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Sample records for activity food intake

  1. Changes in Food Intake and Activity after Quitting Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated changes in food intake and activity levels among 95 subjects who quit smoking. Found significant increases in calories, sucrose, and fats 2 weeks after quitting. Total sugars changes were less consistent. Activity levels did not change significantly. At week 26, caloric intake for abstinent women was approximately equal to baseline…

  2. Food intake monitoring: an acoustical approach to automated food intake activity detection and classification of consumed food.

    PubMed

    Päßler, Sebastian; Wolff, Matthias; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim

    2012-06-01

    Obesity and nutrition-related diseases are currently growing challenges for medicine. A precise and timesaving method for food intake monitoring is needed. For this purpose, an approach based on the classification of sounds produced during food intake is presented. Sounds are recorded non-invasively by miniature microphones in the outer ear canal. A database of 51 participants eating seven types of food and consuming one drink has been developed for algorithm development and model training. The database is labeled manually using a protocol with introductions for annotation. The annotation procedure is evaluated using Cohen's kappa coefficient. The food intake activity is detected by the comparison of the signal energy of in-ear sounds to environmental sounds recorded by a reference microphone. Hidden Markov models are used for the recognition of single chew or swallowing events. Intake cycles are modeled as event sequences in finite-state grammars. Classification of consumed food is realized by a finite-state grammar decoder based on the Viterbi algorithm. We achieved a detection accuracy of 83% and a food classification accuracy of 79% on a test set of 10% of all records. Our approach faces the need of monitoring the time and occurrence of eating. With differentiation of consumed food, a first step toward the goal of meal weight estimation is taken.

  3. Smart phones are useful for food intake and physical activity surveys.

    PubMed

    Wohlers, Erica M; Sirard, John R; Barden, Charles M; Moon, Jon K

    2009-01-01

    Current self-report methods of recording food intake and Physical Activity (PA) are cumbersome and inaccurate. Food and activity surveys implemented on a smart phone will allow for immediate entry, data transfer to a researcher, and feedback to the user. Ten subjects followed a script, representative of one day, to enter food intake and PA on a smart phone. In the follow-up report, all subjects were interested in using the tested program to compare food intake with PA to predict weight gain and loss.

  4. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  5. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  6. A Novel Wearable Device for Food Intake and Physical Activity Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Muhammad; Sazonov, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Presence of speech and motion artifacts has been shown to impact the performance of wearable sensor systems used for automatic detection of food intake. This work presents a novel wearable device which can detect food intake even when the user is physically active and/or talking. The device consists of a piezoelectric strain sensor placed on the temporalis muscle, an accelerometer, and a data acquisition module connected to the temple of eyeglasses. Data from 10 participants was collected while they performed activities including quiet sitting, talking, eating while sitting, eating while walking, and walking. Piezoelectric strain sensor and accelerometer signals were divided into non-overlapping epochs of 3 s; four features were computed for each signal. To differentiate between eating and not eating, as well as between sedentary postures and physical activity, two multiclass classification approaches are presented. The first approach used a single classifier with sensor fusion and the second approach used two-stage classification. The best results were achieved when two separate linear support vector machine (SVM) classifiers were trained for food intake and activity detection, and their results were combined using a decision tree (two-stage classification) to determine the final class. This approach resulted in an average F1-score of 99.85% and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.99 for multiclass classification. With its ability to differentiate between food intake and activity level, this device may potentially be used for tracking both energy intake and energy expenditure. PMID:27409622

  7. Alpha-interferon suppresses food intake and neuronal activity of the lateral hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Vázquez, C; Prieto-Gómez, B; Dafny, N

    1994-12-01

    Alpha-interferon (alpha-IFN) treatment in humans induces anorexic effects. However, the mechanisms and sites of action are unknown. Rats implanted with an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannula for local injection, and semi-microelectrodes in the lateral hypothalamic (LH) area for neuronal recording were used. The animals were kept in metabolic cages, and food and water intake was measured daily at 7:00 and 19:00 hr for 35 days, including: 5 days before the experiment; 10 days during daily alpha-IFN application (either i.p. 1500 I.U./gbw, or i.c.v. 1500 and 150 I.U./animal) and/or a vehicle control group; and 20 days post drug treatment. The unitary activity recording from the LH area was made before (30 min), during (10 min) and after (200 min) the alpha-IFN applications. alpha-IFN elicited a reversible dose-related decrease of both food intake and body weight. This decrease in food intake following alpha-IFN injections was correlated with a depression of LH neuronal electrical activity. Since direct brain application (i.c.v.) and systemic (i.p.) alpha-IFN treatment elicited identical responses, it is possible to assume that alpha-IFN suppresses food intake by a direct action on CNS sites including the LH neurons.

  8. Paradoxical sleep deprivation activates hypothalamic nuclei that regulate food intake and stress response.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Milene de Oliveira Lara; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Kawakami, Suzi Emiko; Tufik, Sergio; Suchecki, Deborah

    2009-09-01

    A large body of evidence has shown that prolonged paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) results in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and in loss of body weight despite an apparent increase of food intake, reflecting increased energy expenditure. The flowerpot technique for PSD is an efficient paradigm for investigating the relationships among metabolic regulation and stress response. The purpose of the present study was to examine the mechanisms involved in the effects of 96 h of PSD on metabolism regulation, feeding behaviour and stress response by studying corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and orexin (ORX) immunoreactivity in specific hypothalamic nuclei. Once-daily assessments of body weight, twice-daily measurements of (spillage-corrected) food intake, and once-daily determinations of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone were made throughout PSD or at corresponding times in control rats (CTL). Immunoreactivity for CRH in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and for ORX in the hypothalamic lateral area was evaluated at the end of the experimental period. PSD resulted in increased diurnal, but not nocturnal, food intake, producing no significant changes in global food intake. PSD augmented the immunoreactivity for CRH and plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels, characterizing activation of the HPA axis. PSD also markedly increased the ORX immunoreactivity. The average plasma level of corticosterone correlated negatively with body weight gain throughout PSD. These results indicate that augmented ORX and CRH immunoreactivity in specific hypothalamic nuclei may underlie some of the metabolic changes consistently described in PSD.

  9. Ghrelin increases food intake, swimming activity and growth in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Ana B; Näslund, Joacim; Delgado, María J; de Pedro, Nuria; Johnsson, Jörgen I; Jönsson, Elisabeth

    2014-01-30

    Several key functions of ghrelin are well conserved through vertebrate phylogeny. However, some of ghrelin's effects are contradictory and among teleosts only a limited number of species have been used in functional studies on food intake and foraging-related behaviors. Here we investigated the long-term effects of ghrelin on food intake, growth, swimming activity and aggressive contest behavior in one year old wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) using intraperitoneal implants. Food intake and swimming activity were individually recorded starting from day 1, and aggressive behavior was tested at day 11, after ghrelin implantation. Body weight and growth rate were measured from the beginning to the end of the experiment. Triglycerides and lipase activity in muscle and liver; monoaminergic activity in the telencephalon and brainstem; and neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were analyzed. Ghrelin treatment was found to increase food intake and growth without modifying lipid deposition or lipid metabolism in liver and muscle. Ghrelin treatment led to an increased foraging activity and a trend towards a higher swimming activity. Moreover, ghrelin-treated fish showed a tendency to initiate more conflicts, but this motivation was not reflected in a higher ability to win the conflicts. No changes were observed in monoaminergic activity and NPY mRNA levels in the brain. Ghrelin is therefore suggested to act as an orexigenic hormone regulating behavior in juvenile wild brown trout. These actions are accompanied with an increased growth without the alteration of liver and muscle lipid metabolism and they do not seem to be mediated by changes in brain monoaminergic activity or hypothalamic expression of NPY.

  10. The appetite suppressant d-fenfluramine reduces water intake, but not food intake, in activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Hillebrand, J J G; Heinsbroek, A C M; Kas, M J H; Adan, R A H

    2006-02-01

    Biochemical, genetic and imaging studies support the involvement of the serotonin (5-HT) system in anorexia nervosa. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is considered an animal model of anorexia nervosa, and combines scheduled feeding with voluntary running wheel activity (RWA). We investigated the effect of d-fenfluramine (d-FEN) treatment on development and propagation of ABA. d-FEN is an appetite suppressant and acts on 5-HT(2C) receptors that are located on pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Since stimulation activation of the melanocortin system stimulates ABA, we hypothesized that d-FEN treatment enhances the development and propagation of ABA. Rats were exposed to the ABA model and chronically infused with d-FEN. Unexpectedly, d-FEN-treated ABA rats did not reduce food intake or increase wheel running as compared with vehicle-treated ABA rats. Furthermore d-FEN treatment did not affect body weight loss, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, or starvation-induced hypothermia in ABA rats. POMC mRNA levels in d-FEN-treated rats were not different from vehicle-treated rats after one week of exposure to the ABA paradigm. However, d-FEN-treated ABA rats showed hypodypsia and increased plasma osmolality and arginine-vasopressin expression levels in the hypothalamus. We conclude that d-FEN treatment does not enhance ABA under the experimental conditions of this study, but strongly reduces water intake in ABA rats.

  11. Food intake response to exercise and active video gaming in adolescents: effect of weight status.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J P; Tremblay, A; Pereira, B; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Thivel, D

    2016-02-14

    Although a few data are available regarding the impact of video games on energy intake (EI) in lean adolescents, there is no evidence on the effect of passive and active video gaming on food intake in both lean and obese youth. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic active video games and exercise differently affect food consumption in youth. In all, twelve lean and twelve obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-h sessions in a cross-over design study: control (CON; sitting), passive video game (PVG; boxing game on Xbox 360), active video game (AVG; boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and exercise (EX; cycling). The exercise and active video game activities were designed to generate the same energy expenditure (EE). EE was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake and appetite sensations were assessed following the sessions. AVG and EX-EE were significantly higher in obese participants and significantly higher compared with PVG and CON in both groups. Obese participants significantly ate more than lean ones in all four conditions (P<0·001). EI did not differ between conditions in obese participants (CON: 4935 (SD 1490) kJ; PVG: 4902 (SD 1307) kJ; AVG: 4728 (SD 1358) kJ; EX: 4643 (SD 1335) kJ), and was significantly lower in lean participants after EX (2847 (SD 577) kJ) compared with PVG (3580 (SD 863) kJ) and AVG (3485 (SD 643) kJ) (P<0·05). Macronutrient intake was not significantly different between the groups or conditions. Hunger was significantly higher and satiety was lower in obese participants but no condition effect was observed. Overall, moderate-intensity exercise provides better effect on energy balance than an isoenergetic hour of active video gaming in lean adolescent boys by dually affecting EE and EI.

  12. mGluR1/5 activation in the lateral hypothalamus increases food intake via the endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fuentes, Asai; Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; Becerril-Meléndez, Alline L; Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Prospéro-Garcia, Oscar

    2016-09-19

    Mounting evidence has shown that glutamatergic and endocannabinoid systems in the hypothalamus regulate mammalian food intake. Stimulation of hypothalamic mGluR1/5 and CB1 receptors induces hyperphagia suggesting a possible interaction between these systems to control food intake. In addition, synthesis of endocannabinoids has been reported after mGluR1/5 stimulation in the brain. The aim of this study was to examine the potential cannabinergic activity in the food intake induction by lateral hypothalamic stimulation of mGluR1/5. Wistar albino male rats received bilateral infusions in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) of: (i) vehicle; (ii) (RS)-2-Chloro-5-hidroxyphenylglycine (CHPG; mGluR1/5 agonist); (iii) 2-AG (CB1 endogenous agonist); (iv) AM251 (CB1 antagonist); (v) tetrahydrolipstatin (THL, 1.2μg; diacyl-glycerol lipase inhibitor); and (vi) combinations of CHPG + with the other aforementioned drugs. Food intake was evaluated the first two hours after drug administration. CHPG significantly increased food intake; whereas CHPG in combination with a dose of 2-AG (with no effects on food intake) greatly increased food ingestion compared to CHPG alone. The increase induced by CHPG in food intake was prevented with AM251 or THL. These results suggest that activation of mGluR1/5 in the lateral hypothalamus induces an orexigenic effect via activation of the endocannabinoid system.

  13. Measurement of Ad Libitum Food Intake, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Time in Response to Overfeeding

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianying; Votruba, Susanne; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Bonfiglio, Susan; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Given the wide availability of highly palatable foods, overeating is common. Energy intake and metabolic responses to overfeeding may provide insights into weight gain prevention. We hypothesized a down-regulation in subsequent food intake and sedentary time, and up-regulation in non-exercise activity and core temperature in response to overfeeding in order to maintain body weight constant. In a monitored inpatient clinical research unit using a cross over study design, we investigated ad libitum energy intake (EI, using automated vending machines), core body temperature, and physical activity (using accelerometry) following a short term (3-day) weight maintaining (WM) vs overfeeding (OF) diet in healthy volunteers (n = 21, BMI, mean ± SD, 33.2±8.6 kg/m2, 73.6% male). During the ad libitum periods following the WM vs. OF diets, there was no significant difference in mean 3-d EI (4061±1084 vs. 3926±1284 kcal/day, p = 0.41), and there were also no differences either in core body temperature (37.0±0.2°C vs. 37.1±0.2°C, p = 0.75) or sedentary time (70.9±12.9 vs. 72.0±7.4%, p = 0.88). However, during OF (but not WM), sedentary time was positively associated with weight gain (r = 0.49, p = 0.05, adjusted for age, sex, and initial weight). In conclusion, short term overfeeding did not result in a decrease in subsequent ad libitum food intake or overall change in sedentary time although in secondary analysis sedentary time was associated with weight gain during OF. Beyond possible changes in sedentary time, there is minimal attempt to restore energy balance during or following short term overfeeding. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342732 PMID:22629311

  14. Risperidone alters food intake, core body temperature, and locomotor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Cope, Mark B; Li, Xingsheng; Jumbo-Lucioni, Patricia; DiCostanzo, Catherine A; Jamison, Wendi G; Kesterson, Robert A; Allison, David B; Nagy, Tim R

    2009-03-02

    Risperidone induces significant weight gain in female mice; however, the underlying mechanisms related to this effect are unknown. We investigated the effects of risperidone on locomotor activity, core body temperature, and uncoupling protein (UCP) and hypothalamic orexin mRNA expression. Female C57BL/6J mice were acclimated to individual housing and randomly assigned to either risperidone (4 mg/kg BW day) or placebo (PLA). Activity and body temperature were measured over 48-hour periods twice a week for 3 weeks. Food intake and body weights were measured weekly. UCP1 (BAT), UCP3 (gastrocnemius), and orexin (hypothalamus) mRNA expressions were measured using RT-PCR. Risperidone-treated mice consumed more food (p=0.050) and gained more weight (p=0.0001) than PLA-treated mice after 3 weeks. During the initial 2 days of treatment, there was an acute effect of treatment on activity (p=0.046), but not body temperature (p=0.290). During 3 weeks of treatment, average core body temperatures were higher in risperidone-treated mice compared to controls during the light phase (p=0.0001), and tended to be higher during the dark phase (p=0.057). Risperidone-treated mice exhibited lower activity levels than controls during the dark phase (p=0.006); there were no differences in activity during the light phase (p=0.47). UCP1 (p<0.01) and UCP3 (p<0.05) mRNA expressions were greater in risperidone-treated mice compared to controls, whereas, orexin mRNA expression was lower in risperidone-treated mice (p<0.01). These results suggest that risperidone-induced weight gain in mice is a consequence of increased energy intake and reduced activity, while the elevation in body temperature may be a result of thermogenic effect of food intake and elevated UCP1, UCP3, and a reduced hypothalamic orexin expression.

  15. Effects of photoperiod on food intake, activity and metabolic rate in adult neutered male cats.

    PubMed

    Kappen, K L; Garner, L M; Kerr, K R; Swanson, K S

    2014-10-01

    With the continued rise in feline obesity, novel weight management strategies are needed. To date, strategies aimed at altering physical activity, an important factor in weight maintenance, have been lacking. Photoperiod is known to cause physiological changes in seasonal mammals, including changes in body weight (BW) and reproductive status. Thus, our objective was to determine the effect of increased photoperiod (longer days) on voluntary physical activity levels, resting metabolic rate (RMR), food intake required to maintain BW, and fasting serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations in adult cats. Eleven healthy, adult, neutered, male domestic shorthair cats were used in a randomized crossover design study. During two 12-week periods, cats were exposed to either a short-day (SD) photoperiod of 8 h light: 16 h dark or a long-day (LD) photoperiod of 16 h light: 8 h dark. Cats were fed a commercial diet to maintain baseline BW. In addition to daily food intake and twice-weekly BW, RMR (via indirect calorimetry), body composition [via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)] and physical activity (via Actical activity monitors) were measured at week 0 and 12 of each period. Fasting serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations were measured at week 0, 6 and 12 of each period. Average hourly physical activity was greater (p = 0.008) in LD vs. SD cats (3770 vs. 3129 activity counts/h), which was primarily due to increased (p < 0.001) dark period activity (1188 vs. 710 activity counts/h). This corresponded to higher (p < 0.0001) daily metabolizable energy intake (mean over 12-week period: 196 vs. 187 kcal/day), and increased (p = 0.048) RMR in LD cats (9.02 vs. 8.37 kcal/h). Body composition, serum leptin and serum ghrelin were not altered by photoperiod. More research is needed to determine potential mechanisms by which these physiological changes occurred and how they may apply to weight management strategies.

  16. Quipazine reduces food intake in the rat by activation of 5-HT2-receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hewson, G.; Leighton, G. E.; Hill, R. G.; Hughes, J.

    1988-01-01

    1. To determine which subtype(s) of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor are involved in the anorectic action of quipazine, the ability of selective antagonists at 5-HT2- and 5-HT3-receptors, and an antagonist at 5-HT1-like receptors, to block this response were investigated in non-deprived rats, trained to eat a palatable diet. 2. Quipazine (0.5-8 mg kg-1, i.p.) produced a dose-related reduction in the intake of palatable diet. 3. The anorectic effect of 4 mg kg-1 quipazine was antagonized by the nonselective 5-HT-receptor antagonist methysergide (5 mg kg-1, i.p.) and by the selective 5-HT2-receptor antagonists ketanserin (1 mg kg-1 and 2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) and ritanserin (0.5 mg kg-1 and 1 mg kg-1, i.p.). The selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist GR38032F (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) and (-)-pindolol (4 mg kg-1, i.p.), which blocks some of the effects mediated at 5-HT1-like receptors, did not block the reduction in food intake produced by this dose of quipazine. 4. None of the 5-HT-receptor antagonists had any effect on food intake when they were administered alone, suggesting that endogenous 5-HT is not involved in the tonic control of food intake under the conditions of these experiments. 5. It is concluded that the anorectic action of quipazine is mediated, at least in part, by activation of 5-HT2-receptors. PMID:2906561

  17. Relation of Dietary Restraint Scores to Activation of Reward-Related Brain Regions in Response to Food Intake, Anticipated Intake, and Food Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Kyle S.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies indicate that individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores are at increased risk for future bulimic symptom onset, suggesting that these individuals may show hyper-responsivity of reward regions to food and food cues. Thus, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the relation of dietary restraint scores to activation of reward-related brain regions in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and exposure to pictures of appetizing foods in 39 female adolescents (mean age = 15.5 ± 0.94). Dietary restraint scores were positively correlated with activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in response to milkshake receipt. However, dietary restraint scores did not correlate with activation in response to anticipated milkshake receipt or exposure to food pictures. Results indicate that individuals who report high dietary restraint have a hyper-responsivity in reward-related brain regions when food intake is occurring, which may increase risk for overeating and binge eating. PMID:21147234

  18. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-05-14

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself.

  19. Changes in sleep, food intake, and activity levels during acute painful episodes in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Eufemia; Miaskowski, Christine; Savedra, Marilyn; Beyer, Judith E; Treadwell, Marsha; Styles, Lori

    2006-02-01

    As part of a larger study that examined pain experience, pain management, and pain outcomes among children with sickle cell disease, functional status (sleep, food intake, and activity levels) was examined during hospitalization for acute painful episodes. Children were asked to rate the amount of pain they experienced as well as the amount of time they slept, the amount of food they ate, and the amount of activity they had everyday. Children reported high levels of pain, which showed only a small decrease throughout hospitalization, and had disrupted sleep and wake patterns, decreased food intake, and decreased activity levels. Nurses need to routinely monitor functional status during acute painful episodes so that strategies to promote adequate sleep, food intake, and activity may be incorporated to minimize long-term negative outcomes in children with sickle cell disease.

  20. Acute injection of ASP in the third ventricle inhibits food intake and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, Christian; Roy, Marie-Claude; Gauvreau, Danny; Poulin, Anne-Marie; Tom, Fun-Qun; Timofeeva, Elena; Richard, Denis; Cianflone, Katherine

    2011-07-01

    Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP; also known as C3adesArg) stimulates triglyceride synthesis and glucose transport via interaction with its receptor C5L2, which is expressed peripherally (adipose tissue, muscle) and centrally. Previous studies have shown that ASP-deficient mice (C3KO) and C5L2-deficient mice (C5L2KO) are hyperphagic (59 to 229% increase, P < 0.0001), which is counterbalanced by increased energy expenditure measured as oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) and a lower RQ. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ASP's effect on food intake, energy expenditure, and neuropeptide expression. Male rats were surgically implanted with intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulas directed toward the third ventricle. After a 5-h fast, rats were injected, and food intake was assessed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 16, 24, and 48 h, with a 5- to 7-day washout period between each injection. Acute icv injections of ASP (0.3-1,065 pmol) had a time-dependent effect on decreasing food intake by 20 to 57% (P < 0.05). Decreases were detected by 30 min (maximum 57%, P < 0.01) and at the highest dose effects extended to 48 h (19%, P < 0.05, 24- to 48-h period). Daily body weight gain was decreased by 131% over the first 24 h and 29% over the second 24 h (P < 0.05). A conditioned taste aversion test indicated that there was no malaise. Furthermore, acute ASP injection affected energy substrate usage, demonstrated by decreased Vo(2) and RQ (P < 0.05; implicating greater fatty acid usage), with a 49% decrease in total activity over 24 h (P < 0.05). ASP administration also increased anorexic neuropeptide POMC expression (44%) in the arcuate nucleus, with no change in NPY. Altogether ASP may have central in addition to peripheral effects.

  1. Scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake: effects of glucose intake, antimuscarinic activity and anticonvulsant drugs.

    PubMed

    Enginar, Nurhan; Nurten, Asiye; Celik, Pinar Yamantürk; Açikmeşe, Bariş

    2005-09-01

    The present study was performed to further evaluate the contribution of antimuscarinic activity and hypoglycaemia to the development of scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake. The effects of anticonvulsant drugs on convulsions were also evaluated. Antimuscarinic drugs atropine (3 mg/kg) and biperiden (10 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p) to animals fasted for 48 h. Like scopolamine, both drugs induced convulsions after animals were allowed to eat ad libitum. Another group of animals was given glucose (5%) in drinking water during fasting. These animals, although they had normoglycaemic blood levels after fasting, also developed convulsions after treated with scopolamine i.p. (3 mg/kg), atropine (3 mg/kg) or biperiden (10 mg/kg) and allowed to eat ad libitum. Among the drugs studied, only valproate (340 mg/kg), gabapentin (50 mg/kg) and diazepam (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) markedly reduced the incidence of scopolamine-induced convulsions. The present results indicate that antimuscarinic activity, but not hypoglycaemia, underlies these convulsions which do not respond to most of the conventional anticonvulsant drugs.

  2. Removal of olfactory bulbs in chickens: consequent changes in food intake and thyroid activity.

    PubMed

    Robinzon, B; Snapir, N; Perek, M

    1977-01-01

    Surgical removal of the olfactory bulbs (O.B) in the chicken caused a marked increase in food intake, which was not accompanied by development of obestiy. Oxygen consumption of the O.B. removed birds was significantly higher than that of the controls. Alcianophylic-thyrotropic cell population of the adenohypophysis and the percentage of active follicles in the thyroid gland were higher for the O.B. removed birds than for those of the controls. Feed supplementation of 0.1% propylthiouracil to the O.B removed birds abolished the previously exhibited hyperphagia and caused a significant decline in oxygen consumption. The possibility that the O.B removal caused a primary increase in thyrotropic axis activity follwoed by a secondary compensatory hyperphagia, is discussed.

  3. 2-deoxy-D-glucose suppresses food intake through activation of hypothalamic histamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakata, T; Tamari, Y; Kang, M; Yoshimatsu, H

    1994-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to demonstrate whether brain histamine contributes to delayed suppression of food intake after administration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG). Food intake decreased significantly for 48 h after infusion of 2-DG into the rat third cerebroventricle. This delayed decrease in food intake was abolished by depletion of neuronal histamine by intraperitoneal pretreatment with alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (160 mumol/rat), a suicide inhibitor of a histamine-synthesizing enzyme. Intracerebroventricular infusion of 24 mumol 2-DG accelerated turnover rate of hypothalamic histamine. These results indicate that the delayed feeding suppression by 2-DG is modulated through histaminergic neurons in the hypothalamus. This histaminergic response may be related, at least in part, to homeostatic control of energy metabolism in the brain.

  4. Anti-ghrelin Spiegelmer inhibits exogenous ghrelin-induced increases in food intake, hoarding, and neural activation, but not food deprivation-induced increases

    PubMed Central

    Teubner, Brett J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Circulating concentrations of the stomach-derived “hunger-peptide” ghrelin increase in direct proportion to the time since the last meal. Exogenous ghrelin also increases food intake in rodents and humans, suggesting ghrelin may increase post-fast ingestive behaviors. Food intake after food deprivation is increased by laboratory rats and mice, but not by humans (despite dogma to the contrary) or by Siberian hamsters; instead, humans and Siberian hamsters increase food hoarding, suggesting the latter as a model of fasting-induced changes in human ingestive behavior. Exogenous ghrelin markedly increases food hoarding by ad libitum-fed Siberian hamsters similarly to that after food deprivation, indicating sufficiency. Here, we tested the necessity of ghrelin to increase food foraging, food hoarding, and food intake, and neural activation [c-Fos immunoreactivity (c-Fos-ir)] using anti-ghrelin Spiegelmer NOX-B11–2 (SPM), an l-oligonucleotide that specifically binds active ghrelin, inhibiting peptide-receptor interaction. SPM blocked exogenous ghrelin-induced increases in food hoarding the first 2 days after injection, and foraging and food intake at 1–2 h and 2–4 h, respectively, and inhibited hypothalamic c-Fos-ir. SPM given every 24 h across 48-h food deprivation inconsistently inhibited food hoarding after refeeding and c-Fos-ir, similarly to inabilities to do so in laboratory rats and mice. These results suggest that ghrelin may not be necessary for food deprivation-induced foraging and hoarding and neural activation. A possible compensatory response, however, may underlie these findings because SPM treatment led to marked increases in circulating ghrelin concentrations. Collectively, these results show that SPM can block exogenous ghrelin-induced ingestive behaviors, but the necessity of ghrelin for food deprivation-induced ingestive behaviors remains unclear. PMID:23804279

  5. Anti-ghrelin Spiegelmer inhibits exogenous ghrelin-induced increases in food intake, hoarding, and neural activation, but not food deprivation-induced increases.

    PubMed

    Teubner, Brett J W; Bartness, Timothy J

    2013-08-15

    Circulating concentrations of the stomach-derived "hunger-peptide" ghrelin increase in direct proportion to the time since the last meal. Exogenous ghrelin also increases food intake in rodents and humans, suggesting ghrelin may increase post-fast ingestive behaviors. Food intake after food deprivation is increased by laboratory rats and mice, but not by humans (despite dogma to the contrary) or by Siberian hamsters; instead, humans and Siberian hamsters increase food hoarding, suggesting the latter as a model of fasting-induced changes in human ingestive behavior. Exogenous ghrelin markedly increases food hoarding by ad libitum-fed Siberian hamsters similarly to that after food deprivation, indicating sufficiency. Here, we tested the necessity of ghrelin to increase food foraging, food hoarding, and food intake, and neural activation [c-Fos immunoreactivity (c-Fos-ir)] using anti-ghrelin Spiegelmer NOX-B11-2 (SPM), an l-oligonucleotide that specifically binds active ghrelin, inhibiting peptide-receptor interaction. SPM blocked exogenous ghrelin-induced increases in food hoarding the first 2 days after injection, and foraging and food intake at 1-2 h and 2-4 h, respectively, and inhibited hypothalamic c-Fos-ir. SPM given every 24 h across 48-h food deprivation inconsistently inhibited food hoarding after refeeding and c-Fos-ir, similarly to inabilities to do so in laboratory rats and mice. These results suggest that ghrelin may not be necessary for food deprivation-induced foraging and hoarding and neural activation. A possible compensatory response, however, may underlie these findings because SPM treatment led to marked increases in circulating ghrelin concentrations. Collectively, these results show that SPM can block exogenous ghrelin-induced ingestive behaviors, but the necessity of ghrelin for food deprivation-induced ingestive behaviors remains unclear.

  6. Developmental programming of energy balance regulation: is physical activity more 'programmable' than food intake?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shaoyu; Eclarinal, Jesse; Baker, Maria S; Li, Ge; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Extensive human and animal model data show that environmental influences during critical periods of prenatal and early postnatal development can cause persistent alterations in energy balance regulation. Although a potentially important factor in the worldwide obesity epidemic, the fundamental mechanisms underlying such developmental programming of energy balance are poorly understood, limiting our ability to intervene. Most studies of developmental programming of energy balance have focused on persistent alterations in the regulation of energy intake; energy expenditure has been relatively underemphasised. In particular, very few studies have evaluated developmental programming of physical activity. The aim of this review is to summarise recent evidence that early environment may have a profound impact on establishment of individual propensity for physical activity. Recently, we characterised two different mouse models of developmental programming of obesity; one models fetal growth restriction followed by catch-up growth, and the other models early postnatal overnutrition. In both studies, we observed alterations in body-weight regulation that persisted to adulthood, but no group differences in food intake. Rather, in both cases, programming of energy balance appeared to be due to persistent alterations in energy expenditure and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). These effects were stronger in female offspring. We are currently exploring the hypothesis that developmental programming of SPA occurs via induced sex-specific alterations in epigenetic regulation in the hypothalamus and other regions of the central nervous system. We will summarise the current progress towards testing this hypothesis. Early environmental influences on establishment of physical activity are likely an important factor in developmental programming of energy balance. Understanding the fundamental underlying mechanisms in appropriate animal models will help determine whether early life

  7. Food cravings, endogenous opioid peptides, and food intake: a review.

    PubMed

    Mercer, M E; Holder, M D

    1997-12-01

    Extensive research indicates a strong relationship between endogenous opioid peptides (EOPs) and food intake. In the present paper, we propose that food cravings act as an intervening variable in this opioid-ingestion link. Specifically, we argue that altered EOP activity may elicit food cravings which in turn may influence food consumption. Correlational support for this opioidergic theory of food cravings is provided by examining various clinical conditions (e.g. pregnancy, menstruation, bulimia, stress, depression) which are associated with altered EOP levels, intensified food cravings, and increased food intake.

  8. Third ventricular coinjection of subthreshold doses of NPY and AgRP stimulate food hoarding and intake and neural activation.

    PubMed

    Teubner, Brett J W; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that 3rd ventricular (3V) neuropeptide Y (NPY) or agouti-related protein (AgRP) injection potently stimulates food foraging/hoarding/intake in Siberian hamsters. Because NPY and AgRP are highly colocalized in arcuate nucleus neurons in this and other species, we tested whether subthreshold doses of NPY and AgRP coinjected into the 3V stimulates food foraging, hoarding, and intake, and/or neural activation [c-Fos immunoreactivity (c-Fos-ir)] in hamsters housed in a foraging/hoarding apparatus. In the behavioral experiment, each hamster received four 3V treatments by using subthreshold doses of NPY and AgRP for all behaviors: 1) NPY, 2) AgRP, 3) NPY+AgRP, and 4) saline with a 7-day washout period between treatments. Food foraging, intake, and hoarding were measured 1, 2, 4, and 24 h and 2 and 3 days postinjection. Only when NPY and AgRP were coinjected was food intake and hoarding increased. After identical treatment in separate animals, c-Fos-ir was assessed at 90 min and 14 h postinjection, times when food intake (0-1 h) and hoarding (4-24 h) were uniquely stimulated. c-Fos-ir was increased in several hypothalamic nuclei previously shown to be involved in ingestive behaviors and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), but only in NPY+AgRP-treated animals (90 min and 14 h: magno- and parvocellular regions of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and perifornical area; 14 h only: CeA and sub-zona incerta). These results suggest that NPY and AgRP interact to stimulate food hoarding and intake at distinct times, perhaps released as a cocktail naturally with food deprivation to stimulate these behaviors.

  9. Physical activity, food intake, and body weight regulation: insights from doubly labeled water studies.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2010-03-01

    Body weight and energy balance can be maintained by adapting energy intake to changes in energy expenditure and vice versa, whereas short-term changes in energy expenditure are mainly caused by physical activity. This review investigates whether physical activity is affected by over- and undereating, whether intake is affected by an increase or a decrease in physical activity, and whether being overweight affects physical activity. The available evidence is based largely on studies that quantified physical activity with doubly labeled water. Overeating does not affect physical activity, while undereating decreases habitual or voluntary physical activity. Thus, it is easier to gain weight than to lose weight. An exercise-induced increase in energy requirement is typically compensated by increased energy intake, while a change to a more sedentary routine does not induce an equivalent reduction of intake and generally results in weight gain. Overweight and obese subjects tend to have similar activity energy expenditures to lean people despite being more sedentary. There are two ways in which the general population trend towards increasing body weight can be reversed: reduce intake or increase physical activity. The results of the present literature review indicate that eating less is the most effective method for preventing weight gain, despite the potential for a negative effect on physical activity when a negative energy balance is reached.

  10. Novel pyrazole derivatives as neutral CB₁ antagonists with significant activity towards food intake.

    PubMed

    Manca, Ilaria; Mastinu, Andrea; Olimpieri, Francesca; Falzoi, Matteo; Sani, Monica; Ruiu, Stefania; Loriga, Giovanni; Volonterio, Alessandro; Tambaro, Simone; Bottazzi, Mirko Emilio Heiner; Zanda, Matteo; Pinna, Gérard Aimè; Lazzari, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    In spite of rimonabant's withdrawal from the European market due to its adverse effects, interest in the development of drugs based on CB1 antagonists is revamping on the basis of the peculiar properties of this class of compounds. In particular, new strategies have been proposed for the treatment of obesity and/or related risk factors through CB1 antagonists, i.e. by the development of selectively peripherally acting agents or by the identification of neutral CB1 antagonists. New compounds based on the lead CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant have been synthesized with focus on obtaining neutral CB1 antagonists. Amongst the new derivatives described in this paper, the mixture of the two enantiomers (±)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-(2-cyclohexyl-1-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole ((±)-5), and compound 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-[(Z)-2-cyclohexyl-1-fluorovinyl]-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole ((Z)-6), showed interesting pharmacological profiles. According to the preliminary pharmacological evaluation, these novel pyrazole derivatives showed in fact both neutral CB1 antagonism behaviour and significant in vivo activity towards food intake.

  11. [TV, overweight and nutritional surveillance. Ads content, food intake and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, T D; Bioletti, L; Bo, C; Formigatti, M

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between television viewing and obesity in children and adults was examined in a large number of cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Some randomised, controlled trials confirmed the evidence that television viewing is a cause of increased body fatness. It seems of utility in nutritional surveillance to esteem time spent by children and adults in television watching and to evaluate ads contents and food preferences suggested by them. This editorial shows a two-years long analysis of food commercials broadcasted by the main Italian TV networks; food ads targeted on children, housewives and sport fans were evaluated; the relationship between television viewing, commercials and food intake or global lifestyle was investigated in a Piedmont's population (from Northern Italy). School projects aimed to reduce television viewing represent a promising strategy for preventing childhood obesity.

  12. Intracerebroventricular administration of C-type natriuretic peptide suppresses food intake via activation of the melanocortin system in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamada-Goto, Nobuko; Katsuura, Goro; Ebihara, Ken; Inuzuka, Megumi; Ochi, Yukari; Yamashita, Yui; Kusakabe, Toru; Yasoda, Akihiro; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Hosoda, Kiminori; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2013-05-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its receptor are abundantly distributed in the brain, especially in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus associated with regulating energy homeostasis. To elucidate the possible involvement of CNP in energy regulation, we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of CNP on food intake in mice. The intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-22 and CNP-53 significantly suppressed food intake on 4-h refeeding after 48-h fasting. Next, intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-22 and CNP-53 significantly decreased nocturnal food intake. The increment of food intake induced by neuropeptide Y and ghrelin was markedly suppressed by intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-22 and CNP-53. When SHU9119, an antagonist for melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptors, was coadministered with CNP-53, the suppressive effect of CNP-53 on refeeding after 48-h fasting was significantly attenuated by SHU9119. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-53 markedly increased the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the ARC, paraventricular nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and lateral hypothalamus. In particular, c-Fos-positive cells in the ARC after intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-53 were coexpressed with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone immunoreactivity. These results indicated that intracerebroventricular administration of CNP induces an anorexigenic action, in part, via activation of the melanocortin system.

  13. Activation of Pyramidal Neurons in Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Food-Seeking Behavior While Reducing Impulsivity in the Absence of an Effect on Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Warthen, Daniel M; Lambeth, Philip S; Ottolini, Matteo; Shi, Yingtang; Barker, Bryan Scot; Gaykema, Ronald P; Newmyer, Brandon A; Joy-Gaba, Jonathan; Ohmura, Yu; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Güler, Ali D; Patel, Manoj K; Scott, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in a wide range of executive cognitive functions, including reward evaluation, decision-making, memory extinction, mood, and task switching. Manipulation of the mPFC has been shown to alter food intake and food reward valuation, but whether exclusive stimulation of mPFC pyramidal neurons (PN), which form the principle output of the mPFC, is sufficient to mediate food rewarded instrumental behavior is unknown. We sought to determine the behavioral consequences of manipulating mPFC output by exciting PN in mouse mPFC during performance of a panel of behavioral assays, focusing on food reward. We found that increasing mPFC pyramidal cell output using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) enhanced performance in instrumental food reward assays that assess food seeking behavior, while sparing effects on affect and food intake. Specifically, activation of mPFC PN enhanced operant responding for food reward, reinstatement of palatable food seeking, and suppression of impulsive responding for food reward. Conversely, activation of mPFC PN had no effect on unconditioned food intake, social interaction, or behavior in an open field. Furthermore, we found that behavioral outcome is influenced by the degree of mPFC activation, with a low drive sufficient to enhance operant responding and a higher drive required to alter impulsivity. Additionally, we provide data demonstrating that DREADD stimulation involves a nitric oxide (NO) synthase dependent pathway, similar to endogenous muscarinic M3 receptor stimulation, a finding that provides novel mechanistic insight into an increasingly widespread method of remote neuronal control.

  14. Activation of Pyramidal Neurons in Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Food-Seeking Behavior While Reducing Impulsivity in the Absence of an Effect on Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Warthen, Daniel M.; Lambeth, Philip S.; Ottolini, Matteo; Shi, Yingtang; Barker, Bryan Scot; Gaykema, Ronald P.; Newmyer, Brandon A.; Joy-Gaba, Jonathan; Ohmura, Yu; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Güler, Ali D.; Patel, Manoj K.; Scott, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in a wide range of executive cognitive functions, including reward evaluation, decision-making, memory extinction, mood, and task switching. Manipulation of the mPFC has been shown to alter food intake and food reward valuation, but whether exclusive stimulation of mPFC pyramidal neurons (PN), which form the principle output of the mPFC, is sufficient to mediate food rewarded instrumental behavior is unknown. We sought to determine the behavioral consequences of manipulating mPFC output by exciting PN in mouse mPFC during performance of a panel of behavioral assays, focusing on food reward. We found that increasing mPFC pyramidal cell output using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) enhanced performance in instrumental food reward assays that assess food seeking behavior, while sparing effects on affect and food intake. Specifically, activation of mPFC PN enhanced operant responding for food reward, reinstatement of palatable food seeking, and suppression of impulsive responding for food reward. Conversely, activation of mPFC PN had no effect on unconditioned food intake, social interaction, or behavior in an open field. Furthermore, we found that behavioral outcome is influenced by the degree of mPFC activation, with a low drive sufficient to enhance operant responding and a higher drive required to alter impulsivity. Additionally, we provide data demonstrating that DREADD stimulation involves a nitric oxide (NO) synthase dependent pathway, similar to endogenous muscarinic M3 receptor stimulation, a finding that provides novel mechanistic insight into an increasingly widespread method of remote neuronal control. PMID:27065827

  15. Gastrointestinal regulation of food intake

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, David E.; Overduin, Joost

    2007-01-01

    Despite substantial fluctuations in daily food intake, animals maintain a remarkably stable body weight, because overall caloric ingestion and expenditure are exquisitely matched over long periods of time, through the process of energy homeostasis. The brain receives hormonal, neural, and metabolic signals pertaining to body-energy status and, in response to these inputs, coordinates adaptive alterations of energy intake and expenditure. To regulate food consumption, the brain must modulate appetite, and the core of appetite regulation lies in the gut-brain axis. This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding the neuroendocrine regulation of food intake by the gastrointestinal system, focusing on gastric distention, intestinal and pancreatic satiation peptides, and the orexigenic gastric hormone ghrelin. We highlight mechanisms governing nutrient sensing and peptide secretion by enteroendocrine cells, including novel taste-like pathways. The increasingly nuanced understanding of the mechanisms mediating gut-peptide regulation and action provides promising targets for new strategies to combat obesity and diabetes. PMID:17200702

  16. Increased resting energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and food intake in patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, Jussi; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2007-03-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with metabolic adverse events such as lipodystrophy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of HAART-associated lipodystrophy on resting energy expenditure and caloric intake. In this cross-sectional study we compared resting energy expenditure (REE) and energy intake in 30 HAART-treated patients with lipodystrophy (HAART+LD+) with 13 HAART-treated patients without lipodystrophy (HAART+LD-). REE was measured using indirect calorimetry, and energy intake was recorded as a 3-day diary of food intake. REE (5,180+/-160 vs. 4,260+/-150 J/min, P<0.01) and also REE expressed per fat-free mass (86+/-1 vs. 78+/-2 J.kg fat-free mass-1.min-1, P<0.01) were significantly higher in the HAART+LD+ than the HAART+LD- group. Rate of lipid oxidation was significantly higher in the HAART+LD+ than the HAART+LD- group. Total energy and fat intakes were significantly increased in the HAART+LD+ compared with the HAART+LD- group. These results imply that HAART-associated lipodystrophy is associated with increased REE and lipid oxidation and with increased caloric and fat intake.

  17. Activity of D1/2 Receptor Expressing Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Regulates Running, Locomotion, and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xianglong; Ottenheimer, David; DiLeone, Ralph J.

    2016-01-01

    While weight gain is clearly promoted by excessive energy intake and reduced expenditure, the underlying neural mechanisms of energy balance remain unclear. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is one brain region that has received attention for its role in the regulation of energy balance; its D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons have distinct functions in regulating reward behavior and require further examination. The goal of the present study is to investigate how activation and inhibition of D1 and D2 neurons in the NAc influences behaviors related to energy intake and expenditure. Specific manipulation of D1 vs. D2 neurons was done in both low expenditure and high expenditure (wheel running) conditions to assess behavioral effects in these different states. Direct control of neural activity was achieved using a designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) strategy. Activation of NAc D1 neurons increased food intake, wheel running and locomotor activity. In contrast, activation of D2 neurons in the NAc reduced running and locomotion while D2 neuron inhibition had opposite effects. These results highlight the importance of considering both intake and expenditure in the analysis of D1 and D2 neuronal manipulations. Moreover, the behavioral outcomes from NAc D1 neuronal manipulations depend upon the activity state of the animals (wheel running vs. non-running). The data support and complement the hypothesis of specific NAc dopamine pathways facilitating energy expenditure and suggest a potential strategy for human weight control. PMID:27147989

  18. Hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid activity profiles in experimental azotemia in the rat. Relationship to food intake and thyroid function.

    PubMed Central

    Kinlaw, W B; Schwartz, H L; Mariash, C N; Bingham, C; Carr, F E; Oppenheimer, J H

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) activity profile in chronically azotemic rats and sought to determine whether the observed changes could be mediated either by reduced food intake or diminished thyroid function at the tissue level. mRNA activity profiles were produced by two-dimensional gel electrophoretic separation of radioactively labeled products of an in vitro reticulocyte lysate system which had been programmed by hepatic RNA. Of the approximately 240 translational products identified in this system, seven sequences were consistently altered in azotemia. In pair-fed animals six of these also decreased, but the alterations in three were depressed to a significantly lesser extent in the pair-fed group. Moreover, analysis of covariance suggested that food intake could account for the differences in only one sequence. The possibility that the mRNA activity profile in azotemia could represent the effects of diminished thyroid function was minimized by the finding that the reductions in plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels observed were due largely to reduced plasma protein binding, with maintenance of the mean free T4 and free T3 concentrations within the normal range. The changes in only one mRNA sequence could be related to free T3 levels alone. Our findings, therefore, indicate that although diminished food intake and reduced thyroid function may contribute to some of the observed changes in the mRNA activity profiles, the bulk of alterations in azotemia appear to be mediated by other mechanisms. The striking overlap between the sequences affected by azotemia and pair-feeding raises the speculation that altered gene expression in azotemia may reflect an impaired hepatic response at the pretranslational level to metabolic signals associated with food intake. Images PMID:6511910

  19. Nicotinic α4 Receptor-Mediated Cholinergic Influences on Food Intake and Activity Patterns in Hypothalamic Circuits.

    PubMed

    García, Ana P; Aitta-aho, Teemu; Schaaf, Laura; Heeley, Nicholas; Heuschmid, Lena; Bai, Yunjing; Barrantes, Francisco J; Apergis-Schoute, John

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in regulating appetite and have been shown to do so by influencing neural activity in the hypothalamus. To shed light on the hypothalamic circuits governing acetylcholine's (ACh) regulation of appetite this study investigated the influence of hypothalamic nAChRs expressing the α4 subunit. We found that antagonizing the α4β2 nAChR locally in the lateral hypothalamus with di-hydro-ß-erythroidine (DHβE), an α4 nAChR antagonist with moderate affinity, caused an increase in food intake following free access to food after a 12 hour fast, compared to saline-infused animals. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that orexin/hypocretin (HO), oxytocin, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing neurons in the A13 and A12 of the hypothalamus expressed the nAChR α4 subunit in varying amounts (34%, 42%, 50%, and 51%, respectively) whereas melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons did not, suggesting that DHβE-mediated increases in food intake may be due to a direct activation of specific hypothalamic circuits. Systemic DHβE (2 mg/kg) administration similarly increased food intake following a 12 hour fast. In these animals a subpopulation of orexin/hypocretin neurons showed elevated activity compared to control animals and MCH neuronal activity was overall lower as measured by expression of the immediate early gene marker for neuronal activity cFos. However, oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus and TH-containing neurons in the A13 and A12 did not show differential activity patterns. These results indicate that various neurochemically distinct hypothalamic populations are under the influence of α4β2 nAChRs and that cholinergic inputs to the lateral hypothalamus can affect satiety signals through activation of local α4β2 nAChR-mediated transmission.

  20. Quantitative Genetics of Food Intake in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Garlapow, Megan E; Huang, Wen; Yarboro, Michael T; Peterson, Kara R; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-01-01

    Food intake is an essential animal activity, regulated by neural circuits that motivate food localization, evaluate nutritional content and acceptance or rejection responses through the gustatory system, and regulate neuroendocrine feedback loops that maintain energy homeostasis. Excess food consumption in people is associated with obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. However, little is known about the genetic basis of natural variation in food consumption. To gain insights in evolutionarily conserved genetic principles that regulate food intake, we took advantage of a model system, Drosophila melanogaster, in which food intake, environmental conditions and genetic background can be controlled precisely. We quantified variation in food intake among 182 inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP). We found significant genetic variation in the mean and within-line environmental variance of food consumption and observed sexual dimorphism and genetic variation in sexual dimorphism for both food intake traits (mean and variance). We performed genome wide association (GWA) analyses for mean food intake and environmental variance of food intake (using the coefficient of environmental variation, CVE, as the metric for environmental variance) and identified molecular polymorphisms associated with both traits. Validation experiments using RNAi-knockdown confirmed 24 of 31 (77%) candidate genes affecting food intake and/or variance of food intake, and a test cross between selected DGRP lines confirmed a SNP affecting mean food intake identified in the GWA analysis. The majority of the validated candidate genes were novel with respect to feeding behavior, and many had mammalian orthologs implicated in metabolic diseases.

  1. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n = 58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating. PMID:21276218

  2. GHRP-6 mimics ghrelin-induced stimulation of food intake and suppression of locomotor activity in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Yahashi, Satowa; Kang, Ki Sung; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Kouhei

    2012-04-01

    Ghrelin was first identified and characterized from rat stomach as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin also acts as an orexigenic factor and regulates energy balance in rodents. In goldfish, native ghrelin consists of 11 molecular variants, the major form being a 17-residue peptide with n-octanoic acid modification (n-octanoyl ghrelin17), and intraperitoneal (IP) administration of n-octanoyl ghrelin17 induces central actions such as stimulation of food intake and suppression of locomotor activity through capsaicin-sensitive afferents. Four types of GHS-Rs (1a-1, 1a-2, 2a-1 and 2a-2) have been identified in goldfish, and one GHS, GHRP-6, can activate only GHS-R2a-1 in vitro. However, there is no information about the effect of GHRP-6 on food intake and locomotor activity in goldfish in vivo. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether IP-administered GHRP-6 would mimic the orexigenic action of n-octanoyl ghrelin17 and its suppression of locomotor activity. IP administration of GHRP-6 at 1pmol/g body weight (BW) stimulated food intake, and was equipotent to the orexigenic action of n-octanoyl ghrelin17 at 10 pmol/g BW. IP-injected GHRP-6 at 1 pmol/g BW also induced a significant decrease of locomotor activity, as was the case for IP-injected n-octanoyl ghrelin17 at 10 pmol/g BW. The action of GHRP-6 was blocked by IP-preinjected capsaicin at 160 nmol/g BW. These results suggest that the central action of GHRP-6 might be mediated via the GHS-R2a-1-signaling pathway, and subsequently through capsaicin-sensitive afferents in goldfish.

  3. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated with the intake of snack food in ad libitum fed rats.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Non-homeostatic hyperphagia, which is a major contributor to obesity-related hyperalimentation, is associated with the diet's molecular composition influencing, for example, the energy content. Thus, specific food items such as snack food may induce food intake independent from the state of satiety. To elucidate mechanisms how snack food may induce non-homeostatic food intake, it was tested if manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) was suitable for mapping the whole brain activity related to standard and snack food intake under normal behavioral situation. Application of the MnCl2 solution by osmotic pumps ensured that food intake was not significantly affected by the treatment. After z-score normalization and a non-affine three-dimensional registration to a rat brain atlas, significantly different grey values of 80 predefined brain structures were recorded in ad libitum fed rats after the intake of potato chips compared to standard chow at the group level. Ten of these areas had previously been connected to food intake, in particular to hyperphagia (e.g., dorsomedial hypothalamus or the anterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus) or to the satiety system (e.g., arcuate hypothalamic nucleus or solitary tract); 27 areas were related to reward/addiction including the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, the ventral pallidum and the ventral striatum (caudate and putamen). Eleven areas associated to sleep displayed significantly reduced Mn2+ -accumulation and six areas related to locomotor activity showed significantly increased Mn2+ -accumulation after the intake of potato chips. The latter changes were associated with an observed significantly higher locomotor activity. Osmotic pump-assisted MEMRI proved to be a promising technique for functional mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated to nutritional intake under normal behavior.

  4. Consequences of Lower Food Intake on the Digestive Enzymes Activities, the Energy Reserves and the Reproductive Outcome in Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Laetitia; Geffard, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Coulaud, Romain; Jaffal, Ali; Gaillet, Véronique; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Digestive enzyme activity is often used as a sensitive response to environmental pollution. However, only little is known about the negative effects of stress on digestive capacities and their consequences on energy reserves and reproduction, although these parameters are important for the maintenance of populations. To highlight if changes in biochemical responses (digestive enzymes and reserves) led to impairments at an individual level (fertility), Gammarus fossarum were submitted to a lower food intake throughout a complete female reproductive cycle (i.e. from ovogenesis to offspring production). For both males and females, amylase activity was inhibited by the diet stress, whereas trypsin activity was not influenced. These results underline similar sensitivity of males and females concerning their digestive capacity. Energy reserves decreased with food starvation in females, and remained stable in males. The number of embryos per female decreased with food starvation. Lower digestive activity in males and females therefore appears as an early response. These results underline the ecological relevance of digestive markers, as they make it possible to anticipate upcoming consequences on reproduction in females, a key biological variable for population dynamics. PMID:25880985

  5. Perceptions of Food Intake, Physical Activity, and Obesity Among African-American Children in the Lower Mississippi Delta.

    PubMed

    McGee, Bernestine B; Richardson, Valerie; Johnson, Glenda; Johnson, Crystal

    2015-11-11

    Purpose . To explore the nutrition and physical activity perceptions of children for planning a healthy weight curriculum to address childhood obesity in African-American children living in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). Design . Six children's focus group sessions. Setting . Two Louisiana parishes in the LMD. Subjects . Seventy 8- to 13-year-old African-American children, 46 (66%) females and 24 (44%) males, participated in the focus group sessions. Measures . Interview questions were based on personal and environmental determinants and content and strategies for a healthy lifestyle program for children. Analysis . Focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed, observer recorded, and analyzed to identify recurring trends and patterns among focus groups. Content analysis consisted of coding focus group transcripts for recurrent themes and review of data by an independent reviewer to confirm the themes. Results . Emerging themes were categorized as healthy lifestyle opinions within the social cognitive theory constructs of personal and environmental determinants and curriculum content. Conclusion . LMD youth recognized a healthy eating pattern and that overweight and obesity result from poor eating habits and physical inactivity. Children's food intake pattern did not reflect this understanding, suggesting a need for culturally tailoring an intervention to impact the poor food intake and physical inactivity in two low-income African-American Delta communities.

  6. Food intake norms increase and decrease snack food intake in a remote confederate study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Benwell, Helen; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-06-01

    Social factors have been reported to influence food intake. In the remote confederate paradigm, naive participants are led to believe that previous study participants have consumed a small or large amount of food. To date, there has been no demonstration using this paradigm that information about how much previous participants eat (food intake norms) both increase and decrease food intake in the same study. In the present experiment, we tested 64 undergraduate psychology students using a remote confederate design. We investigated the effect of both a high intake and low intake norm on food intake under the same conditions. We also tested whether a variable shown previously to predict food intake matching amongst eating partners (trait empathy) predicted the influence of food intake norms on intake. Compared with a no norm control condition, leading participants to believe that the intake norm was to eat a lot of cookies increased cookie intake and leading participants to believe the intake norm was to eat few cookies reduced intake. Trait empathy did not moderate the influence of food intake norms on consumption. These findings add to evidence that perceived intake norms exert strong bi-directional effects on food intake.

  7. Higher resting-state activity in reward-related brain circuits in obese versus normal-weight females independent of food intake

    PubMed Central

    Hogenkamp, P S; Zhou, W; Dahlberg, L S; Stark, J; Larsen, A L; Olivo, G; Wiemerslage, L; Larsson, E-M; Sundbom, M; Benedict, C; Schiöth, H B

    2016-01-01

    Background: In response to food cues, obese vs normal-weight individuals show greater activation in brain regions involved in the regulation of food intake under both fasted and sated conditions. Putative effects of obesity on task-independent low-frequency blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signals—that is, resting-state brain activity—in the context of food intake are, however, less well studied. Objective: To compare eyes closed, whole-brain low-frequency BOLD signals between severely obese and normal-weight females, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations were measured in the morning following an overnight fast in 17 obese (age: 39±11 years, body mass index (BMI): 42.3±4.8 kg m−2) and 12 normal-weight females (age: 36±12 years, BMI: 22.7±1.8 kg m−2), both before and 30 min after consumption of a standardized meal (~260 kcal). Results: Compared with normal-weight controls, obese females had increased low-frequency activity in clusters located in the putamen, claustrum and insula (P<0.05). This group difference was not altered by food intake. Self-reported hunger dropped and plasma glucose concentrations increased after food intake (P<0.05); however, these changes did not differ between the BMI groups. Conclusion: Reward-related brain regions are more active under resting-state conditions in obese than in normal-weight females. This difference was independent of food intake under the experimental settings applied in the current study. Future studies involving males and females, as well as utilizing repeated post-prandial resting-state fMRI scans and various types of meals are needed to further investigate how food intake alters resting-state brain activity in obese humans. PMID:27349694

  8. [Effect of orexin-A and orexin-1 receptor antagonist injected into the fourth ventricle of rats on food-intake and spontaneous physical activity].

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Fei-Fei; Sun, Xiang-Rong; Gong, Yan-Ling; Xu, Luo

    2015-08-25

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of orexin-A and orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) antagonist injected into the fourth ventricle of rats on food-intake and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Obese rat model was induced by high fat diet. Different doses of orexin-A or SB334867, an OX1R antagonist, were injected into the fourth ventricle of obese and normal rats respectively. SPA and food intake were monitored for 4 h after injection in both light and dark environment. In the light measurement cycle, different doses of orexin-A significantly stimulated feeding and SPA in all injected rats, and the animals' responses showed a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05-0.01), and compared with those of normal rats, the orexin-A induced food intake and SPA were more pronounced in obese rats. In the dark measurement cycle, different doses of orexin-A had no obvious effect on food intake and SPA in both normal and obese rats (P > 0.05). In the light cycle, different doses of SB334867 significantly decreased food intake and SPA in all rats during 0-2 h and 2-4 h after injection (P < 0.05), but the food intake and SPA in obese rats were significantly greater than those of normal rats. In the dark cycle, different doses of SB334867 showed no obvious effect on food intake and SPA of normal and obese rats (P > 0.05). These results suggest that fourth cerebral ventricle nuclei may be one target for orexin-A and light condition may play an important role in orexin-A and OX1R physiological functional processes.

  9. Different effects of bifeprunox, aripiprazole, and haloperidol on body weight gain, food and water intake, and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Michael; Pan, Bo; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    Following on the success of Aripiprazole with its high clinical efficacy and minimal side effects, further antipsychotic drugs (such as Bifeprunox) have been developed based on the same dopamine D2 partial agonist pharmacological profile as Aripiprazole. However clinical trials of Bifeprunox have found differing results to that of its predecessor, without the same significant clinical efficacy. This study has therefore investigated the different effects of 10 week treatment with Aripiprazole (0.75 mg/kg, 3 times per day), Bifeprunox (0.8 mg/kg, 3 times per day) and Haloperidol (0.1mg/kg, 3 times per day) on body weight gain, food and water intake, white fat mass, and 8 week treatment on locomotor activity. Treatment with Bifeprunox was found to significantly reduce all of the measured parameters except white fat mass compared to the control group. However, Aripiprazole and Haloperidol treatment reduced water intake compared to the control, without any significant effects on the other measured parameters. These findings further demonstrate the potential pharmacological differences between Aripiprazole and Bifeprunox, and identify potential weight loss side effects and increased anxiety behaviour with Bifeprunox treatment.

  10. Detection of periods of food intake using Support Vector Machines.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Schuckers, Stephanie; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Sazonov, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Studies of obesity and eating disorders need objective tools of Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior (MIB) that can detect and characterize food intake. In this paper we describe detection of food intake by a Support Vector Machine classifier trained on time history of chews and swallows. The training was performed on data collected from 18 subjects in 72 experiments involving eating and other activities (for example, talking). The highest accuracy of detecting food intake (94%) was achieved in configuration where both chews and swallows were used as predictors. Using only swallowing as a predictor resulted in 80% accuracy. Experimental results suggest that these two predictors may be used for differentiation between periods of resting and food intake with a resolution of 30 seconds. Proposed methods may be utilized for development of an accurate, inexpensive, and non-intrusive methodology to objectively monitor food intake in free living conditions.

  11. Measuring food intake with digital photography.

    PubMed

    Martin, C K; Nicklas, T; Gunturk, B; Correa, J B; Allen, H R; Champagne, C

    2014-01-01

    The digital photography of foods method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer software. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. In the present review, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analysed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behaviour and to receive dietary recommendations for achieving weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children is also reviewed. In sum, the body of research reviewed demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and the incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the method.

  12. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. With this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer...

  13. Nasal oxytocin administration reduces food intake without affecting locomotor activity and glycemia with c-Fos induction in limited brain areas.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Yuko; Rita, Rauza Sukma; Santoso, Putra; Aoyama, Masato; Hiraoka, Yuichi; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Gantulga, Darambazar; Shimomura, Kenju; Yada, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have considered oxytocin (Oxt) as a possible medicine to treat obesity and hyperphagia. To find the effective and safe route for Oxt treatment, we compared the effects of its nasal and intraperitoneal (IP) administration on food intake, locomotor activity, and glucose tolerance in mice. Nasal Oxt administration decreased food intake without altering locomotor activity and increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, the area postrema (AP), and the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMNV) of the medulla. IP Oxt administration decreased food intake and locomotor activity and increased the number of c-Fos-ir neurons not only in the PVN, AP, and DMNV but also in the nucleus of solitary tract of the medulla and in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. In IP glucose tolerance tests, IP Oxt injection attenuated the rise of blood glucose, whereas neither nasal nor intracerebroventricular Oxt affected blood glucose. In isolated islets, Oxt administration potentiated glucose-induced insulin secretion. These results indicate that both nasal and IP Oxt injections reduce food intake to a similar extent and increase the number of c-Fos-ir neurons in common brain regions. IP Oxt administration, in addition, activates broader brain regions, reduces locomotor activity, and affects glucose tolerance possibly by promoting insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. In comparison with IP administration, the nasal route of Oxt administration could exert a similar anorexigenic effect with a lesser effect on peripheral organs.

  14. Chronic central administration of apelin-13 over 10 days increases food intake, body weight, locomotor activity and body temperature in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Valle, A; Hoggard, N; Adams, A C; Roca, P; Speakman, J R

    2008-01-01

    The peptide apelin has been located in a wide range of tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract, stomach and adipose tissue. Apelin and its receptor has also been detected in the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, which are involved in the control of feeding behaviour and energy expenditure. This distribution suggests apelin may play a role in energy homeostasis, but previous attempts to discern the effects of apelin by acute injection into the brain have yielded conflicting results. We examined the effect of a chronic 10-day intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of apelin-13 into the third ventricle on food intake, body temperature and locomotor activity in C57BL/6 mice. Apelin-13 (1 microg/day) increased food intake significantly on days 3-7 of infusion; thereafter, food intake of treated and control individuals converged. This convergence was potentially because of progressive conversion of apelin-13 to [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 which has a four-fold lower receptor binding affinity at the orphan G protein-coupled receptor, APJ. Locomotor activity was also higher in the apelin-treated mice, especially during the nocturnal peak, when most feeding occurs, and the first hours of the light phase. Body temperature was also elevated during this increased period of activity, but was otherwise unaffected. Apelin-13-infused animals gained more weight than the saline-infused controls, suggesting the elevated locomotor activity did not offset the increased food intake. Elevated locomotion and the consequent increases in body temperature were probably secondary effects to the increased food intake. These results suggest that apelin-13 may play a central role in the control of feeding behaviour and is one of only two peripheral ligands known to stimulate rather than inhibit intake. As apelin production is elevated during obesity, this may provide an important feed-forward mechanism exacerbating the problem. Antagonists of the apelin receptor may

  15. Effects of alcohol on food and energy intake in human subjects: evidence for passive and active over-consumption of energy.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, Martin R

    2004-08-01

    The effects of alcohol on food and energy intake in human subjects have been the subject of a number of controlled studies recently. Unlike the evidence for other macronutrients, there is minimal evidence for any compensatory reduction in food intake in response to energy ingested as alcohol. In contrast, all studies testing intake within 1 h of preload ingestion report a higher intake of food following alcohol relative to energy-matched controls, although this short-term stimulatory effect is not evident if the test meal is delayed beyond 1 h. This time-course suggests that short-term stimulation of appetite may be mediated by the pharmacological action of alcohol on the appetite control system, either through enhanced orosensory reward or impaired satiety. In the long term, energy ingested as alcohol is additive to energy from other sources, suggesting that moderate alcohol consumption results in long-term passive over-consumption alongside short-term active over-consumption of energy through appetite stimulation. Despite the consistency of enhanced energy intake after moderate alcohol, evidence of an association between alcohol in the diet and obesity remains contentious, although the most recent results suggest that alcohol intake correlates with BMI. Future research needs to address this issue and clarify the mechanisms underlying appetite stimulation by alcohol.

  16. [Food intake regulation - 2nd part].

    PubMed

    Brunerová, Ludmila; Anděl, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The review article summarizes the principles of hedonic regulation of food intake which represents the food intake independent on the maintenance of homeostasis. The theory describing hedonic regulation, so called Incentive Salience Theory, comprises three major processes: liking (positive attribution to food stimulus), wanting (motivation to gain it) and learning (identification of these stimuli and distinguishing them from those connected with aversive reaction). Neuronal reward circuits are the anatomical and functional substrates of hedonic regulation. They react to gustatory and olfactory (or visual) stimuli associated with food intake. A food item is preferred in case its consumption is connected with a pleasant feeling thus promoting the behavioural reaction. The probability of this reaction after repetitive exposure to such a stimulus is increased (learned preference). On the contrary, learned aversion after repetitive exposure is connected with avoidance of a food item associated with a negative feeling. Main mediators of hedonic regulation are endocannabinoids, opioids and monoamines (dopamine, serotonin). Dopamine in dorsal striatum via D2 receptors generates food motivation as a key means of survival, however in ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) is responsible for motivation to food bringing pleasure. Serotonin via its receptors 5-HT1A a T-HT2C decreases intake of palatable food. It plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, particularly mental anorexia. There, a food restriction represents a kind of automedication to constitutionally pathologically increased serotonin levels. Detailed understanding of processes regulating food intake is a key to new pharmacological interventions in eating disorders.

  17. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  18. Identification of a small-molecule ligand that activates the neuropeptide receptor GPR171 and increases food intake

    PubMed Central

    Wardman, Jonathan H.; Gomes, Ivone; Bobeck, Erin N.; Stockert, Jennifer A.; Kapoor, Abhijeet; Bisignano, Paola; Gupta, Achla; Mezei, Mihaly; Kumar, Sanjai; Filizola, Marta; Devi, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    Several neuropeptide systems in the hypothalamus, including neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP), control food intake. Peptides derived from proSAAS, a precursor implicated in the regulation of body weight, also control food intake. GPR171 is a heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)– coupled receptor (GPCR) for BigLEN (b-LEN), a peptide derived from proSAAS. To facilitate studies exploring the physiological role of GPR171, we sought to identify small-molecule ligands for this receptor by performing a virtual screen of a compound library for interaction with a homology model of GPR171. We identified MS0015203 as an agonist of GPR171 and demonstrated the selectivity of MS0015203 for GPR171 by testing the binding of this compound to 80 other membrane proteins, including family A GPCRs. Reducing the expression of GPR171 by shRNA (short hairpin RNA)–mediated knockdown blunted the cellular and tissue response to MS0015203. Peripheral injection of MS0015203 into mice increased food intake and body weight, and these responses were significantly attenuated in mice with decreased expression of GPR171 in the hypothalamus. Together, these results suggest that MS0015203 is a useful tool to probe the pharmacological and functional properties of GPR171 and that ligands targeting GPR171 may eventually lead to therapeutics for food-related disorders. PMID:27245612

  19. A glasses-type wearable device for monitoring the patterns of food intake and facial activity

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jungman; Chung, Jungmin; Oh, Wonjun; Yoo, Yongkyu; Lee, Won Gu; Bang, Hyunwoo

    2017-01-01

    Here we present a new method for automatic and objective monitoring of ingestive behaviors in comparison with other facial activities through load cells embedded in a pair of glasses, named GlasSense. Typically, activated by subtle contraction and relaxation of a temporalis muscle, there is a cyclic movement of the temporomandibular joint during mastication. However, such muscular signals are, in general, too weak to sense without amplification or an electromyographic analysis. To detect these oscillatory facial signals without any use of obtrusive device, we incorporated a load cell into each hinge which was used as a lever mechanism on both sides of the glasses. Thus, the signal measured at the load cells can detect the force amplified mechanically by the hinge. We demonstrated a proof-of-concept validation of the amplification by differentiating the force signals between the hinge and the temple. A pattern recognition was applied to extract statistical features and classify featured behavioral patterns, such as natural head movement, chewing, talking, and wink. The overall results showed that the average F1 score of the classification was about 94.0% and the accuracy above 89%. We believe this approach will be helpful for designing a non-intrusive and un-obtrusive eyewear-based ingestive behavior monitoring system. PMID:28134303

  20. A glasses-type wearable device for monitoring the patterns of food intake and facial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jungman; Chung, Jungmin; Oh, Wonjun; Yoo, Yongkyu; Lee, Won Gu; Bang, Hyunwoo

    2017-01-01

    Here we present a new method for automatic and objective monitoring of ingestive behaviors in comparison with other facial activities through load cells embedded in a pair of glasses, named GlasSense. Typically, activated by subtle contraction and relaxation of a temporalis muscle, there is a cyclic movement of the temporomandibular joint during mastication. However, such muscular signals are, in general, too weak to sense without amplification or an electromyographic analysis. To detect these oscillatory facial signals without any use of obtrusive device, we incorporated a load cell into each hinge which was used as a lever mechanism on both sides of the glasses. Thus, the signal measured at the load cells can detect the force amplified mechanically by the hinge. We demonstrated a proof-of-concept validation of the amplification by differentiating the force signals between the hinge and the temple. A pattern recognition was applied to extract statistical features and classify featured behavioral patterns, such as natural head movement, chewing, talking, and wink. The overall results showed that the average F1 score of the classification was about 94.0% and the accuracy above 89%. We believe this approach will be helpful for designing a non-intrusive and un-obtrusive eyewear-based ingestive behavior monitoring system.

  1. Effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on immediate and subsequent three-day food intake and energy expenditure in active and inactive men.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of an acute bout of low-intensity cycling on food intake and energy expenditure over four days. Thirty healthy, active (n=15) and inactive (n=15) men completed two conditions (exercise and control), in a randomised crossover fashion. The exercise experimental day involved cycling for one hour at an intensity equivalent to 50% of maximum oxygen uptake and two hours of rest. The control condition comprised three hours of rest. Participants arrived at the laboratory fasted overnight; breakfast was standardised and an ad libitum pasta lunch was consumed on each experimental day. Participants kept a food diary and wore an Actiheart to estimate energy intake and expenditure for the remainder of the experimental days and over the subsequent 3 days. Ad libitum lunch energy intake did not differ between conditions (p=0.32, d=0.18) or groups (p=0.43, d=0.27). Energy intake in the active group was greater on the exercise experimental day than on the control experimental day (mean difference=2070 kJ; 95% CI 397 to 3743 kJ, p=0.024, d=0.56) while in the inactive group it was increased on only the third day after exercise (mean difference=2225 kJ; 95% CI 414 to 4036 kJ, p=0.024, d=0.80). There was only a group effect (p=0.032, d=0.89) for free-living energy expenditure, indicating that active participants expended more energy than inactive over this period. Acute low-intensity exercise did not affect energy intake at the meal immediately after exercise, but induces an acute (within the experimental day) and delayed (third day after the experimental day) increase in energy intake in active and inactive participants, respectively with no compensatory changes to daily energy expenditure. These results suggest that active individuals compensate for an acute exercise-induced energy deficit quicker than inactive individuals.

  2. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.

  3. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  4. Medial prefrontal D1 dopamine neurons control food intake

    PubMed Central

    Land, Benjamin B; Narayanan, Nandakumar S; Liu, Rong-Jian; Gianessi, Carol A; Brayton, Catherine E; Grimaldi, David; Sarhan, Maysa; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Aghajanian, George K; Dileone, Ralph J

    2014-01-01

    Although the prefrontal cortex influences motivated behavior, its role in food intake remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate a role for D1-type dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the regulation of feeding. Food intake increases activity in D1 neurons of the mPFC in mice, and optogenetic photostimulation of D1 neurons increases feeding. Conversely, inhibition of D1 neurons decreases intake. Stimulation-based mapping of prefrontal D1 neuron projections implicates the medial basolateral amygdala (mBLA) as a downstream target of these afferents. mBLA neurons activated by prefrontal D1 stimulation are CaMKII positive and closely juxtaposed to prefrontal D1 axon terminals. Finally, photostimulating these axons in the mBLA is sufficient to increase feeding, recapitulating the effects of mPFC D1 stimulation. These data describe a new circuit for top-down control of food intake. PMID:24441680

  5. Central action of ELABELA reduces food intake and activates arginine vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Putra; Maejima, Yuko; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Shimomura, Kenju

    2015-09-30

    ELABELA (ELA) is a novel hormone consisting of 32 amino acid peptides found in humans as well as other vertebrates and is considered to play an important role in the circulatory system through the apelin receptor (APJ). However, whether ELA also acts in the central nervous system remains unknown. Here, we show that ELA functions as an anorexigenic hormone in adult mouse brain. An intracerebroventricular injection of ELA reduces food intake and activates arginine vasopressin (AVP) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a hypothalamic region that regulates food intake. Cytosolic calcium ([Ca]i) measurement shows that ELA dose dependently increases [Ca]i in single AVP and CRH-immunoreactive neurons isolated from the PVN. Our data suggest that ELA functions as an anorexigenic hormone through activation of AVP and CRH neurons in the PVN.

  6. Corticotropin-releasing factor-overexpressing mice exhibit reduced neuronal activation in the arcuate nucleus and food intake in response to fasting.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Million, Mulugeta; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P; Kobelt, Peter; Mönnikes, Hubert; Taché, Yvette; Wang, Lixin

    2009-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) overexpressing (OE) mice are a genetic model that exhibits features of chronic stress. We investigated whether the adaptive feeding response to a hypocaloric challenge induced by food deprivation is impaired under conditions of chronic CRF overproduction. Food intake response to a 16-h overnight fast and ip injection of gut hormones regulating food intake were compared in CRF-OE and wild type (WT) littermate mice along with brain Fos expression, circulating ghrelin levels, and gastric emptying of a nonnutrient meal. CRF-OE mice injected ip with saline showed a 47 and 44% reduction of 30-min and 4-h cumulative food intake response to an overnight fast, respectively, compared with WT. However, the 30-min food intake decrease induced by ip cholecystokinin (3 microg/kg) and increase by ghrelin (300 microg/kg) were similar in CRF-OE and WT mice. Overnight fasting increased the plasma total ghrelin to similar levels in CRF-OE and WT mice, although CRF-OE mice had a 2-fold reduction of nonfasting ghrelin levels. The number of Fos-immunoreactive cells induced by fasting in the arcuate nucleus was reduced by 5.9-fold in CRF-OE compared with WT mice whereas no significant changes were observed in other hypothalamic nuclei. In contrast, fasted CRF-OE mice displayed a 5.6-fold increase in Fos-immunoreactive cell number in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve and a 34% increase in 20-min gastric emptying. These findings indicate that sustained overproduction of hypothalamic CRF in mice interferes with fasting-induced activation of arcuate nucleus neurons and the related hyperphagic response.

  7. Role of the non-opioid dynorphin peptide des-Tyr-dynorphin (DYN-A(2-17)) in food intake and physical activity, and its interaction with orexin-A.

    PubMed

    Gac, L; Butterick, T A; Duffy, C M; Teske, J A; Perez-Leighton, C E

    2016-02-01

    Food intake and physical activity are regulated by multiple neuropeptides, including orexin and dynorphin (DYN). Orexin-A (OXA) is one of two orexin peptides with robust roles in regulation of food intake and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). DYN collectively refers to several peptides, some of which act through opioid receptors (opioid DYN) and some whose biological effects are not mediated by opioid receptors (non-opioid DYN). While opioid DYN is known to increase food intake, the effects of non-opioid DYN peptides on food intake and SPA are unknown. Neurons that co-express and release OXA and DYN are located within the lateral hypothalamus. Limited evidence suggests that OXA and opioid DYN peptides can interact to modulate some aspects of behaviors classically related to orexin peptide function. The paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) is a brain area where OXA and DYN peptides might interact to modulate food intake and SPA. We demonstrate that injection of des-Tyr-dynorphin (DYN-A(2-17), a non opioid DYN peptide) into the PVN increases food intake and SPA in adult mice. Co-injection of DYN-A(2-17) and OXA in the PVN further increases food intake compared to DYN-A(2-17) or OXA alone. This is the first report describing the effects of non-opioid DYN-A(2-17) on food intake and SPA, and suggests that DYN-A(2-17) interacts with OXA in the PVN to modulate food intake. Our data suggest a novel function for non-opioid DYN-A(2-17) on food intake, supporting the concept that some behavioral effects of the orexin neurons result from combined actions of the orexin and DYN peptides.

  8. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones. PMID:22489217

  9. [Diltiazem enhances food intake and gastrointestinal function in rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Na; Li, Sheng-Li; Li, Chuang-Hong; Zhang, Chen-Xu; Yuan, Hui; Li, Xin-Ping

    2012-04-25

    The present study was to investigate the effects of diltiazem, a ghrelin receptor agonist, on food intake and gastrointestinal functions in rats. Rats were intragastrically administered with diltiazem solution (daily 16 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg, 30 d), and the rats with saline as control. To detect the effects of diltiazem on food intake and body weight, the average daily food intake and body weight were recorded, and the serum metabolic hormones of plasma growth hormone (GH) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were tested by radioimmunoassay. By means of the spectrophotometer and the modified Mett's method, the effects of diltiazem on rat's gastrointestinal function and pepsin activity were tested, respectively. In addition, the gastric juice's acidity of rats was detected by titration and the secretion amount was calculated. The results showed that the food intake and body weight were maximally promoted by diltiazem at the dose of 30 mg/kg daily (30 d). The average daily food intake and body weight were significantly increased, and the serum concentrations of GH and NPY were also remarkably increased in diltiazem-treated groups compared with those in control group. The results also showed that the gastric emptying rate, gastric acid secretion and the activity of pepsin were significantly increased in diltiazem-treated group compared with those in control group. These results suggest that diltiazem induces enhancement of eating, in the same time, it can also stimulate the gastrointestinal function and regulate growth of rat.

  10. Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  11. Wheel running, food intake, and body weight in male rats.

    PubMed

    Looy, H; Eikelboom, R

    1989-02-01

    The acquisition of wheel running, its effects on food intake and body weight, and the effects of wheel deprivation, were examined in male rats. Running increased during the first 15 days of access, then plateaued. When wheels were unlocked after 10 days of deprivation, running was reduced, but quickly recovered to original levels. Animals first given wheel access 49 days into the study ran little, with no increase over days. Food intake dropped each time with wheel access, but recovered to control levels over 10-14 days. Wheel deprivation resulted in a temporary hyperphagia. With wheel access, weight initially dropped and was then maintained at a reduced percentage of homecage-housed animals. In male rats wheel access appears to have temporary effects on food intake, and long term effects on weight. Marked differences in the activity of same-age rats suggest that wheel running is in part a function of housing history.

  12. Television and eating: repetition enhances food intake.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Utsa; Stevenson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Some studies find that eating with TV increases food intake while others do not. Some of this variability may reflect the engagingness of what is being watched (i.e., content). To test this we varied engagingness by manipulating content familiarity. Female participants undertook two sessions. In the "Different" session they watched two different episodes of the comedy Friends, with snack food presented during the second episode. In the "Same" session they viewed another episode of Friends twice in succession, with snack food presented during the second repeat showing. The three episodes of Friends used here were fully counterbalanced, so overall the only difference between the "Same" and "Different" sessions was whether the content of the second show was familiar or novel. As expected, 14% less was eaten in the "Different" session, suggesting that novel and presumably more engaging content can reduce intake relative to watching familiar and presumably less engaging content. These findings are consistent with the idea that the engagingness of TV can differentially affect food intake, although boredom or irritability resulting from repeat viewing might also explain this effect.

  13. Television and eating: repetition enhances food intake

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Utsa; Stevenson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Some studies find that eating with TV increases food intake while others do not. Some of this variability may reflect the engagingness of what is being watched (i.e., content). To test this we varied engagingness by manipulating content familiarity. Female participants undertook two sessions. In the “Different” session they watched two different episodes of the comedy Friends, with snack food presented during the second episode. In the “Same” session they viewed another episode of Friends twice in succession, with snack food presented during the second repeat showing. The three episodes of Friends used here were fully counterbalanced, so overall the only difference between the “Same” and “Different” sessions was whether the content of the second show was familiar or novel. As expected, 14% less was eaten in the “Different” session, suggesting that novel and presumably more engaging content can reduce intake relative to watching familiar and presumably less engaging content. These findings are consistent with the idea that the engagingness of TV can differentially affect food intake, although boredom or irritability resulting from repeat viewing might also explain this effect. PMID:26579040

  14. Physiology of Food Intake Control in Children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G Harvey; Hunschede, Sascha; Akilen, Rajadurai; Kubant, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to draw attention to the limited information available on food intake (FI) control in children and adolescents 7-17 y of age, which is essential for developing food policies and guidelines in this population. Although environmental factors have been the overwhelming focus of research on the causative factors of obesity, research focusing on the physiologic control of appetite in children and adolescents is a neglected area of research. To present this message, a review of FI regulation and the role of food and food components in signaling processes are followed by an examination of the role of hormones during puberty in intake regulation. To examine the interaction of environment and physiology on FI regulation, the effects of exercise, television programs, and food advertisements are discussed. In conclusion, although limited, this literature review supports a need for children and adolescents to be a greater focus of research that would lead to sound nutrition policies and actions to reduce chronic disease. A focus on the environment must be balanced with an understanding of physiologic and behavioral changes associated with this age group.

  15. Leptin inhibits food-deprivation-induced increases in food intake and food hoarding.

    PubMed

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J

    2008-12-01

    Food deprivation stimulates foraging and hoarding and to a much lesser extent, food intake in Siberian hamsters. Leptin, the anorexigenic hormone secreted primarily from adipocytes, may act in the periphery, the brain, or both to inhibit these ingestive behaviors. Therefore, we tested whether leptin given either intracerebroventricularly or intraperitoneally, would block food deprivation-induced increases in food hoarding, foraging, and intake in animals with differing foraging requirements. Hamsters were trained in a running wheel-based food delivery foraging system coupled with simulated burrow housing. We determined the effects of food deprivation and several peripheral doses of leptin on plasma leptin concentrations. Hamsters were then food deprived for 48 h and given leptin (0, 10, 40, or 80 microg ip), and additional hamsters were food deprived for 48 h and given leptin (0, 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 microg icv). Foraging, food intake, and hoarding were measured postinjection. Food deprivation stimulated food hoarding to a greater degree and duration than food intake. In animals with a foraging requirement, intracerebroventricular leptin almost completely blocked food deprivation-induced increased food hoarding and intake, but increased foraging. Peripheral leptin treatment was most effective in a sedentary control group, completely inhibiting food deprivation-induced increased food hoarding and intake at the two highest doses, and did not affect foraging at any dose. Thus, the ability of leptin to inhibit food deprivation-induced increases in ingestive behaviors differs based on foraging effort (energy expenditure) and the route of administration of leptin administration.

  16. Limited influence of aspirin intake on mast cell activation in patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis: comparison using skin prick and histamine release tests.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Atsushi; Shimizu, Hideki; Tanaka, Mami; Kikuzawa, Ayuko; Tsujimoto, Mariko; Sekimukai, Akiko; Yamashita, Junji; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Nishigori, Chikako

    2012-09-01

    Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a severe systemic syndrome induced by physical exercise after ingesting causative food. Aspirin is a well-known trigger for anaphylaxis in patients with FDEIA. Possible mechanisms by which symptoms are aggravated by aspirin include enhanced antigen absorption and mast cell activation. The aim of this study was to determine whether aspirin intake has an influence on mast cell/basophil activation in patients with FDEIA. Provocation tests revealed that adding aspirin to the causative food challenge in 7 of 9 (77.8%) patients with FDEIA provoked symptoms. In most cases, pretreatment with aspirin did not enhance skin tests (71.4%) or histamine release tests (88.9%) with food allergen challenges. The study confirms that histamine release and skin prick tests can be adjunctive tools for diagnosing FDEIA. In addition, our results suggest that exacerbation of FDEIA symptoms by aspirin is not mediated by direct effects of aspirin on mast cell/basophil activation.

  17. Caffeine increases food intake while reducing anxiety-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Patrick; Levack, Russell; Watters, Jared; Xu, Zhenping; Yang, Yunlei

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of caffeine on appetite and anxiety-related behavior. Additionally, we sought to determine if withdrawal from chronic caffeine administration promotes anxiety. In this study, we utilized rodent open field testing and feeding behavior assays to determine the effects of caffeine on feeding and anxiety-related behavior (n = 8 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We also measured 2 h and 24 h food intake and body-weight during daily administration of caffeine (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). To test for caffeine withdrawal induced anxiety, anxiety-related behavior in rodents was quantified following withdrawal from four consecutive days of caffeine administration (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We find that acute caffeine administration increases food intake in a dose-dependent manner with lower doses of caffeine more significantly increasing food intake than higher doses. Acute caffeine administration also reduced anxiety-related behaviors in mice without significantly altering locomotor activity. However, we did not observe any differences in 24 h food intake or body weight following chronic caffeine administration and there were no observable differences in anxiety-related behaviors during caffeine withdrawal. In conclusion, we find that caffeine can both increase appetite and decrease anxiety-related behaviors in a dose dependent fashion. Given the complex relationship between appetite and anxiety, the present study provides additional insights into potential caffeine-based pharmacological mechanisms governing appetite and anxiety disorders, such as bulimia nervosa.

  18. Food hedonics and reinforcement as determinants of laboratory food intake in smokers.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Wright, Suzanne M; Paluch, Rocco A; Leddy, John; Hawk, Larry W; Jaroni, Jodie L; Saad, Frances G; Crystal-Mansour, Susan; Lerman, Caryn

    2004-05-01

    Both the hedonic ratings and the reinforcing value of food have been considered to be determinants of food intake. The objective of this study was to compare the pleasurable ratings and the reinforcing value of food as determinants of energy intake. Seventy-four smokers were studied in food consumption and reinforcing value of food tasks prior to enrolling in a smoking-cessation treatment program. For the food consumption task, the participants tasted and consumed food ad lib from eight snack foods. The reinforcing value of the food task assessed how hard subjects would work for a preferred snack food. Results showed that food reinforcement was related to laboratory food intake, with those high in food reinforcement consuming significantly more calories (+114.4 kcal, P<.01) than did the participants low in food reinforcement. Food reinforcement was related to food intake for the preferred food as well as to total energy intake. Hedonics for the preferred food was related to food reinforcement but not to either measure of laboratory energy intake. In multiple-regression models, food reinforcement and the interaction of food reinforcement by sex were significant predictors of energy intake for the preferred food and for total energy intake, along with baseline hunger. In conclusion, energy intake in smokers in a laboratory setting is more strongly related to food reinforcement than to the hedonic ratings of food.

  19. Salt Content Impacts Food Preferences and Intake among Children

    PubMed Central

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8–11 years) to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g) of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g), not adding salt decreased green bean intake (−21%; p = 0.002), and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001). Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt. PMID:23342052

  20. Comparative effects of continuous infusion of mCPP, Ro 60-0175 and d-fenfluramine on food intake, water intake, body weight and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Vickers, S P; Benwell, K R; Porter, R H; Bickerdike, M J; Kennett, G A; Dourish, C T

    2000-07-01

    1. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of 14 day subcutaneous infusion of the 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists, m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP, 12 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and Ro 60-0175 (36 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and the 5-HT releasing agent and re-uptake inhibitor, d-fenfluramine (6 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), on food and water intake, body weight gain and locomotion in lean male Lister hooded rats. 2. Chronic infusion of all three drugs significantly reduced food intake and attenuated body weight gain. In contrast, drug infusion did not lead to significant reductions in locomotor activity in animals assessed 2 and 13 days after pump implantation. 3. In a subsequent 14 day study that was designed to identify possible tolerance during days 7 - 14, animals were given a subcutaneous infusion of mCPP (12 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or d-fenfluramine (6 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) for either 7 or 14 days. During the first 7 days both drugs significantly reduced body weight gain compared to saline-infused controls; however, from day 7 onwards animals withdrawn from drug treatment exhibited an increase in body weight such that by day 14 they were significantly heavier than their 14-day drug-treated counterparts. 4. Both mCPP and d-fenfluramine reduced daily food intake throughout the infusion periods. For 14-day treated animals this hypophagia was marked during the initial week of the study but only minor during the second week. In light of the sustained drug effect on body weight, the data suggest that weight loss by 5-HT(2C) receptor stimulation may be only partly dependent on changes in food consumption and that 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists may have effects on thermogenesis. 5. These data suggest tolerance does not develop to the effects of d-fenfluramine, mCPP and Ro 60-0175 on rat body weight gain.

  1. Relation of reward from food intake and anticipated food intake to obesity: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja; Bohon, Cara; Veldhuizen, Marga G; Small, Dana M

    2008-11-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that obese individuals experience greater reward from food consumption (consummatory food reward) and anticipated consumption (anticipatory food reward) than lean individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 33 adolescent girls (mean age = 15.7, SD = 0.9). Obese relative to lean adolescent girls showed greater activation bilaterally in the gustatory cortex (anterior and mid insula, frontal operculum) and in somatosensory regions (parietal operculum and Rolandic operculum) in response to anticipated intake of chocolate milkshake (vs. a tasteless solution) and to actual consumption of milkshake (vs. a tasteless solution); these brain regions encode the sensory and hedonic aspects of food. However, obese relative to lean adolescent girls also showed decreased activation in the caudate nucleus in response to consumption of milkshake versus a tasteless solution, potentially because they have reduced dopamine receptor availability. Results suggest that individuals who show greater activation in the gustatory cortex and somatosensory regions in response to anticipation and consumption of food, but who show weaker activation in the striatum during food intake, may be at risk for overeating and consequent weight gain.

  2. Activity-Based Anorexia Reduces Body Weight without Inducing a Separate Food Intake Microstructure or Activity Phenotype in Female Rats—Mediation via an Activation of Distinct Brain Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Scharner, Sophie; Prinz, Philip; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Kobelt, Peter; Hofmann, Tobias; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is accompanied by severe somatic and psychosocial complications. However, the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood, treatment is challenging and often hampered by high relapse. Therefore, more basic research is needed to better understand the disease. Since hyperactivity often plays a role in AN, we characterized an animal model to mimic AN using restricted feeding and hyperactivity. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: no activity/ad libitum feeding (ad libitum, AL, n = 9), activity/ad libitum feeding (activity, AC, n = 9), no activity/restricted feeding (RF, n = 12) and activity/restricted feeding (activity-based anorexia, ABA, n = 11). During the first week all rats were fed ad libitum, ABA and AC had access to a running wheel for 24 h/day. From week two ABA and RF only had access to food from 9:00 to 10:30 a.m. Body weight was assessed daily, activity and food intake monitored electronically, brain activation assessed using Fos immunohistochemistry at the end of the experiment. While during the first week no body weight differences were observed (p > 0.05), after food restriction RF rats showed a body weight decrease: −13% vs. day eight (p < 0.001) and vs. AC (−22%, p < 0.001) and AL (−26%, p < 0.001) that gained body weight (+10% and +13%, respectively; p < 0.001). ABA showed an additional body weight loss (−9%) compared to RF (p < 0.001) reaching a body weight loss of −22% during the 2-week restricted feeding period (p < 0.001). Food intake was greatly reduced in RF (−38%) and ABA (−41%) compared to AL (p < 0.001). Interestingly, no difference in 1.5-h food intake microstructure was observed between RF and ABA (p > 0.05). Similarly, the daily physical activity was not different between AC and ABA (p > 0.05). The investigation of Fos expression in the brain showed neuronal activation in several brain nuclei such as the supraoptic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, locus coeruleus and nucleus of the

  3. Peripheral ghrelin injections stimulate food intake, foraging, and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J

    2005-03-01

    Fasting triggers many effects, including increases in circulating concentrations of ghrelin, a primarily stomach-derived orexigenic hormone. Exogenous ghrelin treatment stimulates food intake, implicating it in fasting-induced increases in feeding, a consummatory ingestive behavior. In Siberian hamsters, fasting also stimulates appetitive ingestive behaviors such as foraging and food hoarding. Therefore, we tested whether systemic ghrelin injections (3, 30, and 200 mg/kg) would stimulate these appetitive behaviors using a running wheel-based food delivery system coupled with simulated burrow housing. We also measured active ghrelin plasma concentrations after exogenous ghrelin treatment and compared them to those associated with fasting. Hamsters had the following: 1) no running wheel access, free food; 2) running wheel access, free food; or 3) foraging requirement (10 revolutions/pellet), no free food. Ghrelin stimulated foraging at 0-1, 2-4, and 4-24 h postinjection but failed to affect wheel running activity not coupled to food. Ghrelin stimulated food intake initially (200-350%, first 4 h) across all groups; however, in hamsters with a foraging requirement, ghrelin also stimulated food intake 4-24 h postinjection (200-250%). Ghrelin stimulated food hoarding 2-72 h postinjection (100-300%), most markedly 2-4 h postinjection in animals lacking a foraging requirement (635%). Fasting increased plasma active ghrelin concentrations in a time-dependent fashion, with the 3- and 30-mg/kg dose creating concentrations of the peptide comparable to those induced by 24-48 h of fasting. Collectively, these data suggest that exogenous ghrelin, similar to fasting, increases appetitive behaviors (foraging, hoarding) by Siberian hamsters, but dissimilar to fasting in this species, stimulates food intake.

  4. Stimulation of food intake after central galanin is associated with arcuate nucleus activation and does not differ between genetically selected low and high body weight lines of chickens.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Christopher J; Newmyer, Brandon A; Webster, Rebekah I; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Siegel, Paul B; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Cline, Mark A

    2013-08-01

    Galanin, a 29 residue peptide found in the hypothalamus, causes orexigenic effects in a variety of species. In the present study, we investigated appetite-associated effects of galanin in chicks from lines which have been selected from a common founder population for either low or high body weight. The low line consists of some anorexic individuals and there are obese individuals in the high line. Central galanin caused increased food intake in both lines with the magnitude of response similar in both lines. We also quantified the number of c-Fos immunoreactive cells in several hypothalamic nuclei that are associated with appetite. Only the arcuate nucleus had an increase in the number of reactive cells, a response that was similar for both lines. From these results we concluded that selection for body weight likely did not affect galanin function on induction of feeding in either lines, and that the effect of galanin is associated with arcuate nucleus activation in chicks.

  5. Computational Analysis of the Hypothalamic Control of Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Tabe-Bordbar, Shayan; Anastasio, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Food-intake control is mediated by a heterogeneous network of different neural subtypes, distributed over various hypothalamic nuclei and other brain structures, in which each subtype can release more than one neurotransmitter or neurohormone. The complexity of the interactions of these subtypes poses a challenge to understanding their specific contributions to food-intake control, and apparent consistencies in the dataset can be contradicted by new findings. For example, the growing consensus that arcuate nucleus neurons expressing Agouti-related peptide (AgRP neurons) promote feeding, while those expressing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC neurons) suppress feeding, is contradicted by findings that low AgRP neuron activity and high POMC neuron activity can be associated with high levels of food intake. Similarly, the growing consensus that GABAergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus suppress feeding is contradicted by findings suggesting the opposite. Yet the complexity of the food-intake control network admits many different network behaviors. It is possible that anomalous associations between the responses of certain neural subtypes and feeding are actually consistent with known interactions, but their effect on feeding depends on the responses of the other neural subtypes in the network. We explored this possibility through computational analysis. We made a computer model of the interactions between the hypothalamic and other neural subtypes known to be involved in food-intake control, and optimized its parameters so that model behavior matched observed behavior over an extensive test battery. We then used specialized computational techniques to search the entire model state space, where each state represents a different configuration of the responses of the units (model neural subtypes) in the network. We found that the anomalous associations between the responses of certain hypothalamic neural subtypes and feeding are actually consistent with the known structure

  6. Daytime sleepiness affects prefrontal regulation of food intake.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Schwab, Zachary J; Weber, Mareen; Kipman, Maia; Deldonno, Sophie R; Weiner, Melissa R; Rauch, Scott L

    2013-05-01

    The recent epidemic of obesity corresponds closely with the decline in the average number of hours of sleep obtained nightly. While growing research suggests that sleep loss may affect hormonal and other physiological systems related to food intake, no studies have yet explored the role that sleepiness may play in reducing prefrontal inhibitory control over food intake. Because evidence suggests that women may be more prone to obesity and eating disorders, as well as more likely to suffer from sleep problems, we examined the relation between general daytime sleepiness, brain responses to food stimuli, and self-reported overeating separately for men and women. Thirty-eight healthy adults (16 women; 22 men) aged 18 to 45 underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing pictures of high- and low-calorie foods. Subjects completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and provided a rating to the query "how often do you eat more than you intend to." Contrast images comparing brain activation derived from the high- versus low-calorie conditions were correlated voxel-wise with scores from the ESS in a second-level regression model, the output of which was used to predict self-reported overeating. As hypothesized, daytime sleepiness correlated with reduced activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during perception of high- versus low-calorie food images. Moreover, activation within this cluster predicted overeating, but only for women. Findings suggest that normal fluctuations in sleepiness may be sufficient to affect brain regions important for regulating food intake, but that these effects may differ between men and women.

  7. MTII attenuates ghrelin- and food deprivation-induced increases in food hoarding and food intake.

    PubMed

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J

    2007-12-01

    Food deprivation triggers a constellation of physiological and behavioral changes including increases in peripherally-produced ghrelin and centrally-produced agouti-related protein (AgRP). Upon refeeding, food intake is increased in most species, however hamsters primarily increase food hoarding. Food deprivation-induced increases in food hoarding by Siberian hamsters are mimicked by peripheral ghrelin and central AgRP injections. Because food deprivation stimulates ghrelin as well as AgRP synthesis/release, food deprivation-induced increases in hoarding may be mediated by melanocortin 3 or 4 receptor (MC3/4-R) antagonism via AgRP, the MC3/4-R inverse agonist. Therefore, we asked: Can a MC3/4-R agonist block food deprivation- or ghrelin-induced increases in foraging, food hoarding and food intake? This was accomplished by injecting melanotan II (MTII), a synthetic MC3/4-R agonist, into the 3rd ventricle in food deprived, fed or peripheral ghrelin injected hamsters and housed in a running wheel-based food delivery foraging system. Three foraging conditions were used: a) no running wheel access, non-contingent food, b) running wheel access, non-contingent food or c) a foraging requirement for food (10 revolutions/pellet). Food deprivation was a more potent stimulator of foraging and hoarding than ghrelin. Concurrent injections of MTII completely blocked food deprivation- and ghrelin-induced increases in food intake and attenuated, but did not always completely block, food deprivation- and ghrelin-induced increases in food hoarding. Collectively, these data suggest that the MC3/4-R are involved in ghrelin- and food deprivation-induced increases in food intake, but other neurochemical systems, such as previously demonstrated with neuropeptide Y, also are involved in increases in food hoarding as well as foraging.

  8. Vitamin Intake from Food Supplements in a German Cohort - Is there a Risk of Excessive Intake?

    PubMed

    Willers, Janina; Heinemann, Michaela; Bitterlich, Norman; Hahn, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Food supplements, if not properly used, may lead to potentially harmful nutrient intake. The purpose of this survey was to examine vitamin intake from food supplements. Taking into account the intake from food, as obtained from the National Nutrition Survey, it was determined whether the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) were exceeded via supplements alone, or in combination with food. Data from 1070 supplement users (18-93 years) was available. The dietary and supplemental vitamin intakes of three groups were analyzed: average intake (50th percentile food+50th percentile supplements), middle-high intake (50th+95th) and high intake (95th+95th). Vitamin C (53%), vitamin E (45%) and B vitamins (37-45%) were consumed most frequently. Few subjects (n=7) reached or exceeded the ULs through supplements alone. The UL for vitamin A and folate was reached by a few men in the middle-high group, and by a few men and women in the high intake group. Otherwise, even in the high intake group, the recommended vitamin D intake of 20 µg/day (in case of insufficient endogenous synthesis) could not be achieved. The use of food supplements was not associated with excessive vitamin intake in this survey, except in a small number of cases. Vitamin A intake above the UL was the result of high dietary intake which also included the intake of β-carotene, rather than the result of overconsumption of food supplements. Diets mainly included folate from natural sources, which has no associated risk.

  9. Effects of human opiorphin on food intake and water intake in mice following central administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Tian, Xiao-Zhu; Bai, Lu; Liu, Ze-Qi; Xiao, Xing-Peng; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiang-Kai

    2017-02-22

    Human opiorphin plays an important pharmacological functions in rats or mice. The present study was performed to investigate effects and underlying mechanism of central injected opiorphin on food intake and water intake in mice. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered opiorphin (5-20μg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed food intake in fasted mice, but had no influence on food intake in freely feeding mice. The cumulative food intake was significantly decreased at 60min after injection of 10 and 20μg/kg opiorphin and the food intake was significantly reduced during the 20-60min period after treatment. Non-selected opiate receptor antagonist naloxone could fully block the inhibitory effect induced by opiorphin on cumulative food intake at 60min in fasted mice, suggesting that the anorexic effect of opiorphin was related to the opioid system. Moreover, the anorexic effect induced by opiorphin in fasted mice was also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with captopril or valsartan, which suggested that endogenous angiotensin may be involved in the response to opiorphin. Interestingly, the effect of opiorphin on water intake was increased in both fasted and freely feeding mice, which was completely blocked by captopril and valsartan. Furthermore, naloxone did not modify the effect of opiorphin on water intake. All together, the food and water intake effects of opiorphin may be due to the protection of the endogenous angiotensin and opioid peptides from degradation by NEP or APN.

  10. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear.

  11. Factors for Healthy Food or Less-Healthy Food Intake among Taiwanese Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2010-01-01

    Little information is available on the prevalence and risk factors for less-healthy food intake among people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aimed to provide the information of healthy or less-healthy food intake among Taiwanese adolescents with ID and to examine the risk factors to their food intake. A cross-sectional data on 1419…

  12. Relationship between Food Intake and Sleep Pattern in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; dos Reis, Bruno Gomes; Diniz, Rafael Marques; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals. Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (27 women and 25 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Volunteers underwent sleep evaluation through nocturnal polysomnography and completed a 3-day food diary to evaluate food intake. Results: No differences in sleep patterns were observed in either gender, except in the percentage of stage 1 sleep, which was greater in men. Different correlations were observed between sleep and dietary variables according to gender. The correlation between dietary and sleep variables in men indicated a negative relationship between nocturnal fat intake and the sleep latency, including REM sleep. The percentage of nocturnal fat intake correlated with sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM latency, stage 2 sleep, REM sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) in women. The percentage of nocturnal caloric intake correlated with sleep latency and efficiency in women. Conclusions: We conclude that food intake during the nocturnal period is correlated with negative effects on the sleep quality of healthy individuals. Indeed, food intake near the sleeping period (dinner and late night snack) was negatively associated with sleep quality variables. More studies are necessary to elucidate the real effect of food intake on sleep. Citation: Crispim CA; Zimberg IZ; dos Reis BG; Diniz RM; Tufik S; de Mello MT. Relationship between food intake and sleep pattern in healthy individuals. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):659-664. PMID:22171206

  13. Histidine suppresses food intake through its conversion into neuronal histamine.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Chiba, Seiichi; Tajima, Daisuke; Akehi, Yuko; Sakata, Toshiie

    2002-01-01

    Hypothalamic neuronal histamine has been shown to regulate feeding behavior and energy metabolism as a target of leptin action in the brain. The present study aimed to examine the involvement of L-histidine, a precursor of neuronal histamine, in the regulation of feeding behavior in rats. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of L-histidine at doses of 0.35 and 0.70 mmol/kg body weight significantly decreased the 24-hr cumulative food and water intakes compared to phosphate buffered saline injected controls (P < 0.05 for each). This suppression of feeding was mimicked dose-dependently by intracerebroventricular infusion of histidine at doses of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 micromol/rat (P < 0.05 for each). Pretreatment of the rats with an ip bolus injection of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine, a suicide inhibitor of a histidine decarboxylase (HDC), at a dosage of 224 micromol/kg blocked the conversion of histidine into histamine and attenuated the suppressive effect of histidine on food intake from 64.2% to 88.1% of the controls (P < 0.05). Administration of 0.35 mmol/kg histidine ip increased the concentration of hypothalamic neuronal histamine compared with the controls (P < 0.05). HDC activity was increased simultaneously by histidine administration compared with the controls (P < 0.05). The present findings indicate that L-histidine suppresses food intake through its conversion into histamine in the hypothalamus.

  14. Neurobiology of food intake in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Morton, Gregory J; Meek, Thomas H; Schwartz, Michael W

    2014-06-01

    Under normal conditions, food intake and energy expenditure are balanced by a homeostatic system that maintains stability of body fat content over time. However, this homeostatic system can be overridden by the activation of 'emergency response circuits' that mediate feeding responses to emergent or stressful stimuli. Inhibition of these circuits is therefore permissive for normal energy homeostasis to occur, and their chronic activation can cause profound, even life-threatening, changes in body fat mass. This Review highlights how the interplay between homeostatic and emergency feeding circuits influences the biologically defended level of body weight under physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  15. Immediate increase in food intake following exercise messages.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Dolores; Wang, Wei; Leeper, Joshua

    2009-07-01

    Communications to stimulate weight loss include exercise-promotion messages that often produce unsatisfactory results due to compensatory behavioral and metabolic mechanisms triggered by physical activity. This research investigated potential automatic facilitation of eating immediately after exercise messages in the absence of actual exercise. Two controlled experiments demonstrated greater than control food intake following exposure to print messages typical of exercise campaigns as well as subliminal presentation of action words associated with exercise (e.g., "active"). These inadvertent effects may explain the limited efficacy of exercise-promotion programs for weight loss, particularly when systematic dietary guidelines are absent.

  16. Food intake reduction and immunologic alterations in mice fed dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Weindruch, R; McFeeters, G; Walford, R L

    1984-01-01

    A diet containing 0.4% DHEA was fed to male mice of a long-lived strain from 3 weeks until 18 weeks of age. These mice were compared with others fed a control diet ad libitum and with mice pair-fed the control diet in amounts approximating the intake of the DHEA-fed group. Mice fed the DHEA diet failed to eat all of the food presented to them whereas the pair-fed mice ate all of their food. All mice were studied at 18 weeks of age for two age-sensitive immune parameters (spleen lymphocyte proliferation induced by T-cell mitogens [PHA or ConA] and natural killer cell lysis of an allogeneic tumor). DHEA feeding led to: 1) a decrease in food intake (approximately 30% less than for mice fed the control diet ad libitum), 2) a lower body weight at 18 weeks of age (approximately 40% lower than for ad libitum controls) due to a decrease in the body weight gained from 3 weeks through 18 weeks of age (approximately 55% lower than controls), 3) a lower spleen weight (approximately 30% lower than controls) but without lower numbers of nucleated cells per spleen, 4) an increase in PHA-induced proliferation by spleen lymphocytes (approximately 100% higher than for controls) and, 5) no influence on splenic natural killer cell activity. The inhibition of body weight gain for mice fed DHEA appeared due to both a reduction in food intake and a metabolic effect since mice eating DHEA gained less body weight per gram of food eaten than did mice in either group eating the control diet.

  17. Timing of food intake and obesity: a novel association.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies link energy regulation to the circadian clock at the behavioral, physiological and molecular levels, emphasizing that the timing of food intake itself may have a significant role in obesity. In this regards, there is emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. Unusual feeding time can produce a disruption of the circadian system which might produce unhealthy consequences in humans. In a longitudinal study, we recently showed that the timing of the main meal was predictive of weight loss during a 20-week dietary intervention and that this effect was independent from total 24-h caloric intake. The importance of caloric distribution across the day on weight loss therapy was supported by a recent 12-week experimental study showing that subjects assigned to high caloric intake during breakfast lost significantly more weight than those assigned to high caloric intake during the dinner. Furthermore, one of the most influential discoveries relevant for this area of research in the last years is the presence of an active circadian clock in different organs related to food intake. This is the case for stomach, intestine, pancreas or liver. New data also suggest that there is a temporal component in the regulation of adipose tissue functions. Thus, a specific temporal order in the daily patterns of adipose tissue genes appears to be crucial for adipose tissue to exclusively either accumulate fat or to mobilize fat at the proper time. Taking into account that feeding is the source of energy for adipose tissue, the time of feeding, particularly for high-energy content meals, may be decisive, and changes in this timing could have metabolic consequences for the development of obesity and for weight loss.

  18. The role of hypothalamic mTORC1 signaling in insulin regulation of food intake, body weight, and sympathetic nerve activity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Muta, Kenjiro; Morgan, Donald A; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2015-04-01

    Insulin action in the brain particularly the hypothalamus is critically involved in the regulation of several physiological processes, including energy homeostasis and sympathetic nerve activity, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is implicated in the control of diverse cellular functions, including sensing nutrients and energy status. Here, we examined the role of hypothalamic mTORC1 in mediating the anorectic, weight-reducing, and sympathetic effects of central insulin action. In a mouse hypothalamic cell line (GT1-7), insulin treatment increased mTORC1 activity in a time-dependent manner. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of insulin to mice activated mTORC1 pathway in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, a key site of central action of insulin. Interestingly, inhibition of hypothalamic mTORC1 with rapamycin reversed the food intake- and body weight-lowering effects of ICV insulin. Rapamycin also abolished the ability of ICV insulin to cause lumbar sympathetic nerve activation. In GT1-7 cells, we found that insulin activation of mTORC1 pathway requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Consistent with this, genetic disruption of PI3K in mice abolished insulin stimulation of hypothalamic mTORC1 signaling as well as the lumbar sympathetic nerve activation evoked by insulin. These results demonstrate the importance of mTORC1 pathway in the hypothalamus in mediating the action of insulin to regulate energy homeostasis and sympathetic nerve traffic. Our data also highlight the key role of PI3K as a link between insulin receptor and mTORC1 signaling in the hypothalamus.

  19. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential exposure to hazardous substances that are present in the environment. For this reason, a thorough analysis of the dietary habits of the American public would aid in the identification of potential exposure pathways. To that end, the EPA developed per capita food intake rates for various food items and food categories using databases developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). These intake rates were incorporated into EPA's 1997 Exposure Factors Handbook. Since that time, EPA has recommended that the food intake study be updated and expanded to include a more comprehensive analysis of food intake. That analysis is presented in this document. The purpose of this study is to characterize the consumption of food by the people of the United States.

  20. Evidence for an interaction between CB1 cannabinoid and oxytocin receptors in food and water intake.

    PubMed

    Verty, A N A; McFarlane, J R; McGregor, I S; Mallet, P E

    2004-09-01

    Oxytocin and CB(1) cannabinoid receptors independently modulate food intake. Although an interaction between oxytocin and cannabinoid systems has been demonstrated with respect to the cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome, the interaction between these systems in modulating food intake has not yet been examined. The present study had three primary purposes: (1) to determine whether oxytocin and a CB(1) receptor antagonist block food and fluid intake in a supra-additive manner, (2) to determine the relative position of the CB(1) receptors in the chain of control of food intake in relation to the oxytocin system, and (3) to determine whether the increase in fluid intake induced by an oxytocin antagonist is mediated via cannabinoid receptors. Rats were habituated to the test environment and injection procedure, and then received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of various combinations of the oxytocin receptor antagonist tocinoic acid, the cannabionid receptor agonist delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), oxytocin, or the cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR 141716. Food and water intake and locomotor activity were then measured for 120 min. When administrated alone, SR 141716 and oxytocin dose-dependently attenuated baseline food intake, while oxytocin but not SR 141716 reduced water intake. Sub-anorectic doses of SR 141716 and oxytocin attenuated baseline feeding beyond what would be expected by the sum of the individual drug effects without affecting baseline water intake. THC stimulated feeding but not water intake. THC-induced feeding was not blocked by oxytocin, however, the oxytocin did attenuate water intake during such feeding. SR 141716 dose-dependently reduced tocinoic-acid-stimulated food intake and partially attenuated water intake. Locomotor activity was not significantly affected by any drug treatments, suggesting that effects on feeding were not due to a non-specific reduction in motivated behaviour. These findings reveal an interaction between

  1. Food intake regulation in children. Fat and sugar substitutes and intake.

    PubMed

    Birch, L L; Fisher, J O

    1997-05-23

    A series of experiments exploring children's responsiveness to manipulations of energy density and macronutrient content of foods have been reviewed to assess the nutritional impact of macronutrient substitutes on children's intake. In these experiments, the focus is on the extent to which the energy content of foods was a salient factor influencing children's food intake, and macronutrient substitutes were used as tools to investigate this issue. Therefore, although several different macronutrient substitutes have been used in this research, we do not have a parametric set of experiments systematically assessing the impact of a variety of macronutrient substitutes. Given this, what can we conclude from the existing data? When the energy density and macronutrient content of foods is altered through the use of macronutrient substitutes that reduce the energy content of foods, children tend to adjust for the missing energy, although this adjustment may be partial and incomplete. This suggests the possibility that when macronutrient substitutes are used to reduce the energy content of foods, children's energy intake may be reduced. This adjustment, however, will most likely be less than a "calorie for calorie" reduction. In addition, even among young children, there are individual differences in the extent to which children adjust their intake in response to macronutrient and energy manipulations. The data are more extensive and particularly clear for cases in which CHO manipulations are used to alter energy density, but there is evidence for adjustments in energy intake in response to alterations of the fat content of the diet. The compensation for energy is not macronutrient specific; that is, when the fat content of food is reduced to reduce energy density of foods, children do not selectively consume fat in subsequent meals. This means that manipulations of macronutrient content of foods that reduce foods' energy content may not result in alterations of energy

  2. Immediate Increase in Food Intake Following Exercise Messages

    PubMed Central

    Albarracin, Dolores; Wang, Wei; Leeper, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Communications to stimulate weight loss include exercise-promotion messages that often produce unsatisfactory results due to compensatory behavioral and metabolic mechanisms triggered by physical activity. This research investigated potential automatic facilitation of eating immediately after exercise messages in the absence of actual exercise. Two controlled experiments demonstrated greater than control food intake following exposure to print messages typical of exercise campaigns as well as subliminal presentation of action words associated with exercise (e.g., “active”). These inadvertent effects may explain the limited efficacy of exercise-promotion programs for weight loss, particularly when systematic dietary guidelines are absent. PMID:19247284

  3. [Food calcium intake in teenager women in Panama].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ortega, Myriam

    2008-09-01

    The adequacy of calcium intake from food and carbonated drinks consumption levels in a Panama City's female adolescents group was studied. We evaluated 180 teenage girls (12-17 years) in two public schools using food frequency questionnaires and a 24-hour food recall. According to the results, milk and cheese were this population's main calcium source. Milk was a food source in 60.5%, while 56.7% indicated that they eat cheese. On average, a once-a-day intake of one of these dairy products was observed in 1/4 of the group. Ice cream and pulses were secondary calcium sources. Yogurt, milk-made meals and beverages, green vegetables, fortified food and sardines were not components of these girls' food habits. The average calcium intake was 440 mg/d +/- 423 according to the food frequency questionnaire and 314 mg/d +/- 255 according to their 24-hour food recall. Calcium's low level intakes are less than 50% of the recommended daily intake for this age group. Carbonated drinks were consumed by 72% of the group and 30% drank one unit daily. Dairy products are the main calcium source for the studied group. However, because of insufficient calcium intake and high consumption of carbonated drinks, the future bone health of these teenage girls is at risk.

  4. Hypothalamic eIF2α Signaling Regulates Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, Anne-Catherine; Benani, Alexandre; Lorsignol, Anne; Brenachot, Xavier; Parry, Laurent; Carraro, Valérie; Guissard, Christophe; Averous, Julien; Jousse, Céline; Bruhat, Alain; Chaveroux, Cédric; B’chir, Wafa; Muranishi, Yuki; Ron, David; Pénicaud, Luc; Fafournoux, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Summary The reversible phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) is a highly conserved signal implicated in the cellular adaptation to numerous stresses such as the one caused by amino acid limitation. In response to dietary amino acid deficiency, the brain-specific activation of the eIF2α kinase GCN2 leads to food intake inhibition. We report here that GCN2 is rapidly activated in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) after consumption of a leucine-deficient diet. Furthermore, knockdown of GCN2 in this particular area shows that MBH GCN2 activity controls the onset of the aversive response. Importantly, pharmacological experiments demonstrate that the sole phosphorylation of eIF2α in the MBH is sufficient to regulate food intake. eIF2α signaling being at the crossroad of stress pathways activated in several pathological states, our study indicates that hypothalamic eIF2α phosphorylation could play a critical role in the onset of anorexia associated with certain diseases. PMID:24485657

  5. Effect of intravenous nutrient infusions on food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Walls, E K; Koopmans, H S

    1989-06-01

    To assess the effect of gut signals on food intake two types of nutrients were infused intravenously for 17.5 hours in 17 hour fed rats. In the first experiment a solution of 25% d-glucose and 4.25% amino acids (Travasol) was infused at levels of 26 and 52 kcal/day for two consecutive four-day periods. During infusion periods, food intake was reduced from saline baseline levels by 18.9 +/- 1.7 and 34.8 +/- 1.8 kcal/day, respectively. This represents an oral intake reduction of approximately 70% of the infused calories. In contrast, food intake was reduced 17.4 +/- 1.7 kcal/day below saline baseline levels when 40 kcal of Nutralipid were infused. The reduction in food intake was only 43% of the lipid calories infused. These results indicate that infusions of glucose and amino acids are more effective than infusion of fats in inhibiting daily food intake, that gut signals associated with absorption of fat provide important satiety signals and that removal of fat from the bloodstream has relatively little effect on daily food intake.

  6. Job Stress and Neuropeptide Response Contributing to Food Intake Regulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Woong; Won, Yong Lim; Ko, Kyung Sun; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the correlations between food intake behavior and job stress level and neuropeptide hormone concentrations. Job strain and food intake behavior were first identified using a self-reported questionnaire, concentrations of neuropeptide hormones (adiponectin, brain derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], leptin, and ghrelin) were determined, and the correlations were analyzed. In the results, job strain showed significant correlations with adiponectin (odds ratio [OR], 1.220; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001~1.498; p < 0.05) and BDNF (OR, 0.793; 95% CI, 0.646~0.974; p < 0.05), and ghrelin exhibited a significant correlation with food intake score (OR, 0.911; 95% CI, 0.842~0.985, p < 0.05). These results suggest that job stress affects food intake regulation by altering the physiological concentrations of neuropeptide hormones as well as emotional status.

  7. Job Stress and Neuropeptide Response Contributing to Food Intake Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Woong; Won, Yong Lim; Ko, Kyung Sun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the correlations between food intake behavior and job stress level and neuropeptide hormone concentrations. Job strain and food intake behavior were first identified using a self-reported questionnaire, concentrations of neuropeptide hormones (adiponectin, brain derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], leptin, and ghrelin) were determined, and the correlations were analyzed. In the results, job strain showed significant correlations with adiponectin (odds ratio [OR], 1.220; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001~1.498; p < 0.05) and BDNF (OR, 0.793; 95% CI, 0.646~0.974; p < 0.05), and ghrelin exhibited a significant correlation with food intake score (OR, 0.911; 95% CI, 0.842~0.985, p < 0.05). These results suggest that job stress affects food intake regulation by altering the physiological concentrations of neuropeptide hormones as well as emotional status. PMID:26877843

  8. Dairy food at the first occasion of eating is important for total dairy food intake for Australian children.

    PubMed

    Riley, Malcolm D; Baird, Danielle L; Hendrie, Gilly A

    2014-09-23

    The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%-138%) greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%-37%). Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children's intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent.

  9. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2007-10

    Cancer.gov

    We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the NHANES to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

  10. Full amino acid sequence of centrally administered NPY required for maximal food intake response.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, C L; Tou, J S; Rogan, G J; Baile, C A

    1991-03-01

    Central administration of NPY (1-36) potently increases food intake and it has been hypothesized that biological activities of NPY are related to its ability to form an alpha-helix, represented by the fragment NPY (14-31). In this experiment the necessity of N-terminal fragments for increasing food intake was evaluated. Two-h fasted male rats were administered 0, 0.2, 1.0 or 5.0 nmol NPY (1-36) or NPY fragments in 5 microliters saline ICV and intake of lab chow pellets was measured for 22 h. Fragments containing all or part of the polyproline-like helix [NPY (1-8)] antiparallel to the alpha-helix dose-relatedly increased food intake for 4 hours after injection. Five nmol NPY (1-36) and NPY (2-36) increased 4-hour food intake 486 and 219%, respectively (p less than 0.05). Fragments excluding the first 8 amino acids but including all of the alpha-helix also increased food intake, but the response was much reduced. Five nmol NPY (9-36) and NPY (14-36) increased 4-hour food intake 128% (p = 0.02) and 62% (NS), respectively. When all or part of the alpha-helix was excluded, no activity was detected, i.e., NPY (21-36) and NPY (32-36). Substitution of dPro for lPro in position 2 increased potency but not efficacy of NPY since food intake was increased at the 0.2 and 1.0 but not 5.0 nmol doses and the percent increase was not more than to 5 nmol NPY (1-36). Thus the maximum food intake response to NPY requires both C-terminal and N-terminal fragments as well as the alpha-helix.

  11. Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, Antonio; Bosco, Gerardo; Camporesi, Enrico M.; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Though the hunger-reduction phenomenon reported during ketogenic diets is well-known, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain uncertain. Ketosis has been demonstrated to exert an anorexigenic effect via cholecystokinin (CCK) release while reducing orexigenic signals e.g., via ghrelin. However, ketone bodies (KB) seem to be able to increase food intake through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the release and production of adiponectin. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of our current knowledge of the effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on food control in an effort to unify the apparently contradictory data into a coherent picture. PMID:25698989

  12. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake.

  13. NPY Y1 receptor is involved in ghrelin- and fasting-induced increases in foraging, food hoarding, and food intake.

    PubMed

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J

    2007-04-01

    Fasting triggers a constellation of physiological and behavioral changes, including increases in peripherally produced ghrelin and centrally produced hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY). Refeeding stimulates food intake in most species; however, hamsters primarily increase foraging and food hoarding with smaller increases in food intake. Fasting-induced increases in foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters are mimicked by peripheral ghrelin, central NPY, and NPY Y1 receptor agonist injections. Because fasting stimulates ghrelin and subsequently NPY synthesis/release, it may be that fasting-induced increased hoarding is mediated by NPY Y1 receptor activation. Therefore, we asked: Can an Y1 receptor antagonist block fasting- or ghrelin-induced increases in foraging, food hoarding, and food intake? This was accomplished by injecting the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist 1229U91 intracerebroventricularly in hamsters fasted, fed, or given peripheral ghrelin injections and housed in a running wheel-based food delivery foraging system coupled with simulated-burrow housing. Three foraging conditions were used: 1) no running wheel access, free food, 2) running wheel access, free food, or 3) foraging requirement (10 revolutions/pellet) for food. Fasting was a more potent stimulator of foraging and food hoarding than ghrelin. Concurrent injections of 1229U91 completely blocked fasting- and ghrelin-induced increased foraging and food intake and attenuated, but did not always completely block, fasting- and ghrelin-induced increases in food hoarding. Collectively, these data suggest that the NPY Y1 receptor is important for the effects of ghrelin- and fasting-induced increases in foraging and food intake, but other NPY receptors and/or other neurochemical systems are involved in increases in food hoarding.

  14. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake. PMID:24744741

  15. Morning sickness and salt intake, food cravings, and food aversions.

    PubMed

    Crystal, S R; Bowen, D J; Bernstein, I L

    1999-08-01

    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults and as infants. To determine whether the association between early pregnancy sickness and salt preference of offspring is secondary to familiar similarity in salt preference, the present study examined the self-reported salt intake and dietary cravings and aversions of pregnant women. Women who reported little or no vomiting (n = 108) were compared to women who reported moderate to severe vomiting (n = 21) during pregnancy. The women's self-reported salt use and reported cravings and aversions for common food were measured via survey for time periods prior to and during their current pregnancy. Women did not differ in reported salt use prior to pregnancy as a function of their pregnancy symptoms. Women reported more aversions during, than prior to, pregnancy (p < 0.05). Women with more severe vomiting reported a greater number of aversions (p < 0.05) both prior to and during pregnancy. There was a significant association between experiencing cravings and aversions prior to pregnancy and experiencing craving and aversions during pregnancy (p < 0.05). These findings do not provide evidence for an association between dietary levels of sodium and the likelihood of experiencing severe pregnancy symptoms. Therefore, these data do not support the suggestion that reported elevations in salt preference in offspring of women with moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy are mediated by familial dietary practices.

  16. Leptin intake during lactation prevents obesity and affects food intake and food preferences in later life.

    PubMed

    Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2009-02-01

    Breast milk is practically the only food ingested during the first months of life in fully breastfed infants and it is assumed to match the infant's nutritional needs. Epidemiological data suggest that breastfeeding compared with infant formula feeding confers protection against several chronic diseases later on in life and, particularly, against obesity and related medical complications. However, causality has not been related to any specific compound of breast milk. Recent data in our laboratory have identified leptin as the specific compound that is responsible for some of these beneficial effects of breastfeeding. The hormone leptin was identified as a key candidate because it is present in breast milk, but is not present in infant formula, and when ingested during the suckling period can be absorbed by the immature stomach exerting biological effects. Evidence of the beneficial effects of breast milk leptin was obtained from human studies, showing that milk-borne maternal leptin appeared to give moderate protection to infants from excess weight gain. Direct cause-effect evidence was obtained in rats, where oral leptin supplementation during the suckling period resulted in a decrease in food intake, affected food preferences in favour of carbohydrates versus fat, and protected against overweight in adulthood, with an improvement of related parameters such as leptin and insulin sensitivity. These findings open a new area of research on the use of leptin in the design of more appropriate infant formula, which is significant considering the increasing incidence of obesity and its associated medical complications.

  17. Phytate in foods and significance for humans: food sources, intake, processing, bioavailability, protective role and analysis.

    PubMed

    Schlemmer, Ulrich; Frølich, Wenche; Prieto, Rafel M; Grases, Felix

    2009-09-01

    The article gives an overview of phytic acid in food and of its significance for human nutrition. It summarises phytate sources in foods and discusses problems of phytic acid/phytate contents of food tables. Data on phytic acid intake are evaluated and daily phytic acid intake depending on food habits is assessed. Degradation of phytate during gastro-intestinal passage is summarised, the mechanism of phytate interacting with minerals and trace elements in the gastro-intestinal chyme described and the pathway of inositol phosphate hydrolysis in the gut presented. The present knowledge of phytate absorption is summarised and discussed. Effects of phytate on mineral and trace element bioavailability are reported and phytate degradation during processing and storage is described. Beneficial activities of dietary phytate such as its effects on calcification and kidney stone formation and on lowering blood glucose and lipids are reported. The antioxidative property of phytic acid and its potentional anticancerogenic activities are briefly surveyed. Development of the analysis of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates is described, problems of inositol phosphate determination and detection discussed and the need for standardisation of phytic acid analysis in foods argued.

  18. Effect of palmitoylated prolactin-releasing peptide on food intake and neural activation after different routes of peripheral administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Mikulášková, Barbora; Zemenová, Jana; Pirník, Zdenko; Pražienková, Veronika; Bednárová, Lucie; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating epidemic, but an effective non-invasive therapy is still scarce. For obesity treatment, anorexigenic neuropeptides are promising tools, but their delivery from the periphery to the brain is complicated by their peptide character. In order to overcome this unfavorable fact, we have applied the lipidization of neuropeptide prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), whose strong anorexigenic effect was demonstrated. A palmitoylated analog of human PrRP (h palm-PrRP31) was injected in free-fed Wistar rats by three routes: subcutaneous (s.c.), intraperitoneal (i.p) (both 5 mg/kg) and intravenous (i.v.) (from 0.01 to 0.5 mg/kg). We found a circulating compound in the blood after all three applications with the highest concentration after i.v. administration. This corresponds to the effect on food intake, which was also strongest after i.v. injection. Moreover, this is in agreement with the fact that the expression of c-Fos in specific brain regions involved in food intake regulation was also highest after intravenous application. Pharmacokinetic data are further supported by results obtained from dynamic light scattering and CD spectroscopy. Human palm-PrRP31 analog showed a strong tendency to micellize, and formation of aggregates suggested lower availability after i.p. or s.c. application. We have demonstrated that palm-PrRP influenced food intake even in free fed rats. Not surprisingly, the maximal effect was achieved after the intravenous application even though two orders of magnitude lower dose was used compared to both two other applications. We believe that palm-PrRP could have a potential as an antiobesity drug when its s.c. application would be improved.

  19. Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Physical Activity, Food Intake, Eating Behaviors, Psychological Health, and Modeled Change in Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harbron, Janetta; van der Merwe, Lize; Zaahl, Monique G.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Senekal, Marjanne

    2014-01-01

    The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085–rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire), psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory), and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire). The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores), a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation. PMID:25102252

  20. Measuring Food Intake and Nutrient Absorption in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Amaro, Rafael L; Valentine, Elizabeth R; Carretero, Maria; LeBoeuf, Sarah E; Rangaraju, Sunitha; Broaddus, Caroline D; Solis, Gregory M; Williamson, James R; Petrascheck, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a powerful model to study the genetics of feeding, food-related behaviors, and metabolism. Despite the many advantages of C. elegans as a model organism, direct measurement of its bacterial food intake remains challenging. Here, we describe two complementary methods that measure the food intake of C. elegans. The first method is a microtiter plate-based bacterial clearing assay that measures food intake by quantifying the change in the optical density of bacteria over time. The second method, termed pulse feeding, measures the absorption of food by tracking de novo protein synthesis using a novel metabolic pulse-labeling strategy. Using the bacterial clearance assay, we compare the bacterial food intake of various C. elegans strains and show that long-lived eat mutants eat substantially more than previous estimates. To demonstrate the applicability of the pulse-feeding assay, we compare the assimilation of food for two C. elegans strains in response to serotonin. We show that serotonin-increased feeding leads to increased protein synthesis in a SER-7-dependent manner, including proteins known to promote aging. Protein content in the food has recently emerged as critical factor in determining how food composition affects aging and health. The pulse-feeding assay, by measuring de novo protein synthesis, represents an ideal method to unequivocally establish how the composition of food dictates protein synthesis. In combination, these two assays provide new and powerful tools for C. elegans research to investigate feeding and how food intake affects the proteome and thus the physiology and health of an organism.

  1. Gender bias in food intake favors male preschool Guatemalan children.

    PubMed

    Frongillo, E A; Bégin, F

    1993-02-01

    Gender bias in food intake and its subsequent effects on growth and illness were examined using data from rural Guatemalan children. Multiple regression controlled for energy requirements, illness, and maternal and economic factors. Gender bias in energy and protein intake favored boys; the magnitude for ages 2-5 y was 247 kJ/d. Analysis of subsequent effects showed that boys had higher rates of weight gain due to gender bias in energy intake than did girls for ages 1-2 y (0.27-0.97 kg/y), when there were no differences in illness rates due to gender bias in energy intake. For age 3-5 y, boys and girls did not differ in weight gain due to gender bias in energy intake. For ages 1-2 y for weight and stature, the growth rate for boys was faster than that of girls by 6-49% due to gender bias. This study provides evidence of gender bias in food intake in a Latin American population, but more work on the existence of and reasons for gender bias in food intake is needed before advocating that education or health programs should focus on this issue.

  2. Plasma ghrelin concentrations, food intake, and anorexia in liver failure.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, Giulio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Lucidi, Paola; Villanova, Nicola; Zoli, Marco; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2004-05-01

    Ghrelin is related to feeding behavior and nutrition in several physiological and pathological conditions. We tested the hypothesis that the anorexia and the decreased food intake of advanced liver failure might be associated with hyperghrelinemia. Fasting ghrelin was measured in 43 cirrhotic patients, food intake was self-assessed using the Corli score and a 3-d dietary record (n = 25), and anorexia/hunger was tested by a Likert scale. Fifty healthy subjects, matched for age and body mass index, served as controls. Ghrelin levels were not systematically increased in cirrhosis (414 +/- 164 vs. 398 +/- 142 pmol/liter in controls) but increased with decreasing Corli score (P = 0.014) and along the scale of anorexia/hunger (P = 0.0001), which were both related to the 3-d dietary record (P = 0.009 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Logistical regression confirmed that high ghrelin (>500 pmol/liter) was significantly associated with a low calorie intake [odds ratio (OR), 3.03 for any 100-calorie reduced intake; P = 0.015], a reduced Corli score (OR, 3.09; P = 0.031), and the anorexia score (OR, 3.37; P = 0.009), after adjustment for body mass index. The study confirms the previously observed relationship of fasting ghrelin with food intake in disease-associated malnutrition. In the presence of anorexia, hyperghrelinemia might indicate a compensatory mechanism trying to stimulate food intake, which is nonetheless ineffective in the physiological range.

  3. The control of food intake of free-living humans: putting the pieces back together.

    PubMed

    de Castro, John M

    2010-07-14

    The control of food intake has been studied using reductionism; by separately investigating environmental, physiological, and genetic variables. The general model of intake regulation attempts to reassemble the pieces into an organized whole. It postulates that intake is influenced by sets of both physiological factors which have negative feedback loops to intake and environmental factors which do not. Data and behavioral genetic analysis on a number of environmental, psychological, dietary, and social variables demonstrate that they have large impacts on the intake of free-living humans in their everyday environments and their magnitude and impact on intake are influenced by heredity. Recent evidence of built environment influences on activity and intake further indicate the profound influence of environmental circumstances on both intake and expenditure. A computer simulation of the general model of intake regulation demonstrates that the model predicts different maintained levels of intake and body weight depending upon the external environment and that change in the environment can produce new sustained levels. It is suggested that eating is influenced by a myriad of physiological and non-physiological factors and that total intake results from the integral of their influences. It is concluded that recombining the components broken down in the reductionistic process results in a functional whole that can well describe human behavior in natural environments. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009.

  4. Caloric density affects food hoarding and intake by Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wood, A D; Bartness, T J

    1996-01-01

    Siberian hamsters respond to food deprivation or restriction by increasing their food hoarding and do so proportionately to the degree of body mass (fat) loss. These data suggest that Siberian hamsters integrate their internally stored energy as body fat with their externally stored energy as hoarded food such that when internal energy stores are decreased, external stores are increased. The purpose of the present experiments was to test whether the caloric value of the food hoard is regulated. This was accomplished by challenging the hamsters with diets of varying caloric density and assessing whether their hoarded food is changed accordingly. Specifically, in Experiment 1 hamsters were switched from the control food pellets to a diet where the caloric density was increased by creating a high fat diet (HFD). In Experiment 2, the caloric density of the control diet was decreased by diluting it with cellulose such that 25% and 50% (kcal/wt) reduced calorie diets (RCDs) were created. HFD-fed hamsters decreased their food hoarding, increased their body mass, and decreased the grams of food eaten, but not enough to compensate exactly for the increased caloric density of the diet. When refed the control diet, food hoarding increased to pre-HFD levels as body mass and food intake decreased. RCD feeding resulted in caloric density-dependent effects on all measures. Food hoarding and intake (grams and calories) increased when hamsters were given the 25% RCD and did so to an even greater degree when given the 50% RCD. Thus, Siberian hamsters responded to increases or decreases in the caloric density of their food by attempting to regulate the number of calories hoarded and eaten; however, the adjustments in food hoarding: 1) were not precise, 2) were largely opposite of food intake, 3) tended to be inversely related to body mass and 4) were caloric density dependent.

  5. Serotonin reciprocally regulates melanocortin neurons to modulate food intake.

    PubMed

    Heisler, Lora K; Jobst, Erin E; Sutton, Gregory M; Zhou, Ligang; Borok, Erzsebet; Thornton-Jones, Zoe; Liu, Hong Yan; Zigman, Jeffrey M; Balthasar, Nina; Kishi, Toshiro; Lee, Charlotte E; Aschkenasi, Carl J; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Yu, Jia; Boss, Olivier; Mountjoy, Kathleen G; Clifton, Peter G; Lowell, Bradford B; Friedman, Jeffrey M; Horvath, Tamas; Butler, Andrew A; Elmquist, Joel K; Cowley, Michael A

    2006-07-20

    The neural pathways through which central serotonergic systems regulate food intake and body weight remain to be fully elucidated. We report that serotonin, via action at serotonin1B receptors (5-HT1BRs), modulates the endogenous release of both agonists and antagonists of the melanocortin receptors, which are a core component of the central circuitry controlling body weight homeostasis. We also show that serotonin-induced hypophagia requires downstream activation of melanocortin 4, but not melanocortin 3, receptors. These results identify a primary mechanism underlying the serotonergic regulation of energy balance and provide an example of a centrally derived signal that reciprocally regulates melanocortin receptor agonists and antagonists in a similar manner to peripheral adiposity signals.

  6. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size.

  7. Hippocampal GLP-1 receptors influence food intake, meal size, and effort-based responding for food through volume transmission.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ted M; Hahn, Joel D; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Lam, Ashley; Kanoski, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in the small intestines and in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons. Activation of central GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) reduces feeding and body weight. The neural circuits mediating these effects are only partially understood. Here we investigate the inhibition of food intake and motivated responding for food in rats following GLP-1R activation in the ventral hippocampal formation (HPFv), a region only recently highlighted in food intake control. Increased HPFv GLP-1R activity following exendin-4 administration potently reduced food intake (both chow and Western diet) and body weight, whereas HPFv GLP-1R blockade increased food intake. These hypophagic effects were based on reduced meal size, and likely do not involve nausea as HPFv exendin-4 did not induce a conditioned flavor avoidance. HPFv GLP-1R activation also reduced effort-based responding for food under an operant progressive ratio reinforcement schedule, but did not affect food conditioned place preference expression. To investigate possible routes of HPFv GLP-1 signaling, immunohistochemical analysis revealed the absence of GLP-1 axon terminals in the HPFv, suggesting volume transmission as a mechanism of action. Consistent with this, the presence of active GLP-1 was detected in both the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the HPFv. The source of CSF GLP-1 may be NTS GLP-1-producing neurons, as, (1) ∼30% of NTS GLP-1 neurons colocalized with the retrograde tracer fluorogold (FG) following lateral ventricle FG injection, and (2) GLP-1-immunoreactive axon terminals were observed adjacent to the ventricular ependymal layer. Collectively these findings illuminate novel neuronal and behavioral mechanisms mediating food intake reduction by GLP-1.

  8. Hippocampal GLP-1 Receptors Influence Food Intake, Meal Size, and Effort-Based Responding for Food through Volume Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ted M; Hahn, Joel D; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Lam, Ashley; Kanoski, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in the small intestines and in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons. Activation of central GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) reduces feeding and body weight. The neural circuits mediating these effects are only partially understood. Here we investigate the inhibition of food intake and motivated responding for food in rats following GLP-1R activation in the ventral hippocampal formation (HPFv), a region only recently highlighted in food intake control. Increased HPFv GLP-1R activity following exendin-4 administration potently reduced food intake (both chow and Western diet) and body weight, whereas HPFv GLP-1R blockade increased food intake. These hypophagic effects were based on reduced meal size, and likely do not involve nausea as HPFv exendin-4 did not induce a conditioned flavor avoidance. HPFv GLP-1R activation also reduced effort-based responding for food under an operant progressive ratio reinforcement schedule, but did not affect food conditioned place preference expression. To investigate possible routes of HPFv GLP-1 signaling, immunohistochemical analysis revealed the absence of GLP-1 axon terminals in the HPFv, suggesting volume transmission as a mechanism of action. Consistent with this, the presence of active GLP-1 was detected in both the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the HPFv. The source of CSF GLP-1 may be NTS GLP-1-producing neurons, as, (1) ∼30% of NTS GLP-1 neurons colocalized with the retrograde tracer fluorogold (FG) following lateral ventricle FG injection, and (2) GLP-1-immunoreactive axon terminals were observed adjacent to the ventricular ependymal layer. Collectively these findings illuminate novel neuronal and behavioral mechanisms mediating food intake reduction by GLP-1. PMID:25035078

  9. Effects of caffeine and Bombesin on ethanol and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Dietze, M.A.; Kulkosky, P.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The methylxanthine caffeine and ethyl alcohol are widely used and powerful psychotropic drugs, but their interactions are not well understood. Bombesin is a brain-gut neuropeptide which is thought to function as a neurochemical factor in the inhibitory control of voluntary alcohol ingestion. We assessed the effects of combinations of intraperitoneal doses of caffeine and bombesin on 5% w/v ethanol solution and food intake in deprived rats. Deprived male and female Wistar rats received access to 5% ethanol or Purina chow for 30 minutes after i.p. injections. In single doses, CAF and BBS significantly decreased both ethanol and food consumption, at 50 mg/kg and 10 {mu}g/kg, respectively. CAF and BBS combinations produced infra-additive, or less-than-expected inhibitory effects on ethanol intake, but simple additive inhibitory effects on food intake. This experimental evidence suggests a reciprocal blocking of effects of CAF and BBS on ethanol intake but not food intake. Caffeine, when interacting and bombesin, increases alcohol consumption beyond expected values. Caffeine could affect the operation of endogenous satisfy signals for alcohol consumption.

  10. The parallel impact of episodic memory and episodic future thinking on food intake.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Chen, William H; Reily, Natalie M; Castel, Alan D

    2016-06-01

    This research examined the effects of both episodic memory and episodic future thinking (EFT) on snack food intake. In Study 1, female participants (n = 158) were asked to recall their lunch from earlier in the day, to think about the dinner they planned to have later in the day, or to think about a non-food activity before taking part in a cookie taste test. Participants who recalled their lunch or who thought about their dinner ate less than did participants who thought about non-food activities. These effects were not explained by group differences in the hedonic value of the food. Study 2 examined whether the suppression effect observed in Study 1 was driven by a general health consciousness. Female participants (n = 74) were asked to think about their past or future exercise (or a non-exercise activity), but thinking about exercise had no impact on participants' cookie consumption. Overall, both thinking about past food intake and imagining future food intake had the same suppression effect on participants' current food intake, but further research is needed to determine the underlying mechanism.

  11. Modest changes in dietary intake across the menstrual cycle: implications for food intake research.

    PubMed

    Bryant, M; Truesdale, K P; Dye, L

    2006-11-01

    Food intake varies across the menstrual cycle in mammals, energy intake usually being greater in the premenstrual phase compared with the postmenstrual phase. Premenstrual increments in energy intake and a preferential selection of carbohydrate have been suggested to be greater in women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS), who may be more sensitive to cyclical hormonal or neurotransmitter fluctuations. This has direct implications for research within populations of women, especially where the primary outcome is diet or a change in energy balance. We aimed to determine whether: the premenstrual intake of energy and macronutrients differed from the postmenstrual intake; the change in intake across the menstrual cycle differed in women with PMS compared with controls; and the change in intake was related to the severity of premenstrual symptoms. We collected 3 d dietary intake data during the postmenstrual and premenstrual phases of the menstrual cycle in thirty-one women with PMS and twenty-seven control women. The consumption of energy and macronutrient intake were similar between the phases of the cycle in women with PMS. Conversely, intakes were usually greater premenstrually in control women, although not all differences were statistically significant. Exceptions were with non-milk extrinsic sugars and alcohol, which were both consumed in greater amounts in the premenstrual phase in women with PMS. Significant correlations were observed between the severity of symptoms and the change in the consumption of these nutrients. These data suggest that a consideration of the menstrual cycle phase and PMS in diet may not be warranted, especially in cross-sectional analysis, although it may need to be taken into account when examining change in intake during dietary interventions.

  12. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  13. Soda Consumption During Ad Libitum Food Intake Predicts Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Bundrick, Sarah C.; Thearle, Marie S.; Venti, Colleen A.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index [BMI] 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20%) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=–0.27, P=0.0001), and choosing low-fat foods (r=−0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  14. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  15. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin, Xiu-Jing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-08-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ((232)Th, (228)Th, (230)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, and (40)K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: (232)Th, 0.00-0.23; (228)Th, 0.00-2.04; (230)Th, 0.00-0.26; (228)Ra, 0.02-2.73; (226)Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and (40)K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 muSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was (40)K. These values were same level compiled in other countries.

  16. Macronutrient intake and food sources in the very old: analysis of the Newcastle 85+ Study.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Nuno; Hill, Tom R; Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Collerton, Joanna; Mathers, John C; Siervo, Mario; Wrieden, Wendy L; Seal, Chris J; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Jagger, Carol; Adamson, Ashley J

    2016-06-01

    Food and nutrient intake data are scarce in very old adults (85 years and older) - one of the fastest growing age segments of Western societies, including the UK. Our primary objective was to assess energy and macronutrient intakes and respective food sources in 793 85-year-olds (302 men and 491 women) living in North-East England and participating in the Newcastle 85+ cohort Study. Dietary information was collected using a repeated multiple-pass recall (2×24 h recalls). Energy, macronutrient and NSP intakes were estimated, and the contribution (%) of food groups to nutrient intake was calculated. The median energy intake was 6·65 (interquartile ranges (IQR) 5·49-8·16) MJ/d - 46·8 % was from carbohydrates, 36·8 % from fats and 15·7 % from proteins. NSP intake was 10·2 g/d (IQR 7·3-13·7). NSP intake was higher in non-institutionalised, more educated, from higher social class and more physically active 85-year-olds. Cereals and cereal products were the top contributors to intakes of energy and most macronutrients (carbohydrates, non-milk extrinsic sugars, NSP and fat), followed by meat and meat products. The median intakes of energy and NSP were much lower than the estimated average requirement for energy (9·6 MJ/d for men and 7·7 MJ/d for women) and the dietary reference value (DRV) for NSP (≥18 g/d). The median SFA intake was higher than the DRV (≤11 % of dietary energy). This study highlights the paucity of data on dietary intake and the uncertainties about DRV for this age group.

  17. Sensory influences on food intake control: moving beyond palatability.

    PubMed

    McCrickerd, K; Forde, C G

    2016-01-01

    The sensory experience of eating is an important determinant of food intake control, often attributed to the positive hedonic response associated with certain sensory cues. However, palatability is just one aspect of the sensory experience. Sensory cues based on a food's sight, smell, taste and texture are operational before, during and after an eating event. The focus of this review is to look beyond palatability and highlight recent advances in our understanding of how certain sensory characteristics can be used to promote better energy intake control. We consider the role of visual and odour cues in identifying food in the near environment, guiding food choice and memory for eating, and highlight the ways in which tastes and textures influence meal size and the development of satiety after consumption. Considering sensory characteristics as a functional feature of the foods and beverages we consume provides the opportunity for research to identify how sensory enhancements might be combined with energy reduction in otherwise palatable foods to optimize short-term energy intake regulation in the current food environment. Moving forward, the challenge for sensory nutritional science will be to assess the longer-term impact of these principles on weight management.

  18. Food cravings, food intake, and weight status in a community-based sample.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ariana; Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this study were to 1) determine the relationships between BMI and the frequency of food cravings for different categories of foods, 2) examine the associations between cravings for different types of foods and self-reported, habitual intake of these foods, and 3) assess how these relationships differ by BMI. Six hundred and forty-six participants (55.7% female; 66.4% White; mean age 29.5±9.1 years; mean BMI 27.3±5.5 kg/m(2)) completed a comprehensive assessment battery including the Food Craving Inventory (FCI) and a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). There was a significant positive relationship between BMI and food cravings. There were significant positive associations of cravings for sweets, high fats, carbohydrates/starches, and fast-food fats on respective intake of these types of foods; however, there were no significant interactions between food cravings and BMI on the respective type of food intake. This study indicates significant positive relationships between specific categories of food cravings and habitual intake of those foods.

  19. Incorporation of air into a snack food reduces energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Osterholt, Kathrin M.; Roe, Liane S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how the air content of a familiar snack food affected energy intake and whether varying the method of serving the snack modified intake. We tested two versions of an extruded snack (cheese puffs) that were equal in energy density (5.7 kcal/g), but differed in energy per volume (less-aerated snack: 1.00 kcal/ml; more- aerated snack: 0.45 kcal/ml). In a within-subjects design, 16 women and 12 men consumed the snacks ad libitum in the laboratory during four afternoon sessions. A standard volume (1250 ml) of each snack was served once in a bowl and once in an opaque bag. Results showed that intake of the two snacks differed significantly by energy (p=0.0003) and volume (p<0.0001); subjects consumed 21% less weight and energy (70±17 kcal) of the more-aerated snack than the less-aerated snack, although they consumed a 73% greater volume of the more-aerated snack (239±24 ml). These findings suggest that subjects responded to both the weight and volume of the snack. Despite differences in intake, hunger and fullness ratings did not differ across conditions. The serving method did not significantly affect intake. Results from this study indicate that incorporating air into food provides a strategy to reduce energy intake from energy-dense snacks. PMID:17188782

  20. Radioactive contamination of food and the intake by man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frissel, M. J.; Blaauboer, R. O.; Köster, H. W.; Leenhouts, H. P.; Stoutjesdijk, J. F.; Vaas, L. H.

    This paper describes the different pathways by which food is contaminated after a release of radionuclides into the environment. Equations to calculate the contamination level, as well as the most important parameters used in these equations, are included. Thereupon is explained how the radiation dose can be calculated from the intake of radioactivity. The principles which are used to derive criteria for the amounts of radioactivity which are allowed in food are described.

  1. Agouti-related protein increases food hoarding more than food intake in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Day, Diane E; Bartness, Timothy J

    2004-01-01

    Agouti-related protein (AgRP), an endogenous melanocortin 3/4 receptor antagonist, appears to play an important role in the control of food intake and energy balance because exogenous administration in rats and overexpression in mice result in hyperphagia and body mass gain. Furthermore, arcuate nucleus AgRP mRNA is increased with fasting in laboratory rats and mice and is decreased with refeeding. In Siberian hamsters, fasting also increases arcuate nucleus AgRP mRNA, but these animals increase food hoarding, rather than food intake with refeeding. Therefore, we tested whether exogenous AgRP increased food hoarding in this species. Hamsters were trained in a hoarding/foraging apparatus to run a programmed number of wheel revolutions to earn food pellets. Four doses of AgRP-(83-132) or vehicle were injected into the third ventricle at the beginning of the dark phase, and food hoarding, food intake, and foraging were measured at various time points subsequently. Overall, food hoarding was stimulated as much as 10 times more than food intake, and both responses occurred as early as 1 h after injection. Food hoarding was increased the greatest at the lowest dose (0.1 nmol), whereas food intake was increased the greatest at the second lowest dose (1 nmol). Food intake and especially food hoarding were increased up to seven days after the AgRP injections. Foraging was increased at all AgRP doses except the highest dose (100 nmol). These results suggest that AgRP triggers the search for food in this species, and once they find it, hoarding predominates over eating.

  2. Nesfatin-1 - More than a food intake regulatory peptide.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Nesfatin-1 was discovered a decade ago and despite the fact that it represents just one of a multitude of food intake-inhibiting factors it received increasing attention. This led to a detailed characterization of NUCB2/nesfatin-1's physiological property to reduce food intake and also gave rise to an involvement in the long term regulation of body weight, especially under conditions of obesity. In addition, studies indicated the involvement of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in other homeostatic functions as well: glucose homeostasis, water intake, gastrointestinal functions, temperature regulation, cardiovascular functions, puberty onset and sleep. These pleiotropic actions underline the physiological relevance of this peptide. Recently, the involvement of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in psychiatric disorders such as anxiety has been investigated giving rise to the speculation that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 represents a peptidergic link between eating and anxiety/depression disorders.

  3. Epidemiological study on food intake and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Toyonaga, A; Okamatsu, H; Sasaki, K; Kimura, H; Saito, T; Shimizu, S; Fukuizumi, K; Tsuruta, O; Tanikawa, K; Sata, M

    2000-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiological study to investigate the relation of food intake to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in an area endemic for H. pylori. In this study, 365 subjects, 104 men and 261 women, were randomly selected from 7,389 adult (over age 20) inhabitants of town A, Japan. The prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) class antibody to H. pylori (anti-H. pylori) was 83.7% and the prevalence of anti-H. pylori increased with age significantly (P < 0.05). Subjects with anamnesis of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer and gastric cancer tended to have a higher anti-H. pylori positive ratio (93.5%) than those without (81.0%). But there was no relationship between anti-H. pylori prevalence and sex, blood type, smoking or drinking habits. Daily intake of foods by food groups, nutrients and the concentrations of serum ingredients were compared between 37 anti-H. pylori-positive and 40 negative subjects selected from 365 inhabitants by matching up according to sex and age. The daily intake of cereals, potatoes and starches, and milks tended to be higher in positive than negative subjects, while the daily intake of algae and tea appeared to be a little higher in negative than in positive subjects. The daily zinc intake of antibody-positive subjects was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in antibody negative subjects. On the other hand, the daily iron intake in negative subjects was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in positive subjects. The serum concentrations of copper, zinc, and vitamin E tended to be higher in positive than negative subjects. But there were no significant differences in serum ingredients concentrations between antibody negative and positive subjects. Our findings suggest that iron and zinc intakes may effect on H. pylori infection.

  4. Community Food Environment, Home Food Environment, and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Saelens, Brian E.; Harris, Sion Kim; Kerr, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Dori; Durant, Nefertiti; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) reliability of new food environment measures; (2) association between home food environment and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake; and (3) association between community and home food environment. Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with readministration to assess test-retest reliability. Adolescents,…

  5. Executive Cognitive Function and Food Intake in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated relations among neurocognitive skills important for behavioral regulation, and the intake of fruit, vegetables, and snack food in children. Design: Participants completed surveys at a single time point. Setting: Assessments took place during school. Participants: Participants were 107 fourth-grade children…

  6. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the U.S. population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  7. The effect of rises in food costs on food intake of three year olds in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Palti, H; Taveedej, C H; Pevsner, B

    1983-12-01

    The food intake of two samples of children born five years apart were determined in 1975 and 1980 at three years of age in a low and middle class neighbourhood of Jerusalem. The 24-hour recall method was used. No deficiency in caloric intake was noted. The protein intake was twice the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), 3.7 gr/kg in the study group interviewed in 1975 and 3.3 gr/kg in those interviewed in 1980. The mean daily iron intake was only 40% of the RDA. The main sources for protein were milk and milk products, poultry and eggs. Significantly higher mean caloric and protein intakes were noted for the upper as compared to middle and low social class in 1980. Children from Asian origin had the lowest caloric and protein intake in 1975 and 1980 whereas those of European-American origin had the highest. Severe inflation and the resulting tenfold increase in food prices in Israel were not reflected in marked changes in dietary intake. The percentage expenditure on food was 25% of total income during both periods. The possible factors influencing the stability in dietary intake are governmental subsidy for the essential foods, correction of wages and increase in social security payments thus maintaining the buying power, as well as the educational effect of the preventive services--the Mother and Child Health Stations on feeding practices.

  8. Tasting fat: cephalic phase hormonal responses and food intake in restrained and unrestrained eaters.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Susan R; Teff, Karen L

    2006-09-30

    Restrained eaters exhibit strict cognitive control over their food intake, primarily by limiting intake of high-fat foods. Earlier studies indicate a relationship between dietary restraint and cephalic phase insulin release, which is hypothesized to influence hunger and food intake. To compare cephalic phase hormonal responses to high- and low-fat stimuli and determine if the sensory experience of tasting fat alters hormonal responses and influences subsequent food intake in restrained and unrestrained eaters, normal weight women classified as unrestrained (n=11) or restrained (n=11) eaters were tested under 3 conditions: (1) fasting, (2) sham-feeding a non-fat cake, and (3) sham-feeding a high-fat cake. Following an overnight fast, arterialized venous blood was drawn prior to and for 30 min immediately following a 3-min sham feed. Plasma samples were analyzed for insulin, glucose, glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Subjects were subsequently given a selection of high-fat and low-fat foods and allowed to select what they wished to eat. Cephalic phase PP was significantly greater following oral sensory stimulation by the high-fat food (205.4+/-83.6) compared to the fasting control (11.1+/-38.8, p=0.04). No significant differences in hormonal responses to the food stimuli were found between restrained and unrestrained eaters but the restrained eaters consumed more food after the high-fat condition (p<0.05) relative to the fasted condition and compared to the unrestrained group (p<0.05). In conclusion, the sensory experience of tasting fat increases food intake in restrained eaters and increases vagal efferent activity compared to a non-fat food in both populations.

  9. Intake of energy and nutrients; harmonization of Food Composition Databases.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Victoria, Emilio; Martinez de Victoria, Ignacio; Martinez-Burgos, M Alba

    2015-02-26

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) provide detailed information about the nutritional composition of foods. The conversion of food consumption into nutrient intake need a Food composition database (FCDB) which lists the mean nutritional values for a given food portion. The limitations of FCDBs are sometimes little known by the users. Multicentre studies have raised several methodology challenges which allow to standardize nutritional assessments in different populations and geographical areas for food composition and nutrient intake. Differences between FCDBs include those attributed to technical matters, such as description of foods, calculation of energy and definition of nutrients, analytical methods, and principles for recipe calculation. Such differences need to be identified and eliminated before comparing data from different studies, especially when dietary data is related to a health outcome. There are ongoing efforts since 1984 to standardize FCDBs over the world (INFOODS, EPIC, EuroFIR, etc.). Food composition data can be gathered from different sources like private company analysis, universities, government laboratories and food industry. They can also be borrowed from scientific literature or even from the food labelling. There are different proposals to evaluate the quality of food composition data. For the development of a FCDB it is fundamental document in the most detailed way, each of the data values of the different components and nutrients of a food. The objective of AECOSAN (Agencia Española de Consumo Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición) and BEDCA (Base de Datos Española de Composición de Alimentos) association was the development and support of a reference FCDB in Spain according to the standards to be defined in Europe. BEDCA is currently the only FCDB developed in Spain with compiled and documented data following EuroFIR standards.

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with food intake difficulties among residents with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Chiu, Chia-Hui; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Ho, Mu-Hsing; Chou, Kuei-Ru; Liu, Megan F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the prevalence of food intake difficulties and their associated factors among residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. The purpose of the study was to identify the best cutoff point for the Chinese Feeding Difficulty Index (Ch-FDI), which evaluates the prevalence of food intake difficulties and recognizes factors associated with eating behaviors in residents with dementia. Methods and findings A cross-sectional design was adopted. In total, 213 residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan were recruited and participated in this study. The prevalence rate of food intake difficulties as measured by the Chinese Feeding Difficulty Index (Ch-FDI) was 44.6%. Factors associated with food intake difficulties during lunch were the duration of institutionalization (beta = 0.176), the level of activities of daily living-feeding (ADL-Q1) (beta = -0.235), and the length of the eating time (beta = 0.416). Associated factors during dinner were the illuminance level (beta = -0.204), sound volume level (beta = 0.187), ADL-Q1 (beta = -0.177), and eating time (beta = 0.395). Conclusions Food intake difficulties may potentially be associated with multiple factors including physical function and the dining environment according to the 45% prevalence rate among dementia residents in long-term care facilities. PMID:28225776

  11. Central administration of obestatin fails to show inhibitory effects on food and water intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Van Dijck, Annemie; Annemie, Van Dijck; Van Dam, Debby; Debby, Van Dam; Vergote, Valentijn; Valentijn, Vergote; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Bart, De Spiegeleer; Luyten, Walter; Walter, Luyten; Schoofs, Liliane; Liliane, Schoofs; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Peter Paul, De Deyn

    2009-08-07

    Obestatin is a ghrelin-associated peptide hormone with presumed anorexigenic and inhibitory effect on gastric propulsive motility activity. Recent literature, however, discloses much contestation over satiety and gastrointestinal motility-related functionalities of obestatin. In addition, antidipsinogenic effects in rodents by obestatin were recently reported. The present study was set up to bring more clarity into the contested effects of obestatin on food and water intake. Additionally, the stability of obestatin in brain tissue homogenate was investigated. The in vitro incubation of obestatin in brain homogenates revealed disappearance half-life times of 19 min for crude brain homogenate to 27 min for brain membrane homogenate. For the behavioural studies, male C57Bl/6 mice were intracerebroventricularly treated with 0.2 nmol murine amidated obestatin or vehicle at the age of 3 months. An additional group of mice was treated with 0.3 nmol of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) as a positive control of suppression of food intake. Food and water intake were studied over a period of 5 h in metabolic cages. Under our experimental conditions, no suppressive effects of obestatin on food or water intake were observed, whereas CRF evoked a significant suppression of food intake, which proves the internal validity of the study design.

  12. The influence of the hot water extract from shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes (higher Basidiomycetes) on the food intake, life span, and age-related locomotor activity of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Matjuskova, Natalya; Azena, Elena; Serstnova, Ksenija; Muiznieks, Indrikis

    2014-01-01

    Shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is among the most widely cultivated edible mushrooms in the world and is a well-studied source of nutrients and biologically active compounds. We have studied the influence of the dietary supplement of the polysaccharides containing a hot water extract of the mushroom L. edodes on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in terms of food intake, body weight, life span, and age-related locomotor activity. L. edodes extract, when added to the D. melanogaster feeding substrate at a 0.003-0.030% concentration (calculated for the dry weight of the polysaccharide fraction) did not influence food intake or body weight of the flies. It increased the life span and locomotor activities of male flies but was associated with early mortality and decreased locomotor activity of female flies. We conclude that the observed anti-aging effects of L. edodes extracts in the male D. melanogaster are not the result of dietary restriction. We propose that D. melanogaster is a suitable model organism for researching the molecular basis of the anti-aging effect of the shiitake mushroom extracts and sex linkage of these effects.

  13. Effects of indorenate on food intake: a comparison with fenfluramine and amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Velázquez Martínez, D N; Valencia Flores, M; López Cabrera, M; Villarreal, J E

    1995-01-01

    Indorenate (TR3369, 5-methoxytryptamine b-methylcarboxylate HCl) is a 5-HT1-like receptor agonist with hypotensive activity. Here, we describe that indorenate also decreases food intake (ED50 26.1 mg/kg) without an appreciable effect in water intake (the estimated ED50 for water was 589.8 mg/kg). The anorectic activity of indorenate was compared to the effects of amphetamine and other serotonin agonists; the effect of indorenate was smaller than those of the other compounds; however, the effect of indorenate was specific to food, whereas all the other drugs also produced significant decrements in water intake. The serotonin antagonists cinanserin, cyproheptadine, methergoline and methysergide effectively prevented the decrease in food intake produced by indorenate and fenfluramine. Haloperidol, a dopaminergic antagonist, was ineffective in preventing the effect of indorenate although it prevented the anorectic effect of amphetamine. The present results suggest the participation of serotoninergic, but not dopaminergic mechanisms, in the decrease in food intake produced by indorenate.

  14. Brain serotonin system in the coordination of food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Lam, Daniel D; Garfield, Alastair S; Marston, Oliver J; Shaw, Jill; Heisler, Lora K

    2010-11-01

    An inverse relationship between brain serotonin and food intake and body weight has been known for more than 30 years. Specifically, augmentation of brain serotonin inhibits food intake, while depletion of brain serotonin promotes hyperphagia and weight gain. Through the decades, serotonin receptors have been identified and their function in the serotonergic regulation of food intake clarified. Recent refined genetic studies now indicate that a primary mechanism through which serotonin influences appetite and body weight is via serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT(2C)R) and serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT(1B)R) influencing the activity of endogenous melanocortin receptor agonists and antagonists at the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R). However, other mechanisms are also possible and the challenge of future research is to delineate them in the complete elucidation of the complex neurocircuitry underlying the serotonergic control of appetite and body weight.

  15. Presentation and interpretation of food intake data: factors affecting comparability across studies.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mieke; Wenhold, Friede A M; Macintyre, Una E; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Steyn, Nelia P; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H

    2013-01-01

    Non-uniform, unclear, or incomplete presentation of food intake data limits interpretation, usefulness, and comparisons across studies. In this contribution, we discuss factors affecting uniform reporting of food intake across studies. The amount of food eaten can be reported as mean portion size, number of servings or total amount of food consumed per day; the absolute intake value for the specific study depends on the denominator used because food intake data can be presented as per capita intake or for consumers only. To identify the foods mostly consumed, foods are reported and ranked according to total number of times consumed, number of consumers, total intake, or nutrient contribution by individual foods or food groups. Presentation of food intake data primarily depends on a study's aim; reported data thus often are not comparable across studies. Food intake data further depend on the dietary assessment methodology used and foods in the database consulted; and are influenced by the inherent limitations of all dietary assessments. Intake data can be presented as either single foods or as clearly defined food groups. Mixed dishes, reported as such or in terms of ingredients and items added during food preparation remain challenging. Comparable presentation of food consumption data is not always possible; presenting sufficient information will assist valid interpretation and optimal use of the presented data. A checklist was developed to strengthen the reporting of food intake data in science communication.

  16. Method for assessing food intakes in terms of servings based on food guidance.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, L E; Cook, D A; Krebs-Smith, S M; Friday, J

    1997-04-01

    We describe a method for comparing food intakes reported in surveys with recommendations given in the US Department of Agriculture's food guide pyramid. Such comparison was previously difficult because many foods are eaten as mixtures that cannot be categorized into pyramid food groups and because food intake data and food recommendations are expressed in different units of measurement. We developed a recipe file showing ingredients at multiple levels of breakdown and used it to disaggregate food mixtures into their ingredients so that they could be placed into pyramid food groups. Food-specific weight consistent with the pyramid definitions for serving sizes were derived from the food code book of the 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and used to develop a serving-weight file. Data collected from 8181 adults aged > or = 20 y in the survey were used to estimate the mean number of servings from pyramid food groups and percentages of the population meeting pyramid recommendations. The mean numbers of servings were close to the minimum recommendations for the grain, vegetable, and meat groups and well below the minimum recommendations for the fruit and dairy groups. large proportions of adults (43-72%) failed to meet the dietary recommendations. Our method has several nutrition monitoring and nutrition education applications.

  17. Room service improves patient food intake and satisfaction with hospital food.

    PubMed

    Williams, R; Virtue, K; Adkins, A

    1998-07-01

    Cancer therapy causes side effects that interfere with oral intake. Frequently, patients undergoing such therapy suffer from anorexia, nausea, vomiting, food aversions, dysgeusia, and xerostomia, all which adversely affect oral intake. Adequate nutrition intake is an important part of therapy for the cancer patient, especially when that patient is a child. Children who are well nourished are better able to withstand infection and tolerate therapy. Parents and staff at our hospital have worked diligently to improve patient's oral intake with limited success. Hence, a multidisciplinary team was organized to develop a new approach to food services that would improve patients' oral intake. The team initiated patient "room service," and patients were allowed to call the kitchen when they were ready to eat. The system works much like room service in a hotel. After the introduction of room service, patients' caloric intake improved significantly (P = .008), and protein intake increased by 18%. Patient satisfaction with hospital food service also improved; excellent ratings increased by as much as 35%. We conclude that room service is a viable alternative to traditional food services in the pediatric oncology setting and may be useful in other patient populations, such as maternity and general pediatrics.

  18. The odor of Osmanthus fragrans attenuates food intake

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Inui, Tadashi; Tsuji, Tadataka

    2013-01-01

    Odors have been shown to exert an influence on various physiological and behavioral activities. However, little is known whether or not odor stimulation directly affects the levels of feeding-related neuropeptides. Here we show that the neural transmission by Osmanthus fragrans (OSM) decreased the mRNA expression of orexigenic neuropeptides, such as agouti-related protein, neuropeptide Y, melanin-concentrating hormone and prepro-orexin, while increased anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and proopiomelanocortin in rats. The decreased number of orexin-immunoreactive neurons in the hypothalamus coincided well with the OSM-induced decreases in the expression of prepro-orexin mRNA. This study demonstrates that the OSM odor, which is known to have a mild sedative effect, decreases the motivation to eat, food intake and body weight, accompanied by sluggish masticatory movements. The data suggest that these effects are due to suppression of orexigenic neuropeptides and activation of anorexigenic neuropeptides in the hypothalamus. PMID:23519146

  19. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  20. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  1. Dietary intake, food composition and nutrient intake in wild and captive populations of Daubentonia madagascariensis.

    PubMed

    Sterling, E J; Dierenfeld, E S; Ashbourne, C J; Feistner, A T

    1994-01-01

    Data are presented on dietary and nutrient intake in a wild population of aye-ayes. Study animals ate 4 main food types: seeds, nectar, fungus and insect larvae. Calculated calorie intake was slightly lower during the cold season than during the hot, wet and the hot, dry seasons. Total intakes almost doubled to compensate for the lower energy content of the diet during the cold season. Comparison of natural and captive diets suggests that maintenance and even growth requirements of aye-ayes can be met by relatively low-fat, low-protein diets. Daily energy requirements were estimated to average about 280 kcal metabolizable energy/day. Animals in the wild were estimated to eat between 260 and 342 kcal, while captive animals consumed 260 kcal/day.

  2. Oxytocin's inhibitory effect on food intake is stronger in obese than normal-weight men

    PubMed Central

    Thienel, M; Fritsche, A; Heinrichs, M; Peter, A; Ewers, M; Lehnert, H; Born, J; Hallschmid, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Animal studies and pilot experiments in men indicate that the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin limits food intake, and raise the question of its potential to improve metabolic control in obesity. Subjects/Methods: We compared the effect of central nervous oxytocin administration (24 IU) via the intranasal route on ingestive behaviour and metabolic function in 18 young obese men with the results in a group of 20 normal-weight men. In double-blind, placebo-controlled experiments, ad libitum food intake from a test buffet was examined in fasted subjects 45 min after oxytocin administration, followed by the assessment of postprandial, reward-driven snack intake. Energy expenditure was repeatedly assessed by indirect calorimetry and blood was sampled to determine concentrations of blood glucose and hormones. Results: Oxytocin markedly reduced hunger-driven food intake in the fasted state in obese but not in normal-weight men, and led to a reduction in snack consumption in both groups, whereas energy expenditure remained generally unaffected. Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis secretion and the postprandial rise in plasma glucose were blunted by oxytocin in both groups. Conclusions: Oxytocin exerts an acutely inhibitory impact on food intake that is enhanced rather than decreased in obese compared with normal-weight men. This pattern puts it in contrast to other metabolically active neuropeptides and bodes well for clinical applications of oxytocin in the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:27553712

  3. Low-dose pancreatic polypeptide inhibits food intake in man.

    PubMed

    Jesudason, David R; Monteiro, Mariana P; McGowan, Barbara M C; Neary, Nicola M; Park, Adrian J; Philippou, Elena; Small, Caroline J; Frost, Gary S; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R

    2007-03-01

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a gut hormone released from the pancreas in response to food ingestion and remains elevated for up to 6 h postprandially. Plasma levels are elevated in patients with pancreatic tumours. An intravenous infusion of PP has been reported to reduce food intake in man, suggesting that PP is a satiety hormone. We investigated whether a lower infusion rate of PP would induce significant alterations in energy intake. The study was randomised and double-blinded. Fourteen lean fasted volunteers (five men and nine women) received 90 min infusions of PP (5 pmol/kg per min) and saline on two separate days. The dose chosen was half that used in a previous human study which reported a decrease in appetite but at supra-physiological levels of PP. One hour after the end of the infusion, a buffet lunch was served and energy intake measured. PP infusion was associated with a significant 11 % reduction in energy intake compared with saline (2440 (se 200) v. 2730 (se 180) kJ; P<0 x 05). Preprandial hunger as assessed by a visual analogue score was decreased in the PP-treated group compared to saline. These effects were achieved with plasma levels of PP within the pathophysiological range of pancreatic tumours.

  4. Impression management and food intake. Current directions in research.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews recent research on consumption stereotypes (judgments of others based on what they eat) and impression management (modifying one's eating behavior in order to create a particular impression). A major recent focus in the literature has been on masculinity and meat eating, with research showing that meat is strongly associated with masculinity, and that individuals who follow a meat-based diet are perceived as more masculine than are individuals who follow a vegetarian diet. Although direct evidence for impression management through food intake remains sparse, a number of methodological approaches (including priming techniques and ecological valid assessments) are described that could be used in future research to identify the motives underlying people's eating behavior. Consumption stereotypes and impression management may be important influences on people's eating behavior, but the complexities of how, when, and for whom these factors influence food intake are still not well understood.

  5. Circadian Timing of Food Intake Contributes to Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Arble, Deanna M.; Bass, Joseph; Laposky, Aaron D.; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of body weight regulation have focused almost entirely on caloric intake and energy expenditure. However, a number of recent studies in animals linking energy regulation and the circadian clock at the molecular, physiological and behavioral levels raise the possibility that the timing of food intake itself may play a significant role in weight gain. The present study focused on the role of the circadian phase of food consumption in weight gain. We provide evidence that nocturnal mice fed a high fat diet only during the 12 hour light phase gain significantly more weight than mice fed only during the 12 hour dark phase. A better understanding of the role of the circadian system for weight gain could have important implications for developing new therapeutic strategies for combating the obesity epidemic facing the human population today. PMID:19730426

  6. Circadian timing of food intake contributes to weight gain.

    PubMed

    Arble, Deanna M; Bass, Joseph; Laposky, Aaron D; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W

    2009-11-01

    Studies of body weight regulation have focused almost entirely on caloric intake and energy expenditure. However, a number of recent studies in animals linking energy regulation and the circadian clock at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels raise the possibility that the timing of food intake itself may play a significant role in weight gain. The present study focused on the role of the circadian phase of food consumption in weight gain. We provide evidence that nocturnal mice fed a high-fat diet only during the 12-h light phase gain significantly more weight than mice fed only during the 12-h dark phase. A better understanding of the role of the circadian system for weight gain could have important implications for developing new therapeutic strategies for combating the obesity epidemic facing the human population today.

  7. Development of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess food, energy and nutrient intake in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Haraldsdóttir, J; Ewertz, M; Jensen, O M

    1991-12-01

    Foods to be included in a Danish self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire were identified from food tables developed, together with data collected, for the survey 'Dietary habits in Denmark, 1985'. The questionnaire was to be used in a prospective study on diet, cancer and health, and the aim was to rank individuals with regard to intake of 19 different nutrients considered of prime importance in human carcinogenesis. The questionnaire for the dietary survey included 247 foods and recipes. From stepwise multiple regression analyses with the intake of each of the 19 nutrients as the dependent variable and the intake of the 247 foods and recipes as independent variables, the foods in the models explaining 90% of the between-person variability were considered for the final questionnaire. All relevant analyses were performed for the study group as a whole, for men and women separately, and in each gender for subgroups of energy intake. Taken together, the models explaining 90% of the between-person variability identified a total of 74 foods or recipes, which were important predictors of the intake of one or more of the nutrients considered. A few foods were excluded and a few foods were added to the final questionnaire based on common biological background information, and on information on foods providing important amounts of given nutrients, but which failed to contribute to regression analyses. The 92 foods and recipes, which were included in the final questionnaire provided altogether 81% of the average total supply of the nutrients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Smaller food item sizes of snack foods influence reduced portions and caloric intake in young adults.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Studies considering the impact of food-size variations on consumption have predominantly focused on portion size, whereas very little research has investigated variations in food-item size, especially at snacking occasions, and results have been contradictory. This study evaluated the effect of altering the size of food items (ie, small vs large candies) of equal-size food portions on short-term energy intake while snacking. The study used a between-subjects design (n=33) in a randomized experiment conducted in spring 2008. In a psychology laboratory (separate cubicles), participants (undergraduate psychology students, 29 of 33 female, mean age 20.3±2 years, mean body mass index 21.7±3.7) were offered unlimited consumption of candies while participating in an unrelated computerized experiment. For half of the subjects, items were cut in two to make the small food-item size. Food intake (weight in grams, kilocalories, and number of food items) was examined using analysis of variance. Results showed that decreasing the item size of candies led participants to decrease by half their gram weight intake, resulting in an energy intake decrease of 60 kcal compared to the other group. Appetite ratings and subject and food characteristics had no moderating effect. A cognitive bias could explain why people tend to consider that one unit of food (eg, 10 candies) is the appropriate amount to consume, regardless of the size of the food items in the unit. This study suggests a simple dietary strategy, decreasing food-item size without having to alter the portion size offered, may reduce energy intake at snacking occasions.

  9. Reduced serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) function causes insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis independent of food intake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoning; Margolis, Kara J; Gershon, Michael D; Schwartz, Gary J; Sze, Ji Y

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) is a key regulator of serotonin neurotransmission and a major target of antidepressants. Antidepressants, such as selectively serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), that block SERT function are known to affect food intake and body weight. Here, we provide genetic evidence that food intake and metabolism are regulated by separable mechanisms of SERT function. SERT-deficient mice ate less during both normal diet and high fat diet feeding. The reduced food intake was accompanied with markedly elevated plasma leptin levels. Despite reduced food intake, SERT-deficient mice exhibited glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, and progressively developed obesity and hepatic steatosis. Several lines of evidence indicate that the metabolic deficits of SERT-deficient mice are attributable to reduced insulin-sensitivity in peripheral tissues. First, SERT-deficient mice exhibited beta-cell hyperplasia and islet-mass expansion. Second, biochemical analyses revealed constitutively elevated JNK activity and diminished insulin-induced AKT activation in the liver of SERT-deficient mice. SERT-deficient mice exhibited hyper-JNK activity and hyperinsulinemia prior to the development of obesity. Third, enhancing AKT signaling by PTEN deficiency corrected glucose tolerance in SERT-deficient mice. These findings have potential implications for designing selective SERT drugs for weight control and the treatment of metabolic syndromes.

  10. Ghrelin, food intake, and botanical extracts: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie, Peyman; Mazidi, Mohsen; Nematy, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    A kind of growth hormone secretagogue (GHS), ghrelin, was first isolated from the rat stomach and plays a major role in the activation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) resulting the release of growth hormone (GH). The preproghrelin gene is placed on chromosome 3, at locus 3p25 –2 in humans and constitutes five exons and three introns. Ghrelin is most plentifully expressed in particular cells in the oxyntic glands of the gastric epithelium, initially named X/A-like cells. Almost 60-70% of circulating ghrelin is secreted by the stomach. Plasma ghrelin concentration alters throughout the day. Ghrelin has been suggested to act as a meal initiator because of its appetite-stimulating influences in free feeding rats in short period. In addition to ghrelin’s function as a meal motivator, it seems to contribute in long-term energy balance and nutritional status. In addition, many studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effects of natural and medicinal plants and botanical extracts on appetite, food intake, energy hemostasis, and the level of related hormones including ghrelin. Due to the importance of ghrelin in nutritional and medical sciences, this review was performed to understand new aspects of this hormone’s function. PMID:26445708

  11. Central transthyretin acts to decrease food intake and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fenping; Kim, Yonwook J.; Moran, Timothy H.; Li, Hong; Bi, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a blood and cerebrospinal fluid transporter of thyroxine and retinol. Gene expression profiling revealed an elevation of Ttr expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of rats with exercise-induced anorexia, implying that central TTR may also play a functional role in modulating food intake and energy balance. To test this hypothesis, we have examined the effects of brain TTR on food intake and body weight and have further determined hypothalamic signaling that may underlie its feeding effect in rats. We found that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of TTR in normal growing rats decreased food intake and body weight. This effect was not due to sickness as icv TTR did not cause a conditioned taste aversion. ICV TTR decreased neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in the DMH and the paraventricular nucleus (P < 0.05). Chronic icv infusion of TTR in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats reversed hyperphagia and obesity and reduced DMH NPY levels. Overall, these results demonstrate a previously unknown anorectic action of central TTR in the control of energy balance, providing a potential novel target for treating obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27053000

  12. Physiology of Food Intake Control in Children123

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, G Harvey; Hunschede, Sascha; Akilen, Rajadurai; Kubant, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to draw attention to the limited information available on food intake (FI) control in children and adolescents 7–17 y of age, which is essential for developing food policies and guidelines in this population. Although environmental factors have been the overwhelming focus of research on the causative factors of obesity, research focusing on the physiologic control of appetite in children and adolescents is a neglected area of research. To present this message, a review of FI regulation and the role of food and food components in signaling processes are followed by an examination of the role of hormones during puberty in intake regulation. To examine the interaction of environment and physiology on FI regulation, the effects of exercise, television programs, and food advertisements are discussed. In conclusion, although limited, this literature review supports a need for children and adolescents to be a greater focus of research that would lead to sound nutrition policies and actions to reduce chronic disease. A focus on the environment must be balanced with an understanding of physiologic and behavioral changes associated with this age group. PMID:26773031

  13. Food intake regulation of circulating thyroid hormones in domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Harvey, S

    1985-11-01

    The relationship between food intake and thyroid function has been investigated in immature domestic fowl. Starvation delayed, but did not suppress, the triiodothyronine (T3) response to intravenously administered thyrotropin-releasing hormone (10 micrograms/kg). This probably resulted from a suppression of monodeiodinase activity, since the conversion of thyroxine (T4) to T3 in thyroidectomised birds following an intramuscular injection of T4 (10 micrograms/kg) was markedly reduced by starvation. Starvation, for 24 or 48 hr, lowered the circulating T3 level but increased the T4 concentration. When fasted birds were refed the T4 concentration was initially enhanced but subsequently declined as the T3 concentration progressively increased. The accompanying decline in the T4:T3 ratio in fasted-refed birds indicated that the rise in the T3 level resulted from the peripheral monodeiodination of T4. The increase in T3 concentration could be induced solely by carbohydrate; the intraperitoneal administration of glucose (2.0 g/kg) to fasted birds resulting in a slight, transient rise in the T3 concentration and a fall in the T4:T3 ratio. The generation of T3 was also energy dependent, in that the magnitude of the T3 response of fasted birds to refeeding was proportional to the amount of food consumed and to the metabolisable energy (ME) content of the diet. Moreover, when exogenous T4 (100 micrograms/kg) was intramuscularly administered to thyroidectomised birds fed a diet with a high ME content, the conversion of T4 to T4 was greater than that in birds fed a diet of lower ME content. These results demonstrate that nutritional stimuli are involved in the regulation of thyroid function in birds, particularly in the peripheral generation of T3.

  14. Impact of Perceived Healthiness of Food on Food Choices and Intake.

    PubMed

    Provencher, Véronique; Jacob, Raphaëlle

    2016-03-01

    Healthy eating is an important determinant of health, but adherence to dietary guidelines remains a public health concern. Identifying factors that impact dietary habits is therefore important to facilitate healthy eating. One widely used strategy to help consumers make healthier food choices is nutrition information, such as labeling and claims. Despite the intention of these strategies to improve decision making, they can also be misunderstood or misinterpreted by consumers. The aim of this review is to explore food perceptions by examining how cognitive factors influence perceived healthiness of food, and the impact of perceived healthiness of food on food choices and intake. Overall findings of this review suggest that cognitive factors, such as type of food and branding, significantly contribute to judgmental bias and have an impact on perceived healthiness while not consistently or systematically influencing choice and intake.

  15. Food choice and intake: towards a unifying framework of learning and feeding motivation.

    PubMed

    Day, J E; Kyriazakis, I; Rogers, P J

    1998-06-01

    The food choice and intake of animals (including humans) has typically been studied using frameworks of learning and feeding motivation. When used in isolation such frameworks could be criticized because learning paradigms give little consideration to how new food items are included or excluded from an individual's diet, and motivational paradigms do not explain how individuals decide which food to eat when given a choice. Consequently we are posed with the question of whether individuals actively interact with the food items present in their environment to learn about their nutritional properties? The thesis of this review is that individuals are motivated to actively sample food items in order to assess whether they are nutritionally beneficial or harmful. We offer a unifying framework, centred upon the concept of exploratory motivation, which is a synthesis of learning and paradigms of feeding motivation. In this framework information gathering occurs on two levels through exploratory behaviour: (i) the discrimination of food from nonfood items, and (ii) the continued monitoring and storage of information concerning the nutritional properties of these food items. We expect that this framework will advance our understanding of the behavioural control of nutrient intake by explaining how new food items are identified in the environment, and how individuals are able to monitor changes in the nutritional content of their food resource.

  16. Quantifying food intake in socially housed monkeys: social status effects on caloric consumption

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark E.; Fisher, Jeff; Fischer, Andrew; Lee, Vanessa; Harris, Ruth B.; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity results from a number of factors including socio-environmental influences and rodent models show that several different stressors increase the preference for calorically dense foods leading to an obese phenotype. We present here a non-human primate model using socially housed adult female macaques living in long-term stable groups given access to diets of different caloric density. Consumption of a low fat (LFD; 15% of calories from fat) and a high fat diet (HFD; 45% of calories from fat) was quantified by means of a custom-built, automated feeder that dispensed a pellet of food when activated by a radiofrequency chip implanted subcutaneously in the animal’s wrist. Socially subordinate females showed indices of chronic psychological stress having reduced glucocorticoid negative feedback and higher frequencies of anxiety-like behavior. Twenty-four hour intakes of both the LFD and HFD were significantly greater in subordinates than dominates, an effect that persisted whether standard monkey chow (13% of calories from fat) was present or absent. Furthermore, although dominants restricted their food intake to daylight, subordinates continued to feed at night. Total caloric intake was significantly correlated with body weight change. Collectively, these results show that food intake can be reliably quantified in non-human primates living in complex social environments and suggest that socially-subordinate females consume more calories, suggesting this ethologically relevant model may help understand how psychosocial stress changes food preferences and consumption leading to obesity. PMID:18486158

  17. Analysis of interaction of phenolic compounds with the cholecystokinin signaling pathway to explain effects on reducing food intake.

    PubMed

    Al Shukor, Nadin; Raes, Katleen; Van Camp, John; Smagghe, Guy

    2014-03-01

    Previous animal experiments demonstrated that phenolic compounds can reduce weight and food intake, but the exact mechanism(s) behind these effects remain unknown. For regulation of food intake, the cholecystokinin (CCK) hormone signaling pathway plays an important role as it induces satiety by binding on its specific receptor (CCK1R), hereby reducing food intake. In this study, we investigated the possible interactions of eight phenolic compounds of different classes (tannic acid, gallic acid, benzoic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, quercetin, kaempferol and resveratrol) with the CCK1R signaling pathway. As major results, the tested phenolic compounds could not activate the CCK1R in a specific cell-based bioassay. In contrast, we observed an anti-CCK1R activity. This antagonistic action might be explained by blocking of the functioning of the CCK1R receptor, although the exact mechanism of interaction remains unknown. For tannic acid, we also measured a sequestration activity of the CCK hormone in vitro. In conclusion, the reported activity of phenolic compounds against food intake and weight is not based on an activation of the CCK1R. Taking into account the complex regulation of food intake, further work is necessary to unravel other essential mechanisms involved to explain the reported effects of phenolic compounds against food intake.

  18. Food intake patterns associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Nichols, Michele; Hodo, Denise; Mellen, Philip B; Schulz, Mandy; Goff, David C; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2010-05-01

    We aimed to identify food intake patterns that operate via haemostatic and inflammatory pathways on progression of atherosclerosis among 802 middle-aged adults with baseline and 5-year follow-up ultrasound measurements of common (CCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) intimal medial thickness (IMT). Food intake was ascertained with an FFQ. We derived food patterns using reduced rank regression (RRR) with plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and fibrinogen as response variables. We explored the impact of various food pattern simplification approaches. We identified a food pattern characterised by higher intakes of less healthful foods (low-fibre bread and cereal, red and processed meat, cottage cheese, tomato foods, regular soft drinks and sweetened beverages) and lower intakes of more healthful foods (wine, rice and pasta, meal replacements and poultry). The pattern was positively associated with mean CCA IMT at follow-up (P = 0.0032), a 1 sd increase corresponding to an increase of 13 mum higher CCA IMT at follow-up, adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. With increasing pattern quartile (Q), the percentage change in CCA IMT increased significantly: Q1 0.8 %; Q2 3.2 %; Q3 8.6 %; Q4 7.9 % (P = 0.0045). No clear association with ICA IMT was observed. All simplification methods yielded similar results. The present results support the contention that a pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic dietary pattern increases the rate of coronary artery atherosclerosis progression, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. RRR is a promising and robust tool for moving beyond the previous focus on nutrients or foods into research on the health effects of broader dietary patterns.

  19. Kisspeptin and RFRP-3 differentially regulate food intake and metabolic neuropeptides in the female desert jerboa.

    PubMed

    Talbi, Rajae; Laran-Chich, Marie-Pierre; Magoul, Rabia; El Ouezzani, Seloua; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2016-11-02

    Jerboas are wild rodents exhibiting exceptional adaptation to their desert environment. Under harsh autumn conditions, they shut down reproduction, increase body weight and hibernate, while during spring they become sexually active even under negative energy-balance. We recently reported that these rhythms are associated with synchronized changes in genes expressing reproductive (Kiss1, Rfrp) and metabolic (Npy and Pomc) peptides, raising the hypothesis of coordinated seasonal regulation of both functions. Here we analyzed whether kisspeptin and RFRP-3 regulate food-intake in parallel to their established reproductive functions. Intracerebroventricular administration of kisspeptin inhibited food intake by 1.5-fold in fasted, but not ad-libitum fed, female jerboas captured in spring, an effect associated with an increase in Pomc and decrease in Rfrp mRNA levels. By contrast, intracerebroventricular injection of RFRP-3 induced a 4-fold increase in food-intake in ad-libitum female jerboas, together with a decrease in Pomc and increase in Npy mRNA levels. This orexigenic effect of RFRP-3 was observed in both spring and autumn, whereas kisspeptin's anorexigenic effect was only observed in spring. Altogether, this study reports opposite metabolic effects of kisspeptin and RFRP-3 in the female jerboa and strengthens our hypothesis of a coordinated, season-dependent, regulation of reproductive activity and food intake through interactions of these hypothalamic peptides.

  20. Kisspeptin and RFRP-3 differentially regulate food intake and metabolic neuropeptides in the female desert jerboa

    PubMed Central

    Talbi, Rajae; Laran-Chich, Marie-Pierre; Magoul, Rabia; El Ouezzani, Seloua; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Jerboas are wild rodents exhibiting exceptional adaptation to their desert environment. Under harsh autumn conditions, they shut down reproduction, increase body weight and hibernate, while during spring they become sexually active even under negative energy-balance. We recently reported that these rhythms are associated with synchronized changes in genes expressing reproductive (Kiss1, Rfrp) and metabolic (Npy and Pomc) peptides, raising the hypothesis of coordinated seasonal regulation of both functions. Here we analyzed whether kisspeptin and RFRP-3 regulate food-intake in parallel to their established reproductive functions. Intracerebroventricular administration of kisspeptin inhibited food intake by 1.5-fold in fasted, but not ad-libitum fed, female jerboas captured in spring, an effect associated with an increase in Pomc and decrease in Rfrp mRNA levels. By contrast, intracerebroventricular injection of RFRP-3 induced a 4-fold increase in food-intake in ad-libitum female jerboas, together with a decrease in Pomc and increase in Npy mRNA levels. This orexigenic effect of RFRP-3 was observed in both spring and autumn, whereas kisspeptin’s anorexigenic effect was only observed in spring. Altogether, this study reports opposite metabolic effects of kisspeptin and RFRP-3 in the female jerboa and strengthens our hypothesis of a coordinated, season-dependent, regulation of reproductive activity and food intake through interactions of these hypothalamic peptides. PMID:27805048

  1. [Relationship between dietary fiber intake and food intake patterns of the general population, evaluated by a regional nutrition survey].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, I; Notsu, A; Noda, H; Otsuka, Y

    1998-07-01

    This study was performed to estimate the dietary fiber intake calculated using individual food intake data and the dietary fiber tables, and to ascertain the relationship between food intake patterns and dietary fiber intake of the general population. The 805 subjects over 15 years old were obtained from the Tottori Prefecture Nutrition Survey. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The average dietary fiber intake per capita per day was 18.19 g; 18.67 g in men, and 17.81 g in women. Dietary fiber intake per energy was different among sexes and ages: women had more dietary fiber than men and the aged had more than the young. Those who had high fiber intake per energy took green vegetables, fruits, milk, soybean products, seaweed and potatoes more frequently, and did not take oil so frequently. 2. Total dietary fiber intake from 20 food-group sources was analyzed by Multiple Regression Analysis. For both men and women fruits, vegetables and soybean products mostly influenced dietary fiber intake. 3. Based on the intake of the 20 food-groups obtained from 356 men and 449 women, the correlation matrix among these foods was calculated. The correlation matrix was also submitted to a Principal Component Analysis. The result of the Principal Component Analysis told that food intake patterns were different among the levels of dietary fiber intake. Food intake patterns of men and women who had high fiber intake per energy had an eating pattern characterized by relatively more non-processed vegetable food, bread and milk. 4. The level of blood pressure was significantly related to dietary fiber intake per energy in men over 60 years old. In the hypertensive men over 60 years old, 23.3% were in the low fiber intake group, 37.2% in the middle group, and 39.5% in the high group. But in the normal blood pressure men over 60 years old, 50.0% were in the low fiber intake group, 8.3% in the middle group, and 41.7% in the high group.

  2. Food-related advertisements and food intake among adult men and women.

    PubMed

    Wonderlich-Tierney, Anna L; Wenzel, Kevin R; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Wang-Hall, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Television viewing may contribute to obesity via promotion of sedentary behavior and exposure to food-related commercials. However, the mechanisms by which food-related commercials promote food intake are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of television advertisements on food intake according to sex and transportability, or the tendency to become engrossed in what one is viewing. Eighty-three undergraduate students, free of disordered eating symptoms, were stratified by sex and randomly assigned to one of three conditions (food-related advertisements, neutral advertisements, or no advertisements). They were then identified as high or low in transportability according to a median split. A significant interaction was found between advertisement condition and transportability such that those high in transportability ate more in the food than other advertisement conditions. A second interaction was found between sex and transportability with women high in transportability eating more food than women low in transportability irrespective of advertisement condition. No significant main effects of advertisement condition, sex, or transportability were found. Results suggest the importance of studying the impact of individual difference variables on the relationship between food-related advertising and food intake.

  3. Food hoarding, but not food intake, is attenuated by acute diazepam treatment in female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Di; Wang, Qian; Wang, De-Hua

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on food hoarding are unknown in rodents, and the effects of energy balance and GABA have not been evaluated in females. To evaluate the role of food deprivation and GABA on food hoarding, female Mongolian gerbils were given i.p. injection of diazepam (1mg/kg and 3mg/kg, respectively), a GABAA receptor agonist. Among food-deprived females, there was a bimodal pattern in the frequency of gerbils with different levels of food hoarding. High food hoarding (HFH) and low food hoarding (LFH) gerbils were analyzed. Diazepam blocked food deprivation-induced food hoarding in HFH gerbils, but not in LFH gerbils. This blockade was associated with increased cellular activation in selected brain areas, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), caudate putamen (CP) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), which suggested that direct activation of GABA in the brain reward circuitry decreased food hoarding in HFH females. Moreover, diazepam increased Fos expression in field CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus, but had no significant effect on Fos expression in field CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, indicating that the hippocampus has area-specific effects on food hoarding in HFH gerbils. Diazepam did not alter food intake in both HFH and LFH gerbils. In addition, serum corticosterone concentrations were higher in the HFH than in the LFH ones. Together, these data indicated that food deprivation increased food hoarding in female gerbils, diazepam reduced food deprivation-induced food hoarding in HFH gerbils, and that GABA might influence food hoarding via classical reward circuitry via the mesolimbic dopamine system and specific hippocampal areas.

  4. The new Dietary Reference Intakes in food labeling: the food industry's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kretser, Alison J

    2006-05-01

    The food industry appreciates the complexity of applying the new Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) in labeling. The industry is prepared to update food labels to reflect new nutrient recommendations and views upcoming changes as an opportunity to harmonize nutrition information across the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, MyPyramid.gov, and the food label. Members of the Grocery Manufacturers Association are unanimous in their belief that the food label be as useful to consumers as possible. This article raises discussion points, issues, and implications associated with implementation of the new DRIs on the food label.

  5. A potential role for hypothalamomedullary POMC projections in leptin-induced suppression of food intake

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huiyuan; Patterson, Laurel M.; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Louis, Gwendolyn W.; Skibicka, Karolina P.; Grill, Harvey J.; Myers, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    Melanocortin-3/4 receptor ligands administered to the caudal brain stem potently modulate food intake by changing meal size. The origin of the endogenous ligands is unclear, because the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) harbor populations of proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons. Here we demonstrate that activation of hypothalamic POMC neurons leads to suppression of food intake and that this suppression is prevented by administration of a melanocortin-3/4 receptor antagonist to the NTS and its vicinity. Bilateral leptin injections into the rat arcuate nucleus produced long-lasting suppression of meal size and total chow intake. These effects were significantly blunted by injection of SHU-9119 into the fourth ventricle, although SHU-9119 increased meal size and food intake during the first, but not the second, 14-h observation period. Leptin effects on meal size and food intake were abolished throughout the 40-h observation period by injection of SHU-9119 into the NTS at a dose that by itself had no effect. Neuron-specific tracing from the arcuate nucleus with a Cre-inducible tract-tracing adenovirus in POMC-Cre mice showed the presence of labeled axons in the NTS. Furthermore, density of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-immunoreactive axon profiles throughout the NTS was decreased by ∼70% after complete surgical transection of connections with the forebrain in the chronic decerebrate rat model. The results further support the existence of POMC projections from the hypothalamus to the NTS and suggest that these projections have a functional role in the control of food intake. PMID:20071607

  6. Food and Nutrient Intakes According to Income in Korean Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Inyoung; Jang, Myoung-Jin; Oh, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated associations between income and intake of nutrients and food in adults (n = 11,063) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009. Methods To examine relationships between individual dietary intake and anthropometric measures and family income, multiple linear regression models were constructed for each outcome variable. All models were adjusted for age, education, energy intake, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity. Results For men, intakes of protein, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and vitamin C were lower in low-income compared to high-income groups. For women, intakes of protein and niacin were lower in low-income groups. Lowest income group ate less dairy products in men and less fruits and fishes or shellfishes in women. Conclusion Low-income groups had severe food insecurity and low diet quality compared to high-income groups. The study results will provide direction for public health efforts regarding dietary intakes according to economic status among Korean men and women. PMID:24159472

  7. The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment

    PubMed Central

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this non-systematic review of the literature is to highlight some of the neural systems and pathways that are affected by the various intake-promoting aspects of the modern food environment and explore potential modes of interaction between core systems such as hypothalamus and brainstem primarily receptive to internal signals of fuel availability and forebrain areas such as the cortex, amygdala and meso-corticolimbic dopamine system, primarily processing external signals. The modern lifestyle with its drastic changes in the way we eat and move puts pressure on the homoeostatic system responsible for the regulation of body weight, which has led to an increase in overweight and obesity. The power of food cues targeting susceptible emotions and cognitive brain functions, particularly of children and adolescents, is increasingly exploited by modern neuromarketing tools. Increased intake of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugar is not only adding more energy, but may also corrupt neural functions of brain systems involved in nutrient sensing as well as in hedonic, motivational and cognitive processing. It is concluded that only long-term prospective studies in human subjects and animal models with the capacity to demonstrate sustained over-eating and development of obesity are necessary to identify the critical environmental factors as well as the underlying neural systems involved. Insights from these studies and from modern neuromarketing research should be increasingly used to promote consumption of healthy foods. PMID:22800810

  8. The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment.

    PubMed

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this non-systematic review of the literature is to highlight some of the neural systems and pathways that are affected by the various intake-promoting aspects of the modern food environment and explore potential modes of interaction between core systems such as hypothalamus and brainstem primarily receptive to internal signals of fuel availability and forebrain areas such as the cortex, amygdala and meso-corticolimbic dopamine system, primarily processing external signals. The modern lifestyle with its drastic changes in the way we eat and move puts pressure on the homoeostatic system responsible for the regulation of body weight, which has led to an increase in overweight and obesity. The power of food cues targeting susceptible emotions and cognitive brain functions, particularly of children and adolescents, is increasingly exploited by modern neuromarketing tools. Increased intake of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugar is not only adding more energy, but may also corrupt neural functions of brain systems involved in nutrient sensing as well as in hedonic, motivational and cognitive processing. It is concluded that only long-term prospective studies in human subjects and animal models with the capacity to demonstrate sustained over-eating and development of obesity are necessary to identify the critical environmental factors as well as the underlying neural systems involved. Insights from these studies and from modern neuromarketing research should be increasingly used to promote consumption of healthy foods.

  9. Fat pad-specific effects of lipectomy on foraging, food hoarding, and food intake.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Megan E; Bartness, Timothy J

    2008-02-01

    Unlike most species, after food deprivation, Siberian hamsters increase foraging and food hoarding, two appetitive ingestive behaviors, but not food intake, a consummatory ingestive behavior. We previously demonstrated (Wood AD, Bartness TJ, Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 272: R783-R792, 1997) that increases in food hoarding are triggered by directly decreasing body fat levels through partial surgical lipectomy; however, we did not test if lipectomy affected foraging, nor if the magnitude of the lipid deficit affected food hoard size. Therefore, we tested whether varying the size of the lipectomy-induced lipid deficit and/or foraging effort affected foraging, food hoarding, or food intake. This was accomplished by housing adult male Siberian hamsters in a foraging/hoarding system and removing (x) both epididymal white adipose tissue (EWATx) pads, both inguinal white adipose tissue (IWATx) pads, or both EWAT and IWAT pads (EWATx + IWATx) and measuring foraging, food hoarding, and food intake for 12 wk. The lipectomy-induced lipid deficit triggered different patterns of white adipose tissue mass compensation that varied with foraging effort. Foraging for food (10 wheel revolutions to earn a food pellet) abolished the EWATx-induced compensation in IWAT pad mass. The magnitude of the lipid deficit did not engender a proportional change in any of the appetitive or consummatory ingestive behaviors. EWATx caused the greatest increase in food hoarding compared with IWATx or EWATx + IWATx, when animals were required to forage for their food. Collectively, it appears that the magnitude of a lipid deficit does not affect appetitive or consummatory behaviors; rather, when energy (foraging) demands are increased, loss of specific (gonadal) fat pads can preferentially stimulate increases in food hoarding.

  10. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare and...) Staff shall remove any commissary food items and private food supplies of the inmate while the inmate...

  11. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare and...) Staff shall remove any commissary food items and private food supplies of the inmate while the inmate...

  12. Food dependence in rats selectively bred for low versus high saccharin intake. Implications for "food addiction".

    PubMed

    Yakovenko, Veronica; Speidel, Elizabeth R; Chapman, Clinton D; Dess, Nancy K

    2011-10-01

    The "food addiction" concept implies that proneness to drug dependence and to food dependence should covary. The latter was studied in low- (LoS) and high- (HiS) saccharin-consuming rats, who differ in drug self-administration (HiS>LoS) and withdrawal (LoS>HiS). Sugary food intake in the first 1-2 h was higher in HiS than LoS rats. Sugar intake predicted startle during abstinence only among LoS rats. These results may suggest bingeing-proneness in HiS rats and withdrawal-proneness among LoS rats. However, intake escalation and somatic withdrawal did not differ between lines. Further study with selectively bred rats, with attention to definitions and measures, is warranted.

  13. Effect of anorexinergic peptides, cholecystokinin (CCK) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) peptide, on the activity of neurons in hypothalamic structures of C57Bl/6 mice involved in the food intake regulation.

    PubMed

    Pirnik, Zdeno; Maixnerová, Jana; Matysková, Resha; Koutová, Darja; Zelezná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Kiss, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamus plays an important role in food consumption, receiving information about energy balance via hormonal, metabolic, and neural inputs. Its neurons produce neuropeptides influencing energy balance. Especially important to regulation of food consumption are certain hypothalamic structures, including the arcuate (ARC) and ventromedial (VMN) nuclei and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). We determined the impact of cholecystokinin (CCK) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) peptide, on activity of ARC and VMN neurons and hypocretin (Hcrt) synthesizing neurons in LHA. ARC is an integrative nucleus regulating food consumption, VMN is considered to be a satiety centre, and LHA a hunger sensing centre. After overnight fasting, male C57Bl/6 mice received intraperitoneal injection of (i.p.) saline (SAL) or CCK (4microg/kg) or intracerebroventricular injection of (i.c.v.) CART peptide (0.1microg/mice) or CCK (i.p.) followed by CART peptide (i.c.v.) 5min later. Sixty minutes later, the presence of Fos or Fos/Hcrt immunostaining indicated activity of ARC and VMN neurons, as well as of Hcrt cells in LHA. CCK alone did not influence neuronal activity in any of the nuclei studied. CART peptide stimulated neurons in ARC and VMN (p<0.01) but decreased Hcrt neuronal activity in LHA (p<0.05). Co-administration of both peptides synergistically stimulated ARC neurons (p<0.01) and asynergistically inhibited LHA Hcrt neurons (p<0.01). Results indicate that CCK may modify the effect of CART peptide and thus substantially influence activity of neurons in hypothalamic structures involved in regulation of food intake.

  14. Effects of intracerebroventricularly and intraperitoneally administered growth hormone on body weight and food intake in fa/fa Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Carla; Wieczorek, Ingo; Reschke, Kirsten; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2002-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) possesses multiple metabolic effects, in particular with regard to glucose and lipid homeostasis. Studies on the effects of GH on body weight and food and water intake are scarce and have yielded controversial results. We investigated the effects of different modes of GH administration on the parameters of body weight and food intake as well as on insulin and leptin concentrations in fa/fa Zucker rats. In control experiments, aqua pro injection was given. GH was administered over a time period of 11 days at a daily dose of 250 microg intraperitoneally (i.p.) and 25 microg intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). While both food intake and body weight were found to be unaltered in the four groups after this observation period, there was an enhanced food intake and consecutively an increase in body weight over the day period when compared to the night period in the groups of rats that received GH i.c.v. or i.p. This tendency was also shown for water intake. Insulin and leptin concentrations were similar in all groups. Thus, injection of GH appears to modify food intake-related behavior, since the periods of enhanced food and water intake were shifted from night- to daytime. Thus, while in general the metabolic parameters remained unchanged, the activity pattern was clearly modified.

  15. The ovarian hormone estradiol plays a crucial role in the control of food intake in females

    PubMed Central

    Eckel, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a strong male bias in both basic and clinical research, it is becoming increasingly accepted that the ovarian hormone estradiol plays an important role in the control of food intake in females. Estradiol’s feeding inhibitory effect occurs in a variety of species, including women, but the underlying mechanism has been studied most extensively in rats and mice. Accordingly, much of the data reviewed here is derived from the rodent literature. Adult female rats display a robust decrease in food intake during estrus and ovariectomy promotes hyperphagia and weight gain, both of which can be prevented by a physiological regimen of estradiol treatment. Behavioral analyses have demonstrated that the feeding inhibitory effect of estradiol is mediated entirely by a decrease in meal size. In rats, estradiol appears to exert this action indirectly via interactions with peptide and neurotransmitter systems implicated in the direct control of meal size. Here, I summarize research examining the neurobiological mechanism underlying estradiol’s anorexigenic effect. Central estrogen receptors (ERs) have been implicated and activation of one ER subtype in particular, ERα, appears both sufficient and necessary for the estrogenic control of food intake. Future studies are necessary to identify the critical brain areas and intracellular signaling pathways responsible for estradiol’s anorexigenic effect. A clearer understanding of the estrogenic control of food intake is prerequisite to elucidating the biological factors that contribute to obesity and eating disorders, both of which are more prevalent in women, compared to men. PMID:21530561

  16. Modafinil decreases food intake in humans subjected to simulated shift work.

    PubMed

    Perez, Gydmer A; Haney, Margaret; Foltin, Richard W; Hart, Carl L

    2008-10-01

    In a limited number of studies modafinil has been shown to decrease food intake by laboratory animals and humans. The present study represents a secondary data analysis, in which the effects of modafinil on several measures of food intake were determined in humans living in a residential laboratory during simulated shift work. During this 23-day study, a wide selection of food items and beverages were freely available. During this double-blind, within-participant study, volunteers (N = 11) received oral modafinil dose (0, 200, or 400 mg) 1 h after waking for three consecutive days under two shift conditions: day shift and night shift. Shifts alternated three times during the study, and shift conditions were separated by an "off" day. Modafinil (200, 400 mg) dose-dependently decreased total caloric intake by approximately 18% and approximately 38%, respectively, regardless of shift condition, without selectively altering the proportion of total calories derived from carbohydrate, fat and protein. Ratings of "Hungry" were also significantly decreased by both active doses, but only immediately before the lunch break period. In addition, tolerance to the anorexic effects of modafinil was not apparent, as these effects remained stable across the three days of modafinil dosing. These findings show that modafinil produced clear reductions in food intake and suggest that future prospective studies should examine the drug in obese participants.

  17. Ceramides are involved in the regulation of food intake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Velasco, Cristina; Librán-Pérez, Marta; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-10-01

    We hypothesize that ceramides are involved in the regulation of food intake in fish. Therefore, we assessed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) the effects of intracerebroventricular treatment with C6:0 ceramide on food intake. In a second experiment, we assessed the effects in brain areas of ceramide treatment on neuropeptide expression, fatty acid-sensing systems, and cellular signaling pathways. Ceramide treatment induced a decrease in food intake, a response opposed to the orexigenic effect described in mammals, which can be related to enhanced mRNA abundance of cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript and proopiomelanocortin and decreased mRNA abundance of Agouti-related protein and neuropeptide Y. Fatty acid-sensing systems appear to be inactivated by ceramide treatment. The mRNA abundance of integrative sensors AMPK and sirtuin 1, and the phosphorylation status of cellular signaling pathways dependent on protein kinase B, AMPK, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) are generally activated by ceramide treatment. However, there are differences between hypothalamus and hindbrain in the phosphorylation status of AMPK (decreased in hypothalamus and increased in hindbrain), mTOR (decreased in hypothalamus and increased in hindbrain), and FoxO1 (increased in hypothalamus and decreased in hindbrain) to ceramide treatment. The results suggest that ceramides are involved in the regulation of food intake in rainbow trout through mechanisms comparable to those characterized previously in mammals in some cases.

  18. Ghrelin in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) post-larvae: Paracrine effects on food intake.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Guillén, Carmen; Yúfera, Manuel; Engrola, Sofia

    2017-02-01

    Successful food consumption and digestion depend on specifics anatomical and behavioral characteristics and corresponding physiological functions that should be ready to work at the appropriate time. The physiological regulation of appetite and ingestion involves a complex integration of peripheral and central signals by the brain. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone involved in the control of energy homeostasis and increases food intake in mammals, however ghrelin has species-specific actions on food intake in fish. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this peptide has an orexigenic or anorexigenic role in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) in order to improve the knowledge of the physiological basis underlying feeding activity. Feed intake was measured at several sampling points to determine the overall action time of the peptide and its effect in Senegalese sole food intake. Artemia protein digestibility and retention were determined in order to analyze the ghrelin effect in fed and fasted Senegalese sole post-larvae. Results suggested that ghrelin acts as orexigenic hormone in Senegalese sole, with a response time around 25min. Results indicated that Senegalese sole post-larvae are able to maintain absorption and retention capacities independently of feeding rate and nutritional status. Furthermore, the present study gives insight for the first time of the fate of the retained amino acids, being mainly used for protein accretion (86.79% of retained amino acids recovered in protein and FAA fractions).

  19. Personality factors predict spicy food liking and intake

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Nadia K.; Hayes, John E.

    2012-01-01

    A number of factors likely affect the liking of capsaicin-containing foods such as social influences, repeated exposure to capsaicin, physiological differences in chemosensation, and personality. For example, it is well known that repeated exposure to capsaicin and chilies can result in chronic desensitization. Here, we explore the relationship between multiple personality variables – body awareness/consciousness, sensation seeking, and sensitivity to punishment, and sensitivity to reward – and the liking and consumption of capsaicin-containing foods. As expected, a strong relationship was found between liking of spicy foods and frequency of chili consumption. However, no association was observed between frequency of chili consumption and the perceived burn/sting of sampled capsaicin. Nor was there any association between perceived burn/sting of capsaicin and any of the personality measures. Private Body Consciousness did not relate to any of the measures used in the current study. Sensation Seeking showed positive correlations with the liking of spicy foods, but not non-spicy control foods. Sensitivity to Punishment showed no relation with frequency of chili consumption, and nonsignificant negative trends with liking of spicy foods. Conversely, Sensitivity to Reward was weakly though significantly correlated with the liking of a spicy meal, and similar nonsignificant trends were seen for other spicy foods. Frequency of chili consumption was positively associated with Sensation Seeking and Sensitivity to Reward. Present data indicate individuals who enjoy spicy foods exhibit higher Sensation Seeking and Sensitivity to Reward traits. Rather than merely showing reduced response to the irritating qualities of capsaicin as might be expected under the chronic desensitization hypothesis, these findings support the hypothesis that personality differences may drive differences in spicy food liking and intake. PMID:23538555

  20. Salty food intake and risk of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Tsugane, S; Tei, Y; Takahashi, T; Watanabe, S; Sugano, K

    1994-05-01

    To clarify the risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection, which is considered to play an etiologic role in atrophic gastritis, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer, various parameters including diet and socioeconomic characteristics were compared between H. pylori-infected and non-infected men. In a cross-sectional study of 634 men aged 40 to 49 years selected randomly from five areas with different rates of gastric cancer mortality, 474 of 628 men evaluated were positive for IgG antibody against H. pylori. After logistic regression analysis adjusted for area, the results showed a significant association between frequent intake of pickled vegetables and prevalence of H. pylori antibody (odds ratios against men who consume < 1 day/week 1.19 for 1-2 days/week, 1.92 for 3-4 days/week, 1.90 for 5-7 days/week; P for trend = 0.02). Daily consumption of miso soup was also associated with an increased risk (odds ratio against non-daily consumer = 1.60, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-2.49). Occupation, number of siblings, education, smoking and alcohol drinking, and other dietary habits were not significantly associated with the prevalence of infection in this population. Although there are limitations in a cross-sectional study such as this, consumption of salty foods appears to increase the risk of H. pylori infection, which could be a marker of salty food intake or an intermediate risk factor in the etiologic sequence between salty food intake and gastric cancer.

  1. Suppression of Food Intake by Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists: Relative Potencies and Role of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4

    PubMed Central

    Jessen, Lene; Aulinger, Benedikt A.; Hassel, Jonathan L.; Roy, Kyle J.; Smith, Eric P.; Greer, Todd M.; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.

    2012-01-01

    Administration of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists GLP-1 and exendin-4 (Ex-4) directly into the central nervous system decreases food intake. But although Ex-4 potently suppresses food intake after peripheral administration, the effects of parenteral GLP-1 are variable and not as strong. A plausible explanation for these effects is the rapid inactivation of circulating GLP-1 by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), an enzyme that does not alter Ex-4 activity. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the relative potency of Ex-4 and GLP-1 under conditions in which DPP-4 activity was reduced. Outbred rats, wild-type mice, and mice with a targeted deletion of DPP-4 (Dpp4−/−) were treated with GLP-1 alone or in combination with the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin, Ex-4, or saline, and food intake was measured. GLP-1 alone, even at high doses, did not affect feeding in wild-type mice or rats but did reduce food intake when combined with vildagliptin or given to Dpp4−/− mice. Despite plasma clearance similar to DPP-4-protected GLP-1, equimolar Ex-4 caused greater anorexia than vildagliptin plus GLP-1. To determine whether supraphysiological levels of endogenous GLP-1 would suppress food intake if protected from DPP-4, rats with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and significantly elevated postprandial plasma GLP-1 received vildagliptin or saline. Despite 5-fold greater postprandial GLP-1 in these animals, vildagliptin did not affect food intake in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass rats. Thus, in both mice and rats, peripheral GLP-1 reduces food intake significantly less than Ex-4, even when protected from DPP-4. These findings suggest distinct potencies of GLP-1 receptor agonists on food intake that cannot be explained by plasma pharmacokinetics. PMID:23033273

  2. Food intake suppressant effect of baclofen in rats.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, M R; Hosseini-Nia, T; Allah-Maddadi, S

    1989-01-01

    1. Baclofen given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to rats caused a dose-dependent decrease in food intake. 2. Bicuculline or picrotoxin (GABAA-antagonist) and methergoline (5-HT antagonist) decreased the anorectic effect of baclofen. 3. Pimozide (dopamine receptor blocker), phenoxybenzamine and propranolol (alpha and beta adrenergic blockers) did not diminish the baclofen effect, but even increased the anorexia induced by the drug. 4. It can be postulated that, at least partially, GABAA receptor mechanism, GABA-5HT receptor complex and/or 5-HT mechanism may be involved in baclofen induced anorexia.

  3. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, M A H; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Noort, M W; van Raaij, J M A

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasible minimum level or alteration of consumers' behavior on sodium intake in the Netherlands. Subjects/methods: Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (2007–2010) and the Food Composition Table (2011) were used to estimate the current sodium intake. In the first scenario, levels in processed foods were reduced toward their technologically feasible minimum level (sodium reduction in processed foods scenario). The minimum feasible levels were based on literature searches or expert judgment. In the second scenario, foods consumed were divided into similar food (sub)groups. Subsequently, foods were replaced by low-sodium alternatives (substitution of processed foods scenario). Sodium intake from foods was calculated based on the mean of two observation days for the current food consumption pattern and the scenarios. Results: Sodium levels of processed foods could be reduced in most food groups by 50%, and this may reduce median sodium intake from foods by 38% (from 3042 to 1886 mg/day in adult men). Substitution of foods may reduce sodium intake by 47% (from 3042 to 1627 mg/day in adult men), owing to many low-sodium alternatives within food groups. Conclusions: In the Netherlands, reduction of sodium intake by modification of food composition or by alteration of behavior may substantially reduce the median sodium intake from foods below the recommended sodium intake. PMID:25782426

  4. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen GHM; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  5. Food group and micronutrient intake adequacy among children, adults and elderly women in Greece.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-03-11

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%-44.1% and 4.2%-7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.

  6. Women's nutrient intakes and food-related knowledge in rural Kandal province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Lauren J; Summerlee, Alastair J S; Dewey, Cate E; Hak, Chantharith; Hall, Ann; Charles, Christopher V

    2014-01-01

    In Cambodia, both anaemia and vitamin A deficiency are serious health problems. Despite this, few comprehensive nutritional surveys have been completed to date. This study evaluates the adequacy of iron and vitamin A intakes, as well as women's nutritional knowledge in rural Kandal province. Twenty-four hour recalls, pile sort activities, socioeconomic surveys, focus groups, and market surveys were carried out with 67 women from 5 villages in rural Kandal Province. Ninety seven percent of women did not meet their daily-recommended intake of iron, while 70% did not meet their daily-recommended intake of vitamin A. Although many women consume vitamin A-rich and iron rich-foods daily, they do not consume large enough quantities of these foods. Results suggest that both the cost of foods as well as the extent of health knowledge is linked to nutritional practice. Most animal-source iron and vitamin A-rich foods are considered expensive; however, small fish, and several plant-source vitamin A-rich foods are inexpensive and easy to access. Despite health education, food restrictions lead some healthy foods to be considered to be harmful to women. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the importance of developing comprehensive nutritional interventions in Cambodia. Health programming must provide women with not only suggestions to include low-cost nutrient-rich foods, but also advise them about the quantities that are likely to have an impact on nutritional status. Programs should take a community-based, inter-sectoral approach that simultaneously combines culturally informed health education with initiatives that combat poverty and increase access to nutrient rich foods.

  7. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  8. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  9. Dietary changes and food intake in the first year after breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Vance, Vivienne; Campbell, Sharon; McCargar, Linda; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2014-06-01

    Understanding dietary habits of women after breast cancer is a critical first step in developing nutrition guidelines that will support weight management and optimal health in survivorship; however, limited data are available. The objective of this study was to describe changes in diet among breast cancer survivors in the first year after treatment, and to evaluate these changes in the context of current dietary intake. Changes in diet were assessed in 28 early stage breast cancer survivors, using a self-reported survey in which women identified changes in food intake since their diagnosis. Current dietary intake was estimated from 3-day food records and described relative to current recommendations. The majority of women reported changes in diet after diagnosis, most common being an increase in vegetables/fruit and fish, lower intake of red meat, and reduced alcohol. Many women reported that these changes were initiated during active treatment. Dietary changes were largely consistent with current recommendations for cancer prevention; however, some women were still above the guidelines for total and saturated fat, and many were below recommendations for vegetables/fruit, milk/alternatives, calcium, and vitamin D. Evidence that some women are willing and able to initiate positive changes in diet early in the treatment trajectory suggests that early intervention may be effective in promoting dietary habits that will assist with weight management and overall health. Data on current dietary intake highlights several possible targets for dietary intervention in this population.

  10. The impact of nutritional policy on socioeconomic disparity in the unhealthy food intake among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kirang; Park, Sun Min; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the trend in unhealthy food intake by socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine whether the government's nutritional policies affect socioeconomic disparity in the food intake among adolescents. Data were from the six independent cross-sectional survey data (2006-2011) of Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and included 445,287 subjects aged 12-18 years. The unhealthy food intake was assessed by food frequency intake and SEP was evaluated with the family affluence scale. We observed that unhealthy food intakes decreased through the years, showing the apparent decline when nutritional policies focusing on the restriction of unhealthy foods were implemented, and the trend was all same in the different SEP groups. The pattern of unhealthy food intakes by SEP has changed before and after implementation of the policies. The intakes of carbonated beverages, fast food, and confectioneries were higher in the higher SEP group before implementation of the policies but the difference was not shown after implementation of the policies. The intake of instant noodles was consistently higher in the lower SEP group. The risk of frequent consumption of unhealthy foods was generally more decreased through the years in the higher SEP group than the lower SEP group. In conclusion, this study found the positive effect of nutritional policy on unhealthy food intake among adolescents and the high SEP group appeared to undergo greater desirable changes in dietary behaviors after implementation of nutritional policies than the low SEP group.

  11. Light at night increases body mass by shifting the time of food intake.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Workman, Joanna L; Walton, James C; Weil, Zachary M; Morris, John S; Haim, Abraham; Nelson, Randy J

    2010-10-26

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders coincides with the increase of exposure to light at night (LAN) and shift work. Circadian regulation of energy homeostasis is controlled by an endogenous biological clock that is synchronized by light information. To promote optimal adaptive functioning, the circadian clock prepares individuals for predictable events such as food availability and sleep, and disruption of clock function causes circadian and metabolic disturbances. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between nighttime light exposure and obesity, we examined the effects of LAN on body mass in male mice. Mice housed in either bright (LL) or dim (DM) LAN have significantly increased body mass and reduced glucose tolerance compared with mice in a standard (LD) light/dark cycle, despite equivalent levels of caloric intake and total daily activity output. Furthermore, the timing of food consumption by DM and LL mice differs from that in LD mice. Nocturnal rodents typically eat substantially more food at night; however, DM mice consume 55.5% of their food during the light phase, as compared with 36.5% in LD mice. Restricting food consumption to the active phase in DM mice prevents body mass gain. These results suggest that low levels of light at night disrupt the timing of food intake and other metabolic signals, leading to excess weight gain. These data are relevant to the coincidence between increasing use of light at night and obesity in humans.

  12. Balance Food and Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... eNewsletters Calendar Balance Food and Activity What is Energy Balance? Energy is another word for "calories." Your ... adults, fewer calories are needed at older ages. Energy Balance in Real Life Think of it as ...

  13. Household food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women participating in federal food assistance programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study explored the association between food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women after controlling for sociocultural and economic factors including participation in federal food assistance programs. A cross-sectional design was used. Demographics, anthropometrics, accultur...

  14. Mineral Intake in Urban Pregnant Women from Base Diet, Fortified Foods, and Food Supplements: Focus on Calcium, Iron, and Zinc.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hai Xian; Han, Jun Hua; Li, Hu Zhong; Liang, Dong; Deng, Tao Tao; Chang, Su Ying

    2016-12-01

    In the Chinese national nutrition surveys, fortified foods were not investigated separately from the base diet, and the contribution of fortified foods to micronutrients intake is not very clear. This study investigated the diet, including fortified foods and food supplements, of urban pregnant women and analyzed the intake of calcium, iron, and zinc to assess the corresponding contributions of fortified foods, food supplements, and the base diet. The results demonstrated that the base diet was the major source of calcium, iron, and zinc, and was recommended to be the first choice for micronutrients intake. Furthermore, consumption of fortified foods and food supplements offered effective approaches to improve the dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc in Chinese urban pregnant women.

  15. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children's Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods.

    PubMed

    Gevers, Dorus W M; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Nanne K; van Assema, Patricia

    2015-05-27

    Most previous studies of parental influences on children's diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888) was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: "high covert control and rewarding", "low covert control and non-rewarding", "high involvement and supportive" and "low involvement and indulgent". The "high involvement and supportive" cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children's intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children's diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting.

  16. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  17. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-08-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods.

  18. Development of cell-based bioassay with SF9 cells expressing TcSKR1 and TcSKR2 and differential activation by sulfated and non-sulfated SK peptides involved in food intake regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect sulfakinin receptors (SKRs) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that interact with sulfakinins (SKs) to modulate diverse biological processes. One of the indispensable roles of SKs is in the regulation of food intake in insects. In this project we report on the development of a cell-bas...

  19. Time of day influences the voluntary intake and behavioral response to methamphetamine and food reward.

    PubMed

    Keith, Diana R; Hart, Carl L; Robotham, Margaret; Tariq, Maliha; Le Sauter, Joseph; Silver, Rae

    2013-09-01

    The circadian timing system influences a vast array of behavioral responses. Substantial evidence indicates a role for the circadian system in regulating reward processing. Here we explore time of day effects on drug anticipation, locomotor activity, and voluntary methamphetamine (MA) and food intake in animals with ad libitum food access. We compared responses to drug versus a palatable treat during their normal sleep times in early day (zeitgeber time (ZT) 0400) or late day (ZT 1000). In the first study, using a between-subjects design, mice were given daily 1-h access to either peanut butter (PB-Alone) or to a low or high concentration of MA mixed in PB (MA+PB). In study 2, we repeated the experiment using a within-subjects design in which mice could choose between PB-Alone and MA+PB at either ZT 0400 or 1000. In study 3, the effects of MA-alone were investigated by evaluating anticipatory activity preceding exposure to nebulized MA at ZT 0400 vs. ZT 1000. Time of day effects were observed for both drug and palatable treat, such that in the between groups design, animals showed greater intake, anticipatory activity, and post-ingestional activity in the early day. Furthermore, there were differences among mice in the amount of MA ingested but individuals were self-consistent in their daily intake. The results for the within-subjects experiment also revealed robust individual differences in preference for MA+PB or PB-Alone. Interestingly, time of day effects on intake were observed only for the preferred substance. Anticipatory activity preceding administration of MA by nebulization was also greater at ZT 0400 than ZT 1000. Finally, pharmacokinetic response to MA administered intraperitoneally did not vary as a function of time of administration. The results indicate that time of day is an important variable mediating the voluntary intake and behavioral effects of reinforcers.

  20. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mavra; Mandic, Iva; Lou, Wendy; Goodman, Len; Jacobs, Ira; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9) or a weighed food record (wFR) (n = 9), recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR) (p > 0.05). Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR) with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR) and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel. PMID:28264428

  1. Habitual rapid food intake and ineffective esophageal motility

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kong-Ling; Chen, Ji-Hong; Zhang, Qian; Huizinga, Jan D; Vadakepeedika, Shawn; Zhao, Yu-Rong; Yu, Wen-Zhen; Luo, He-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) in relation to ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) and rapid food intake. METHODS: NCCP patients with a self-reported habit of fast eating underwent esophageal manometry for the diagnosis of IEM. Telephone interviews identified eating habits of additional IEM patients. Comparison of manometric features was done among IEM patients with and without the habit of rapid food intake and healthy controls. A case study investigated the effect of 6-mo gum chewing on restoration of esophageal motility in an IEM patient. The Valsalva maneuver was performed in IEM patients and healthy controls to assess the compliance of the esophagus in response to abdominal pressure increase. RESULTS: Although most patients diagnosed with NCCP do not exhibit IEM, remarkably, all 12 NCCP patients who were self-reporting fast eaters with a main complaint of chest pain (75.0%) had contraction amplitudes in the mid and distal esophagus that were significantly lower compared with healthy controls [(23.45 mmHg (95%CI: 14.06-32.85) vs 58.80 mmHg (95%CI: 42.56-75.04), P < 0.01 and 28.29 mmHg (95%CI: 21.77-34.81) vs 50.75 mmHg (95%CI: 38.44-63.05), P < 0.01, respectively)]. In 7 normal-eating IEM patients with a main complaint of sensation of obstruction (42.9%), the mid amplitude was smaller than in the controls [30.09 mmHg (95%CI: 19.48-40.70) vs 58.80 mmHg (95%CI: 42.56-75.04), P < 0.05]. There was no statistically significant difference in manometric features between the fast-eating and normal-eating groups. One NCCP patient who self-reported fast eating and was subsequently diagnosed with IEM did not improve with proton-pump inhibition but restored swallow-induced contractions upon 6-mo gum-chewing. The Valsalva maneuver caused a markedly reduced pressure rise in the mid and proximal esophagus in the IEM patients. CONCLUSION: Habitual rapid food intake may lead to IEM. A prospective study is needed to validate this hypothesis. Gum-chewing might

  2. Effects of Pre-portioned and Family-style Food Service on Preschool Children's Food Intake and Waste at Snacktime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branen, Laurel; Fletcher, Janice; Myers, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Studied differences in food intake, waste, and time required for eating when young children are served by preportioned or family-style food service. Found intake of children fed family style was significantly greater, and no significant differences were found in the mean portions of waste or in the time required to eat. (Author)

  3. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy.

  4. Development of the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM): links with food intake among children and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Palfreyman, Zoe; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to develop a self-report questionnaire to explore parental modelling of eating behaviours and then to use the newly developed measure to investigate associations between parental modelling with healthy and unhealthy food intake in both mothers and their children. Mothers (n = 484) with a child aged between 18 months and 8 years completed the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM), a new, self-report measure of modelling, as well as a food frequency questionnaire. Principal components analysis of the PARM identified 15 items grouped into three subscales: verbal modelling (modelling through verbal communication); unintentional modelling (UM) (children adopting eating behaviours that parents had not actively modelled); and behavioural consequences (children's eating behaviours directly associated with parental modelling). The PARM subscales were found to be differentially related to food intake. Maternally perceived consequences of behavioural modelling were related to increased fruit and vegetable intake in both mothers and children. UM was related to higher levels of savoury snack intake in both mothers and their children. This study has highlighted three distinct aspects of parental modelling of eating behaviours. The findings suggest that mothers may intentionally model healthy food intake while unintentionally acting as role models for their children's less healthy, snack food intake.

  5. Dairy food intake is positively associated with cardiovascular health: findings from Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting findings have been reported about dairy food consumption and risk for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, few studies have examined dairy food intake in relation to cardiovascular health and the incorporation of lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity. This study examined whether dairy food consumption was associated with cardiovascular health, recently defined by the American Heart Association. Data were analyzed from 1352 participants from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg survey. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure intakes of milk, yogurt, cheese, dairy desserts, ice cream, and butter. Seven cardiovascular health metrics were assessed: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. A total cardiovascular health score (CHS) was determined by summing the total number of health metrics at ideal levels. It was hypothesized that greater dairy food consumption (both low fat and whole fat) would be associated with better global cardiovascular health, as indicated by a higher CHS. Total dairy food intake was positively associated with the CHS. Higher intakes of whole fat milk, yogurt, and cheese were associated with better cardiovascular health. Even when controlling for demographic and dietary variables, those who consumed at least 5 servings per week of these dairy products had a significantly higher CHS than those who consumed these products less frequently. Higher total whole fat dairy food intake was also associated with other positive health behaviors, including being a nonsmoker, consuming the suggested dietary intakes of recommended foods, and having a normal body mass index. Increased dairy food consumption was associated with better cardiovascular health.

  6. Oleoylethanolamide affects food intake and sleep-waking cycle through a hypothalamic modulation.

    PubMed

    Soria-Gómez, E; Guzmán, K; Pech-Rueda, O; Montes-Rodríguez, C J; Cisneros, M; Prospéro-García, O

    2010-05-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous molecule related to endocannabinoids (eCBs) that induces satiety. It binds to the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha). PPAR alpha is involved in feeding regulation and it has been proposed to play a role in sleep modulation. The objective of the present work is to show if this molecule modifies the sleep-waking cycle through central mechanisms. We have found that the peripheral administration of OEA reduces food intake and increases waking with a concomitant reduction of rapid eye movement sleep. Additionally, this treatment produces deactivation of the lateral hypothalamus, as inferred from the c-Fos expression evaluation. Finally, intra-lateral hypothalamus injection of OEA has mirrored the effects induced by this molecule when it is peripherally administered. In conclusion, we show for the very first time that OEA can modify the sleep-waking cycle and food intake, apparently mediated by the lateral hypothalamus.

  7. [The effect of food intake on drug action].

    PubMed

    Pletscher, W; Peretti, E

    1990-01-01

    Interactions between medicaments and food are only incompletely documented--despite their frequent occurrence. Food can influence the effect of medicaments in a variety of ways: the effect of the medicament can be delayed or weakened; in some cases the effect may also be increased. The interactions between the kinetics of medicaments and food are described in the present survey. The absorption conditions in the stomach and small intestine are influenced physiologically and chemically by food. In very rare cases the elimination of active ingredients too can be modified by the quality and quantity of the food. Detailed knowledge about the physical-chemical properties of the medicaments used help to optimize the pharmacotherapy in the individual case. For the patient, the easiest suggestion to follow would be to take the medicaments with plenty of water and always at the same time.

  8. Food intake inhibition in rainbow trout induced by activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptors is associated with increases in POMC, CART and CRF mRNA abundance in hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maceira, Jorge J; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Mancebo, María J; Soengas, José L; Aldegunde, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    In rainbow trout, the food intake inhibition induced by serotonin occurs through 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A receptors, though the mechanisms involved are still unknown. Therefore, we assessed if a direct stimulation of 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A serotonin receptors (resulting in decreased food intake in rainbow trout), affects gene expression of neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake, such as pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP). In a first set of experiments, the injection of the 5-HT2C receptor agonists MK212 (60 μg kg(-1) icv) and WAY 161503 (1 mg kg(-1) ip), and of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg kg(-1) ip and 30 μg kg(-1) icv) induced food intake inhibition. In a second set of experiments, we observed that the injection of MK212 or WAY 161503 (1 and 3 mg kg(-1)) significantly increased hypothalamic POMC mRNA abundance. CART mRNA abundance in hypothalamus was enhanced by treatment with MK212 and unaffected by WAY 161503. The administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT did not induce any significant variation in the hypothalamic POMC or CART mRNA levels. CRF mRNA abundance was only affected by MK212 that increased hypothalamic values. Finally, hypothalamic AgRP mRNA abundance was only evaluated with the agonist 5-HT2C MK212 resulting in no significant effects. The results show that the reduction in food intake mediated by 5-HT2C receptors is associated with increases in hypothalamic POMC, CART and CRF mRNA abundance.

  9. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): relative validity of a mobile phone application to measure intake of food groups.

    PubMed

    Rangan, Anna M; Tieleman, Laurissa; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Tang, Lie Ming; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19-24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69-0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65-75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54-0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA-recall) were small (range: -13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: -4 g, LOA: -159 to 151 g). The Bland-Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals' food group intake.

  10. [Folate and folic acid intake estimation and food enrichment requirements].

    PubMed

    Olivares Martínez, Ana Belén; Ros Berruezo, Gaspar; Bernal Cava, M José; Martínez Graciá, Carmen; Periago Castón, M Jesús

    2005-03-01

    The term "folate" is a generic way to name the different forms derived from folic acid, one of the B vitamins (specifically B9 vitamin). They are essential in the metabolism when they act as cofactors in the transfer reactions of one carbon. However, only plants and microorganisms are able to synthesize them de novo, in such a way that both animals and human beings have to intake them through their diet. Folic acid is widely spread in nature, mainly in vegetables, liver ans cereals. However, nowadays, the lack of folates in the diet is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies in the world, and it has serious consequences on human health. There is evidence that even in developed countries folate intake is usually low; and even, is some cases, below optima levels. The authorities in several countries have adapted different norms related to folic acid, fortifying staple food such as dairy products or cereals, mandatory (U.S.A., Canada or Chile) or voluntary (most of the European countries).

  11. Differences in food intake of tumour-bearing cachectic mice are associated with hypothalamic serotonin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Dwarkasing, Jvalini T; Boekschoten, Mark V; Argilès, Joseph M; van Dijk, Miriam; Busquets, Silvia; Penna, Fabio; Toledo, Miriam; Laviano, Alessandro; Witkamp, R F; van Norren, Klaske

    2015-01-01

    Background Anorexia is a common symptom among cancer patients and contributes to malnutrition and strongly impinges on quality of life. Cancer-induced anorexia is thought to be caused by an inability of food intake-regulating systems in the hypothalamus to respond adequately to negative energy balance during tumour growth. Here, we show that this impaired response of food-intake control is likely to be mediated by altered serotonin signalling and by failure in post-transcriptional neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulation. Methods Two tumour cachectic mouse models with different food intake behaviours were used: a C26-colon adenocarcinoma model with increased food intake and a Lewis lung carcinoma model with decreased food intake. This contrast in food intake behaviour between tumour-bearing (TB) mice in response to growth of the two different tumours was used to distinguish between processes involved in cachexia and mechanisms that might be important in food intake regulation. The hypothalamus was used for transcriptomics (affymetrix chips). Results In both models, hypothalamic expression of orexigenic NPY was significantly higher compared with controls, suggesting that this change does not directly reflect food intake status but might be linked to negative energy balance in cachexia. Expression of genes involved in serotonin signalling showed to be different between C26-TB mice and Lewis lung carcinoma-TB mice and was inversely associated with food intake. In vitro, using hypothalamic cell lines, serotonin repressed neuronal hypothalamic NPY secretion while not affecting messenger NPY expression, suggesting that serotonin signalling can interfere with NPY synthesis, transport, or secretion. Conclusions Altered serotonin signalling is associated with changes in food intake behaviour in cachectic TB mice. Serotonins' inhibitory effect on food intake under cancer cachectic conditions is probably via affecting the NPY system. Therefore, serotonin regulation might be a

  12. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  13. Eating Frequency, Food Intake, and Weight: A Systematic Review of Human and Animal Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Goff, Matthew R.; Poole, Seletha A.; Chen, Guoxun

    2015-01-01

    Eating frequently during the day, or “grazing,” has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF) on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism), aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies) contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1–24 eating occasions per day), lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks), and sample sizes (3–56 participants/animals per condition). Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: (1) human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; (2) human studies conducted in field settings; (3) animal studies with experimental periods <1 month; and (4) animal studies with experimental periods >1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5%) found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7%) finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF) influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics. PMID:26734613

  14. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  15. Seasonal Variation in the Voluntary Food Intake of Domesticated Cats (Felis Catus)

    PubMed Central

    Serisier, Samuel; Feugier, Alexandre; Delmotte, Sébastien; Biourge, Vincent; German, Alexander James

    2014-01-01

    There are numerous reports about seasonal cycles on food intake in animals but information is limited in dogs and cats. A 4-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted to assess differences in food intake in 38 ad-libitum-fed adult colony cats, of various breeds, ages and genders. Individual food intake was recorded on a daily basis, and the mean daily intake for each calendar month was calculated. These data were compared with climatic data (temperature and daylight length) for the region in the South of France where the study was performed. Data were analysed using both conventional statistical methods and by modelling using artificial neural networks (ANN). Irrespective of year, an effect of month was evident on food intake (P<0.001), with three periods of broadly differing intake. Food intake was least in the summer months (e.g. June, to August), and greatest during the months of late autumn and winter (e.g. October to February), with intermediate intake in the spring (e.g. March to May) and early autumn (e.g. September). A seasonal effect on bodyweight was not recorded. Periods of peak and trough food intake coincided with peaks and troughs in both temperature and daylight length. In conclusion, average food intake in summer is approximately 15% less than food intake during the winter months, and is likely to be due to the effects of outside temperatures and differences in daylight length. This seasonal effect in food intake should be properly considered when estimating daily maintenance energy requirements in cats. PMID:24759851

  16. Associations of food preferences and household food availability with dietary intake and quality in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, L M; Nansel, T R; Haynie, D L; Mehta, S N; Laffel, L M B

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations of food preferences and availability with dietary intake in youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom dietary intake and quality are essential to disease management. Youth (n=252, age 13.2±2.8 y, diabetes duration 6.3±3.4 y) reported preferences and parents reported household availability for 61 food items categorized as fruit, vegetables, whole grains, refined grains and fats/sweets. Youth energy-adjusted daily servings of food groups, Healthy Eating Index-2005 and Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 scores were calculated from 3-day diet records. Associations of dietary intake and quality variables with preference and availability of all food groups were evaluated by linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Fruit and whole grain intake were positively related to corresponding preference and availability; whole grain intake and refined grain availability were inversely related. Vegetable, refined grain and fats/sweets intake were unrelated to preference and availability. Diet quality measures were related positively to fruit preference and whole grain availability and inversely to refined grains availability. Findings indicate associations of dietary intake with food preference and availability vary by food group in youth with type 1 diabetes. Measures of overall dietary quality were more consistently associated with food group availability than preferences.

  17. Associations of food preferences and household food availability with dietary intake and quality in youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, LM; Nansel, TR; Haynie, DL; Mehta, SN; Laffel, LMB

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations of food preferences and availability with dietary intake in youth with type 1 diabetes, for whom dietary intake and quality are essential to disease management. Youth (n=252, age 13.2±2.8y, diabetes duration 6.3±3.4y) reported preferences and parents reported household availability for 61 food items categorized as fruit, vegetables, whole grains, refined grains and fats/sweets. Youth energy-adjusted daily servings of food groups, Healthy Eating Index-2005 and Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 scores were calculated from 3-day diet records. Associations of dietary intake and quality variables with preference and availability of all food groups were evaluated by linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Fruit and whole grain intake were positively related to corresponding preference and availability; whole grain intake and refined grain availability were inversely related. Vegetable, refined grain and fats/sweets intake were unrelated to preference and availability. Diet quality measures were related positively to fruit preference and whole grain availability and inversely to refined grains availability. Findings indicate associations of dietary intake with food preference and availability vary by food group in youth with type 1 diabetes. Measures of overall dietary quality were more consistently associated with food group availability than preferences. PMID:22595289

  18. Criteria for optimizing food composition tables in relation to studies of habitual food intakes.

    PubMed

    Joyanes, María; Lema, Lourdes

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to increase the accuracy, reliability, and precision of food composition data and, in consequence, better approximate nutrient intake estimations and recommendations. To do this it is necessary to specify and taken into account factors that play an important role in the variation of composition in order to avoid excessively broad dispersions and irregularities in data distributions. This implies the presentation of representative and, as consequence, extrapolable data, with nutritionally grounded confidence intervals. This study suggests a methodology that better approaches the accuracy, reliability, and precision of food composition data.

  19. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    PubMed

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake.

  20. Effects of Anorectic Drugs on Food Intake under Progressive-Ratio and Free-Access Conditions in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSage, Mark G.; Stafford, David; Glowa, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two anorectic drugs, dexfenfluramine and phentermine, on food intake under different food-access conditions were examined. Experiment 1 compared the effects of these drugs on food intake under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule and free-access conditions. Dexfenfluramine decreased food intake under both conditions, but the doses…

  1. Regulation of food intake by mechanosensory ion channels in enteric neurons

    PubMed Central

    Olds, William H; Xu, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of food intake is fundamental to energy homeostasis in animals. The contribution of non-nutritive and metabolic signals in regulating feeding is unclear. Here we show that enteric neurons play a major role in regulating feeding through specialized mechanosensory ion channels in Drosophila. Modulating activities of a specific subset of enteric neurons, the posterior enteric neurons (PENs), results in sixfold changes in food intake. Deficiency of the mechanosensory ion channel PPK1 gene or RNAi knockdown of its expression in the PENS result in a similar increase in food intake, which can be rescued by expression of wild-type PPK1 in the same neurons. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of the mechanosensory ion channel phenocopies the result of genetic interrogation. Together, our study provides the first molecular genetic evidence that mechanosensory ion channels in the enteric neurons are involved in regulating feeding, offering an enticing alternative to current therapeutic strategy for weight control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04402.001 PMID:25285450

  2. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, food intake regulation, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Vargas, Haydeé; Martínez-Ezquerro, José Darío; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that plays a fundamental role in development and plasticity of the central nervous system (CNS). It is currently recognized as a major participant in the regulation of food intake. Multiple studies have shown that different regulators of appetite such as leptin, insulin and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) potentially exert anorexigenic effects through BDNF. Low circulating levels of BDNF are associated with a higher risk of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Strict food restriction reduces BDNF and may trigger binge-eating episodes and weight gain. The existence of mutations that cause haploinsufficiency of BDNF as well as some genetic variants, notably the BDNF p.Val66Met polymorphism, are also associated with the development of obese phenotypes and hyperphagia. However, association of the Met allele with AN and BN, which have different phenotypic characteristics, shows clearly the existence of other relevant factors that regulate eating behavior. This may, in part, be explained by the epigenetic regulation of BDNF through mechanisms like DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Environmental factors, primarily during early development, are crucial to the establishment of these stable but reversible changes that alter the transcriptional expression and are transgenerationally heritable, with potential concomitant effects on the development of eating disorders and body weight control.

  3. Ecological correlations of dietary food intake and mental health disorders.

    PubMed

    Hoerr, Jordan; Fogel, Joshua; Van Voorhees, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the ecological association of dietary food intake with mental health outcomes on the group level across countries. Published data from the World Mental Health Survey were used to compare lifetime prevalence of four categories of mental health disorders (anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, and substance use disorders) with a country's fish/seafood and sugar/sweetener supply quantity using the Spearman rank correlation. Data were compared for 17 countries across the world. Sugar and sweetener supply quantity was significantly and positively associated with anxiety disorders (rho=0.75, p=0.001), mood disorders (rho=0.75, p=0.001), impulse control disorders (rho=0.78, p=0.001), and substance use disorders (rho=0.68, p=0.007). Fish and seafood supply quantity had no significant association with any mental health disorders. Mental health disorders represent a significant health problem around the world. Public health measures aimed at improving the quality and availability of a nation's food supply could have a significant positive impact on mental health. Further randomized studies are needed to further validate the study findings.

  4. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section 549.64 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare...

  5. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section 549.64 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare...

  6. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section 549.64 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare...

  7. Associations of Built Food Environment with Dietary Intake among Youth with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Puett, Robin; Bottai, Matteo; Porter, Dwayne E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the associations of supermarket and fast-food outlet accessibility and availability with dietary intake among youth with diabetes. Design: Subjects' residential location and dietary intake was obtained from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlet data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and…

  8. Soy Food Intake, Tamoxifen Use, Estrogen Receptor Polymorphism, and Breast Cancer Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Results from the soy food intake and breast cancer survival manuscript indicate that there is no association between soy protein intake and breast cancer...tertile). The association between soy protein intake and breast cancer survival did not differ according to ER/PR status, tumor stage, age at diagnosis...reported a decrease. standard protocol. Soy protein content of each food item was estimated Patients were followed up through January 2003 with based on the

  9. To eat or not to eat: the effect of AICAR on food intake regulation in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris).

    PubMed

    Florant, Gregory L; Fenn, Ashley M; Healy, Jessica E; Wilkerson, Gregory K; Handa, Robert J

    2010-06-15

    Mammals that hibernate (hibernators) exhibit a circannual rhythm of food intake and body mass. In the laboratory during the winter hibernation period, many hibernators enter a series of multi-day torpor bouts, dropping their body temperature to near ambient, and cease to feed even if food is present in their cage. The mechanism(s) that regulates food intake in hibernators is unclear. Recently, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to play a key role in the central regulation of food intake in mammals. We hypothesized that infusing an AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1 B-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), intracerebroventricularly (ICV) into the third ventricle of the hypothalamus would stimulate yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) to feed during their hibernation season. Infusion of AICAR ICV into marmots at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in food intake. In addition, animals stimulated to feed did not enter torpor during the infusion period. Marmots ICV infused with saline did not increase food intake and these animals continued to undergo torpor at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C. Our results suggest that AICAR stimulated the food intake pathway, presumably by activating AMPK. These results support the hypothesis that AMPK may be involved in regulating food intake in hibernators and that there may be common neural pathways involved in regulating feeding and eliciting torpor.

  10. More distinct food intake patterns among women than men in northern Sweden: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Winkvist, Anna; Hörnell, Agneta; Hallmans, Göran; Lindahl, Bernt; Weinehall, Lars; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2009-01-01

    Background The need to promote a healthy diet to curb the current obesity epidemic has today been recognized by most countries. A prerequisite for planning and evaluating interventions on dietary intake is the existence of valid information on long-term average dietary intake in a population. Few large, population-based studies of dietary intake have been carried out in Sweden. The largest to date is the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP), which was initiated in 1985, with data collection still ongoing. This paper reports on the first comprehensive analyses of the dietary data and presents dietary intake patterns among over 60,000 women and men in northern Sweden during 1992–2005. Methods Between 1992 and 2005, 71,367 inhabitants in Västerbotten county aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years visited their local health care center as part of the VIP. Participants of VIP filled in an 84- or 64-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and provided sociodemographic information. Complete and realistic information on consumption frequency was provided by 62,531 individuals. Food intake patterns were analyzed using K-means cluster analyses. Results The mean daily energy intake was 6,83 (± 1,77) MJ among women and 8,71 (± 2,26) MJ among men. More than half of both women and men were classified as Low Energy Reporters (defined as individuals reporting a food intake level below the lower 95% confidence interval limit of the physical activity level). Larger variation in frequency of daily intake was seen among women than among men for most food groups. Among women, four dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", "Coffee and sandwich", and "Tea and ice cream". Among men, three dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", and "Tea, soda and cookies". Conclusion More distinct food intake patterns were seen among women than men in this study in northern Sweden. Due to large proportions of Low Energy Reporters

  11. The TRPA1 agonist, methyl syringate suppresses food intake and gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Son, Hee Jin; Song, Seo Hyeon; Jung, Myungji; Kim, Yiseul; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1) expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR) mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR), a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression.

  12. The involvement of 5-HT-like receptors in the regulation of food intake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Pérez Maceira, Jorge J; Mancebo, María J; Aldegunde, Manuel

    2014-04-01

    It is known that in fish the serotonergic system is part of the neural network that controls feeding and that a pharmacologically induced increase in the brain 5-HT inhibits food intake. However, nothing is known about the 5-HT receptors involved in this inhibitory effect. In this study, we investigated the effects of several 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor agonists on food intake in rainbow trout. In the first experiment, fish were injected i.p. or i.c.v. with two 5-HT1B receptor agonists, anpirtoline (2mg/kg, i.p.) and CP93129 (100 and 200μg/kg, i.c.v.). Neither of these treatments significantly altered food intake. In a second set of experiments, different groups of fish were injected i.p. (1mg/kg) or i.c.v. (30μg/kg) with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT. In both cases, administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist inhibited food intake. In a third set of experiments, we explored the effects of different 5-HT2 receptor agonists. Different groups of fish were injected i.p. or i.c.v. with the mixed 5-HT2B/2C agonist m-CPP (5mg/kg, i.p.), 5-HT2C agonist MK212 (60μg/kg, i.c.v.) and 5-HT2B agonist BW723C86 (50 and 100μg/kg, i.c.v.). Administration of the 5-HT2B/2C and 5HT2C receptor agonists significantly inhibited food intake. Administration of the lowest dose of the 5-HT2B receptor agonist did not have any significant effect, while administration of the highest dose induced a significant increase in food intake. Activation of the 5-HT1A-like (food intake inhibition) and 5-HT1B-like (no effect on food intake) receptors in the rainbow trout induced different effects on food intake from those observed in mammals. We conclude that in rainbow trout the anorexigenic actions of 5-HT are probably mediated by activation of 5-HT1A and 5-H2C-like receptors.

  13. Changing food patterns across the seasons in rural Pakistan: analysis of food variety, dietary diversity and calorie intake.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abid; Zulfiqar, Farhad; Saboor, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study investigated variations in food patterns across the seasons in rural Pakistan through assessing the changes in food variety, dietary diversity and calorie intake. It analyzed the situation using the primary information of 97 and 114 households surveyed in summer and winter respectively. Findings revealed a significant difference of households' food variety, dietary diversity and calorie intake across the seasons. In the winter, households' food basket was more diverse, showing 30%, 13%, and 8% rise in food variety, dietary diversity, and caloric intake, respectively, due mainly to the changes in food choices in winter. Rural households preferred to consume items from nutritious food groups (i.e., dried fruits and nuts, oilseeds, and locally preserved foods) during the severe cold weather. However, they did not substitute significantly the items from basic food groups (i.e., cereals, vegetables and legumes, tubers, and dairy products), with those belonging to nutritious groups. Based on findings, it is concluded that food variety, dietary diversity and calorie intake fluctuate across the seasons, therefore surveys of dietary patterns and calorie intake in one particular season may not be reliable, and food security status of households may not be generalized on the basis of one season survey.

  14. Impact of food choice on sodium intake patterns from multiple NHANES surveys.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zefeng; Gao, Zhifeng; McFadden, Brandon

    2017-02-01

    To examine how the food consumption from various food groups would impact American adults' sodium intake and whether this impact structurally changes over time, data were obtained from six-cycle National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010. Foods were categorized by the first two digits of the USDA food code. Regression models were employed to investigate the associations between the consumption of each food group and sodium intake, and whether there were changes in the associations in consecutive six cycles. Results show that the calorie consumption of oils, beverages and water, fruit juices, fruits, lamb, fruit products, and sugars and sweets had no significant impact on individuals' sodium intake, while calorie consumption of tomatoes, fish, dark-green vegetables, and crackers contributes the most to sodium intake. The contribution to sodium intake of most food groups does not change significantly over time, with the exception of salad dressing whose contribution to sodium intake increased in four consecutive years when compared to that of 1999-2000. The sodium amount contributed by one calorie consumption (sodium density) of most food was above the daily recommendation level, 1.2 mg per calorie per day. Lowering individuals' sodium intake involves either guiding individuals to consume more fruit related products or decreasing the amount of sodium in most food groups at the production or food preparation stages.

  15. Children's Food Security and Intakes from School Meals. Final Report. Contractor and Cooperator Report No. 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potamites, Elizabeth; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Using 2005 data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment survey, this study examines the contribution of school meals to the food and nutrient intake of children in food-secure, marginally secure, and food-insecure households. The study finds that children from food-insecure and marginally secure…

  16. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices.

  17. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. PMID:26690212

  18. Defining Conditions for Optimal Inhibition of Food Intake in Rats by a Grape-Seed Derived Proanthocyanidin Extract

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Martí, Àngela; Blay, Mayte; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Food intake depends on homeostatic and non-homeostatic factors. In order to use grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) as food intake limiting agents, it is important to define the key characteristics of their bioactivity within this complex function. We treated rats with acute and chronic treatments of GSPE at different doses to identify the importance of eating patterns and GSPE dose and the mechanistic aspects of GSPE. GSPE-induced food intake inhibition must be reproduced under non-stressful conditions and with a stable and synchronized feeding pattern. A minimum dose of around 350 mg GSPE/kg body weight (BW) is needed. GSPE components act by activating the Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor because their effect is blocked by Exendin 9-39. GSPE in turn acts on the hypothalamic center of food intake control probably because of increased GLP-1 production in the intestine. To conclude, GSPE inhibits food intake through GLP-1 signaling, but it needs to be dosed under optimal conditions to exert this effect. PMID:27775601

  19. A photographic method to measure food item intake. Validation in geriatric institutions.

    PubMed

    Pouyet, Virginie; Cuvelier, Gérard; Benattar, Linda; Giboreau, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    From both a clinical and research perspective, measuring food intake is an important issue in geriatric institutions. However, weighing food in this context can be complex, particularly when the items remaining on a plate (side dish, meat or fish and sauce) need to be weighed separately following consumption. A method based on photography that involves taking photographs after a meal to determine food intake consequently seems to be a good alternative. This method enables the storage of raw data so that unhurried analyses can be performed to distinguish the food items present in the images. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to validate a photographic method to measure food intake in terms of differentiating food item intake in the context of a geriatric institution. Sixty-six elderly residents took part in this study, which was performed in four French nursing homes. Four dishes of standardized portions were offered to the residents during 16 different lunchtimes. Three non-trained assessors then independently estimated both the total and specific food item intakes of the participants using images of their plates taken after the meal (photographic method) and a reference image of one plate taken before the meal. Total food intakes were also recorded by weighing the food. To test the reliability of the photographic method, agreements between different assessors and agreements among various estimates made by the same assessor were evaluated. To test the accuracy and specificity of this method, food intake estimates for the four dishes were compared with the food intakes determined using the weighed food method. To illustrate the added value of the photographic method, food consumption differences between the dishes were explained by investigating the intakes of specific food items. Although they were not specifically trained for this purpose, the results demonstrated that the assessor estimates agreed between assessors and among various estimates made by the same

  20. The effects of food-related attentional bias training on appetite and food intake.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Rogers, Peter J; Etchells, Katie A; Houstoun, Katie V E; Munafò, Marcus R

    2013-12-01

    Obese and overweight individuals show a marked attentional bias to food cues. Food-related attentional bias may therefore play a causal role in over-eating. To test this possibility, the current study experimentally manipulated attentional bias towards food using a modified version of the visual probe task in which cake-stationery item image pairs were presented for 500 ms each. Participants (N=60) were either trained to attend to images of cake, trained to avoid images of cake, or assigned to a no-training control group. Hunger was measured before and after the training. Post-training, participants were given the opportunity to consume cake as well as a non-target food (crisps) that was not included in the training. There was weak evidence of an increase in attentional bias towards cake in the attend group only. We found no selective effects of the training on hunger or food intake, and little evidence for any gender differences. Our study suggests that attentional bias for food is particularly ingrained and difficult to modify. It also represents a first step towards elucidating the potential functional significance of food-related attentional biases and the lack of behavioural effects is broadly consistent with single-session attentional training studies from the addiction literature. An alternative hypothesis, that attentional bias represents a noncausal proxy for the motivational impact of appetitive stimuli, is considered.

  1. Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.

    PubMed

    Birch, L L; Davison, K K

    2001-08-01

    . Practical advice for parents includes how to foster children's preferences for healthy foods and how to promote acceptance of new foods by children. Parents need to understand the costs of coercive feeding practices and be given alternatives to restricting food and pressuring children to eat. Providing parents with easy-to-use information regarding appropriate portion sizes for children is also essential as are suggestions on the timing and frequency of meals and snacks. Especially during early and middle childhood, family environments are the key contents for the development of food preferences, patterns of food intake, eating styles, and the development of activity preferences and patterns that shape children's developing weight status. Designing effective prevention programs will, however, require more complete knowledge than currently available regarding behavioral intermediaries that foster overweight, including the family factors that shape activity patterns, meals taken away from home, the impact of stress on family members' eating styles, food intake, activity patterns, and weight gain. The research presented here provides an example of how ideas regarding the effects of environmental factors and behavioral mediators on childhood overweight can be investigated. Such research requires the development of reliable and valid measures of environmental variables and behaviors. Because childhood overweight is a multifactorial problem, additional research is needed to develop and test theoretic models describing how a wide range of environmental factors and behavioral intermediaries can work in concert with genetic predispositions to promote the development of childhood overweight. The crucial test of these theoretic models will be in preventive interventions.

  2. Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Gonadotropin-Inhibiting Hormone Cells are Associated with Changes in Sexual Motivation and Food Hoarding, but not Sexual Performance and Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Klingerman, Candice M; Williams, Wilbur P; Simberlund, Jessica; Brahme, Nina; Prasad, Ankita; Schneider, Jill E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3), and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin, and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12 days. Two other groups were food-restricted for 12 days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8 days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12 days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of energetically challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH.

  3. Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Gonadotropin-Inhibiting Hormone Cells are Associated with Changes in Sexual Motivation and Food Hoarding, but not Sexual Performance and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Klingerman, Candice M.; Williams, Wilbur P.; Simberlund, Jessica; Brahme, Nina; Prasad, Ankita; Schneider, Jill E.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3), and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin, and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12 days. Two other groups were food-restricted for 12 days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8 days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12 days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of energetically challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH. PMID:22649396

  4. An economic analysis of community-level fast food prices and individual-level fast food intake: longitudinal effects

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity. PMID:21852178

  5. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  6. Pattern of intake of food additives associated with hyperactivity in Irish children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Connolly, A; Hearty, A; Nugent, A; McKevitt, A; Boylan, E; Flynn, A; Gibney, M J

    2010-04-01

    A double-blind randomized intervention study has previously shown that a significant relationship exists between the consumption of various mixes of seven target additives by children and the onset of hyperactive behaviour. The present study set out to ascertain the pattern of intake of two mixes (A and B) of these seven target additives in Irish children and teenagers using the Irish national food consumption databases for children (n = 594) and teenagers (n = 441) and the National Food Ingredient Database. The majority of additive-containing foods consumed by both the children and teenagers contained one of the target additives. No food consumed by either the children or teenagers contained all seven of the target food additives. For each additive intake, estimates for every individual were made assuming that the additive was present at the maximum legal permitted level in those foods identified as containing it. For both groups, mean intakes of the food additives among consumers only were far below the doses used in the previous study on hyperactivity. Intakes at the 97.5th percentile of all food colours fell below the doses used in Mix B, while intakes for four of the six food colours were also below the doses used in Mix A. However, in the case of the preservative sodium benzoate, it exceeded the previously used dose in both children and teenagers. No child or teenager achieved the overall intakes used in the study linking food additives with hyperactivity.

  7. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  8. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a “canned fraction” parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  9. Effect of tidal cycle and food intake on the baseline plasma corticosterone rhythm in intertidally foraging marine iguanas.

    PubMed

    Woodley, Sarah K; Painter, Danika L; Moore, Michael C; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2003-06-15

    In most species, plasma levels of baseline glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (B) have a circadian rhythm. This rhythm can be entrained by both photoperiod and food intake and is related to aspects of energy intake and metabolism. Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) offer a unique opportunity to better understand the relative importance of the light:dark cycle versus food intake in influencing the rhythm in baseline B in a natural system. Compared to other species, food intake is not as strictly determined by the phase of the light:dark cycle. Animals feed in the intertidal zone so feeding activity is heavily influenced by the tidal cycle. We measured baseline plasma B levels in free-living iguanas over several 24-h periods that varied in the timing of low tide/foraging activity. We found that baseline B levels were higher during the day relative to night. However, when low tide occurred during the day, baseline B levels dropped coincident with the timing of low tide. Whether the baseline B rhythm (including the drop during foraging) is an endogenous rhythm with a circatidal component, or is simply a result of feeding and associated physiological changes needs to be tested. Together, these data suggest that the baseline B rhythm in marine iguanas is influenced by the tidal cycle/food intake as well as the light:dark cycle.

  10. Oligonucleotide-induced alternative splicing of serotonin 2C receptor reduces food intake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaiyi; Shen, Manli; Gresch, Paul J; Ghamari-Langroudi, Masoud; Rabchevsky, Alexander G; Emeson, Ronald B; Stamm, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    The serotonin 2C receptor regulates food uptake, and its activity is regulated by alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Alternative exon skipping is predicted to generate a truncated receptor protein isoform, whose existence was confirmed with a new antiserum. The truncated receptor sequesters the full-length receptor in intracellular membranes. We developed an oligonucleotide that promotes exon inclusion, which increases the ratio of the full-length to truncated receptor protein. Decreasing the amount of truncated receptor results in the accumulation of full-length, constitutively active receptor at the cell surface. After injection into the third ventricle of mice, the oligonucleotide accumulates in the arcuate nucleus, where it changes alternative splicing of the serotonin 2C receptor and increases pro-opiomelanocortin expression. Oligonucleotide injection reduced food intake in both wild-type and ob/ob mice. Unexpectedly, the oligonucleotide crossed the blood-brain barrier and its systemic delivery reduced food intake in wild-type mice. The physiological effect of the oligonucleotide suggests that a truncated splice variant regulates the activity of the serotonin 2C receptor, indicating that therapies aimed to change pre-mRNA processing could be useful to treat hyperphagia, characteristic for disorders like Prader-Willi syndrome.

  11. PYY(3–36) Into The Arcuate Nucleus Inhibits Food Deprivation-Induced Increases In Food Hoarding and Intake

    PubMed Central

    Teubner, Brett J.W.; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Central administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) increases food intake in laboratory rats and mice, as well as food foraging and hoarding in Siberian hamsters. The NPY-Y1 and Y5 receptors (Rs) within the hypothalamus appear sufficient to account for these increases in ingestive behaviors. Stimulation of NPY-Y2Rs in the Arcuate nucleus (Arc) has an anorexigenic effect as shown by central or peripheral administration of its natural ligand peptide YY (3–36) and pharmacological NPY-Y2R antagonism by BIIE0246 increases food intake. Both effects on food intake by NPY-Y2R agonism and antagonism are relatively short-lived lasting ~4 h. The role of NPY-Y2Rs in appetitive ingestive behaviors (food foraging/hoarding) is untested, however. Therefore, Siberians hamsters, a natural food hoarder, were housed in a semi-natural burrow/foraging system that had a) foraging requirement (10 revolutions/ pellet), no free food (true foraging group), b) no running wheel access, free food (general malaise control) or c) running wheel access, free food (exercise control). We microinjected BIIE0246 (antagonist) and PYY(3–36) (agonist) into the Arc to test the role of NPY-Y2Rs there on ingestive behaviors. Food foraging, hoarding, and intake were not affected by Arc BIIE0246 microinjection in fed hamsters 1, 2, 4, and 24 h post injection. Stimulation of NPY-Y2Rs by PYY(3–36) inhibited food intake at 0–1 and 1–2 h and food hoarding at 1–2 h without causing general malaise or affecting foraging. Collectively, these results implicate a sufficiency, but not necessity, of the Arc NPY-Y2R in the inhibition of food intake and food hoarding by Siberian hamsters. PMID:23816798

  12. Role of NPY and its receptor subtypes in foraging, food hoarding, and food intake by Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Day, Diane E; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J

    2005-07-01

    Fasting has widespread physiological and behavioral effects such as increases in arcuate nucleus neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in rodents, including Siberian hamsters. Fasting also stimulates foraging and food hoarding (appetitive ingestive behaviors) by Siberian hamsters but does relatively little to change food intake (consummatory ingestive behavior). Therefore, we tested the effects of third ventricular NPY Y1 ([Pro(34)]NPY) or Y5 ([D-Trp(34)]NPY) receptor agonists on these ingestive behaviors using a wheel running-based food delivery system coupled with simulated burrow housing. Siberian hamsters had 1) no running wheel access and free food, 2) running wheel access and free food, or 3) foraging requirements (10 or 50 revolutions/pellet). NPY (1.76 nmol) stimulated food intake only during the first 4 h postinjection ( approximately 200-1,000%) and mostly in hamsters with a foraging requirement. The Y1 receptor agonist markedly increased food hoarding (250-1,000%), increased foraging as well as wheel running per se, and had relatively little effect on food intake (<250%). Unlike NPY, the Y5 agonist significantly increased food intake, especially in foraging animals ( approximately 225-800%), marginally increased food hoarding (250-500%), and stimulated foraging and wheel running 4-24 h postinjection, with the distribution of earned pellets favoring eating versus hoarding across time. Across treatments, food hoarding predominated early postinjection, whereas food intake tended to do so later. Collectively, NPY stimulated both appetitive and consummatory ingestive behaviors in Siberian hamsters involving Y1/Y5 receptors, with food hoarding and foraging/wheel running (appetitive) more involved with Y1 receptors and food intake (consummatory) with Y5 receptors.

  13. PYY(3-36) into the arcuate nucleus inhibits food deprivation-induced increases in food hoarding and intake.

    PubMed

    Teubner, Brett J W; Bartness, Timothy J

    2013-09-01

    Central administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) increases food intake in laboratory rats and mice, as well as food foraging and hoarding in Siberian hamsters. The NPY-Y1 and Y5 receptors (Rs) within the hypothalamus appear sufficient to account for these increases in ingestive behaviors. Stimulation of NPY-Y2Rs in the Arcuate nucleus (Arc) has an anorexigenic effect as shown by central or peripheral administration of its natural ligand peptide YY (3-36) and pharmacological NPY-Y2R antagonism by BIIE0246 increases food intake. Both effects on food intake by NPY-Y2R agonism and antagonism are relatively short-lived lasting ∼4h. The role of NPY-Y2Rs in appetitive ingestive behaviors (food foraging/hoarding) is untested, however. Therefore, Siberians hamsters, a natural food hoarder, were housed in a semi-natural burrow/foraging system that had (a) foraging requirement (10 revolutions/pellet), no free food (true foraging group), (b) no running wheel access, free food (general malaise control) or (c) running wheel access, free food (exercise control). We microinjected BIIE0246 (antagonist) and PYY(3-36) (agonist) into the Arc to test the role of NPY-Y2Rs there on ingestive behaviors. Food foraging, hoarding, and intake were not affected by Arc BIIE0246 microinjection in fed hamsters 1, 2, 4, and 24h post injection. Stimulation of NPY-Y2Rs by PYY(3-36) inhibited food intake at 0-1 and 1-2h and food hoarding at 1-2h without causing general malaise or affecting foraging. Collectively, these results implicate a sufficiency, but not necessity, of the Arc NPY-Y2R in the inhibition of food intake and food hoarding by Siberian hamsters.

  14. The contribution of various foods to intake of vitamin A and carotenoids in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Goldbohm, R A; Brants, H A; Hulshof, K F; van den Brandt, P A

    1998-01-01

    This study presents data on dietary intake of specific carotenoids in the Netherlands, based on a recently developed food composition database for carotenoids. Regularly eaten vegetables, the main dietary source of carotenoids, were sampled comprehensively and analysed with modern analytic methods. The database was complemented with data from recent literature and information from food manufacturers. In addition, data on intake of vitamin A are presented, which are based on the most recent update of the Dutch Food Composition Table. Intake of vitamin A was calculated for adult participants of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey in 1992, whereas intake of carotenoids was calculated for participants of the Dutch Cohort Study on diet and cancer, aged 55 to 69 in 1986. Mean intake of vitamin A amounted to 1.1 and 0.9 mg RE/day for men and women, respectively; the contributions of meat, fats and oils, vegetables and dairy products to total intake were 35%, 24%, 16%, and 16%, respectively. Mean intake of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin was 0.7, 3.0, and 2.5 mg/day respectively for both men and women, while mean intake of lycopene was 1.0 mg/day for men and 1.3 mg/day for women. The most important foods contributing to intake of beta-carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin were carrots (beta-carotene only), spinach, endive and kale.

  15. Reward, dopamine and the control of food intake: implications for obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow N. D.; Wang G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Baler, R.D.

    2011-10-01

    The ability to resist the urge to eat requires the proper functioning of neuronal circuits involved in top-down control to oppose the conditioned responses that predict reward from eating the food and the desire to eat the food. Imaging studies show that obese subjects might have impairments in dopaminergic pathways that regulate neuronal systems associated with reward sensitivity, conditioning and control. It is known that the neuropeptides that regulate energy balance (homeostatic processes) through the hypothalamus also modulate the activity of dopamine cells and their projections into regions involved in the rewarding processes underlying food intake. It is postulated that this could also be a mechanism by which overeating and the resultant resistance to homoeostatic signals impairs the function of circuits involved in reward sensitivity, conditioning and cognitive control.

  16. Mechanisms of insulin resistance in the amygdala: influences on food intake.

    PubMed

    Areias, Maria Fernanda Condes; Prada, Patricia Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is increasing worldwide and is triggered, at least in part, by enhanced caloric intake. Food intake is regulated by a complex mechanism involving the hypothalamus and hindbrain circuitries. However, evidences have showing that reward systems are also important in regulating feeding behavior. In this context, amygdala is considered a key extra-hypothalamic area regulating feeding behavior in human beings and rodents. This review focuses on the regulation of food intake by amygdala and the mechanisms of insulin resistance in this brain area. Similar to the hypothalamus the anorexigenic effect of insulin is mediated via PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt (protein kinase B) pathway in the amygdala. Insulin decreases NPY (neuropeptide Y) and increases oxytocin mRNA levels in the amygdala. High fat diet and saturated fatty acids induce inflammation, ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress and the activation of serine kinases such as PKCθ (protein kinase C theta), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and IKKβ (inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase beta) in the amygdala, which have an important role in insulin resistance in this brain region. Overexpressed PKCθ in the CeA (central nucleus of amygdala) of rats increases weight gain, food intake, insulin resistance and hepatic triglycerides content. The inhibition of ER stress ameliorates insulin action/signaling, increases oxytocin and decreases NPY gene expression in the amygdala of high fat feeding rodents. Those data suggest that PKCθ and ER stress are main mechanisms of insulin resistance in the amygdala of obese rats and play an important role regulating feeding behavior.

  17. Length and site of the small intestine exposed to fat influences hunger and food intake.

    PubMed

    Maljaars, P W Jeroen; Peters, Harry P F; Kodde, Andrea; Geraedts, Maartje; Troost, Fred J; Haddeman, Edward; Masclee, Ad A M

    2011-11-01

    The site of intestinal fat delivery affects satiety and may affect food intake in humans. Animal data suggest that the length of the small intestine exposed to fat is also relevant. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether increasing the areas of intestinal fat exposure and the way it is exposed would affect satiety parameters and food intake. In the present single-blind, randomised, cross-over study, fifteen volunteers, each intubated with a naso-ileal tube, received four treatments on consecutive days. The oral control (control treatment) was a liquid meal (LM) containing 6 g fat ingested at t = 0 min, with saline infusion at t = 30-120 min. Experimental treatments were a fat-free LM at t = 0 min, with either 6 g oil delivered sequentially (2 g duodenal, t = 30-60 min; 2 g jejunal, t = 60-90 min; 2 g ileal, t = 90-120 min), simultaneously (2 g each to all sites, t = 30-120 min) or ileal only (6 g ileal, t = 30-120 min). Satiety parameters (hunger and fullness) and cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) secretion were measured until t = 180 min, when ad libitum food intake was assessed. Only the ileum treatment reduced food intake significantly over the control treatment. The ileum and simultaneous treatments significantly reduced hunger compared with the control treatment. Compared with control, no differences were observed for PYY, CCK and GLP-1 with regard to 180 min integrated secretion. Ileal fat infusion had the most pronounced effect on food intake and satiety. Increasing the areas of intestinal fat exposure only affected hunger when fat was delivered simultaneously, not sequentially, to the exposed areas. These results demonstrate that ileal brake activation offers an interesting target for the regulation of ingestive behaviour.

  18. The effects of intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular administration of the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 35348 on food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sunit M; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2004-10-25

    In order to test the hypothesis that endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting at central GABAB receptors, plays a physiological role in the control of feeding behaviour, it was reasoned that blocking these receptors with a centrally active GABAB receptor antagonist should reduce food intake in hungry rats. In the present study, experiments were carried out to test this possibility using the GABAB receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl-diethoxy-methyl-phosphinic acid (CGP 35348), which is water-soluble and can penetrate the blood-brain barrier from the systemic circulation. CGP 35348 (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) had no effect on food intake in 22-h fasted rats, but a higher dose (i.e. 500 mg/kg., i.p.) significantly reduced cumulative food consumption. These findings are consistent with previous observations that high systemic doses of CGP 35348 are needed to block central GABAB receptors. However, to eliminate the possibility that the 500 mg/kg dose of CGP 35348 decreased food intake by a peripheral, rather than a central mode of action, further experiments were undertaken where the drug was given directly into the brain by the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) route. I.c.v. administration of CGP 35348 (5 and 10 microg) significantly decreased cumulative food intake food intake in rats that had been fasted for 22 h. By contrast, i.c.v. administration of CGP 35348 (10 microg) had no effect on water intake in 16-h water-deprived rats. The results indicate that CGP 35348 reduces food consumption in hungry rats by blocking central GABAB receptors in a behaviourally specific manner. These findings suggest that endogenous GABA acting at central GABAB receptors plays a physiological role in the regulation of feeding behaviour.

  19. Validation of a questionnaire assessing food frequency and nutritional intake in Greek adolescents.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Barboukis, Vassilis; Dalkiranis, Anastasios; Hassapidou, Maria; Petridou, Anatoli; Mougios, Vassilis

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and validate a specific semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess nutritional intake of Greek adolescents. The sample of the study consisted of 250 pupils (15.3 +/- 0.7 years), who completed the Youth Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire enriched with 22 Greek foods and recipes to include ethnic and racial diversity. A 3-day weighed food recall was used as the criterion to test the validity of the questionnaire. The analysis of correlation revealed significant correlations between the two methods for almost all variables. The Pearson's coefficients ranged from 0.83 for energy intake to 0.34 for folate intake. Non-significant correlations were found for selenium and vitamin D intakes. The findings of the study provide evidence for the validity of the scale and its utility in assessing nutritional intake of Greek adolescents.

  20. U.S. Food Guide Pyramid food group intake by Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, S S; Diwan, S; Cohen, D L

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the food group intake and the dietary quality of middle-aged and older Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants (45 years or older) living in two urban metropolitan areas in the U.S. Participants (90 men, 99 females) completed a 24-hour dietary recall, which was used to determine if they met the daily food group intake guidelines of the U.S. Food Guide Pyramid. The overall quality of their reported dietary intake was determined using the Healthy Eating Index based on their nutrient and food group intake. Both men and women met the daily number of servings recommendations for the grains (men: 9.3 servings/day; women: 6.9 servings/day) and vegetables (men: 4.5 servings/day; women: 3.6 servings/day) groups, but did not meet the recommendations for fruits, dairy and meats groups. The total score on the Healthy Eating Index of the diets of these participants was 73, indicative of a dietary intake that does not meet the established U.S. dietary guidelines. These immigrants should be educated about appropriate food choices (ethnic and non-ethnic) within each of the U.S. Food Guide Pyramid food groups to improve the overall quality of their dietary intakes.

  1. A Predictive Model of the Dynamics of Body Weight and Food Intake in Rats Submitted to Caloric Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Jacquier, Marine; Crauste, Fabien; Soulage, Christophe O.; Soula, Hédi A.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of body weight and food intake can be studied by temporally perturbing food availability. This perturbation can be obtained by modifying the amount of available food over time while keeping the overall food quantity constant. To describe food intake dynamics, we developed a mathematical model that describes body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass, energy expenditure and food intake dynamics in rats. In addition, the model considers regulation of food intake by leptin, ghrelin and glucose. We tested our model on rats experiencing temporally variable food availability. Our model is able to predict body weight and food intake variations by taking into account energy expenditure dynamics based on a memory of the previous food intake. This model allowed us to estimate this memory lag to approximately 8 days. It also explains how important variations in food availability during periods longer than these 8 days can induce body weight gains. PMID:24932616

  2. A predictive model of the dynamics of body weight and food intake in rats submitted to caloric restrictions.

    PubMed

    Jacquier, Marine; Crauste, Fabien; Soulage, Christophe O; Soula, Hédi A

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of body weight and food intake can be studied by temporally perturbing food availability. This perturbation can be obtained by modifying the amount of available food over time while keeping the overall food quantity constant. To describe food intake dynamics, we developed a mathematical model that describes body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass, energy expenditure and food intake dynamics in rats. In addition, the model considers regulation of food intake by leptin, ghrelin and glucose. We tested our model on rats experiencing temporally variable food availability. Our model is able to predict body weight and food intake variations by taking into account energy expenditure dynamics based on a memory of the previous food intake. This model allowed us to estimate this memory lag to approximately 8 days. It also explains how important variations in food availability during periods longer than these 8 days can induce body weight gains.

  3. Estimation of selenium intake in Switzerland in relation to selected food groups.

    PubMed

    Jenny-Burri, J; Haldimann, M; Dudler, V

    2010-11-01

    The selenium concentration in foods was analysed in order to identify principal sources of this trace element in Switzerland. Selenium intake estimations based on three different approaches were carried out. From the relationship between intake and serum/plasma concentration, the selenium intake was estimated to 66 µg day(-1). The second approach based on measured food groups combined with consumption statistics; and the third approach consisted of duplicate meal samples. With the last two methods, over 75% of the serum/plasma based intake was confirmed. Swiss pasta made of North American durum wheat was the food with the highest contribution to the dietary intake, followed by meat. The strong decrease in imports of selenium-rich North American wheat of the last years was not reflected in the present intake estimations. It appears that this intake loss was compensated by a consumption increase of other foods. Compared with former intake estimations, selenium intake seems to be in Switzerland nearly constant for the last 25 years.

  4. Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Methods Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method, and compared to nutritional goals to estimate prevalence of inadequate intake. Results Pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women did not differ in their average consumption of 18 food groups, except for rice, with greatest intake among lactating women. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in pregnant women was higher than in reproductive-age women for folate (78% versus 40%) and vitamin B6 (59% versus 33%). In lactating women, prevalence was higher than in reproductive-age women for vitamin A (95% versus 72%), vitamin C (56% versus 37%), vitamin B6 (75% vs. 33%), folate (72% versus 40%) and zinc (64% versus 20%). The percentage of sodium intake above the upper limit was greater than 70% in the three groups. Conclusions Inadequate intake is frequent in women and increases during pregnancy and lactation, because women do not change their food intake. Guidelines should stimulate healthy food intake for women across the lifespan. PMID:24890188

  5. Television watching and the emotional impact on social modeling of food intake among children.

    PubMed

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Meiselman, Herbert L; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to test whether exposure to happy, neutral, or sad media content influences social modeling effects of (snack) food intake in young children. The study was conducted at 14 Dutch urban and suburban primary schools. The participants (N=112) were asked to watch a movie with a same-sex normal-weight confederate who was instructed to eat either nothing or a standardized amount of snack food (10 chocolate-coated peanuts). The study involved a 3 (movie clips: happy, neutral, and sad)×2 (peer's food intake: no intake versus a standardized intake) between-participants design. A significant interaction between the movie clip condition and intake condition was found (F(2,102)=3.30, P=.04, Cohen's f(2)=.20). Positive as well as negative emotions were found to lead to adjustment to the intake of a peer, as compared to that of children in the neutral movie condition. The findings suggest that children eat more mindlessly when watching an emotional movie and, therefore, respond more automatically to a peer's food intake, whereas children may be less susceptible to a peer's intake while watching a neutral movie. As young children are not in the position to choose their food consumption environment yet, parents and schools should provide consumption settings that limit eating in front of the television.

  6. The influence of food intake and ambient temperature on the rate of thyroxine utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, D L; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H

    1977-01-01

    Young growing pigs of both sexes were subjected to changes in (1) energy intake, (2) ambient temperature, and (3) bulk of food. The rate of disappearance of injected 125I-labelled thyroxine from the plasma (K) was measured. An analysis of variance revealed that the effect attributable to changes in the energy content of the food intake was statistically significant (P less 0-01). A change in ambient temperature had no statistically significant effect on K, nor did a change in the bulk of food when energy intake was constant (P less than 0-05). PMID:903901

  7. Experimentally induced sickness decreases food intake, but not hoarding, in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alfredo; Proud, Kevin; Demas, Gregory E

    2008-11-01

    A wide range of physiological and behavioral alterations occur in response to sickness. Sickness behaviors, rather than incidental by-products or side-effects of acute illness, serve as adaptive functional responses that allow animals to cope with a pathogenic challenge. Among the more salient sickness behaviors is a reduction in food intake; virtually all sick animals display marked decreases in this behavior. Food intake, however, is only one component of the food-related behavioral repertoire. For many mammalian species, food hoarding represents a substantial portion of the total energetic budget. Here we tested the effects of experimental sickness on food hoarding and food intake in a naturally food hoarding species, Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Adult male and female hamsters received injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce sickness or control injections. LPS-induced sickness resulted in a marked decrease in food intake in both males and females, but did not decrease hoarding in either sex. These results support previous findings suggesting that food hoarding and food intake appear to be differentially regulated at the physiological level.

  8. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn; Colwell, Christopher; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P.

    2015-01-01

    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5 months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7 days starting 5 weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22 weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake. PMID:26226656

  9. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn H; Colwell, Christopher S; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P

    2015-09-01

    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7days starting 5weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake.

  10. Social norms in food intake among normal weight and overweight children.

    PubMed

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-06-01

    This experimental study investigated whether children's food intake is influenced by a peer's intake directly and over time and whether this depends upon weight status. The study consisted of two sessions taking place at Dutch primary schools. During the first (social modeling) session, the participants (N=223) were asked to solve a puzzle with a same-sex normal weight confederate who was instructed to either eat nothing, a small or large amount. In the second session (about two days later), the participants had to solve the puzzle alone while they could freely eat. The study involved a three (no, low, high confederate intake) by two (normal weight, overweight) between-participants design. An interaction effect in the first session suggested that overweight children might be triggered to (over)eat when a peer eats a high amount of snack food, whereas the food intake of normal weight children seemed to depend on whether the confederate did actually eat, regardless of the amount. The guideline set during the first session persisted over time and influenced food intake during the second session, while differences between normal- and overweight children became insignificant. Peers can set an example as to what food intake is appropriate which could affect long-term food intake.

  11. Food and macronutrient intake of male adolescent Kalenjin runners in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif

    2002-12-01

    A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis of macronutrient distribution and energy content from main meals and the macronutrient distribution and energy content of additional food intake were based on the information of a 24 h recall interview and estimated from food tables. The diet of the Kalenjin runners was very high in carbohydrate (71 % 8.7 g/kg body weight per d) and very low in fat (15 %). Intake of total protein (13 %; 1.6 g/kg body weight per d) was above the daily intake recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU), while essential amino acid intake was estimated to be in the borderline-to-low range based on FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations for children <12 years and adults. The energy intake was mainly derived from vegetable sources (90 %) with maize and kidney beans as the staple food (81 %). The diet of the Kalenjin runners met recommendations for endurance athletes for total protein and most essential amino acid intake as well as carbohydrate intake even though it was based on a small range of food items.

  12. Shift Work or Food Intake during the Rest Phase Promotes Metabolic Disruption and Desynchrony of Liver Genes in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Delgado, Roberto C.; Saderi, Nadia; Basualdo, María del Carmen; Guerrero-Vargas, Natali N.; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2013-01-01

    In the liver, clock genes are proposed to drive metabolic rhythms. These gene rhythms are driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) mainly by food intake and via autonomic and hormonal pathways. Forced activity during the normal rest phase, induces also food intake, thus neglecting the signals of the SCN, leading to conflicting time signals to target tissues of the SCN. The present study explored in a rodent model of night-work the influence of food during the normal sleep period on the synchrony of gene expression between clock genes and metabolic genes in the liver. Male Wistar rats were exposed to forced activity for 8 h either during the rest phase (day) or during the active phase (night) by using a slow rotating wheel. In this shift work model food intake shifts spontaneously to the forced activity period, therefore the influence of food alone without induced activity was tested in other groups of animals that were fed ad libitum, or fed during their rest or active phase. Rats forced to be active and/or eating during their rest phase, inverted their daily peak of Per1, Bmal1 and Clock and lost the rhythm of Per2 in the liver, moreover NAMPT and metabolic genes such as Pparα lost their rhythm and thus their synchrony with clock genes. We conclude that shift work or food intake in the rest phase leads to desynchronization within the liver, characterized by misaligned temporal patterns of clock genes and metabolic genes. This may be the cause of the development of the metabolic syndrome and obesity in individuals engaged in shift work. PMID:23565183

  13. Usual energy intake mediated the relationship between food reinforcement and BMI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative reinforcing value of food (RRVfood) is correlated with overweight status and energy consumed, as those who find food more reinforcing are heavier and consume more energy. One hypothesis relating these variables is that food reinforcement is related to BMI through usual energy intake. ...

  14. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-04

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  15. Androgen (dihydrotestosterone)-mediated regulation of food intake and obesity in female mice.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Noriko; Vonderfecht, Steven; Chen, Shiuan

    2013-11-01

    To better understand how elevated androgen levels regulate food intake and obesity in females, we treated ovariectomized female mice with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (non-aromatazable androgen), measured food intake and body weight, and evaluated physiological changes in liver function, glucose tolerance, and leptin resistance. Ovariectomized mice were treated with DHT or placebo. Mice were then fed a high fat diet under free-feeding or pair-feeding conditions for 3 months. We found that when DHT-treated ovariectomized mice had free access to food (free-feeding), they had increased food intake and higher body weight compared with control animals. These mice also had a significantly greater accumulation of fat in the liver and exhibited increased fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and resistance to leptin. However, when these mice were placed on a restricted diet and fed the same caloric amounts as controls (pair-feeding), their body weight increased at the same rate as control animals. This suggests that androgen regulates food intake through altered leptin sensitivity, and this increase of food intake could significantly contribute to an obesity phenotype. In summary, we demonstrated a role for androgen in the regulation of food intake and weight gain in females using a mouse model. This model will be useful to further elucidate the role of elevated androgen in females.

  16. Neuropeptide Y effect on food intake in broiler and layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi; Ikura, Atsushi; Nakayama, Yoko; Hasegawa, Shin

    2011-08-01

    Broiler chicks eat more food than layer chicks. In this study, we examined the involvement of orexigenic peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the difference in food intake between broiler and layer chicks (Gallus gallus). First, we compared the hypothalamic mRNA levels of NPY and its receptors (Y1 and Y5 receptors) between these strains at 1, 2, 4, and 8 days of age. Daily food intake was significantly higher in broiler chicks than layer chicks after 2 days of age. However, the hypothalamic NPY mRNA level was significantly lower in broiler chicks than layer chicks except at 8 days of age. In addition, the mRNA levels of NPY receptors were also significantly lower in broiler chicks than layer chicks at 2 and 4 days of age (Y1 receptor) or 2 days of age (Y5 receptor). These results suggest that the differences in the expressions of hypothalamic NPY and its receptors do not cause the increase in food intake in broiler chicks. To compare the orexigenic effect of NPY between broiler and layer chicks, we next examined the effects of central administration of NPY on food intake in these strains. In both strains, central administration of NPY significantly increased food intake at 2, 4 and 8 days of age. All our findings demonstrated that the increase in food intake in broiler chicks is not accompanied with the over-expression of NPY or its receptor.

  17. Reducing effect of an extract of Phaseolus vulgaris on food intake in mice--focus on highly palatable foods.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-03-01

    Different lines of experimental evidence indicate that treatment with extracts from and derivatives of Phaseolus vulgaris reduces intake of food, including highly palatable foods and beverages, in rats. The present study was designed to extend to mice these lines of evidence. To this end, CD1 mice were treated acutely with a standardized extract of P. vulgaris and then exposed to unlimited access to regular food pellets (Experiment 1) or 1-hour limited access to three different palatable foods/beverages, such as butter cookies (Experiment 2), a condensed-milk beverage (Experiment 3), and a chocolate-flavored beverage (Experiment 4). Treatment with P. vulgaris extract resulted in a significant reduction in the intake of regular food pellets, that was still evident 24h later, as well as of the three palatable nourishments. Together, these results (a) extend to mice several previous findings on the capacity of P. vulgaris extracts to suppress food intake in rats, (b) suggest that P. vulgaris extracts may interfere with the central mechanisms regulating appetite, food intake, palatability, and/or the rewarding and hedonic properties of food, and (c) P. vulgaris extracts may represent a potentially effective therapy for overeating, obesity, and food craving.

  18. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  19. Comparison of the Effects of a Sweetened Beverage Intervention on Self-Selected Food Intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests that the intake of added sugar increases the risk of chronic disease and should be targeted for reduction. It is unclear if all types of added sugar have equivalent effects on food intake. This prospective, blinded intervention study compared parallel groups consuming one of five t...

  20. Brain-gut axis and its role in the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Konturek, S J; Konturek, J W; Pawlik, T; Brzozowski, T

    2004-03-01

    Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and nervous system, both central (CNS) and enteric (ENS), are involved in two-way extrinsic communication by parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves, each comprising efferents fibers such as cholinergic and noradrenergic, respectively, and afferent sensory fibers required for gut-brain signaling. Afferent nerves are equipped with numerous sensors at their terminals in the gut related to visceral mechano- chemo- and noci-receptors, whose excitations may trigger a variety of visceral reflexes regulating GIT functions, including the appetitive behaviour. Food intake depends upon various influences from the CNS as well as from the body energy stores (adipocytes) that express and release the product of Ob gene, leptin, in proportion to fat stored and acting in long-term regulation of food intake. Leptin acts through receptors (Ob-R) present in afferent visceral nerves and hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), whose neurons are capable of expressing and releasing neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti related protein (AgRP) that activate the ingestive behaviour through paraventricular nucleus (PVN) (iVfeeding centerli). In addition, to this long-term regulation, a short-term regulation, on meal-to-meal basis, is secured by several gut hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CCK), peptides YY (PYY) and oxyntomodulin (OXM), released from the endocrine intestinal cells and acting via G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) either on afferent nerves or directly on ARC neurons, which in turn inhibit expression and release of food-intake stimulating NPY and AgRP, thereby inducing satiety through inhibition of PVN. In contrast, during fasting, the GIT, especially oxyntic mucosa, expresses and releases appetite stimulating (orexigenic) factors such as ghrelin and orexins (OX) -A and OX-B, and cannabinoid CB1 agonist. Ghrelin activates growth-hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) in hypothalamic ARC and stimulates growth hormone (GH) release and in vagal afferents to

  1. Comparison of the effects of three different (-)-hydroxycitric acid preparations on food intake in rats: response

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Manashi; Bagchi, Debasis

    2006-01-01

    A response to Louter-van de Haar J, Wielinga PY, Scheurink AJ, Nieuwenhuizen AG: Comparison of the effects of three different (-)-hydroxycitric acid preparations on food intake in rats. Nutr Metabol 2005, 2:23 PMID:16846513

  2. Central administration of metastin increases food intake through opioid neurons in chicks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Sakirul Islam; Ohkubo, Takeshi; Masuda, Naoto; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    Metastin, an RFamide peptide, has been isolated from human placenta and possesses several physiological actions in mammals. However, little is known about this bioactive peptide in avian species. This study was conducted to assess the effect of metastin on feeding behavior of chicks (Gallus gallus). The food intake of chicks is significantly increased by the intracerebroventricular injection of metastin. Beta-funaltrexamine, a mu-opioid receptor antagonist, significantly attenuates metastin-induced food intake in chicks. In contrast, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor antagonists did not show any influence on metastin-induced food intake in chicks. In addition, administration of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, did not influence metastin-induced food intake. Taken together, this study shows the orexigenic effect of metastin in chicks and suggests that this effect is mediated by mu-opioid receptor.

  3. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food group intake in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marcelle Flores; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Estima, Camilla; Leal, Greisse

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of the food groups included in the food guide pyramid for adolescents (FFQ-FP). The final version of the FFQ-FP consisted of 50 food items. The study was carried out with a sample of 109 adolescents over a period of four months. A 24hr recall (24hr) was conducted four times and the FFQ-FP was conducted twice. Validity was determined by comparing the second FFQ-FP and the mean of the four 24hrs, while reproducibility was verified by comparing the results of the two FFQ-FPs. Statistical analysis was carried out using medians, standard deviations, Pearson and intraclass correlations and Kappa statistics to assess concordance. Best results were achieved for the rice (including bread, grains and starches), meats and sugars groups. Weakest correlation was observed for the variable vitamin C. The validity and reproducibility of the FFQ-FP was satisfactory for most variables.

  4. Eating habits and caloric intake of physically active young boys, ages 10 to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Thomson, M J; Cunningham, D A; Wearring, G A

    1980-03-01

    Eating habits of 104 male participants (ages 10 to 14 years) in organized ice hockey were compared across age groups and levels of competition. The boys were members of either a highly skilled and intensively active competitive league group (CL) or a less skilled, moderately active house league group (HL). Eating habits were recorded during a school day from a 24 hour recall questionnaire administered by a trained interviewer. The types and amounts of foods eaten were recorded and caloric intake was calculated. The total caloric intakes were not significantly different by age or competitive group. The boys had higher caloric intakes by age (200 kcal day-1) than reported by other studies but the caloric intake by kilogram of body weight was similar. There was a trend towards larger caloric intake by the CL boys (ages 10 and 11 years), however when divided by body weight the differences were not significant suggesting that this trend was due to a greater body weight of the CL boys and not a significantly increased caloric expenditure. The types of foods eaten (fruit, vegetables, dairy, meat, bread or "empty calories") were similar for the two activity groups and across ages 10 to 14 years. The caloric intakes of dairy and meat products of both groups were significantly higher than for the other food groups.

  5. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S; Fulgoni, Victor L; Schweitzer, Cindy M

    2015-06-08

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003-2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey's reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth "mixed dishes" group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%-20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%-25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries.

  6. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Schweitzer, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  7. Energy intakes of US children and adults by food purchase location and by specific food source

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, no studies have examined energy intakes by food purchase location and food source using a representative sample of US children, adolescents and adults. Evaluations of purchase location and food sources of energy may inform public health policy. Methods Analyses were based on the first day of 24-hour recall for 22,852 persons in the 2003-4, 2005-6, and 2007-8 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The most common food purchase locations were stores (grocery store, supermarket, convenience store, or specialty store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSR), full-service restaurants (FSR), school cafeterias, or food from someone else/gifts. Specific food sources of energy were identified using the National Cancer Institute aggregation scheme. Separate analyses were conducted for children ages 6-11y, adolescents ages 12-19y, and adults aged 20-50y and ≥51y. Results Stores (grocery, convenience, and specialty) were the food purchase locations for between 63.3% and 70.3% of dietary energy in the US diet. Restaurants provided between 16.9% and 26.3% of total energy. Depending on the respondents’ age, QSR provided between 12.5% and 17.5% of energy, whereas FSR provided between 4.7% and 10.4% of energy. School meals provided 9.8% of energy for children and 5.5% for adolescents. Vending machines provided <1% of energy. Pizza from QSR, the top food away from home (FAFH) item, provided 2.2% of energy in the diets of children and 3.4% in the diets of adolescents. Soda, energy, and sports drinks from QSR provided approximately 1.2% of dietary energy. Conclusions Refining dietary surveillance approaches by incorporating food purchase location may help inform public health policy. Characterizing the important sources of energy, in terms of both purchase location and source may be useful in anticipating the population-level impacts of proposed policy or educational interventions. These data show that stores provide a majority of

  8. Trace mineral intake from food sources of a collegiate team

    SciTech Connect

    Spillman, D.M.; Angello, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The collegiate wrestler must maintain a delicate weight balance in order to wrestle in his optimum division. The wrestler constantly restricts dietary intake to maintain the best wrestling weight but often sacrifices good nutrition in order to do this. Twenty members of the Miami University Wrestling Team kept diaries for 3 or 5 days. These diets were analyzed for total calories, carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes as well as copper, iodine, fluoride, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, zinc and manganese. The diets averaged 55% carbohydrate, 16% protein and 29% fat. However, all of the investigated minerals were found to be consumed in low quantities. The following are averages of the mineral intake: copper-1.51 mg, iodine-79.91 ug, fluoride-601,06 ug, chromium-0.0115 mg, molybdenum-46.56 ug, selenium-0.035 mg, zinc-7.46 mg and manganese-1.36 mg. These low mineral intakes may be due to the low calorie intake of the wrestlers. A low caloric intake is typical for wrestlers and thus these low mineral intakes may also be typical.

  9. GPR40 reduces food intake and body weight through GLP-1.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Judith N; Pachanski, Michele J; Mane, Joel; Plummer, Christopher W; Souza, Sarah; Thomas-Fowlkes, Brande S; Ogawa, Aimie M; Weinglass, Adam B; Di Salvo, Jerry; Cheewatrakoolpong, Boonlert; Howard, Andrew D; Colletti, Steven L; Trujillo, Maria E

    2017-03-14

    GPR40 partial agonists lower glucose through the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which is believed to provide significant glucose lowering without the weight gain or hypoglycemic risk associated with exogenous insulin or glucose independent insulin secretagogues. The class of small molecule GPR40 modulators, known as AgoPAMs (agonist also capable of acting as positive allosteric modulators), differentiate from partial agonists, binding to a distinct site and functioning as full agonists to stimulate the secretion of both insulin and GLP-1 (17). Here we show that GPR40 AgoPAM's significantly increase active GLP-1 levels and reduce acute and chronic food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. These effects of AgoPAM treatment on food intake are novel and required both GPR40 and GLP-1 receptor signaling pathways, as demonstrated in GPR40 and GLP1 receptor-null mice. Further, weight loss associated with GPR40 AgoPAMs was accompanied by a significant reduction in gastric motility in these DIO mice. Chronic treatment with a GPR40 AgoPAM, in combination with a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor, synergistically decreased food intake and body weight in the mouse. The effect of GPR40 AgoPAMs on GLP-1 secretion was recapitulated in lean, healthy Rhesus macaque demonstrating the putative mechanism mediating weight loss translates to higher species. Together, our data indicate effects of AgoPAMs that go beyond glucose lowering previously observed with GPR40 partial agonist treatment with additional potential for weight loss.

  10. Fast food intake and prevalence of obesity in school children in Riyadh City.

    PubMed

    Almuhanna, Monira Abdulrahman; Alsaif, Mohammed; Alsaadi, Muslim; Almajwal, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a new challenge for healthcare providers. The issue is not limited to certain parts of the world; its prevalence is increasing worldwide. The causes of obesity are poorly understood and continue to be debated and studied. It is a multifactorial disorder which involves dietary, behavioral, environmental as well as genetic factors. The increased consumption of more energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods with high levels of sugar and saturated fats, combined with reduced physical activity, have led to high obesity rates among children. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake on the occurrence of childhood obesity, and study other associated factors including the education, occupation and income of parents and the living status. Normal healthy school girls (n =196) and school boys (n = 85) between the age of 6- 15 were recruited for the study. We found that obesity among children in Riyadh City was significantly associated with fast food intake (p = 0.0280). It was also observed that 72.5% of the overweight or obese students consumed fast food at least 4 times/week, and the other 15.9% were taking fast food 1- 3 times/week, while only 11.6% of the same overweight or obese group did not consume any fast food/ week. Father's and mother's occupations were not significantly correlated to their children's body weight. The prevalence of childhood obesity is changing and increasing yearly and is attributed to the nutritional risk factors for the Saudi school-age children. It is interesting to know that most of overweight or obese school students belonged to the families of highincome. Parents must take necessary precautions for the diet of their children and should adopt healthy life style in order to prevent or manage obesity of their children.

  11. Effects of methysergide and loratadine on food intake, mood, and performance of humans living in a residential laboratory.

    PubMed

    Comer, S D; Haney, M; Ward, A S; Fischman, M W; Foltin, R W

    1998-05-01

    The effects of loratadine, a peripherally acting histamine (H1) antagonist, and methysergide, a serotonin (5-HT) antagonist, were evaluated in seven normal-weight, male research volunteers, participating in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, 17-day residential study. Participants received oral loratadine (10 or 20 mg), methysergide (4 or 8 mg), or placebo at 1000 and 1700 hours daily. Active drug was administered on Days 4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, and 16; placebo was administered on all other days. Drug and dose order were counterbalanced across participants. Food intake, performance, and subjective ratings were measured repeatedly throughout the day. Loratadine had no effect on food intake, performance, or subjective ratings. In contrast, total caloric intake significantly decreased from approximately 3500 kcal during placebo administration to 3065 kcal on the first but not the second day of methysergide administration. Consumption of carbohydrate (p < 0.055), protein, and fat decreased on the first day of methysergide administration. This decrease in food intake was due to a decrease in meal size; the number of meals consumed was not affected. The proportion of calories derived from carbohydrates significantly increased on the first day of methysergide administration. Methysergide also significantly impaired performance of a psychomotor task on the first day of high-dose administration and increased ratings of several subjective measures, including "Vomiting," "Stomach Pain," and "Miserable." These results suggest that the anorectic effect occurred as a result of the somatic and mood changes produced by methysergide. In addition, the inability of loratadine to affect food intake indicates that antagonism of central histamine receptors may be responsible for the increases in food intake produced by other antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine).

  12. A comparison of two methods of measuring food group intake: grams vs servings.

    PubMed

    Nöthlings, Ute; Murphy, Suzanne P; Sharma, Sangita; Hankin, Jean H; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2006-05-01

    Different measurements can be used to quantify food group intake, such as servings, cups, or grams. Dietary recommendations are given in terms of servings (recently expressed as cup and ounce measurements), but research on disease risks often uses grams as the intake measure. Because serving sizes vary among foods within a food group, the method of expressing food group intake (grams vs servings) may impact disease risk analyses. Daily consumption of eight food groups was calculated as both Food Guide Pyramid servings and grams for 206,721 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study who completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire between 1993 and 1996. Mean grams per serving ranged from 25 g for red meat to 172 g for dairy products. Spearman correlation coefficients between intakes as grams per day and servings per day were 0.85 for grains, 0.97 for vegetables, 0.99 for fruit, 0.95 for dairy products, 0.98 for red meat, 0.93 for processed meat, 1.00 for poultry, and 1.00 for fish. Because there was little effect on the ranking of study participants' intakes due to the method of calculating food group consumption, the two measures are interchangeable in disease risk models.

  13. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  14. Allopregnanolone preferentially induces energy‐rich food intake in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Ellinor; Johansson, Maja; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Haage, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is an increasing problem and identification of the driving forces for overeating of energy‐rich food is important. Previous studies show that the stress and sex steroid allopregnanolone has a hyperphagic effect on both bland food and palatable food. If allopregnanolone induces a preference for more palatable or for more energy‐rich food is not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of allopregnanolone on food preference. Male Wistar rats were subjected to two different food preference tests: a choice between standard chow and cookies (which have a higher energy content and also are more palatable than chow), and a choice between a low caloric sucrose solution and standard chow (which has a higher energy content and is less palatable than sucrose). Food intake was measured for 1 h after acute subcutaneous injections of allopregnanolone. In the choice between cookies and chow allopregnanolone significantly increased only the intake of cookies. When the standard chow was the item present with the highest caloric load, the chow intake was increased and allopregnanolone had no effect on intake of the 10% sucrose solution. The increased energy intakes induced by the high allopregnanolone dose compared to vehicle were very similar in the two tests, 120% increase for cookies and 150% increase for chow. It appears that in allopregnanolone‐induced hyperphagia, rats choose the food with the highest energy content regardless of its palatability. PMID:25501437

  15. Caloric Intake From Fast Food Among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Vikraman, Sundeep; Fryar, Cheryl D; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of fast food has been linked to weight gain in adults (1). Fast food has also been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents (2). From 1994 through 2006, caloric intake from fast food increased from 10% to 13% among children aged 2-18 years (3). This report presents the most recent data on the percentage of calories consumed from fast food among U.S. children by sex, age group, race and Hispanic origin, poverty status, and weight status.

  16. Gs-coupled GPCR signalling in AgRP neurons triggers sustained increase in food intake

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Cui, Zhenzhong; Li, Chia; Meister, Jaroslawna; Cui, Yinghong; Fu, Ou; Smith, Adam S.; Jain, Shalini; Lowell, Bradford B.; Krashes, Michael J.; Wess, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons of the hypothalamus play a key role in regulating food intake and body weight, by releasing three different orexigenic molecules: AgRP; GABA; and neuropeptide Y. AgRP neurons express various G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with different coupling properties, including Gs-linked GPCRs. At present, the potential role of Gs-coupled GPCRs in regulating the activity of AgRP neurons remains unknown. Here we show that the activation of Gs-coupled receptors expressed by AgRP neurons leads to a robust and sustained increase in food intake. We also provide detailed mechanistic data linking the stimulation of this class of receptors to the observed feeding phenotype. Moreover, we show that this pathway is clearly distinct from other GPCR signalling cascades that are operative in AgRP neurons. Our data suggest that drugs able to inhibit this signalling pathway may become useful for the treatment of obesity. PMID:26743492

  17. Molecular and cellular regulation of hypothalamic melanocortin neurons controlling food intake and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Koch, M; Horvath, T L

    2014-07-01

    The brain receives and integrates environmental and metabolic information, transforms these signals into adequate neuronal circuit activities, and generates physiological behaviors to promote energy homeostasis. The responsible neuronal circuitries show lifetime plasticity and guaranty metabolic health and survival. However, this highly evolved organization has become challenged nowadays by chronic overload with nutrients and reduced physical activity, which results in an ever-increasing number of obese individuals worldwide. Research within the last two decades has aimed to decipher the responsible molecular and cellular mechanisms for regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortin neurons, which have a key role in the control of food intake and energy metabolism. This review maps the central connections of the melanocortin system and highlights its global position and divergent character in physiological and pathological metabolic events. Moreover, recently uncovered molecular and cellular processes in hypothalamic neurons and glial cells that drive plastic morphological and physiological changes in these cells, and account for regulation of food intake and energy metabolism, are brought into focus. Finally, potential functional interactions between metabolic disorders and psychiatric diseases are discussed.

  18. Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2010-08-01

    The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N=121, aged between 8 and 12 years) were exposed to a neutral movie that was interrupted by two commercial breaks. These breaks contained commercials promoting either energy-dense foods, low energy versions of the same energy-dense foods (light food commercials), or neutral commercials aimed at adults. Snack food intake during watching television was measured. Children filled out questionnaires and were weighed and measured afterwards. Children who perceived maternal encouragement to be thin ate slightly more when exposed to energy-dense food commercials and especially when exposed to light food commercials than when exposed to neutral commercials. In contrast, children who perceived no maternal encouragement to be thin ate more when exposed to neutral commercials than when exposed to either energy-dense food commercials or light food commercials. These findings suggest that exposure to adult targeted light food cues produced disinhibition in children who experienced maternal encouragement to be thin, resulting in elevated snack food intake.

  19. Comparison of satiating effects of ceruletide and food intake using behavioral and electrophysiological indicators of memory.

    PubMed

    Pietrowsky, R; Specht, G; Fehm, H L; Born, J

    1994-06-01

    Animal and human studies have suggested a satieting effect of ceruletide, an analog of cholecystokinin. In humans, signs of a selectively diminished central nervous processing of food stimuli may provide a more valid measure of satiety than overt eating behavior. To assess the satieting effects of ceruletide in humans, effects of ceruletide and food intake on memory of food stimuli and stimuli not related to food (neutral and sex) were compared with memory performance in fasted subjects. In experiment I, recall of slide-projected words was tested in 12 fasting men in a within-subject comparison (i) following intravenous administration of saline solution, (ii) of ceruletide (6.75 micrograms), and (iii) after having eaten a regular breakfast. The P3 component of the event-related potential to the stimuli was assessed as a physiological sign of memory processing. In experiment II, recognition of pictures was tested in a between-subject design in 36 fasting men following (i) administration of saline solution, (ii) of ceruletide (6 micrograms), and (iii) intake of an opulent meal. After food intake, recall and recognition of food and also of sex stimuli were diminished, but were increased for neutral stimuli. Ceruletide diminished recognition of food stimuli and increased that of neutral stimuli; similar effects on recall of food and neutral stimuli failed to reach significance. P3 amplitude did not reflect changes in memory performance. Memory of food stimuli declined after ceruletide as well as after food intake, suggesting ceruletide mediates satieting effects on memory processing.

  20. Parental Influences on Dairy Intake in Children, and Their Role in Child Calcium-Fortified Food Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Beth H.; Chung, Kimberly R.; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Design: Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. Setting…

  1. Dietary fibers reduce food intake by satiation without conditioned taste aversion in mice.

    PubMed

    Rasoamanana, Rojo; Even, Patrick C; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2013-02-17

    It is well known that intake of dietary fiber (DF) potently decreases food intake and feelings of hunger and/or promotes satiety ratings. However, the mechanisms explaining these effects are not well characterized. This work was performed to determine which of satiation and/or satiety mechanisms provoke the decrease of food intake induced by DF in mice. We tested in an intra-group protocol a low-viscosity (LV, fructo-oligosaccharide), a viscous (VP, guar gum) and a high-viscosity (HV, mixture of guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharide) preload. These were given to mice by intra-gastric gavage. It appeared that viscous preloads such as VP and HV reduced the daily energy intake by 14% and 21% respectively. The strong effect of HV was mainly due to a large decrease of meal size (by 57%) and meal duration (by 65%) with no effect on ingestion rate during the first 30 min after administration. Therefore, the DF-induced decrease of energy intake was due to a satiation mechanism. This is further supported by a 3-fold increased sensitization of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract as observed by c-Fos protein immunolabelling. No compensation of food intake was observed during the rest of the day, a phenomenon that may be explained by the fact that metabolic rate remained high despite the lower food intake. We have also shown that the DF-induced inhibition of food intake was not paired with a conditioned taste aversion. To conclude, this work demonstrates that DF inhibits food intake by increasing satiation during ~1h after administration.

  2. Lack of evidence for a marked endogenous component determining food intake in humans during forced desynchrony.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Jim; Jones, Kay; Edwards, Ben; Harrison, Yvonne; Nevill, Alan; Reilly, Thomas

    2004-05-01

    In an attempt to investigate the relative importance of endogenous and exogenous factors in determining food intake, 14 healthy subjects were studied while living in an Isolation Unit (where external time cues were absent) for eighteen 28 h "days" (equal to 21 solar days). The subjects were free to spend their waking time as they chose, and they had a free choice of what they ate and when they ate it. The only restrictions were that no naps were allowed in the "daytime," that some time was required to perform a variety of tests at regular intervals throughout the 18.67 h waking periods, and that any food preparation had to be performed by the subjects themselves. Core (rectal) temperature and activity were monitored throughout, and the subjects answered a questionnaire on their eating habits at 3 h intervals during the waking periods. The questionnaire investigated reasons for eating or not eating a meal during the previous 3 h and, if a meal had been eaten, its type, the factors influencing that choice, and the subjects' subjective responses (hunger before, enjoyment during, and satiety after) to it. The results were analyzed (two-way ANOVA) in terms of both the imposed day length (the exogenous component) and the free-running period of the temperature rhythm (the endogenous component). Results indicated that by far the main reason for eating/not eating was hunger/lack of hunger rather than factors such as food availability and time-pressure. There were statistically significant effects of time within the imposed waking periods upon the type of meal eaten--"breakfast" tending to be a snack, "lunch" a small hot meal, and the "evening meal" a large hot meal. Hot meals (whether small or large) were associated with more hunger before the meal, more enjoyment of the meal, and a greater degree of satiety afterward than were cold meals. These effects suggest that the individuals adjusted their eating habits to fit in with the imposed wake times. By contrast, the effect

  3. Cholecystokinin-33 acutely attenuates food foraging, hoarding and intake in Siberian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Teubner, Brett J.W.; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Neurochemicals that stimulate food foraging and hoarding in Siberian hamsters are becoming more apparent, but we do not know if cessation of these behaviors is due to waning of excitatory stimuli and/or the advent of inhibitory factors. Cholecystokinin (CCK) may be such an inhibitory factor as it is the prototypic gastrointestinal satiety peptide and is physiologically important in decreasing food intake in several species including Siberian hamsters. Systemic injection of CCK-33 in laboratory rats decreases food intake, doing so to a greater extent than CCK-8. We found minimal effects of CCK-8 on food foraging and hoarding previously in Siberian hamsters, but have not tested CCK-33. Therefore, we asked: Does CCK-33 decrease normal levels or food deprivation-induced increases in food foraging, hoarding and intake? Hamsters were housed in a wheel running-based foraging system with simulated burrows to test the effects of peripheral injections of CCK-33 (13.2, 26.4, or 52.8 μg/kg body mass), with or without a preceding 56 h food deprivation. The highest dose of CCK-33 caused large baseline reductions in all three behaviors for the 1st h post injection compared with saline; in addition, the intermediate CCK-33 dose was sufficient to curtail food intake and foraging during the 1st h. In food deprived hamsters, we used a 52.8 μg/kg body mass dose of CCK-33 which decreased food intake, hoarding, and foraging almost completely compared with saline controls for 1 h. Therefore, CCK-33 appears to be a potent inhibitor of food intake, hoarding, and foraging in Siberian hamsters. PMID:20025915

  4. Cholecystokinin-33 acutely attenuates food foraging, hoarding and intake in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Teubner, Brett J W; Bartness, Timothy J

    2010-04-01

    Neurochemicals that stimulate food foraging and hoarding in Siberian hamsters are becoming more apparent, but we do not know if cessation of these behaviors is due to waning of excitatory stimuli and/or the advent of inhibitory factors. Cholecystokinin (CCK) may be such an inhibitory factor as it is the prototypic gastrointestinal satiety peptide and is physiologically important in decreasing food intake in several species including Siberian hamsters. Systemic injection of CCK-33 in laboratory rats decreases food intake, doing so to a greater extent than CCK-8. We found minimal effects of CCK-8 on food foraging and hoarding previously in Siberian hamsters, but have not tested CCK-33. Therefore, we asked: Does CCK-33 decrease normal levels or food deprivation-induced increases in food foraging, hoarding and intake? Hamsters were housed in a wheel running-based foraging system with simulated burrows to test the effects of peripheral injections of CCK-33 (13.2, 26.4, or 52.8 microg/kg body mass), with or without a preceding 56 h food deprivation. The highest dose of CCK-33 caused large baseline reductions in all three behaviors for the 1st hour post-injection compared with saline; in addition, the intermediate CCK-33 dose was sufficient to curtail food intake and foraging during the 1st hour. In food-deprived hamsters, we used a 52.8 microg/kg body mass dose of CCK-33 which decreased food intake, hoarding, and foraging almost completely compared with saline controls for 1h. Therefore, CCK-33 appears to be a potent inhibitor of food intake, hoarding, and foraging in Siberian hamsters.

  5. Estimation of energy intake in clinical practice: a comparison between a food record protocol and a precoded food record book.

    PubMed

    Lorefält, Birgitta; Unosson, Mitra

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare energy intake estimated from a clinical food record protocol (CFRP) with that from a precoded food record book (PFRB) as reference method. Food and fluid consumption were recorded in 10 older patients using a CFRP in parallel with a PFRB during a 6-day period. The results showed that there were no significant differences in mean energy intake estimated from the CFRP as compared with that estimated from the PFRB. The correlation coefficient between the calculated daily energy intake from the CFRP and PFRB was 0.96. The differences in energy intake (kcal/day) between the CFRP and PFRB, plotted against their mean value for 10 patients, showed that results were within the limits of agreement (mean +/- 2SD) for nine patients. The differences in each day's energy intake between the two methods plotted against their mean value showed that 97% of the estimated daily energy intake was within the limits of agreement. The weighted kappa between the two methods was 0.76. The CFRP would seem to be acceptable for the estimation of mean energy intake in the hospital setting.

  6. Association of the Neighborhood Retail Food Environment with Sodium and Potassium Intake Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schieb, Linda; Schwartz, Greg; Onufrak, Stephen; Park, Sohyun

    2014-01-01

    Introduction High sodium intake and low potassium intake, which can contribute to hypertension and risk of cardiovascular disease, may be related to the availability of healthful food in neighborhood stores. Despite evidence linking food environment with diet quality, this relationship has not been evaluated in the United States. The modified retail food environment index (mRFEI) provides a composite measure of the retail food environment and represents the percentage of healthful-food vendors within a 0.5 mile buffer of a census tract. Methods We analyzed data from 8,779 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2008. By using linear regression, we assessed the relationship between mRFEI and sodium intake, potassium intake, and the sodium–potassium ratio. Models were stratified by region (South and non-South) and included participant and neighborhood characteristics. Results In the non-South region, higher mRFEI scores (indicating a more healthful food environment) were not associated with sodium intake, were positively associated with potassium intake (P [trend] = .005), and were negatively associated with the sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .02); these associations diminished when neighborhood characteristics were included, but remained close to statistical significance for potassium intake (P [trend] = .05) and sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .07). In the South, mRFEI scores were not associated with sodium intake, were negatively associated with potassium intake (P [trend] = < .001), and were positively associated with sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .01). These associations also diminished after controlling for neighborhood characteristics for both potassium intake (P [trend] = .03) and sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .40). Conclusion We found no association between mRFEI and sodium intake. The association between mRFEI and potassium intake and the sodium–potassium ratio varied by region. National

  7. Online Dietary Intake Estimation: Reproducibility and Validity of the Food4Me Food Frequency Questionnaire Against a 4-Day Weighed Food Record

    PubMed Central

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Macready, Anna L; Walsh, Marianne C; Mathers, John C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in nutritional assessment are continuing to embrace developments in computer technology. The online Food4Me food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was created as an electronic system for the collection of nutrient intake data. To ensure its accuracy in assessing both nutrient and food group intake, further validation against data obtained using a reliable, but independent, instrument and assessment of its reproducibility are required. Objective The aim was to assess the reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me FFQ against a 4-day weighed food record (WFR). Methods Reproducibility of the Food4Me FFQ was assessed using test-retest methodology by asking participants to complete the FFQ on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart. To assess the validity of the Food4Me FFQ against the 4-day WFR, half the participants were also asked to complete a 4-day WFR 1 week after the first administration of the Food4Me FFQ. Level of agreement between nutrient and food group intakes estimated by the repeated Food4Me FFQ and the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR were evaluated using Bland-Altman methodology and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Crude unadjusted correlation coefficients were also calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. Results In total, 100 people participated in the assessment of reproducibility (mean age 32, SD 12 years), and 49 of these (mean age 27, SD 8 years) also took part in the assessment of validity. Crude unadjusted correlations for repeated Food4Me FFQ ranged from .65 (vitamin D) to .90 (alcohol). The mean cross-classification into “exact agreement plus adjacent” was 92% for both nutrient and food group intakes, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes. Agreement between the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR varied, with crude unadjusted correlations ranging from .23 (vitamin D) to .65 (protein, % total energy) for nutrient intakes and .11 (soups, sauces and miscellaneous foods) to .73 (yogurts

  8. Validation of a FFQ for estimating whole-grain cereal food intake.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; Pineau, Nicolas; Kochhar, Sunil; Bourgeois, Alexandre; Beaumont, Maurice; Decarli, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    Estimation of whole-grain (WG) food intake in epidemiological and nutritional studies is normally based on general diet FFQ, which are not designed to specifically capture WG intake. To estimate WG cereal intake, we developed a forty-three-item FFQ focused on cereal product intake over the past month. We validated this questionnaire against a 3-d-weighed food record (3DWFR) in thirty-one subjects living in the French-speaking part of Switzerland (nineteen female and twelve male). Subjects completed the FFQ on day 1 (FFQ1), the 3DWFR between days 2 and 13 and the FFQ again on day 14 (FFQ2). The subjects provided a fasting blood sample within 1 week of FFQ2. Total cereal intake, total WG intake, intake of individual cereals, intake of different groups of cereal products and alkylresorcinol (AR) intake were calculated from both FFQ and the 3DWFR. Plasma AR, possible biomarkers for WG wheat and rye intake were also analysed. The total WG intake for the 3DWFR, FFQ1, FFQ2 was 26 (sd 22), 28 (sd 25) and 21 (sd 16) g/d, respectively. Mean plasma AR concentration was 55.8 (sd 26.8) nmol/l. FFQ1, FFQ2 and plasma AR were correlated with the 3DWFR (r 0.72, 0.81 and 0.57, respectively). Adjustment for age, sex, BMI and total energy intake did not affect the results. This FFQ appears to give a rapid and adequate estimate of WG cereal intake in free-living subjects.

  9. Salmon calcitonin reduces food intake through changes in meal sizes in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bello, Nicholas T; Kemm, Matthew H; Moran, Timothy H

    2008-07-01

    Amylinergic mechanisms are believed to be involved in the control of appetite. This study examined the effects of the amylin agonist, salmon calcitonin, on food intake and meal patterns in adult male rhesus monkeys. Fifteen minutes before the onset of their 6-h daily feeding period, monkeys received intramuscular injections of various doses of salmon calcitonin (0.032, 0.056, 0.1, 0.32, and 1 microg/kg) or saline. Salmon calcitonin dose dependently reduced total daily and hourly food intake, with significant decreases at the 0.1, 0.32, and 1 microg/kg doses. Daily food intake was reduced by approximately 35%, 62%, and 96%, at these doses, respectively. An analysis of meal patterns revealed that size of the first meal was significantly reduced across the dose range of 0.056 to 1 microg/kg, while average meal size was reduced with the 0.32 and 1 microg/kg doses. Meal number was only affected at the 1 microg/kg dose. Repeated 5-day administration of the 0.1 microg/kg dose resulted in a reduction in daily food intake only on injection day 2, while significant reductions in food intake were observed on all five injection days with a 0.32 microg/kg dose. Daily food intake was also reduced for 1 day after the termination of the 5-day injections of the 0.32 microg/kg salmon calcitonin dose. These sustained reductions in intake were expressed through decreases in meal size. These data demonstrate that salmon calcitonin acutely and consistently decreases food intake mainly through reductions in meal sizes in nonhuman primates.

  10. Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane

    2016-09-10

    Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual's dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual's total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes.

  11. Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual’s dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual’s total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes. PMID:27626442

  12. Managing young children's snack food intake. The role of parenting style and feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Boots, Samantha B; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia; Mattiske, Julie

    2015-09-01

    One major contributor to the problem of childhood overweight and obesity is the over-consumption of foods high in fat, salt and sugar, such as snack foods. The current study aimed to examine young children's snack intake and the influence of feeding strategies used by parents in the context of general parenting style. Participants were 611 mothers of children aged 2-7 years who completed an online questionnaire containing measures of general parenting domains and two particular feeding strategies, restriction and covert control. It was found that greater unhealthy snack intake was associated with higher restriction and lower covert control, while greater healthy snack intake was associated with lower restriction and higher covert control. Further, the feeding strategies mediated the association between parental demandingness and responsiveness and child snack intake. These findings provide evidence for the differential impact of controlling and positive parental feeding strategies on young children's snack intake in the context of general parenting.

  13. Estimated Daily Intake and Seasonal Food Sources of Quercetin in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishimuro, Haruno; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Sato, Midori; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Matsunaga, Izumi; Naito, Shigehiro; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Oike, Hideaki; Nagata, Tadahiro; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Kobori, Masuko

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in the market during June and July in or near a town in Hokkaido, Japan. Red leaf lettuce, asparagus, and onions contained high amounts of quercetin derivatives. We then estimated the daily quercetin intake by 570 residents aged 20–92 years old in the town using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The average and median quercetin intakes were 16.2 and 15.5 mg day−1, respectively. The quercetin intakes by men were lower than those by women; the quercetin intakes showed a low correlation with age in both men and women. The estimated quercetin intake was similar during summer and winter. Quercetin was mainly ingested from onions and green tea, both in summer and in winter. Vegetables, such as asparagus, green pepper, tomatoes, and red leaf lettuce, were good sources of quercetin in summer. Our results will help to elucidate the association between quercetin intake and risks of lifestyle-related diseases by further prospective cohort study and establish healthy dietary requirements with the consumption of more physiologically useful components from foods. PMID:25849945

  14. [Evaluation of nitrites and nitrates food intake in the students' group].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Pankowska, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the intake of nitrites and nitrates in daily food rations of the students' group in 2008 using 3-day dietary food records method and literature mean values of nitrates and nitrites in food products. Intakes of these compounds were calculated and compared to acceptable daily intake (ADI). The average intake of nitrites was 1.7 mg NaNO2/per person/day (28.0% of ADI), nitrates 77.3 mg NaNO3/per person/day that means 25.4% of ADI. The largest nitrites food intake was noticed for meat products supplied 56.5% of nitrites and cereals (20%). Whereas vegetables and their products supplied 76.1% of nitrates: potatoes 17.1%, cabbage 15.5%, beetroots 13.7%. Calculated nitrites intake for men was 2.4 higher than for women. There were no significant differences of nitrates intake between men and women groups.

  15. Types of food and nutrient intake in India: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Maria Gabriella; Paramesh, Elizabeth Cherian; Paramesh, Haralappa; Loganes, Claudia; Ballali, Simonetta; Gafare, Claudia Elena; Verduci, Elvira; Gulati, Achal

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays India is undergoing an impressive economic growth accompanied by a very slow decline, almost stagnation, in malnutrition levels. In developing countries, studies on dietary patterns and their relationship with nutritional status are scarce. Over the years some nutritional studies have been performed to explore different types of food consumed in various Indian regions, among different social samples. The aim of the present paper is to review and describe trends in food and nutrition intake patterns in the different states of India. The review was carried out in PubMed, using the advanced research criteria: [food* OR ("meal pattern*") OR ("eating pattern*")] AND ("nutrient intake") AND India*. PubMed research gave back 84 results and out of these, 7 papers due to their focus on food intake and consumption levels in India have been included in this study. Food intake patterns showed that most of the Indians are vegetarians and that food items rich in micronutrients (pulses, other vegetables, fruits, nuts, oilseeds and animal foods) are generally consumed less frequently. Poor and monotonous cereals-based diet may promote inadequate nutrition intakes according to Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) standards.

  16. Selection of motor programs for suppressing food intake and inducing locomotion in the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Schoofs, Andreas; Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Peters, Marc; Zeymer, Malou; Spieß, Roland; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Pankratz, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Central mechanisms by which specific motor programs are selected to achieve meaningful behaviors are not well understood. Using electrophysiological recordings from pharyngeal nerves upon central activation of neurotransmitter-expressing cells, we show that distinct neuronal ensembles can regulate different feeding motor programs. In behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, activation of 20 neurons in the brain expressing the neuropeptide hugin, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U, simultaneously suppressed the motor program for food intake while inducing the motor program for locomotion. Decreasing hugin neuropeptide levels in the neurons by RNAi prevented this action. Reducing the level of hugin neuronal activity alone did not have any effect on feeding or locomotion motor programs. Furthermore, use of promoter-specific constructs that labeled subsets of hugin neurons demonstrated that initiation of locomotion can be separated from modulation of its motor pattern. These results provide insights into a neural mechanism of how opposing motor programs can be selected in order to coordinate feeding and locomotive behaviors.

  17. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted. PMID:27240399

  18. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O

    2016-05-26

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted.

  19. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    PubMed

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-14

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of <10%EFS. The mean AS intake of the participants was 60·3 (SD 52·6) g/d. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for the greatest proportion of the AS intake of the Australian population (21·4 (sd 30·1)%), followed by sugar and sweet spreads (16·3 (SD 24·5)%) and cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4)%). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90% of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods.

  20. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    PubMed

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  1. FTO Polymorphisms Moderate the Association of Food Reinforcement with Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Scheid, Jennifer L.; Carr, Katelyn A.; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D.; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K.; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard; Faith, Myles S.; Allison, David B.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2015-01-01

    Food reinforcement (RRVfood) is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity, and prospectively related to weight gain. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is related to elevated body mass index and increased energy intake. The primary purpose of the current study was to determine whether any of 68 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or a FTO risk score moderate the association between food reinforcement and energy or macronutrient intake. Energy and macronutrient intake was measured using a laboratory ad libitum snack food consumption task in 237 adults of varying BMI. Controlling for BMI, the relative reinforcing value of reading (RRVreading) and proportion of African ancestry, RRVfood predicted 14.2% of the variance in energy intake, as well as predicted carbohydrate, fat, protein and sugar intake. In individual analyses, six FTO SNPs (rs12921970, rs9936768, rs12446047, rs7199716, rs8049933 and rs11076022, spanning approximately 251K bp) moderated the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake to predict an additional 4.9 - 7.4% of variance in energy intake. We created an FTO risk score based on 5 FTO SNPs (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs3751812, rs1421085, and rs1121980) that are related to BMI in multiple studies. The FTO risk score did not increase variance accounted for beyond individual FTO SNPs. Rs12921970 and rs12446047 served as moderators of the relationship between RRVfood and carbohydrate, fat, protein, and sugar intake. This study shows for the first time that the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake is moderated by FTO SNPs. Research is needed to understand how these processes interact to predict energy and macronutrient intake. PMID:24768648

  2. FTO polymorphisms moderate the association of food reinforcement with energy intake.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Jennifer L; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard W; Faith, Myles S; Allison, David B; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-10

    Food reinforcement (RRVfood) is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity, and prospectively related to weight gain. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is related to elevated body mass index and increased energy intake. The primary purpose of the current study was to determine whether any of 68 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or a FTO risk score moderate the association between food reinforcement and energy or macronutrient intake. Energy and macronutrient intake was measured using a laboratory ad libitum snack food consumption task in 237 adults of varying BMI. Controlling for BMI, the relative reinforcing value of reading (RRVreading) and proportion of African ancestry, RRVfood predicted 14.2% of the variance in energy intake, as well as predicted carbohydrate, fat, protein and sugar intake. In individual analyses, six FTO SNPs (rs12921970, rs9936768, rs12446047, rs7199716, rs8049933 and rs11076022, spanning approximately 251kbp) moderated the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake to predict an additional 4.9-7.4% of variance in energy intake. We created an FTO risk score based on 5 FTO SNPs (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs3751812, rs1421085, and rs1121980) that are related to BMI in multiple studies. The FTO risk score did not increase variance accounted for beyond individual FTO SNPs. rs12921970 and rs12446047 served as moderators of the relationship between RRVfood and carbohydrate, fat, protein, and sugar intake. This study shows for the first time that the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake is moderated by FTO SNPs. Research is needed to understand how these processes interact to predict energy and macronutrient intake.

  3. Web-enabled and improved software tools and data are needed to measure nutrient intakes and physical activity for personalized health research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food intake, physical activity and genetic make-up each impact health and each factor influences the impact of the other two factors. Nutrigenomics is a term used to describe interactions between food intake, physical activity and genomics. Knowledge about the interplay between environment and ge...

  4. [Thermal reaction of subcutaneous tissue to food intake in patients with obesity].

    PubMed

    Shlygin, G K; Vasilevskaia, L S; Popova, Iu P; Fedortsova, L P

    1995-01-01

    Investigating the temperature of deep layers of skin and in the main of subcutaneous tissue in patients with obesity we found the close connection between changes of this temperature and food intake. In patients who are in postabsorptive period the intake of the small portion of test food (220 kcal) induces in 3-4 min a marked increase of the subcutaneous tissue temperature (often by 1.0-1.5 degrees C in comparison with the initial level). Further the temperature still rises some what and then keeps at increased level for 30-45 min. At the end of the treatment course of patients in the clinic (and the body weight loss by 10-14 kg) these changes of the temperature become much less intensive or do not quite manifest. The above thermic reaction is developed apparently as a result of the dilatation of blood vessels of the skin and filling the venous plexus with the arterial blood. Probably in depends upon the regulatory activity of hypothalamus which is directed on an increase of heat loss into environment.

  5. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  6. Usual Dietary Intakes: NHANES Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)

    Cancer.gov

    NCI developed a new instrument called the NHANES Food Frequency Questionnaire (formerly called Food Propensity Questionnaire) and supported its application in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

  7. Food characteristics, long-term habituation and energy intake. Laboratory and field studies.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Fletcher, Kelly D; O'Neill, Jessica; Roemmich, James N; Raynor, Hollie; Bouton, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Greater food variety is related to increased energy intake, and one approach to reduce food intake is to reduce food variety. The effects of varying the variety of foods at the dinner meal to reduce energy intake was assessed in laboratory and field experiments. Experiment 1 randomly assigned 31 overweight children to one of three conditions that provided one laboratory meal per day over a week. Conditions were the SAME macaroni and cheese, SIMILAR types of macaroni and cheese, or a VARIETY of high-energy-dense foods. On days 1 and 5 all children consumed the same macaroni and cheese meal. Results showed significant differences in energy consumed between SAME and SIMILAR versus VARIETY from day 1 to 5, with SAME and SIMILAR decreasing and VARIETY increasing energy intake. Trials to habituation, a potential mechanism for the variety effect, showed the same pattern of between group differences as energy intake. Experiment 2 randomly assigned 30 overweight children to conditions that provided the SAME, SIMILAR or VARIETY of high-energy-dense entrees along with a variety of low-energy-dense dinner entrees to eat in their homes for 4 weeks. Results showed significant between group differences in energy intake across weeks, with significant decreases over weeks for the SAME and SIMILAR versus VARIETY groups. The pattern of results across the experiments shows the same pattern of reduction in energy intake if children eat the same or similar characteristics of foods (types of macaroni and cheese), which may provide ideas about how to develop dietary variety prescriptions that can reduce intake and be tested in clinical trials.

  8. Control of Food Intake by Gastrointestinal Peptides: Mechanisms of Action and Possible Modulation in the Treatment of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Philip; Stengel, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    This review focuses on the control of appetite by food intake-regulatory peptides secreted from the gastrointestinal tract, namely cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY, ghrelin, and the recently discovered nesfatin-1 via the gut-brain axis. Additionally, we describe the impact of external factors such as intake of different nutrients or stress on the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides. Finally, we highlight possible conservative—physical activity and pharmacotherapy—treatment strategies for obesity as well as surgical techniques such as deep brain stimulation and bariatric surgery also altering these peptidergic pathways. PMID:28096522

  9. Evaluation of the USDA’s Food Guide Pyramid Using College Students’ Dietary Intake Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    group intake was evaluated for food scores by 2 systems: 1) at least 1 serving from each of the 5 food groups in the Food Guide Pyramid and 2) minimum...number of servings from each food group . Although 70% of students obtained a MAR-6 >75, only 34% of the students consumed a 1 serving from each food... group and 12% of students consumed the minimum number of servings of Food Guide Pyramid. Less than 1% of diets were nutritionally adequate by the MAR-6

  10. Saturated fatty acid intake can influence increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Masquio, D C L; de Piano, A; Campos, R M S; Sanches, P L; Corgosinho, F C; Carnier, J; Oyama, L M; do Nascimento, C M P O; de Mello, M T; Tufik, S; Dâmaso, A R

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if saturated fatty acid intake adjusted by tertiles can influence metabolic, inflammation, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in obese adolescents. Body mass, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition of 108 obese adolescents were obtained. Fasting glucose, insulin, PAI-1, and CRP were determined. Insulin resistance was assessed by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity by Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI). Dietetic intake was estimated by a 3-day dietary record, and volunteers were divided according to consumption of saturated fatty acids: tertile 1 [Low Saturated Fatty Acid Intake (Low-SFA): ≤12.14 g], tertile 2 [Moderate Saturated Fatty Intake (Moderate SFA intake): 12.15-20.48 g], and tertile 3 [High Saturated Fatty Acid Intake (High-SFA Intake); >20.48 g]. Statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA 7.0 software and the significance level was set at p<0.05. The most important finding in the present study is that Moderate and High-SFA intakes presented significantly higher values of PAI-1 than Low-SFA Intake. PAI-1 was positively associated with saturated fatty intake, waist circumference, mean blood pressure, and HOMA-IR. SFA intake was predictor of PAI-1 independent of body fat, HOMA-IR and total-cholesterol. In addition, PAI-1 was an independent predictor of blood pressure. HOMA-IR and QUICKI presented significantly higher and lower, respectively, in High-SFA compared to Moderate-SFA intake. High-SFA influenced cardiovascular disease risks, since it increased PAI-1 and insulin resistance, and decreased insulin sensibility, leading to vicious cycle among food ingestion, pro-thrombotic state, and cardiovascular risks in obese adolescents.

  11. Estimated Daily Intake and Safety of FD&C Food Colour Additives in the US Population.

    PubMed

    Bastaki, Maria; Farrell, Thomas; Bhusari, Sachin; Bi, Xiaoyu; Scrafford, Carolyn

    2017-03-23

    A refined exposure assessment was undertaken to calculate the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of the seven FD&C straight colour additives and five FD&C colour lakes ("synthetic" food colours) approved in the United States (US). The EDIs were calculated for the US population as a whole and specific age groups, including children 2-5 y, children 6-12 y, adolescents 13-18 y, and adults 19+ y. Actual use data were collected from an industry survey of companies who are users of these colour additives in a variety of products, with additional input from food colour manufacturers. Food consumption data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The assessment was further refined by adjusting the intake to more realistic scenarios based on the fraction of products containing colour within specific food categories using data provided by the Mintel International Group LTD. The results of the analysis indicate that a) the use levels reported by industry are consistent with the concentrations measured analytically by the US Food and Drug Administration; b) exposure to food colour additives in the US by average and high intake consumers is well below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of each colour additive as published by the Joint WHO/FAO Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and allows wide margins of safety; and c) for children to reach the intake assumed in the Southampton study, they would have to consume at least 30 times more foods and beverages daily than the high consumers (95%) and the foods would have to contain four different colours at maximum use levels, a clearly unrealistic scenario. It is concluded that food colour use as currently practiced in the US is safe and does not result in excessive exposure to the population, even at conservative ranges of food consumption and levels of use.

  12. Predictors of College-Student Food Security and Fruit and Vegetable Intake Differ by Housing Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirabitur, Erica; Peterson, Karen E.; Rathz, Colleen; Matlen, Stacey; Kasper, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We assessed whether college-student characteristics associate with food security and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and whether these associations differ in students in housing with and without food provision. Participants: 514 randomly-sampled students from a large, Midwestern, public university in 2012 and 2013 Methods: Ordered…

  13. Focusing on food during lunch enhances lunch memory and decreases later snack intake.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne; Donohoe, Jessica E

    2011-08-01

    We investigated whether eating lunch mindfully, in contrast to eating with distractions or no particular focus, reduces later snack intake and if this is related to a measure of meal memory. The design was between-subjects with three conditions. Twenty-nine female undergraduate students either ate a fixed lunch while (1) focusing on the sensory characteristics of the food as they ate (food focus group), (2) reading a newspaper article about food (food thoughts control group) or (3) in the absence of any secondary task (neutral control group). Cookie intake later that afternoon was measured as well as rated vividness of memory of the lunch. Participants ate significantly fewer cookies in the food focus group than in both the food thoughts control group or the neutral control group. Rated appetite before the snack session was lower in the food focus group than in the other two groups and rated vividness of lunch memory was higher. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with snack intake. These results suggest that enhancing meal memory by paying attention to food while eating can reduce later intake and are consistent with the suggestion that memory plays an important role in appetite control.

  14. Internal and External Moderators of the Effect of Variety on Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remick, Abigail K.; Polivy, Janet; Pliner, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Many factors contribute to how much we eat. One such factor is the variety of different foods available. The current article reviews the variety literature with a specific focus on the factors that moderate the effects of variety on food intake and that moderate the processes that may underlie the variety effect (i.e., sensory-specific satiety and…

  15. Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Databases 2003-08: Methodology and User Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose for developing the Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Databases (FICRCD) 2003-08 is to convert foods consumed in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008 to respective amounts of retail-level fo...

  16. Usual energy intake mediates the relationship between food reinforcement and BMI.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Roemmich, James N

    2012-09-01

    The relative reinforcing value of food (RRV(food)) is positively associated with energy consumed and overweight status. One hypothesis relating these variables is that food reinforcement is related to BMI through usual energy intake. Using a sample of two hundred fifty-two adults of varying weight and BMI levels, results showed that usual energy intake mediated the relationship between RRV(food) and BMI (estimated indirect effect = 0.0027, bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.0002-0.0068, effect ratio = 0.34), controlling for age, sex, minority status, education, and reinforcing value of reading (RRV(reading)). Laboratory and usual energy intake were correlated (r = 0.24, P < 0.001), indicating that laboratory energy intake could provide an index of eating behavior in the natural environment. The mediational relationship observed suggests that increasing or decreasing food reinforcement could influence body weight by altering food consumption. Research is needed to develop methods of modifying RRV(food) to determine experimentally whether manipulating food reinforcement would result in changes in body weight.

  17. Pharmacological stimulation of brain carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 decreases food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Aja, Susan; Landree, Leslie E; Kleman, Amy M; Medghalchi, Susan M; Vadlamudi, Aravinda; McFadden, Jill M; Aplasca, Andrea; Hyun, Jayson; Plummer, Erica; Daniels, Khadija; Kemm, Matthew; Townsend, Craig A; Thupari, Jagan N; Kuhajda, Francis P; Moran, Timothy H; Ronnett, Gabriele V

    2008-02-01

    Inhibition of brain carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT-1) is reported to decrease food intake and body weight in rats. Yet, the fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor and CPT-1 stimulator C75 produces hypophagia and weight loss when given to rodents intracerebroventricularly (icv). Thus roles and relative contributions of altered brain CPT-1 activity and fatty acid oxidation in these phenomena remain unclarified. We administered compounds that target FAS or CPT-1 to mice by single icv bolus and examined acute and prolonged effects on feeding and body weight. C75 decreased food intake rapidly and potently at all doses (1-56 nmol) and dose dependently inhibited intake on day 1. Dose-dependent weight loss on day 1 persisted through 4 days of postinjection monitoring. The FAS inhibitor cerulenin produced dose-dependent (560 nmol) hypophagia for 1 day, weight loss for 2 days, and weight regain to vehicle control by day 3. The CPT-1 inhibitor etomoxir (32, 320 nmol) did not alter overall day 1 feeding. However, etomoxir attenuated the hypophagia produced by C75, indicating that CPT-1 stimulation is important for C75's effect. A novel compound, C89b, was characterized in vitro as a selective stimulator of CPT-1 that does not affect fatty acid synthesis. C89b (100, 320 nmol) decreased feeding in mice for 3 days and produced persistent weight loss for 6 days without producing conditioned taste aversion. Similarly, intraperitoneal administration decreased feeding and body weight without producing conditioned taste aversion. These results suggest a role for brain CPT-1 in the regulation of energy balance and implicate CPT-1 stimulation as a pharmacological approach to weight loss.

  18. Effect of food intake on left and right ventricular systolic tissue Doppler measurements.

    PubMed

    Dieden, Anna; Gårdinger, Ylva; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Björgell, Ola; Dencker, Magnus

    2016-09-01

    Systolic tissue Doppler measurements (s') have been used to measure the velocity in myocardial motion and are a valuable tool for evaluating the systolic function of the left and right ventricles. Digestion of food is known to significantly alter hemodynamics and may therefore affect s'. The effect of food intake on s' parameters has not yet been studied. We assessed whether s' is affected by food intake. Nineteen healthy subjects aged 26·2 ± 4·2 years were investigated. s' was measured with pulsed tissue Doppler imaging in the right and left ventricles before the subjects ate a standardized meal and also 30 and 110 min after the meal. Three measurements were taken in each projection, and a mean value was calculated for each. s' increased significantly (P<0·05) from fasting to 30 min after food intake in every measured site except in the left inferolateral wall (P = 0·15, NS). Several, but not all, variables returned to base value 110 min after food intake. This study shows that food intake affects the tissue Doppler variables used to evaluate systolic heart function. Further studies are needed in older healthy subjects and older subjects with various cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Salt, salted food intake, and risk of gastric cancer: epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2005-01-01

    Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer, its prevention is one of the most important aspects of Japan's cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the USA and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and the change in incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors, such as the intake of salt and salted food. In international and intra-Japanese ecological studies, the average salt excretion level, estimated using randomly selected 24-h urine samples in each population, was closely correlated with gastric cancer mortality. Several case-control and cohort studies, including the author's recent works, have shown that a higher intake of some traditional salt-preserved food and salt per se, which was estimated using a validated food-frequency questionnaire, was associated with a risk of gastric cancer. While salted food intake may increase the risk of Helicobacter pylori infection, it can also act synergistically to promote the development of gastric cancer. Based on substantial evidence about the association between salt and salted food intake and the risk of gastric cancer from ecological, case-control, and cohort studies conducted in Japan and other countries, as well as mechanistic plausibility, dietary modification involving less salt and salted food intake is a practical strategy with which to prevent gastric cancer.

  20. Taking control: Working memory training in overweight individuals increases self-regulation of food intake.

    PubMed

    Houben, Katrijn; Dassen, Fania C M; Jansen, Anita

    2016-10-01

    Working memory (WM) plays a critical role in cognitive control by shielding self-regulatory goals from distraction by desire-related thoughts and emotions. This study examined whether training WM increases self-regulation in overweight participants. It was hypothesized that WM training would decrease psychopathological eating-related thoughts, (over)consumption of food in response to emotions and external cues, food intake and body weight. Overweight participants (n = 50) performed 20-25 sessions of WM training or control/sham training. The dependent measures were self-reported eating-related psychopathology, self-reported emotional/external eating behavior, food intake during a bogus taste test, and body weight, assessed before training, immediately following training, and at one-month follow-up. Relative to control, WM training reduced psychopathological eating-related thoughts and emotional eating (but not external eating). These effects were still present at follow-up, one month later. Food intake and body weight did not show an overall effect of training, though WM training did reduce food intake among highly restrained participants. WM training effectively reduced eating-related thoughts, overeating in response to negative emotions, and food intake among participants with strong dietary restraint goals. Hence, these findings indicate that WM training may strengthen self-regulation by shielding dieting goals from distraction by unwanted eating-related thoughts and emotions.

  1. Intermittent, chronic fenfluramine administration to rats repeatedly suppresses food intake despite substantial brain serotonin reductions.

    PubMed

    Choi, SuJean; Jonak, Elizabeth M; Simpson, Lynn; Patil, Vaishali; Fernstrom, John D

    2002-02-22

    The mechanisms by which fenfluramine suppresses food intake and body weight have been linked to its ability to enhance transmission across serotonin synapses in brain. This drug initially lowers body weight and suppresses food intake, yet after repeated administration food intake soon returns to normal and body weight no longer decreases. Fenfluramine also causes rapid and prolonged reductions in brain serotonin concentrations, which might account for its loss of appetite suppression. This possibility has been evaluated in rats by assessing if intermittent, chronic fenfluramine administration could suppress food intake during each treatment period, and if so, whether such an effect occurs in the presence of reduced brain serotonin levels. Rats were injected once daily with 10 mg/kg D,L-fenfluramine for 5 days, and then received no injections for the next 5 days. Control rats received only vehicle injections. This 10-day sequence was repeated five more times. During each period of fenfluramine administration, daily food intake dropped markedly the first 1-2 days of treatment, but returned to pretreatment values by day 5. Daily food intake was normal or slightly above normal during non-injection periods. Body weight dropped modestly during each period of fenfluramine administration, and rose during each subsequent period when injections had ceased. Serotonin concentrations and synthesis rates in several brain regions were markedly reduced at early, middle, and late periods of the experiment. Despite the long-term reduction in brain serotonin pools produced by fenfluramine, the drug continues to reduce food intake and body weight. Several possible interpretations of these findings are considered, based on the multiple mechanisms through which this drug has been proposed to modify synaptic serotonin transmission.

  2. Estimation of dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Jun, Shinyoung; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-02-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit preventive effects on degenerative diseases. However, lack of sufficient data on flavonoid intake has limited evaluating the proposed effects in populations. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total and individual flavonoid intakes among Korean adults and determine the major dietary sources of these flavonoids. We constructed a flavonoid database of common Korean foods, based on the food list reported in the 24-h recall of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2012, using data from the Korea Functional Food Composition Table, US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database, Phenol-Explorer database and other analytical studies. This database, which covers 49 % of food items and 76 % of food intake, was linked with the 24-h recall data of 33 581 subjects aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES 2007-2012. The mean daily intake of total flavonoids in Korean adults was 318·0 mg/d, from proanthocyanidins (22·3%), flavonols (20·3%), isoflavones (18·1%), flavan-3-ols (16·2%), anthocyanidins (11·6%), flavanones (11·3%) and flavones (0·3%). The major contributing food groups to the flavonoid intake were fruits (54·4%), vegetables (20·5%), legumes and legume products (16·2%) and beverages and alcohols (3·1%), and the major contributing food items were apples (21·9%), mandarins (12·5%), tofu (11·5%), onions (9·6%) and grapes (9·0%). In the regression analysis, the consumption of legumes and legume products, vegetables and fruits predicted total flavonoid intake the most. The findings of this study could facilitate further investigation on the health benefits of flavonoids and provide the basic information for establishing recommended flavonoid intakes for Koreans.

  3. Ethnic Differences in the Food Intake Patterns and Its Associated Factors of Adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Nurul-Fadhilah; Teo, Pey Sze; Foo, Leng Huat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to identify the ethnic differences in dietary patterns and its association with socio-economic, dietary and lifestyle practices among adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods: A population-based study of 454 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years was included. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary patterns and three dietary patterns were identified based on the principal component analysis method. Results: Malay adolescents had significantly higher scores for the Western-based food pattern and local-based food pattern, whereas Chinese adolescents showed higher scores for the healthy-based food pattern. Multivariate analyses show that age and physical activity (PA) levels were positively associated with healthy-based food pattern in Malay (All, p < 0.001), whereas higher consumption of eating-out from home (EatOut) (p = 0.014) and fast food (p = 0.041) were negatively associated. High weekly breakfast skipping (p < 0.001) and EatOut (p = 0.003) were positively associated with a Western-based pattern, whereas age (p < 0.001) and household income (p = 0.005) were negatively associated. Higher frequency of daily snacking (p = 0.013) was positively associated with local-based food pattern. For Chinese adolescents, age (p < 0.001), PA levels (p < 0.001) and maternal education level (p = 0.035) showed positive associations with the healthy-based pattern, whereas high EatOut (p = 0.001) and fast food intakes (p = 0.001) were negatively associated. Higher weekly consumption of EatOut (p = 0.007), fast food (p = 0.023) and carbonated beverages (p = 0.023), and daily snacking practice (p = 0.004) were positively associated with higher Western-based food pattern, whereas age (p = 0.004) was inversely associated. Conclusion: This study showed that there were significant differences in dietary patterns and its association factors between Malay and Chinese adolescents. More importantly, these findings suggest that

  4. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods

    PubMed Central

    Ridoutt, Bradley; Baird, Danielle; Bastiaans, Kathryn; Hendrie, Gilly; Riley, Malcolm; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Syrette, Julie; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences. PMID:28231135

  5. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, Bradley; Baird, Danielle; Bastiaans, Kathryn; Hendrie, Gilly; Riley, Malcolm; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Syrette, Julie; Noakes, Manny

    2016-05-25

    As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences.

  6. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Cifelli, Christopher J.; Houchins, Jenny A.; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2016-01-01

    Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387) were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (iii) milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i) and (ii) had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years) and adults (≥19 years), the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that increasing plant

  7. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Cifelli, Christopher J; Houchins, Jenny A; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2016-07-11

    Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387) were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (iii) milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i) and (ii) had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years), the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that increasing plant

  8. Quantification of food and nutrient intakes in Zambian children with and without malaria under controlled feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Chileshe, Justin; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A supplementation improves status, which may protect against malarial infection. Provitamin A carotenoid biofortified staple crops may provide a more sustainable approach to alleviate vitamin A deficiency than supplementation, but the impact of febrile illness on food intake must be considered in malaria endemic regions. Morbidity data and food logs from a three-month efficacy trial on provitamin A biofortified (orange) maize in preschool Zambian children (n = 181, age 3-5 years) were systematically analyzed over time to determine the impact of malaria on food intake. Nutrients examined included macronutrients, iron, zinc, and vitamin A. Comparisons based on individual intakes in healthy and malarial states over three-day intervals were made including children from both the orange and white maize groups (n = 100). Malaria prevalence did not differ overall or between treatment groups over time (all P > 0.05). Lower nutrient intakes were observed for all variables during malaria outbreaks (food 289 ± 412 g; energy 248 ± 346 kcal; carbohydrate 42 ± 62 g; protein 8 ± 12 g; fat 5 ± 7 g; iron 1 ± 2 mg; zinc 1 ± 1 mg; vitamin A 58 ± 100 retinol activity equivalents; all P < 0.05). No differences were observed between nutrient decreases in orange and white maize groups (P > 0.05). Considering the impact of malaria on food and nutrient intakes and increased vitamin A utilization and excretion due to the acute phase response, biofortification targets for provitamin A carotenoids may need to be elevated in malaria endemic regions.

  9. Food Intake and Energy Expenditure of Sailors at a Large Naval Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    vegetarian meals; Fruit is often old and bruised. 13 4. Discussion Mean height, weight and BMI of male subjects were similar to the values found for...the evening of day 0. Body fat was also estimated on the evening of day 7. Body Mass Index ( BMI ) was calculated for each subject according to the...formula BMI = weight (kg)/height2 (m). 2.2 Food Intake/Plate Waste Food intake was estimated on an individual basis for each of the eleven subjects. Food

  10. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate intake of dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Several observational studies have investigated the relation of dietary phylloquinone and menaquinone intake with occurrence of chronic diseases. Most of these studies relied on food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to estimate the intake of phylloquinone and menaquinones. However, none of...

  11. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's Diet Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential ...

  12. Gustatory and reward brain circuits in the control of food intake

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira-Maia, Albino J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Simon, Sidney A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Gustation is a multisensory process allowing for the selection of nutrients and the rejection of irritating and/or toxic compounds. Since obesity is a highly prevalent condition that is critically dependent on food intake and energy expenditure, a deeper understanding of gustatory processing is an important objective in biomedical research. Recent findings have provided evidence that central gustatory processes are distributed across several cortical and sub-cortical brain areas. Furthermore, these gustatory sensory circuits are closely related to the circuits that process reward. Here, we present an overview of the activation and connectivity between central gustatory and reward areas. Moreover, and given the limitations in number and effectiveness of treatments currently available for overweight patients, we discuss the possibility of modulating neuronal activity in these circuits as an alternative in the treatment of obesity. PMID:21197607

  13. Nutrient and nontraditional food intakes by Zambian children in a controlled feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A.; Gannon, Bryan; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many programs aim to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Biofortification is an approach to improve provitamin A carotenoid concentrations of staple crops in some developing countries. In rural Zambia, maize accounts for the majority of energy intake. Provitamin A–biofortified (orange) maize has been released in Zambia. Objective This study quantified food intake of Zambian children from records collected in a feeding trial in 2012 in order to compare adoption of orange maize and a new vegetable (green beans) with white maize and traditional foods. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with a mean age of 71.5 ± 6.9 months were fed three meals a day for 6 days a week for 15 weeks at four feeding centers. Breakfast consisted of maize porridge, and lunch and dinner were stiff porridge (nshima) with various side dishes (relishes). There were three treatment groups, which received orange maize and placebo oil, white maize and placebo oil, or white maize and a daily vitamin A supplement. Food was weighed before and after consumption. Nutritionists were trained to interview the children’s caregivers about the previous day’s intake using dietary recalls. Nine dietary recalls for each child were recorded and analyzed. Results Total food intake did not differ among the groups (p = .31) and energy intakes on Sundays (<880 kcal) were below recommendations. Nshima intake was lower in the orange-maize group (p = .008), largely due to a genotype effect. Intakes of relish, green bean, and porridge did not differ among the groups (p > .19). Dietary recalls revealed that children living in sites closer to the main road consumed more on Sundays than children living about 8 km from the main road, but less in the evenings when children were off site. Conclusions The intakes of energy of these Zambian children suggest inadequacy. Implementation and adoption of new and biofortified foods is possible with promotion. PMID:24791580

  14. Effects of Eucommia leaf extracts on autonomic nerves, body temperature, lipolysis, food intake, and body weight.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yuko; Tanida, Mamoru; Shen, Jiao; Hirata, Tetsuya; Kawamura, Naomi; Wada, Atsunori; Nagai, Katsuya

    2010-08-02

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extracts (ELE) have been shown to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Therefore, it was hypothesized that ELE might affect lipid metabolism via changes in autonomic nerve activities and causes changes in thermogenesis and body weight. We examined this hypothesis, and found that intraduodenal (ID) injection of ELE elevated epididymal white adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (WAT-SNA) and interscapular brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats and elevated the plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) (a marker of lipolysis) and body temperature (BT) (a marker of thermogenesis) in conscious rats. Furthermore, it was observed that ID administration of ELE decreased gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats, and that ELE given as food reduced food intake, body and abdominal adipose tissue weights and decreased plasma triglyceride level. These findings suggest that ELE stimulates lipolysis and thermogenesis through elevations in WAT-SNA and BAT-SNA, respectively, suppresses appetite by inhibiting the activities of the parasympathetic nerves innervating the gastrointestinal tract, including GVNA, and decreases the amount of abdominal fat and body weight via these changes.

  15. The impact of salt, fat and sugar levels on toddler food intake.

    PubMed

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the early determinants of food intake, in particular the role of food sensory quality, is a necessary step to improve the prevention of unhealthy food habits. However, the extent to which food intake varies according to salt, fat and sugar content is imperfectly known. The present study aimed at evaluating whether toddler food intake varied during lunches or snacks in which salt, fat or sugar contents had been modified in common foods. Seventy-four children (30 (se 0·5) months old) participated in the study in their usual day-care centres. Every other week, they were served lunches composed, among other items, of green beans and pasta with varying salt (0, 0·6 and 1·2 % added salt) or fat (0, 2·5 and 5 % added butter) levels and afternoon snacks composed of fruit purée varying in sugar level (0, 5 and 10 % added sugar). During each meal, children could eat as much as they wanted from the target foods. Each food was weighed before and after the meal. Salt level had a positive impact on the intake of the target foods. On the contrary, no impact of added fat or added sugar levels was observed. This implies that fat and sugar addition could be avoided in foods for children without having an impact on palatability, allowing the energy density of children's diet to be limited. Salt addition should be limited, but its suppression in vegetables, whose intake is to be promoted, should be considered cautiously.

  16. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) decreases the effects of ghrelin on memory retention and food intake.

    PubMed

    Carlini, Valeria P; Gaydou, Romina C; Schiöth, Helgi B; de Barioglio, Susana R

    2007-04-05

    Ghrelin (Ghr) is an appetite stimulating hormone that is produced peripherally, by the stomach, and centrally as well. Previous investigations show that Ghr increases food intake and memory retention in rats, and that extra-hypothalamic structures, such as the hippocampus, participate in these effects. In the present work we analyzed the effect on food intake and memory retention induced by Ghr after serotonin (5-HT) availability modification at the serotoninergic synapses. Animals only treated with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine (FLU) 5 mg/kg or clomipramine (CLO) 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, showed a significant reduction in both food intake and memory retention. On the contrary, Ghr administration induces a significant increase in food intake and a dose-dependent increase in short and long term memory retention. When the animals were treated with FLU prior to Ghr injection, the food intake induced, as well as the expression of short and long term memory retention, was decreased. In conclusion, evidence presented in this paper suggests that the effects of Ghr on both feeding and memory retention in extra-hypothalamic structures such as the hippocampus, could depend on the availability of 5-HT.

  17. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken glucagon-like peptide-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Glucagon-related peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and oxyntomodulin (OXM), are processed from an identical precursor proglucagon. In mammals, all of these peptides are suggested to be involved in the central regulation of food intake. We previously showed that intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM and GLP-1 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Here, we show that central administration of chicken GLP-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased by chicken GLP-2, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was significantly increased. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. In addition, the anorexigenic effect of GLP-2 was not reversed by the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist α-helical CRF, suggesting that CRF is not a downstream mediator of the anorexigenic pathway of GLP-2 in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of an equimolar amount of GLP-1 and GLP-2, but not OXM, significantly suppressed food intake in both broiler and layer chicks. All our findings suggest that GLP-2 functions as a potent anorexigenic peptide in the brain, as well as GLP-1, in chicks.

  18. Overconsumption of Energy and Excessive Discretionary Food Intake Inflates Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, Gilly A.; Baird, Danielle; Ridoutt, Brad; Hadjikakou, Michalis; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Population dietary guidelines have started to include information about the environmental impacts of food choices, but more quantifiable evidence is needed, particularly about the impacts associated with discretionary foods. This paper utilised the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey food intake data along with a highly disaggregated input–output model to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) of Australians’ dietary intake, and compare current patterns of eating which vary in diet quality and GHGe to the recommended diet. The average dietary GHGe were 18.72 ± 12.06 and 13.73 ± 8.72 kg CO2e/day for male and female adults, respectively. The correlation between total energy and GHGe was r = 0.54 (p < 0.001). Core foods contributed 68.4% and discretionary foods 29.4%. Within core foods, fresh meat and alternatives (33.9%) was the greatest contributor. The modelling of current dietary patterns showed the contribution of discretionary foods to GHGe was 121% greater in the average diet and 307% greater in the “lower quality, higher GHGe” diet compared to the recommended diet. Reducing discretionary food intake would allow for small increases in emissions from core foods (in particular vegetables, dairy and grains), thereby providing a nutritional benefit at little environmental expense. Public health messages that promote healthy eating, eating to one’s energy needs and improved diet quality will also contribute to lowering GHGe. PMID:27809233

  19. Overconsumption of Energy and Excessive Discretionary Food Intake Inflates Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Baird, Danielle; Ridoutt, Brad; Hadjikakou, Michalis; Noakes, Manny

    2016-10-31

    Population dietary guidelines have started to include information about the environmental impacts of food choices, but more quantifiable evidence is needed, particularly about the impacts associated with discretionary foods. This paper utilised the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey food intake data along with a highly disaggregated input-output model to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) of Australians' dietary intake, and compare current patterns of eating which vary in diet quality and GHGe to the recommended diet. The average dietary GHGe were 18.72 ± 12.06 and 13.73 ± 8.72 kg CO₂e/day for male and female adults, respectively. The correlation between total energy and GHGe was r = 0.54 (p < 0.001). Core foods contributed 68.4% and discretionary foods 29.4%. Within core foods, fresh meat and alternatives (33.9%) was the greatest contributor. The modelling of current dietary patterns showed the contribution of discretionary foods to GHGe was 121% greater in the average diet and 307% greater in the "lower quality, higher GHGe" diet compared to the recommended diet. Reducing discretionary food intake would allow for small increases in emissions from core foods (in particular vegetables, dairy and grains), thereby providing a nutritional benefit at little environmental expense. Public health messages that promote healthy eating, eating to one's energy needs and improved diet quality will also contribute to lowering GHGe.

  20. The role of attentional bias in the effect of food advertising on actual food intake among children.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Wiers, Reinout W; Buijzen, Moniek

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the potential moderating role of attentional bias (i.e., gaze duration, number of fixations, latency of initial fixation) in the effect of advergames promoting energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted with 92 children who played an advergame that promoted either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. Eye movements and reaction times to food and nonfood cues were recorded to assess attentional bias during playtime using eye-tracking methods. Children could eat freely after playing the game. The results showed that playing an advergame containing food cues increased total intake. Furthermore, children with a higher gaze duration for the food cues ate more of the advertised snacks. In addition, children with a faster latency of initial fixation to the food cues ate more in total and ate more of the advertised snacks. The number of fixations on the food cues did not increase actual snack intake. Food advertisements are designed to grab attention, and this study shows that the extent to which a child's attention is directed to a food cue increases the effect of the advertisement.

  1. Habituation as a Determinant of Human Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that animals and humans habituate on a variety of behavioral and physiological responses to repeated presentations of food cues, and habituation is related to amount of food consumed and cessation of eating. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of experimental paradigms used to study habituation, integrate a…

  2. The assessment of individual usual food intake in large-scale prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Nöthlings, Ute; Wagner, Karen; Ward, Heather; Boeing, Heiner

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has called into question the current practice to estimate individual usual food intake in large-scale studies. In such studies, usual food intake has been defined as diet over the past year. The aim of this review is to summarise the concepts of dietary assessment methods providing food intake data over this time period. A conceptualised framework is given to help researchers to understand the more recent developments to improve dietary assessment in large-scale prospective studies, and also to help to spot the gaps that need to be addressed in future methodological research. The conceptual framework illustrates the current options for the assessment of an individual's food consumption over 1 year. Ideally, a person's food intake on each day of this year should be assessed. Due to participants' burden, and organisational and financial constraints, however, the options are limited to directly requesting the long-term average (e.g. food frequency questionnaires), or selecting a few days with detailed food consumption measurements (e.g. 24-hour dietary recalls) or using snapshot techniques (e.g. barcode scanning of purchases). It seems necessary and important to further evaluate the performance of statistical modelling of the individual usual food intake from all available sources. Future dietary assessment might profit from the growing prominence of internet and telecommunication technologies to further enhance the available data on food consumption for each study participant. Research is crucial to investigate the performance of innovative assessment tools. However, the self-reported nature of the data itself will always lead to bias.

  3. Fatty Acid Transporter CD36 Mediates Hypothalamic Effect of Fatty Acids on Food Intake in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moullé, Valentine S.; Le Foll, Christelle; Philippe, Erwann; Kassis, Nadim; Rouch, Claude; Marsollier, Nicolas; Bui, Linh-Chi; Guissard, Christophe; Dairou, Julien; Lorsignol, Anne; Pénicaud, Luc; Levin, Barry E.; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Variations in plasma fatty acid (FA) concentrations are detected by FA sensing neurons in specific brain areas such as the hypothalamus. These neurons play a physiological role in the control of food intake and the regulation of hepatic glucose production. Le Foll et al. previously showed in vitro that at least 50% of the FA sensing in ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) neurons is attributable to the interaction of long chain FA with FA translocase/CD36 (CD36). The present work assessed whether in vivo effects of hypothalamic FA sensing might be partly mediated by CD36 or intracellular events such as acylCoA synthesis or β-oxidation. To that end, a catheter was implanted in the carotid artery toward the brain in male Wistar rats. After 1 wk recovery, animals were food-deprived for 5 h, then 10 min infusions of triglyceride emulsion, Intralipid +/− heparin (IL, ILH, respectively) or saline/heparin (SH) were carried out and food intake was assessed over the next 5 h. Experimental groups included: 1) Rats previously injected in ventromedian nucleus (VMN) with shRNA against CD36 or scrambled RNA; 2) Etomoxir (CPT1 inhibitor) or saline co-infused with ILH/SH; and 3) Triacsin C (acylCoA synthase inhibitor) or saline co-infused with ILH/SH. ILH significantly lowered food intake during refeeding compared to SH (p<0.001). Five hours after refeeding, etomoxir did not affect this inhibitory effect of ILH on food intake while VMN CD36 depletion totally prevented it. Triacsin C also prevented ILH effects on food intake. In conclusion, the effect of FA to inhibit food intake is dependent on VMN CD36 and acylCoA synthesis but does not required FA oxidation. PMID:24040150

  4. The effect of intraperitoneal administration of leptin on short-term food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayesh D; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2008-02-02

    The effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of leptin (1, 5, and 10 mug/kg) were investigated on the food consumption during a 60 min test meal in 21 h fasted rats. All doses of leptin produced significant reductions in cumulative food intake during the first 15 min and 30 min (at least, P<0.05) after administration. Similarly, i.p., but not subcutaneous (s.c.), administration of leptin (25 microg/kg) reduced food intake in 21 h fasted rats. Leptin (10 and 25 microg/kg, i.p.) did not reduce water intake in 16 h water-deprived rats, nor did leptin (25 microg/kg) produce aversion in a two-bottle conditioned taste aversion test indicating that the hypophagic effect of leptin is (i) behaviourally specific for food and not water intake, and (ii) not due to drug-induced malaise. Moreover, leptin (10 and 25 microg/kg, i.p.) did not significantly alter food intake in non-deprived rats when measured at 30 min intervals over a period of 24 h. Chemical vagotomy with capsaicin abolished the inhibitory effects of leptin (25 microg/kg, i.p) on food intake in fasted rats and suggest that the hypophagic effect is dependent on intact vagal afferent nerves. Furthermore, the hypophagia induced by leptin (10 microg/kg, i.p.) in fasted rats was not attenuated by systemic administration of the peripherally acting cholecystokinin(1) receptor antagonist, 2-naphthalenesulphanyl-L-aspartyl-2-(phenethyl) amide (2-NAP; 2 mg/kg, i.p.), indicating that the suppressant effects of leptin on food consumption are not secondary to the release of endogenous peripheral cholecystokinin.

  5. Effect of peripheral administration of cholecystokinin on food intake in apolipoprotein AIV knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshimichi, Go; Lo, Chunmin C; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Ma, Liyun; Lee, Dana M; Begg, Denovan P; Liu, Min; Sakai, Randall R; Woods, Stephen C; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Tso, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are satiation factors secreted by the small intestine in response to lipid meals. Apo AIV and CCK-8 has an additive effect to suppress food intake relative to apo AIV or CCK-8 alone. In this study, we determined whether CCK-8 (1, 3, or 5 μg/kg ip) reduces food intake in fasted apo AIV knockout (KO) mice as effectively as in fasted wild-type (WT) mice. Food intake was monitored by the DietMax food system. Apo AIV KO mice had significantly reduced 30-min food intake following all doses of CCK-8, whereas WT mice had reduced food intake only at doses of 3 μg/kg and above. Post hoc analysis revealed that the reduction of 10-min and 30-min food intake elicited by each dose of CCK-8 was significantly larger in the apo AIV KO mice than in the WT mice. Peripheral CCK 1 receptor (CCK1R) gene expression (mRNA) in the duodenum and gallbladder of the fasted apo AIV KO mice was comparable to that in WT mice. In contrast, CCK1R mRNA in nodose ganglia of the apo AIV KO mice was upregulated relative to WT animals. Similarly, upregulated CCK1R gene expression was found in the brain stem of apo AIV KO mice by in situ hybridization. Although it is possible that the increased satiating potency of CCK in apo AIV KO mice is mediated by upregulation of CCK 1R in the nodose ganglia and nucleus tractus solitarius, additional experiments are required to confirm such a mechanism.

  6. Central Agonism of GPR120 Acutely Inhibits Food Intake and Food Reward and Chronically Suppresses Anxiety-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fisette, Alexandre; Fernandes, Maria F.; Hryhorczuk, Cécile; Poitout, Vincent; Alquier, Thierry; Fulton, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Background: GPR120 (FFAR4) is a G-protein coupled receptor implicated in the development of obesity and the antiinflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids. Increasing central ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been shown to have both anorectic and anxiolytic actions. Despite the strong clinical interest in GPR120, its role in the brain is largely unknown, and thus we sought to determine the impact of central GPR120 pharmacological activation on energy balance, food reward, and anxiety-like behavior. Methods: Male C57Bl/6 mice with intracerebroventricular cannulae received a single injection (0.1 or 1 µM) or continuous 2-week infusion (1 µM/d; mini-pump) of a GPR120 agonist or vehicle. Free-feeding intake, operant lever-pressing for palatable food, energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry), and body weight were measured. GPR120 mRNA expression was measured in pertinent brain areas. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated-plus maze and open field test. Results: GPR120 agonist injections substantially reduced chow intake during 4 hours postinjection, suppressed the rewarding effects of high-fat/-sugar food, and blunted approach-avoidance behavior in the open field. Conversely, prolonged central GPR120 agonist infusions reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze and open field, yet failed to affect free-feeding intake, energy expenditure, and body weight on a high-fat diet. Conclusion: Acute reductions in food intake and food reward suggest that GPR120 could mediate the effects of central ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to inhibit appetite. The anxiolytic effect elicited by GPR120 agonist infusions favors the testing of compounds that can enter the brain to activate GPR120 for the mitigation of anxiety. PMID:26888796

  7. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  8. The relationship between fermented food intake and mortality risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort.

    PubMed

    Praagman, Jaike; Dalmeijer, Geertje W; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Monique Verschuren, W M; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Beulens, Joline W J

    2015-02-14

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between total and subtypes of bacterial fermented food intake (dairy products, cheese, vegetables and meat) and mortality due to all causes, total cancer and CVD. From the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort, 34 409 Dutch men and women, aged 20-70 years who were free from CVD or cancer at baseline, were included. Baseline intakes of total and subtypes of fermented foods were measured with a validated FFQ. Data on the incidence and causes of death were obtained from the national mortality register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse mortality in relation to the quartiles of fermented food intake. After a mean follow-up of 15 (sd 2·5) years, 2436 deaths occurred (1216 from cancer and 727 from CVD). After adjustment for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, education level, hypertension, smoking habit, BMI, and intakes of fruit, vegetables and alcohol, total fermented food intake was not found to be associated with mortality due to all causes (hazard ratio upper v. lowest quartile (HR(Q4 v. Q1)) 1·00, 95% CI 0·88, 1·13), cancer (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 1·02, 95% CI 0·86, 1·21) or CVD (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 1·04, 95 % CI 0·83, 1·30). Bacterial fermented foods mainly consisted of fermented dairy foods (78 %) and cheese (16%). None of the subtypes of fermented foods was consistently related to mortality, except for cheese which was moderately inversely associated with CVD mortality, and particularly stroke mortality (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 0·59, 95% CI 0·38, 0·92, P trend= 0·046). In conclusion, the present study provides no strong evidence that intake of fermented foods, particularly fermented dairy foods, is associated with mortality.

  9. A low pulse food intake may contribute to the poor nutritional status and low dietary intakes of adolescent girls in rural southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation.

  10. Obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's effects on food intake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian V; Ren, Pei-Gen; Avsian-Kretchmer, Orna; Luo, Ching-Wei; Rauch, Rami; Klein, Cynthia; Hsueh, Aaron J W

    2005-11-11

    Ghrelin, a circulating appetite-inducing hormone, is derived from a prohormone by posttranslational processing. On the basis of the bioinformatic prediction that another peptide also derived from proghrelin exists, we isolated a hormone from rat stomach and named it obestatin-a contraction of obese, from the Latin "obedere," meaning to devour, and "statin," denoting suppression. Contrary to the appetite-stimulating effects of ghrelin, treatment of rats with obestatin suppressed food intake, inhibited jejunal contraction, and decreased body-weight gain. Obestatin bound to the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR39. Thus, two peptide hormones with opposing action in weight regulation are derived from the same ghrelin gene. After differential modification, these hormones activate distinct receptors.

  11. Duck cerebellum participates in regulation of food intake via the neurotransmitters serotonin and neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua Z; Li, Xin Y; Tong, Jing J; Qiu, Zheng Y; Zhan, Han C; Sha, Jun N; Peng, Ke M

    2008-10-01

    Two important neurotransmitters, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), have been confirmed to be involved in food intake regulation. To clarify whether the cerebellum participates in modulation of food intake through these two neurotransmitters, we investigated the distribution and expression levels of 5-HT and NPY in cerebellum of the duck. Our results showed that 5-HT and NPY were distributed only at the Purkinje cell layer of the duck cerebellum. Moreover, the expression level of 5-HT in fasted (4 h) and tryptophan (100-200 mg/kg)-treated ducks was significantly higher than that in control animals (P<0.01), whereas the expression of NPY was significantly decreased (P<0.01). Therefore, our results indicated that inhibitory regulation of food intake respectively increased and decreased cerebellar 5-HT and NPY in the duck.

  12. GPR17 gene disruption does not alter food intake or glucose homeostasis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mastaitis, Jason; Min, Soo; Elvert, Ralf; Kannt, Aimo; Xin, Yurong; Ochoa, Francisca; Gale, Nicholas W.; Valenzuela, David M.; Murphy, Andrew J.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Gromada, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 17 (GPR17) was recently reported to be a Foxo1 target in agouti-related peptide (AGRP) neurons. Intracerebroventricular injection of GPR17 agonists induced food intake, whereas administration of an antagonist to the receptor reduced feeding. These data lead to the conclusion that pharmacological modulation of GPR17 has therapeutic potential to treat obesity. Here we report that mice deficient in Gpr17 (Gpr17−/−) have similar food intake and body weight compared with their wild-type littermates. Gpr17−/− mice have normal hypothalamic Agrp mRNA expression, AGRP plasma levels, and metabolic rate. GPR17 deficiency in mice did not affect glucose homeostasis or prevent fat-induced insulin resistance. These data do not support a role for GPR17 in the control of food intake, body weight, or glycemic control. PMID:25624481

  13. Obesity and the Neurocognitive Basis of Food Reward and the Control of Intake12

    PubMed Central

    Ziauddeen, Hisham; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Hill, James O; Kelley, Michael; Khan, Naiman A

    2015-01-01

    With the rising prevalence of obesity, hedonic eating has become an important theme in obesity research. Hedonic eating is thought to be that driven by the reward of food consumption and not metabolic need, and this has focused attention on the brain reward system and how its dysregulation may cause overeating and obesity. Here, we begin by examining the brain reward system and the evidence for its dysregulation in human obesity. We then consider the issue of how individuals are able to control their hedonic eating in the present obesogenic environment and compare 2 contrasting perspectives on the control of hedonic eating, specifically, enhanced control of intake via higher cognitive control and loss of control over intake as captured by the food addiction model. We conclude by considering what these perspectives offer in terms of directions for future research and for potential interventions to improve control over food intake at the population and the individual levels. PMID:26178031

  14. Obesity and the neurocognitive basis of food reward and the control of intake.

    PubMed

    Ziauddeen, Hisham; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Hill, James O; Kelley, Michael; Khan, Naiman A

    2015-07-01

    With the rising prevalence of obesity, hedonic eating has become an important theme in obesity research. Hedonic eating is thought to be that driven by the reward of food consumption and not metabolic need, and this has focused attention on the brain reward system and how its dysregulation may cause overeating and obesity. Here, we begin by examining the brain reward system and the evidence for its dysregulation in human obesity. We then consider the issue of how individuals are able to control their hedonic eating in the present obesogenic environment and compare 2 contrasting perspectives on the control of hedonic eating, specifically, enhanced control of intake via higher cognitive control and loss of control over intake as captured by the food addiction model. We conclude by considering what these perspectives offer in terms of directions for future research and for potential interventions to improve control over food intake at the population and the individual levels.

  15. Beyond-brand effect of television (TV) food advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5-7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Hughes, Georgina; Oliveira, Lorraine P; Dovey, Terence M

    2007-07-01

    Food advert exposure has been shown to influence calorie intake and food choice in 9-11 year olds. However, little is known about the effect of food advertisements on feeding behaviour in younger children. Therefore, we conducted a study with 93 children aged 5-7 years, 28 of whom were over weight or obese. The children were exposed to 10 non-food adverts and 10 food adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods, and fruit were measured following both sessions. Food advert exposure produced a significant increase in total food intake in young children. The collection of recognition data was incomplete. These data replicate previous findings in that exposure to food adverts increases food intake in all children, but recognition of food adverts is related to body mass index (BMI). Beyond their effects on brand choice, exposure to food advertisements (commercials) promotes over-consumption in younger children.

  16. In good company. The effect of an eating companion's appearance on food intake.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Mitsuru; Johnson, Katie; Wansink, Brian

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not the presence of an overweight eating companion influences healthy and unhealthy eating behavior, and to determine if the effect is moderated by how the companion serves herself. A professional actress either wore an overweight prosthesis (i.e., "fatsuit") or did not wear one, and served herself either healthily (i.e., a small amount of pasta and a large amount of salad) or unhealthily (i.e., a large amount of pasta and a small amount of salad) for lunch. After observing her, male and female participants were asked to serve themselves pasta and salad to eat. Results demonstrated that regardless of how the confederate served, participants served and ate a larger amount of pasta when she was wearing the prosthesis than when she was not. In addition, when the confederate served herself healthily, participants served and ate a smaller amount of salad when she was wearing the prosthesis than when she was not. Consistent with the "lower health commitment" hypothesis, these results demonstrated that people may eat larger portions of unhealthy food and smaller portions of healthy food when eating with an overweight person, probably because the health commitment goal is less activated. More generally, this study provides evidence that the body type of an eating companion, as well as whether she serves herself healthily or unhealthily, influences the quantity of food intake.

  17. Impact of ambient odors on food intake, saliva production and appetite ratings.

    PubMed

    Proserpio, Cristina; de Graaf, Cees; Laureati, Monica; Pagliarini, Ella; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ambient odor exposure on appetite, salivation and food intake. 32 normal-weight young women (age: 21.4±5.3year; BMI: 21.7±1.9kg/m(2)) attended five test sessions in a non-satiated state. Each participant was exposed to ambient odors (chocolate, beef, melon and cucumber), in a detectable but mild concentration, and to a control condition (no-odor exposure). During each condition, at different time points, participants rated appetite for 15 food products, and saliva was collected. After approximately 30min, ad libitum intake was measured providing a food (chocolate rice, high-energy dense product) that was congruent with one of the odors they were exposed to. A significant odor effect on food intake (p=0.034) and salivation (p=0.017) was found. Exposure to odors signaling high-energy dense products increased food intake (243.97±22.84g) compared to control condition (206.94±24.93g; p=0.03). Consistently, salivation was increased significantly during chocolate and beef exposure (mean: 0.494±0.050g) compared to control condition (0.417±0.05g; p=0.006). Even though odor exposure did not induce specific appetite for congruent products (p=0.634), appetite scores were significantly higher during odor exposure (p<0.0001) compared to the no-odor control condition and increased significantly over time (p=0.010). Exposure to food odors seems to drive behavioral and physiological responses involved in eating behavior, specifically for odors and foods that are high in energy density. This could have implications for steering food intake and ultimately influencing the nutritional status of people.

  18. Suppressive effect on food intake of a potato extract (Potein®) involving cholecystokinin release in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenya; Hira, Tohru; Nakajima, Shingo; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Tsubata, Masahito; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Hara, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We have recently reported that oral gavage of a potato extract (Potein®) suppressed the food intake in rats. The satiating effect of the potato extract was compared in the present study to other protein sources, and the involvement of endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion was examined. Food consumption was measured in 18-h fasted rats after oral gavage of the potato extract or other protein sources. The CCK-releasing activity of the potato extract was then examined in anesthetized rats with a portal cannula. Oral gavage of the potato extract reduced the food intake in the rats, the effect being greater than with casein and a soybean β-conglycinin hydrolysate. The suppressive effect on appetite of the potato extract was attenuated by treating with a CCK-receptor antagonist (devazepide). The portal CCK concentration was increased after a duodenal administration of the potato extract to anesthetized rats. These results indicate that the potato extract suppressed the food intake in rats through CCK secretion.

  19. Food Acceptance and Nutrient Intake of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrill, Inez; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Preschool personnel have a responsibility to help children achieve and maintain nutritional well-being. Nutrition education in the preschool program is an effective means of establishing positive attitudes toward food. (BL)

  20. Parasite-induced alteration of plastic response to predation threat: increased refuge use but lower food intake in Gammarus pulex infected with the acanothocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis.

    PubMed

    Dianne, Lucile; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Bauer, Alexandre; Guvenatam, Arnaud; Rigaud, Thierry

    2014-03-01

    Larvae of many trophically-transmitted parasites alter the behaviour of their intermediate host in ways that increase their probability of transmission to the next host in their life cycle. Before reaching a stage that is infective to the next host, parasite larvae may develop through several larval stages in the intermediate host that are not infective to the definitive host. Early predation at these stages results in parasite death, and it has recently been shown that non-infective larvae of some helminths decrease such risk by enhancing the anti-predator defences of the host, including decreased activity and increased sheltering. However, these behavioural changes may divert infected hosts from an optimal balance between survival and foraging (either seeking food or a mate). In this study, this hypothesis was tested using the intermediate host of the acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus laevis, the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex. We compared activity, refuge use, food foraging and food intake of hosts experimentally infected with the non-infective stage (acanthella), with that of uninfected gammarids. Behavioural assays were conducted in four situations varying in predation risk and in food accessibility. Acanthella-infected amphipods showed an increase in refuge use and a general reduction in activity and food intake. There was no effect of parasite intensity on these traits. Uninfected individuals showed plastic responses to water-borne cues from fish by adjusting refuge use, activity and food intake. They also foraged more when the food was placed outside the refuge. At the intra-individual level, refuge use and food intake were positively correlated in infected gammarids only. Overall, our findings suggest that uninfected gammarids exhibit risk-sensitive behaviour including increased food intake under predation risk, whereas gammarids infected with the non-infective larvae of P. laevis exhibit a lower motivation to feed, irrespective of predation risk

  1. Negative affect and neural response to palatable food intake in bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Binge eating is often preceded by reports of negative affect, but the mechanism by which affect may lead to binge eating is unclear. This study evaluated the effect of negative affect on neural response to anticipation and receipt of palatable food in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) versus healthy controls. We also evaluated connectivity between the amygdala and reward-related brain regions. Females with and without BN (n=26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless solution. We measured negative affect just prior to the scan. Women with BN showed a positive correlation between negative affect and activity in the putamen, caudate, and pallidum during anticipated receipt of milkshake (versus tasteless solution). There were no significant relations between negative affect and receipt of milkshake. Connectivity analyses revealed a greater relation of amygdala activity to activation in the left putamen and insula during anticipated receipt of milkshake in the bulimia group relative to the control group. The opposite pattern was found for the taste of milkshake; the control group showed a greater relation of amygdala activity to activation in the left putamen and insula in response to milkshake receipt than the bulimia group. Results show that as negative affect increases, so does responsivity of reward regions to anticipated intake of palatable food, implying that negative affect may increase the reward value of food for individuals with bulimia nervosa or that negative affect has become a conditioned cue due to a history of binge eating in a negative mood.

  2. The impact of the reduction of sodium content in processed foods in salt intake in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Souza, Bárbara da Silva Nalin de; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed at assessing the potential impact of the reduction of sodium content in processed foods in the average salt intake in the Brazilian population. A total of 32,900 participants of the first National Dietary Survey (NDS 2008-2009), age 10 years and older who provided information about food intake over two days were evaluated. The sodium reduction targets established by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2010 and 2013 were used as the reference to determine the maximum content of sodium in 21 groups of processed food. The results show that sodium reduction targets in processed food have small impact in mean Brazilian population intake of salt. For 2017, the expected mean reduction is of 1.5%, the average sodium intake being still above the recommended 2,000mg/day maximum. Therefore, it will hardly be possible to reach the necessary reduction in salt intake in Brazil from volunteer agreements like the ones made so far.

  3. Obesity by choice revisited: effects of food availability, flavor variety and nutrient composition on energy intake.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Bonacchi, Kristine; Magee, Michael; Yiin, Yeh-Min; Graves, Jonathan V; Sclafani, Anthony

    2007-10-22

    Recent work suggested that the energy intake and weight gain of rats maintained on chow and 32% sucrose solution could be increased by simply offering more sources of sucrose [Tordoff M.G. Obesity by choice: the powerful influence of nutrient availability on nutrient intake. Am J Physiol 2002;282:R1536-R1539.]. In Experiment 1 this procedure was replicated but the effect was not: rats given one bottle of sucrose and five bottles of water consumed as much sucrose as those given five bottles of sucrose and one of water. Adding different flavors to the sucrose did not increase intakes further in Experiment 2. The relative potency of sucrose and other optional foods was studied in Experiment 3. Sucrose solution stimulated more overeating and weight gain than fat (vegetable shortening), and offering both sucrose and shortening did not generate further increases in energy intake. Finally, foods commonly used to produce overeating and weight gain were compared. Sucrose was less effective than a high-fat milk diet, and offering cookies in addition to the milk did not increase energy intake further. The nature of optional foods (nutrient composition and physical form) was markedly more important than the number of food sources available to the animals, and is a better contender as the reason for "obesity by choice".

  4. Cannabinoid agonist, CP 55,940, facilitates intake of palatable foods when injected into the hindbrain.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cheryl C; Murray, Thomas F; Freeman, Kimberly G; Edwards, Gaylen L

    2004-02-01

    Cannabinoids have been shown to influence food intake, and until recently, the neural pathways mediating these effects have remained obscure. It has been previously shown that intracerebroventricular injection of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) causes increased consumption of palatable foods in rats, and we postulated the involvement of the hindbrain in this cannabinoid-induced food intake. Cannulated rats (both female and male groups) trained to consume sweetened condensed milk received either lateral or fourth ventricle injections of CP 55,940 and were presented with sweetened condensed milk 15 min after injection. Rats were injected over a range of doses between 100 pg and 10 microg per rat. Milk intake was recorded for a total of 3 h. Lateral ventricle injection of CP 55,940 increased milk intake at doses in the microgram range. However, CP 55,940 was effective in increasing food intake at nanogram doses when injected into the fourth ventricle. Finally, male rats appeared to be more sensitive to CP 55,940 than female rats inasmuch as milk consumption was increased at the 1 ng dose in male rats, whereas only the 10 ng dose was effective in females. These results indicate that CP 55,940 may act in the hindbrain to influence feeding behavior in rats.

  5. Salty Food Preference and Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: The JACC Study

    PubMed Central

    Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Kikuchi, Shogo; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Background High sodium intake is a potential risk factor of gastric cancer. However, limited information is available on the relationship between salty food preference or intake and risk of gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between these variables among the Japanese population. Methods Between 1988 and 1990, 15 732 men and 24 997 women aged 40–79 years old with no history of cancer or cardiovascular disease completed a lifestyle questionnaire that included information about food intake. The subjects were enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk Sponsored by Monbusho. After a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 787 incident gastric cancers were documented. We examined the associations between salty food preference and intake and gastric cancer incidence using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results The risk of gastric cancer among subjects with a strong preference for salty food was approximately 30% higher than among those who preferred normal-level salty food (hazard ratio [HR] 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.67). The risk of gastric cancer in subjects who consumed 3 and ≥4 bowls/day of miso soup was approximately 60% higher than in those who consumed less miso soup (HR 1.67; 95% CI, 1.16–2.39 and HR 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11–2.42, respectively). Sodium intake correlated positively and linearly with risk of gastric cancer (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusions The present study showed that salty food preference, consumption of large quantities of miso soup, and high sodium intake were associated with increased risk of gastric cancer among Japanese people. PMID:26477994

  6. Testing food-related inhibitory control to high- and low-calorie food stimuli: Electrophysiological responses to high-calorie food stimuli predict calorie and carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Carbine, Kaylie A; Christensen, Edward; LeCheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A; Larson, Michael J

    2017-03-24

    Maintaining a healthy diet has important implications for physical and mental health. One factor that may influence diet and food consumption is inhibitory control-the ability to withhold a dominant response in order to correctly respond to environmental demands. We examined how N2 amplitude, an ERP that reflects inhibitory control processes, differed toward high- and low-calorie food stimuli and related to food intake. A total of 159 participants (81 female; M age = 23.5 years; SD = 7.6) completed two food-based go/no-go tasks (one with high-calorie and one with low-calorie food pictures as no-go stimuli) while N2 amplitude was recorded. Participants recorded food intake using the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Recall system. Inhibiting responses toward high-calorie stimuli elicited a larger (i.e., more negative) no-go N2 amplitude; inhibiting responses toward low-calorie stimuli elicited a smaller no-go N2 amplitude. Participants were more accurate during the high-calorie than low-calorie task, but took longer to respond on go trials toward high-calorie rather than low-calorie stimuli. When controlling for age, gender, and BMI, larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted lower caloric intake (β = 0.17); low-calorie N2 difference amplitude was not related to caloric intake (β = -0.03). Exploratory analyses revealed larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted carbohydrate intake (β = 0.22), but not protein (β = 0.08) or fat (β = 0.11) intake. Results suggest that withholding responses from high-calorie foods requires increased recruitment of inhibitory control processes, which may be necessary to regulate food consumption, particularly for foods high in calories and carbohydrates.

  7. Effects of injection of serotonin into nucleus caudatus on food and water intake and body weight in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Pal, G K; Kannan, N; Pal, Pravati

    2004-10-01

    Serotonin is known to inhibit food and water intake. However, the effect of its injection into nucleus caudatus on food and water intake is not known. In the present study, serotonin hydrochloride, buspirone (the serotonin 5-HT1A agonist) and ondensetron (the 5HT3 antagonist) were injected into nucleus caudatus through stereotaxically implanted cannulae in three different dosages (1, 2 and 5 microg) and their effects on 24 h food and water intake, and body weight were recorded. The injection of serotonin hydrochloride resulted in a dose- dependent decrease in food intake attaining maximum of 27.3% at 5 microg dose, whereas water intake and body weight were decreased 12% and 4.3% respectively only at the highest does. Buspirone elicited a dose dependent inhibition of food and water intake and body weight (22.3%, 19.8% and 5.1% respectively), whereas ondensetron elicited an increase in food and water intake (37.8% and 36.3% respectively) without significantly altering bodyweight. It was concluded that serotonin hydrochloride injected into nucleus caudatus inhibits food and water intake significantly. These effects are mediated via 5-HT1A and 5HT3 receptors. The effect of injections of 5-HT1A receptor agonist is more pronounced on water intake. The effect of injections of 5HT3 receptor antagonist is also more pronounced on water intake.

  8. Effects of intraperitoneally administered L-histidine on food intake, taste, and visceral sensation in rats.

    PubMed

    Okusha, Yuka; Hirai, Yoshiyuki; Maezawa, Hitoshi; Hisadome, Kazunari; Inoue, Nobuo; Yamazaki, Yutaka; Funahashi, Makoto

    2016-08-17

    To evaluate relative factors for anorectic effects of L-histidine, we performed behavioral experiments for measuring food and fluid intake, conditioned taste aversion (CTA), taste disturbance, and c-Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells before and after i.p. injection with L-histidine in rats. Animals were injected with saline (9 ml/kg, i.p.) for a control group, and saline (9 ml/kg, i.p.) containing L-histidine (0.75, 1.5, 2.0 g/kg) for a L-histidine group. Injection of L-histidine decreased the average value of food intake, and statistically significant anorectic effects were found in animals injected with 1.5 or 2.0 g/kg L-histidine but not with 0.75 g/kg L-histidine. Taste abnormalities were not detected in any of the groups. Animals injected with 2.0 g/kg L-histidine were revealed to present with nausea by the measurement of CTA. In this group, a significant increase in the number of Fos-ir cells was detected both in the area postrema and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In the 0.75 g/kg L-histidine group, a significant increase in the number of Fos-ir cells was detected only in the NTS. When the ventral gastric branch vagotomy was performed, recovery from anorexia became faster than the sham-operated group, however, vagotomized rats injected with 2.0 g/kg L-histidine still acquired CTA. These data indicate that acute anorectic effects induced by highly concentrated L-histidine are partly caused by induction of nausea and/or visceral discomfort accompanied by neuronal activities in the NTS and the area postrema. We suggest that acute and potent effects of L-histidine on food intake require substantial amount of L-histidine in the diet.

  9. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations.

  10. The Kilkenny Health Project: food and nutrient intakes in randomly selected healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Gibney, M J; Moloney, M; Shelley, E

    1989-03-01

    1. Sixty healthy subjects aged 35-44 years (thirty men and thirty women) were randomly selected from electoral registers to participate in a dietary survey using the 7 d weighed-intake method during June-August 1985. 2. Energy intake (MJ/d) was 12.5 for men and 8.4 for women. Fat contributed 36.0 and 39.1% of the total energy intake of men and women respectively. When this was adjusted to exclude energy derived from alcoholic beverages, the corresponding values were 38.8 and 39.7% respectively. The major sources of dietary fat (%) were spreadable fats (28), meat (23), milk (12) and biscuits and cakes (11). 3. The subjects were divided into low- and high-fat groups both on the relative intake of fat (less than 35% or greater than 40% dietary energy from fat) and on the absolute intake of fat (greater than or less than 120 g fat/d). By either criterion, high-fat consumers had lower than average intakes of low-fat, high-carbohydrate foods such as potatoes, bread, fruit and table sugar, and higher intakes of milk, butter and confectionery products. Meat intake was higher among high-fat eaters only when a high-fat diet was defined as a percentage of energy.

  11. Enterostatin deficiency increases serum cholesterol but does not influence growth and food intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rita; D'Agostino, Dymphna; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Lowe, Mark E

    2009-10-01

    A pentapeptide released from procolipase, enterostatin, selectively attenuates dietary fat intake when administered peripherally or centrally. Enterostatin may act through the afferent vagus nerve and in the hypothalamus and amygdala, primarily in the central nucleus of the amygdala. To investigate the physiological role of endogenous enterostatin, we created an enterostatin-deficient, colipase-sufficient (Ent(-/-)) mouse. Ent(-/-) mice are viable, normally active, and fertile. They exhibit normal growth on low-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, Ent(-/-) mice develop diet-induced obesity, as do Ent(+/+) mice, and have normal responses to a two-macronutrient choice diet and to a switch from a high-fat to a low-fat diet. Levels of total serum (P = 0.004) and non-HDL (P food intake or growth, suggesting that other pathways may compensate for the loss of enterostatin. Enterostatin has developmental effects on survival of newborns and alters cholesterol metabolism.

  12. The role of nucleus accumbens adenosine–opioid interaction in mediating palatable food intake

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, Carolyn E.; Pardee, Alicia L.; McGuirk, Sophia R.; Will, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleus accumbens µ-opioid stimulation leads to robust increases in the intake of highly palatable foods, such as a high-fat diet. While interactions between opioids and certain striatal neurotransmitters underlying this phenomenon have been explored, many potential interactions have not. Striatal adenosine has been shown to have a significant influence on striatal neurotransmission and locomotor activity behavior, however the interaction between opioids and adenosine on feeding behaviors has received less attention. The present study explored this interaction within the context of opioid-driven consumption of a high-fat diet. Specifically, intra-accumbens administration of selective A1 and A2A adenosine receptor ligands, with or without concurrent administration of the µ-opioid agonist DAla2,N,Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5-enkaphalin (DAMGO), on high-fat consumption and associated locomotor activity was examined. The A1 receptor agonist 2-Chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) had no effect on either baseline or DAMGO-induced locomotor or consumption behaviors associated with the high-fat diet. However, the A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2 carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine hydrochloride (CGS 21680) and the prodrug of the A2A receptor antagonist MSX-2, 3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-8-(m-methoxystyryl)-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine phosphate disodium salt (MSX-3) produced the expected decrease and increase in locomotor activity, respectively. CGS 21680 had no effect on baseline or DAMGO-driven consumption of the high-fat diet. MSX-3 had no effect on DAMGO-induced locomotor activity but increased DAMGO-induced consumption. Lastly, the increased activity and consumption produced by MSX-3 alone was blocked by prior administration of the opioid antagonist naltrexone. In summary, these results suggest a potential role of striatal adenosine A2A receptors in mediating baseline and striatal opioid-mediated intake of a high-fat diet. PMID:19822132

  13. The role of nucleus accumbens adenosine-opioid interaction in mediating palatable food intake.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Carolyn E; Pardee, Alicia L; McGuirk, Sophia R; Will, Matthew J

    2010-01-08

    Nucleus accumbens micro-opioid stimulation leads to robust increases in the intake of highly palatable foods, such as a high-fat diet. While interactions between opioids and certain striatal neurotransmitters underlying this phenomenon have been explored, many potential interactions have not. Striatal adenosine has been shown to have a significant influence on striatal neurotransmission and locomotor activity behavior, however the interaction between opioids and adenosine on feeding behaviors has received less attention. The present study explored this interaction within the context of opioid-driven consumption of a high-fat diet. Specifically, intra-accumbens administration of selective A1 and A2(A) adenosine receptor ligands, with or without concurrent administration of the micro-opioid agonist (D)-Ala(2),N,Me-Phe(4),Gly-ol(5)-enkaphalin (DAMGO), on high-fat consumption and associated locomotor activity was examined. The A1 receptor agonist 2-Chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) had no effect on either baseline or DAMGO-induced locomotor or consumption behaviors associated with the high-fat diet. However, the A2(A) receptor agonist 2-p-(2 carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine hydrochloride (CGS 21680) and the prodrug of the A2(A) receptor antagonist MSX-2, 3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-8-(m-methoxystyryl)-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine phosphate disodium salt (MSX-3) produced the expected decrease and increase in locomotor activity, respectively. CGS 21680 had no effect on baseline or DAMGO-driven consumption of the high-fat diet. MSX-3 had no effect on DAMGO-induced locomotor activity but increased DAMGO-induced consumption. Lastly, the increased activity and consumption produced by MSX-3 alone was blocked by prior administration of the opioid antagonist naltrexone. In summary, these results suggest a potential role of striatal adenosine A2(A) receptors in mediating baseline and striatal opioid-mediated intake of a high-fat diet.

  14. Phytonutrient intakes in relation to European fruit and vegetable consumption patterns observed in different food surveys.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R; Davidson, Julia; Day, Andrea J

    2014-10-14

    Fruit and vegetables make an important contribution to health, partly due to the composition of phytonutrients, such as carotenoids and polyphenols. The aim of the present study was to quantify the intake of fruit and vegetables across different European countries using food consumption data of increasing complexity: food balance sheets (FBS); the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Comprehensive Database; individual food consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). Across Europe, the average consumption of fruit and vegetables ranged from 192 to 824 g/d (FBS data). Based on EFSA data, nine out of fourteen countries consumed < 400 g/d (recommended by the WHO), although even in the highest-consuming countries such as Spain, 36 % did not reach the target intake. In the UK, the average consumption of fruit and vegetables was 310 g/d (NDNS data). Generally, phytonutrient intake increased in accordance with fruit and vegetable intake across all European countries with the exception of lycopene (from tomatoes), which appeared to be higher in some countries that consumed less fruit and vegetables. There were little differences in the average intake of flavanols, flavonols and lycopene in those who did or did not meet the 400 g/d recommendation in the UK. However, average intakes of carotenoid, flavanone, anthocyanidin and ellagic acid were higher in those who consumed >400 g/d of fruit and vegetables compared with those who did not. Overall, intakes of phytonutrients are highly variable, suggesting that while some individuals obtain healthful amounts, there may be others who do not gain all the potential benefits associated with phytonutrients in the diet.

  15. Effects of Imagined Consumption and Simulated Eating Movements on Food Intake: Thoughts about Food Are Not Always of Advantage.

    PubMed

    Haasova, Simona; Elekes, Botond; Missbach, Benjamin; Florack, Arnd

    2016-01-01

    Imagined food consumption is a method of elaborately imagining oneself eating a specific food that, when repeated 30 times, has been shown to decrease subsequent intake of the same food. The technique relies on a memory-based habituation process when behavioral and motivational responses to a stimulus decrease after its repeated presentation. Thus, repeatedly imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. Large numbers of imagined consumption repetitions are effortful and time consuming and can be problematic when applied in interventions with the goal of reducing food intake. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of the technique at smaller numbers of repetitions while testing motor simulation as a potential facilitator of the habituation-based consumption-reduction effect. 147 participants imagined eating chocolate pudding 15 or 3 consecutive times and simultaneously performed either facilitating or not-facilitating eating movements. Results showed that participants who imagined eating the chocolate pudding 15 times (M15 = 178.20, SD15 = 68.08) ate more of the pudding than those who imagined consuming it 3 times (M3 = 150.73, SD3 = 73.31). The nature of the motor movements that were performed did not impact this effect. The data suggest that the imagined food consumption technique can result in an unexpected increase in food consumption, when smaller numbers of imagination repetitions are performed.

  16. Effects of Imagined Consumption and Simulated Eating Movements on Food Intake: Thoughts about Food Are Not Always of Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Haasova, Simona; Elekes, Botond; Missbach, Benjamin; Florack, Arnd

    2016-01-01

    Imagined food consumption is a method of elaborately imagining oneself eating a specific food that, when repeated 30 times, has been shown to decrease subsequent intake of the same food. The technique relies on a memory-based habituation process when behavioral and motivational responses to a stimulus decrease after its repeated presentation. Thus, repeatedly imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. Large numbers of imagined consumption repetitions are effortful and time consuming and can be problematic when applied in interventions with the goal of reducing food intake. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of the technique at smaller numbers of repetitions while testing motor simulation as a potential facilitator of the habituation-based consumption-reduction effect. 147 participants imagined eating chocolate pudding 15 or 3 consecutive times and simultaneously performed either facilitating or not-facilitating eating movements. Results showed that participants who imagined eating the chocolate pudding 15 times (M15 = 178.20, SD15 = 68.08) ate more of the pudding than those who imagined consuming it 3 times (M3 = 150.73, SD3 = 73.31). The nature of the motor movements that were performed did not impact this effect. The data suggest that the imagined food consumption technique can result in an unexpected increase in food consumption, when smaller numbers of imagination repetitions are performed. PMID:27840619

  17. What do prisoners eat? Nutrient intakes and food practices in a high-secure prison.

    PubMed

    Hannan-Jones, Mary; Capra, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    There are limited studies on the adequacy of prisoner diet and food practices, yet understanding these are important to inform food provision and assure duty of care for this group. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intakes of prisoners to inform food and nutrition policy in this setting. This research used a cross-sectional design with convenience sampling in a 945-bed male high-secure prison. Multiple methods were used to assess food available at the group level, including verification of food portion, quality and practices. A pictorial tool supported the diet history method. Of 276 eligible prisoners, 120 dietary interviews were conducted and verified against prison records, with 106 deemed plausible. The results showed the planned food to be nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D for older males and long-chain fatty acids, with Na above upper limits. The Australian dietary targets for chronic disease risk were not achieved. High energy intakes were reported with median 13·8 (se 0·3) MJ. Probability estimates of inadequate intake varied with age groups: Mg 8 % (>30 years), 2·9 % (70 years), 1·5 % (<70 years); folate 3·5 %; Zn and I 2·7 %; and vitamin A 2·3 %. Nutrient intakes were greatly impacted by self-funded snacks. Results suggest the intakes to be nutritionally favourable when compared with males in the community. This study highlights the complexity of food provision in the prison environment and also poses questions for population-level dietary guidance in delivering appropriate nutrients within energy limits.

  18. PACAP intraperitoneal treatment suppresses appetite and food intake via PAC1 receptor in mice by inhibiting ghrelin and increasing GLP-1 and leptin.

    PubMed

    Vu, John P; Goyal, Deepinder; Luong, Leon; Oh, Suwan; Sandhu, Ravneet; Norris, Joshua; Parsons, William; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia M

    2015-11-15

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is expressed within the gastroenteric system, where it has profound physiological effects. PACAP was shown to regulate food intake and thermogenesis centrally; however, PACAP peripheral regulation of appetite and feeding behavior is unknown. Therefore, we studied PACAP's effect on appetite and food intake control by analyzing feeding behavior and metabolic hormones in PAC1-deficient (PAC1-/-) and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice intraperitoneally injected with PACAP1-38 or PACAP1-27 before the dark phase of feeding. Food intake and feeding behavior were analyzed using the BioDAQ system. Active ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), leptin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, and insulin were measured following PACAP1-38 administration in fasted WT mice. PACAP1-38/PACAP1-27 injected into WT mice significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner cumulative food intake and reduced bout and meal feeding parameters. Conversely, PACAP1-38 injected into PAC1-/- mice failed to significantly change food intake. Importantly, PACAP1-38 reduced plasma levels of active ghrelin compared with vehicle in WT mice. In PAC1-/- mice, fasting levels of active ghrelin, GLP-1, insulin, and leptin and postprandial levels of active ghrelin and insulin were significantly altered compared with levels in WT mice. Therefore, PAC1 is a novel regulator of appetite/satiety. PACAP1-38/PACAP1-27 significantly reduced appetite and food intake through PAC1. In PAC1-/- mice, the regulation of anorexigenic/orexigenic hormones was abolished, whereas active ghrelin remained elevated even postprandially. PACAP significantly reduced active ghrelin in fasting conditions. These results establish a role for PACAP via PAC1 in the peripheral regulation of appetite/satiety and suggest future studies to explore a therapeutic use of PACAP or PAC1 agonists for obesity treatment.

  19. Parental food involvement predicts parent and child intakes of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ohly, Heather; Pealing, Juliet; Hayter, Arabella K M; Pettinger, Clare; Pikhart, Hynek; Watt, Richard G; Rees, Gail

    2013-10-01

    In order to develop successful interventions to improve children's diets, the factors influencing food choice need to be understood. Parental food involvement - the level of importance of food in a person's life - may be one of many important factors. The aim of this study was to determine whether parental food involvement is associated with parents' and children's diet quality. As part of an intervention study, 394 parents with children aged between 18 months and 5 years were recruited from children's centres in Cornwall and Islington, UK. Questionnaires were used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, parents' diets, and attitudes towards food including food involvement. Children's diets were assessed using the multiple pass 24 h recall method. Parents reported low intakes of fruits and vegetables and high intakes of sugary items for themselves and their young children. Parental food involvement was strongly correlated with consumption of fruits and vegetables (amount and diversity) for both parents and children. Correlations with consumption of sugary drinks and snacks/foods were not significant. These findings indicate that parental food involvement may influence consumption of fruits and vegetables, more so than sugary items. Further research is needed to investigate how parental food involvement could mediate dietary changes.

  20. The effectiveness of a short food frequency questionnaire in determining vitamin D intake in children.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Anita M; Russell, Caitlin Sundby; Luo, Ruiyan; Ganji, Vijay; Olabopo, Flora; Hopkins, Barbara; Holick, Michael F; Rajakumar, Kumaravel

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children, yet few validated dietary vitamin D assessment tools are available for use in children. Our objective was to determine whether a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) can effectively assess vitamin D intake in children. Vitamin D intake ascertained by a SFFQ was compared with assessments by a previously validated long food frequency questionnaire (LFFQ) in a population of 296 healthy 6- to 14-y-old children (54% male, 60% African American) from Pittsburgh, PA. The questionnaires were completed at two points 6 mo apart. Median reported daily vitamin D intake from the SFFQ (baseline: 380 IU, follow-up: 363 IU) was higher than the LFFQ (255 IU and 254 IU, respectively). Reported median dairy intake, including milk, cheese, and yogurt, was 3.7 cups/day, which meets the USDA recommendation for children. Vitamin D intake reported by the 2 questionnaires was modestly correlated at baseline and follow-up (r = 0.35 and r = 0.37, respectively; p < 0.001). These associations were stronger in Caucasians (r = 0.48 and r = 0.49, p < 0.001) than in African Americans (r = 0.27 and r = 0.31; p = 0.001). The sensitivity of the SFFQ for predicting daily vitamin D intake, defined as intake of ≥ 400 IU on both the SFFQ and LFFQ, was 65%. Specificity, defined as intake of < 400 IU on both questionnaires, was 42%. Vitamin D requirements may not be met despite adequate consumption of dairy products. The SFFQ was found to be a modestly valid and sensitive tool for dietary assessment of vitamin D intake in children.

  1. Dietary intake of phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) using Swedish food market basket estimations.

    PubMed

    Poma, Giulia; Glynn, Anders; Malarvannan, Govindan; Covaci, Adrian; Darnerud, Per Ola

    2017-02-01

    The occurrence of eight phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) was investigated in 53 composite food samples from 12 food categories, collected in 2015 for a Swedish food market basket study. 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), detected in most food categories, had the highest median concentrations (9 ng/g ww, pastries). It was followed by triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) (2.6 ng/g ww, fats/oils), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) (1.0 ng/g ww, fats/oils), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) (1.0 ng/g ww, fats/oils), and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) (0.80 ng/g ww, pastries). Tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) were not detected in the analyzed food samples. The major contributor to the total dietary intake was EHDPHP (57%), and the food categories which contributed the most to the total intake of PFRs were processed food, such as cereals (26%), pastries (10%), sugar/sweets (11%), and beverages (17%). The daily per capita intake of PFRs (TCEP, TPHP, EHDPHP, TDCIPP, TCIPP) from food ranged from 406 to 3266 ng/day (or 6-49 ng/kg bw/day), lower than the health-based reference doses. This is the first study reporting PFR intakes from other food categories than fish (here accounting for 3%). Our results suggest that the estimated human dietary exposure to PFRs may be equally important to the ingestion of dust.

  2. Habituation as a determinant of human food intake

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that animals and humans habituate on a variety of behavioral and physiological responses to repeated presentations of food cues, and habituation is related to amount of food consumed and cessation of eating. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of experimental paradigms used to study habituation, integrate a theoretical approach to habituation to food based on memory and associative conditioning models, and review research on factors that influence habituation. Individual differences in habituation as they related to obesity and eating disorders are reviewed, along with research on how individual differences in memory can influence habituation. Other associative conditioning approaches to ingestive behavior are reviewed, as well as how habituation provides novel approaches to preventing or treating obesity. Finally, new directions for habituation research are presented. Habituation provides a novel theoretical framework from which to understand factors that regulate ingestive behavior. PMID:19348547

  3. Identification of risk groups for intake of food chemicals.

    PubMed

    Verger, P; Garnier-Sagne, I; Leblanc, J C

    1999-10-01

    This paper summarizes by four recent examples the procedure of the characterization of groups at risk for ingestion of food chemicals and its limitations. The examples concern two food additives (sulfites and aspartame), one nutrient (calcium), and one food contaminant (patuline). On the one hand, results show that the empirical description of a group at risk is nowadays the best way to provide to risk managers information useful for consumer protection. On the other hand, these examples show that in any case if risk 0 does not exist, it is impossible to completely avoid any group at risk. The responsibility of risk managers is to decide what is the minimum size of the population to protect as a function of the risk and of the cost of the protection.

  4. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2015-12-02

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2-18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.

  5. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children. PMID:26633491

  6. Analysis of Fat Intake Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII, Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Fat Intake Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII, Final Report). For this report, the EPA conducted an analysis of fat consumption across the U.S. population based on data derived...

  7. Vitamin K content of foods and dietary vitamin K intake in Japanese young women.

    PubMed

    Kamao, Maya; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Tsugawa, Naoko; Uwano, Masako; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Hiromi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Okano, Toshio

    2007-12-01

    Several reports indicate an important role for vitamin K in bone health as well as blood coagulation. However, the current Adequate Intakes (AI) might not be sufficient for the maintenance of bone health. To obtain a closer estimate of dietary intake of phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MKs), PK, MK-4 and MK-7 contents in food samples (58 food items) were determined by an improved high-performance liquid chromatography method. Next, we assessed dietary vitamin K intake in young women living in eastern Japan using vitamin K contents measured here and the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan. PK was widely distributed in green vegetables and algae, and high amounts were found in spinach and broccoli (raw, 498 and 307 microg/100 g wet weight, respectively). Although MK-4 was widely distributed in animal products, overall MK-4 content was lower than PK. MK-7 was observed characteristically in fermented soybean products such as natto (939 microg/100 g). The mean total vitamin K intake of all subjects (using data from this study and Japanese food composition tables) was about 230 microg/d and 94% of participants met the AI of vitamin K for women aged 18-29 y in Japan, 60 microg/d. The contributions of PK, MK-4 and MK-7 to total vitamin K intake were 67.7, 7.3 and 24.9%, respectively. PK from vegetables and algae and MK-7 from pulses (including fermented soybean foods) were the major contributors to the total vitamin K intake of young women living in eastern Japan.

  8. Dietary fatty acid intake, its food sources and determinants in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    PubMed

    Vyncke, Krishna E; Libuda, Lars; De Vriendt, Tineke; Moreno, Luis A; Van Winckel, Myriam; Manios, Yannis; Gottrand, Frederic; Molnar, Denes; Vanaelst, Barbara; Sjöström, Michael; González-Gross, Marcela; Censi, Laura; Widhalm, Kurt; Michels, Nathalie; Gilbert, Chantal C; Xatzis, Christos; Cuenca García, Magdalena; de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2012-12-28

    Dietary fatty acids (FA) play a role in several (patho)physiological processes at any age, and different FA have different effects on lipid status and health outcome. The present study aims to describe the FA intake and its main food sources in a population of healthy European adolescents and to assess the variation in intake as a function of non-dietary factors. FA intake was assessed with 24 h recall interviews in 1804 adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years. Usual intakes were calculated using the multiple source method. Multilevel analyses, adjusting for study centre, were used to investigate the influence of non-dietary factors. The mean total fat intake was 33·3 (sd 1·2) % of total energy intake (%E). The mean SFA intake was 13·8 (sd 1·2) %E, with 99·8 % of the population exceeding the recommendations. SFA was mainly delivered by meat and cake, pies and biscuits. In most adolescents, the PUFA intake