic risk scores (GRSs) have been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in large studies. We asked whether expanding an established 27-variant GRS (GRS27) to a 50-variant GRS (GRS50) improved CHD prediction and whether GRSs are independent of self-reported family history of CHD. Methods and results The association between GRSs and incident CHD was assessed in Cox models adjusting for established risk factors in 23 595 participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer study—a prospective, population-based study. During a median follow-up of 14.4 years, 2213 participants experienced a first CHD event. After adjustment for established risk factors, both GRS27 and GRS50 were associated with incident CHD [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.70 for high (top quintile) vs. low (bottom quintile) of GRS27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.48–1.94; Ptrend = 1.6 × 10−15 and HR = 1.92 for GRS50; 95% CI: 1.67–2.20; Ptrend = 6.2 × 10−22]. Adding 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to GRS27 improved risk prediction (P = 3 × 10−6). Further adjustment for self-reported family history did not appreciably change the risk estimates of either GRS27 (HR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.45–1.89) or GRS50 (HR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.63–2.14). The addition of GRS50 to established risk factors, including self-reported family history, improved discrimination (P < 0.0001) and reclassification (continuous net reclassification improvement index = 0.17, P < 0.0001). In young participants (below median age), those with high GRS50 had 2.4-fold greater risk (95% CI: 1.85–3.12) than those with low GRS50. Conclusion The addition of 23 SNPs to an existing GRS27 improved CHD risk prediction and was independent of self-reported family history. Coronary heart disease risk assessment by GRS could be particularly useful in young individuals. PMID:26392438

  2. Health Heritage© a web-based tool for the collection and assessment of family health history: initial user experience and analytic validity.

    PubMed

    Cohn, W F; Ropka, M E; Pelletier, S L; Barrett, J R; Kinzie, M B; Harrison, M B; Liu, Z; Miesfeldt, S; Tucker, A L; Worrall, B B; Gibson, J; Mullins, I M; Elward, K S; Franko, J; Guterbock, T M; Knaus, W A

    2010-01-01

    A detailed family health history is currently the most potentially useful tool for diagnosis and risk assessment in clinical genetics. We developed and evaluated the usability and analytic validity of a patient-driven web-based family health history collection and analysis tool. Health Heritage(©) guides users through the collection of their family health history by relative, generates a pedigree, completes risk assessment, stratification, and recommendations for 89 conditions. We compared the performance of Health Heritage to that of Usual Care using a nonrandomized cohort trial of 109 volunteers. We contrasted the completeness and sensitivity of family health history collection and risk assessments derived from Health Heritage and Usual Care to those obtained by genetic counselors and genetic assessment teams. Nearly half (42%) of the Health Heritage participants reported discovery of health risks; 63% found the information easy to understand and 56% indicated it would change their health behavior. Health Heritage consistently outperformed Usual Care in the completeness and accuracy of family health history collection, identifying 60% of the elevated risk conditions specified by the genetic team versus 24% identified by Usual Care. Health Heritage also had greater sensitivity than Usual Care when comparing the identification of risks. These results suggest a strong role for automated family health history collection and risk assessment and underscore the potential of these data to serve as the foundation for comprehensive, cost-effective personalized genomic medicine. PMID:20424421

  3. Perceived risk, anxiety, mammogram uptake, and breast self-examination of women with a family history of breast cancer: the role of knowing to be at increased risk.

    PubMed

    Drossaert, C C; Boer, H; Seydel, E R

    1996-01-01

    Since women with a first-degree relative with breast cancer are at increased risk for breast cancer, it is of special importance that they adhere to early detection programs. In this study, women with (389) and without (3295) a family history of breast cancer were compared with respect to risk perception, breast cancer anxiety, and early detection behavior. Special attention was paid to the role of knowing that family history is a breast cancer risk factor. It was found that 46% of "family history positives" did not know that their risk was increased by their family history. Still, family history positives had increased risk perception; our results suggest that this was partly caused by their knowing they belonged to a risk group and partly by their having experienced the disease at close range. Although family history positives had higher risk perceptions, no differences in early detection behavior were found. This could not be attributed to high anxiety levels. Implications for health education are discussed. PMID:8907207

  4. A dynamic history of gene duplications and losses characterizes the evolution of the SPARC family in eumetazoans

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Stephanie; Fuentealba, Jaime; Aze, Antoine; Hudson, Clare; Yasuo, Hitoyoshi; Torrejon, Marcela; Escriva, Hector; Marcellini, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrates share the ability to produce a skeleton made of mineralized extracellular matrix. However, our understanding of the molecular changes that accompanied their emergence remains scarce. Here, we describe the evolutionary history of the SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) family, because its vertebrate orthologues are expressed in cartilage, bones and teeth where they have been proposed to bind calcium and act as extracellular collagen chaperones, and because further duplications of specific SPARC members produced the small calcium-binding phosphoproteins (SCPP) family that is crucial for skeletal mineralization to occur. Both phylogeny and synteny conservation analyses reveal that, in the eumetazoan ancestor, a unique ancestral gene duplicated to give rise to SPARC and SPARCB described here for the first time. Independent losses have eliminated one of the two paralogues in cnidarians, protostomes and tetrapods. Hence, only non-tetrapod deuterostomes have conserved both genes. Remarkably, SPARC and SPARCB paralogues are still linked in the amphioxus genome. To shed light on the evolution of the SPARC family members in chordates, we performed a comprehensive analysis of their embryonic expression patterns in amphioxus, tunicates, teleosts, amphibians and mammals. Our results show that in the chordate lineage SPARC and SPARCB family members were recurrently recruited in a variety of unrelated tissues expressing collagen genes. We propose that one of the earliest steps of skeletal evolution involved the co-expression of SPARC paralogues with collagenous proteins. PMID:23446527

  5. Passive resting state and history of antagonist muscle activity shape active extensions in an insect limb.

    PubMed

    Ache, Jan M; Matheson, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Limb movements can be driven by muscle contractions, external forces, or intrinsic passive forces. For lightweight limbs like those of insects or small vertebrates, passive forces can be large enough to overcome the effects of gravity and may even generate limb movements in the absence of active muscle contractions. Understanding the sources and actions of such forces is therefore important in understanding motor control. We describe passive properties of the femur-tibia joint of the locust hind leg. The resting angle is determined primarily by passive properties of the relatively large extensor tibiae muscle and is influenced by the history of activation of the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron. The resting angle is therefore better described as a history-dependent resting state. We selectively stimulated different flexor tibiae motor neurons to generate a range of isometric contractions of the flexor tibiae muscle and then stimulated the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron to elicit active tibial extensions. Residual forces in the flexor muscle have only a small effect on subsequent active extensions, but the effect is larger for distal than for proximal flexor motor neurons and varies with the strength of flexor activation. We conclude that passive properties of a lightweight limb make substantial and complex contributions to the resting state of the limb that must be taken into account in the patterning of neuronal control signals driving its active movements. Low variability in the effects of the passive forces may permit the nervous system to accurately predict their contributions to behavior. PMID:22357791

  6. Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome: history, genetics, and heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Henry T; Shaw, Trudy G

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 5-10 % of cutaneous melanoma occurs in kindreds with a hereditary predisposition. Mutations in the CDKN2A gene are found to occur in approximately 20-40 % of these kindreds. The first historical mention of what is now called the familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome appears to be from 1820, with more reports throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and later years. In 1991, Lynch and Fusaro described an association between familial multiple mole melanoma and pancreatic cancer and work continues to elucidate the syndrome's genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Individuals at risk for familial melanoma need periodic screenings. Unfortunately, adequate screening for pancreatic cancer does not currently exist, but pancreatic cancer's prominence in the hereditary setting will hopefully act as a stimulus for development of novel screening measures. PMID:26892865

  7. A large family of anti-activators accompanying XylS/AraC family regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Araceli E; Yan, Michael B; Tran, Minh; Wright, Nathan; Luzader, Deborah H; Kendall, Melissa M; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Nataro, James P

    2016-07-01

    AraC Negative Regulators (ANR) suppress virulence genes by directly down-regulating AraC/XylS members in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we sought to investigate the distribution and molecular mechanisms of regulatory function for ANRs among different bacterial pathogens. We identified more than 200 ANRs distributed in diverse clinically important gram negative pathogens, including Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Yersinia spp., Citrobacter spp., enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and members of the Pasteurellaceae. By employing a bacterial two hybrid system, pull down assays and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis, we demonstrate that Aar (AggR-activated regulator), a prototype member of the ANR family in EAEC, binds with high affinity to the central linker domain of AraC-like member AggR. ANR-AggR binding disrupted AggR dimerization and prevented AggR-DNA binding. ANR homologs of Vibrio cholerae, Citrobacter rodentium, Salmonella enterica and ETEC were capable of complementing Aar activity by repressing aggR expression in EAEC strain 042. ANR homologs of ETEC and Vibrio cholerae bound to AggR as well as to other members of the AraC family, including Rns and ToxT. The predicted proteins of all ANR members exhibit three highly conserved predicted α-helices. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that at least predicted α-helices 2 and 3 are required for Aar activity. In sum, our data strongly suggest that members of the novel ANR family act by directly binding to their cognate AraC partners. PMID:27038276

  8. Wounded Healers: Graduate Students with Histories of Trauma in a Family Violence Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Social work students are witness to a variety of challenges from course content through scenarios, videos, role-plays, and field practice. Students may be vulnerable to experiencing vicarious traumatization from this exposure. Some students, however, may have personal histories of trauma and may therefore experience posttraumatic stress reactions…

  9. Family Environments, Adrenarche, and Sexual Maturation: A Longitudinal Test of a Life History Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2007-01-01

    Life history theorists have proposed that humans have evolved to be sensitive to specific features of early childhood environments and that exposure to different environments biases children toward development of different reproductive strategies, including differential pubertal timing. The current research provides a longitudinal test of this…

  10. Our History of Educational Freedom: What It Should Mean for Families Today. Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gryphon, Marie; Meyer, Emily A.

    This paper examines the American tradition of educational freedom, following its ebb and flow at various points in history. America's ethos of educational freedom has always been strong, tied to its values of pluralism, tolerance, and free inquiry. However, its legacy of freedom has suffered repeated assaults by individuals and groups who wish to…

  11. Dietary patterns and associated lifestyles in individuals with and without familial history of obesity: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Ann-Marie; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Background Familial history of obesity (FHO) and certain dietary habits are risk factors for obesity. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were 1) to derive dietary patterns using factor analysis in a population of men and women with and without FHO; 2) to compare mean factor scores for each dietary pattern between individuals with and without FHO; and 3) to examine the association between these patterns and anthropometric, lifestyle and sociodemographic variables. Methods A total of 197 women and 129 men with a body mass index <30 kg/m2 were recruited. A positive FHO (FHO+) was defined as having at least one obese first-degree relative and a negative FHO (FHO-) as no obese first-degree relative. Dietary data were collected from a food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was performed to derive dietary patterns. Mean factor scores were compared using general linear model among men and women according to FHO. Regression analyses were performed to study the relationship between anthropometric, lifestyle and sociodemographic variables, and each dietary pattern. Results Two dietary patterns were identified in both men and women : the Western pattern characterized by a higher consumption of red meats, poultry, processed meats, refined grains as well as desserts, and the Prudent pattern characterized by greater intakes of vegetables, fruits, non-hydrogenated fat, and fish and seafood. Similar Western and Prudent factor scores were observed in individual with and without FHO. In men with FHO+, the Western pattern is negatively associated with age and positively associated with physical activity, smoking, and personal income. In women with FHO-, the Prudent pattern is negatively associated with BMI and smoking and these pattern is positively associated with age and physical activity. Conclusion Two dietary patterns have been identified among men and women with and without FHO. Although that FHO does not seem to influence the adherence to dietary patterns

  12. Associations among Measures of Sequential Processing in Motor and Linguistics Tasks in Adults with and without a Family History of Childhood Apraxia of Speech: A Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, Le; Peter, Beate; Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the hypothesis that childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is influenced by an underlying deficit in sequential processing that is also expressed in other modalities. In a sample of 21 adults from five multigenerational families, 11 with histories of various familial speech sound disorders, 3 biologically…

  13. Exploring Perspectives of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Histories of Challenging Behaviors about Family Relationships: An Emergent Topic in a Grounded Theory Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie F.; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie; Maramaldi, Peter; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    2016-01-01

    The perspectives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) about family relationships are underrepresented in the literature. The topic of family relationships emerged in a grounded theory exploratory focus group study that involved thirty dually diagnosed participants with moderate or mild intellectual disabilities and histories of…

  14. The Prognostic Value of Family History for the Estimation of Cardiovascular Mortality Risk in Men: Results from a Long-Term Cohort Study in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Klumbiene, Jurate; Bernotiene, Gailute; Petkeviciene, Janina; Luksiene, Dalia; Virviciute, Dalia; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Vikhireva, Olga; Grabauskas, Vilius

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the additional prognostic value of family history for the estimation of cardiovascular (CVD) mortality risk in middle-aged urban Lithuanian men. Methods The association between family history of CVD and the risk of CVD mortality was examined in a population-based cohort of 6,098 men enrolled during 1972–1974 and 1976–1980 in Kaunas, Lithuania. After up to 40 years of follow-up, 2,272 deaths from CVD and 1,482 deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD) were identified. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for CVD and CHD mortality. Results After adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors, the HR for CVD mortality was 1.24 (95% CI 1.09–1.42) and for CHD mortality 1.20 (1.02–1.42) in men with first-degree relatives having a history of myocardial infarction (MI), compared to men without positive family history. A significant effect on the risk of CVD and CHD mortality was also observed for the family history of sudden cardiac death and any CVD. Addition of family history of MI, sudden death, and any CVD to traditional CVD risk factors demonstrated modest improvement in the performance of Cox models for CVD and CHD mortality. Conclusions Family history of CVD is associated with a risk of CVD and CHD mortality significantly and independently of other risk factors in a middle-aged male population. Addition of family history to traditional CVD risk factors improves the prediction of CVD mortality and could be used for identification of high-risk individuals. PMID:26630455

  15. Serving Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Geoffrey; Beggs, Marjorie; Seiderman, Ethel

    Parent Services Project (PSP), the first comprehensive program of resources and mental health activities for parents offered at child care centers in the San Francisco Bay Area (California), has expanded to centers in six states, serving over 19,000 families. This report describes the program's history, aims, and achievements, along with specific…

  16. Balancing Work and Family in Cooperative Extension: History, Effective Programs, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetsch, Robert J.; Kennington, Mary S.

    1997-01-01

    Research on stress, burnout, and family-work balance among extension agents in several states identified factors influencing stress. Effective stress management techniques were derived from successful extension workshops. Also needed are systemic changes in policies and in practices that contribute to high stress. (SK)

  17. Child and Parental Literacy Levels within Families with a History of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F.; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben; van der Leij, Aryan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study concerns literacy and its underlying cognitive skills in Dutch children who differ in familial risk (FR) for dyslexia. Previous studies with FR-children were inconclusive regarding the performance of FR-children without dyslexia as compared to the controls. Moreover, van Bergen et al. (2011) recently showed that…

  18. Profiles in the Development of Behavior Disorders among Youths with Family Maltreatment Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desbiens, Nadia; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2007-01-01

    Violent conduct by youths ranks among the types of inappropriate behavior generally originating in difficult family and social contexts. A proper understanding of the development of violent conduct must consider the situation taken as a whole. This article documents the results of a qualitative study which aimed to determine the psychosocial…

  19. The Garbers: Using Digital History To Recreate a 19th-Century Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Cheryl L.; Carter, Alice

    1999-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which students read a letter from the Web site "Valley of the Shadow: Two Communities during the American Civil War," an interactive archive of digitized primary sources. Students search the site's 1860 population census to learn about Thomas Garber and his family. Students also learn about life in the 19th century. (CMK)

  20. Strong family history of uterine leiomyomatosis warrants fumarate hydratase mutation screening.

    PubMed

    Tolvanen, Jaana; Uimari, Outi; Ryynänen, Markku; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Vahteristo, Pia

    2012-06-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is a tumor predisposition syndrome characterized by cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas and renal cell cancer. HLRCC is caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. A Finnish family with nine closely related women with uterine leiomyomas was detected by an alert gynecologist. No cutaneous or renal cell tumors were reported in the family when it was referred to genetic analyses. Samples were available from seven patients, and a novel germline FH mutation was detected in five of them. Mutation carriers were symptomatic, had multiple tumors and were diagnosed at an early age. This study emphasizes the importance of considering FH mutation screening when gynecologists encounter families with multiple severe uterine leiomyoma cases. Due to possibility of phenocopies more than one patient should be tested. Early mutation detection allows regular screening of the mutation carriers and enables early detection of possible highly aggressive renal tumors. It may also affect family planning as multiple myomas at early age may significantly reduce fertility. PMID:22473397

  1. "We're Locking the Door": Family Histories in a Sample of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvi, Shahid; Scott, Hannah; Stanyon, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the pathways to homelessness for young people are embedded in often ongoing negative childhood experiences. Many of these experiences are rooted in multiple and intersecting problems including, but not limited to: family conflict, abuse, addictions, and mental health issues. The authors draw upon qualitative interviews…

  2. American Society of Indexers: History, Activities and Relationship to ASIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bella Hass

    1993-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the American Society of Indexers (ASI) and assesses its position among other organizations, such as ASIS, involved with the organization of information. Topics discussed include the annual award for best monograph index; the ASI newsletter; and publicity to convey the importance of quality indexing. (LRW)

  3. Gravity: The Glue of the Universe. History and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Harry; Smith, Diana Gilbert

    This book presents a story of the history of gravity, the glue of the universe, and is based on two premises: (1) an understanding of mathematics is not required to grasp the concepts and implications of relativity; and (2) relativity has altered forever the perceptions of gravity, space, time, and how the universe works. A narrative text section…

  4. Family History as a Predictor for Disease Risk in Healthy Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Peterlin, Borut

    2013-01-01

    Background Family history can be used as a genetic risk predictor for common non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of healthy individuals at risk of developing these diseases, based on their self-reported family history. Methods and Findings This was a cross-sectional observational study. Data were collected in the three largest occupational practices in primary health care centres in Slovenia, a Central European country. The study population consisted of consecutive individuals who came to occupational practices for their regular preventive check-up from November 2010 to June 2012. We included 1,696 individuals. Data were collected by a self-developed questionnaire. The main outcome was the number of participants at a moderate or high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. The final sample consisted of 1,340 respondents. Moderate or high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases was present in 280 (20.9%) participants, for the development of diabetes in 154 (11.5%) participants and for cancer in 163 (12.1%) participants. Conclusions In this study, we found a significant proportion of healthy individuals with an increased genetic risk for common non-communicable diseases; consequently further genetic and clinical evaluation and preventive measures should be offered. PMID:24223224

  5. Family History and the History of Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selleck, R. J. W.

    2004-01-01

    The State Library of Victoria, which opened its doors in Melbourne in 1856, was designed and built in a confident and expansive decade. Even as war clouds gathered in 1913 the Library's confidence remained strong and it added a magnificent domed reading room, designed with the British Museum Library very much in mind. In the Library's genealogical…

  6. Rapid human-induced divergence of life-history strategies in Bahamian livebearing fishes (family Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Riesch, Rüdiger; Easter, Tara; Layman, Craig A; Langerhans, Randall Brian

    2015-11-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) can have dramatic impacts on ecosystems, leading to rapid trait changes in some organisms and extinction in others. Such changes in traits signify that human actions can lead to cases of increased phenotypic diversity and consequently can strongly impact population-, community- and ecosystem-level dynamics. Here, we examine whether the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation have led to changes in the life histories of three native species of mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) inhabiting tidal creeks on six different Bahamian islands. We address two important questions: (i) How predictable and parallel are life-history changes in response to HIREC across islands and species, and (ii) what is the relative importance of shared (i.e. parallel) responses to fragmentation, differences between species or islands and species- or island-specific responses to fragmentation? Phenotypic differences between fragmentation regimes were as great or greater than differences between species or islands. While some adult life histories (lean weight and fat content) showed strong, shared responses to fragmentation, offspring-related life histories (embryo fat and fecundity) exhibited idiosyncratic, island-specific responses. While shared responses to fragmentation appeared largely driven by a reduction in piscivorous fish density, increased conspecific density and changes in salinity, we found some evidence that among-population variation in male reproductive investment and embryo fat content may have arisen via variation in conspecific density. Our results suggest that phenotypic responses to HIREC can be complex, with the predictability of response varying across traits. We therefore emphasize the need for more theoretical and empirical work to better understand the predictability of phenotypic responses to human-induced disturbances. PMID:26237432

  7. Assessing the family dynamics of childhood maltreatment history with the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS)

    PubMed Central

    Frewen, Paul; Brown, Matthew; DePierro, Jonathan; D'Andrea, Wendy; Schore, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background Existing survey measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to take into account the relational-socioecological environment in which childhood maltreatment occurs. Variables such as the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim, the emotional availability of caregivers, witnessing the abuse of others, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment are rarely assessed by current measures. Methods To address these concerns, the current study further investigated the family dynamics of childhood maltreatment using the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS) in 1,782 persons assessed online. Results Paired differences in means between item-rated descriptiveness of self, mothers, and fathers suggested that respondents’ relationship with their biological fathers was less positive and secure than their relationship with their biological mothers, and that biological fathers were more often the perpetrator of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse than biological mothers. However, results further suggested that ratings between self, mothers, and fathers were positively correlated such that, for example, reports of a mother's or a respondent's own abusive behavior were more likely in the presence of reports of a father's abusive behavior. In addition, analyses evaluating witnessing violence demonstrated that fathers were rated as more often violent toward mothers than the reverse, although intimate partner violence was also frequently bidirectional. Analyses of sibling ratings further demonstrated that older brothers were either as or more frequently abusive when compared with parents. Finally, results suggested that childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse were much more often perpetrated by family members than extra-familial and non-family members. Conclusions In so far as these findings are consistent with the prior childhood trauma and attachment literature, the current study

  8. Evolutionary histories of highly repeated DNA families among the Artiodactyla (Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Modi, W S; Gallagher, D S; Womack, J E

    1996-03-01

    Six highly repeated DNA families were analyzed using Southern blotting and fluorescence in situ hybridization in a comparative study of 46 species of artiodactyls belonging to seven of the eight extant taxonomic families. Two of the repeats, the dispersed bovine-Pst family and the localized 1.715 component, were found to have the broadest taxonomic distributions, being present in all pecoran ruminants (Giraffidae, Cervidae, Antilocapridae, and Bovidae), indicating that these repeats may be 25-40 million years old. Different 1.715 restriction patterns were observed in different taxonomic families, indicating that independent concerted evolution events have homogenized different motifs in different lineages. The other four satellite arrays were restricted to the Bovini and sometimes to the related Boselaphini and Tragelaphini. Results reveal that among the two compound satellites studied, the two components of the 1.711a originated simultaneously, whereas the two components of the 1.711b originated at two different historical times, perhaps as many as 15 million years apart. Systematic conclusions support the monophyly of the infraorder Pecora, the monophyly of the subfamily Bovinae (containing the Boselaphini, Bovini, and Tragelaphini), an inability to resolve any interrelationships among the other tribes of bovids, paraphyly of the genus Bos with respect to Bison, and a lack of molecular variation among two morphologically and ecologically distinct subspecies of African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer cafer and S. c. nanus). Cytogenetically, a reduction in diploid chromosome numbers through centric fusion in derived karyotypes is accompanied by a loss of centromeric satellite DNA. The nilgai karyotype contains an apparent dicentric chromosome as evidenced by the sites of 1.715 hybridization. Telomeric sequences have been translocated to the centromeres without concomitant chromosomal rearrangement in Thompson's gazelle. PMID:8661995

  9. Impulsive Aggression, Delay Discounting, and Adolescent Suicide Attempts: Effects of Current Psychotropic Medication Use and Family History of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Brady; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Ackerman, John; Stevens, Jack; Mendoza, Kristen; Campo, John V.; Brent, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Impulsive-aggressive behaviors have been consistently implicated in the phenomenology, neurobiology, and familial aggregation of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to extend previous work by examining laboratory behavioral measures of delayed reward impulsivity and impulsive aggression in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison subjects. Methods: Using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDQ), the authors examined delay discounting and impulsive aggression in 40 adolescent suicide attempters, ages 13–18, and 40 never-suicidal, demographically matched psychiatric comparison subjects. Results: Overall, suicide attempters and comparison subjects performed similarly on the PSAP and DDQ. There was a significant group by current psychotropic medication use interaction (p=0.013) for mean aggressive responses on the PSAP. Group comparisons revealed that attempters emitted more aggressive responses per provocation than comparison subjects, only in those not on psychotropic medication (p=0.049), whereas for those currently treated with psychotropic medication, there were no group differences (p>0.05). This interaction effect was specific to current antidepressant use. Among all subjects, family history of suicidal behavior (suicide or suicide attempt) in first degree relatives was significantly correlated with both delay discounting (r=−0.22, p=0.049), and aggressive responding (r=0.27, p=0.015). Family history of suicidal behavior was associated with delay discounting, but not with aggressive responding on the PSAP, after controlling for relevant covariates. Conclusions: In this study, impulsive-aggressive responding was associated with suicide attempt only in those not being treated with antidepressants. Future work to replicate and extend these findings could have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of depressed suicide attempters, many of whom are

  10. A family history study of male sexual orientation using three independent samples.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J M; Pillard, R C; Dawood, K; Miller, M B; Farrer, L A; Trivedi, S; Murphy, R L

    1999-03-01

    Available evidence suggests that male homosexuality is both familial and somewhat heritable and that some cases may be caused by an X-linked gene. However, most studies have recruited subjects in a relatively unsystematic manner, typically via advertisements, and hence suffer from the potential methodological flaw of ascertainment bias due to volunteer self-selection. In the present study we assessed the familiality of male homosexuality using two carefully ascertained samples and attempted to replicate findings consistent with X-linkage in three samples. The percentage of siblings of the probands rated as either homosexual or bisexual, with a high degree of certainty, ranged from 7 to 10% for brothers and 3 to 4% for sisters. These estimates are higher than recent comparable population-based estimates of homosexuality, supporting the importance of familial factors for male homosexuality. Estimates of lambda s for male homosexuality ranged from 3.0 to 4.0. None of the samples showed a significantly greater proportion of maternal than paternal homosexual uncles or homosexual male maternal first cousins. Although our results differed significantly with those of some prior studies, they do not exclude the possibility of moderate X-linkage for male sexual orientation. PMID:10405456

  11. A family study of adult twins with and without a history of childhood abuse: stability of retrospective reports of maltreatment and associated family measures.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Elliot C; Lynskey, Michael T; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Martin, Nicholas G

    2010-04-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and physical abuse (CPA) are well-established risk-factors for a wide of range of proximal and distal outcomes. The lack of availability of an optimal design for examining abuse and its consequences has resulted in the use of various approaches, each having its own limitations. We describe the Childhood Trauma Study, which ascertained families from a large young adult Australian twin cohort on the basis of twins' responses to screening questions assessing CSA and CPA. We report data from 3407 participants including twins, non-twin siblings, and their parents. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of using a comprehensive assessment to evaluate retrospective history of childhood abuse in an adult sample. We observed that risk for each form of abuse increased incrementally with the number of parents with alcohol problems. Psychometric properties of our measures of CSA and CPA including reasonable long-term stability, construct validity, and evidence of familial corroboration compare favorably with those of other reports in which samples were considerably younger and assessments were repeated over shorter intervals. PMID:20397742

  12. Team Up at Home. Team Nutrition Activity Booklet. Fun Nutrition Activities for the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide booklet helps parents teach their children about healthy nutrition at home. It is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Team Nutrition, which is designed to improve the health and education of children and which actively involves children and their families in nutrition education activities in the school, community, and home. The…

  13. Do Mediterranean-type ecosystems have a common history?--insights from the Buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae).

    PubMed

    Onstein, Renske E; Carter, Richard J; Xing, Yaowu; Richardson, James E; Linder, H Peter

    2015-03-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) are remarkable in their species richness and endemism, but the processes that have led to this diversity remain enigmatic. Here, we hypothesize that continent-dependent speciation and extinction rates have led to disparity in diversity between the five MTEs of the world: the Cape, California, Mediterranean Basin, Chile, and Western Australia. To test this hypothesis, we built a phylogenetic tree for 280 Rhamnaceae species, estimated divergence times using eight fossil calibrations, and used Bayesian methods and simulations to test for differences in diversification rates. Rhamnaceae lineages in MTEs generally show higher diversification rates than elsewhere, but speciation and extinction dynamics show a pattern of continent-dependence. We detected high speciation and extinction rates in California and significantly lower extinction rates in the Cape and Western Australia. The independent colonization of four of five MTEs may have occurred conterminously in the Oligocene/Early Miocene, but colonization of the Mediterranean Basin happened later, in the Late Miocene. This suggests that the in situ radiations of these clades were initiated before the onset of winter rainfall in these regions. These results indicate independent evolutionary histories of Rhamnaceae in MTEs, possibly related to the intensity of climate oscillations and the geological history of the regions. PMID:25611684

  14. A family of homozygous familial hyperalphalipoproteinemia with complete deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer activity.

    PubMed

    Eto, M; Miyata, O; Noda, K; Makino, I

    1990-01-01

    The propositus was a 43-year-old Japanese male with a plasma total cholesterol (chol) level of 252 mg/dl and a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-chol of 169 mg/dl. His brother also had a markedly higher HDL-chol level of 149 mg/dl. In addition, his mother, sister and all 3 children had higher HDL-chol levels of 75-91 mg/dl. These data suggest that the propositus and his brother were homozygous for familial hyperalphalipoproteinemia (FHALP), whereas his mother, sister and 3 children were heterozygous for FHALP. None had any clinical signs of atherosclerosis. The propositus and his brother (homozygous FHALP) also showed markedly higher levels of apo AI (greater than or equal to 190 mg/dl) and E (greater than 16 mg/dl). Ultracentrifugal analysis disclosed an increase of HDL2-chol in the propositus. Cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) was completely absent in the propositus (0.0% transfer/5 microliters/18 hr) and his brother (0.3% transfer/5 microliters/18 hr). It is concluded that this case is a family of homozygous FHALP probably caused by complete deficiency of CETA. PMID:2360880

  15. Families and School Personnel Involved in a Literacy and Physical Activity Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, James A.; Richardson, Maurine V.; Sacks, Mary Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    A traditional part of American education has been to include the families in the educational process of their children. The needs and complexities of today's families and classrooms have never been greater. Programs and activities used with families, and school interactions 10 to 15 years ago are not effective for today's complex families and…

  16. Activities of the O&M committee history & future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Poulis, D.S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Committee on Operation and Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants, hereafter referred to as the O&M Committee, formed in June 1975 when the American National Standard Institute`s Committee on Reactor Plants and their Maintenance was disbanded. The O&M Committee`s history, structure, current focus and future perspectives will be presented. The purpose of this paper is to give information to industry and the public of the Committee`s on-going effort to make accurate and timely responses to the needs of the nuclear industry.

  17. Evolutionary History of Chordate PAX Genes: Dynamics of Change in a Complex Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2013-01-01

    Paired box (PAX) genes are transcription factors that play important roles in embryonic development. Although the PAX gene family occurs in animals only, it is widely distributed. Among the vertebrates, its 9 genes appear to be the product of complete duplication of an original set of 4 genes, followed by an additional partial duplication. Although some studies of PAX genes have been conducted, no comprehensive survey of these genes across the entire taxonomic unit has yet been attempted. In this study, we conducted a detailed comparison of PAX sequences from 188 chordates, which revealed restricted variation. The absence of PAX4 and PAX8 among some species of reptiles and birds was notable; however, all 9 genes were present in all 74 mammalian genomes investigated. A search for signatures of selection indicated that all genes are subject to purifying selection, with a possible constraint relaxation in PAX4, PAX7, and PAX8. This result indicates asymmetric evolution of PAX family genes, which can be associated with the emergence of adaptive novelties in the chordate evolutionary trajectory. PMID:24023886

  18. Evolutionary history of chordate PAX genes: dynamics of change in a complex gene family.

    PubMed

    Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2013-01-01

    Paired box (PAX) genes are transcription factors that play important roles in embryonic development. Although the PAX gene family occurs in animals only, it is widely distributed. Among the vertebrates, its 9 genes appear to be the product of complete duplication of an original set of 4 genes, followed by an additional partial duplication. Although some studies of PAX genes have been conducted, no comprehensive survey of these genes across the entire taxonomic unit has yet been attempted. In this study, we conducted a detailed comparison of PAX sequences from 188 chordates, which revealed restricted variation. The absence of PAX4 and PAX8 among some species of reptiles and birds was notable; however, all 9 genes were present in all 74 mammalian genomes investigated. A search for signatures of selection indicated that all genes are subject to purifying selection, with a possible constraint relaxation in PAX4, PAX7, and PAX8. This result indicates asymmetric evolution of PAX family genes, which can be associated with the emergence of adaptive novelties in the chordate evolutionary trajectory. PMID:24023886

  19. Witness to History: Using Hands-On Activities, A Guidebook for High School History Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Suzanne

    This guidebook is intended to help high school students discover the connection between themselves and the people from the past by being engaged in hands-on activities. The guidebook allows students to create artifacts or recreate a process known well to people from times past. The guide is arranged to provide historical background, materials…

  20. Employing Genetic "Moments" in the History of Mathematics in Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmaki, Vassiliki; Paschos, Theodorus

    2007-01-01

    The integration of history into educational practice can lead to the development of activities through the use of genetic "moments" in the history of mathematics. In the present paper, we utilize Oresme's genetic ideas--developed during the fourteenth century, including ideas on the velocity-time graphical representation as well as geometric…

  1. Predictors of alcohol problems in college women: the role of depressive symptoms, disordered eating, and family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Zaje A T; Slane, Jennifer D; Klump, Kelly L

    2009-03-01

    Disordered eating and depressive symptoms are established correlates of alcohol use in college women. Family history of alcoholism (FHA) is also related to problematic alcohol use, but there have been limited studies of how it relates to other established cofactors in women. Predictive associations between disordered eating (i.e., overall levels as well as binge eating), depressive symptoms, and alcohol problems were examined in a sample of 295 female twins. The direct and moderating effects of FHA on the relationships between alcohol problems, disordered eating, and depressive symptoms were investigated. Using hierarchical linear modeling depressive symptoms, but not disordered eating or FHA, significantly predicted alcohol problems. However, there was a significant interaction between disordered eating and FHA; disordered eating was associated with alcohol problems in those with a positive FHA. The implications for high-risk subgroups of college women are discussed. PMID:19027241

  2. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism as an important modifier of positive family history related breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Pia; Hirvonen, Ari; Kataja, Vesa; Eskelinen, Matti; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Uusitupa, Matti; Vainio, Harri; Mitrunen, Katja

    2004-04-01

    The association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and diseases such as breast cancer, prostate cancer and osteoporosis has been extensively investigated during recent years. To date, several polymorphisms have been found in the VDR gene. In this Finnish case-control study, comprising 483 breast cancer patients and 482 healthy population controls, we investigated the association between altered breast cancer risk and two polymorphisms in the 3' end of the gene detectable with ApaI and TaqI restriction enzymes. A statistically significant difference was observed in the ApaI genotype distribution between cases and controls. Women with the VDR variant a allele containing genotypes showed a decreased risk for breast cancer [odds ratio (OR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-0.98] compared to women with the AA genotype. This association was especially strong among women with a positive family history of breast cancer (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03-0.76). Moreover, there was a trend (P for trend = 0.0007) for decreased risk with increasing number of variant alleles. The lowest risk of breast cancer was seen for the women with the aa genotype (OR 0.03, 95% CI 0.003-0.31) compared to women with the AA genotype. A tendency of decreased risk of breast cancer was also observed for the TaqI T allele containing genotypes (Tt and TT) (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.41-1.12), but because the distribution of Taql alleles in the controls missed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P = 0.01), we were unable to properly assess the potential impact of the TaqI polymorphism in breast cancer susceptibility. In conclusion, our results suggest that the VDR ApaI genotype may be an important modifier of individual breast cancer risk among Finnish women, especially if they have a positive family history of breast cancer. PMID:15083068

  3. The Predictive Power of Family History Measures of Alcohol and Drug Problems and Internalizing Disorders In A College Population

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  4. The predictive power of family history measures of alcohol and drug problems and internalizing disorders in a college population.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  5. Enhancer hijacking activates GFI1 family oncogenes in medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Northcott, Paul A; Lee, Catherine; Zichner, Thomas; Stütz, Adrian M; Erkek, Serap; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Shih, David JH; Hovestadt, Volker; Zapatka, Marc; Sturm, Dominik; Jones, David TW; Kool, Marcel; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Bader, Gary; VandenBerg, Scott; Esparza, Lourdes Adriana; Ryzhova, Marina; Wang, Wei; Wittmann, Andrea; Stark, Sebastian; Sieber, Laura; Seker-Cin, Huriye; Linke, Linda; Kratochwil, Fabian; Jäger, Natalie; Buchhalter, Ivo; Imbusch, Charles D; Zipprich, Gideon; Raeder, Benjamin; Schmidt, Sabine; Diessl, Nicolle; Wolf, Stephan; Wiemann, Stefan; Brors, Benedikt; Lawerenz, Chris; Eils, Jürgen; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Risch, Thomas; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Weber, Ursula D; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; von Kalle, Christof; Turányi, Eszter; Hauser, Peter; Sanden, Emma; Darabi, Anna; Siesjö, Peter; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Sumerauer, David; van Sluis, Peter; Versteeg, Rogier; Volckmann, Richard; Koster, Jan; Schuhmann, Martin U; Ebinger, Martin; Grimes, H. Leighton; Robinson, Giles W; Gajjar, Amar; Mynarek, Martin; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pietsch, Torsten; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Kulozik, Andreas E; von Deimlmg, Andreas; Witt, Olaf; Eils, Roland; Gilbertson, Richard J; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D; Lichter, Peter; Korbel, Jan O; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Pfister, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    Summary Paragraph Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour currently treated with a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, posing a considerable burden of toxicity to the developing child. Genomics has illuminated the extensive intertumoural heterogeneity of medulloblastoma, identifying four distinct molecular subgroups. Group 3 and Group 4 subgroup medulloblastomas account for the majority of paediatric cases; yet, oncogenic drivers for these subtypes remain largely unidentified. Here we describe a series of prevalent, highly disparate genomic structural variants, restricted to Groups 3 and 4, resulting in specific and mutually exclusive activation of the growth factor independent 1 family protooncogenes, GFI1 and GFI1B. Somatic structural variants juxtapose GFI1/GFI1B coding sequences proximal to active enhancer elements, including super-enhancers, instigating oncogenic activity. Our results, supported by evidence from mouse models, identify GFI1 and GFI1B as prominent medulloblastoma oncogenes and implicate ‘enhancer hijacking’ as an efficient mechanism driving oncogene activation in a childhood cancer. PMID:25043047

  6. Proteins of the ETS family with transcriptional repressor activity.

    PubMed

    Mavrothalassitis, G; Ghysdael, J

    2000-12-18

    ETS proteins form one of the largest families of signal-dependent transcriptional regulators, mediating cellular proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis. Most of the known ETS proteins have been shown to activate transcription. However, four ETS proteins (YAN, ERF, NET and TEL) can act as transcriptional repressors. In three cases (ERF, NET and TEL) distinct repression domains have been identified and there are indications that NET and TEL may mediate transcription via Histone Deacetylase recruitment. All four proteins appear to be regulated by MAPKs, though for YAN and ERF this regulation seems to be restricted to ERKs. YAN, ERF and TEL have been implicated in cellular proliferation although there are indications suggesting a possible involvement of YAN and TEL in differentiation as well. Other ETS-domain proteins have been shown to repress transcription in a context specific manner, and there are suggestions that the ETS DNA-binding domain may act as a transcriptional repressor. Transcriptional repression by ETS domain proteins adds an other level in the orchestrated regulation by this diverse family of transcription factors that often recognize similar if not identical binding sites on DNA and are believed to regulate critical genes in a variety of biological processes. Definitive assessment of the importance of this novel regulatory level will require the identification of ETS proteins target genes and the further analysis of transcriptional control and biological function of these proteins in defined pathways. PMID:11175368

  7. The Impact of Family History of Breast Cancer on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Early Detection Practices of Mexican Women Along the Mexico-US Border

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; King, Sasha; Prapasiri, Surasri; Thompson, Beti

    2014-01-01

    Rates of breast cancer (BC) have increased in Mexico, with the highest incidence and mortality rates observed in the northern Mexican states. This study aimed to describe the BC knowledge, attitudes and screening practices among Mexican women with and without a family history of BC residing along the Mexico-US border, and identify factors associated with screening behaviors. One hundred and twenty eight Mexican women aged 40 and older completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, family history, and screening practices. There were no significant differences between Mexican women with and without a family history. Over 60% of women in both groups had never had a mammogram/breast ultrasound, and more than 50% had never obtained a clinical breast exam. Age, marital status, insurance, and breast cancer knowledge significantly influenced BC screening behaviors among Mexican women. Further research is needed to examine other key factors associated with screening utilization, in effort of improving BC rates. PMID:21104130

  8. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Christopher R.; Kadin, Marshall E.; Chang, Ellen T.; Hughes, Ann Maree; Ansell, Stephen M.; Feldman, Andrew L.; Lightfoot, Tracy; Boffetta, Paolo; Melbye, Mads; Lan, Qing; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Zhang, Yawei; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accounting for 10%–15% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas in Western populations, peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are the most common T-cell lymphoma but little is known about their etiology. Our aim was to identify etiologic risk factors for PTCL overall, and for specific PTCL subtypes, by analyzing data from 15 epidemiologic studies participating in the InterLymph Consortium. Methods A pooled analysis of individual-level data for 584 histologically confirmed PTCL cases and 15912 controls from 15 case–control studies conducted in Europe, North America, and Australia was undertaken. Data collected from questionnaires were harmonized to permit evaluation of a broad range of potential risk factors. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Results Risk factors associated with increased overall PTCL risk with a P value less than .05 included: a family history of hematologic malignancies (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.30 to 2.84); celiac disease (OR = 17.8, 95% CI = 8.61 to 36.79); eczema (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.85); psoriasis (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.17 to 3.32); smoking 40 or more years (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.41 to 2.62); and employment as a textile worker (ever) (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.38) and electrical fitter (ever) (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.41 to 5.95). Exposures associated with reduced overall PTCL risk included a personal history of allergies (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.87), alcohol consumption (ever) (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.82), and having ever lived or worked on a farm (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.55% to 0.95%). We also observed the well-established risk elevation for enteropathy-type PTCL among those with celiac disease in our data. Conclusions Our pooled analyses identified a number of new potential risk factors for PTCL and require further validation in independent series. PMID:25174027

  9. Sports, Physical Activity and Recreation in Early American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballou, Ralph B.

    Sports and physical recreation activities have been part of American life since the days of the early settlers. Although the settlers were faced with problems of survival, accounts of life in the colonies in the 1600's carry mention of bowling in the streets, play with bows and arrows, and ice skating. Other activities to gain popularity before…

  10. A cryptic familial rearrangement of 11p15.5, involving both imprinting centers, in a family with a history of short stature.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lindsay A; Rupps, Rosemarie; Peñaherrera, Maria S; Robinson, Wendy P; Patel, Millan S; Eydoux, Patrice; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2014-06-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features and body asymmetry. Both hypomethylation of the telomeric imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) at 11p15.5 and maternal duplication of 11p15.5 have been implicated in the etiology of this disorder. Here we report the origin and segregation of the first reported between-arm intrachromosomal insertion of 11p15.5 that encompasses both ICR1 and ICR2 in a multigenerational family with a history of short stature. One (or any odd number) crossover within the centromeric segment during meiosis would produce recombinant chromosomes; one with a duplication of the inserted segment and the other a deletion. In this 4-generation family, there were six instances of transmission of the recombinant chromosome with duplication of the11p15.5 segment, which leads to a SRS phenotype when maternally inherited and a Beckwith-Wiedemann phenotype when paternally transmitted. The size of the duplicated region is ~1.9 Mb as determined by microarray analysis. This study provides further evidence that maternally inherited duplications of 11p15.5 result in a SRS phenotype that includes short stature and other variable features. The methylation status of the extra copy of the duplicated region of 11p15.5 ultimately predicts the resulting phenotype. Thus, the different phenotype based on parental mode of transmission is of importance in the genetic counseling of these patients. PMID:24668696

  11. Familial adenomatous polyposis in pediatrics: natural history, emerging surveillance and management protocols, chemopreventive strategies, and areas of ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Septer, Seth; Lawson, Caitlin E; Anant, Shrikant; Attard, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary condition with a near 100 % lifetime risk of colorectal cancer without prophylactic colectomy. Most patients with FAP have a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene on chromosome 5q22. This condition frequently presents in children with polyps developing most frequently in the second decade of life and surveillance colonoscopy is required starting at age ten. Polyps are found not only in the colon, but in the stomach and duodenum. Knowledge of the natural history of FAP is important as there are several extra-colonic sequelae which also require surveillance. In infants and toddlers, there is an increased risk of hepatoblastoma, while in teenagers and adults duodenal carcinomas, desmoid tumors, thyroid cancer and medulloblastoma are more common in FAP than in the general population. Current chemopreventive strategies include several medications and natural products, although to this point there is no consensus on the most efficacious and safe agent. Genetic counseling is an important part of the diagnostic process for FAP. Appropriate use and interpretation of genetic testing is best accomplished with genetic counselor involvement as many families also have concerns regarding future insurability or discrimination when faced with genetic testing. PMID:27056662

  12. Family Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotkin, Amy J.; Baker, Holly C.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the Family Folklore Program of the Smithsonian Institution's annual Festival of American Folklife, in which the whole family can be involved in tracing family history through story telling, photographs, etc. (MS)

  13. Novel mutations in the RB1 gene from Chinese families with a history of retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leilei; Jia, Renbing; Zhao, Junyang; Fan, Jiayan; Zhou, YiXiong; Han, Bing; Song, Xin; Wu, Li; Zhang, He; Song, Huaidong; Ge, Shengfang; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-04-01

    Retinoblastoma is an aggressive eye cancer that develops during infancy and is divided into two clinical types, sporadic and heritable. RB1 has been identified as the only pathological gene responsible for heritable retinoblastoma. Here, we identified 11 RB1 germline mutations in the Han pedigrees of 17 bilateral retinoblastoma patients from China. Four mutations were nonsense mutations, five were splice site mutations, and two resulted in a frame shift due to an insertion or a deletion. Three of the mutations had not been previously reported, and the p.Q344L mutation occurred in two generations of retinoblastoma patients. We investigated phenotypic-genotypic relationships for the novel mutations and showed that these mutations affected the expression, location, and function of the retinoblastoma protein. Abnormal protein localization was observed after transfection of the mutant genes. In addition, changes in the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis rates were observed when the Saos-2 cell line was transfected with plasmids encoding the mutant RB1 genes. Our findings expand the spectrum of known RB1 mutations and will benefit the investigation of RB1 mutation hotspots. Genetic counseling can be offered to families with heritable RB1 mutations. PMID:25424699

  14. Characterization of abandoned rocket body families for active removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2016-09-01

    A new ranking index was developed and applied to a wide set of rocket body families, characterized by stage dry masses greater than 500 kg and by the presence of at least 5 stages abandoned in LEO. The upper stages selected accounted for more than 80% of the unclassified rocket bodies in LEO and nearly 95% of the associated dry mass. The detailed results obtained for 657 objects clearly identified the most critical altitude-inclination bands and stage models, to be targeted first if and when a debris remediation strategy including the active removal of intact abandoned objects were deemed necessary. Apart from the evaluation of the criticality regarding the long-term evolution of the debris environment, resulting in a priority listing for optimal active removal, the application of the new ranking index is not limited to debris remediation. In fact, if applied before launch to spacecraft and rocket bodies to be disposed in orbit, at the end of mission, it would provide an additional debris mitigation analysis tool for evaluating competing disposal options. Concerning the rocket bodies abandoned in LEO, 274 resulted to have a criticality equal or larger than the average intact object abandoned in an 800 km sun-synchronous orbit. Among them, 243 belonged to the Russian Federation and Ukraine, 25 to China, 5 to Europe and 1 to Japan. In addition to being concentrated in relatively few and narrow altitude-inclinations bands, the most numerous rocket body families often present a quite uniform distribution in right ascension of the ascending node, which is especially convenient for multiple target removal missions.

  15. [Antiviral activity of representatives of the family Crassulaceae].

    PubMed

    Shirobokov, V P; Evtushenko, A I; Lapchik, V F; Shirobokova, D N; Suptel', E A

    1981-12-01

    The antiviral properties of the juice of 11 species of the orpine family were studied. 8 of them belonged to the genera Kalanchoe, i. e. Kalanchoe diagremontiona R. Hamet, K. pinnata (Zam.) Persoon, K. Peteri Werd., K. prolifera (Bovie) R. Hamet, K. marnierriana (Mann. et Boit) Jacobs; K. blossfeldiana v. Poelln, K. beharensis Drake del Gastillo, K. waldheimii R. Hamet et Perr and 3 belonged to the Sedum genera, i. e. Sedum telephium L., S. spectabile Boreau, S. acre L. A high virus neutralizing activity of the juice from 4 species of Kalanchoe, i. e. K. blossfeldiana, K. waldheimii, K. pinnata and K. beharensis was shown. Inhibition of the virus infecting activity was observed at the juice dilutions from 1-2 to 1-8000 and higher. The viricidal factor of Kalanchoe is stable. It is not destroyed by ether, alcohol and potassium periodate. It is not absorbed by bentonite at the acid pH values. Addition of cattle serum or purified proteins to the juice resulted in their precipitation which suppressed the viricidal activity of the juice. PMID:7198890

  16. Familial Vulnerability to ADHD Affects Activity in the Cerebellum in Addition to the Prefrontal Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martijn J.; Baeyens, Dieter; Davidson, Matthew C.; Casey, B. J.; Van Den Ban, Els; Van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether cerebellar systems are sensitive to familial risk for ADHD in addition to frontostriatal circuitry. The results conclude that familial vulnerability to ADHD affects activity in both the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum.

  17. A prospective study of cognitive health in the elderly (Oregon Brain Aging Study): effects of family history and apolipoprotein E genotype.

    PubMed Central

    Payami, H; Grimslid, H; Oken, B; Camicioli, R; Sexton, G; Dame, A; Howieson, D; Kaye, J

    1997-01-01

    The oldest old are the fastest-growing segment of our population and have the highest prevalence of dementia. Little is known about the genetics of cognitive health in the very old. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genetic risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD)--namely, apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele and a family history of dementia-continue to be important factors in the cognitive health of the very old. Case-control studies suggest that the effect of genetic factors diminishes at age >75 years. The present prospective study provided evidence to the contrary. We studied 114 Caucasian subjects who were physically healthy and cognitively intact at age 75 years and who were followed, for an average of 4 years, with neurological, psychometric, and neuroimaging examinations. Excellent health at entry did not protect against cognitive decline. Incidence of cognitive decline rose sharply with age. epsilon4 and a family history of dementia (independent of epsilon4) were associated with an earlier age at onset of dementia. Subjects who had epsilon4 or a family history of dementia had a ninefold-higher age-specific risk for dementia than did those who had neither epsilon4 nor a family history of dementia. These observations suggest that the rate of cognitive decline increases with age and that APOE and other familial/genetic factors influence the onset age throughout life. PMID:9106542

  18. The History of Commercial Recreation and Its Role in the Provision of Family Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, E. Taylor

    Commercial recreation is the provision of facilities, equipment, and programs that satisfy public demand for activities during unobligated time and are profitable to the supplier. The term "commercial recreation" has been given a negative connotation in the field of recreation and leisure. This negative concept of commercial recreation continues…

  19. Life history of the deep-sea cephalopod family Histioteuthidae in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quetglas, Antoni; de Mesa, Aina; Ordines, Francesc; Grau, Amàlia

    2010-08-01

    The life cycle of the two species of the deep-sea family Histioteuthidae inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea ( Histioteuthis reversa and Histioteuthis bonnellii) was studied from monthly samples taken throughout the year during daytime hours by bottom trawl gears. A small sample of individuals found floating dead on the sea surface was also analyzed. Both species were caught exclusively on the upper slope at depths greater than 300 m. Their frequency of occurrence increased with depth and showed two different peaks, at 500-600 m and 600-700 m depth in H. bonnellii and H. reversa, respectively, which might indicate spatial segregation. Maturity stages were assigned using macroscopic determination and confirmed with histological analyses. Although mature males were caught all year round, no mature females were found, which suggests that their sexual maturation in the western Mediterranean takes place deeper than the maximum depth sampled (800 m). In fact, the increase in mean squid size with increasing depth in H. reversa indicates an ontogenetic migration to deeper waters. The individuals of both species found floating dead on the sea surface were spent females which had a relatively large cluster of small atresic eggs and a small number of remaining mature eggs scattered in the ovary and mantle cavity. The sizes of these females were clearly larger than the largest individuals caught with bottom trawls. A total of 12 and 7 different types of prey, belonging to three major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes and cephalopods), were identified in the stomach contents of H. reversa and H. bonnellii, respectively. In both species fishes were by far the main prey followed by crustaceans, whereas cephalopods were found only occasionally. The preys identified, mainly myctophids and natantian crustaceans, indicate that both histioteuthids base their diet on pelagic nictemeral migrators.

  20. History of Mathematics: Three Activities to Use with Undergraduate Students and In-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loats, Jim; White, Diana; Rubino, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    We provide in-depth information and analysis on three activities for use in History of Mathematics courses taught either in a traditional semester format for undergraduates or in a summer professional development course for middle school teachers. These activities require students to be active participants in their own learning. They also…

  1. A family of starch-active polysaccharide monooxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Van V.; Beeson, William T.; Span, Elise A.; Farquhar, Erik R.; Marletta, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered fungal and bacterial polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs) are capable of oxidatively cleaving chitin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses that contain β(1→4) linkages between glucose or substituted glucose units. They are also known collectively as lytic PMOs, or LPMOs, and individually as AA9 (formerly GH61), AA10 (formerly CBM33), and AA11 enzymes. PMOs share several conserved features, including a monocopper center coordinated by a bidentate N-terminal histidine residue and another histidine ligand. A bioinformatic analysis using these conserved features suggested several potential new PMO families in the fungus Neurospora crassa that are likely to be active on novel substrates. Herein, we report on NCU08746 that contains a C-terminal starch-binding domain and an N-terminal domain of previously unknown function. Biochemical studies showed that NCU08746 requires copper, oxygen, and a source of electrons to oxidize the C1 position of glycosidic bonds in starch substrates, but not in cellulose or chitin. Starch contains α(1→4) and α(1→6) linkages and exhibits higher order structures compared with chitin and cellulose. Cellobiose dehydrogenase, the biological redox partner of cellulose-active PMOs, can serve as the electron donor for NCU08746. NCU08746 contains one copper atom per protein molecule, which is likely coordinated by two histidine ligands as shown by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and sequence analysis. Results indicate that NCU08746 and homologs are starch-active PMOs, supporting the existence of a PMO superfamily with a much broader range of substrates. Starch-active PMOs provide an expanded perspective on studies of starch metabolism and may have potential in the food and starch-based biofuel industries. PMID:25201969

  2. A family of starch-active polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Vu, Van V; Beeson, William T; Span, Elise A; Farquhar, Erik R; Marletta, Michael A

    2014-09-23

    The recently discovered fungal and bacterial polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs) are capable of oxidatively cleaving chitin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses that contain β(1→4) linkages between glucose or substituted glucose units. They are also known collectively as lytic PMOs, or LPMOs, and individually as AA9 (formerly GH61), AA10 (formerly CBM33), and AA11 enzymes. PMOs share several conserved features, including a monocopper center coordinated by a bidentate N-terminal histidine residue and another histidine ligand. A bioinformatic analysis using these conserved features suggested several potential new PMO families in the fungus Neurospora crassa that are likely to be active on novel substrates. Herein, we report on NCU08746 that contains a C-terminal starch-binding domain and an N-terminal domain of previously unknown function. Biochemical studies showed that NCU08746 requires copper, oxygen, and a source of electrons to oxidize the C1 position of glycosidic bonds in starch substrates, but not in cellulose or chitin. Starch contains α(1→4) and α(1→6) linkages and exhibits higher order structures compared with chitin and cellulose. Cellobiose dehydrogenase, the biological redox partner of cellulose-active PMOs, can serve as the electron donor for NCU08746. NCU08746 contains one copper atom per protein molecule, which is likely coordinated by two histidine ligands as shown by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and sequence analysis. Results indicate that NCU08746 and homologs are starch-active PMOs, supporting the existence of a PMO superfamily with a much broader range of substrates. Starch-active PMOs provide an expanded perspective on studies of starch metabolism and may have potential in the food and starch-based biofuel industries. PMID:25201969

  3. History of Recreational Physical Activity and Survival After Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yani; John, Esther M.; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Vigen, Cheryl; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Caan, Bette J.; Lee, Valerie S.; Roh, Janise M.; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Kurian, Allison W.; Monroe, Kristine R.; Cheng, Iona; Sposto, Richard; Wu, Anna H.; Bernstein, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that prediagnosis physical activity is associated with survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, few data exist for racial/ethnic groups other than non-Latina whites. To examine the association between prediagnosis recreational physical activity and mortality by race/ethnicity, we pooled data from the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium for 3 population-based case-control studies of breast cancer patients (n = 4,608) diagnosed from 1994 to 2002 and followed up through 2010. Cox proportional hazards models provided estimates of the relative hazard ratio for mortality from all causes, breast cancer, and causes other than breast cancer associated with recent recreational physical activity (i.e., in the 10 years before diagnosis). Among 1,347 ascertained deaths, 826 (61%) were from breast cancer. Compared with women with the lowest level of recent recreational physical activity, those with the highest level had a marginally decreased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.01) and a statistically significant decreased risk of mortality from causes other than breast cancer (hazard ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.49, 0.80), and particularly from cardiovascular disease. No association was observed for breast cancer–specific mortality. These risk patterns did not differ by race/ethnicity (non-Latina white, African American, Latina, and Asian American). Our findings suggest that physical activity is beneficial for overall survival regardless of race/ethnicity. PMID:25925388

  4. Families, Disability, and Empowerment: Active Coping Skills and Strategies for Family Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, George H. S., Ed.; Powers, Laurie E., Ed.

    This book presents strategies for building strong partnerships between service providers and the families of individuals with disabilities. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Contributing to Resilience in Families: An Overview" (George H. S. Singer and Laurie E. Powers); "Parent to Parent Programs: A Unique Form of Mutual Support for…

  5. Satisfaction of active duty soldiers with family dental care.

    PubMed

    Chisick, M C

    1997-02-01

    In the fall of 1992, a random, worldwide sample of 6,442 married and single parent soldiers completed a self-administered survey on satisfaction with 22 attributes of family dental care. Simple descriptive statistics for each attribute were derived, as was a composite overall satisfaction score using factor analysis. Composite scores were regressed on demographics, annual dental utilization, and access barriers to identify those factors having an impact on a soldier's overall satisfaction with family dental care. Separate regression models were constructed for single parents, childless couples, and couples with children. Results show below-average satisfaction with nearly all attributes of family dental care, with access attributes having the lowest average satisfaction scores. Factors influencing satisfaction with family dental care varied by family type with one exception: dependent dental utilization within the past year contributed positively to satisfaction across all family types. PMID:9038028

  6. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Vajdic, Claire M.; Morton, Lindsay M.; de Roos, Anneclaire J.; Skibola, Christine F.; Boffetta, Paolo; Cerhan, James R.; Flowers, Christopher R.; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Monnereau, Alain; Cocco, Pierluigi; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Smith, Alexandra G.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Clarke, Christina A.; Blair, Aaron; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Tongzhang; Miligi, Lucia; Clavel, Jacqueline; Benavente, Yolanda; Chiu, Brian C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Follicular lymphoma (FL) has been linked with cigarette smoking and, inconsistently, with other risk factors. Methods We assessed associations of medical, hormonal, family history, lifestyle, and occupational factors with FL risk in 3530 cases and 22639 controls from 19 case–control studies in the InterLymph consortium. Age-, race/ethnicity-, sex- and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Results Most risk factors that were evaluated showed no association, except for a few modest or sex-specific relationships. FL risk was increased in persons: with a first-degree relative with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.55 to 2.54); with greater body mass index as a young adult (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.27 per 5kg/m2 increase); who worked as spray painters (OR = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.36 to 5.24); and among women with Sjögren syndrome (OR = 3.37; 95% CI = 1.23 to 9.19). Lower FL risks were observed in persons: with asthma, hay fever, and food allergy (ORs = 0.79–0.85); blood transfusions (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.89); high recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.65 to 0.86, fourth vs first quartile); who worked as bakers or millers (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.93) or university/higher education teachers (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.41 to 0.83). Elevated risks specific to women included current and longer duration of cigarette use, whereas reduced risks included current alcohol use, hay fever, and food allergies. Other factors, including other autoimmune diseases, eczema, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, hormonal drugs, hair dye use, sun exposure, and farming, were not associated with FL risk. Conclusions The few relationships observed provide clues suggesting a multifactorial etiology of FL but are limited in the extent to which they explain FL occurrence. PMID:25174024

  7. Influence of family history of dementia in the development and progression of late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Scarabino, Daniela; Gambina, Giuseppe; Broggio, Elisabetta; Pelliccia, Franca; Corbo, Rosa Maria

    2016-03-01

    Family history of dementia (FH) is a recognized risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). We asked whether having FH increases AD risk and influences disease severity (age at onset and cognitive impairment) in 420 AD patients and 109 controls with (FH+) or without (FH-). The relationships of APOE and other AD risk genes with FH were analyzed as well. The proportion of APOE e4 allele carriers was higher among the FH+ than the FH- AD patients (49.6% vs. 38.9%; P = 0.04). The distribution of the risk genotypes of nine AD susceptibility genes previously examined (CHAT, CYP17, CYP19, ESR1, FSHR, P53, P73, P21, PPARG) did not differ between the FH+ and the FH- AD patients, indicating that none contributed significantly to familial clustering of disease. FH was associated with an increased AD risk (odds ratio [OR] 2.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-5.09; P = 0.002) independent of carrying the APOE e4 allele (OR 2.61, 95%CI 1.53-4.44; P = 0.0004). Having a first-degree relative or a parent with dementia was significantly associated with AD risk (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.3-6.4; P = 0.009 and OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1-6.2; P = 0.02) but having a sibling with dementia was not (OR 1.7, 95%CI 0.2 to 14.7; P = 0.6). Among the FH+ AD patients, having one or both parents affected seemed to raise the risk of earlier onset age (P = 0.02) and greater cognitive impairment (P = 0.02) than having only an affected sibling, whereas having two or more affected relatives did not. PMID:26531229

  8. Family History of Education Predicts Eating Disorders across Multiple Generations among 2 Million Swedish Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Anna; Heshmati, Amy; Koupil, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate which facets of parent and grandparent socio-economic position (SEP) are associated with eating disorders (ED), and how this varies by ED subtype and over time. Methods Total-population cohort study of 1,040,165 females and 1,098,188 males born 1973–1998 in Sweden, and followed for inpatient or outpatient ED diagnoses until 2010. Proportional hazards models estimated associations with parental education, income and social class, and with grandparental education and income. Results 15,747 females and 1051 males in our sample received an ED diagnosis, with rates increasing in both sexes over time. ED incidence in females was independently predicted by greater educational level among the father, mother and maternal grandparents, but parent social class and parental income showed little or no independent effect. The associations with education were equally strong for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and ED not-otherwise-specified, and had increased over time. Among males, an apparently similar pattern was seen with respect to anorexia nervosa, but non-anorexia ED showed no association with parental education and an inverse association with parental income. Conclusions Family history of education predicts ED in gender- and disorder-specific ways, and in females the effect is observed across multiple generations. Particularly given that these effects may have grown stronger in more recent cohorts, these findings highlight the need for further research to clarify the underlying mechanisms and identify promising targets for prevention. Speculatively, one such mechanism may involve greater internal and external demands for academic success in highly educated families. PMID:25162402

  9. Knowledge about type 2 diabetes risk and prevention of African-American and Hispanic adults and adolescents with family history of type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to assess type 2 diabetes knowledge, perceptions, risk factor awareness, and prevention practices among African-American and Hispanic families with a history of diabetes. Ninth and tenth grade Houston area students who had a parent who spoke English or Spanish and had a...

  10. Grassroots Genealogy: Exploring, Documenting and Preserving Black Family History. A Pilot Workshop. (Greensboro, North Carolina, January 28-31, 1981 and February 9-10, 23, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tommie Morton, Ed.

    A workshop model focuses on using lesser-known resources to document black family history and lineage. Although designed for use in North Carolina, this model can be adapted for use in any state or community. Following an introduction which summarizes the workshop format is an overview which outlines the goals, objectives, and focus of the…

  11. Word Recognition and Cognitive Profiles of Chinese Pre-School Children at Risk for Dyslexia through Language Delay or Familial History of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Doo, Sylvia; Wong, Simpson W. L.; Chow, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese kindergarten children at risk for dyslexia through either language delay or familial history of dyslexia from children who were not at risk and to examine how these abilities were associated with Chinese word recognition. The cognitive skills of…

  12. Insulin secretory defects in polycystic ovary syndrome. Relationship to insulin sensitivity and family history of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrmann, D A; Sturis, J; Byrne, M M; Karrison, T; Rosenfield, R L; Polonsky, K S

    1995-01-01

    The increased prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been ascribed to the insulin resistance characteristic of PCOS. This study was undertaken to determine the role of defects in insulin secretion as well as familial factors to the predisposition to NIDDM seen in PCOS. We studied three groups of women: PCOS with a family history of NIDDM (PCOS FHx POS; n = 11), PCOS without a family history of NIDDM (PCOS FHx NEG; n = 13), and women without PCOS who have a family history of NIDDM (NON-PCOS FHx POS; n = 8). Beta cell function was evaluated during a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, by a low dose graded glucose infusion, and by the ability of the beta cell to be entrained by an oscillatory glucose infusion. PCOS FHx POS women were significantly less likely to demonstrate appropriate beta cell compensation for the degree of insulin resistance. The ability of the beta cell to entrain, as judged by the spectral power for insulin secretion rate, was significantly reduced in PCOS FHx POS subjects. In conclusion, a history of NIDDM in a first-degree relative appears to define a subset of PCOS subjects with a greater prevalence of insulin secretory defects. The risk of developing NIDDM imparted by insulin resistance in PCOS may be enhanced by these defects in insulin secretion. PMID:7615824

  13. An analysis of the history of dust activity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, L. J.; Zurek, R. W.

    1993-02-01

    A comprehensive list of dust storm activity on Mars has been compiled from various published lists and additional data. For uniformity and clarity, each event is classified using a new system that includes a well-defined nomenclature. Maps showing the reported locations of events have been compiled. Detailed commentaries describe the events and/or circumstances of their observation. The seasonal distribution of Martian dust events is diagrammed and discussed together with a seasonal and annual (Mars years) timeline that includes the frequency of photographic coverage. Regional dust storms tend to occur most frequently, and all planet-encircling dust storms have been observed during the southern spring and summer seasons, although there is significant interannual variability.

  14. 77 FR 27542 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10- 21081(NR). OMB Control Number... VA Form 10-21081(NR) will be use to survey family members of deceased veterans on their...

  15. Neuropsychological Performance and Family History in Children at Age 7 who Develop Adult Schizophrenia or Bipolar Psychosis in the New England Family Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, Larry J.; Cherkerzian, Sara; Goldstein, Jill M.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Tsuang, Ming T.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Persons developing schizophrenia (SCZ) manifest various premorbid neuropsychological deficits, studied most often by measures of IQ. Far less is known about premorbid neuropsychological functioning in individuals who later develop bipolar psychoses (BP). We evaluated the specificity and impact of family history (FH) of psychosis on premorbid neuropsychological functioning. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study investigating the associations of neuropsychological data systematically collected at age 7 years for 99 adults with psychotic diagnoses (including 45 SCZ and 35 BP) and 101 controls, drawn from the New England cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. A mixed model approach evaluated Full Scale IQ, four neuropsychological factors derived from principal components analysis, and the profile of 10 intelligence and achievement tests, controlling for maternal education, race, and intrafamilial correlation. We used a deviant responder approach (< 10%tile) to calculate rates of impairment. Results There was a significant linear trend, with the SCZ group performing worst. The profile of childhood deficits for persons with SCZ did not differ significantly from BP. 42.2% of SCZ, 22.9% of BP, and 7% of controls were neuropsychologically impaired. Presence of psychosis in first-degree relatives (FH+) significantly increased the severity of childhood impairment for SCZ but not for BP. Conclusions Premorbid neuropsychological deficits are found in a substantial proportion of children who later develop SCZ, especially in the SCZ FH+ subgroup, but less so in BP, suggesting especially impaired neurodevelopment underlying cognition in pre-SCZ children. Future work should assess genetic and environmental factors that explain this FH effect. PMID:22575089

  16. Engaging the Families of ELLs: Ideas, Resources, and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Renee; Abrego, Michelle H.; Sutterby, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Learn how to involve the diverse families of English language learners with the effective, practical approaches in this book. This must-have resource for teachers and school leaders is packed with fresh ideas geared toward building a partnership between school communities and ELL families. The authors begin each chapter with realistic scenarios…

  17. Family Influence on Teenage Participation in School Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashion, Barbara G.; Dager, Edward Z.

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between social participation and family structure. A theory is developed in the framework of George Herbert Mead's analysis on the development of a consistent self in response to a generalized other. According to this theory, the influence of the family is implicated as one of the social-psychological…

  18. Family Time Activities and Adolescents' Emotional Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offer, Shira

    2013-01-01

    The literature is divided on the issue of what matters for adolescents' well-being, with one approach focusing on quality and the other on routine family time. Using the experience sampling method, a unique form of time diary, and survey data drawn from the 500 Family Study ("N" = 237 adolescents with 8,122 observations), this study examined the…

  19. Infant feeding patterns in families with a diabetes history – observations from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Sandra; Vehik, Kendra; Uusitalo, Ulla; McLeod, Wendy; Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Frank, Nicole; Gesualdo, Patricia; Yang, Jimin; Norris, Jill M; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between diabetes family history and infant feeding patterns. Design Data on breast-feeding duration and age at first introduction of cow’s milk and gluten-containing cereals were collected in 3-month intervals during the first 24 months of life. Setting Data from the multicentre TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study, including centres in the USA, Sweden, Finland and Germany. Subjects A total of 7026 children, including children with a mother with type 1 diabetes (T1D; n 292), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; n 404) or without diabetes but with a father and/or sibling with T1D (n 464) and children without diabetes family history (n 5866). Results While exclusive breast-feeding ended earlier and cow’s milk was introduced earlier in offspring of mothers with T1D and GDM, offspring of non-diabetic mothers but a father and/or sibling with T1D were exclusively breast-fed longer and introduced to cow’s milk later compared with infants without diabetes family history. The association between maternal diabetes and shorter exclusive breast-feeding duration was attenuated after adjusting for clinical variables (delivery mode, gestational age, Apgar score and birth weight). Country-specific analyses revealed differences in these associations, with Sweden showing the strongest and Finland showing no association between maternal diabetes and breast-feeding duration. Conclusions Family history of diabetes is associated with infant feeding patterns; however, the associations clearly differ by country, indicating that cultural differences are important determinants of infant feeding behaviour. These findings need to be considered when developing strategies to improve feeding patterns in infants with a diabetes family history. PMID:24477208

  20. Life history and vertical distribution of the mesopelagic fish Cyclothone alba (family Gonostomatidae) in Sagami Bay, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miya, Masaki; Nemoto, Takahisa

    1986-08-01

    Life history and vertical distribution of the mesopelagic fish Cyclothone alba (family Gonostomatidae) are described on the basis of over 4000 specimens taken during a series of 15 cruises from December 1982 to December 1984 at a station near the center of Sagami Bay, Central Japan. C. alba does not undertake diel vertical migrations, being concentrated in the mesopelagic zone between 300 and 500 m, with peak abundance at 350 m both day and night. Spawning occurs mainly during the late spring and summer months in Sagami Bay. C. alba is semelparous, releasing about 200-650 eggs at the end of its life. Duration of the egg and larval stages is estimated to be about 2-3 months. Many males and some females mature at 1 year, and all individuals mature by 2 years of age. Sexual dimorphism in smaller males and larger females results from an earlier decline of growth rate in males: on the average, males reach 17.5 mm SL (standard length) in 1 year and 21 mm SL in 2 years, whereas females reach 19 mm SL in 1 year and 26 mm SL in 2 years. It is suggested that such precocious maturation, together with its small larvalized form, is attained through progenesis.

  1. Evolutionary history of the reprimo tumor suppressor gene family in vertebrates with a description of a new reprimo gene lineage.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Ignacio A; Zavala, Kattina; Hoffmann, Federico G; Vandewege, Michael W; Corvalán, Alejandro H; Amigo, Julio D; Owen, Gareth I; Opazo, Juan C

    2016-10-10

    Genes related to human diseases should be natural targets for evolutionary studies, since they could provide clues regarding the genetic bases of pathologies and potential treatments. Here we studied the evolution of the reprimo gene family, a group of tumor-suppressor genes that are implicated in p53-mediated cell cycle arrest. These genes, especially the reprimo duplicate located on human chromosome 2, have been associated with epigenetic modifications correlated with transcriptional silencing and cancer progression. We demonstrate the presence of a third reprimo lineage that, together with the reprimo and reprimo-like genes, appears to have been differentially retained during the evolutionary history of vertebrates. We present evidence that these reprimo lineages originated early in vertebrate evolution and expanded as a result of the two rounds of whole genome duplications that occurred in the last common ancestor of vertebrates. The reprimo gene has been lost in birds, and the third reprimo gene lineage has been retained in only a few distantly related species, such as coelacanth and gar. Expression analyses revealed that the reprimo paralogs are mainly expressed in the nervous system. Different vertebrate lineages have retained different reprimo paralogs, and even in species that have retained multiple copies, only one of them is heavily expressed. PMID:27432065

  2. The integration of a family systems approach for understanding youth obesity, physical activity, and dietary programs.

    PubMed

    Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Wilson, Dawn K; St George, Sara M; Lawman, Hannah; Segal, Michelle; Fairchild, Amanda

    2010-09-01

    Rates of overweight in youth have reached epidemic proportions and are associated with adverse health outcomes. Family-based programs have been widely used to treat overweight in youth. However, few programs incorporate a theoretical framework for studying a family systems approach in relation to youth health behavior change. Therefore, this review provides a family systems theory framework for evaluating family-level variables in weight loss, physical activity, and dietary approaches in youth. Studies were reviewed and effect sizes were calculated for interventions that manipulated the family system, including components that targeted parenting styles, parenting skills, or family functioning, or which had novel approaches for including the family. Twenty-one weight loss interventions were identified, and 25 interventions related to physical activity and/or diet were identified. Overall, family-based treatment programs that incorporated training for authoritative parenting styles, parenting skills, or child management, and family functioning had positive effects on youth weight loss. Programs to improve physical activity and dietary behaviors that targeted the family system also demonstrated improvements in youth health behaviors; however, direct effects of parent-targeted programming is not clear. Both treatment and prevention programs would benefit from evaluating family functioning and parenting styles as possible mediators of intervention outcomes. Recommendations are provided to guide the development of future family-based obesity prevention and treatment programs for youth. PMID:20689989

  3. Quantification of Cyclic Ground Reaction Force Histories During Daily Activity in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, G. A.; Whalen, R. T.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical models and experimental studies of bone remodeling suggest that bone density and structure are influenced by local cyclic skeletal tissue stress and strain histories. Estimation of long-term loading histories in humans is usually achieved by assessment of physical activity level by questionnaires, logbooks, and pedometers, since the majority of lower limb cyclic loading occurs during walking and running. These methods provide some indication of the mechanical loading history, but fail to consider the true magnitude of the lower limb skeletal forces generated by various daily activities. These techniques cannot account for individual gait characteristics, gait speed, and unpredictable high loading events that may influence bone mass significantly. We have developed portable instrumentation to measure and record the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRFz) during normal daily activity. This equipment allows long-term quantitative monitoring of musculoskeletal loads, which in conjunction with bone mineral density assessments, promises to elucidate the relationship between skeletal stresses and bone remodeling.

  4. Family Practice History: Bloodletting

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Peter

    1981-01-01

    For 2000 years bloodletting was an accepted form of treatment. During this time, the indications and philosophical basis for lancing, cupping, and the application of leeches evolved in conjunction with advances in anatomy and physiology. In the late 19th century discoveries by tissue pathologists using new diagnostic techniques undermined earlier dogma and bloodletting quickly became a highly suspect form of treatment. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:21289758

  5. History of settlement of villages from Central Tunisia by studying families sharing a common founder Glycogenosis type III mutation.

    PubMed

    Rhouma, Faten Ben; Messai, Habib; Hsouna, Sana; Halim, Nizar Ben; Cherif, Wafa; Fadhel, Sihem Ben; Tiar, Afaf; Nagara, Majdi; Azzouz, Hatem; Sfar, Mohamed-Tahar; Dridi, Marie-Françoise Ben; Tebib, Neji; Ayadi, Abdelkarim; Abdelhak, Sonia; Kefi, Rym

    2016-09-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III; Cori disease; Forbes disease) is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder resulting from deficient glycogen debrancher enzyme activity in liver and muscle. In this study, we focused on a single AGL gene mutation p.W1327X in 16 Tunisian patients from rural area surrounding the region of Mahdia in Central Tunisia. This constitutes the largest pool of patients with this mutation ever described. This study was performed to trace the history of the patients' ancestries in a single region. After extraction of genomic DNA, exon 31 of AGL gene was sequenced. The patients were investigated for the hypervariable segment 1 of mitochondrial DNA and 17 Y-STR markers. We found that the p.W1327X mutation was a founder mutation in Tunisia Analysis of maternal lineages shows an admixture of autochthonous North African, sub-Saharan and a predominance of Eurasian haplogroups. Heterogeneity of maternal haplogroups indicates an ancient settlement. However, paternal gene flow was highly homogeneous and originates from the Near East. We hypothesize that the p.W1327X mutation was introduced into the Tunisian population probably by a recent migration event; then the mutation was fixed in a small region due to the high rate of consanguineous marriages and genetic drift. The screening for this mutation should be performed in priority for GSD III molecular diagnosis, for patients from the region of Mahdia and those from regions sharing the same settlement history. PMID:26704523

  6. Family history of later-onset breast cancer, breast healthy behavior and invasive breast cancer among postmenopausal women: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A family history of later-onset breast cancer (FHLBC) may suggest multi-factorial inheritance of breast cancer risk, including unhealthy lifestyle behaviors that may be shared within families. We assessed whether adherence to lifestyle behaviors recommended for breast cancer prevention--including maintaining a healthful body weight, being physically active and limiting alcohol intake--modifies breast cancer risk attributed to FHLBC in postmenopausal women. Methods Breast cancer outcomes through August 2003 were analyzed in relationship to lifestyle and risk factors collected by questionnaire during enrollment (between 1993 and 1998) of 85,644 postmenopausal women into the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Results During a mean follow-up of 5.4 years, 1997 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. The rate of invasive breast cancer among women with an FHLBC who participated in all three behaviors was 5.94 per 1,000 woman-years, compared with 6.97 per 1,000 woman-years among women who participated in none of the behaviors. The rate among women with no FHLBC who participated in all three behavioral conditions was 3.51 per 1,000 woman-years compared to 4.67 per 1,000 woman-years for those who participated in none. We did not observe a clinically important departure from additive effects (Interaction Contrast: 0.00014; 95% CI: -0.00359, 0.00388). Conclusions Participating in breast healthy behaviors was beneficial to postmenopausal women and the degree of this benefit was the same for women with and without an FHLBC. PMID:20939870

  7. Associations between Children's Physical Activities, Sedentary Behaviours and Family Structure: A Sequential Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, T.; Dagkas, S.; Bridge, M.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed method paper explored the effect of family structure on children's physical activities and sedentary pursuits. It furthers the limited understanding of how family structure impacts on children's time in, and reasons behind engaging in, certain physical activities. Children from three inner city comprehensive schools in the Midlands,…

  8. Family and Community Involvement in the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipriani, Kristin; Richardson, Cheryl; Roberts, Georgi

    2012-01-01

    Engaging families and communities in physical activities for the benefit of children is an extension of the role of a physical education instructor. Although it is possible for a physical educator to generate ideas that encourage families and communities to move, a certified director of physical activity (C-DPA) would be better trained to…

  9. Antioxidant Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Activity of Five Plants from the Commelinaceae Family.

    PubMed

    Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Yap, Wei Jin; Tan, Shen Yeng; Lim, Yau Yan; Lee, Sui Mae

    2014-01-01

    Commelinaceae is a family of herbaceous flowering plants with many species used in ethnobotany, particularly in South America. However, thus far reports of their bioactivity are few and far between. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of five Commelinaceae methanolic leaf extracts. The antioxidant content was evaluated by the total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays. The antioxidant activities measured were DPPH free radical scavenging (FRS), ferric reducing power (FRP), and ferrous ion chelating (FIC); of the five plants, the methanolic leaf extract of Tradescantia zebrina showed the highest antioxidant content and activity, and exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of Gram-positive and two species of Gram-negative bacteria in a range of 5-10 mg/mL based on the broth microdilution method. PMID:26785239

  10. Antioxidant Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Activity of Five Plants from the Commelinaceae Family

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Yap, Wei Jin; Tan, Shen Yeng; Lim, Yau Yan; Lee, Sui Mae

    2014-01-01

    Commelinaceae is a family of herbaceous flowering plants with many species used in ethnobotany, particularly in South America. However, thus far reports of their bioactivity are few and far between. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of five Commelinaceae methanolic leaf extracts. The antioxidant content was evaluated by the total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays. The antioxidant activities measured were DPPH free radical scavenging (FRS), ferric reducing power (FRP), and ferrous ion chelating (FIC); of the five plants, the methanolic leaf extract of Tradescantia zebrina showed the highest antioxidant content and activity, and exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of Gram-positive and two species of Gram-negative bacteria in a range of 5–10 mg/mL based on the broth microdilution method. PMID:26785239

  11. Fertilization triggers localized activation of Src-family protein kinases in the zebrafish egg.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dipika; Kinsey, William H

    2006-07-15

    Fertilization triggers activation of Src-family kinases in eggs of various species including marine invertebrates and lower vertebrates. While immunofluorescence studies have localized Src-family kinases to the plasma membrane or cortical cytoplasm, no information is available regarding the extent to which these kinases are activated in different regions of the zygote. The objective of the present study was to detect the subcellular distribution of activated Src-family kinases in the fertilized zebrafish egg. An antibody specific for the active, non-phosphorylated form of Src-family PTKs was used to detect these activated kinases by immunofluorescence. The results demonstrate that Fyn, and possibly other Src family members are activated by dephosphorylation of the C-terminal tyrosine at fertilization. The activated Src-family kinases are asymmetrically distributed around the egg cortex with an area of higher kinase activity localized adjacent to the micropyle near the presumptive animal pole. Fertilization initially caused elevation of kinase activity in the cytoplasm underlying the micropyle, but this quickly spread to involve the entire zygote cortex. Later, during egg activation, formation of the blastodisc involved concentration of active Src-family kinase in the blastodisc cortex. As cytokinesis began, activated Src-family kinases were no longer limited to the cortex, but became more evenly distributed in the clear apical cytoplasm of the blastomeres. The results demonstrate that the cortex of the zebrafish egg is functionally differentiated and that fertilization triggers localized activation of Src-family kinases at the point of sperm entry, which subsequently progresses through the entire egg cortex. PMID:16698010

  12. Knowledge about hereditary cancer of women with family histories of breast, colorectal, or both types of cancer.

    PubMed

    Campacci, N; de Lima, J O; Ramadan, L; Palmero, E I

    2015-03-01

    Usually, the mass media do not address hereditary cancer and their risk factors, nor are these topics discussed at the community level. We used an informative guide on cancer and hereditary cancer, followed by a questionnaire on these topics to investigate the relevant knowledge among women at high risk for hereditary breast and/or colorectal cancer from a population-based cohort. The cohort was composed of 81 Brazilian women with positive family histories of breast and/or colorectal cancer. Strauss and Corbin's Grounded Theory was used for qualitative analysis. The average age of the cohort was 49.9 years old. Three participants (3.9%) were illiterate, 45 (59.2%) had attended elementary school, 14 (18.4%) had secondary school, and 14 (18.4%) held higher education degrees. A total of 47 (54.3%) volunteers were unable to fully understand the information provided in the guide because they did not know the meaning of words such as metastasis, malignant, hereditary, sporadic, or oncogenetics. Notwithstanding, the acceptance of the educational tool utilized was satisfactory, and it enhanced the volunteers' interest in a better understanding of cancer and heredity. Thereby, we concluded that the low knowledge of this important subject and the unawareness about fundamental terms required for the comprehension of this specific type of neoplasm made us believe that the use of the informative guide can provide a great value when used previously to the genetic counseling consultations. Besides, educational tools of easy understanding should be part of everyday clinical practice, from primary to specialized patient care. PMID:24792524

  13. Evolution of the KCS gene family in plants: the history of gene duplication, sub/neofunctionalization and redundancy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hai-Song; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Sun, Xiao-Qin; Li, Mi-Mi; Hang, Yue-Yu; Xue, Jia-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) play an important role in the survival and development of plants, and VLCFA synthesis is regulated by β-ketoacyl-CoA synthases (KCSs), which catalyze the condensation of an acyl-CoA with malonyl-CoA. Here, we present a genome-wide survey of the genes encoding these enzymes, KCS genes, in 28 species (26 genomes and two transcriptomes), which represents a large phylogenetic scale, and also reconstruct the evolutionary history of this gene family. KCS genes were initially single-copy genes in the green plant lineage; duplication resulted in five ancestral copies in land plants, forming five fundamental monophyletic groups in the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, KCS genes duplicated to generate 11 genes of angiosperm origin, expanding up to 20-30 members in further-diverged angiosperm species. During this process, tandem duplications had only a small contribution, whereas polyploidy events and large-scale segmental duplications appear to be the main driving force. Accompanying this expansion were variations that led to the sub- and neofunctionalization of different members, resulting in specificity that is likely determined by the 3-D protein structure. Novel functions involved in other physiological processes emerged as well, though redundancy is also observed, largely among recent duplications. Conserved sites and variable sites of KCS proteins are also identified by statistical analysis. The variable sites are likely to be involved in the emergence of product specificity and catalytic power, and conserved sites are possibly responsible for the preservation of fundamental function. PMID:26563433

  14. A Family History of Diabetes Modifies the Association between Elevated Urine Albumin Concentration and Hyperglycemia in Nondiabetic Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Corona, Aida; Ávila-Hermosillo, Antonio; Nelson, Robert G.; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    We examined the frequency of elevated urine albumin concentration (UAC) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic markers in 515 nondiabetic Mexican adolescents stratified by family history of diabetes (FHD). UAC was measured in a first morning urine sample and considered elevated when excretion was ≥20 mg/mL. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and lipids were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Elevated UAC was present in 12.4% and MetS was present in 8.9% of the adolescents. No association was found between elevated UAC and MetS. Among adolescents with FHD, 18.4% were overweight and 20.7% were obese, whereas, among those without a FHD, 15.9% were overweight and 7.5% were obese. Hyperglycemia was higher in those with elevated UAC than in those without (44.4% versus 5.1%, p = 0.003). Hyperglycemia (OR = 9.8, 95% CI 1.6–59.4) and number of MetS components (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.5–13.3) were independently associated with elevated UAC. Among female participants, abdominal obesity was associated with elevated UAC (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.2–16.9). Conclusion. Elevated UAC was associated neither with MetS nor with any metabolic markers in nondiabetic adolescents. However, FHD modified the association of elevated UAC with hyperglycemia and the number of MetS components. PMID:26347891

  15. Relation Between Family History of Premature Coronary Artery Disease and the Risk of Death in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Abdi-Ali, Ahmed; Shaheen, AbdelAziz; Southern, Danielle; Zhang, Mei; Knudtson, Merril; White, James; Graham, Michelle; James, Mathew T; Wilton, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    Family history (FHx) of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) is a risk factor for development of incident cardiovascular disease. However the association between FHx and outcomes in patients with established CAD is unclear. We followed 84,373 patients with angiographic CAD enrolled in the inclusive Alberta Provincial Project for Outcomes Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease registry between April 2002 and March 2013. Overall, 25,566 (30%) self-reported an FHx of CAD, defined as a first-degree relative with premature CAD (men, age <55 years; women, age <65 years). We tested the association between FHx and all-cause mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. After adjusting for baseline differences in clinical characteristics, indication, and extent of CAD, FHx was associated with reduced all-cause mortality over a median 5.6 years in follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 0.77 [95% CI 0.73 to 0.80]). The magnitude of this protective association was weaker in those with versus without a previous myocardial infarction (HR 0.87 [95% CI 0.81 to 0.93] versus 0.72 [0.69 to 0.76], interaction p <0.0001) and slightly stronger in those presenting with versus without an acute coronary syndrome (HR 0.74 [0.70 to 0.79] versus 0.80 [0.75 to 0.85], interaction p = 0.08). There was attenuation of association with increasing age, but FHx remained protective even in those aged older than 80 years (HR 0.86 [0.77 to 0.95]). In conclusion, in patients with angiographic CAD, self-reported FHx of premature CAD is associated with improved long-term survival rate, independent of clinical characteristics, mode of presentation, and extent of disease. Further investigation of potential patient- and system-level mediators of this seemingly paradoxical relation is required. PMID:26723106

  16. ERBB4 Polymorphism and Family History of Psychiatric Disorders on Age-Related Cortical Changes in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Douet, Vanessa; Chang, Linda; Lee, Kristin; Ernst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic variations in ERBB4 were associated with increased susceptibility for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorders (BPD). Structural imaging studies showed cortical abnormalities in adolescents and adults with SCZ or BPD. However, less is known about subclinical cortical changes or the influence of ERBB4 on cortical development. Methods 971 healthy children (ages 3–20 years old; 462 girls and 509 boys) were genotyped for the ERBB4-rs7598440 variants, had structural MRI, and cognitive evaluation (NIH Toolbox ®). We investigated the effects of ERBB4 variants and family history of SCZ and/or BPD (FH) on cortical measures and cognitive performances across ages 3–20 years using a general additive model. Results Variations in ERBB4 and FH impact differentially the age-related cortical changes in regions often affected by SCZ and BPD. The ERBB4-TT-risk genotype children with no FH had subtle cortical changes across the age span, primarily located in the left temporal lobe and superior parietal cortex. In contrast, the TT-risk genotype children with FH had more pronounced age-related changes, mainly in the frontal lobes compared to the non-risk genotype children. Interactive effects of age, FH and ERBB4 variations were also found on episodic memory and working memory, which are often impaired in SCZ and BPD. Conclusions Healthy children carrying the risk-genotype in ERBB4 and/or with FH had cortical measures resembling those reported in SCZ or BPD. These subclinical cortical variations may provide early indicators for increased risk of psychiatric disorders and improve our understanding of the effect of the NRG1–ERBB4 pathway on brain development. PMID:25744101

  17. Nme Gene Family Evolutionary History Reveals Pre-Metazoan Origins and High Conservation between Humans and the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Desvignes, Thomas; Pontarotti, Pierre; Bobe, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Background The Nme gene family is involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes such as cellular differentiation, development, metastatic dissemination, and cilia functions. Despite the known importance of Nme genes and their use as clinical markers of tumor aggressiveness, the associated cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Over the last 20 years, several non-vertebrate model species have been used to investigate Nme functions. However, the evolutionary history of the family remains poorly understood outside the vertebrate lineage. The aim of the study was thus to elucidate the evolutionary history of the Nme gene family in Metazoans. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a total of 21 eukaryote species including 14 metazoans, the evolutionary history of Nme genes was reconstructed in the metazoan lineage. We demonstrated that the complexity of the Nme gene family, initially thought to be restricted to chordates, was also shared by the metazoan ancestor. We also provide evidence suggesting that the complexity of the family is mainly a eukaryotic innovation, with the exception of Nme8 that is likely to be a choanoflagellate/metazoan innovation. Highly conserved gene structure, genomic linkage, and protein domains were identified among metazoans, some features being also conserved in eukaryotes. When considering the entire Nme family, the starlet sea anemone is the studied metazoan species exhibiting the most conserved gene and protein sequence features with humans. In addition, we were able to show that most of the proteins known to interact with human NME proteins were also found in starlet sea anemone. Conclusion/Significance Together, our observations further support the association of Nme genes with key cellular functions that have been conserved throughout metazoan evolution. Future investigations of evolutionarily conserved Nme gene functions using the starlet sea anemone could shed new light on a wide variety of key developmental and

  18. [The pharmacist should play an active role in family planning].

    PubMed

    Portes, M

    1983-01-01

    Although pharmacies now dispense primarily modern products originating in large multinational corporations, the community pharmacist has not been replaced by any ultramodern technological advance. Many thousand persons acquire family planning products in pharmacies. The pharmacist works many hours a day, is always available, and provides free advice to his clients. Pharmacists are consulted daily on numerous topics, especially on family planning. Many prsons in rural areas are without the services of a physician and rely on pharmacists all the more. Pharmacists could orient the public on family planning in general, help in choosing the most appropriate of available methods, and refer patients to physicians in case of problems. Participants at the recent International Conference on the Role of Retail Pharmacists in Family Planning, held in Alexandria, Egypt, concluded that pharmacists should cooperate with physicians and other health professionals to provide family planning services and should participate in elaboration of laws regulating the manufacture, storage, prices, and distribution of contraceptives. The prices of contraceptive supplies to the consumer could be reduced if taxes and import duties were removed, if supplies were produced locally, or if supplies were subsidized by some donor organization. PMID:12178199

  19. Learning Activity Package, U.S. History 111, LAPs 7 Through 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heldreth, Todd

    A set of six teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction on United States history at the eleventh grade level includes the following units: Colonial Growth; The American Revolution; A New Nation and The Constitution; The Civil War; Exploration, Inventions, and Transportation; and World War I, World War II and the…

  20. Moving Souls: History Offers Insights into Physical Activity that Go beyond Fitness and Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydnor, Synthia

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at four theoretical themes that scholars insist on when studying history. The themes--social memory, liminality, community, and critique--may be useful in stimulating the direction, planning, and practice of physical activity in young adults. These particular themes were chosen because they seem to match some of the…

  1. Phenoloxidase activity in the infraorder Isoptera: unraveling life-history correlates of immune investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Reichheld, Jennifer L.

    2016-02-01

    Within the area of ecological immunology, the quantification of phenoloxidase (PO) activity has been used as a proxy for estimating immune investment. Because termites have unique life-history traits and significant inter-specific differences exist regarding their nesting and foraging habits, comparative studies on PO activity can shed light on the general principles influencing immune investment against the backdrop of sociality, reproductive potential, and gender. We quantified PO activity across four termite species ranging from the phylogenetically basal to the most derived, each with their particular nesting/foraging strategies. Our data indicate that PO activity varies across species, with soil-dwelling termites exhibiting significantly higher PO levels than the above-ground wood nester species which in turn have higher PO levels than arboreal species. Moreover, our comparative approach suggests that pathogenic risks can override reproductive potential as a more important driver of immune investment. No gender-based differences in PO activities were recorded. Although termite PO activity levels vary in accordance with a priori predictions made from life-history theory, our data indicate that nesting and foraging strategies (and their resulting pathogenic pressures) can supersede reproductive potential and other life-history traits in influencing investment in PO. Termites, within the eusocial insects, provide a unique perspective for inferring how different ecological pressures may have influenced immune function in general and their levels of PO activity, in particular.

  2. Phenoloxidase activity in the infraorder Isoptera: unraveling life-history correlates of immune investment.

    PubMed

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B; Reichheld, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    Within the area of ecological immunology, the quantification of phenoloxidase (PO) activity has been used as a proxy for estimating immune investment. Because termites have unique life-history traits and significant inter-specific differences exist regarding their nesting and foraging habits, comparative studies on PO activity can shed light on the general principles influencing immune investment against the backdrop of sociality, reproductive potential, and gender. We quantified PO activity across four termite species ranging from the phylogenetically basal to the most derived, each with their particular nesting/foraging strategies. Our data indicate that PO activity varies across species, with soil-dwelling termites exhibiting significantly higher PO levels than the above-ground wood nester species which in turn have higher PO levels than arboreal species. Moreover, our comparative approach suggests that pathogenic risks can override reproductive potential as a more important driver of immune investment. No gender-based differences in PO activities were recorded. Although termite PO activity levels vary in accordance with a priori predictions made from life-history theory, our data indicate that nesting and foraging strategies (and their resulting pathogenic pressures) can supersede reproductive potential and other life-history traits in influencing investment in PO. Termites, within the eusocial insects, provide a unique perspective for inferring how different ecological pressures may have influenced immune function in general and their levels of PO activity, in particular. PMID:26838762

  3. Activity in Pregnancy for Patients with a History of Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Satterfield, Nichelle; Newton, Edward R.; May, Linda E.

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth remains a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Numerous risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, including non-Hispanic black race, a variety of social and behavioral factors, infections, and history of a prior preterm delivery. Of these, a history of prior spontaneous preterm birth is one of the strongest risk factors. Traditionally, women with a history of preterm birth or those deemed at high risk for preterm delivery have been placed on bed rest or a reduced activity regimen during their pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to support this recommendation. Recent research has suggested that regular physical activity and exercise during pregnancy is safe and does not increase the risk of preterm delivery. Therefore, physicians should encourage women with a history of preterm birth to exercise throughout pregnancy according to guidelines published by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists as long as they are receiving regular prenatal care and their current health status permits exercise. However, there are no randomized controlled trials evaluating exercise prescription in women with a history of preterm birth, hence additional research is needed in this area. PMID:27226741

  4. Activity in Pregnancy for Patients with a History of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, Nichelle; Newton, Edward R; May, Linda E

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth remains a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Numerous risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, including non-Hispanic black race, a variety of social and behavioral factors, infections, and history of a prior preterm delivery. Of these, a history of prior spontaneous preterm birth is one of the strongest risk factors. Traditionally, women with a history of preterm birth or those deemed at high risk for preterm delivery have been placed on bed rest or a reduced activity regimen during their pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to support this recommendation. Recent research has suggested that regular physical activity and exercise during pregnancy is safe and does not increase the risk of preterm delivery. Therefore, physicians should encourage women with a history of preterm birth to exercise throughout pregnancy according to guidelines published by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists as long as they are receiving regular prenatal care and their current health status permits exercise. However, there are no randomized controlled trials evaluating exercise prescription in women with a history of preterm birth, hence additional research is needed in this area. PMID:27226741

  5. A Review on Family History of Breast Cancer: Screening and Counseling Proposals for Women with Familial (Non-Hereditary) Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unic, Ivana; Stalmeier, Peep F. M.; Peer, Petronella G. M.; van Daal, Willem A. J.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of variables predicting familial breast cancer (N=59) were analyzed to develop screening recommendations for women with nonhereditary familial breast cancer present. The pooled relative risk (RR) and cumulative probability were used to estimate risk. Data and conclusions are presented. Recommendations for screening and counseling are…

  6. Family Functioning: Associations with Weight Status, Eating Behaviors, and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010

  7. Is there a space for place in family history assessment? Underserved community views on the impact of neighborhood factors on health and prevention.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christopher D; Marshall, Patricia A; Goldenberg, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    Family health history tools rarely incorporate environmental and neighborhood factors, although the social and physical environments in which people live are recognized as major contributors to chronic diseases. This paper discusses beliefs about neighborhood influences on chronic disease risk among racially and ethnically diverse individuals in low-income communities in Cleveland, Ohio. We report findings from a qualitative study consisting of 121 interviews with White, African American, and Hispanic participants. Results are organized into four major themes: (1) social and economic environment, (2) physical environment, (3) barriers to healthy behaviors, and (4) participants' views on integrating genetic and non-genetic determinants of health to understand and address disease prevention and management. Findings suggest that integrating environmental factors into family health history assessments would better reflect lay perceptions of disease causation. Results have implications for improving patient-clinician communication and the development of strategies to prevent and manage chronic diseases. PMID:25663552

  8. Assessment of association of D3 dopamine receptor MscI polymorphism with schizophrenia: Analysis of symptom ratings, family history, age at onset, and movement disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitonde, E.J.; Mollon, J.D.; McKenna, P.J.

    1996-09-20

    Several studies have reported an association between schizophrenia and homozygosity for the MscI restriction site in exon 1 of the D3 dopamine receptor gene, but other studies have failed to find this association. Recent reports have suggested that the association is most salient in male patients with a family history of schizophrenia. We examined this restriction site in a group of schizophrenic patients (n = 84) and in normal controls (n = 77). Patients were subdivided according to demographic and clinical features, particular attention being paid to movement disorders. No significant difference in allelic or genotypic distribution was seen between the two groups. No association was seen between homozygosity and a positive family history, age at onset of illness, clinical subtype, negative symptom score, or movement disorder scores. 33 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Conversations about Science across Activities in Mexican-Descent Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah R.; Esterly, Jennifer; Callanan, Maureen A.; Wright, Ramser; Navarro, Rocio

    2007-01-01

    Parent-child "everyday" conversations have been suggested as a source of children's early science learning. If such conversations are important, then it would be pertinent to know whether children from different family backgrounds have different experiences talking about science in informal settings. We focus on the relation between parents'…

  10. Activities of the Administration for Children, Youth and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Dodie

    Discussed are initiatives of the Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF) in the areas of Head Start, child care, the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, support of historically black colleges and universities, foster care and adoption assistance, the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program, and current and future plans. The…

  11. Cluster randomized controlled trial of a psycho-educational intervention for people with a family history of depression for use in general practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The strongest risk factor for depression is having a family history of the condition. Many individuals with a family history of depression are concerned about their personal risk for depression and report unmet educational and psychological support needs. No supportive and/or educational interventions are currently available that target this group of individuals. In this study we will develop and evaluate the first online psycho-educational intervention targeted to individuals with a family history of depression. Genetic risk information and evidence-rated information on preventive strategies for depression will be provided to such individuals in a general practice setting. The intervention will also incorporate a risk assessment tool. The content and delivery of the intervention will be pilot-tested. Methods/design The proposed intervention will be evaluated in the general practitioner (GPs) setting, using a cluster randomized controlled trial. GP practices will be randomized to provide either access to the online, targeted psycho-educational intervention or brief generic information about depression (control) to eligible patients. Eligibility criteria include having at least one first-degree relative with either major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). The primary outcome measure is 'intention to adopt, or actual adoption of, risk-reducing strategies’. Secondary outcome measures include: depression symptoms, perceived stigma of depression, knowledge of risk factors for development of depression and risk-reducing strategies, and perceived risk of developing depression or having a recurrence of family history. Over the course of the study, participants will complete online questionnaires at three time points: at baseline, and two weeks and six months after receiving the intervention or control condition. Discussion This novel psycho-educational intervention will provide individuals with a family history of depression with information

  12. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression is associated with a family history of upper gastrointestinal tract cancer in a high-risk population exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, M.J.; Wei, W.Q.; Baer, J.; Abnet, C.C.; Wang, G.Q.; Sternberg, L.R.; Warner, A.C.; Johnson, L.L.; Lu, N.; Giffen, C.A.; Dawsey, S.M.; Qiao, Y.L.; Cherry, J.

    2009-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and PAHs are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study measured the expression of AhR and related genes in frozen esophageal cell samples from patients exposed to different levels of indoor air pollution, who did or did not have high-grade squamous dysplasia and who did or did not have a family history of upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) cancer. 147 samples were evaluated, including 23 (16%) from patients with high-grade dysplasia and 48 (33%) from patients without dysplasia who heated their homes with coal, without a chimney (a 'high' indoor air pollution group), and 27 (18%) from patients with high-grade dysplasia and 49 (33%) from patients without dysplasia who did not heat their homes at all (a 'low' indoor air pollution group). Sixty-four (44%) had a family history of UGI cancer. RNA was extracted and quantitative PCR analysis was done. AhR gene expression was detectable in 85 (58%) of the samples and was >9-fold higher in those with a family history of UGI cancer (median expression (interquartile range), -1,964 (-18,000, -610) versus -18,000 (-18,000, -1036); P = 0.02, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Heating status, dysplasia category, age, gender, and smoking were not associated with AhR expression (linear regression; all P values {ge} 0.1). AhR expression was higher in patients with a family history of UGI cancer. Such individuals may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of PAH exposure, including PAH-induced cancer.

  13. The Relative Importance of Family History, Gender, Mode of Onset, and Age at Onset in Predicting Clinical Features of First-Episode Psychotic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Compton, Michael T; Berez, Chantal; Walker, Elaine F

    2014-11-01

    Objective: Family history of psychosis, gender, mode of onset, and age at onset are considered prognostic factors important to clinicians evaluating first-episode psychosis; yet, clinicians have little guidance as to how these four factors differentially predict early-course substance abuse, symptomatology, and functioning. We conducted a "head-to-head comparison" of these four factors regarding their associations with key clinical features at initial hospitalization. We also assessed potential interactions between gender and family history with regard to age at onset of psychosis and symptom severity.Methods: Consecutively admitted first-episode patients (n=334) were evaluated in two studies that rigorously assessed a number of early-course variables. Associations among variables of interest were examined using Pearson correlations, ÷2 tests, Student's t-tests, and 2x2 factorial analyses of variance.Results: Substance (nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis) abuse and positive symptom severity were predicted only by male gender. Negative symptom severity and global functioning impairments were predicted by earlier age at onset of psychosis. General psychopathology symptom severity was predicted by both mode of onset and age at onset. Interaction effects were not observed with regard to gender and family history in predicting age at onset or symptom severity.Conclusions: The four prognostic features have differential associations with substance abuse, domains of symptom severity, and global functioning. Gender and age at onset of psychosis appear to be more predictive of clinical features at the time of initial evaluation (and thus presumably longer-term outcomes) than the presence of a family history of psychosis and a more gradual mode of onset. PMID:25367167

  14. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  15. Advocacy oral history: a research methodology for social activism in nursing.

    PubMed

    Rafael, A R

    1997-12-01

    The reinstatement of social activism as a central feature of nursing practice has been advocated by nursing scholars and is consistent with contemporary conceptualizations of primary health care and health promotion that are rooted in critical social theory's concept of empowerment. Advocacy oral history from a feminist postmodern perspective offers a method of research that has the potential and purpose to empower participants to transform their political and social realities and may, therefore, be considered social activism. A recent study of public health nurses who had experienced significant distress through the reduction and redirection of their practice is provided as an exemplar of advocacy oral history. Philosophies underpinning the research method and characteristics of feminist postmodern research are reviewed and implications for the use of this methodology for social activism in nursing are drawn. PMID:9398937

  16. Nicotine Related Brain Activity: The Influence Of Smoking History and Blood Nicotine Levels, an Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Rinah T.; Rohan, Michael L.; Goletiani, Nathalie; Olson, David; Peltier, MacKenzie; Renshaw, Perry F.; Mello, Nancy K.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In this study, we sought to explore brain activity in nicotine-dependent men in response to acute intravenous nicotine using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI). METHODS phMRI was used to evaluate brain activity in response to 1.5 mg/70 kg intravenous nicotine or saline. The nicotine and saline were administered on different visits. The time courses of individual subjects’ nicotine levels were used as regressors to assess neural activity relating to the infusions. The influence of Smoking history and physiological measures on the response to nicotine were also investigated. RESULTS Greater lifetime exposure to cigarette smoking was significantly correlated with higher peak serum nicotine levels. PhMRI analysis of the differential response of nicotine compared to the saline condition showed distinctive activation patterns when analyzed with a) the nicotine time course, b) nicotine time course controlling for smoking history (pack years), and c) pack years controlling for nicotine. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that smoking exposure history influences serum nicotine levels and the brain’s response to nicotine. Alterations in brain activity may be a result of vascular and neuro-adaptations involved in drug exposure and addiction. PMID:23117126

  17. Evolutionary History of the Smyd Gene Family in Metazoans: A Framework to Identify the Orthologs of Human Smyd Genes in Drosophila and Other Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Calpena, Eduardo; Palau, Francesc; Espinós, Carmen; Galindo, Máximo Ibo

    2015-01-01

    The Smyd gene family code for proteins containing a conserved core consisting of a SET domain interrupted by a MYND zinc finger. Smyd proteins are important in epigenetic control of development and carcinogenesis, through posttranslational modifications in histones and other proteins. Previous reports indicated that the Smyd family is quite variable in metazoans, so a rigorous phylogenetic reconstruction of this complex gene family is of central importance to understand its evolutionary history and functional diversification or conservation. We have performed a phylogenetic analysis of Smyd protein sequences, and our results show that the extant metazoan Smyd genes can be classified in three main classes, Smyd3 (which includes chordate-specific Smyd1 and Smyd2 genes), Smyd4 and Smyd5. In addition, there is an arthropod-specific class, SmydA. While the evolutionary history of the Smyd3 and Smyd5 classes is relatively simple, the Smyd4 class has suffered several events of gene loss, gene duplication and lineage-specific expansions in the animal phyla included in our analysis. A more specific study of the four Smyd4 genes in Drosophila melanogaster shows that they are not redundant, since their patterns of expression are different and knock-down of individual genes can have dramatic phenotypes despite the presence of the other family members. PMID:26230726

  18. Family therapy by family doctors

    PubMed Central

    Neighbour, R.

    1982-01-01

    The experiences of a group of general practitioners learning and attempting family therapy are described. Three principles for working with whole families — facilitation, formulation and focussing — are illustrated by case histories. Family therapy in general practice can be effective for patients and worthwhile for family doctors. PMID:7153974

  19. Specifying the Influence of Family and Peers on Violent Victimization: Extending Routine Activities and Lifestyle Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Christopher J.; Fisher, Bonnie S.

    2004-01-01

    The fact that crime and victimization share similar correlates suggests that family and peer contexts are potentially useful for explaining individual differences in violent victimization. In this research, we used routine activities and lifestyles frameworks to reveal how strong bonds of family attachment can promote more effective guardianship…

  20. The Impact of Family Relations on Caregivers' Positive and Negative Appraisal of Their Caretaking Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baronet, Anne-Marie

    2003-01-01

    Examines the impact of family support and relationship difficulties between the caregiver and the care recipient on caregivers' satisfaction and subjective burden. Findings showed that relationship difficulties were associated with both satisfaction received from caregiving activities and subjective burden. Family support was not associated with…

  1. Using Activity Theory to Understand Intergenerational Play: The Case of Family Quest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyahhan, Sinem; Barab, Sasha A.; Downton, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    We implemented a five-week family program called "Family Quest" where parents and children ages 9 to 13 played Quest Atlantis, a multiuser 3D educational computer game, at a local after-school club for 90-minute sessions. We used activity theory as a conceptual and an analytical framework to study the nature of intergenerational play, the…

  2. (Trans)National Language Ideologies and Family Language Practices: A Life History Inquiry of Judeo-Spanish in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seloni, Lisya; Sarfati, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the diminished use of Judeo-Spanish among Jews living in Turkey and asks the following research question: What factors, ideologies, and practices contribute to the demise of Judeo-Spanish? To address this question, we employed life history inquiry based on two oral history archives documenting elderly Turkish-Jewish community…

  3. Families Discover the Outdoors Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Polly

    1980-01-01

    An idea for hands-on activities for families to use in discovering the outdoors together when visiting parks is described. Family packs contain discovery and natural history cards, thermometers, magnifiers, insect boxes, photographs of animals and plants, a pencil, and a feedback form. (SA)

  4. Active Learning Applications in the History of Chemistry: Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Level of Knowledge and Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendur, Gülten; Polat, Merve; Toku, Abdullah; Kazanci, Coskun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of a History and Philosophy of Chemistry-I course based on active learning applications on the level of knowledge of pre-service chemistry teachers about the history of chemistry. The views of pre-service chemistry teachers about these activities were also investigated. The study was carried out with 38…

  5. Obesigenic families: parents’ physical activity and dietary intake patterns predict girls’ risk of overweight

    PubMed Central

    Davison, K Krahnstoever; Birch, L Lipps

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether obesigenic families can be identified based on mothers’ and fathers’ dietary and activity patterns. METHODS A total of 197 girls and their parents were assessed when girls were 5 y old; 192 families were reassessed when girls were 7 y old. Measures of parents’ physical activity and dietary intake were obtained and entered into a cluster analysis to assess whether distinct family clusters could be identified. Girls’ skinfold thickness and body mass index (BMI) were also assessed and were used to examine the predictive validity of the clusters. RESULTS Obesigenic and a non-obesigenic family clusters were identified. Mothers and fathers in the obesigenic cluster reported high levels of dietary intake and low levels of physical activity, while mothers and fathers in the non-obesigenic cluster reported low levels of dietary intake and high levels of activity. Girls from families in the obesigenic cluster had significantly higher BMI and skinfold thickness values at age 7 and showed significantly greater increases in BMI and skinfold thickness from ages 5 to 7 y than girls from non-obesigenic families; differences were reduced but not eliminated after controlling for parents’ BMI. CONCLUSIONS Obesigenic families, defined in terms of parents’ activity and dietary patterns, can be used predict children’s risk of obesity. PMID:12187395

  6. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in Apple (Malus 6domestica Borkh.) and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar ‘Golden...

  7. My History Is America's History: 15 Things You Can Do To Save America's Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    The theme of this guidebook is "Follow your family's history and you will discover America's history." The guidebook offers a way for everyone to explore family history to discover how family stories connect to the history of the nation. It suggests that a family history can be started with a single old photo, letter, or family tale that can be…

  8. Intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences and a history of childhood psychosomatic disorders among Japanese university students

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Akinori; Yamanaka, Takao; Hirakawa, Tadatoshi; Koga, Yasuyuki; Minomo, Ryosuke; Munemoto, Takao; Tei, Chuwa

    2007-01-01

    Background Japan has been witnessing a considerable increase in the number of children with psychosomatic disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the risk of psychosomatic disorder in adolescents and intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Methods A retrospective cohort study of 1592 Japanese university students (52% male, mean age 19.9 years) who completed a survey about intra- and extra-familial ACEs and the incidence of childhood psychosomatic disorders. Intra-familial ACEs included domestic violence, physical violence, emotional abuse, illness in household, parental divorce, no parental affection, and dysfunctional family. Extra-familial ACEs included physical violence or negative recognition by teachers, being bullied in elementary or junior high school, or sexual violence. Results The frequency of psychosomatic disorders among the respondents was 14.8%. Among the 7 intra-familial ACEs, emotional abuse (relative risk, RR = 1.9) and illness in household (RR = 1.7) increased the risk of psychosomatic disorders. Estimates of the relative risk for the 5 extra-familial ACEs were statistically significant and ranged from 1.5 for being bullied in elementary school or physical violence from teachers to 2.4. Students who had 3 or more intra-familial ACEs and 2 or more extra-familial ACEs had a 3.0 relative risk for psychosomatic disorder. Conclusion These results suggest that intra- and extra-familial ACEs are associated with the development of psychosomatic disorders. Therefore, sufficient evaluation of ACEs should be performed in adolescent patients with psychosomatic disorder. PMID:17407551

  9. Exercise training has greater effects on insulin sensitivity in daughters of patients with type 2 diabetes than in women with no family history of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Barwell, N. D.; Malkova, D.; Moran, C. N.; Cleland, S. J.; Packard, C. J.; Zammit, V. A.

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Sedentary offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes are often more insulin-resistant than persons with no family history of diabetes, but when active or fit offspring of type 2 diabetic patients are compared with non-diabetic persons, differences in insulin resistance are less evident. This study aimed to determine the effects of an exercise training intervention on insulin sensitivity in both groups. Methods Women offspring (n = 34) of type 2 diabetic patients (offspring age 35.6 ± 7.0 years, BMI 28.1 ± 5.1 kg/m2) and 36 matched female controls (age 33.6 ± 6.1 years, BMI 27.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2) participated. Body composition, fitness and metabolic measurements were made at baseline and after a controlled 7 week exercise intervention. Results At baseline, insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was 22% lower in offspring than controls (p < 0.05), despite similar body fat and maximal oxygen uptake \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document}$$\\left( {\\dot VO_{2\\max } } \\right)$$\\end{document} values in the two groups. ISI increased by 23% (p < 0.05) in offspring following the exercise intervention, compared with 7% (NS) in the controls. Increases in \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document}$$\\dot VO_{2\\max } $$\\end{document} were similar in both groups (controls 12%, offspring 15%, p < 0.05 for both). Plasma leptin concentrations decreased significantly in the offspring (−24%, p < 0.01) but not in controls (0%, NS). Change in ISI correlated significantly with baseline ISI (r = −0.47, p < 0.0005) and change in

  10. Risk of Asynchronous Contralateral Breast Cancer in Noncarriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations With a Family History of Breast Cancer: A Report From the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, Anne S.; John, Esther M.; Brooks, Jennifer D.; Lynch, Charles F.; Bernstein, Leslie; Mellemkjær, Lene; Malone, Kathleen E.; Knight, Julia A.; Capanu, Marinela; Teraoka, Sharon N.; Concannon, Patrick; Liang, Xiaolin; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Smith, Susan A.; Stovall, Marilyn; Pike, Malcolm C.; Haile, Robert W.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Begg, Colin B.; Bernstein, Jonine L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To fully characterize the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) in patients with breast cancer with a family history who test negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Patients and Methods From our population-based case-control study comparing women with CBC to women with unilateral breast cancer (UBC), we selected women who tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations (594 patients with CBC/1,119 control patients with UBC). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated to examine the association between family history of breast cancer and risk of asynchronous CBC. Age- and family history–specific 10-year cumulative absolute risks of CBC were estimated. Results Family history of breast cancer was associated with increased CBC risk; risk was highest among young women (< 45 years) with first-degree relatives affected at young ages (< 45 years; RR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 5.3) or women with first-degree relatives with bilateral disease (RR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.0 to 6.4). Women diagnosed with UBC before age 55 years with a first-degree family history of CBC had a 10-year risk of CBC of 15.6%. Conclusion Young women with breast cancer who have a family history of breast cancer and who test negative for deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are at significantly greater risk of CBC than other breast cancer survivors. This risk varies with diagnosis age, family history of CBC, and degree of relationship to an affected relative. Women with a first-degree family history of bilateral disease have risks of CBC similar to mutation carriers. This has important implications for the clinical management of patients with breast cancer with family history of the disease. PMID:23269995

  11. Human KZNF Gene Catalog - A comprehensive catalog of human KRAB-associated zinc finger genes: insights into the evolutionary history of a large family of transcriptional repressors

    DOE Data Explorer

    Huntley, S; Baggott, D. M.; Hamilton, A. T.; Tran-Gyamfi, M.; Yang, S.; Kim, J.; Gordon, L.; Branscomb, E.; Stubbs, L.

    Kruppel-type zinc finger (ZNF) motifs are prevalent components of transcription factor proteins in all eukaryotes. KRAB-ZNF proteins, in which a potent repressor domain is attached to a tandem array of DNA-binding zinc-finger motifs, are specific to tetrapod vertebrates and represent the largest class of ZNF proteins in mammals. To define the full repertoire of human KRAB-ZNF proteins, we searched the genome sequence for key motifs and then constructed and manually curated gene models incorporating those sequences. The resulting gene catalog contains 423 KRAB-ZNF protein-coding loci, yielding alternative transcripts that altogether predict at least 742 structurally distinct proteins. Active rounds of segmental duplication, involving single genes or larger regions and including both tandem and distributed duplication events, have driven the expansion of this mammalian gene family. Comparisons between the human genes and ZNF loci mined from the draft mouse, dog, and chimpanzee genomes not only identified 103 KRAB-ZNF genes that are conserved in mammals but also highlighted a substantial level of lineage-specific change; at least 136 KRAB-ZNF coding genes are primate specific, including many recent duplicates. KRAB-ZNF genes are widely expressed and clustered genes are typically not coregulated, indicating that paralogs have evolved to fill roles in many different biological processes. To facilitate further study, we have developed a Web-based public resource with access to gene models, sequences, and other data, including visualization tools to provide genomic context and interaction with other public data sets. [This abstract was copied from: S Huntley, DM Baggott, AT Hamilton, M Tran-Gyamfi, S Yang, J Kim, L Gordon, E Branscomb, and L Stubbs. 2006. A comprehensive catalog of human KRAB-associated zinc finger genes: insights into the evolutionary history of a large family of transcriptional repressors, Genome Research 16(5):669 - 677] The website provides the

  12. Un dia en la vida: The Everyday Activities of Young Children from Central American Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denmark, Nicole; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the everyday activities of young children from low-income Central American (CA) immigrant families. From the perspective that everyday activities propel children's development of culturally and contextually valued behaviours and skills, 48 mothers were interviewed regarding the activities that are available…

  13. Evolutionary dynamics and biogeography of Musaceae reveal a correlation between the diversification of the banana family and the geological and climatic history of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Steven B; Vandelook, Filip; De Langhe, Edmond; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik; Vandenhouwe, Ines; Swennen, Rony

    2016-06-01

    Tropical Southeast Asia, which harbors most of the Musaceae biodiversity, is one of the most species-rich regions in the world. Its high degree of endemism is shaped by the region's tectonic and climatic history, with large differences between northern Indo-Burma and the Malayan Archipelago. Here, we aim to find a link between the diversification and biogeography of Musaceae and geological history of the Southeast Asian subcontinent. The Musaceae family (including five Ensete, 45 Musa and one Musella species) was dated using a large phylogenetic framework encompassing 163 species from all Zingiberales families. Evolutionary patterns within Musaceae were inferred using ancestral area reconstruction and diversification rate analyses. All three Musaceae genera - Ensete, Musa and Musella - originated in northern Indo-Burma during the early Eocene. Musa species dispersed from 'northwest to southeast' into Southeast Asia with only few back-dispersals towards northern Indo-Burma. Musaceae colonization events of the Malayan Archipelago subcontinent are clearly linked to the geological and climatic history of the region. Musa species were only able to colonize the region east of Wallace's line after the availability of emergent land from the late Miocene onwards. PMID:26832306

  14. Parental History of Myopia, Sports and Outdoor Activities, and Future Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lisa A.; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Mutti, Donald O.; Mitchell, Gladys L.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.; Zadnik, Karla

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To identify whether parental history of myopia and/or parent-reported children’s visual activity levels can predict juvenile-onset myopia. METHODS Survey-based data from Orinda Longitudinal Study of Myopia subjects from 1989 to 2001 were used to predict future myopia. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were generated. Differences among the areas under the ROC curves were compared using the method of multiple comparison with the best. RESULTS Of the 514 children eligible for this analysis, 111 (21.6%) became myopic. Differences in the third grade between eventual myopes and nonmyopes were seen for the number of myopic parents (P < 0.001) and for the number of sports and outdoor activity hours per week (11.65 ± 6.97 hours for nonmyopes vs. 7.98 ± 6.54 hours for future myopes, P < 0.001). Analysis of the areas under the ROC curves showed three variables with a predictive value better than chance: the number of myopic parents, the number of sports and outdoor activity hours per week, and the number of reading hours per week. After controlling for sports and outdoor hours per week and parental myopia history, reading hours per week was no longer a statistically significant factor. The area under the curve for the parental myopia history and sports and outdoor activities model was 0.73. A significant interaction in the logistic model showed a differential effect of sport and outdoor activity hours per week based on a child’s number of myopic parents. CONCLUSIONS Parental history of myopia was an important predictor in univariate and multivariate models, with a differential effect of sports and outdoor activity hours per week based on the number of myopic parents. Lower amounts of sports and outdoor activity increased the odds of becoming myopic in those children with two myopic parents more than in those children with either zero or one myopic parent. The chance of becoming

  15. Family leadership styles and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transformational leadership is conceptualized as a set of behaviors designed to inspire, energize and motivate others to achieve higher levels of functioning, and is associated with salient health-related outcomes in organizational settings. Given (a) the similarities that exist between leadership within organizational settings and parenting within families, and (b) the importance of the family environment in the promotion of adolescent health-enhancing behaviors, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cross-sectional relationships between parents’ transformational leadership behaviors and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors. Methods 857 adolescents (aged 13–15, mean age = 14.70 yrs) completed measures of transformational parenting behaviors, healthful dietary intake and leisure-time physical activity. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between family transformational leadership and adolescent health outcomes. A further ‘extreme group analysis’ was conducted by clustering families based on quartile splits. A MANCOVA (controlling for child gender) was conducted to examine differences between families displaying (a) HIGH levels of transformational parenting (consistent HIGH TP), (b) LOW levels of transformational parenting (consistent LOW TP), and (c) inconsistent levels of transformational parenting (inconsistent HIGH-LOW TP). Results Results revealed that adolescents’ perceptions of family transformational parenting were associated with both healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Adolescents who perceived their families to display the highest levels of transformational parenting (HIGH TP group) displayed greater healthy eating and physical activity behaviors than adolescents who perceived their families to display the lowest levels of transformational parenting behaviors (LOW TP group). Adolescents who perceived their families to display inconsistent levels of transformational

  16. Basalt aquifer identification correlation and sampling activities. History of wells, DB-12, DB-13, DB-14

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, C.T.

    1980-01-01

    Research core wells have recently been completed to assist in the characterization of the ground water regime of the upper confined aquifers found within the basalt of the Hanford Site. These wells, drilled for the Long-Term Transuranic Defense Waste Program, were constructed to assure that waste management operations on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site will not have an impact on the environment by providing an avenue for off-site migration of radionuclides. This is the third report detailing results of confined aquifer drilling activities. The purpose of this report is to document the drilling history of the wells by presenting as-built well construction diagrams and tables listing hole history data, coring records, and bit records.

  17. Thiaminase activity and life history investigations in American Shad in the Columbia river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Parsley, Michael J; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K.; Larsen, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima fry were successfully transplanted from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast in 1871 and have subsequently proliferated. The Columbia River population is in the millions, yet few investigations have been conducted to better understand their life history, population dynamics, or potential impacts on other species. In 2007 and 2008 we captured American shad from the Columbia River to assess levels of thiaminase activity and to characterize some aspects of American shad life history. Thiaminase levels in age-0 and adult fish were high and ranged from 4,113-20,874 pmol/g/min. Ages of spawning American shad ranged from 3-7 years and iteroparity was approximately 33-36% in the spawning population. Males were typically younger and smaller and had a higher degree of iteroparity than females

  18. Natural history and the formation of the human being: Kant on active forces.

    PubMed

    Waldow, Anik

    2016-08-01

    In his 1785-review of the Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit, Kant objects to Herder's conception of nature as being imbued with active forces. This attack is usually evaluated against the background of Kant's critical project and his epistemological concern to caution against the "metaphysical excess" of attributing immanent properties to matter. In this paper I explore a slightly different reading by investigating Kant's pre-critical account of creation and generation. The aim of this is to show that Kant's struggle with the forces of matter has a long history and revolves around one central problem: that of how to distinguish between the non-purposive forces of nature and the intentional powers of the mind. Given this history, the epistemic stricture that Kant's critical project imposes on him no longer appears to be the primary reason for his attack on Herder. It merely aggravates a problem that Kant has been battling with since his earliest writings. PMID:27474187

  19. William Cain Ruffin, M.D., and some history of the Ruffin family as it pertains to the American Civil War.

    PubMed

    Enoch, Jay M

    2012-01-01

    In the late 1970s, Prof. Herbert ("Herb") Kaufman, M.D., a fine Harvard-trained ophthalmologist who had both developed and chaired the Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Florida. Gainesville, FL, chose to resign his appointment there. Prof. Kaufman had accepted the Chair in Ophthalmology at Louisiana State U. in New Orleans. The writer was a member of the Department of Ophthalmology faculty in Gainesville, FL, at the time. Following Herb Kaufman's resignation, Professor William Cain Ruffin, M.D., a psychiatrist with academic credentials, was assigned to serve as the Interim Chairman of the Department of Ophthalmology at Gainesville for a few years by the then Dean of the Medical School at the U. of Florida. This paper addresses some interesting facts regarding Prof./Dr. Ruffin and his family history, particularly as that history relates to the American Civil War. PMID:22702010

  20. Improving the management of people with a family history of breast cancer in primary care: before and after study of audit-based education

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In England, guidance from National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) states women with a family history of breast cancer presenting to primary care should be reassured or referred. We reviewed the evidence for interventions that might be applied in primary care and conducted an audit of whether low risk women are correctly advised and flagged. Methods We conducted a literature review to identify modifiable risk factors. We extracted routinely collected data from the computerised medical record systems of 6 general practices (population approximately 30,000); of the variables identified in the guidance. We implemented a quality improvement (QI) intervention called audit-based education (ABE) comparing participant practices with guidelines and each other before and after; we report odds ratios (OR) of any change in data recording. Results The review revealed evidence for advising on: diet, weight control, physical exercise, and alcohol. The proportion of patients with recordings of family history of: disease, neoplasms, and breast cancer were: 39.3%, 5.1% and 1.3% respectively. There was no significant change in the recording of family history of disease or cancer; OR 1.02 (95% CI 0.98-1.06); and 1.08 (95% CI 0.99-1.17) respectively. Recording of alcohol consumption and smoking both increased significantly; OR 1.36 (95% CI 1.30-1.43); and 1.42 (95% CI 1.27-1.60) respectively. Recording lifestyle advice fell; OR 0.84 (95% CI 0.81-0.88). Conclusions The study informs about current data recording and willingness to engage in ABE. Recording of risk factors improved after the intervention. Further QI is needed to achieve adherence to current guidance. PMID:23879178

  1. High use of complementary and alternative medicine among a large cohort of women with a family history of breast cancer: the Sister Study.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Heather; Sardo Molmenti, Christine L; Falci, Laura; Ulmer, Ross; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; DeRoo, Lisa A; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-04-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is high among U.S. women, yet information is limited on use among women at increased breast cancer risk. We analyzed CAM use among women with a family history of breast cancer. CAM use was analyzed among women enrolled 2003-2009 in the Sister Study cohort. Eligible women were aged 35-74, U.S. or Puerto Rican residents, no personal history of breast cancer, and had ≥1 sister with breast cancer. Baseline data on CAM use in the past year were available for 49,734 women. Logistic regression models examined the association between CAM use and Gail Model breast cancer risk score. Results were compared to female participants in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (n = 7965). Among Sister Study participants, there was high use of vitamin/mineral supplements (79 %), mind-body practices (41 %), manipulative/body-based practices (32 %), and botanicals (23 %). Overall use was higher than the U.S. female population. No association was observed between familial breast cancer risk and CAM use. Black women were more likely to use spirituality/meditation-based CAM modalities, while non-Hispanic white and Asian women were high users of dietary supplements. In a cohort of women with increased breast cancer risk due to family history, CAM use is higher than women in the general U.S. population and is associated with race/ethnicity. Use was not associated with breast cancer risk. Given the high prevalence of CAM use among women at risk for breast caner, research on the effectiveness of CAM use for disease prevention is needed. PMID:27017506

  2. Microsynteny and phylogenetic analysis of tandemly organised miRNA families across five members of Brassicaceae reveals complex retention and loss history.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Priyanka; Geeta, R; Das, Sandip

    2016-06-01

    Plant genomes are characterized by the presence of large miRNA gene families which are few in number. The expansion of miRNA families is thought to be driven by gene and genome duplication. Some members of these miRNA gene families are tandemly arranged and their analysis is of interest because such organisation may indicate origin through tandem duplication and also to investigate whether some such tandem clusters have similar expression patterns, and whether these are regulated through a common set of cis-regulatory elements (eg. promoters and enhancers). As a first step, we undertake a comprehensive study using micro-synteny analyses of tandemly organised miRNA families across the Brassicaceae spanning an evolutionary time scale of ca. 45 million years, among Arabidopsis, Capsella, Brassica and Thellungiella species, to address the following questions: Are most miRNA gene families present as tandem clusters? To what extent are these tandem patterns retained? To what extent can family sizes be ascribed to genome duplication? Our analysis of thirteen tandemly organised miRNA families revealed that synteny is largely conserved among Arabidopsis thaliana, A. lyrata and Capsella rubella, which form a clade spanning approximately between 6.2-9.8 my (Acarkan et al., 2000) [1]. On the other hand, comparison of sequences from these species with Brassica rapa, B. oleracea and Thellungiella halophila, which form a separate clade spanning 31 my (Franzke et al., 2011)[2] reveals many differences. The latter clade reveals several paralogous duplications that probably resulted from whole genome duplication, as well as disrupted synteny. Phylogenetic analyses of precursor sequences generally support the history inferred from synteny analysis. Synteny and phylogenetic analysis of six members of the tandemly organised miR169 family suggest that the Brassicaceae ancestral state consisted of a "dimer as a unit" which may have undergone direct local duplication to retain the

  3. Understanding the contribution of family history to colorectal cancer risk and its clinical implications: A state-of-the-science review.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Jan T; Ahnen, Dennis J; Schroy, Paul C; Hampel, Heather; Baxter, Nancy; Boland, C Richard; Burt, Randall W; Butterly, Lynn; Doerr, Megan; Doroshenk, Mary; Feero, W Gregory; Henrikson, Nora; Ladabaum, Uri; Lieberman, David; McFarland, Elizabeth G; Peterson, Susan K; Raymond, Martha; Samadder, N Jewel; Syngal, Sapna; Weber, Thomas K; Zauber, Ann G; Smith, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Persons with a family history (FH) of colorectal cancer (CRC) or adenomas that are not due to known hereditary syndromes have an increased risk for CRC. An understanding of these risks, screening recommendations, and screening behaviors can inform strategies for reducing the CRC burden in these families. A comprehensive review of the literature published within the past 10 years has been performed to assess what is known about cancer risk, screening guidelines, adherence and barriers to screening, and effective interventions in persons with an FH of CRC and to identify FH tools used to identify these individuals and inform care. Existing data show that having 1 affected first-degree relative (FDR) increases the CRC risk 2-fold, and the risk increases with multiple affected FDRs and a younger age at diagnosis. There is variability in screening recommendations across consensus guidelines. Screening adherence is <50% and is lower in persons under the age of 50 years. A provider's recommendation, multiple affected relatives, and family encouragement facilitate screening; insufficient collection of FH, low knowledge of guidelines, and poor family communication are important barriers. Effective interventions incorporate strategies for overcoming barriers, but these have not been broadly tested in clinical settings. Four strategies for reducing CRC in persons with familial risk are suggested: 1) improving the collection and utilization of the FH of cancer, 2) establishing a consensus for screening guidelines by FH, 3) enhancing provider-patient knowledge of guidelines and communication about CRC risk, and 4) encouraging survivors to promote screening within their families and partnering with existing screening programs to expand their reach to high-risk groups. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2633-2645. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27258162

  4. Mental retardation in a child with a {open_quotes}de novo{close_quotes} deletion of terminal 14q and a family history of dyslexia

    SciTech Connect

    Mak-Tam, E.; Capua, E.; Shugar, A.

    1994-09-01

    A couple presented for prenatal diagnosis for advanced maternal age. A review of the family history revealed that their elder daughter was mentally retarded while their second daughter was of normal intelligence. The father and his brother were both dyslexic. The paternal grandmother had lost three pregnancies, all female. The elder daughter had been fully assessed in the past, but no diagnosis had been made. During her first few years, she was frequently ill and failed to thrive. A developmental assessment at age 5 years concluded that she was moderately mentally retarded. She was minimally dysmorphic. DNA testing for fragile X and urine amnio acids, organic acids and metabolic screen were negative. Chromosome and FISH analyses revealed a satellited 14q with a deletion of 14q32.3. Parents did not show the karyotypic changes, but FISH studies on them and the dyslexic uncle are pending. A molecular work-up of chromosome 14 in this family is also in progress. In this child, the phenotype is probably related to the cytogenetic findings. The information about 14q terminal deletions in the literature is limited but a fairly consistent phenotype, which is slightly different from ring 14, is emerging. This is more obvious in infants that in older children. The family history of dyslexia could be unrelated to our patient`s findings but it is also possible that there is a recessive gene for dyslexia in this family which maps to 14q32.3. The current molecular map of this area provides no answer to this question. Genes mapped to 14q3.3 include the alpha-1-antitrypsin gene, the brain component of creative kinase (CKB) and the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Loss of heterozygosity of 14q has been associated with end stage human neuroblastoma and colonic neoplasia.

  5. Absence of family history and phenotype-genotype correlation in pediatric Brugada syndrome: more burden to bear in clinical and genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Daimi, Houria; Khelil, Amel Haj; Ben Hamda, Khaldoun; Aranega, Amelia; Chibani, Jemni B E; Franco, Diego

    2015-06-01

    Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an autosomal-dominant genetic cardiac disorder caused in 18-30 % of the cases by SCN5A gene mutations and manifested by an atypical right bundle block pattern with ST segment elevation and T wave inversion in the right precordial leads. The syndrome is usually detected after puberty. The identification of BrS in pediatric patients is thus a rare occurrence, and most of the reported cases are unmasked after febrile episodes. Usually, having a family history of sudden death represents the first reason to perform an ECG in febrile children. However, this practice makes the sporadic cases of cardiac disease and specially the asymptomatic ones excluded from this diagnosis. Here, we report a sporadic case of a 2-month-old male patient presented with vaccination-related fever and ventricular tachycardia associated with short breathing, palpitation and cold sweating. ECG changes were consistent with type 1 BrS. SCN5A gene analysis of the proband and his family revealed a set of mutations and polymorphisms differentially distributed among family members, however, without any clear genotype-phenotype correlation. Based on our findings, we think that genetic testing should be pursued as a routine practice in symptomatic and asymptomatic pediatric cases of BrS, with or without family history of sudden cardiac death. Similarly, our study suggests that pediatrician should be encouraged to perform an ECG profiling in suspicious febrile children and quickly manage fever since it is the most important factor unmasking BrS in children. PMID:25758664

  6. Early traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history, and birth risk factors in patients with borderline personality disorder and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Bandelow, Borwin; Krause, Joana; Wedekind, Dirk; Broocks, Andreas; Hajak, Göran; Rüther, Eckart

    2005-04-15

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) were compared with a healthy control group with regard to traumatic life events during childhood. The patients (n=66) and controls (n=109) were investigated using a comprehensive retrospective interview with 203 questions about childhood traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history of psychiatric disorders and birth risk factors. The frequency of reports of traumatic childhood experiences was significantly higher in patients than in controls, including sexual abuse, violence, separation from parents, childhood illness, and other factors. On a 0- to 10-point "severe trauma scale," patients had significantly more severe traumatic events (mean score=3.86, SD=1.77) than control subjects (0.61, SD=0.93). Only four (6.1%) of the BPD patients, but 67 (61.5%) of the controls did not report any severe traumatic events at all. Compared with controls, patients described the attitude of their parents as significantly more unfavorable in all aspects. Patients reported significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders in their families in general, especially anxiety disorders, depression, and suicidality. Among birth risk factors, premature birth was reported more often in BPD subjects. In a logistic regression model of all possible etiological factors examined, the following factors showed a significant influence: familial neurotic spectrum disorders, childhood sexual abuse, separation from parents and unfavorable parental rearing styles. The present data support the hypothesis that the etiology of BPD is multifactorial and that familial psychiatric disorders and sexual abuse are contributing factors. PMID:15840418

  7. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    PubMed

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder. PMID:17172772

  8. E-Activities: Internet-based Activities To Expand Your History Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbauer, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Presents three Internet-based activities for teaching elementary students about the Underground Railroad. The activities include creating a freight-train of facts about the Underground Railroad, mapping the routes of the Underground Railroad, and participating in an electronic simulation of life as a fugitive slave. (SM)

  9. Marital Transitions, Parenting, and Schooling: Exploring the Link Between Family-Structure History and Adolescents' Academic Status

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Schiller, Kathryn S.; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The linkage between family structure and adolescents’ academic experiences is part of a larger, dynamic process unfolding over time. To investigate this phenomenon, this study drew on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study. Logistic regressions revealed that family structure at birth predicted students’ academic status in math in the ninth grade, and multinomial regressions revealed that family instability, along with curricular location in the ninth grade, parenting behaviors, and adolescents’ adjustment and aspirations, distinguished those who completed higher-level math by the end of high school from those who did not but still graduated from high school and from those who dropped out of high school. PMID:20352021

  10. 77 FR 64388 - Agency Information Collection (Former POW Medical History), VA Form 10-0048 Activities Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Former POW Medical History), VA Form 10-0048 Activities Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Former POW Medical History, VA Form 10-0048. OMB Control Number:...

  11. Vulnerable families as active agents of their own change process: a bidirectional perspective.

    PubMed

    Goh, Esther C L

    2015-04-01

    The literature on successful practice with vulnerable families reports social workers' efforts in forging therapeutic bonds with clients, their ability to both recognize clients' strengths and pain and support them as they work through adversity. Vulnerable families' own contribu- tions to their change process, however, have remained largely opaque. This article offers concrete conceptual tools to consider both social workers and clients from vulnerable families as active agents in the change process. Empirical evidence collected by practitioner-researchers through in-depth discussions with 10 vulnerable families illustrates clients' agentic capacities for autonomy, construction, and action as well as joint construction and maintenance of the helping relationships with social workers, thereby illustrating their active contribution to the process of change. PMID:25929012

  12. Reliability and Validity of Self Report of Aerobic Activity: Family Health Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranowski, Tom; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Two studies are presented which deal with reliability and validity of self-reports of aerobic activity. The goal of these studies was to develop and test a form that could be used in a behavior modification program designed to increase aerobic activity among healthy families. (Author/DF)

  13. Latino Adolescents' Participation in Extracurricular Activities: How Important Are Family Resources and Cultural Orientation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; O'Donnell, Megan; Delgado, Melissa Y.; Becnel, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Latino adolescents often are less likely to participate in extracurricular activities compared to youth from other ethnic groups. This descriptive study examined the differences in activity participation by family resources and markers of cultural orientation for the four largest Latino ethnic groups in the U.S. Findings were based on secondary…

  14. A Family History of Psychopathology Modifies the Decrement in Cognitive Control among Patients with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Lance O.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of HIV/AIDS on cognitive control and to determine if the effect is modified by familial risk for either alcohol or mood disorders. Sixty HIV-1 seropositive and 75 seronegative volunteers were assigned to four subgroups defined by the crossing of a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in the…

  15. The Roles of Family History of Dyslexia, Language, Speech Production and Phonological Processing in Predicting Literacy Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Julia M.; Mundy, Ian R.; Cunningham, Anna J.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that speech, language and phonological skills are closely associated with literacy, and that children with a family risk of dyslexia (FRD) tend to show deficits in each of these areas in the preschool years. This paper examines what the relationships are between FRD and these skills, and whether deficits in speech, language…

  16. Breast cancer-specific intrusions are associated with increased cortisol responses to daily life stressors in healthy women without personal or family histories of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, Lucia; James, Gary D; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B; Montgomery, Guy H; Bovbjerg, Dana H

    2006-10-01

    Studies indicate that women fear breast cancer more than any other disease and that women's levels of breast cancer-specific intrusions are related to their perceived risk of breast cancer. Here, we explore possible biological consequences of higher breast cancer risk perceptions and intrusions in healthy women without personal or family histories of the disease. We hypothesized that women with higher perceived risk would have more intrusions about breast cancer, which would constitute a background stressor sufficient to increase hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) responsivity to daily stress. HPA responses to an ordinary life stressor (work) were assessed in 141 employed women (age = 37.2+/-9.2) without personal or family histories of breast cancer. Urinary cortisol excretion rates were assessed with timed sample collections at work, home, and during sleep. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant Group by Time interaction with higher work cortisol levels in women with breast cancer-specific intrusions compared to women without intrusions (p < 0.02). Regression analyses revealed a significant association between risk perceptions and intrusions (p < 0.001). Regression analysis with intrusions and risk perceptions predicting work cortisol indicated a significant contribution of intrusions (p < 0.04), but not risk perceptions (p = 0.53). Overestimation of breast cancer risk is associated with higher levels of breast cancer-specific intrusions that can result in increased cortisol responsivity to daily stressors. This heightened responsivity could have long-term negative health implications. PMID:16944305

  17. Genotype-phenotype correlations in a prospective cohort study of paediatric plaque psoriasis: lack of correlation between HLA-C*06 and family history of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Oostveen, Annet M; Bergboer, Judith G M; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; Zeeuwen, Patrick L J M; de Jong, Elke M G J; Schalkwijk, Joost; Seyger, Marieke M B

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to investigate associations between observed clinical parameters and known genetic risk factors of psoriasis in a well-defined prospective cohort of paediatric patients with plaque psoriasis (n = 151). Significant associations were found for paediatric-onset psoriasis with ERAP1 (p = 0.002), IL23R (p = 0.01), LCE3C_LCE3B-del (p = 0.00049) and HLA-C*06 (p = 3.15 × 10(-30)). Psoriasis severity was associated with the single nucleotide polymorphisms tagging IFIH1 and ERAP1 (p < 0.05). An onset before 10 years of age was associated with IL12B (p = 0.02). Nail psoriasis was more often seen in HLA-C*06-negative patients (p = 0.008). Remarkably, family history is clearly not associated with HLA-C*06 in this specific group. The large proportion of patients with a positive family history in HLA-C*06 negative patients (and the lack of correlation between the two) indicates that other genes, either alone or interaction between two or more genes, may have significant effects on heritability. PMID:24791935

  18. Initial clinical validation of Health Heritage, a patient-facing tool for personal and family history collection and cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, Leigh A; Postula, Kristen J Vogel; Knaus, William A

    2016-04-01

    Personal and family health histories remain important independent risk factors for cancer; however they are currently not being well collected or used effectively. Health Heritage was designed to address this need. The purpose of this study was to validate the ability of Health Heritage to identify patients appropriate for further genetic evaluation and to accurately stratify cancer risk. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 100 random patients seen at an adult genetics clinic presenting with concern for an inherited predisposition to cancer. Relevant personal and family history obtained from the patients' medical records was entered into Health Heritage. Recommendations by Health Heritage were compared to national guidelines of eligibility for genetic evaluation. Agreement between Health Heritage referral for genetic evaluation and guideline eligibility for genetic evaluation was 97 % (sensitivity 98 % and specificity 88 %). Risk stratification for cancer was also compared between Health Heritage and those documented by a geneticist. For patients at increased risk for breast, ovarian, or colorectal cancer as determined by the geneticist, risk stratification by Health Heritage agreed 90, 93, and 75 %, respectively. Discordances in risk stratification were attributed to both complex situations better handled by the geneticist and Health Heritage's adherence to incorporating all information into its algorithms. Health Heritage is a clinically valid tool to identify patients appropriate for further genetic evaluation and to encourage them to confirm the assessment and management recommendations with cancer genetic experts. Health Heritage also provides an estimate of cancer risk that is complementary to a genetics team. PMID:26711915

  19. Mental wellbeing of children engaged in agricultural work activities and quality of family environment.

    PubMed

    Lachowski, Stanisław; Lachowska, Bogusława

    2007-01-01

    A considerable percentage of Polish children from agricultural families are engaged by their parents in performing work activities on farms. The performance of these tasks arouses various emotional reactions in children, from the feeling of threat, fear and anxiety, to the feeling of satisfaction, being contented and proud. The subjective feeling of happiness and life satisfaction is an extremely important factor affecting the mental health and functioning of a human being. The objective of the study was to show to what extent the quality of communication between children and parents, and the level of family cohesion and adaptability according to the Circumplex Model by D. H. Olson et al., modifies children's emotional reactions associated with the tasks performed. The study covered 192 children aged 12-13, whose parents were running a family farm. Growing up in a healthy family characterised by a balanced level of cohesion, adaptability and good communication with the father and mother, favours the occurrence in children of pleasant emotions in reaction to work which they undertake on behalf of their parents on a farm. In such families, more often than in families with bad communication and dysfunctional families (disengaged, rigid), children experience satisfaction, have a feeling of deepening bonds with their parents, and the feeling of being more adult and preparing themselves well for adult life. Family characteristics which are evidence of disorders in its functioning (lack of good communication with the father, mother, lack of bonds between family members, rigid, chaos in a family) co-occur with the child experiencing unpleasant emotional states in associated with the work performed, there occur feelings of dissatisfaction, unhappiness, unpleasantness, the feeling that it would be better to learn than to work. PMID:17655188

  20. Cytotoxic activity of plants of family zygophyllaceae and euphorbiaceae.

    PubMed

    Dastagir, Ghulam; Hussain, Farrukh

    2014-07-01

    The methanolic and n-hexane extracts of studied plants showed significant toxicity to brine shrimps. The methanolic extract of Fagonia cretica had highest LD50 (117.72) value, while Peganum harmala showed low LD50 value (41.70) compared to n-hexane extract. The methanolic and n-hexane extracts of Tribulus terrestris showed similar LD50 values. The methanolic extract of Chrozophora tinctoria showed low LD50 value than the n-hexane extract. The methanolic extract of Ricinus communis showed highest LD50 value while the n-hexane extract showed lowest LD50 value. The LD50 value less than 100 was obtained for n-hexane extracts of Fagonia cretica, Peganum harmala and Ricinus communis. The n-hexane extracts of these plants also showed the highest toxicity as compare to methanolic extracts. The chemical constituents detected in the present investigation might be responsible for cytotoxic activity. PMID:25015443

  1. Attaining high-resolution eruptive histories for active arc volcanoes with argon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, A. T.

    2012-04-01

    Geochronology of active arc volcanoes commonly illuminates eruptive behavior over tens to hundreds of thousands of years, lengthy periods of repose punctuated by short eruptive episodes, and spatial and compositional changes with time. Despite the >1 Gyr half-life of 40K, argon geochronology is an exceptional tool for characterizing Pleistocene to Holocene eruptive histories and for placing constraints on models of eruptive behavior. Reliable 40Ar/39Ar ages of calc-alkaline arc rocks with rigorously derived errors small enough (± 500 to 3,000 years) to constrain eruptive histories are attainable using careful procedures. Sample selection and analytical work in concert with geologic mapping and stratigraphic studies are essential for determining reliable eruptive histories. Preparation, irradiation and spectrometric techniques have all been optimized to produce reliable, high-precision results. Examples of Cascade and Alaska/Aleutian eruptive histories illustrating duration of activity from single centers, eruptive episodicity, and spatial and compositional changes with time will be presented: (1) Mt. Shasta, the largest Cascade stratovolcano, has a 700,000-year history (Calvert and Christiansen, 2011 Fall AGU). A similar sized and composition volcano (Rainbow Mountain) on the Cascade axis was active 1200-950 ka. The eruptive center then jumped west 15 km to the south flank of the present Mt. Shasta and produced a stratovolcano from 700-450 ka likely rivaling today's Mt. Shasta. The NW portion of that edifice failed in an enormous (>30 km3) debris avalanche. Vents near today's active summit erupted 300-135 ka, then 60-15 ka. A voluminous, but short-lived eruptive sequence occurred at 11 ka, including a summit explosion producing a subplinian plume, followed by >60 km3 andesite-dacite Shastina domes and flows, then by the flank dacite Black Butte dome. Holocene domes and flows subsequently rebuilt the summit and flowed to the north and east. (2) Mt. Veniaminof on

  2. Catastrophic disruption in the solar system - Asteroid collisional history, origin of Hirayama families and disruption of small satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The process of collisional catastrophic disruption has played a significantly role in structuring the solar system. Diverse populations of bodies such as the asteroid belt, small satellites of Jupiter and Saturn and perhaps even the rings of Saturn have been created or substantially changed by catastrophic distruption. Understanding the outcome of large scale impacts is essential to learning about the early history of the solar system in the asteroid zone and the reason why a planet failed to form there.

  3. Family Literacy Activities and Parental-Child Interactive Reading with Preschoolers from Asian Immigrant Families in the North Texas Area of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwannakhae, Yaowaluk

    2012-01-01

    There were two purposes of this descriptive research design. The first purpose of the study was to investigate family literacy activities with preschool-aged children and parental expectations of their children's development and future school success as reported by Asian immigrant families. The second purpose was to observe the interactive…

  4. Pathways curriculum and family interventions to promote healthful eating and physical activity in American Indian schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sally M.; Clay, Theresa; Smyth, Mary; Gittelsohn, Joel; Arviso, Vivian; Flint-Wagner, Hilary; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Brice, Richard A.; Metcalfe, Lauve; Stewart, Dawn; Vu, Maihan; Stone, Elaine J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathways, a multisite school-based study aimed at promoting healthful eating and increasing physical activity, was a randomized field trial including 1704 American Indian third to fifth grade students from 41 schools (21 intervention, 20 controls) in seven American Indian communities. Methods The intervention schools received four integrated components: a classroom curriculum, food service, physical activity, and family modules. The curriculum and family components were based on Social Learning Theory, American Indian concepts, and results from formative research. Process evaluation data were collected from teachers (n = 235), students (n = 585), and families. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Questionnaire data were collected from 1150 students including both intervention and controls. Results There were significant increases in knowledge and cultural identity in children in intervention compared to control schools with a significant retention of knowledge over the 3 years, based on the results of repeating the third and fourth grade test items in the fifth grade. Family members participated in Family Events and take-home activities, with fewer participating each year. Conclusion A culturally appropriate school intervention can promote positive changes in knowledge, cultural identity, and self-reported healthful eating and physical activity in American Indian children and environmental change in school food service. PMID:14636806

  5. Exploring Medieval European Society with Chess: An Engaging Activity for the World History Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnotti, John; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    In a typical high school World History course, the teacher must teach thousands of years of human history in one year, thus making it the most comprehensive history course offered in school. Given the extended content requirements in a World History course, individual topics are given little time before the class must "move on" to the next topic.…

  6. Characterization of Resistance Gene Analogues (RGAs) in Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and Their Evolutionary History of the Rosaceae Family

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Angela; Righetti, Laura; Bailey, Aubrey; Fontana, Paolo; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80%) of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15), and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However, strikingly similar RGAs were shared in Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus, indicating high conservation of specific RGAs and suggesting a monophyletic origin of these three genera. PMID:24505246

  7. Genetic test reporting enhances understanding of risk information and acceptance of prevention recommendations compared to family history-based counseling alone.

    PubMed

    Taber, Jennifer M; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Stump, Tammy K; Kohlmann, Wendy; Champine, Marjan; Leachman, Sancy A

    2015-10-01

    It is unknown whether or why genetic test reporting confers benefits in the understanding and management of cancer risk beyond what patients learn from counseling based on family history. A prospective nonexperimental control group study compared participants from melanoma-prone families who underwent CDKN2A/p16 (p16) genetic testing (27 carriers, 38 noncarriers) to participants from equivalently melanoma-prone families known not to carry a deleterious p16 mutation (31 no-test controls). All participants received equivalent counseling concerning elevated lifetime melanoma risk and corresponding recommendations for prevention and screening. Both immediately and 1 month after counseling, participants receiving a genetic test result reported greater understanding of their risk, decreased derogation of the risk information, and greater personal applicability of prevention recommendations than no-test controls. Decreased derogation of risk information after test reporting predicted further increases in understanding of melanoma risk and applicability of prevention recommendations 1 month later. Results suggest unique benefits of genetic test reporting in promoting understanding and acceptance of information about hereditary cancer risk and its management. PMID:26178773

  8. Fas activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway requires ICE/CED-3 family proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Juo, P; Kuo, C J; Reynolds, S E; Konz, R F; Raingeaud, J; Davis, R J; Biemann, H P; Blenis, J

    1997-01-01

    The Fas receptor mediates a signalling cascade resulting in programmed cell death (apoptosis) within hours of receptor cross-linking. In this study Fas activated the stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases, p38 and JNK, within 2 h in Jurkat T lymphocytes but not the mitogen-responsive kinase ERK1 or pp70S6k. Fas activation of p38 correlated temporally with the onset of apoptosis, and transfection of constitutively active MKK3 (glu), an upstream regulator of p38, potentiated Fas-induced cell death, suggesting a potential involvement of the MKK3/p38 activation pathway in Fas-mediated apoptosis. Fas has been shown to require ICE (interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme) family proteases to induce apoptosis from studies utilizing the cowpox ICE inhibitor protein CrmA, the synthetic tetrapeptide ICE inhibitor YVAD-CMK, and the tripeptide pan-ICE inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. In this study, crmA antagonized, and YVAD-CMK and Z-VAD-FMK completely inhibited, Fas activation of p38 kinase activity, demonstrating that Fas-dependent activation of p38 requires ICE/CED-3 family members and conversely that the MKK3/p38 activation cascade represents a downstream target for the ICE/CED-3 family proteases. Intriguingly, p38 activation by sorbitol and etoposide was resistant to YVAD-CMK and Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting the existence of an additional mechanism(s) of p38 regulation. The ICE/CED-3 family-p38 regulatory relationship described in the current work indicates that in addition to the previously described destructive cleavage of substrates such as poly(ADP ribose) polymerase, lamins, and topoisomerase, the apoptotic cysteine proteases also function to regulate stress kinase signalling cascades. PMID:8972182

  9. Real-Time CME Forecasting Using HMI Active-Region Magnetograms and Flare History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ron; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    We have recently developed a method of predicting an active region s probability of producing a CME, an X-class Flare, an M-class Flare, or a Solar Energetic Particle Event from a free-energy proxy measured from SOHO/MDI line-of-sight magnetograms. This year we have added three major improvements to our forecast tool: 1) Transition from MDI magnetogram to SDO/HMI magnetogram allowing us near-real-time forecasts, 2) Automation of acquisition and measurement of HMI magnetograms giving us near-real-time forecasts (no older than 2 hours), and 3) Determination of how to improve forecast by using the active region s previous flare history in combination with its free-energy proxy. HMI was turned on in May 2010 and MDI was turned off in April 2011. Using the overlap period, we have calibrated HMI to yield what MDI would measure. This is important since the value of the free-energy proxy used for our forecast is resolution dependent, and the forecasts are made from results of a 1996-2004 database of MDI observations. With near-real-time magnetograms from HMI, near-real-time forecasts are now possible. We have augmented the code so that it continually acquires and measures new magnetograms as they become available online, and updates the whole-sun forecast from the coming day. The next planned improvement is to use an active region s previous flare history, in conjunction with its free-energy proxy, to forecast the active region s event rate. It has long been known that active regions that have produced flares in the past are likely to produce flares in the future, and that active regions that are nonpotential (have large free-energy) are more likely to produce flares in the future. This year we have determined that persistence of flaring is not just a reflection of an active region s free energy. In other words, after controlling for free energy, we have found that active regions that have flared recently are more likely to flare in the future.

  10. The Community of Family Circles (CFC) algorithm: a new inversion approach to obtaining self-consitent 4D thermal histories from large, spatially distributed thermochronological data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beucher, R.; Brown, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most significant advances in interpreting thermochronological data is arguably our ability to extract information about the rate and trajectory of cooling over a range of temperatures, rather than having to rely on the veracity of the simplification of assuming a single closure temperature specified by a rate of monotonic cooling. Modern thermochronometry data, such as apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He analysis, are particularly good examples of data amenable to this treatment as acceptably well calibrated kinetic models now exist for both systems. With ever larger data sets of this type being generated over ever larger areas the prospect of inverting very large amounts of such data distributed spatially over large areas offers new possibilities for constraining the thermal and erosional histories over length scales approximating whole orogens and sub-continents. The challenge though is in how to properly deal with joint inversion of multiple samples in a self-consistent manner while also utilising all the available information contained in the data. We describe a new approach to this problem, called the Community of Family Circles (CFC) algorithm, which extracts information from spatially distributed apatite fission track ages (AFT) and track length distributions (TLD). The method is based on the rationale that the 3D geothermal field of the crust varies smoothly through space and time because of the efficiency of thermal diffusion. Our approach consists of seeking groups of spatially adjacent samples, or families, within a given circular radius for which a common thermal history is appropriate. The temperature offsets between individual time-temperature paths are determined relative to a low-pass filtered topographic surface, whose shape is assumed to mimic the shape of the isotherms in the partial annealing zone. This enables a single common thermal history to be shared, or interpolated, between the family members while still honouring the

  11. FAMILIAL SUICIDE

    PubMed Central

    Unni, K.E. Sadanaandan

    1996-01-01

    Seven completed suicides in a family of lower socioeconomic status and suburban domicile in Pondicherry are reported. The presence of bipolar affective disorder in the family members and the absence of exogenous factors are illustrated by utilising both family history method and family study method. The details collected formed the basis for the terminology ‘familial suicide’. The management of the index case, one of the only three surviving male members of the family, who presented with suicidal ruminations and depressive features, is described. PMID:21584122

  12. Family history and body mass index predict perceived risks of diabetes and heart attack among community-dwelling Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans—DiLH Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Choi, JiWon; Bender, Melinda S.; Gonzalez, Prisila; Arai, Shoshana

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of the study was to explore the perceived risk for diabetes and heart attack and associated health status of Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans without diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 904 urban adults (mean age 44.3 ± 16.1 years; 64.3% female) in English, Spanish or Korean between August and December 2013. Results Perceived risk for developing diabetes was indicated by 46.5% (n = 421), and 14.3% (n = 129) perceived themselves to be at risk for having a heart attack in their lifetime. Significant predictors of pessimistic diabetes risk perceptions: Filipino (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.04–2.86) and Korean (AOR = 2.4; 1.33–4.48) ethnicity, family history of diabetes (AOR = 1.4; 1.00–1.84), female gender (AOR = 1.4; 1.04–1.96), high cholesterol (AOR= 1.6; 1.09–2.37) and higher body mass index (BMI) (AOR = 1.1; 1.08–1.15). Predictors of pessimistic heart attack risk perceptions were family history of an early heart attack (AOR = 2.9; 1.69–5.02), high blood pressure (AOR = 2.4; 1.45–3.84), and higher BMI (AOR = 1.1; 1.04–1.12) after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Older age, physical inactivity, smoking, and low HDL levels were not associated with risk perceptions. Conclusion Multiple risk factors were predictive of greater perceived diabetes risk, whereas, only family history of heart attack, high blood pressure and increases in BMI significantly contributed to perceived risk of heart attack among ethnically diverse at risk middle-aged adults. It is important that healthcare providers address the discordance between an individual’s risk perceptions and the presence of actual risk factors. PMID:25931282

  13. Physical activity, opportunity for reinfection, and sibling history of heart disease as risk factors for Chagas' cardiopathy.

    PubMed

    Zicker, F; Smith, P G; Netto, J C; Oliveira, R M; Zicker, E M

    1990-11-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine whether physical activity, sibling history of heart disease (HHD), and length of residence in an area endemic for Chagas' disease were associated with the risk of developing Chagas' cardiopathy. Two hundred forty-seven cases of Chagas' heart disease and 345 seropositive subjects with normal ECG (controls) were selected in a population survey in Goiânia, Brazil. Prevalence ratios for exposure variables were estimated for cases in relation to controls and for subgroups of seropositives with selected ECG abnormalities in relation to controls. Increasing age and male sex were consistently and significantly related to an increased risk of ECG abnormalities. HHD was significantly associated with ECG alterations in 3 of the 5 comparison subgroups (any ECG alteration, right bundle branch block, and left anterior hemiblock). No association was found between length of residence in an area endemic, physical activity, and ECG abnormalities. A sample of 529 seronegative subjects were also examined and the interaction between exposure variables and seropositivity was tested to assess whether the associations found were specific for seropositives. Males were at greater risk of any ECG alteration and left anterior hemiblock in relation to females if they were seropositive. An increasing risk of ventricular premature beats with age was clearer for seropositive than for seronegative subjects. Subjects with HHD were at an increased risk of ECG abnormalities and this was greater in those with a positive serological test (P less than 0.05). The findings suggest a possible geographical clustering or a familial aggregation of cases of Chagas' heart disease. PMID:2240374

  14. Activation by SLAM Family Receptors Contributes to NK Cell Mediated “Missing-Self” Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Alari-Pahissa, Elisenda; Grandclément, Camille; Jeevan-Raj, Beena; Leclercq, Georges; Veillette, André; Held, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells attack normal hematopoietic cells that do not express inhibitory MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules, but the ligands that activate NK cells remain incompletely defined. Here we show that the expression of the Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule (SLAM) family members CD48 and Ly9 (CD229) by MHC-I-deficient tumor cells significantly contributes to NK cell activation. When NK cells develop in the presence of T cells or B cells that lack inhibitory MHC-I but express activating CD48 and Ly9 ligands, the NK cells’ ability to respond to MHC-I-deficient tumor cells is severely compromised. In this situation, NK cells express normal levels of the corresponding activation receptors 2B4 (CD244) and Ly9 but these receptors are non-functional. This provides a partial explanation for the tolerance of NK cells to MHC-I-deficient cells in vivo. Activating signaling via 2B4 is restored when MHC-I-deficient T cells are removed, indicating that interactions with MHC-I-deficient T cells dominantly, but not permanently, impair the function of the 2B4 NK cell activation receptor. These data identify an important role of SLAM family receptors for NK cell mediated “missing-self” reactivity and suggest that NK cell tolerance in MHC-I mosaic mice is in part explained by an acquired dysfunction of SLAM family receptors. PMID:27054584

  15. A method to assess the clinical significance of unclassified variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes based on cancer family history

    PubMed Central

    Gómez García, Encarna B; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Timmermans, Maarten; van Asperen, Christi J; Hogervorst, Frans BL; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Oldenburg, Rogier; Verhoef, Senno; Dommering, Charlotte J; Ausems, Margreet GEM; van Os, Theo AM; van der Hout, Annemarie H; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; van den Ouweland, Ans; van der Luijt, Rob B; Wijnen, Juul T; Gille, Jan JP; Lindsey, Patrick J; Devilee, Peter; Blok, Marinus J; Vreeswijk, Maaike PG

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Unclassified variants (UVs) in the BRCA1/BRCA2 genes are a frequent problem in counseling breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer families. Information about cancer family history is usually available, but has rarely been used to evaluate UVs. The aim of the present study was to identify which is the best combination of clinical parameters that can predict whether a UV is deleterious, to be used for the classification of UVs. Methods We developed logistic regression models with the best combination of clinical features that distinguished a positive control of BRCA pathogenic variants (115 families) from a negative control population of BRCA variants initially classified as UVs and later considered neutral (38 families). Results The models included a combination of BRCAPRO scores, Myriad scores, number of ovarian cancers in the family, the age at diagnosis, and the number of persons with ovarian tumors and/or breast tumors. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were respectively 0.935 and 0.836 for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 models. For each model, the minimum receiver operating characteristic distance (respectively 90% and 78% specificity for BRCA1 and BRCA2) was chosen as the cutoff value to predict which UVs are deleterious from a study population of 12 UVs, present in 59 Dutch families. The p.S1655F, p.R1699W, and p.R1699Q variants in BRCA1 and the p.Y2660D, p.R2784Q, and p.R3052W variants in BRCA2 are classified as deleterious according to our models. The predictions of the p.L246V variant in BRCA1 and of the p.Y42C, p.E462G, p.R2888C, and p.R3052Q variants in BRCA2 are in agreement with published information of them being neutral. The p.R2784W variant in BRCA2 remains uncertain. Conclusions The present study shows that these developed models are useful to classify UVs in clinical genetic practice. PMID:19200354

  16. Defining Active and Reasonable Efforts: Reasonable Efforts to Prevent Placement and Preserve Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunner, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes development of guidelines to expand understanding of and compliance with both the reasonable efforts requirement of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act 1980 (P.L. 96-272) and active efforts requirement of the Indian Child Welfare Act 1978 (P.L. 95-608) to help keep Indian families together. (Author/BB)

  17. Nutrition and Physical Activity Practices in Childcare Centers versus Family Childcare Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Ruby; Page, Monica; Sanders, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Obesity rates among preschool-aged children have doubled in the past 10 years, and 60% of these children spend the majority of their day in childcare facilities. Few studies have examined the quality of nutrition and physical activity practices in childcare centers as compared to family childcare homes. The purpose of this study is to determine if…

  18. The Role of Family Experiences for Adolescents' Readiness to Use and Participate in Illegal Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatz, Terese; Dahl, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This study used reactance theory as a starting point to explain what role a perceived undemocratic and controlling family has for adolescents' readiness to use illegal political activity. Additionally, we examined whether adolescents' readiness to use illegal political means was related to actual political behaviour, which has been lacking in…

  19. A Guide to Establishing and Directing a Family Oriented Structured Preschool Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maethner, Judith A.

    This is the teacher's manual of the Family Oriented Structured Preschool Activity, a Title III Elementary and Secondary Education Act Developer/Demonstration Project in Saint Cloud, Minnesota. The program attempts to mold the expertise of the parent with the expertise of the professional educator in order to enhance the child's development. It is…

  20. 24 CFR 1000.104 - What families are eligible for affordable housing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What families are eligible for affordable housing activities? 1000.104 Section 1000.104 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND...