Science.gov

Sample records for activity functional status

  1. Family Functioning: Associations with Weight Status, Eating Behaviors, and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010

  2. Transitions in functional status and active life expectancy among older people in Japan.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Liang, J; Muramatsu, N; Sugisawa, H

    1995-11-01

    This study analyzes the patterns and determinants of the transitions in functional status among elderly Japanese persons. Data for this research came from a two-wave national probability sample survey of persons aged 60 and over conducted between 1987 and 1990 in Japan. The study focuses on the transitions from two states of origin, "not disable" and "disabled," to three states of destination, "not disabled," "disabled," and "dead." Through multinomial logit analyses, the effects of sociodemographic factors, social relationships, health, and health behavior on transitions in functional status were examined. To assess the impact of panel attrition, the risk of nonresponse was analyzed in conjunction with health transition within the same framework. Finally, an increment-decrement active life table for Japanese elderly people was derived on the basis of the multivariate analyses. According to the life table, a Japanese older person at age 60 is expected to spend about 18.7 years (81%) in functional independence and about 4.4 years (19%) in disability throughout his or her remaining lifetime. PMID:7583817

  3. Functional assessment of nutrition status.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mary Krystofiak

    2015-04-01

    Functional status assessment has been recommended as a part of a complete nutrition assessment for decades, but the specific components of this assessment have eluded a consensus definition. The recent Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition consensus criteria for identification of malnutrition include functional assessment determined by handgrip dynamometry, with the understanding that this technique is not practical for use in some patient populations. Other techniques for functional assessment include physical performance measures such as timed gait and chair stands, as well as activities of daily living tools such as the Katz Index, Lawton Scale, and Karnofsky Scale Index. Manual muscle testing and computed tomography scan assessment of lean tissue are other tools that show promise in correlating functional and nutrition assessments. Functional assessment parameters may be least well correlated with nutrition status in older individuals. Despite a number of scientific studies of a variety of tools for functional assessment, there is to date no definitive tool for use in all individuals in all settings. Nutrition scientists and clinicians must continue to collaborate with colleagues in physical and occupational therapy, geriatrics, and nursing to refine current functional assessment tools to more effectively correlate with nutrition and malnutrition assessment parameters.

  4. Social participation and the onset of functional disability by socioeconomic status and activity type: The JAGES cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Toyo; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-08-01

    The impact of social participation on older adults' health may differ by individual socioeconomic status (SES). Consequently, we examined SES effect modification on the associations between types of social activity participation and incident functional disability. Cohort data from the 2003 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) was utilized. This included individuals who were aged 65 or older and functionally independent at baseline. Analysis was carried out on 12,991 respondents after acquisition of information about their long-term care (LTC) status in Japan. Incident functional disability was defined based on medical certification and LTC information was obtained from municipal insurance databases. Cox proportional hazard regression was conducted for analysis. Results indicated that participants in a sport (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51, 0.85) or hobby group (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.87), or who had a group facilitator role (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.02) were less likely to be disabled. While men with 13 or more years of education were less likely to become disabled if they held facilitator roles, this association was weak among men with 0-5years of education (HR of interaction term between 0 and 5years of education and facilitator role dummy variable=3.95; 95% CI: 1.30, 12.05). In conclusion, the association between group participation and smaller risk of the functional disability was stronger among highly educated older adults. Intervention programs promoting social participation should consider participants' socioeconomic backgrounds. PMID:27235600

  5. Social participation and the onset of functional disability by socioeconomic status and activity type: The JAGES cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Toyo; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-08-01

    The impact of social participation on older adults' health may differ by individual socioeconomic status (SES). Consequently, we examined SES effect modification on the associations between types of social activity participation and incident functional disability. Cohort data from the 2003 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) was utilized. This included individuals who were aged 65 or older and functionally independent at baseline. Analysis was carried out on 12,991 respondents after acquisition of information about their long-term care (LTC) status in Japan. Incident functional disability was defined based on medical certification and LTC information was obtained from municipal insurance databases. Cox proportional hazard regression was conducted for analysis. Results indicated that participants in a sport (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51, 0.85) or hobby group (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.87), or who had a group facilitator role (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.02) were less likely to be disabled. While men with 13 or more years of education were less likely to become disabled if they held facilitator roles, this association was weak among men with 0-5years of education (HR of interaction term between 0 and 5years of education and facilitator role dummy variable=3.95; 95% CI: 1.30, 12.05). In conclusion, the association between group participation and smaller risk of the functional disability was stronger among highly educated older adults. Intervention programs promoting social participation should consider participants' socioeconomic backgrounds.

  6. Association of macroscopic gut inflammation with disease activity, functional status and quality of life in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Hascelik, Gulen; Oz, Bengi; Olmez, Nese; Memis, Asuman; Yoruk, Gazi; Unsal, Belkis; Ekinci, Nese

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the frequency of intestinal inflammation and its association with disease activity, functional status and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A total of 25 patients with AS had undergone ileocolonoscopy and concomitant histological study. Clinical and demographical parameters, BASDAI, BASFI, and SF-36 scores were compared between patients with and without macroscopic gut inflammation (MGI). Colonoscopic study revealed MGI in 9 patients and macroscopically normal gut mucosa in 16 patients. On histological examination, of 25 patients 20 had gut inflammation, mostly in ileum. BASDAI score was higher (P < 0.05), SF-36 pain and physical scores, and chest expansion measurement were lower (P = 0.00, P = 0.01, P = 0.01), duration of morning stiffness was longer (P = 0.01) in patients with MGI. Serum C-reactive protein, erytrocyte sedimentation rate levels were similar between groups (P > 0.05). There is high prevalence of histological gut inflammation in AS patients. More active disease should suggest gut inflammation in AS patients.

  7. Bovine CD2-/NKp46+ cells are fully functional natural killer cells with a high activation status

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Preben; Olsen, Ingrid; Berg, Ingvild; Kulberg, Siri; Johansen, Grethe M; Storset, Anne K

    2006-01-01

    Background Natural killer (NK) cells in the cow have been elusive due to the lack of specific NK cell markers, and various criteria including a CD3-/CD2+ phenotype have been used to identify such cells. The recent characterization of the NK-specific NKp46 receptor has allowed a more precise definition of bovine NK cells. NK cells are known as a heterogeneous cell group, and we here report the first functional study of bovine NK cell subsets, based on the expression of CD2. Results Bovine CD2- NK cells, a minor subset in blood, proliferated more rapidly in the presence of IL-2, dominating the cultures after a few days. Grown separately with IL-2, CD2- and CD2+ NK cell subsets did not change CD2 expression for at least two weeks. In blood, CD2- NK cells showed a higher expression of CD44 and CD25, consistent with a high activation status. A higher proportion of CD2- NK cells had intracellular interferon-gamma in the cytoplasm in response to IL-2 and IL-12 stimulation, and the CD2- subset secreted more interferon-gamma when cultured separately. Cytotoxic capacity was similar in both subsets, and both carried transcripts for the NK cell receptors KIR, CD16, CD94 and KLRJ. Ligation by one out of two tested anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies could trigger interferon-gamma production from NK cells, but neither of them could alter cytotoxicity. Conclusion These results provide evidence that bovine CD2- as well as CD2+ cells of the NKp46+ phenotype are fully functional NK cells, the CD2- subset showing signs of being more activated in the circulation. PMID:16643649

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorβ/δ activation is essential for modulating p-Foxo1/Foxo1 status in functional insulin-positive cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Li, T; Zhang, Y; Pan, Z; Wu, B; Huang, X; Zhang, Y; Mei, Y; Ge, L; Shen, G; Ge, R-s; Zhu, D; Lou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) participate in energy homeostasis and play essential roles in diabetes therapy through their effects on non-pancreas tissues. Pathological microenvironment may influence the metabolic requirements for the maintenance of stem cell differentiation. Accordingly, understanding the mechanisms of PPARs on pancreatic β-cell differentiation may be helpful to find the underlying targets of disrupted energy homeostasis under the pancreatic disease condition. PPARs are involved in stem cell differentiation via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, but the subtype member activation and the downstream regulation in functional insulin-positive (INS+) cell differentiation remain unclear. Here, we show a novel role of PPARβ/δ activation in determining INS+ cell differentiation and functional maturation. We found PPARβ/δ expression selectively upregulated in mouse embryonic pancreases or stem cells-derived INS+ cells at the pancreatic mature stage in vivo and in vitro. Strikingly, given the inefficiency of generating INS+ cells in vitro, PPARβ/δ activation displayed increasing mouse and human ES cell-derived INS+ cell numbers and insulin secretion. This phenomenon was closely associated with the forkhead box protein O1 (Foxo1) nuclear shuttling, which was dependent on PPARβ/δ downstream PI3K/Akt signaling transduction. The present study reveals the essential role of PPARβ/δ activation on p-Foxo1/Foxo1 status, and in turn, determining INS+ cell generation and insulin secretion via affecting pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 expression. The results demonstrate the underlying mechanism by which PPARβ/δ activation promotes functional INS+ cell differentiation. It also provides potential targets for anti-diabetes drug discovery and hopeful clinical applications in human cell therapy. PMID:25855963

  9. The relationship between habitual physical activity status and executive function in individuals with Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal, cross-lagged panel analysis.

    PubMed

    Farina, Nicolas; Tabet, Naji; Rusted, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether habitual physical activity status specifically influences executive function change in Alzheimer's disease (AD) over 1 year. In this longitudinal cohort study, 45 participants with AD were recruited and provided follow-up data approximately 1 year later. Executive function measures (map search task, digit symbol substitution task, controlled oral word association task, verbal fluency task) and habitual physical activity measures (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and handgrip strength) were taken at baseline and follow-up. Individual composites were subsequently created. Additional demographic, lifestyle, and neuropsychiatric measures were also taken. In a structural equation model (χ(2)(26) = 9.84, p = .998, comparative fit index = 1.00, root mean square error of approximation = .00), a significant association was found between habitual physical activity and executive function change (β = .27, p = .04). In a cross-lagged panel analysis, a significant path was found between the PASE score and executive change (β = .22, p = .01). As higher habitual physical activity levels were associated with reduced executive function change, the promotion of low-intensity habitual physical activities in individuals with a diagnosis of AD may be warranted. Further research is needed, however, to explore the impact of habitual physical activity on the trajectory of change across cognitive domains, and how this relates to the progression of the underlying pathology associated with this disease.

  10. Functional Status Assessment of Patients With COPD

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Li, Honghe; Ding, Ning; Wang, Ningning; Wen, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Presently, there is no recommendation on how to assess functional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study aimed to summarize and systematically evaluate these measures. Studies on measures of COPD patients’ functional status published before the end of January 2015 were included using a search filters in PubMed and Web of Science, screening reference lists of all included studies, and cross-checking against some relevant reviews. After title, abstract, and main text screening, the remaining was appraised using the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) 4-point checklist. All measures from these studies were rated according to best-evidence synthesis and the best-rated measures were selected. A total of 6447 records were found and 102 studies were reviewed, suggesting 44 performance-based measures and 14 patient-reported measures. The majority of the studies focused on internal consistency, reliability, and hypothesis testing, but only 21% of them employed good or excellent methodology. Their common weaknesses include lack of checks for unidimensionality, inadequate sample sizes, no prior hypotheses, and improper methods. On average, patient-reported measures perform better than performance-based measures. The best-rated patient-reported measures are functional performance inventory (FPI), functional performance inventory short form (FPI-SF), living with COPD questionnaire (LCOPD), COPD activity rating scale (CARS), University of Cincinnati dyspnea questionnaire (UCDQ), shortness of breath with daily activities (SOBDA), and short-form pulmonary functional status scale (PFSS-11), and the best-rated performance-based measures are exercise testing: 6-minute walk test (6MWT), endurance treadmill test, and usual 4-meter gait speed (usual 4MGS). Further research is needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of performance-based measures since present studies failed to

  11. Neutrophils from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: relationship between impairment of granular contents, complement receptors, functional activities and disease status.

    PubMed

    Moretti, S; Lanza, F; Spisani, S; Latorraca, A; Rigolin, G M; Giuliani, A L; Castoldi, G L; Traniello, S

    1994-05-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are stem cell disorders of clonal origin in which infections and leukemic transformation are quite frequent. Neutrophils from 28 patients with MDS were analysed by flow cytometry for the expression of the two complement receptors CR1 and CR3, the antigenic reactivity of some granule constituents--myeloperoxidase, lysozyme, elastase, lactoferrin--and functional activities, such as locomotion, respiratory burst and cytotoxicity. The results were correlated with the FAB disease subtypes, grouped as low risk (RA) and high risk patients (RAEB, RAEB-t, CMML) and with 30 healthy subjects. A significant reduction in the percentage of neutrophil CR1, CR3 positivity and chemotaxis induced by endotoxin-activated serum was detected in the high risk group when compared with the low risk group and healthy controls. Furthermore, the high risk group also showed a low amount of myeloperoxidase, elastase, lysozyme and superoxide anion, but both low and high risk groups displayed reduced cellular cytotoxicity in comparison with the control. This work indicates that MDS patients belonging to the more advanced FAB categories frequently show multiple abnormalities in the expression of neutrophil complement receptors, and granular components (> 3), as well as in cell functions, suggesting the possibility of using these phenotypic abnormalities in the monitoring of disease progression. PMID:8069192

  12. Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2016-02-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a widely used food preservative due to its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. The acceptable daily intake of SB is 5 mg/kg-bw, however, it has been found to be used in the food commodities at relatively high levels (2119 mg/kg). Earlier studies on SB have shown its immunosuppressive properties, but comprehensive immunotoxicity data is lacking. Our studies have shown that SB was non cytotoxic in splenocytes up to 1000 μg/ml for 72 h, however at 2500 μg/ml it was found to be cytotoxic. Thus, 1000 μg/ml dose of SB was chosen for the subsequent experiments. SB significantly suppresses the proliferation of Con A and LPS stimulated splenocytes at 72 h, while allogenic response of T cells was significantly decreased after 96 h. SB did not affect the relative expression of CD3e or CD4 molecules following 72 h exposure, however, it downregulated the relative expression of CD8 co-receptor. Further, exposure of splenocytes to SB for 72 h led to reduced expression of CD28 and CD95, which play a vital role in T cell activation. SB also suppresses the relative expression of CD19, CD40 and CD95 receptors on B cells after 72 h. In addition to the functional responses, SB lowered the expression of IL4, IL6, IFNγ and IL17 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes; and IL6, IFNγ and TNFα in LPS stimulated splenocytes following 48 h of exposure. Taken together, the present study is suggestive of the immunomodulatory potential of SB.

  13. Rising U.S. income inequality and the changing gradient of socioeconomic status on physical functioning and activity limitations, 1984-2007.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui; George, Linda K

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the interactive contextual effect of income inequality on health. Specifically, we hypothesize that income inequality will moderate the relationships between individual-level risk factors and health. Using National Health Interview Survey data 1984-2007 (n = 607,959) and U.S. Census data, this paper estimates the effect of the dramatic increase in income inequality in the U.S. over the past two decades on the gradient of socioeconomic status on two measures of health (i.e., physical functioning and activity limitations). Results indicate that increasing income inequality strengthens the protective effects of family income, employment, college education, and marriage on these two measures of health. In contrast, high school education's protective effect (relative to less than a high school education) weakens in the context of increasing income inequality. In addition, we find that increasing income inequality exacerbates men's disadvantages in physical functioning and activity limitations. These findings shed light on research about growing health disparities in the U.S. in the last several decades.

  14. Health-related quality of life in Turkish patients with ankylosing spondylitis: impact of peripheral involvement on quality of life in terms of disease activity, functional status, severity of pain, and social and emotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Ozlem; Tutoğlu, Ahmet; Garip, Yeşim; Ozcan, Esra; Bodur, Hatice

    2013-05-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) affects sacroiliac joints at early stages and may involve the axial skeleton at later stages of disease. Peripheral involvement usually occurs in lower extremities. When it develops early in the disease course, it is a predictor of more aggressive disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in AS and to assess the impact of peripheral involvement on HRQoL domains in terms of disease activity, functional status, pain, and social and emotional functioning. Seventy-four AS patients were included. Peripheral involvement was present in 51.35 % of the patients. In 65.79 % of these cases the hips, in 31.58 % the knees, in 18.42 % the shoulders and in 13.16 % the ankles were affected. Patients were evaluated by Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (ASQoL), Short Form-36 (SF-36), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). ASQoL was strongly correlated with ASDAS, BASDAI, BASFI, and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), severity of total pain, night pain, fatigue, morning stiffness and ESR. ASDAS and BASDAI showed the strongest correlation with ASQoL. Severity of total pain, functional status and severity of night pain followed it, respectively. Patients with peripheral involvement scored significantly lower in all subgroups of SF36 and significantly higher in ASDAS, BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI and ASQoL scores and levels of pain, night pain, fatigue and morning stiffness. Peripheral involvement is associated with more active disease and functional disability and has a negative influence on HRQoL including physical, social and emotional functioning.

  15. Extraarticular manifestations in Turkish patients with rheumatoid arthritis: impact of EAMs on the health-related quality of life in terms of disease activity, functional status, severity of pain, and social and emotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Eser, Filiz; Garip, Yeşim; Bodur, Hatice

    2012-06-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate extraarticular manifestations (EAMs) in Turkish patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and also assess the impact of EAMs on various health-related quality of life (HRQoL) domains, including physical, social, emotional, mental functioning, and bodily pain. A total of 150 patients were included in the study. EAMs were identified clinically. Pulmonary involvement was confirmed by using pulmonary function tests (PFT) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), atlantoaxial subluxation by cervical spine X-rays. Peripheral neuropathy, rheumatoid nodules, and Sicca symptoms were picked up on clinical examination. Peripheral neuropathy was also confirmed by electroneurophysiologic studies. Patients were evaluated by Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life (RAQoL), and Short form-36 (SF36). The quadrivariate Disease Activity Score- 28 (DAS28) was used for measuring disease activity. Functional status was evaluated by using the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). The severity of pain was documented by using 10-cm Visual Analog Scale-Pain (VAS-pain). EAMs were observed in 50 patients (33.3%). These were pulmonary involvement (28.7%), rheumatoid nodules (14.7%), Sicca Syndrome (8%), peripheral neuropathy (2.7%), and atlantoaxial subluxation (0.7%), respectively. It was not recorded any statistically significant difference in HAQ, DAS28, VAS-pain, and RAQoL scores between the patient groups with and without EAMs. Patients with EAMs scored significantly lower in physical functioning, role-physical, and role-emotional subgroups of SF36 (P < 0.01). Presence of EAMs is not directly associated with disease activity and functional status, but influences negatively HRQoL including physical and emotional functioning.

  16. [Functional status, morbidity, and mortality of centenarians].

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasumichi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Prevention or postponement of age-related diseases and functional limitation is the key component of successful aging. We studied centenarians, a model for successful aging in terms of functional status and morbidities. Vast majority of centenarians had chronic disease such as hypertension (63.6%) , heart disease (28.8%) , stroke (15.9%) , fragile fracture (46.4%) , and few centenarians were free from any chronic diseases. Male centenarians had better physical function than female counterparts. Stroke and fragile fracture had negative impacts on their functional status, but hypertension was paradoxically associated with better physical function. When we looked at mortality beyond 100 years of age, physical function, but not morbidity profile had significant impact on their mortality. These results raised a notion that age-related frailty or diminution of functional reserve may be the major cause both for physical disability and poor prognosis of centenarians. Previous results from our study suggested that stability of energy homeostasis, in which neuroendocrine system has a key role, may be important to maintain physical function at the extreme old age.

  17. Biofunctional activity of tortillas and bars enhanced with nopal. Preliminary assessment of functional effect after intake on the oxidative status in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prickly pear cactus stem (nopal) has been used in folk medicine and a raw material since ancient times. Stems have been proved to possess components with valuable biological activities: anti inflamatory, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, hypoglycemic, and so forth. Nowadays, people consume foods not only to cover the nutritional requirements, they also demand for healty, natural and convenient foods that show biological activity. This study evaluated the bio-functional effects of consuming tortillas or bars (filled with prickly pear fruit jam) supplemented or not with nopal dietary fiber. Results The addition of nopal increased the fiber and polyphenols content in both tortillas (16.67%, 2.33 mg QE/L) and bars (13.79%, 1.99 mg QE/L). Furthermore the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, 1.47 mmol/L), polyphenols (7.67 mg QE/L) and vitamin C (77.91 μmol/L) showed increased levels in volunteer's plasma after intake. Also lower levels of glucose (4.43 mmol/L), total cholesterol (4.27 mmol/L), LDL (1.96 mmol/L) and triglycerides (1.54 mmol/L) were observed in plasma after the supplementation scheme with nopal-based tortilla, while GSH:GSSG ratio in erythrocytes was higher. Conclusions The results suggested that the intake of nopal-based tortillas with high content in fiber and antioxidant compounds can help to improve the overall oxidative status in healthy humans, which can reduce the risk of some chronic diseases. In addition, these products showed suitable physicochemical characteristics to be marketed. PMID:21371324

  18. Longitudinal changes in the time parents spend in activities with their adolescent children as a function of child age, pubertal status, and gender.

    PubMed

    Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M

    2002-12-01

    This study examined the time Dutch mothers (N = 301) and fathers (N = 255) spend per day engaging in 4 activities (going somewhere, doing something, watching TV, and eating together) with their adolescent children both concurrently and 5 years later. Also assessed was whether parent-child shared time was related to parent or child gender and whether age-related differences could be explained by adolescent pubertal status, family conflict, adolescent and parent work or volunteer hours, parental work stress, and adolescent computer use. Finally, the study examined whether family conflict predicted changes in shared time and whether shared time predicted changes in conflict. The findings showed that age changes depended on the activity and that pubertal status mediated age differences in TV viewing among mixed-gender parent-child pairs. Shared time during pre-, early, and mid-adolescence was linked to decreases in family conflict 5 years later.

  19. Functional Status in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Bahia, Valéria Santoro; Nitrini, Ricardo; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to conduct a systematic review of studies that described the functional profile of patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), published between 2000 and 2013. The bibliographic search was conducted using the terms “frontotemporal dementia” and “frontotemporal lobar degeneration” in combination with “independence,” “functionality,” “basic activities of daily living,” “disability,” and scales that measure functional performance: “Disability Assessment for Dementia-DAD,” “Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ),” “Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS).” To be included in the review, the study had to mention the characterization of the functional status of patients with bvFTD in the objectives of the study, using a previously validated instrument of functional assessment. Fourteen studies met this criterion. The reviewed studies suggested that individuals with bvFTD have greater functional impairment when compared to those with other subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration or Alzheimer's disease. The studies documented a significant association between cognitive impairment and measures of functionality in these patients. The cognitive profile of patients may predict faster functional decline. PMID:24308008

  20. What are the Links Between Maternal Social Status, Hippocampal Function, and HPA Axis Function in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; How, Joan; Araujo, Melanie; Schamberg, Michelle A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The association of parental social status with multiple health and achievement indicators in adulthood has driven researchers to attempt to identify mechanisms by which social experience in childhood could shift developmental trajectories. Some accounts for observed linkages between parental social status in childhood and health have hypothesized that early stress exposure could result in chronic disruptions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and that this activation could lead to long term changes. A robust literature in adult animals has demonstrated that chronic HPA axis activation leads to changes in hippocampal structure and function. In the current study, consistent with studies in animals, we observe an association between both maternal self-rated social status and hippocampal activation in children and between maternal self-rated social status and salivary cortisol in children. PMID:24033572

  1. King's theory of goal attainment: exploring functional status.

    PubMed

    Caceres, Billy A

    2015-04-01

    Imogene King's Theory of Goal Attainment provides a schema for nurses interested in functional status. However, the lack of a uniform definition for functional status has hindered development of a concise understanding of this phenomenon. Functional status is particularly important to nurses who are concerned with the safety and wellbeing of clients. With healthcare's increased focus on client-family-centered care it is important to develop innovative approaches for evaluating functional status that incorporate the client-family perspective. King's focus on mutual decision-making is an underutilized resource that can provide great insight into the study and understanding of functional status. PMID:25805388

  2. Status report of RMS active damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Mike; Demeo, Martha E.

    1993-01-01

    A status report of Remote Manipulator System (RMS) active damping augmentation is presented. Topics covered include: active damping augmentation; benefits of RMS ADA; simulated payload definition; sensor and actuator definition; ADA control law design; Shuttle Engineering Simulator (SES) real-time simulation; and astronaut evaluation.

  3. Weight Status and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helen; Blanco, Estela; Algarín, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Wing, David; Godino, Job G.; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    We tested the independent and combined influence of overweight/obesity and meeting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines (≥60 minutes per day) on cardiometabolic risk factors among healthy adolescents. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and activity by accelerometer in 223 adolescents. They were categorized as overweight/obese versus normal weight and meeting the World Health Organization guidelines for MVPA per day. Adolescents were 16.8 years, 41% overweight/obese, 30% met MVPA guidelines, 50% low high-density lipoprotein, 22% high triglycerides, 12% high blood pressure, and 6% high fasting glucose. Controlling for sex, overweight/obese adolescents who did not meet MVPA guidelines had 4.0 and 11.9 increased odds for elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure, respectively, compared to normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines. Overweight/obese and normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines did not differ in cardiometabolic risk factors. Among overweight/obese adolescents, being physically active attenuated the likelihood of high triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. PMID:27803943

  4. Active Debris Removal: Current Status of Activities in CNES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnal, Christophe; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Desjean, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-01

    Most of the ongoing studies led at worldwide level, mainly through IADC Actions, conclude that in order to keep a stable Low Earth Orbit environment in the coming decades, it may be necessary to retrieve some 5 to 10 large objects annually. These operations, known as Active Debris Removal (ADR), raise a huge amount of difficulties in numerous domains: political, legal, insurance, defense, financing and, last but not least, technical questions. The current paper aims at reviewing the current status of the ADR activities led by CNES both at National and Multi-lateral level. The first question which is raised is that of the high level requirements to be applied. What are the requirements coming from the operators; do we want to stabilize the environment, decrease it or could we accept some increase over the years; when do we have to act; can we baseline random reentry of such large objects or do we have to stick to controlled destructive reentries?… There may not yet be clear answers to these points, so efforts at international level are required. The second part of the paper deals with the potential solutions at system level. Numerous possibilities can be identified, depending on the size of the launcher and of the strategy selected to de-orbit the debris. Large space tugs visiting some 10 debris or small dedicated chasers launched as piggyback are among the solutions which have been traded. The currently preferred solution is described in details. The third part of the paper is devoted to the chaser-debris operations themselves, following five key functions; - the long range rendezvous, - the short range rendezvous up to contact, - the mechanical interfacing of the debris, - its control by the chaser, when required, - the de-orbiting maneuver itself. For each of these functions, the current status of available technologies is described, enabling the identification of the most critical ones requiring additional R&T effort and subsequent demonstrations. Among them

  5. Functional Status Assessment of COPD Based on Ability to Perform Daily Living Activities: A Systematic Review of Paper and Pencil Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Monjazebi, Fateme; Dalvandi, Asghar; Ebadi, Abbas; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Rahgozar, Mahdi; Richter, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Context: Activity of daily living (ADL) is an important predictor of mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Increasing ADL is important in patients with COPD and assessment of ADL is one of the best ways to evaluate the status of COPD patients. Objectives: The objective of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the psychometric properties of paper and pencil instruments measuring ADL in patients with COPD. Data Sources: English papers published from 1980 to 2014 regarding ADL in patients with COPD were searched in Web of Science, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane, PubMed, ProQuest, and CINAHL databases using the following keywords: “COPD”, “ADL”, “activities of daily living”, “daily activities”, “instrument”, “questionnaire”, “paper-and-pencil instruments”, and “measure”. Following the Internet search, manual search was also done to find article references. Study Selection: A total of 186 articles were found. Of those, 31 met the inclusion criteria. Full texts of articles meeting the inclusion criteria were studied. Consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments”(COSMIN) were used to assess the quality of the studies. Data Extraction: Data extraction form based on research aims developed by researchers and psychometric experts, with 17 questions was used. Results: In these articles, 14 pen and paper instruments were identified for examining ADL in patients with COPD; of which, 4 dealt directly with ADL while 9 assessed other criteria i.e. dyspnea as ADL indicator. The majority of instruments only dealt with two main dimensions of ADL: Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), and did not consider Advanced Activities of Daily Living (AADL), which is influenced by cultural and motivational factors. Conclusion: Despite several ADL instruments identified, complete psychometric processes have only been done in

  6. Trait Routinization, Functional and Cognitive Status in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisberg, Anna; Zysberg, Leehu; Young, Heather M.; Schepp, Karen G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between trait routinization and functional and cognitive as well as demographic indicators. A sample of American older adults living independently in a retirement community (n = 80) were assessed regarding their functional status, cognitive status, and preference for routine. Robust associations between…

  7. Online social activity reflects economic status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  8. Predictors of functional status in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, L; van Schaardenburg, D; van der Horst-Bru..., I E; Bezemer, P; Dijkmans, B

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To find disease parameters that can predict the functional capacity of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at the first visit to the rheumatologist and one year after entry.
METHODS—Patients referred to the outpatients clinic between 1995 and 1996, with a symptom duration of less than three years and fulfilling the American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for RA within one year after entry were included. Assessments of the duration of morning stiffness, the Disease Activity Score (DAS: a composite score based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), number of painful and swollen joints and patient global assessment), pain (Visual Analogue Scale), the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (AIMS) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) were performed every three months. Possible predictors of the HAQ at entry and after one year were analysed by logistic regression.
RESULTS—133 patients were included in the study. The median duration of complaints was three months (range 0-35) and the median HAQ score at entry was 1.12 (range 0-3). There was no correlation between duration of complaints and the HAQ at entry (r = 0.01). An HAQ score under the 50th percentile at entry could be predicted correctly for 74% of the patients by entry DAS and C reactive protein concentration, and at one year could be predicted correctly for 73% of the patients by entry HAQ and pain score.
CONCLUSION—Disease activity is strongly correlated with a lower functional capacity at entry, whereas disease duration is not. The functional status at entry is a good predictor for functional status at one year. Severity rather than duration of arthritis prompts referral in this cohort.

 PMID:10700432

  9. Significance of functional status data for payment and quality.

    PubMed

    Clauser, Steven B; Bierman, Arlene S

    2003-01-01

    To date, the Medicare Program has used functional status information (FSI) in patient assessment tools, performance assessment, payment mechanisms, and--most recently--in quality measures to inform consumer choice. This article explores the rationale for the collection of functional status data to promote innovative models of care and examines issues related to data collection for quality improvement, performance measurement, and payment. In this issue of the Health Care Financing Review, articles focus on collection and classification of functional status for payment and quality purposes. PMID:12894631

  10. Vitamin E status and immune function.

    PubMed

    Beharka, A; Redican, S; Leka, L; Meydani, S N

    1997-01-01

    Evidence from animal and human studies indicates that vitamin E plays an important role in the maintenance of the immune system. Even a marginal vitamin E deficiency impairs the immune response, while supplementation with higher than recommended dietary levels of vitamin E enhances humoral and cell-mediated immunity. The current RDA level of vitamin E prevents clinical deficiency syndrome but in some situations, especially in older subjects or in a disease state, fails to maintain optimal host defense. The immunological parameters reviewed are all sensitive to changes in the availability of vitamin E and, therefore, may reflect the vitamin E status of a given individual more accurately than conventional methods.

  11. Regression-Based Estimates of Observed Functional Status in Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Meghan B.; Miller, L. Stephen; Woodard, John L.; Davey, Adam; Martin, Peter; Burgess, Molly; Poon, Leonard W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: There is lack of consensus on the best method of functional assessment, and there is a paucity of studies on daily functioning in centenarians. We sought to compare associations between performance-based, self-report, and proxy report of functional status in centenarians. We expected the strongest relationships between proxy…

  12. Lifestyle engagement affects cognitive status differences and trajectories on executive functions in older adults.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A

    2014-02-01

    The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

  13. Suomi NPP VIIRS active fire product status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellicott, E. A.; Csiszar, I. A.; Schroeder, W.; Giglio, L.; Wind, B.; Justice, C. O.

    2012-12-01

    We provide an overview of the evaluation and development of the Active Fires product derived from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite during the first year of on-orbit data. Results from the initial evaluation of the standard SNPP Active Fires product, generated by the SNPP Interface Data Processing System (IDPS), supported the stabilization of the VIIRS Sensor Data Record (SDR) product. This activity focused in particular on the processing of the dual-gain 4 micron VIIRS M13 radiometric measurements into 750m aggregated data, which are fundamental for active fire detection. Following the VIIRS SDR product's Beta maturity status in April 2012, correlative analysis between VIIRS and near-simultaneous fire detections from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Earth Observing System Aqua satellite confirmed the expected relative detection rates driven primarily by sensor differences. The VIIRS Active Fires Product Development and Validation Team also developed a science code that is based on the latest MODIS Collection 6 algorithm and provides a full spatially explicit fire mask to replace the sparse array output of fire locations from a MODIS Collection 4 equivalent algorithm in the current IDPS product. The Algorithm Development Library (ADL) was used to support the planning for the transition of the science code into IDPS operations in the future. Product evaluation and user outreach was facilitated by a product website that provided end user access to fire data in user-friendly format over North America as well as examples of VIIRS-MODIS comparisons. The VIIRS fire team also developed an experimental product based on 375m VIIRS Imagery band measurements and provided high quality imagery of major fire events in US. By August 2012 the IDPS product achieved Beta maturity, with some known and documented shortfalls related to the processing of

  14. Effects of Husband's and Wife's Social Status on Psychological Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenbach, Carrie

    1985-01-01

    Using a national sample of 249 employed couples, effects of own and spouse's education, occupational status, and income are assessed on three dimensions of psychological functioning: ideational flexibility, self-directedness of orientation, and distress. Results for each dimension of psychological functioning are given. (Author/BL)

  15. Assessing role activities of individuals receiving long-term hemodialysis: psychometric testing of the revised Inventory of Functional Status-Dialysis (IFS-Dialysis).

    PubMed

    Thomas-Hawkins, Charlotte

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the reliability and validity of the revised IFS-Dialysis, a theory-based self-report measure of the extent to which individuals receiving long-term hemodialysis are actually performing role activities. The IFS-Dialysis was administered to 186 individuals receiving hemodialysis. Chronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency reliability, and structural equation modeling was used to assess the construct validity of the revised measure. Alpha reliability for the total instrument was 0.88, and subscale alpha coefficients ranged from 0.75 to 0.85. Construct validity of the IFS-Dialysis was supported by the significant relationship of each item to its respective subscale latent variable, and model testing indicated a good fit of the measurement model to the data. The IFS-Dialysis can be used to obtain clinical assessments of the extent to which individuals receiving long-term hemodialysis treatments are engaging in role activities. Interventions can then be implemented to facilitate an optimal level of activity performance for each individual.

  16. Functional Status in the Young–Old: Establishing a Working Prototype of an Extended-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale

    PubMed Central

    Fieo, Robert; Manly, Jennifer J.; Schupf, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Background. Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) exhibit strong predictive power for the presence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. However, IADLs are often less effective in younger cohorts or in healthy community-dwelling samples, presenting with large ceiling effects. This study aimed to construct an IADL scale with an extended range. An effort was made to incorporate leisure activity tasks that were more stimulating, and potentially more challenging, into a set of traditional IADLs. Methods. Beginning with a set of IADL and leisure activity items, nonparametric item response theory methodology was used to construct a scale with appropriate dimensionality, monotonicity, item discrimination power, and scalability within a large cohort of young–old (aged 65–75). Dimensionality was further scrutinized by principal component analysis of the residuals. The predictive validity of the resulting scale for poor cognitive performance was evaluated using logistic regression. Results. A reliable (ρ = .73) unidimensional construct was established, meeting the Mokken item response theory criteria of medium scalability. Excluding demented participants, the adjusted model proved sensitive to relatively subtle cognitive deficits; each additional task endorsed (nine-item scale) significantly decreased the odds of being in the bottom quarter of composite domains relating to processing speed (odds ratio = 0.73 [confidence interval: 0.56–0.97], p < .05) and visuospatial ability (odds ratio = 0.70 [confidence interval: 0.73–0.87], p < .01). Conclusions. A reliable extended-IADL scale was constructed meeting item response theory assumptions relating to unidimensionality, monotonicity, and invariant item ordering. The range of measurement extends well beyond traditional IADL scales. Finally, the scale appears to be sensitive to cognitive differences within the normal spectrum. PMID:24149431

  17. Functional Status Outcomes in Mothers with and without Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Posmontier, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare functional status between women with and without postpartum depression (PPD). Methods A two-group cross-sectional design compared functional status between 23 women with and 23 women without PPD. Participants were 6 to 26 weeks postpartum, and from obstetric practices in the Northeastern United States. Structured clinical interviews were used to establish diagnoses of PPD. Participants were matched on type of delivery, weeks postpartum, and parity. Participants compared current functioning to pre-pregnancy functioning utilizing the Inventory of Functional Status After Childbirth. The Postpartum Depression Screening Scale was used to measure PPD severity. Hierarchical multiple and logistic regression models were used to analyze data. Results Controlling for infant gender, number of nighttime infant awakenings, and income, PPD predicted lower personal (P<0.001), household (P<0.05), and social functioning (P<0.001), but no difference in infant care. Women with PPD were 12 times less likely to achieve pre-pregnancy functional levels. Conclusions Interventions are needed to address household, social, and personal functioning in women with PPD. Clinicians may find functional assessment is a useful adjunct and a less threatening way to screen and monitor treatment for PPD. PMID:18586183

  18. Self-assessment of functional status in schizophrenia☆

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Christopher R.; Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Anderson, Hannah; Halpern, Brooke; Patterson, Thomas L.; Harvey, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    With new treatments targeting features of schizophrenia associated with functional disability, there is a need to evaluate the validity of ratings of everyday outcomes. It is unknown whether patients can validly self-report on aspects of their functional status, which would be a potentially economical method for obtaining outcome data. In this study, 67 older schizophrenia outpatients provided self-ratings of everyday real-world functioning using the specific levels of functioning scale (SLOF). They were also administered assessments of neuropsychological performance, performance-based measures of functional capacity and social skills, clinical symptoms, and quality of life. Case managers, unaware of other ratings, also generated SLOF ratings. Based on discrepancy scores, participants were categorized as accurate raters (n = 24), underestimators (n = 16), or overestimators (n = 27) of their functional status as compared to case managers’ ratings. Patients’ self-rated functional status was correlated with their subjective quality of life, but remarkably unassociated with case manager ratings of functional status or their own performance on functional capacity or social skills measures. Case manager ratings, however, were highly correlated with performance on functional capacity and social skills measures. Patients who underestimated their real world performance had better cognitive skills and greater self-rated depression than those who overestimated. Accurate raters demonstrated greater social skills than both overestimators and underestimators, while overestimators were most cognitively and functionally impaired. Accurate ratings of everyday outcomes in schizophrenia may require systematic observation of real world outcomes or performance-based measures, as self-reports were inconsistent with objective information. PMID:17014866

  19. APOE genotype influences functional status among elderly without dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, S.M.; Jacobs, D.M.; Stern, Y.

    1995-12-18

    The presence of apolipoprotein-{epsilon}4 (APOE-{epsilon}4) significantly increases the risk of Alzheimer`s disease (AD). The association between APOE-{epsilon}4 status and functional abilities was explored further in a multicultural sample of community-dwelling, nondemented elders. The sample was limited to cognitively-intact, community-dwelling elders, who were free of stroke or other neurologic disability. In 218 elders who met research criteria, the presence of APOE-{epsilon}4 was associated with poorer functional status, apart from the effects of neuropsychological performance, gender, age, and education (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.9). In 158 subjects without an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele, 50% reported no functional limitation; in the 60 subjects with an {epsilon}4 allele, only 28% reported no functional limitation (P < .01). The relationship was not explained by the distribution of co-morbidities. The association between poorer function and the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was evident in each ethnic group. In path analyses, the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was associated with decreased functional ability in non-demented elders not simply through an association with poorer cognitive status, but also independently. These results suggest that the APOE-{epsilon}4 genotype is associated with functional deficit in people with normal neuropsychological profiles. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Socioeconomic Status and Executive Function: Developmental Trajectories and Mediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Daniel A.; Gallop, Robert; Evans, Gary W.; Farah, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function (EF), but fundamental aspects of this relation remain unknown: the developmental course of the SES disparity, its continued sensitivity to SES changes during that course, and the features of childhood experience responsible for the SES-EF relation. Regarding course, early disparities…

  1. Socioeconomic Status and Functional Brain Development--Associations in Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G.; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.; Kushnerenko, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject…

  2. The Revised Direct Assessment of Functional Status for Independent Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Vaughan, Phillip W.; Acee, Taylor W.; Delville, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The original version of the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS), a measure of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), was found to have a ceiling effect in older adults living independently in the community. This suggested that the tasks measured, although relevant, do not require full use of this population's…

  3. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Function in Women

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Margolis, Karen L.; Slaughter, Mary E.; Jewell, Adria; Bird, Chloe E.; Eibner, Christine; Denburg, Natalie L.; Ockene, Judith; Messina, Catherine R.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive functioning in older US women and whether this relationship is explained by associations between NSES and vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Methods. We assessed women aged 65 to 81 years (n = 7479) who were free of dementia and took part in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Linear mixed models examined the cross-sectional association between an NSES index and cognitive functioning scores. A base model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, marital status, and hysterectomy. Three groups of potential confounders were examined in separate models: vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Results. Living in a neighborhood with a 1-unit higher NSES value was associated with a level of cognitive functioning that was 0.022 standard deviations higher (P = .02). The association was attenuated but still marginally significant (P < .1) after adjustment for confounders and, according to interaction tests, stronger among younger and non-White women. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of a woman's neighborhood may influence her cognitive functioning. This relationship is only partially explained by vascular, health behavior, or psychosocial factors. Future research is needed on the longitudinal relationships between NSES, cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. PMID:21778482

  4. Associations between preoperative functional status and functional outcomes of total joint replacement in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jamie E.; Ghazinouri, Roya; Alcantara, Luis; Thornhill, Thomas S.; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. In developed countries, the functional status scores of patients with poor preoperative scores undergoing total joint replacement (TJR) improve more following TJR than those for patients with better preoperative scores. However, those with better preoperative scores achieve the best postoperative functional outcomes. We determined whether similar associations exist in a developing country. Methods. Dominican patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement completed WOMAC and SF-36 surveys preoperatively and at 12-month follow-up. Patients were stratified into low-, medium- and high-scoring preoperative groups based on their preoperative WOMAC function scores. We examined the associations between the baseline functional status of these groups and two outcomes—improvement in functional status over 12 months and functional status at 12 months—using analysis of variance with multivariable linear regression. Results. Patients who scored the lowest preoperatively made the greatest gains in function and pain relief following their TJRs. However, there were no significant differences in pain or function at 12-month follow-up between patients who scored low and those who scored high on preoperative WOMAC and SF-36 surveys. Conclusion. Patients with poor preoperative functional status had greater improvement but similar 12-month functional outcomes compared with patients who had a higher level of function before surgery. These results suggest that a policy of focusing scarce resources on patients with worse functional status in developing countries may optimize improvement following TJR without threatening functional outcome. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings in other developing countries and to understand why these associations vary between patients in the Dominican Republic and patients from developed countries. PMID:23748412

  5. Educational attainment and transitions in functional status among older Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Z; Liu, X; Hermalin, A; Chuang, Y L

    1998-08-01

    Despite considerable research examining the influence of socioeconomic status on health, few studies have considered this relationship as it pertains to older adults in non-Western societies. We attempt to ascertain the influence of education on changes in physical functioning in a rapidly developing country. Data come from the 1989 Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan and a follow-up interview in 1993 (N = 4,049, age = 60+). Individuals are conceptualized to be in a state of functional independence or functional limitation at the time of origin, based on their ability to perform three physical functioning tasks. The outcome at the follow-up interview is categorized as functionally independent, limited, or dead, allowing for six probabilities, one from each state of origin to each outcome. These are calculated using a multinomial logit model, controlling for other factors often thought to be associated with health transitions. High levels of educational attainment result in a decreased incidence of functional limitation for those originating in a state of independence. Contrary to expectations, however, education has little influence on those who originate functionally limited. Thus, higher education plays a substantial role in primary prevention of morbidity, delaying the onset of disability, but other factors are more important once limitations begin. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, including that the results may be culturally dependent.

  6. Functional Status and Health Information in Canada: Proposals and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Bickenbach, Jerome E.

    2003-01-01

    The primary obstacle to evidence-based health care quality assessment in Canada is reliable data on health encounters and episodes of care. The recent Federal/Provincial Health Accord will enhance health data collection, including standardized functional status information (FSI) for administrative records. Canadian health policy developers also agree that FSI is needed to bridge data gaps since alterations in functional status create the continuity that links all episodes of care and health service utilization. Given Canada's universal, single-payer, health financing structure, the prospects for coherent and systemwide data collection are good. This article describes the Canadian health care from the perspective of health information, and surveys proposals in electronic health technology development, the obstacles that need to be faced, and the prospects of doing so. PMID:12894637

  7. Functional Status of Elderly Adults Before and After Interventions for Critical Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Todd R.; Petroski, Gregory F.; Kruse, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The impact of interventions for Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) on functional status in the elderly remains unclear. Open and endovascular procedures were evaluated. Methods Medicare inpatient claims were linked with nursing home assessment data to identify elective admissions for lower extremity procedures for CLI. A functional impairment score (0-28; higher scores indicating greater impairment) based on residents' need for assistance with self-care activities, walking, and locomotion was calculated before and after interventions. Hierarchical modeling determined the effect of the surgery on residents' function, controlling for comorbidity, cognition, and pre-hospital function. Results 352 and 350 patients underwent open and endovascular procedures, respectively (rest pain: 84; ulceration: 351; and gangrene: 267). Hospitalization was associated with a significant worsening in function following both procedures. Disease severity was associated with the amount of initial decline but not with the rate of recovery (p>.35). Residents who received open surgery improved more quickly following hospital discharge (p=.011). Conclusions In the frail elderly, open and endovascular procedures for CLI were associated with similar initial declines in functional status, suggesting that compared with open procedures, less invasive endovascular procedures were not associated with maintaining baseline function. In this select population, endovascular procedures for CLI were not associated with improved functional status over time compared to open. Six months post-hospital, patients who received traditional open bypass had significantly better functional status than those who received endovascular procedures for all CLI diagnoses. Further analysis is required to assist stakeholders in performing procedures most likely to preserve functional status in the frail elderly and nursing home population. PMID:24139567

  8. Social status modulates neural activity in the mentalizing network

    PubMed Central

    Muscatell, Keely A.; Morelli, Sylvia A.; Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Galinsky, Adam D.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Dapretto, Mirella; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2013-01-01

    The current research explored the neural mechanisms linking social status to perceptions of the social world. Two fMRI studies provide converging evidence that individuals lower in social status are more likely to engage neural circuitry often involved in ‘mentalizing’ or thinking about others' thoughts and feelings. Study 1 found that college students' perception of their social status in the university community was related to neural activity in the mentalizing network (e.g., DMPFC, MPFC, precuneus/PCC) while encoding social information, with lower social status predicting greater neural activity in this network. Study 2 demonstrated that socioeconomic status, an objective indicator of global standing, predicted adolescents' neural activity during the processing of threatening faces, with individuals lower in social status displaying greater activity in the DMPFC, previously associated with mentalizing, and the amygdala, previously associated with emotion/salience processing. These studies demonstrate that social status is fundamentally and neurocognitively linked to how people process and navigate their social worlds. PMID:22289808

  9. Correlates of functional status among OEF/OIF veterans with a history of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ettenhofer, Mark L; Melrose, Rebecca J; Delawalla, Zainab; Castellon, Steven A; Okonek, Anna

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors related to functional status within a clinical sample of Veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Medical chart review was conducted for a consecutive group of OEF/OIF Veterans who were referred for neuropsychological evaluation within a Veterans Affairs Medical Center Polytrauma Program related to history of TBI (n = 57). Level of involvement in occupational and academic activity, presence or absence of housing insecurity, and clinician ratings of overall functioning served as indicators of functional status. Reduced functional status was most strongly related to poorer cognitive function, particularly motor function, processing speed, and executive function. Lower levels of functioning were also related to increased severity of postconcussive symptoms, lower levels of education, and ongoing medication treatment for sleep or psychiatric symptoms. Comprehensive evaluation of cognitive, affective, and behavioral functioning among OEF/OIF Veterans with a history of TBI is likely to provide valuable information to inform rehabilitation strategies and identify potential warning signs for poor postdeployment reintegration. Increased awareness of these factors may aid clinicians in identifying patients at risk for poor outcomes and in more effectively targeting symptoms for intervention.

  10. STUDENT ACTIVITIES STAFF FUNCTIONS--SUM AND SUBSTANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARINE, JAMES

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO ASSESS (1) THE CURRENT STATUS OF STUDENT ACTIVITIES (S.A.) WORK, (2) THE PERSONS ASSUMING MAJOR RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE S.A. FUNCTION AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS, BACKGROUND, AND GOALS, (3) THE FUNCTIONS OF PERSONS WHO TAKE LEADERSHIP FOR S.A. PROGRAMS, AND (4) THE TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN S.A. COPIES OF A FIVE-PAGE…

  11. Oxidant-antioxidant status and pulmonary function in welding workers.

    PubMed

    Fidan, Fatma; Unlü, Mehmet; Köken, Tülay; Tetik, Levent; Akgün, Sema; Demirel, Reha; Serteser, Mustafa

    2005-07-01

    Welding is a process during which fumes, gases, electromagnetic radiation and noise are emitted as by-products. Metal oxide particles are particularly hazardous components of welding fumes. Welding has been found to be associated with respiratory symptoms and our objective in the present study was to study the effects of welding on pulmonary function and serum oxidant-antioxidant status. Fifty-one welding workers and 31 control subjects were recruited. Face to face interviews were conducted using the respiratory illness questionnaire adapted from the American Thoracic Society with the addition of demographic characteristics, work history and working conditions. Additionally physical examinations and spirometric measurements were performed at workplaces. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls, protein sulfhydryls (SH) and erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured to evaluate oxidant-antioxidant status in 34 welding workers and in 20 control subjects. No statistically significant differences were observed in age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), smoking status and annual working durations between welding workers and controls. Coughing, sputting and wheezing were significantly higher in welding workers (p<0.05). When adjusted for age, BMI and smoking status in logistic regression, welding work showed a significant risk for chronic bronchitis (OR: 4.78, 95%CI: 1.30-17.54). Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity (FVC) and four parameters of forced expiratory flow (FEF: FEF(25), FEF(50), FEF(75), FEF(25-75)) levels measured in the welding workers were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05). Serum TBARS and protein carbonyl levels were higher in welding workers than those in controls (p<0.001, p<0.05, respectively). On the other hand, total protein SH groups and GSH levels were significantly lower in welders than those in controls (p<0.05, p<0.001, respectively

  12. Quality of life and functional status among homeless men attending a day shelter in Louisville, Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Steiner, R P; Looney, S W; Hall, L R; Wright, K M

    1995-05-01

    The homeless present important social and medical problems in most parts of the United States, including urban areas of Kentucky. While some studies have examined the health status of the homeless, very little is known about their quality of life or functional status. In the present study, 188 homeless men attending St. John's Day Shelter in Louisville completed an interviewer-assisted instrument that assessed self-perceived quality of life using the Perceived Quality of Life (PQOL) scale and self-perceived functional status using the Dartmouth COOP charts. The instrument also included questions on demographics and health risk behaviors of the homeless men. The results show that the typical homeless male attending St. John's is an unmarried, white, middle-aged high school graduate who is unemployed. In terms of quality of life, these men indicate general satisfaction with their physical and cognitive abilities, but significantly lower satisfaction with the social aspects of their lives. With regard to functional status, the homeless men report that they function best in terms of physical fitness and ability to perform daily activities. They report lower assessments of overall health, feelings, quality of life, and social support. These results suggest that poor social role functioning among homeless men is a major contributor to their poor quality of life. Thus, improving their health and quality of life may require an emphasis on social services in addition to routine medical care.

  13. Status of EPRI's waterside corrosion activities

    SciTech Connect

    Chexal, V.K.; Torok, R.C. ); Shevde, V.C.; Randall, G.A. ); Horowitz, J.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has instituted a program in the area of waterside corrosion. This program is designed to develop methodologies to: identify the specific corrosion problem, and then analyze the situation to help utility personnel develop a cost- effective inspection and remedial action program. To do this, there is an overview program - CHEXPERT - which identifies the types of corrosion which are likely to occur in a given situation. CHEXPERT is an expert system providing advisory and diagnostic services in this area. A number of analytical modules under CHEXPERT have been and are continuing to be developed. These modules are designed to enable utility personnel to perform the quantitative evaluations necessary in order to develop an optimum inspection program. CHEC, CHECMATE, and CHEC-CAV are inspection planning tools for single phase erosion corrosion, two-phase erosion, and cavitation, respectively. CHEC-NDE and CHEC-THK facilitate management of inspection data and assessment of worn component adequacy. CHEC and CHECMATE are currently complete and in wide use; the other modules are at various stages of development. The status, technical basis and use of all the analytical models are presented.

  14. The Effect of Lifetime Cumulative Adversity and Depressive Symptoms on Functional Status

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The study aimed to examine whether lifetime cumulative adversity (LCA) and depressive symptoms moderate time-related trajectories of functional status. Method. A total of 15,073 older adults (mean age = 63.91 at Wave 1) who participated in the first four waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe reported on exposure to negative life events, depressive symptoms and three measures of functional status—difficulty in performing daily and instrumental activities, and functional limitation. Results. Growth–curve models showed that time-related increase in disability and functional limitation was steeper among those exposed to higher levels of lifetime adversity. Moreover, a three-way interaction between time, lifetime adversity, and depressive symptoms emerged across measures of functional status, so that when exposure to lifetime adversity was accompanied by high level of depressive symptoms, the time-related increase in disability and functional limitation was the steepest. Discussion. LCA is associated with a hastening of the disablement process, especially under conditions of high distress. Although the overall modest effects imply that resilience to lifetime adversity is widespread among older adults, prevention and intervention programs should consider that distressed older adults previously exposed to high levels of lifetime adversity are at risk for more rapid impairment in functional status. PMID:24898028

  15. Modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis function by social status in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Jennifer D; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Vijayan, Mathilakath M; Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2012-04-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) form stable dominance hierarchies when confined in pairs. These hierarchies are driven by aggressive competition over limited resources and result in one fish becoming dominant over the other. An important indicator of low social status is sustained elevation of circulating cortisol levels as a result of chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. In the present study it was hypothesized that social status modulates the expression of key proteins involved in the functioning of the HPI axis. Cortisol treatment and fasting were used to assess whether these characteristics seen in subordinate fish also affected HPI axis function. Social status modulated plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, cortisol synthesis, and liver glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. Plasma ACTH levels were lower by approximately 2-fold in subordinate and cortisol-treated fish, consistent with a negative feedback role for cortisol in modulating HPI axis function. Although cortisol-treated fish exhibited differences in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP) mRNA relative abundances in the preoptic area and telencephalon, respectively, no effect of social status on CRF or CRF-BP was detected. Head kidney melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) mRNA relative levels were unaffected by social status, while mRNA relative abundances of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme were elevated in dominant fish. Liver GR2 mRNA and total GR protein levels in subordinate fish were lower than control values by approximately 2-fold. In conclusion, social status modulated the functioning of the HPI axis in rainbow trout. Our results suggest altered cortisol dynamics and reduced target tissue response to this steroid in subordinate fish, while the higher transcript levels for steroid biosynthesis in dominant fish leads us to propose an

  16. Rhetorical Status: A Study of Its Origins, Functions, and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Cal M.; Miller, Eugene F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of rhetorical status, compares it to ethos and source credibility, and discusses social status and rhetorical status. Shows how rhetorical status enters into everyday communication by examining a protracted set of interactions between two sisters and a small-town mayor over disputed water bills. (SR)

  17. Field Operations Program Activities Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Francfort; D. V. O'Hara; L. A. Slezak

    1999-05-01

    The Field Operations Program is an electric vehicle testing and evaluation program sponsored by US Department of Energy and managed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Program's goals are to evaluate electric vehicles in real-world applications and environments, support electric vehicle technology advancement, develop infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use, support increased use of electric vehicles in federal fleets, and increase overall awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles. This report covers Program activities from fiscal year 1997 through mid-fiscal year 1999. The Field Operations Program succeeded the Site Operator Program, which ended in September 1996. Electric vehicle testing conducted by the Program includes baseline performance testing (EV America testing), accelerated reliability (life-cycle) testing, and fleet testing. The baseline performance parameters include accelerations, braking, range, energy efficiency, and charging time. The Program collects accelerated reliability and fleet operations data on electric vehicles operated by the Program's Qualified Vehicle Testing (QVT) partners. The Program's QVT partners have over 3 million miles of electric vehicle operating experience.

  18. Oral mucosal status and major salivary gland function

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, A.; Fox, P.C.; Ship, J.A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Baum, B.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Normal salivary function is considered to be critical for the maintenance of healthy oral mucosa. However, few studies have examined mucosal changes in patients with objectively documented salivary gland performance. In the present report, the mucosal status of 298 subjects being evaluated in a dry mouth clinic was assessed. A complete oral examination was performed and unstimulated and stimulated salivary samples were collected separately from the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands. Data were analyzed according to diagnosis and salivary output after the assignment of an oral mucosal rating to each subject. In general, the mucosal surfaces were well preserved and infections were not seen. Patients evaluated for Sjoegren's syndrome and radiation-induced xerostomia had the lowest salivary gland performance but displayed a mucosal status similar to denture-wearing healthy subjects or patients with normal salivary flow who had idiopathic xerostomia. However, those patients with a total lack of salivary flow rarely had normal-appearing oral mucosa. These results confirm a role for saliva in oral mucosal preservation and also suggest that other factors may act to maintain oral mucosal integrity.

  19. Bullied Status and Physical Activity in Texas Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Case, Kathleen R; Pérez, Adriana; Saxton, Debra L; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Springer, Andrew E

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the association between having been bullied at school during the past 6 months ("bullied status") and not meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations of 60 minutes of daily PA during the past week among 8th- and 11th-grade Texas adolescents. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine this association, adjusted for weight status, grade, race/ethnicity, and stratified by gender; furthermore, a significant interaction was found between bullied status and weight status. Results are presented by interaction status. Results indicated that overweight girls who reported never being bullied, as well as those who reported being bullied more than twice, had higher odds of not meeting PA recommendations than normal weight girls who were never bullied (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.12, 3.99]; AOR = 9.18, 95% CI [2.26, 37.27], respectively). Obese girls who were bullied once or twice had higher odds of not meeting PA recommendations than normal weight girls who were never bullied (AOR = 2.89, 95% CI [1.06, 7.89]). Overweight boys who reported never being bullied had lower odds of not meeting PA recommendations than normal weight boys who were never bullied (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI [0.39, 0.97]). Conversely, obese boys who were bullied once or twice reported higher odds of not meeting PA recommendations than normal weight boys who were never bullied (AOR = 3.61, 95% CI [1.22, 10.67]). Findings from this study indicate that the association between bullied status and meeting PA recommendations is complex and may differ by gender and the interaction between bullied status and weight status.

  20. Bullied Status and Physical Activity in Texas Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Kathleen R.; Pérez, Adriana; Saxton, Debra L.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Springer, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between having been bullied at school during the past 6 months ("bullied status") and not meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations of 60 minutes of daily PA during the past week among 8th- and 11th-grade Texas adolescents. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine this…

  1. Parent- Versus Child-Reported Functional Health Status After the Fontan Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Linda M.; Minich, L. LuAnn; Newburger, Jane W.; Lu, Minmin; Pemberton, Victoria L.; McGrath, Ellen A.; Atz, Andrew M.; Xu, Mingfen; Radojewski, Elizabeth; Servedio, Darlene; McCrindle, Brian W.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to compare perceptions of functional health status between children who had undergone a Fontan procedure and their parents. METHODS Fontan procedure survivors 10 to 18 years of age were included in the study if the child completed the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and the parent completed the parent form to assess the child’s functional health status. Comparisons were made between raw domain scores for the parent- and child-completed CHQs. RESULTS Between March 2003 and April 2004, 1078 Fontan survivors were screened. Of the 546 eligible and consented patients, 354 were 10 –18 years of age and 328 parent/child pairs completed the CHQs. Parents reported significantly lower scores (worse functioning) for their children than the children reported for themselves in the domains of physical functioning (P < .01), impact on school or activities from emotional and behavioral problems (P < .01), impact on school or activities from physical health issues (P<.01), general behavior (P < .01), mental health (P < .01), self-esteem (P < .01), and general health perceptions (P<.01). No significant differences were noted for the domains of bodily pain, family cohesiveness, or family activities. For the physical functioning domain, factors contributing to lower scores for parent versus child reports included pulmonary artery anomalies and fenestration at the time of the Fontan operation. Lower parent-reported scores also were associated with more noncardiac health problems in the child. CONCLUSIONS Parents’ perceptions of the functional health status of their children after the Fontan procedure were worse than the children’s perceptions. PMID:19841109

  2. Functional status outcome measures in home health care patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Scharpf, Tanya Pollack; Madigan, Elizabeth A

    2010-10-01

    Elderly, chronically ill patients' ability to stay at home is dependent on their capacity to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). The Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) defines ADLs and can be evaluated in various ways. The purpose of this research was to evaluate these approaches and make recommendations for use in research. Several different approaches to the evaluation of functional status were done using ADLs (ambulation, bathing, dressing lower body, dressing upper body, feeding, grooming, toileting, and transferring) scored individually and as indices. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages depending on the research question being asked. The ADL change index score provided the most comprehensive analysis of functional status change although the categorical scores are useful for simple approaches.

  3. Functional status outcome measures in home health care patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Scharpf, Tanya Pollack; Madigan, Elizabeth A

    2010-10-01

    Elderly, chronically ill patients' ability to stay at home is dependent on their capacity to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). The Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) defines ADLs and can be evaluated in various ways. The purpose of this research was to evaluate these approaches and make recommendations for use in research. Several different approaches to the evaluation of functional status were done using ADLs (ambulation, bathing, dressing lower body, dressing upper body, feeding, grooming, toileting, and transferring) scored individually and as indices. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages depending on the research question being asked. The ADL change index score provided the most comprehensive analysis of functional status change although the categorical scores are useful for simple approaches. PMID:21153996

  4. Vitamin K status and cognitive function in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Presse, Nancy; Belleville, Sylvie; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Greenwood, Carol E; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Morais, Jose A; Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna; Ferland, Guylaine

    2013-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating that vitamin K could have a role in cognition, especially in aging. Using data from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge), a cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the associations between vitamin K status, measured as serum phylloquinone concentrations, and performance in verbal and non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. The sample included 320 men and women aged 70 to 85 years who were free of cognitive impairment. After adjustment for covariates, higher serum phylloquinone concentration (log-transformed) was associated with better verbal episodic memory performances (F = 2.43, p = 0.048); specifically with the scores (Z-transformed) on the second (β = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.82), third (β = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.06-0.75), and 20-minute delayed (β = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.12-0.82) free recall trials of the RL/RI-16 Free and Cued Recall Task. No associations were found with non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. Our study adds evidence to the possible role of vitamin K in cognition during aging, specifically in the consolidation of the memory trace. PMID:23850343

  5. The longitudinal and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and host genotype upon neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Levine, Andrew J; Reynolds, Sandra; Cox, Christopher; Miller, Eric N; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Becker, James T; Martin, Eileen; Sacktor, Ned

    2014-06-01

    Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and illicit stimulant use can adversely impact neurocognitive functioning, and these effects can be additive. However, significant variability exists such that as-of-yet unidentified exogenous and endogenous factors affect one's risk for neurocognitive impairment. Literature on both HIV and stimulant use indicates that host genetic variants in immunologic and dopamine-related genes are one such factor. In this study, the individual and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and genotype upon neurocognitive functioning were examined longitudinally over a 10-year period. Nine hundred fifty-two Caucasian HIV+ and HIV- cases from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were included. All cases had at least two comprehensive neurocognitive evaluations between 1985 and 1995. Pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) data were examined in order to avoid the confounding effect of variable drug regimens. Linear mixed models were used, with neurocognitive domain scores as the outcome variables. No four-way interactions were found, indicating that HIV and stimulant use do not interact over time to affect neurocognitive functioning as a function of genotype. Multiple three-way interactions were found that involved genotype and HIV status. All immunologically related genes found to interact with HIV status affected neurocognitive functioning in the expected direction; however, only C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CCL3 affected HIV+ individuals specifically. Dopamine-related genetic variants generally affected HIV-negative individuals only. Neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals who also used stimulants was not significantly different from those who did not use stimulants. The findings support the role of immunologically related genetic differences in CCL2 and CCL3 in neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals; however, their impact is minor. Being consistent with findings from another cohort

  6. Functional Status of Long-Term Breast Cancer Survivors: Demonstrating Chronicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polinsky, Margaret L.

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed 223 breast cancer survivors 16 months to 32 years from original surgery to assess their current physical, psychological, and social functional status. Although general measures of functioning indicated high physical, psychological, and social functional status, measures specific to breast cancer diagnosis and treatment indicated problems…

  7. Symptoms and functional health status of individuals with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS).

    PubMed

    Berglund, B; Nordström, G

    2001-10-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an inherited connective tissue disorder that can have a substantial impact on daily life. The aims of this study were to describe the symptoms reported in a group of individuals with EDS and to investigate the impact on functional health status by means of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP). Seventy-seven individuals, members of the Swedish EDS Association, completed 2 mailed questionnaires. The most frequent symptoms were related to activity, e.g., joint problems (75%), to pain (71%), and to skin/tissue (52%). Pain was reported by 37 individuals (48%) as their most severe symptom. The SIP results showed an overall mean score of 13.0 (females 13.9, males 5.6), compared with a Swedish reference group with a SIP score 1.3. Women with EDS reported a better functional health status than females with rheumatoid arthritis (overall SIP score 13.9 versus 21.4). In comparison with women with fibromyalgia, the EDS females rated their functional health status as worse on the physical dimension (p <0.05) and the subscale home management (p <0.05), and as better on the subscale work (p <0.05). Impact of EDS on the individual's daily life needs to be acknowledged, assessed, and evaluated in healthcare. PMID:17039161

  8. Paraoxonase Activity and Oxidative Status in Patients with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Akyüz, Servet; Somuk, Battal Tahsin; Soyalic, Harun; Yılmaz, Beyhan; Taskin, Abdullah; Bilinc, Hasan; Aksoy, Nurten

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate serum paraoxanase-1 (PON) activity, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and the oxidative stress index (OSI) in tinnitus; and to compare the results with data from healthy subjects. Subjects and Methods A total of 114 subjects-54 patients with tinnitus and 60 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum PON activity, TOS, TAS, and OSI levels were measured. Results In the tinnitus group, TAS, and PON were significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.001). However, the TOS, and OSI levels were significantly higher in the tinnitus group than in the control group (p<0.001). Conclusions According to the data obtained from the present study, patients with tinnitus were exposed to potent oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may be the key contributing factor to the pathogenesis of tinnitus. PMID:27144229

  9. Systematic biases in functional status assessment of elderly adults: effects of different data sources.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, L Z; Schairer, C; Wieland, G D; Kane, R

    1984-11-01

    Measuring functional status using specific instruments is an important part of geriatric assessment. These instruments, however, often rely on data sources different from those with which they were originally validated. To study possible biasing effects of different data sources on functional status scores, we examined scores for two widely used instruments (the Lawton Personal Self-Maintenance Scale, PSMS, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, IADL, Scale) on a group of hospitalized elderly (n = 61) using three different data sources (the patients themselves, the patients' nurses, and significant others). Analysis showed that PSMS scores derived from patients were significantly higher than scores derived from significant others (p less than .025) and that patient-derived IADL scores were significantly higher than both nurse-derived scores (p less than .001) and significant-other-derived scores (p less than .001). We also compared scores for a group of nursing home patients (n = 68) on the Katz Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Scale, using data obtained from patients and their nurses. Again, the patient-derived scores were significantly higher than those from nurses (p less than .001). We conclude that data sources for determining patient functional ability are not interchangeable and that patients may overstate their functional abilities, whereas significant others may understate them, relative to judgments of skilled nursing personnel. PMID:6436360

  10. Functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Wemmer, David E.; Spence, Megan; Rubin, Seth

    2003-11-25

    A functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor that selectively associates with one or more target species, and a method for assaying and screening for one or a plurality of target species utilizing one or a plurality of functionalized active-nucleus complexes with at least two of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes having an attraction affinity to different corresponding target species. The functionalized active-nucleus complex has an active-nucleus and a targeting carrier. The method involves functionalizing an active-nucleus, for each functionalized active-nucleus complex, by incorporating the active-nucleus into a macromolucular or molecular complex that is capable of binding one of the target species and then bringing the macromolecular or molecular complexes into contact with the target species and detecting the occurrence of or change in a nuclear magnetic resonance signal from each of the active-nuclei in each of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes.

  11. Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    With the demographic aging of populations worldwide, diseases associated with aging are becoming more prevalent and costly to individuals, families, and healthcare systems. Among aging-related impairments, a decline in cognitive function is of particular concern, as it erodes memory and processing abilities and eventually leads to the need for institutionalized care. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutritional status is a key factor in the loss of cognitive abilities with aging. This is of tremendous importance, as dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that can be improved to help reduce the burden of cognitive impairment. With respect to nutrients, there is evidence to support the critical role of several B vitamins in particular, but also of vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins (including vitamin E), and omega-3 fatty acids, which are preferentially taken up by brain tissue. On the other hand, high intakes of nutrients that contribute to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and poor glycemic control may have negative effects on cognition through these conditions. Collectively, the evidence suggests that considerable slowing and reduction of cognitive decline may be achieved by following a healthy dietary pattern, which limits intake of added sugars, while maximizing intakes of fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds.

  12. Zinc and copper status of women by physical activity and menstrual status

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.; Deuster, P.A.; Kyle, S.B.; Moser, P.B.

    1986-03-01

    The zinc and copper status of 33 eumenorrheic (EU) and 12 amenorrheic (AM) female marathon runners and 19 EU and 8 AM nonrunners were determined from 3-day diet records and plasma and erythrocyte (RBC) levels. The study was conducted as a completely randomized 2 x 2 factorial. Mean daily zinc intakes of all groups fell below the recommended dietary allowances. Copper intakes of runners (EU = 1.3 mg; AM = 1.3 mg) were not significantly different. Menstrual status did not affect plasma zinc, RBC zinc or plasma copper levels. Physical activity however, affected RBC zinc and plasma copper levels. Both these parameters were significantly higher in runners. These findings suggest that exercise influences blood zinc and copper levels.

  13. The Relationship Between Sleep Disturbance and Functional Status in Mild Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinil; Kim, Yuntae; Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Doh-eui

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sleep state of mild stroke patients and relationship between sleep disturbance and functional status. Methods A total of 80 acute stroke patients were enrolled in this study. The criteria for inclusion in the study was as following: 1) first stroke, 2) cognitive function preserved enough to perform the test (Mini Mental State Examination ≥24), 3) good functional levels (Modified Rankin Scale ≤3), 4) upper extremity motor function preserved enough to perform occupational tests (hand strength test, Purdue pegboard test, 9-hole peg test, and Medical Research Council score ≥3), and 5) less than 2 weeks between the stroke and the assessment. Quality of sleep was assessed by using Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS). Activities of daily living was assessed by using the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) and depressed mood was assessed by using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Gross and fine motor function of the upper extremity was assessed by using hand strength test (Jamar dynamometer), Purdue pegboard test, and the 9-hole peg test. Results The results of the occupational assessment were fine in the good sleepers. The PSQI, ESS, and ISI were correlated with some of the assessment tools (BDI, MBI, Purdue pegboard, 9-hole peg, and hand strength). Conclusion In conclusion, this study emphasizes that sleep disturbance can affect the functional status in mild acute stroke patients. Therefore, clinicians must consider sleep status in stroke patients and need to work to control it. PMID:26361590

  14. Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S

    2012-08-01

    For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status. PMID:22841799

  15. S-sulfocysteine synthase function in sensing chloroplast redox status

    PubMed Central

    Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C.

    2013-01-01

    The minor chloroplastic O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase isoform encoded by the CS26 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana has been described as an S-sulfocysteine synthase enzyme that plays an important role in chloroplast function. This enzyme is located in the thylakoid lumen, and its S-sulfocysteine activity is essential for the proper photosynthetic performance of the chloroplast under long-day growth conditions. Based on the present knowledge of this enzyme, we suggest that S-sulfocysteine synthase functions as a protein sensor to detect the accumulation of thiosulfate as a result of the inadequate detoxification of reactive oxygen species generated under conditions of excess light to produce the S-sulfocysteine molecule that triggers protection mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:23333972

  16. S-sulfocysteine synthase function in sensing chloroplast redox status.

    PubMed

    Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

    2013-03-01

    The minor chloroplastic O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase isoform encoded by the CS26 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana has been described as an S-sulfocysteine synthase enzyme that plays an important role in chloroplast function. This enzyme is located in the thylakoid lumen, and its S-sulfocysteine activity is essential for the proper photosynthetic performance of the chloroplast under long-day growth conditions. Based on the present knowledge of this enzyme, we suggest that S-sulfocysteine synthase functions as a protein sensor to detect the accumulation of thiosulfate as a result of the inadequate detoxification of reactive oxygen species generated under conditions of excess light to produce the S-sulfocysteine molecule that triggers protection mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  17. [The functional status of the brain in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Berezovchuk, L V

    2008-07-01

    We performed electroencephalography to 11 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm in order to investigate the functional status of the brain. The relative potency (RP) of the main rhythms (alpha, beta, teta and delta) was increased, as well as the beta/alpha activation ratio. The increase of low-frequency rhythms (delta and teta) indicates the brain cortex hypoxia. The high-frequency reactivity of the brain (alpha- and beta-rhythms) was decreased in such patients, which was probably due to the decreased sensitivity of the receptor zone of the upper respiratory tract.

  18. Physical activity alters antioxidant status in exercising elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Margaritis, Irène; Arnaud, Josiane; Faure, Henri; Roussel, Anne-Marie

    2006-07-01

    Nutritional adequacy and physical activity are two aspects of a health-promoting lifestyle. Not much is known about antioxidant nutrient requirements for exercising elderly (EE) subjects. The question of whether exercise training alters the status of antioxidant vitamins as well as trace elements in elderly subjects and fails to balance the age-related increase in oxidative stress is addressed in this study. There were 18 EE (68.1+/-3.1 years), 7 sedentary elderly (SE; 70.4+/-5.0 years), 17 exercising young (EY; 31.2+/-7.1 years) and 8 sedentary young (SY; 27.1+/-5.8 years) subjects who completed 7-day food and activity records. Each subject's blood was sampled on Day 8. A similar selenium (Se) status but a higher erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were found in EE subjects as compared with EY and SE subjects. Blood oxidized glutathione was higher and plasma total thiol was lower in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. Mean vitamin C (167 vs. 106 mg/day), vitamin E (11.7 vs. 8.3 mg/day) and beta-carotene (4 vs. 2.4 mg/day) intakes were higher in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. However, EE subjects exhibited the lowest plasma carotenoid concentrations, especially in beta-carotene, which was not related to intakes. Despite high intakes of antioxidant micronutrients, no adaptive mechanism able to counteract the increased oxidative stress in aging was found in EE subjects. Results on GSH-Px activity illustrate that the nature of the regulation of this biomarker of Se status is different in response to training and aging. These data also strongly suggest specific antioxidant requirements for athletes with advancing age, with a special attention to carotenoids.

  19. Relationships between health status, depression and cognitive functions of institutionalized male veterans.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pei-Jung; Chiou, Chii-Jun; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among health state, depression, and cognitive functions of institutionalized male veterans. A cross-sectional and correlation research design with a cluster sampling was conducted. A total of 223 veterans who were above 65 years old, with no psychiatric disorders and no organic brain lesions were recruited from two veterans' institutions in Southern Taiwan. The researcher interviewed them one-on-one using structural questionnaires, including demographic data, health status, Taiwan Geriatric Depression Scale (TGDS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The results of this study were as follows: (1) Veterans who were able to read, were married, had good dietary habits, avoided over-oiled and high-fat food to keep healthy, took exercise at least 30 min each time, and had static leisure activities had significant differences in cognitive functions. (2) Cognitive functions were significantly negatively correlated with age and depression, whereas positively correlated with education level, the number of children and perceived health status. (3) Depression, literacy, education level and age were the four predictors of cognitive functions, accounting for 29% of the variance. The findings of this study provide a reference to caregivers and health care professionals for home care, clinical practice and cohort study in the future.

  20. Neutrophil function and energy status in Holstein cows with uterine health disorders.

    PubMed

    Hammon, D S; Evjen, I M; Dhiman, T R; Goff, J P; Walters, J L

    2006-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between peripheral blood neutrophil (PMN) function, energy status, and uterine health in periparturient dairy cows. Data were collected from 83 multiparous Holstein cows. Blood samples for PMN function determination were collected weekly from 1 week prior to calving (week -1) through 4 weeks after calving and again at 8 weeks after calving. Energy metabolites were measured and dry matter intake (DMI) was determined from weeks -2 to 5 to evaluate energy status of cows during the periparturient period. All cows were examined for uterine health disorders. Blood PMN killing ability was evaluated by determining myeloperoxidase activity and cytochrome c reduction activity in isolated blood PMN's. For cows that were diagnosed with puerperal metritis and subclinical (SC) endometritis and puerperal metritis, blood PMN functions were significantly (P<0.05) impaired during the periparturient period, compared to cows with normal uterine health. Cows with subclinical endometritis and puerperal metritis or SC endometritis also had significantly (P<0.01) higher NEFA and significantly (P<0.001) lower DMI during the periparturient period, and significantly (P<0.05) higher BHBA during early lactation, compared to cows with normal uterine health. Neutrophil function was also significantly (P<0.01) impaired in cows with peripartum negative energy balance, which was characterized by elevated blood levels of NEFA and decreased DMI. Decreased PMN function and energy balance were associated with uterine health disorders and the decreases in PMN function and energy balance occurred prior to parturition and prior to the detection of these uterine disorders.

  1. Representation of Functional Status Concepts from Clinical Documents and Social Media Sources by Standard Terminologies.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April F; Rashmi, V H; Weir, Charlene R; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Patient-reported functional status is widely recognized as an important patient-centered outcome that adds value to medical care, research, and quality improvement. Functional status outcomes are, however, not routinely or uniformly collected in the medical record, except in certain small patient populations (e.g. geriatrics, nursing home residents). To utilize patient reported functional status for clinical research and practice, we manually collected 2,763 terms from clinical records and social media sites and modeled them on the widely used Short Form-36 Health Survey. We then examined the coverage of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) for these functional status terms through automated mapping. Most terms (85.9%) did not have exact matches in the UMLS. The partial matches were prevalent, however, they typically did not capture the terms' exact semantics. Our study suggests that there is a need to extend existing standard terminologies to incorporate functional status terms used by patients and clinicians.

  2. Representation of Functional Status Concepts from Clinical Documents and Social Media Sources by Standard Terminologies

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April F.; Rashmi, V.H.; Weir, Charlene R.; Bray, Bruce E.; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Patient-reported functional status is widely recognized as an important patient-centered outcome that adds value to medical care, research, and quality improvement. Functional status outcomes are, however, not routinely or uniformly collected in the medical record, except in certain small patient populations (e.g. geriatrics, nursing home residents). To utilize patient reported functional status for clinical research and practice, we manually collected 2,763 terms from clinical records and social media sites and modeled them on the widely used Short Form-36 Health Survey. We then examined the coverage of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) for these functional status terms through automated mapping. Most terms (85.9%) did not have exact matches in the UMLS. The partial matches were prevalent, however, they typically did not capture the terms’ exact semantics. Our study suggests that there is a need to extend existing standard terminologies to incorporate functional status terms used by patients and clinicians. PMID:26958215

  3. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates. PMID:24666596

  4. Vitamin A status regulates glucocorticoid availability in Wistar rats: consequences on cognitive functions and hippocampal neurogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Bonhomme, Damien; Minni, Amandine M.; Alfos, Serge; Roux, Pascale; Richard, Emmanuel; Higueret, Paul; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Pallet, Véronique; Touyarot, Katia

    2014-01-01

    A disruption of the vitamin A signaling pathway has been involved in age-related memory decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations. Using vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a nutritional model leading to a hyposignaling of the retinoid pathway, we have recently demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, is efficient to reverse VAD-induced spatial memory deficits and adult hippocampal neurogenesis alterations. Besides, excess of glucocorticoids (GCs) occurring with aging is known to strongly inhibit hippocampal plasticity and functions and few studies report on the counteracting effects of RA signaling pathway on GCs action. Here, we have addressed whether the modulation of brain GCs availability could be one of the biological mechanisms involved in the effects of vitamin A status on hippocampal plasticity and functions. Thus, we have studied the effects of a vitamin A-free diet for 14 weeks and a 4-week vitamin A supplementation on plasma and hippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels in Wistar rats. We have also investigated corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) binding capacity and 11beta-Hydrosteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, both important modulators of CORT availability at the peripheral and hippocampal levels respectively. Interestingly, we show that the vitamin A status regulates levels of free plasma CORT and hippocampal CORT levels, by acting through a regulation of CBG binding capacity and 11β-HSD1 activity. Moreover, our results suggest that increased CORT levels in VAD rats could have some deleterious consequences on spatial memory, anxiety-like behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis whereas these effects could be corrected by a vitamin A supplementation. Thus, the modulation of GCs availability by vitamin A status is an important biological mechanism that should be taken into account in order to prevent age-related cognitive decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations. PMID:24550796

  5. The relationship between memory complaints, activity and perceived health status.

    PubMed

    Lee, P-L

    2014-04-01

    Subjective memory complaints (SMC) is a possible symptom of mild cognitive impairment which may progress to dementia. The present study examines the relationship of physical activity (PA), cognitive activity (CA), social activity (SA), and perceived health status (HS) with SMC for middle age and older adults. Participants were from the MIDUS II study (Midlife in the United States) recruited in 2004-2006 (Mean age = 55.99; N = 3030). Hierarchical multiple regression was performed with SMC as the dependent variable, along with PA, CA, SA, and HS as the independent variables. The study revealed that SMC was strongly related to PA, CA, and HS, while controlling covariates. Further, HS had the strongest link with SMC among these predictors while interaction effects (PA × HS, CA × HS, and SA × HS) were insignificant. In addition, different results were achieved in younger versus older groups. Participants with more CA, PA and perception of better health had lower frequency of memory complaints. PMID:24646046

  6. FY15 Status Report on NEAMS Neutronics Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C. H.; Shemon, E. R.; Smith, M. A.; Connaway, H. M.; Aliberti, G.

    2015-09-30

    This report summarizes the current status of NEAMS activities in FY2015. The tasks this year are (1) to improve solution methods for steady-state and transient conditions, (2) to develop features and user friendliness to increase the usability and applicability of the code, (3) to improve and verify the multigroup cross section generation scheme, (4) to perform verification and validation tests of the code using SFRs and thermal reactor cores, and (5) to support early users of PROTEUS and update the user manuals.

  7. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare. PMID:26658480

  8. [Perception of pain in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to inflammation, psychic disorders, functional status, and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Lisitsyna, T A; Vel'tishchev, D Iu; Gerasimov, A N; Seravina, O F; Kovalevskaia, O B; Zel'tyn', A E; Novikov, A A; Aleksandrova, E N; Tallerova, A V; Kovalenko, L P

    2013-01-01

    Pain perception was analyzed depending on the inflammatory activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), variants and manifestations of psychic disorders (including depressive, anxious and moderate cognitive ones), chronic fatigue, changes in the functional status and quality of life. The study included 125 patients (mean age 47.4 +/- 1.01 yr) with definitive diagnosis of RA 138.4 +/- 10.1 months in duration. RA activity was estimated from the DAS28 index, pain intensity and degree of fatigue by BPI and FSS scales respectively, the functional status and life quality by HAQ and EQ-5D. Psychic disorders were diagnosed by a psychiatrist in accordance with ICD-10 with the use of relevant psychiatric and psychological scales and methods. Pain perception was unrelated to the patients' age and RA duration. The multifactor analysis provided a basis for the prognostic model suggesting that the most severe pain in RA is related to the functional status and quality of life (VAS of general health status), hsCRP level, inflammatory activity index RA DAS28, peripheral platelet count, degree of fatigue (FSS) and depression (YADS), female sex. Depression and its severity is one more factor influencing pain perception in RA and accounting for functional insufficiency and low quality of life. Early diagnostics of psychic disorders (in the first place anxious and depressive ones) is mandatory to ensure effective combined therapy of pain in RA patients.

  9. Motor Ability and Weight Status Are Determinants of Out-of-School Activity Participation for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Lee, Velma Y. L.; Chan, Nerita N. C.; Chan, Rachel S. H.; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with…

  10. COOP-WONCA charts: a suitable functional status screening instrument in acute low back pain?

    PubMed Central

    Andres, E; Temme, M; Raderschatt, B; Szecsenyi, J; Sandholzer, H; Kochen, M M

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional status is considered an important measure of health status in primary care. The COOP-WONCA charts, which comprise six single-item scales, have mainly been used to determine functional ability in chronically ill patients. AIM: A study was carried out to determine whether the charts are able to measure the degree of functional impairment associated with acute illness and the improvement in functional ability accompanying the process of recovery. METHOD: A total of 95 patients presenting with acute low back pain were recruited from 15 single-handed general practices in northern Germany. At presentation and at two-week follow up, these patients completed self-administered questionnaires which included the COOP-WONCA charts. The charts ask patients to use the timescale of the past two weeks when rating their condition. Baseline and follow-up measurements of the charts were compared and correlations of chart scores with patients' measurements of pain intensity on a visual analogue scale, general practitioners' ratings of impairment and patients' measurements of recovery were analysed. RESULTS: Only the chart measuring change in health revealed a deterioration in functional ability associated with the onset of pain and an improvement in functional status at follow up. Two of the other charts indicated a deterioration at follow up. Only the chart measuring change in health was correlated with ratings of pain and impairment at baseline. At follow up, strong correlations were found between general practitioners' assessments of impairment, patients' ratings of pain and patients' ratings of recovery for all scales except for those measuring social activities and daily activities. The patients interpreted the instructions for using the COOP-WONCA charts differently; some included the period of acute back pain while others did not. CONCLUSION: Of the six charts only the change in health chart proved to be a suitable scale for measuring short-term changes

  11. Validation of the Malay Version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Aziz, Aniza Abd.; Mostapa, Mohd Rosmizaki; Awang, Zainudin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to examine the psychometric properties of Malay version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth (IFSAC). Design. A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods. A total of 108 postpartum mothers attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia, were involved. Construct validity and internal consistency were performed after the translation, content validity, and face validity process. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Moment Structure version 18 and Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences version 20. Results. The final model consists of four constructs, namely, infant care, personal care, household activities, and social and community activities, with 18 items demonstrating acceptable factor loadings, domain to domain correlation, and best fit (Chi-squared/degree of freedom = 1.678; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.923; comparative fit index = 0.936; and root mean square error of approximation = 0.080). Composite reliability and average variance extracted of the domains ranged from 0.659 to 0.921 and from 0.499 to 0.628, respectively. Conclusion. The study suggested that the four-factor model with 18 items of the Malay version of IFSAC was acceptable to be used to measure functional status after childbirth because it is valid, reliable, and simple. PMID:25667932

  12. Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function.

    PubMed

    Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Wagner, Márcia Santos; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2009-11-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function. PMID:20126850

  13. Profile and correlates of functional status in elderly patients presenting at a primary care clinic in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebusoye, Lawrence A.; Ogunbode, Adetola M.; Akinyemi, Joshua O.; Adebayo, Ayodeji M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessing the functional status of elderly patients is central in measuring their health outcome. Little is known about the functional status of elderly patients attending our primary care clinic in Nigeria. Objective To assess the correlates of functional status in elderly patients presenting at the General Outpatient Clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Method A cross-sectional study of 360 randomly selected patients aged 60 years and above was undertaken to assess their functional status by scoring their basic activities of daily living (BADL) using the Modified Bathel Index. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic data, anthropometric measurements and morbidities of each patient. Results The mean age was 69.1 ± 6.6 years with a female-to-male ratio of 1.9: 1. The prevalence of overall functional disability (defined as when assistance was sought in the performance of at least one of the components of BADL) was 88.3%. The highest prevalence of functional disability was experienced in the area of personal hygiene and grooming (95.3%) and transferring from bed to chair (95.3%). Overall functional disability significantly increased with increasing age (χ2 for trend=14.004, p < 0.0001), living in a polygamous family unit (p = 0.025), and lack of formal education (p = 0.020). Conclusion Functional disability was high amongst the elderly in this setting. Age, education, and living in a polygamous type of family unit had significant influence on the functional status. High premium should, therefore, be placed on considering these factors in reducing functional disability in the elderly. PMID:26245617

  14. Functional network changes in hippocampal CA1 after status epilepticus predict spatial memory deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Anna L; Mahoney, J Matthew; Richard, Gregory R; Holmes, Gregory L; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Scott, Rod C

    2012-08-15

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurological emergency, which has been associated with subsequent cognitive impairments. Neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 is thought to be an important mechanism of these impairments. However, it is also possible that functional interactions between surviving neurons are important. In this study we recorded in vivo single-unit activity in the CA1 hippocampal region of rats while they performed a spatial memory task. From these data we constructed functional networks describing pyramidal cell interactions. To build the networks, we used maximum entropy algorithms previously applied only to in vitro data. We show that several months following SE pyramidal neurons display excessive neuronal synchrony and less neuronal reactivation during rest compared with those in healthy controls. Both effects predict rat performance in a spatial memory task. These results provide a physiological mechanism for SE-induced cognitive impairment and highlight the importance of the systems-level perspective in investigating spatial cognition.

  15. Impact of natural disasters on the functional and health status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tomio, Jun; Sato, Hajime; Mizumura, Hiroko

    2011-08-01

    To examine the effects of natural disasters on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients we conducted a questionnaire survey targeted to 1,477 members of a nationwide RA patient group in Japan who lived in the municipalities affected by natural disasters between 2004 and 2006. Functional statuses measured by the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire and self-rated health statuses before and after the events were retrospectively examined. The associations between the changes in functional and health status and socio-demographics, direct damage, and preparedness status were statistically analyzed. Of the 665 individuals who responded, the data on 192 women RA patients were analyzed. The values at 1 and 6 months post-event were the same, with 14% experiencing deteriorations of functional status, while 22% experienced a worsening of self-rated health status. Those in poorer functional status before the events were more likely to experience deteriorations of functional [odds ratio (OR) 4.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-13.6] and health (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.7) status at both 1 month and 6 months (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.3-12.0, and OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.7, respectively) after the events. Based on these results, we conclude that the functional and health status of women RA patients could worsen due to the consequences of a natural disaster, with a disproportionately large impact upon those with a poorer functional status.

  16. 75 FR 62636 - Proposed Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Status of Dependents Questionnaire,...

  17. 78 FR 24469 - Proposed Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY... information technology. Title: Marital Status Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number:...

  18. Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…

  19. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  20. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status

    PubMed Central

    Prisciandaro, James J.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of “motivation to change:” 1) current treatment status (i.e., currently receiving vs. not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and 2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES; Miller and Tonigan, 1996). Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal, and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue-reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients. PMID:22458561

  1. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, James J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T

    2014-03-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of 'motivation to change': (1) current treatment status (i.e. currently receiving versus not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and (2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients.

  2. Phenotypic Variability in Resting-State Functional Connectivity: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We reviewed the extant literature with the goal of assessing the extent to which resting-state functional connectivity is associated with phenotypic variability in healthy and disordered populations. A large corpus of work has accumulated to date (125 studies), supporting the association between intrinsic functional connectivity and individual differences in a wide range of domains—not only in cognitive, perceptual, motoric, and linguistic performance, but also in behavioral traits (e.g., impulsiveness, risky decision making, personality, and empathy) and states (e.g., anxiety and psychiatric symptoms) that are distinguished by cognitive and affective functioning, and in neurological conditions with cognitive and motor sequelae. Further, intrinsic functional connectivity is sensitive to remote (e.g., early-life stress) and enduring (e.g., duration of symptoms) life experience, and it exhibits plasticity in response to recent experience (e.g., learning and adaptation) and pharmacological treatment. The most pervasive associations were observed with the default network; associations were also widespread between the cingulo-opercular network and both cognitive and affective behaviors, while the frontoparietal network was associated primarily with cognitive functions. Associations of somatomotor, frontotemporal, auditory, and amygdala networks were relatively restricted to the behaviors linked to their respective putative functions. Surprisingly, visual network associations went beyond visual function to include a variety of behavioral traits distinguished by affective function. Together, the reviewed evidence sets the stage for testing causal hypothesis about the functional role of intrinsic connectivity and augments its potential as a biomarker for healthy and disordered brain function. PMID:23294010

  3. Phenotypic variability in resting-state functional connectivity: current status.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Chandan J; Gordon, Evan M

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the extant literature with the goal of assessing the extent to which resting-state functional connectivity is associated with phenotypic variability in healthy and disordered populations. A large corpus of work has accumulated to date (125 studies), supporting the association between intrinsic functional connectivity and individual differences in a wide range of domains-not only in cognitive, perceptual, motoric, and linguistic performance, but also in behavioral traits (e.g., impulsiveness, risky decision making, personality, and empathy) and states (e.g., anxiety and psychiatric symptoms) that are distinguished by cognitive and affective functioning, and in neurological conditions with cognitive and motor sequelae. Further, intrinsic functional connectivity is sensitive to remote (e.g., early-life stress) and enduring (e.g., duration of symptoms) life experience, and it exhibits plasticity in response to recent experience (e.g., learning and adaptation) and pharmacological treatment. The most pervasive associations were observed with the default network; associations were also widespread between the cingulo-opercular network and both cognitive and affective behaviors, while the frontoparietal network was associated primarily with cognitive functions. Associations of somatomotor, frontotemporal, auditory, and amygdala networks were relatively restricted to the behaviors linked to their respective putative functions. Surprisingly, visual network associations went beyond visual function to include a variety of behavioral traits distinguished by affective function. Together, the reviewed evidence sets the stage for testing causal hypothesis about the functional role of intrinsic connectivity and augments its potential as a biomarker for healthy and disordered brain function. PMID:23294010

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Related to Impaired Cognitive and Functional Status after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, Justine A.; van Bennekom, Coen A.M.; Hofman, Winni F.; van Bezeij, Tijs; van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Groet, Erny; Kylstra, Wytske A.; Schmand, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients and is associated with prolonged hospitalization, decreased functional outcome, and recurrent stroke. Research on the effect of OSA on cognitive functioning following stroke is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to compare stroke patients with and without OSA on cognitive and functional status upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation. Design: Case-control study. Setting and Patients: 147 stroke patients admitted to a neurorehabilitation unit. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: All patients underwent sleep examination for diagnosis of OSA. We assessed cognitive status by neuropsychological examination and functional status by two neurological scales and a measure of functional independence. Results: We included 80 stroke patients with OSA and 67 stroke patients without OSA. OSA patients were older and had a higher body mass index than patients without OSA. OSA patients performed worse on tests of attention, executive functioning, visuoperception, psychomotor ability, and intelligence than those without OSA. No differences were found for vigilance, memory, and language. OSA patients had a worse neurological status, lower functional independence scores, and a longer period of hospitalization in the neurorehabilitation unit than the patients without OSA. OSA status was not associated with stroke type or classification. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a lower cognitive and functional status in patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. This underlines the importance of OSA as a probable prognostic factor, and calls for well-designed randomized controlled trials to study its treatability. Citation: Aaronson JA, van Bennekom CA, Hofman WF, van Bezeij T, van den Aardweg JG, Groet E, Kylstra WA, Schmand B. Obstructive sleep apnea is related to impaired cognitive and functional status after stroke. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1431–1437. PMID

  5. Mental health status can reflect disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sokolovic, Sekib; Dervisevic, Vedina; Fisekovic, Saida

    2014-01-01

    Objective A significant number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) link the start of illness with psychological trauma or severe stress. Impaired mental health (IMH), defined as depression and anxiety with psychoneuroimmunological factors, can play a significant role in RA. The main objective of this research was to investigate the mutual correlation of IMH and RA activity, estimated by the laboratory and clinical parameters in RA patients. Material and Methods An open clinical prospective study that lasted for 6 months was designed. There were 72 patients included, 58 women and 14 men, aged 34 to 80 years and screened for mental health status. The study population was randomized following the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI) scale, comprised of 53 questions with a range from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (severe). This mental test was done only once during the study. Following the results from the BSI scale, RA patients were divided into mentally stable and mentally unstable patients to investigate the influence of RA activity on mental health. The following laboratory and clinical parameters were analyzed: sex, age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody, and disease activity score (DAS28). All RA patients did not express extra-articular manifestations or Sjögren’s syndrome. The chi-square test, ANOVA, Pearson’s coefficient, and IBM Statistics - SPSS v19 were used. Results From a total of 72 RA patients, there were 44 mentally stable and 28 mentally unstable patients. All patients had either moderate or severe active disease. The only significant correlation of IMH and activity of RA was found in CRP and DAS28, but no significance was observed in ESR, RF, and anti-CCP. The DAS28 showed high disease activity with an average of 5.3 and CRP of 20.9 mg/L in patients with unstable mental health compared to stable mental health patients, where RA was associated with

  6. The Relationship between Occupational Status and Physical Activity in Korea.

    PubMed

    So, Wi-Young; Yoo, Byoung-Wook; Sung, Dong Jun

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between occupational status and physical activity (PA) in Korea. A total of 9,000 Koreans age 10 to 89 years participated in the Korean Survey of Citizens' Sports Participation project in 2012. However, 3,851 participants were excluded from the analysis (housewives, students, and the jobless), providing a sample size of 5,149 participants (3,165 men and 1,984 women) for this study. The association between occupational status and PA was then evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for reporting at least weekly PA according to job intensity, after adjusting for sex and age, were as follows: moderate-intensity jobs, 1.164 [1.026, 1.320], p = .018; and vigorous-intensity jobs, 1.591 [1.318, 1.921], p < .001, compared with low-intensity jobs as a reference category. For PA intensity in low- and moderate-intensity jobs, after adjusting for sex and age, the ORs (95% CI) were as follows: low-intensity PA, 1.355 [1.033, 1.778], p = .028, moderate PA, 1.227 [1.096, 1.487], p = .002, and vigorous PA, 1.570 [1.213, 2.032], p < .001, compared with sedentary as a reference category. For the intensity of PA among participants with low- or vigorous-intensity jobs, after adjusting for sex and age, the ORs (95% CI) were as follows: low-intensity PA, 1.015 [0.649, 1.586], p = .948, moderate-intensity PA, 1.890 [1.416, 2.522], p < .001, and vigorous-intensity PA, 2.403 [1.395, 4.139], p = .002, compared with sedentary as a reference category. For the intensity of PA between moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity jobs, after adjusting for sex and age, the ORs (95% CI) were as follows: low-intensity PA, 1.010 [0.759, 1.344], p = .945, moderate-intensity PA, 1.381 [1.136, 1.678], p = .001, and vigorous-intensity PA, 1.595 [1.023, 2.486], p = .039, compared to sedentary as a reference category. The presented findings show a strong association between

  7. Current status of function-preserving surgery for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Takuro; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in diagnostic techniques have allowed the diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC) at an early stage. Due to the low incidence of lymph node metastasis and favorable prognosis in early GC, function-preserving surgery which improves postoperative quality of life may be possible. Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is one such function-preserving procedure, which is expected to offer advantages with regards to dumping syndrome, bile reflux gastritis, and the frequency of flatus, although PPG may induce delayed gastric emptying. Proximal gastrectomy (PG) is another function-preserving procedure, which is thought to be advantageous in terms of decreased duodenogastric reflux and good food reservoir function in the remnant stomach, although the incidence of heartburn or gastric fullness associated with this procedure is high. However, these disadvantages may be overcome by the reconstruction method used. The other important problem after PG is remnant GC, which was reported to occur in approximately 5% of patients. Therefore, the reconstruction technique used with PG should facilitate postoperative endoscopic examinations for early detection and treatment of remnant gastric carcinoma. Oncologic safety seems to be assured in both procedures, if the preoperative diagnosis is accurate. Patient selection should be carefully considered. Although many retrospective studies have demonstrated the utility of function-preserving surgery, no consensus on whether to adopt function-preserving surgery as the standard of care has been reached. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary to evaluate survival and postoperative quality of life associated with function-preserving surgery. PMID:25516640

  8. Obstacles to activity pacing: assessment, relationship to activity and functioning.

    PubMed

    Cane, Douglas; McCarthy, Mary; Mazmanian, Dwight

    2016-07-01

    Activity pacing is frequently included among the strategies provided to individuals with chronic pain to manage pain and improve functioning. Individuals with chronic pain may, however, limit their use of activity pacing because they perceive significant obstacles to its use. This study describes the development of a measure to assess obstacles to activity pacing and examines the relationship of this measure to activity patterns and functioning. A sample of 637 individuals with chronic pain completed items describing potential obstacles to activity pacing as part of their pretreatment assessment. Item analyses were used to construct a 14-item measure of obstacles to activity pacing. A subset of these individuals completed the measure again after completion of a group treatment program. The resulting measure demonstrated excellent internal consistency and was minimally affected by social desirability. Correlations with measures of activity and psychosocial functioning provided initial construct validity for the measure. Sex differences were found with women initially identifying more obstacles to activity pacing. Fewer obstacles were identified by both men and women after treatment, and these changes were related to modest changes in activity patterns and functioning. The present results identify a number of obstacles that may limit the use of activity pacing by individuals with chronic pain. Treatment may result in a decrease in the number of obstacles identified, and this change is related to changes in the individual's activity pattern and psychosocial functioning. PMID:26963845

  9. 76 FR 67556 - Proposed Information Collection (Notice of Change in Student Status) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... comments for information needed to report changes in students' enrollment status. DATES: Written comments... collection. Abstract: Educational institutions use VA Form 22-1999b to report a student's enrollment status... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Notice of Change in Student Status) Activity: Comment...

  10. Status report on the survey and alignment activities at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Oshinowo, Babatunde O'Sheg; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The surveying and alignment activities at Fermilab are the responsibility of the Alignment and Metrology Group. The Group supports and interacts with physicists and engineers working on any particular project, from the facility construction phase to the installation and final alignment of components in the beam line. One of the goals of the Alignment and Metrology Group is to upgrade the old survey networks in the tunnel using modern surveying technology, such as the Laser Tracker for tunnel networks and GPS for the surface networks. According to the job needs, all surveys are done with Laser Trackers and/or Videogrammetry (V-STARS) systems for spatial coordinates; optical and electronic levels are used for elevations, Gyro-Theodolite for azimuths, Mekometer for distances and GPS for baseline vectors. The group has recently purchased two new API Laser Trackers, one INCA3 camera for the V-Stars, and one DNA03 digital level. This report presents the projects and major activities of the Alignment and Metrology Group at Fermilab during the period of 2000 to 2004. It focuses on the most important current projects, especially those that have to be completed during the currently scheduled three-month shutdown period. Future projects, in addition to the status of the current projects, are also presented.

  11. From Wasting to Obesity: The Contribution of Nutritional Status to Immune Activation in HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Koethe, John R; Heimburger, Douglas C; PrayGod, George; Filteau, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on innate and adaptive immune activation occurs in the context of host factors, which serve to augment or dampen the physiologic response to the virus. Independent of HIV infection, nutritional status, particularly body composition, affects innate immune activation through a variety of conditions, including reduced mucosal barrier defenses and microbiome dysbiosis in malnutrition and the proinflammatory contribution of adipocytes and stromal vascular cells in obesity. Similarly, T-cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine expression are reduced in the setting of malnutrition and increased in obesity, potentially due to adipokine regulatory mechanisms restraining energy-avid adaptive immunity in times of starvation and exerting a paradoxical effect in overnutrition. The response to HIV infection is situated within these complex interactions between host nutritional health and immunologic function, which contribute to the varied phenotypes of immune activation among HIV-infected patients across a spectrum from malnutrition to obesity.

  12. From Wasting to Obesity: The Contribution of Nutritional Status to Immune Activation in HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Koethe, John R; Heimburger, Douglas C; PrayGod, George; Filteau, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on innate and adaptive immune activation occurs in the context of host factors, which serve to augment or dampen the physiologic response to the virus. Independent of HIV infection, nutritional status, particularly body composition, affects innate immune activation through a variety of conditions, including reduced mucosal barrier defenses and microbiome dysbiosis in malnutrition and the proinflammatory contribution of adipocytes and stromal vascular cells in obesity. Similarly, T-cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine expression are reduced in the setting of malnutrition and increased in obesity, potentially due to adipokine regulatory mechanisms restraining energy-avid adaptive immunity in times of starvation and exerting a paradoxical effect in overnutrition. The response to HIV infection is situated within these complex interactions between host nutritional health and immunologic function, which contribute to the varied phenotypes of immune activation among HIV-infected patients across a spectrum from malnutrition to obesity. PMID:27625434

  13. Use of functional status measures for payment of medical rehabilitation services.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, D L; Batavia, A I; DeJong, G

    1992-02-01

    In the search for an appropriate payment system for medical rehabilitation hospitals and units, the use of a functional status measure (FSM) has emerged as a recurring theme. Conceptually, functional status measurement is important because the primary goal of medical rehabilitation is to enhance patient function and independence. Studies indicate that functional status and functional gain are among the best predictors of resource utilization at rehabilitation facilities. This article examines conceptually the use of FSMs in payment for medical rehabilitation in two different types of payment systems--as a means of classifying patients for purposes of determining the applicable payment amount (ie, a "classification system"), and as a means of justifying that payment, or continued payment, for services is appropriate (ie, a "justification system"). Several payment models using an FSM are described and analyzed. An agenda for future research is proposed.

  14. Interactions between nutrition and immune function: using inflammation biomarkers to interpret micronutrient status.

    PubMed

    Thurnham, David I

    2014-02-01

    The immune response promotes a complex series of reactions by the host in an effort to prevent ongoing tissue damage, isolate and destroy the infective organism and activate the repair processes that are necessary for restoring normal function. The homoeostatic process is known as inflammation and the early set of reactions that are induced are known as the acute phase response (APR). The APR has marked effects on the circulation, metabolism in the liver and the plasma concentration of many nutrients. The changes in nutrient concentrations follow a cyclic pattern; occurring before any clinical evidence of disease, being at their most pronounced during the disease and remaining in convalescence when all evidence of disease or trauma has disappeared. Therefore, where susceptibility to disease is high as in people who are HIV+ but still apparently healthy, obtaining an accurate measurement of nutritional status may not be possible. Accurate measurements of status are important for national statistics to plan for the proper utilisation of government resources and they are especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of nutritional interventions. Many acute phase proteins (APP) are synthesised during inflammation and they are used to monitor the progress of disease and recovery but, individually, none of their lifecycles compare well with those of the nutritional biomarkers. Nevertheless, recognising the presence of inflammation can help interpret data and, using two APP, this review paper will illustrate the methods we have developed to assist interpretation of plasma retinol, ferritin and zinc concentrations in apparently healthy, HIV+, Kenyan adults.

  15. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Kidney Injury: Present Status

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai Ying; Chen, Tian Wu; Zhang, Xiao Ming

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of hospitalization that is characterized by a sudden loss of renal excretory function and associated with the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease, poor prognosis, and increased mortality. Although the pathophysiology of renal functional impairment in the setting of AKI remains poorly understood, previous studies have identified changes in renal hemodynamics, perfusion, and oxygenation as key factors in the development and progression of AKI. The early assessment of these changes remains a challenge. Many established approaches are not applicable to humans because of their invasiveness. Functional renal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers an alternative assessment tool that could be used to evaluate renal morphology and function noninvasively and simultaneously. Thus, the purpose of this review is to illustrate the principle, application, and role of the techniques of functional renal MR imaging, including blood oxygen level-dependent imaging, arterial spin labeling, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging, in the management of AKI. The use of gadolinium in MR imaging may exacerbate renal impairment and cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Therefore, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging will not be discussed in this paper. PMID:26925411

  16. The Argonne wakefield accelerator facility: status and recent activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Conde, M. E.; Antipov, S.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Konecny, R.; Liu, W.; Power, J. G.; Wang, H.; Yusof, Z.; High Energy Physics

    2005-01-01

    The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Facility (AWA) is dedicated to the study of electron beam physics and the development of accelerating structures based on electron beam driven wakefields. In order to carry out these studies, the facility employs a photocathode RF gun capable of generating electron beams with high bunch charges (up to 100 nC) and short bunch lengths. This high intensity beam is used to excite wakefields in the structures under investigation. The wakefield structures presently under development are dielectric loaded cylindrical waveguides with operating frequencies of 7.8 or 15.6 GHz. The facility is also used to investigate the generation and propagation of high brightness electron beams. Presently under investigation, is the use of photons with energies lower than the work function of the cathode surface (Schottky-enabled photoemission), aimed at generating electron beams with low thermal emittance. Novel electron beam diagnostics are also developed and tested at the facility. The AWA electron beam is also used in laboratory-based astrophysics experiments; namely, measurements of microwave Cherenkov radiation and fluorescence of air. We report on the current status of the facility and present recent results.

  17. What Are the Links between Maternal Social Status, Hippocampal Function, and HPA Axis Function in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; How, Joan; Araujo, Melanie; Schamberg, Michelle A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The association of parental social status with multiple health and achievement indicators in adulthood has driven researchers to attempt to identify mechanisms by which social experience in childhood could shift developmental trajectories. Some accounts for observed linkages between parental social status in childhood and health have hypothesized…

  18. Perceptions of Intrapsychic and Extrapsychic Functioning as Bases of Adolescent Ego Identity Statuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    Ranging between 15 to 20 years of age, 178 subjects participated in a study designed to assess whether adolescents' perceptions of intrapsychic and extrapsychic functioning could be used to discriminate between pure identity statuses. Intrapsychic functioning was conceptualized to include degree of self-conscious reasoning and quality of the…

  19. Effect of Circulation Parameters on Functional Status of HepaRG Spheroids Cultured in Microbioreactor.

    PubMed

    Semenova, O V; Petrov, V A; Gerasimenko, T N; Aleksandrova, A V; Burmistrova, O A; Khutornenko, A A; Osipyants, A I; Poloznikov, A A; Sakharov, D A

    2016-07-01

    We studied the relationship between microcirculation parameters and functional status of HepaRG cells in spheroids and chose an optimal regimen within the physiologically permissible limits of mechanical impact for the cells that maintains the expression of functional genes of the liver. PMID:27496037

  20. Parenting, Family Socioeconomic Status, and Child Executive Functioning: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…

  1. Radio Astronomy in Malaysia: Current Status and Outreach Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Umar, R.; Hassan, M. S. R.; Rosli, Z.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Ibrahim, Z. A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we will present the current status of radio astronomical research and outreach in Malaysia. We will also present a short history of our research group, which is currently the only radio astronomical facility in Malaysia. Our group is called the Radio Cosmology Research Lab and was established in 2005 by Dr Zamri Zainal Abidin and Prof Dr Zainol Abidin Ibrahim. We will discuss the future plans for this group including our keen interest in being part of a more global network of radio astronomers. We are already an active member of the South-East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and aims to have a radio astronomical facility in order to join the Global Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) as well becoming a research hub for the future Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project. We will also present some of the scientific goals of our group including providing a platform for radio astronomers to be able to do observations of weak and high red-shifted radio objects such as galaxy clusters and supernovae.

  2. Current Status of Functional Imaging in Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Guido K.W.; Kaye, Walter H.

    2013-01-01

    Eating Disorders are complex psychiatric problems that involve biologic and psychological factors. Brain imaging studies provide insights how functionally connected brain networks may contribute to disturbed eating behavior, resulting in food refusal and altered body weight, but also body preoccupations and heightened anxiety. In this article we review the current state of brain imaging in eating disorders, and how such techniques may help identify pathways that could be important in the treatment of those often detrimental disorders. PMID:22532388

  3. The hyporheic zone and its functions: revision and research status in Neotropical regions.

    PubMed

    Mugnai, R; Messana, G; Di Lorenzo, T

    2015-08-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ), as the connecting ecotone between surface- and groundwater, is functionally part of both fluvial and groundwater ecosystems. Its hydrological, chemical, biological and metabolic features are specific of this zone, not belonging truly neither to surface- nor to groundwater. Exchanges of water, nutrients, and organic matter occur in response to variations in discharge and bed topography and porosity. Dynamic gradients exist at all scales and vary temporally. Across all scales, the functional significance of the HZ relates to its activity and connection with the surface stream. The HZ is a relatively rich environment and almost all invertebrate groups have colonized this habitat. This fauna, so-called hyporheos, is composed of species typical from interstitial environment, and also of benthic epigean and phreatic species. The hyporheic microbiocenose consists in bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. The HZ provides several ecosystem services, playing a pivotal role in mediating exchange processes, including both matter and energy, between surface and subterranean ecosystems, functioning as regulator of water flow, benthic invertebrates refuge and place of storage, source and transformation of organic matter. The hyporheic zone is one of the most threatened aquatic environments, being strongly influenced by human activities, and the least protected by legislation worldwide. Its maintenance and conservation is compelling in order to preserve the ecological interconnectivity among the three spatial dimensions of the aquatic environment. Although several researchers addressed the importance of the hyporheic zone early, and most contemporary stream ecosystem models explicitly include it, very little is known about the HZ of Neotropical regions. From a biological standpoint, hyporheos fauna in Neotropical regions are still largely underestimated. This review focuses on a brief presentation of the hyporheic zone and its functions and significance as

  4. The hyporheic zone and its functions: revision and research status in Neotropical regions.

    PubMed

    Mugnai, R; Messana, G; Di Lorenzo, T

    2015-08-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ), as the connecting ecotone between surface- and groundwater, is functionally part of both fluvial and groundwater ecosystems. Its hydrological, chemical, biological and metabolic features are specific of this zone, not belonging truly neither to surface- nor to groundwater. Exchanges of water, nutrients, and organic matter occur in response to variations in discharge and bed topography and porosity. Dynamic gradients exist at all scales and vary temporally. Across all scales, the functional significance of the HZ relates to its activity and connection with the surface stream. The HZ is a relatively rich environment and almost all invertebrate groups have colonized this habitat. This fauna, so-called hyporheos, is composed of species typical from interstitial environment, and also of benthic epigean and phreatic species. The hyporheic microbiocenose consists in bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. The HZ provides several ecosystem services, playing a pivotal role in mediating exchange processes, including both matter and energy, between surface and subterranean ecosystems, functioning as regulator of water flow, benthic invertebrates refuge and place of storage, source and transformation of organic matter. The hyporheic zone is one of the most threatened aquatic environments, being strongly influenced by human activities, and the least protected by legislation worldwide. Its maintenance and conservation is compelling in order to preserve the ecological interconnectivity among the three spatial dimensions of the aquatic environment. Although several researchers addressed the importance of the hyporheic zone early, and most contemporary stream ecosystem models explicitly include it, very little is known about the HZ of Neotropical regions. From a biological standpoint, hyporheos fauna in Neotropical regions are still largely underestimated. This review focuses on a brief presentation of the hyporheic zone and its functions and significance as

  5. Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions: Status and prospects*

    DOE PAGES

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, Ian I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F. A.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; et al

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we review transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum qT spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low qT, and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present the application of a new tool, TMDLIB, to parton density fits and parameterizations.

  6. SHOX haploinsufficiency and overdosage: impact of gonadal function status

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, T.; Matsuo, N.; Nishimura, G.

    2001-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1997, knowledge about the SHOX gene has rapidly increased. In this review, we summarise clinical features and diagnostic and therapeutic implications in SHOX haploinsufficiency and overdosage. SHOX haploinsufficiency usually results in mesomelic short stature and Turner skeletal features, including Madelung deformity with puberty, in subjects with normal gonadal function. Thus, identification of early or mild signs of Madelung deformity is pivotal for the diagnosis, and gonadal suppression therapy may serve to mitigate the clinical features. By contrast, SHOX overdosage usually leads to long limbs and tall stature resulting from continued growth into the late teens in subjects with gonadal dysgenesis. Thus, the combination of tall stature and poor pubertal development is the key to diagnosis, and oestrogen therapy can help the prevention of unfavourably tall stature as well as the induction of sexual development. These findings, in conjunction with skeletal assessment in Turner syndrome and expression analysis during human embryogenesis, imply that SHOX functions as a repressor for growth plate fusion and skeletal maturation in the distal limbs and, thus, counteracts the skeletal maturing effects of oestrogens.


Keywords: SHOX; oestrogens; clinical features; practical implications PMID:11134233

  7. Relationship Status and Activated Kin Support: The Role of Need and Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazelis, Joan Maya; Mykyta, Laryssa

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we examined whether mothers' (N = 4,127) and fathers' (N = 3,405) relationship status influenced their activation of financial support from relatives over time. We found that relationship status influenced the activation of financial support from relatives but that the effects…

  8. Status of point spread function determination for Keck adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragland, S.; Jolissaint, L.; Wizinowich, P.; Neyman, C.

    2014-07-01

    There is great interest in the adaptive optics (AO) science community to overcome the limitations imposed by incomplete knowledge of the point spread function (PSF). To address this limitation a program has been initiated at the W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) to demonstrate PSF determination for observations obtained with Keck AO science instruments. This paper aims to give a broad view of the progress achieved in this area. The concept and the implementation are briefly described. The results from on-sky on-axis NGS AO measurements using the NIRC2 science instrument are presented. On-sky performance of the technique is illustrated by comparing the reconstructed PSFs to NIRC2 PSFs. Accuracy of the reconstructed PSFs in terms of Strehl ratio and FWHM are discussed. Science cases for the first phase of science verification have been identified. More technical details of the program are presented elsewhere in the conference.

  9. Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions: Status and prospects*

    SciTech Connect

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, Ian I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F. A.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; Ferrera, G.; Grados Luyando, J.; Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Kasemets, T.; Kutak, K.; Lansberg, J. P.; Lykasov, G.; Madrigal Martinez, J. D.; Mulders, P. J.; Nocera, E. R.; Petreska, E.; Pisano, C.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Radici, M.; Schnell, G.; Signori, A.; Szymanowski, L.; Taheri Monfared, S.; Van der Veken, F. F.; van Haevermaet, H. J.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vladimirov, A. A.; Wallon, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we review transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum qT spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low qT, and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present the application of a new tool, TMDLIB, to parton density fits and parameterizations.

  10. Quantifying Health Status and Function in Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sandesh S; Venuti, Kristen D; Dietz, Harry C; Sponseller, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Two hundred thirty patients were prospectively enrolled in this study and completed various portions of the Short Form 36 and a study-specific questionnaire (visual analog scale 1 to 10, comprising three separate questionnaires) to evaluate quality of life and function in patients with Marfan syndrome. The greatest health concern was cardiac problems (high in 70% of patients), followed by spine issues and generalized fatigue (both high, in 53%). The most severe reported pain involved the back: 105 patients (46%) rated pain as 6 to 10 on the visual analog scale. Among the 72 patients who responded to work life questions, work hours were reduced because of treatment in 59 (82%) or directly because of Marfan syndrome in 29 (40%). Across all Short Form 36 domains, patients scored significantly lower than United States population norms (p<.05); physical health scores were considerably lower than mental health scores. PMID:27082886

  11. Photon Strength Functions below GDER Maximum: Present Status and Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Krticka, Milan

    2009-01-28

    Existing experimental data on {gamma} decay of energy levels in medium-weight and heavy nuclei at excitation energies well above the pairing gap indicate that the role of nuclear structure effects is small and that this decay is largely governed by the extreme statistical model. Specifically, in line with the validity of Brink hypothesis and the paradigm of photon strength, the average properties of the {gamma} decay can be described by a set of photon strength functions (PSFs) for individual multipolarities and by the level density function. PSFs are directly related to the photoabsorption cross sections {sigma}{sub {gamma}}{sub abs}. It is well known that in the case of E1 radiation this cross section is dominated by the giant dipole electric resonance. However the size of {sigma}{sub {gamma}}{sub abs.} and its {gamma}-ray energy dependence at energies below the neutron threshold are known rather poorly. In the case of higher multipolarities (M1, E2,...) the present knowledge about their roles is much worse. Available information on E1 and M1 PSFs obtained from various kinds of experiments in the {gamma}-ray energy region of interest will be discussed within the widely used models. It will be shown that none of them seems to be able to describe PSFs reasonably for a broad range of nuclei. Emphasis will be also laid on the properties of the scissors mode and other possible resonance-like structures in PSFs at energies below about 10 MeV. Perspectives of further studies of PSFs will be outlined.

  12. Contractile Function During Angiotensin-II Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Prosser, Benjamin L.; Bamboye, Moradeke A.; Gondim, Antonio N.S.; Santos, Celio X.; Martin, Daniel; Ghigo, Alessandra; Perino, Alessia; Brewer, Alison C.; Ward, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Emilio; Lederer, W. Jonathan; Shah, Ajay M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Renin-angiotensin system activation is a feature of many cardiovascular conditions. Activity of myocardial reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NADPH oxidase 2 or Nox2) is enhanced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and contributes to increased hypertrophy, fibrosis, and adverse remodeling. Recent studies found that Nox2-mediated reactive oxygen species production modulates physiological cardiomyocyte function. Objectives This study sought to investigate the effects of cardiomyocyte Nox2 on contractile function during increased Ang II activation. Methods We generated a cardiomyocyte-targeted Nox2-transgenic mouse model and studied the effects of in vivo and ex vivo Ang II stimulation, as well as chronic aortic banding. Results Chronic subpressor Ang II infusion induced greater cardiac hypertrophy in transgenic than wild-type mice but unexpectedly enhanced contractile function. Acute Ang II treatment also enhanced contractile function in transgenic hearts in vivo and transgenic cardiomyocytes ex vivo. Ang II–stimulated Nox2 activity increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ uptake in transgenic mice, increased the Ca2+ transient and contractile amplitude, and accelerated cardiomyocyte contraction and relaxation. Elevated Nox2 activity increased phospholamban phosphorylation in both hearts and cardiomyocytes, related to inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 activity. In a model of aortic banding–induced chronic pressure overload, heart function was similarly depressed in transgenic and wild-type mice. Conclusions We identified a novel mechanism in which Nox2 modulates cardiomyocyte SR Ca2+ uptake and contractile function through redox-regulated changes in phospholamban phosphorylation. This mechanism can drive increased contractility in the short term in disease states characterized by enhanced renin-angiotensin system activation. PMID:26184620

  13. Functional activity monitoring from wearable sensor data.

    PubMed

    Nawab, S Hamid; Roy, Serge H; De Luca, Carlo J

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented for the interpretation and use of EMG and accelerometer data to monitor, identify, and categorize functional motor activities in individuals whose movements are unscripted, unrestrained, and take place in the "real world". Our proposed solution provides a novel and practical way of conceptualizing physical activities that facilitates the deployment of modern signal processing and interpretation techniques to carry out activity monitoring. A hierarchical approach is adopted that is based upon: 1) blackboard and rule-based technology from artificial intelligence to support a process in which coarse-grained activity partitioning forms the context for finer-grained activity partitioning; 2) neural network technology to support initial activity classification; and 3) integrated processing and understanding of signals (IPUS) technology for revising the initial classifications to account for the high degrees of anticipated signal variability and overlap during freeform activity. PMID:17271844

  14. Social status and mating activity in elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Le Boeuf, B J; Peterson, R S

    1969-01-01

    Individually marked male elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, observed on an island off central California participate in a social hierarchy resembling the peck order of domestic chickens. Individuals achieve status by fighting and maintain it by stereotyped threat displays. The higher the status of a male, the more readily he approaches and copulates with females. Four percent of the males inseminated 85 percent of the females.

  15. Systemic Inflammation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Association with Muscle Function and Nutritional Status

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Guzmán, Oriana del Rocío; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Escobar Cedillo, Rosa Elena

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation described in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may be related to loss of muscle function or to obesity. It is unknown if circulating proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-α) levels are associated with muscle function. The purpose was to evaluate whether an association exists between systemic inflammation with muscle function and nutritional status in DMD patients. In 66 DMD patients without corticosteroid treatment, the following were evaluated in serum: cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin, and creatine kinase (CK). Muscle function was evaluated using Vignos Scale. Patients with better muscle function had the highest concentration of CK, IL-1, and TNF-α compared with less muscle function. No differences in IL-6 and adiponectin concentration were identified among groups with different levels of muscle function. Also, no differences were observed in the concentration of cytokines among groups with different nutritional status levels (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese). However, CRP and leptin were increased in the obese group compared with normal and underweight subjects. Systemic inflammation is increased in patients with better muscle function and decreases in DMD patients with poorer muscle function; nevertheless, systemic inflammation is similar among different levels of nutritional status in DMD patients. PMID:26380303

  16. Trace elements in head and neck cancer patients: zinc status and immunologic functions.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A S; Kaplan, J; Beck, F W; Penny, H S; Shamsa, F H; Salwen, W A; Marks, S C; Mathog, R H

    1997-06-01

    In this study we have assessed zinc status and zinc-dependent cell-mediated immune functions (interleukin-2 production by mononuclear cells, natural killer cell lytic activity, and interleukin-1 beta production by mononuclear cells) in adult patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract at diagnosis and before any therapy was instituted. Inasmuch as significant interactions between zinc, copper, and iron exist, we also assayed the plasma copper level, serum iron level, and total iron-binding capacity in our patients. We recruited 30 cancer subjects and 21 control subjects. On the basis of cellular zinc criteria, we diagnosed a mild deficiency of zinc in 53% of cancer subjects. The plasma zinc level was not decreased in our subjects. A univariate analysis was applied by use of one-way analysis of variance comparing study variables among the three study groups (controls and zinc-deficient and zinc-sufficient cancer patients) and Tukey's multiple comparison test, and we showed that interleukin-2 production and natural killer lytic activity were decreased in zinc-deficient cancer patients. Interleukin-1 beta production (ELISA assay) was increased in both zinc-deficient and zinc-sufficient groups. Plasma copper level was not different, but the iron utilization was decreased in both groups of cancer subjects. We conclude that zinc deficiency and zinc-dependent immunologic dysfunctions are present in more than half of the patients with head and neck cancer in the Detroit area.

  17. Loss of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Nicole; de Roon, Margot; van Campen, Jos P C M; Kremer, Stefanie; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status was assessed using the mini nutritional assessment-short form. The Sniffin' Sticks was used to measure olfactory function. Eleven percentage of the vital older adults were at risk of malnutrition, whereas 60% of the geriatric participants were malnourished or at risk. Only 2% of the vital older adults were anosmic, compared with 46% of the geriatric participants. Linear regression demonstrated a significant association (P = 0.015) between olfactory function and nutritional status in the geriatric subjects. However, this association became insignificant after adjustment for confounders. Both crude and adjusted analysis in the vital older adults did not show a significant association. The results indicate that, in both groups of elderly, there is no direct relation between olfactory function and nutritional status. We suggest that a decline in olfactory function may still be considered as one of the risk-factors for malnutrition in geriatric patients-once co-occurring with other mental and/or physical problems that are more likely to occur in those patients experience.

  18. Integrating Communication Skills into Functional Routines & Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stremel, Kathleen

    This training module on integrating communication skills into functional routines and activities is from the Mississippi Early Education Program for Children with Multiple Disabilities, a program designed to train Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Part H service coordinators and service providers to use family centered strategies. The…

  19. Opiates and cerebral functional activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Trusk, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral activity was measured using the free-fatty acid (1-/sup 14/C) octanoate as a fast functional tracer in conscious, unrestrained rats 5 minutes after intravenous injection of heroin, cocaine or saline vehicle. Regional changes of octanoate labeling density in the autoradiograms relative to saline-injected animals were used to determine the functional activity effects of each drug. Heroin and cocaine each produced a distinctive pattern of activity increases and suppression throughout the rat brain. Similar regional changes induced by both drugs were found in limbic brain regions implicated in drug reinforcement. Labeled octanoate autoradiography was used to measure the cerebral functional response to a tone that had previously been paired to heroin injections. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administration animal, and two animals receiving yoked infusion of heroin or saline. A tone was paired with each infusion during training. Behavioral experiments in similarly trained rats demonstrated that these training conditions impart secondary reinforcing properties to the tone in animals previously self-administering heroin, while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion rats. Cerebral functional activity was measured during presentation of the tone without drug infusion. Octanoate labeling density changed in fifteen brain areas in response to the tone previously paired to heroin without response contingency. Labeling density was significantly modified in sixteen regions as a result of previously pairing the tone to response-contingent heroin infusions.

  20. Differences in Field Dependence-Independence Cognitive Style as a Function of Socioeconomic Status, Sex, and Cognitive Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forns-Santacana, Maria; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed field dependence-independence (FDI) cognitive style as function of socioeconomic status, sex, and cognitive competence in seven year olds (n=117). Subjects of upper-middle socioeconomic status achieved significantly higher scores that did subjects of low socioeconomic status on five McCarthy Scales and on FDI variable. Boys scored higher…

  1. Reduction in lung functions in type-2 diabetes in Indian population: correlation with glycemic status.

    PubMed

    Dharwadkar, Anand R; Dharwadkar, Asha A; Banu, Gouher; Bagali, Shrilaxmi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate pulmonary functions in patients with Type-2 diabetes mellitus and to determine their correlation with glycemic status of diabetes in Indian population. Forty Type-2 diabetic patients, aged 30-60 years, with diabetic duration of 1-20 years, were included in the study. FVC, FEV1, & FEV1% are recorded by Benedict's Roth spirometer. PEFR and MEP were recorded by Wright's Peak flow meter & Modified Black's apparatus. Glycemic status of subjects was determined by FBS & PPBS by Glucose oxidase & peroxidase methods. And results were analyzed by calculating Mean +/- SD, using Student's t test, and Pearson correlation. All the respiratory parameters are reduced in Type-2 diabetic patients compared to control of which FEV1, FEV1%, & MEP show very highly significant reduction (P=0.000). Lung functions are negatively correlated with glycemic status & duration of diabetes. (r = -0.390, & -0.342) Reduction in dynamic lung functions and its negative correlation to glycemic status might be due to respiratory muscle weakness as indicated by highly significant reduction in MEP. Hence strict glycemic control and breathing exercises to strengthen the respiratory muscles may improve lung function in diabetics. PMID:22319899

  2. The Correlates of Tracking Policy: Opportunity Hoarding, Status Competition, or a Technical-Functional Explanation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sean; Price, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this analysis, the authors explore the relationship between the social context of high schools and school-to-school variation in tracking policies. The authors consider three explanations for the implementation of highly elaborated tracking systems: opportunity hoarding, status competition, and a technical-functional explanation. Building on…

  3. Metabolic status, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian function during acute nutrient restriction of beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of acute nutritional restriction on metabolic status, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian function of heifers was determined in 2 experiments. In Exp. 1, 14-mo-old heifers were fed a diet supplying 1.2 × maintenance energy requirements (1.2M). After 10 d, heifers were fed 1.2M or were res...

  4. Age, time, and cohort effects on functional status and self-rated health in elderly men.

    PubMed Central

    Hoeymans, N; Feskens, E J; van den Bos, G A; Kromhout, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated age-related changes in functional status and self-rated health in elderly men, taking into account changes over time and differences between birth cohorts. METHODS: The Zutphen Elderly Study is a longitudinal study of men born in the Netherlands between 1900 and 1920. Functional status and self-rated health were measured in 513 men in 1990, in 381 men in 1993, and in 340 men in 1995. Age, time, and cohort effects were analyzed in a mixed longitudinal model. RESULTS: Longitudinal analyses showed that during 5 years of follow-up, the proportion of men without disabilities decreased from 53% to 39%, whereas the percentage who rated themselves as healthy decreased from 50% to 35%. Cross-sectional analyses confirmed changes in functional status, suggesting an age effect. Time-series analyses confirmed changes in self-rated health, suggesting a time effect. No birth-cohort effects were found. CONCLUSIONS: Functional status deteriorates with age, whereas self-rated health is not related to age in men aged 70 years and older. The observed 5-year decline in self-rated health seemed to be due to a secular trend. PMID:9357342

  5. Developmental Status and Social-Emotional Functioning of Young Children Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…

  6. The Status of Functional Categories in Child Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from the Acquisition of CP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haznedar, Belma

    2003-01-01

    Examines the status of the functional categories in child second language (L2) acquisition of English. Results from longitudinally-collected data are reported, presenting counterevidence for recent hypotheses on early L2 acquisition that assume the following: (1) structure building approach according to which the acquisition of functional…

  7. Children's Sleep and Cognitive Functioning: Race and Socioeconomic Status as Moderators of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Race and socioeconomic status (SES) moderated the link between children's sleep and cognitive functioning. One hundred and sixty-six 8- to 9-year-old African and European American children varying in SES participated. Sleep measures were actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-report; cognitive measures were from the Woodcock-Johnson III and reaction…

  8. Oxidant and enzymatic antioxidant status (gene expression and activity) in the brain of chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Nasiri, Leila; Mohebbi, Abdonnaser; Bahadoran, Shahab

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain (hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain) in chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension, the measurements of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, antioxidant capacity, enzymatic activity, and gene expression (for catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutases) were done. There were high lipid peroxidation/protein oxidation and low antioxidant capacity in the hindbrain of cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens compared to control ( P < 0.05). In the hypertensive chickens, superoxide dismutase activity was decreased (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain), while catalase activity was increased (forebrain and midbrain) ( P < 0.05). Glutathione peroxidase activity did not change. Relative gene expression of catalase and superoxide dismutases (1 and 2) was downregulated, while glutathione peroxidase was upregulated in the brain of the cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens. Probably, these situations in the oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain especially hindbrain may change its function at cardiovascular center and sympathetic nervous system to exacerbate pulmonary hypertension.

  9. Extending a medical language processing system to the functional status domain.

    PubMed

    Bales, Michael; Kukafka, Rita; Burkhardt, Ann; Friedman, Carol

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) provides a common framework for describing functional status information (FSI) in health records. Given the expense of manual coding, we are investigating the use of natural language processing (NLP) for automated FSI coding. We used an existing NLP system that was originally designed to encode clinical information. The system's lexicon and coding table were modified and preprocessing and postprocessing programs were created, allowing for automated assignment of selected ICF codes.

  10. Urinary iodine, thyroid function, and thyroglobulin as biomarkers of iodine status.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    The accurate assessment of population iodine status is necessary to inform public health policies and clinical research on iodine nutrition, particularly the role of iodine adequacy in normal neurodevelopment. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) directly reflects dietary iodine intake and is the most common indicator used worldwide to assess population iodine status. The CDC established the Ensuring the Quality of Iodine Procedures program in 2001 to provide laboratories that measure urinary iodine with an independent assessment of their analytic performance; this program fosters improvement in the assessment of UIC. Clinical laboratory tests of thyroid function (including serum concentrations of the pituitary hormone thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine) are sometimes used as indicators of iodine status, although such use is often problematic. Even in severely iodine-deficient regions, there is a great deal of intraindividual variation in the ability of the thyroid to adapt. In most settings and in most population subgroups other than newborns, thyroid function tests are not considered sensitive indicators of population iodine status. However, the thyroid-derived protein thyroglobulin is increasingly being used for this purpose. Thyroglobulin can be measured in either serum or dried blood spot (DBS) samples. The use of DBS samples is advantageous in resource-poor regions. Improved methodologies for ascertaining maternal iodine status are needed to facilitate research on developmental correlates of iodine status. Thyroglobulin may prove to be a useful biomarker for both maternal and neonatal iodine status, but validated assay-specific reference ranges are needed for the determination of iodine sufficiency in both pregnant women and neonates, and trimester-specific ranges are possibly needed for pregnant women. UIC is currently a well-validated population biomarker, but individual biomarkers that could be used for research, patient care

  11. Objective Measures of Physical Activity, White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Status in Adults Over Age 80

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qu; Glynn, Nancy W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Newman, Anne B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Saxton, Judith; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) are consistently shown in older adults, but the neural substrates, particularly in white matter (WM), are understudied, especially in very old adults with the fastest growth rate and the highest risk of dementia. This study quantified the association between PA and WM integrity in adults over 80. The moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations and WM hyperintensities were also examined, as they can affect PA and brain integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from normal-appearing WM via diffusion tensor imaging and WM hyperintensities were obtained in 90 participants (mean age=87.4, 51.1% female, 55.6% white) with concurrent objective measures of steps, active energy expenditure (AEE in kcal), duration (minutes), and intensity (Metabolic equivalents, METs) via SenseWear Armband. Clinical adjudication of cognitive status, prevalence of stroke and diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and gait speed were assessed at time of neuroimaging. Participants were on average sedentary (mean±SD/day: 1766±1345 steps, 202±311 kcal, 211±39 minutes, 1.8±1.1 METs). Higher steps, AEE and duration, but not intensity, were significantly associated with higher FA. Associations were localized in frontal and temporal areas. Moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations, and WM hyperintensities were not significant. Neither FA nor PA was related to cognitive status. Older adults with a sedentary lifestyle and a wide range of cardiometabolic conditions and physical functional limitations, displayed higher WM integrity in relation to higher PA. Studies of very old adults to quantify the role of PA in reducing dementia burden via WM integrity are warranted. PMID:25655514

  12. Objective measures of physical activity, white matter integrity and cognitive status in adults over age 80.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qu; Glynn, Nancy W; Erickson, Kirk I; Aizenstein, Howard J; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Boudreau, Robert M; Newman, Anne B; Lopez, Oscar L; Saxton, Judith; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-05-01

    The neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) are consistently shown in older adults, but the neural substrates, particularly in white matter (WM), are understudied, especially in very old adults with the fastest growth rate and the highest risk of dementia. This study quantified the association between PA and WM integrity in adults over 80. The moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations and WM hyperintensities were also examined, as they can affect PA and brain integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from normal-appearing WM via diffusion tensor imaging and WM hyperintensities were obtained in 90 participants (mean age = 87.4, 51.1% female, 55.6% white) with concurrent objective measures of steps, active energy expenditure (AEE in kcal), duration (min), and intensity (metabolic equivalents, METs) via SenseWear Armband. Clinical adjudication of cognitive status, prevalence of stroke and diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and gait speed were assessed at time of neuroimaging. Participants were on average sedentary (mean ± SD/day: 1766 ± 1345 steps, 202 ± 311 kcal, 211 ± 39 min, 1.8 ± 1.1 METs). Higher steps, AEE and duration, but not intensity, were significantly associated with higher FA. Associations were localized in frontal and temporal areas. Moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations, and WM hyperintensities were not significant. Neither FA nor PA was related to cognitive status. Older adults with a sedentary lifestyle and a wide range of cardiometabolic conditions and physical functional limitations, displayed higher WM integrity in relation to higher PA. Studies of very old adults to quantify the role of PA in reducing dementia burden via WM integrity are warranted. PMID:25655514

  13. 77 FR 39343 - Agency Information Collection (Financial Status Report) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Financial Status Report) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0165.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Financial Status Report... Management, Department of Veterans Affairs, has submitted the collection of information abstracted below...

  14. 77 FR 38650 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status, OMB Control Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee... Services Statistical Data for Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status; OMB Control No.1615-0070. The Department of.../Collection: Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component...

  15. Idle Hands and Empty Pockets?: Youth Involvement in Extracurricular Activities, Social Capital, and Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Amanda M.; Gager, Constance T.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Survey of Adults and Youth, the authors examine the effect of economic status on youths' involvement in both school- and nonschool-related extracurricular activities. Specifically, they assess the association between four alternative measures of economic status--recipiency of food stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent…

  16. 75 FR 80114 - Agency Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Title: Status of Dependents Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0538. OMB Control Number: 2900-0500....

  17. 75 FR 26346 - Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...: Marital Status Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number: 2900-0495. Type of Review: Extension...

  18. 75 FR 10027 - Proposed Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY.... Title: Marital Status Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number: 2900-0495. Type of...

  19. Monitoring of Functioning Status in Subjects With Chronic Stroke in South Korea Using WHODAS II

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Su-Yeon; Hong, Sang-Eun; Kim, Ee-Jin; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Joa, Kyung-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Objective To follow up the long-term functioning in a community through assessing personal background and status based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) after a stroke, by using a Korean version of World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (K-WHODAS II). Methods We surveyed 146 patients diagnosed at the first-onset of acute stroke and discharged after Inha University Hospital, and 101 patients answered the K-WHODAS II survey. We analyzed the relationship of six functioning domains of K-WHODAS II with K-MMSE (Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination) and K-MBI (Korean version of Modified Barthel Index) at admission and discharge, and personal background. All subjects were divided into five groups, according to the disease durations, to assess the functional changes and the differences of K-MMSE and K-MBI at the admission and discharge. Results K-MBI and K-MMSE at admission and discharge showed no significant differences in all five groups, respectively (p>0.05), reflecting no baseline disparity for long-term follow-up. All subjects showed positive gains of K-MBI and K-MMSE at discharge (p<0.05). The six functioning domains and total scores of K-WHODAS II had decreasing trends until 3 years after the stroke onset, but rose thereafter. Higher scores of K-MBI and K-MMSE, younger age, women, working status, higher educational level, and living with a partner were correlated with lower scores of K-WHODAS II (p<0.05). Conclusion The long-term functioning after stroke was affected not only by cognitive and motor status in hospital, but also by certain kinds of personal background. K-WHODAS II may be used to monitor functioning status in a community and to assess personal backgrounds in subjects with chronic stroke. PMID:26949677

  20. Status of LHC crab activity simulations and beam studies

    SciTech Connect

    Calaga,R.; Assman, R.; Barranco, J.; Barranco, J.; Calaga, R.; Caspers, F.; Ciapala, E.; De-Maria, R.; Koutchouk, J. P.; Linnecar, T.; Metral, E.; Morita, A.; Solyak, N.; Sun, Y.; Tomas, R.; Tuckmantel, J.; Weiler, T.; Zimmermann, F.

    2009-05-04

    The LHC crab cavity program is advancing rapidly towards a first prototype which is anticipated to be tested during the early stages of the LHC phase I upgrade and commissioning. The general project status and some aspects related to crab optics, collimation, aperture constraints, impedances, noise effects. beam transparency and machine protection critical for a safe and robust operation of LHC beams with crab cavities are addressed here.

  1. Deep Neural Networks with Multistate Activation Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chenghao; Xu, Yanyan; Ke, Dengfeng; Su, Kaile

    2015-01-01

    We propose multistate activation functions (MSAFs) for deep neural networks (DNNs). These MSAFs are new kinds of activation functions which are capable of representing more than two states, including the N-order MSAFs and the symmetrical MSAF. DNNs with these MSAFs can be trained via conventional Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) as well as mean-normalised SGD. We also discuss how these MSAFs perform when used to resolve classification problems. Experimental results on the TIMIT corpus reveal that, on speech recognition tasks, DNNs with MSAFs perform better than the conventional DNNs, getting a relative improvement of 5.60% on phoneme error rates. Further experiments also reveal that mean-normalised SGD facilitates the training processes of DNNs with MSAFs, especially when being with large training sets. The models can also be directly trained without pretraining when the training set is sufficiently large, which results in a considerable relative improvement of 5.82% on word error rates. PMID:26448739

  2. Physical activity and nutritional status of children of low socioeconomic status. Two interrelated problems: undernutrition and overweight.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos; de Faria, Ricardo Campos; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the level of habitual physical activity (HPA) and nutritional status of children attending selected public schools in Brazil. The sample comprised 1719 participants who ranged in age from 11 to 14 yrs with 861 females (F) aged 12.7+/-1.0 yr and 858 males (M) aged 12.7+/-1.0 yr. The short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure HPA. Nutritional status was assessed using the body mass index (BMI). Statistical analyses included ANOVA followed by the post-hoc Tukey-test (P<0.05) which showed a statistically significant difference between M and F in time spent in moderate intensity physical activity. F completed more moderate intensity physical activity than M whereas time in vigorous physical activities was higher in M than F. Analyses of BMI and IPAQ categorical score using Pearson product moment correlations with subsequent Fisher Z transformation showed values of Z = 0.49 for females and Z = 0.44 for males, indicating a low relationship between these variables. HPA levels showed 93.7% of the M and 91.1% of the F were at least minimally active. According to BMI values, 7.3% of the cohort was underweight; 83.0% normal weight; 8.3% overweight and 1.3% obese. These results demand attention, particularly for children at the lower end of nutritional status and HPA levels due to the potential negative impact on their growth and development. At the other end of the nutritional spectrum, one needs to be concerned regarding the levels of excess body weight, mainly considering the poor region in which the children live.

  3. Socioeconomic status, body size and physical activity of adults on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-01-01

    Much of the secular trend toward increased body size among populations in the Pacific Region has been attributed to the processes of economic modernization and socioeconomic change. The primary objective of the present analysis was to examine the relationships between socioeconomic factors and stature, weight, body mass index and physical activity level of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernized lifestyle in the Pacific Region. In a cross-sectional study of physical activity, body size and socioeconomic status, a volunteer sample of 345 Cook Islanders aged 20-65 years was obtained from the total adult population of Rarotonga, and measured at six out-patient clinics. Stature, weight, body mass index (BMI), physical activity level and age were calculated by sex and occupational category, years of education, island of birth and number of years lived on Rarotonga, respectively, using SPSSPC for Windows. Stepwise multiple regression was used to examine the relationships between stature, weight, BMI, PALweekday (a measure of physical activity level), age and non-linear functions of age, and the socioeconomic variables. These analyses indicate that the secular trend in stature is a function of the relative level of modernization on Rarotonga relative to other Cook Islands, and with level of education. These factors associate differently among males and females, the secular trend among males appearing to be a general phenomenon in response to lifestyle change associated with life on Rarotonga, while among females the trend is a function of lifestyle change associated with education and independent of island of origin. The trend toward increasing body fatness is also different for males and females. Weight declines with age for both men and women, in a linear way for the males, but in a non-linear fashion for the females. Body weight is also greater among those males in more skilled and professional occupations than among those with less-skilled professions. For

  4. Behavioral Functioning among Mexican-Origin Children: Does Parental Legal Status Matter?*

    PubMed Central

    Landale, Nancy S.; Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Oropesa, R. S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Using data on 2,535 children included in the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, we investigate how the legal status of immigrant parents shapes their children’s behavioral functioning. Variation in internalizing and externalizing problems among Mexican youth with undocumented mothers, documented or naturalized citizen mothers, and U.S.-born mothers is analyzed using a comparative framework that contrasts their experience with that of other ethnoracial groups. Our findings reinforce the importance of differentiating children of immigrants by parental legal status in studying health and well-being. Children of undocumented Mexican migrants have significantly higher risks of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems than their counterparts with documented or naturalized citizen mothers. Regression results are inconsistent with simple explanations that emphasize group differences in socioeconomic status, maternal mental health, or family routines. PMID:25722124

  5. A Study on Perception and Usage Status on Health Functional Foods in Women according to Menopause Status

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Heesook; Lee, Hae-Hyeog

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to provide a reference base for suggesting proper guidelines for the health of the people by analyzing perception and intake pattern on health functional foods and by identifying needs in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a self-administered survey in women admitted to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a university hospital between July and August, 2014. The survey questionnaire consisted of 8 items on general characteristics, 4 items on awareness on health functional foods, and 16 items on usage status. Results Of all 133 women with ages ranging between 19 to 67 years, postmenopausal women were 57 accounting for 42.9% of all subjects. Mean age was 55.4 ± 6.2 and menopausal age was 49.6 ± 4.3 in the postmenopause group. Mean age was 38.7 ± 9.0 in the postmenopause group. With respect to components of health functional foods, 76.3% of women answered "important" in the postmenopause group, significantly higher than 49.1% in the postmenopause group (P < 0.01). In regard to price, those who answered "important" accounted for the largest percentage in the premenopausal group at 56.6%, and those who answered "moderately important" accounted for 57.9% in the postmenopausal women. A significant difference was found between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion Development of products reflecting consumer needs can be considered. It is important to foster an environment allowing individuals to choose right health functional foods and further studies are warranted. PMID:27152310

  6. [Psychophysiological correlates of increasing the work ability of human operator owing to the programmable correction of the functional status].

    PubMed

    Tuzin, P S; Evdokimov, A V; Iznak, A F; Chaianov, N V

    1996-01-01

    There has been studied application of a complex approach to development of automated ways to gain contactless psychophysiological correction of functional status and improvement of performance of working up operators. The psychophysiological support of operator consisted in combined presentation of functional music, surf noise and pulsed dynamic green lighting under a special program built-up on the principle of biological feedback of heart and respiration rates. The individually adaptable audio and visual pulses on the programme showed a rather high efficiency as was confirmed by the change in the set of psychophysiological indices (heart rate, arterial pressure, cutaneogalvanic reaction, accommodation volume, critical rate of flicker fusion, electroencephalogram), and subjective SAM (self-feeling, activity, mood) estimates in the course of extended operator's activity.

  7. AMP-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE ACTIVATION AS A STRATEGY FOR PROTECTING VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ming-Hui; Wu, Yong

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in the regulation of cellular and organismal metabolism. AMPK has a heterotrimeric structure, consisting of a catalytic α-subunit and regulatory β- and γ-subunits, each of which has two or more isoforms that are differentially expressed in various tissues and that arise from distinct genes. The AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status that is conserved in all eukaryotic cells. In addition, AMPK is activated by physiological stimuli and oxidants. 2. The importance of AMPK in cardiovascular functions is best demonstrated by recent studies showing that widely used drugs, including statins, metformin and rosiglitazone, execute cardiovascular protective effects at least partly through the activation of AMPK. As a consequence, AMPK has been proposed as a candidate target for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of both Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome owing to its central role in the regulation of energy balance; it may also have a role in weight control. 3. In the present brief review, we summarize the recent progress of AMPK signalling and regulation focusing on vascular endothelial cells. We further hypothesize that AMPK is a dual sensor for energy and redox status within a cell and AMPK may be a therapeutic target for protecting vascular endothelial function. PMID:18177481

  8. Functional Status Assessment of Patients With COPD: A Systematic Review of Performance-Based Measures and Patient-Reported Measures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Li, Honghe; Ding, Ning; Wang, Ningning; Wen, Deliang

    2016-05-01

    Presently, there is no recommendation on how to assess functional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study aimed to summarize and systematically evaluate these measures.Studies on measures of COPD patients' functional status published before the end of January 2015 were included using a search filters in PubMed and Web of Science, screening reference lists of all included studies, and cross-checking against some relevant reviews. After title, abstract, and main text screening, the remaining was appraised using the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) 4-point checklist. All measures from these studies were rated according to best-evidence synthesis and the best-rated measures were selected.A total of 6447 records were found and 102 studies were reviewed, suggesting 44 performance-based measures and 14 patient-reported measures. The majority of the studies focused on internal consistency, reliability, and hypothesis testing, but only 21% of them employed good or excellent methodology. Their common weaknesses include lack of checks for unidimensionality, inadequate sample sizes, no prior hypotheses, and improper methods. On average, patient-reported measures perform better than performance-based measures. The best-rated patient-reported measures are functional performance inventory (FPI), functional performance inventory short form (FPI-SF), living with COPD questionnaire (LCOPD), COPD activity rating scale (CARS), University of Cincinnati dyspnea questionnaire (UCDQ), shortness of breath with daily activities (SOBDA), and short-form pulmonary functional status scale (PFSS-11), and the best-rated performance-based measures are exercise testing: 6-minute walk test (6MWT), endurance treadmill test, and usual 4-meter gait speed (usual 4MGS).Further research is needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of performance-based measures since present studies failed to provide convincing

  9. 78 FR 46422 - Proposed Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request... of Dependents Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0538. OMB Control Number: 2900-0500. Type of...

  10. Seizures, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block as endogenous brain activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Houssaini, Kenza; Ivanov, Anton I.; Bernard, Christophe; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block are pathological brain activities whose mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a generic mathematical model of seizure activity, we show that these activities coexist under certain conditions spanning the range of possible brain activities. We perform a detailed bifurcation analysis and predict strategies to escape from some of the pathological states. Experimental results using rodent data provide support of the model, highlighting the concept that these pathological activities belong to the endogenous repertoire of brain activities.

  11. The Impact of Maternal Vitamin D Status on Offspring Brain Development and Function: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pet, Milou A; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M

    2016-07-01

    Various studies have examined associations between maternal vitamin D (VD) deficiency and offspring health, including offspring brain health. The purpose of this review was to summarize current evidence concerning the impact of maternal VD deficiency on brain development and function in offspring. A systematic search was conducted within Medline (on Ovid) for studies published through 7 May 2015. Animal and human studies that examined associations between maternal VD status or developmental VD deficiency and offspring brain development and function were included. A total of 26 animal studies and 10 human studies met the inclusion criteria. Several animal studies confirmed the hypothesis that low prenatal VD status may affect brain morphology and physiology as well as behavioral outcomes. In humans, subtle cognitive and psychological impairments in offspring of VD-deficient mothers were observed. However, data obtained from animal and human studies provide inconclusive evidence, and results seem to depend on strain or race and age of offspring. To conclude, prenatal VD status is thought to play an important role in brain development, cognitive function, and psychological function. However, results are inconclusive; validation of these findings and investigation of underlying mechanisms are required. Thus, more investigation is needed before recommending supplementation of VD during pregnancy to promote brain health of offspring. PMID:27422502

  12. The Impact of Maternal Vitamin D Status on Offspring Brain Development and Function: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pet, Milou A; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M

    2016-07-01

    Various studies have examined associations between maternal vitamin D (VD) deficiency and offspring health, including offspring brain health. The purpose of this review was to summarize current evidence concerning the impact of maternal VD deficiency on brain development and function in offspring. A systematic search was conducted within Medline (on Ovid) for studies published through 7 May 2015. Animal and human studies that examined associations between maternal VD status or developmental VD deficiency and offspring brain development and function were included. A total of 26 animal studies and 10 human studies met the inclusion criteria. Several animal studies confirmed the hypothesis that low prenatal VD status may affect brain morphology and physiology as well as behavioral outcomes. In humans, subtle cognitive and psychological impairments in offspring of VD-deficient mothers were observed. However, data obtained from animal and human studies provide inconclusive evidence, and results seem to depend on strain or race and age of offspring. To conclude, prenatal VD status is thought to play an important role in brain development, cognitive function, and psychological function. However, results are inconclusive; validation of these findings and investigation of underlying mechanisms are required. Thus, more investigation is needed before recommending supplementation of VD during pregnancy to promote brain health of offspring.

  13. Health, vocational, and functional status in spinal cord injured athletes and nonathletes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, K A; McClanahan, S; Hall, K M; Dillon, D; Brown, K F

    1986-12-01

    The relationship of sports involvement to medical complications, functional independence, and vocational status was studied in 67 individuals from 2 to 24 years after spinal cord injury (SCI). Sports participation ranged from none to 30 (means 7.6) hours/wk. No significant correlation was found between time spent in sports participation and number of medical complications, rehospitalizations, functional status, or employment. Subsequently, subgroups of SCI wheelchair basketball players (n = 19) and SCI nonathletes (n = 19) were compared in medical, functional, and vocational status. The athlete group showed significantly more average time per week of sports participation (p less than 0.03), as expected. Fewer physician visits (p less than 0.01) occurred in the athlete group. Trends toward fewer medical complications and fewer rehospitalizations were seen in the athletic group, but this did not reach statistical significance. Sports participation was not associated with increased risk of medical complications and did not limit available time for vocational pursuits. The positive benefits of sports involvement on the community reintegration process and the acquisition of functional skills for the newly disabled warrant further study. The long-term impact of sports involvement on prevention of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and other associated risks of a sedentary existence demands attention in our aging SCI population.

  14. Nutritional status, functional capacity and exercise rehabilitation in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Mercer, T H; Koufaki, P; Naish, P F

    2004-05-01

    A significant percentage of patients with end-stage renal disease are malnourished and/or muscle wasted. Uremia is associated with decreased protein synthesis and increased protein degradation. Fortunately, nutritional status has been shown to be a modifiable risk factor in the dialysis population. It has long been proposed that exercise could positively alter the protein synthesis-degradation balance. Resistance training had been considered as the only form of exercise likely to induce anabolism in renal failure patients. However, a small, but growing, body of evidence indicates that for some dialysis patients, favourable improvements in muscle atrophy and fibre hypertrophy can be achieved via predominantly aerobic exercise training. Moreover, some studies tentatively suggest that nutritional status, as measured by SGA, can also be modestly improved by modes and patterns of exercise training that have been shown to also increase muscle fibre cross-sectional area and improve functional capacity. Functional capacity tests can augment the information content of basic nutritional status assessments of dialysis patients and as such are recommended for routine inclusion as a feature of all nutritional status assessments.

  15. KCC2 activity is critical in limiting the onset and severity of status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Silayeva, Liliya; Deeb, Tarek Z; Hines, Rochelle M; Kelley, Matt R; Munoz, Michaelanne B; Lee, Henry H C; Brandon, Nicholas J; Dunlop, John; Maguire, Jaime; Davies, Paul A; Moss, Stephen J

    2015-03-17

    The K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (KCC2) allows adult neurons to maintain low intracellular Cl(-) levels, which are a prerequisite for efficient synaptic inhibition upon activation of γ-aminobutyric acid receptors. Deficits in KCC2 activity are implicated in epileptogenesis, but how increased neuronal activity leads to transporter inactivation is ill defined. In vitro, the activity of KCC2 is potentiated via phosphorylation of serine 940 (S940). Here we have examined the role this putative regulatory process plays in determining KCC2 activity during status epilepticus (SE) using knockin mice in which S940 is mutated to an alanine (S940A). In wild-type mice, SE induced by kainate resulted in dephosphorylation of S940 and KCC2 internalization. S940A homozygotes were viable and exhibited comparable basal levels of KCC2 expression and activity relative to WT mice. However, exposure of S940A mice to kainate induced lethality within 30 min of kainate injection and subsequent entrance into SE. We assessed the effect of the S940A mutation in cultured hippocampal neurons to explore the mechanisms underlying this phenotype. Under basal conditions, the mutation had no effect on neuronal Cl(-) extrusion. However, a selective deficit in KCC2 activity was seen in S940A neurons upon transient exposure to glutamate. Significantly, whereas the effects of glutamate on KCC2 function could be ameliorated in WT neurons with agents that enhance S940 phosphorylation, this positive modulation was lost in S940A neurons. Collectively our results suggest that phosphorylation of S940 plays a critical role in potentiating KCC2 activity to limit the development of SE. PMID:25733865

  16. Exploring Links to Unorganized and Organized Physical Activity during Adolescence: The Role of Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Weight Status, and Enjoyment of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Ahmed, Rashid; Farnoush, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    There is limited research on participation context in studies of physical activity correlates during adolescence. Using an ecological approach, this study explored the association of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), weight status, and physical education enjoyment with participation in organized and unorganized physical activity contexts in a…

  17. Effects of gluten-free breads, with varying functional supplements, on the biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of rat serum.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał; Reguła, Julita; Suliburska, Joanna; Złotek, Urszula; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of gluten-free bread enriched with functional ingredients (milk powder, poppy, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, egg yolk, carum, hazel nuts and amaranth) on the morphological and biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of rats serum. Rats were provided test diets--gluten-free breads and water ad libitum. After 14 days, the animals were weighed and killed. A hazel nut-amaranth bread diet significantly increased the level of thrombocytes when compared to control bread. A mixed bread diet significantly decreased cholesterol levels in rats. All fortified breads decreased triglyceride levels and alanine transaminase activity and caused an increase in antiradical activity of the serum. In rats fed with poppy-milk bread, milk-seed bread and mixed bread, a marked decrease in superoxide dismutase activity was found. Enriched breads reduced the levels of triglyceride and improved the antiradical properties of serum, although the physiological relevance of this needs to be confirmed by human studies.

  18. Effects of gluten-free breads, with varying functional supplements, on the biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of rat serum.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał; Reguła, Julita; Suliburska, Joanna; Złotek, Urszula; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of gluten-free bread enriched with functional ingredients (milk powder, poppy, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, egg yolk, carum, hazel nuts and amaranth) on the morphological and biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of rats serum. Rats were provided test diets--gluten-free breads and water ad libitum. After 14 days, the animals were weighed and killed. A hazel nut-amaranth bread diet significantly increased the level of thrombocytes when compared to control bread. A mixed bread diet significantly decreased cholesterol levels in rats. All fortified breads decreased triglyceride levels and alanine transaminase activity and caused an increase in antiradical activity of the serum. In rats fed with poppy-milk bread, milk-seed bread and mixed bread, a marked decrease in superoxide dismutase activity was found. Enriched breads reduced the levels of triglyceride and improved the antiradical properties of serum, although the physiological relevance of this needs to be confirmed by human studies. PMID:25842337

  19. Functional Stability of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    PubMed Central

    Kuru, Pinar; Toksoy Oner, Ebru; Agirbasli, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the main inhibitor of plasminogen activators, such as tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), and a major regulator of the fibrinolytic system. PAI-1 plays a pivotal role in acute thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and myocardial infarction (MI). The biological effects of PAI-1 extend far beyond thrombosis including its critical role in fibrotic disorders, atherosclerosis, renal and pulmonary fibrosis, type-2 diabetes, and cancer. The conversion of PAI-1 from the active to the latent conformation appears to be unique among serpins in that it occurs spontaneously at a relatively rapid rate. Latency transition is believed to represent a regulatory mechanism, reducing the risk of thrombosis from a prolonged antifibrinolytic action of PAI-1. Thus, relying solely on plasma concentrations of PAI-1 without assessing its function may be misleading in interpreting the role of PAI-1 in many complex diseases. Environmental conditions, interaction with other proteins, mutations, and glycosylation are the main factors that have a significant impact on the stability of the PAI-1 structure. This review provides an overview on the current knowledge on PAI-1 especially importance of PAI-1 level and stability and highlights the potential use of PAI-1 inhibitors for treating cardiovascular disease. PMID:25386620

  20. A Nanoparticle-based Sensor Platform for Cell Tracking and Status/Function Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, David; Wiraja, Christian; Chuah, Yon Jin; Gao, Yu; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly popular choices for labeling and tracking cells in biomedical applications such as cell therapy. However, all current types of nanoparticles fail to provide real-time, noninvasive monitoring of cell status and functions while often generating false positive signals. Herein, a nanosensor platform to track the real-time expression of specific biomarkers that correlate with cell status and functions is reported. Nanosensors are synthesized by encapsulating various sensor molecules within biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. Upon intracellular entry, nanosensors reside within the cell cytoplasm, serving as a depot to continuously release sensor molecules for up to 30 days. In the absence of the target biomarkers, the released sensor molecules remain ‘Off’. When the biomarker(s) is expressed, a detectable signal is generated (On). As a proof-of-concept, three nanosensor formulations were synthesized to monitor cell viability, secretion of nitric oxide, and β-actin mRNA expression. PMID:26440504

  1. A Nanoparticle-based Sensor Platform for Cell Tracking and Status/Function Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, David; Wiraja, Christian; Chuah, Yon Jin; Gao, Yu; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly popular choices for labeling and tracking cells in biomedical applications such as cell therapy. However, all current types of nanoparticles fail to provide real-time, noninvasive monitoring of cell status and functions while often generating false positive signals. Herein, a nanosensor platform to track the real-time expression of specific biomarkers that correlate with cell status and functions is reported. Nanosensors are synthesized by encapsulating various sensor molecules within biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. Upon intracellular entry, nanosensors reside within the cell cytoplasm, serving as a depot to continuously release sensor molecules for up to 30 days. In the absence of the target biomarkers, the released sensor molecules remain ‘Off’. When the biomarker(s) is expressed, a detectable signal is generated (On). As a proof-of-concept, three nanosensor formulations were synthesized to monitor cell viability, secretion of nitric oxide, and β-actin mRNA expression.

  2. The Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF): Current Status as a Method of Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Rieske, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Functional assessment has now entered the mainstream for evaluation and to aid in the treatment of challenging behaviors, while experimental functional analysis was at the forefront of this movement, this particular methodology has proven to be impractical, and thus has limited utility in real world settings. As a result of these factors…

  3. DDE-MITR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; J.D. Wiest; J.W. Nielsen; G.A. Roth; S.D. Snow

    2012-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (DDE-MITR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the MITR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in the Advanced Test Reactor center flux trap. At the time this report was prepared the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. As such, the conceptual design effort to date is summarized herein in order to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. These demonstrate that the DDE-MITR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also exhibits several challenges for which timely resolution is recommend in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign and ultimate conversion of the MITR.

  4. DDE-MURR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; M.H. Sprenger; G.K. Housley

    2012-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (DDE-MURR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the MURR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in a 200mm channel at the Belgium Reactor 2. At the time this report was prepared the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. As such, the conceptual design effort to date is summarized herein in order to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. These demonstrate that the DDE-MURR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also exhibits several challenges for which timely resolution is recommend in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign and ultimate conversion of the MURR.

  5. DDE-NBSR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; B.P. Durtschi; C.R. Glass; G.A. Roth; D.T. Clark

    2012-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the National Bureau of Standard Reactor (DDE-NBSR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the NBSR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in the Advanced Test Reactor center flux trap. At the time this report was prepared the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. As such, the conceptual design effort to date is summarized herein in order to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. These demonstrate that the DDE-NBSR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also exhibits several challenges for which timely resolution is recommend in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign and ultimate conversion of the NBSR.

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis of Antiviral Signature Genes in Porcine Macrophages at Different Activation Statuses

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Yongming; Brichalli, Wyatt; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Blecha, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages (MФs) can be polarized to various activation statuses, including classical (M1), alternative (M2), and antiviral states. To study the antiviral activation status of porcine MФs during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, we used RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) for transcriptomic analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Sequencing assessment and quality evaluation showed that our RNA-Seq data met the criteria for genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. Comparisons of any two activation statuses revealed more than 20,000 DEGs that were normalized to filter out 153–5,303 significant DEGs [false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.001, fold change ≥2] in each comparison. The highest 5,303 significant DEGs were found between lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) and interferon (IFN)γ-stimulated M1 cells, whereas only 153 significant DEGs were detected between interleukin (IL)-10-polarized M2 cells and control mock-activated cells. To identify signature genes for antiviral regulation pertaining to each activation status, we identified a set of DEGs that showed significant up-regulation in only one activation state. In addition, pathway analyses defined the top 20–50 significantly regulated pathways at each activation status, and we further analyzed DEGs pertinent to pathways mediated by AMP kinase (AMPK) and epigenetic mechanisms. For the first time in porcine macrophages, our transcriptomic analyses not only compared family-wide differential expression of most known immune genes at different activation statuses, but also revealed transcription evidence of multiple gene families. These findings show that using RNA-Seq transcriptomic analyses in virus-infected and status-synchronized macrophages effectively profiled signature genes and gene response pathways for antiviral regulation, which may provide a framework for optimizing antiviral immunity and immune homeostasis. PMID:24505295

  7. Duke Activity Status Index for Cardiovascular Diseases: Validation of the Portuguese Translation

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho-Myrrha, Mariana A.; Dias, Rosângela C.; Fernandes, Aline A.; Araújo, Christiano G.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Pereira, Danielle G.; Britto, Raquel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) assesses the functional capacity of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but there is no Portuguese version validated for CVD. Objectives To translate and adapt cross-culturally the DASI for the Portuguese-Brazil language, and to verify its psychometric properties in the assessment of functional capacity of patients with CVD. Methods The DASI was translated into Portuguese, then checked by back-translation into English and evaluated by an expert committee. The pre-test version was first evaluated in 30 subjects. The psychometric properties and correlation with exercise testing was performed in a second group of 67 subjects. An exploratory factor analyses was performed in all 97 subjects to verify the construct validity of the DASI. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.87 and for the inter-rater reliability was 0.84. Cronbach's α for internal consistency was 0.93. The concurrent validity was verified by significant positive correlations of DASI scores with the VO2max (r = 0.51, p < 0.001). The factor analysis yielded two factors, which explained 54% of the total variance, with factor 1 accounting for 40% of the variance. Application of the DASI required between one and three and a half minutes per patient. Conclusions The Brazilian version of the DASI appears to be a valid, reliable, fast and easy to administer tool to assess functional capacity among patients with CVD. PMID:24652056

  8. Sexual Functioning Morbidity Among Cancer Survivors: Current Status and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSEN, BARBARA L.

    2009-01-01

    The current article reviews available data and considers methodologic issues for future research in which sexual functioning among adult cancer patients is an endpoint variable. Circumstances that may cause sexual disruption for any cancer patient are suggested, including mood disturbance, changed health status, somatization, and reprioritization of life concerns. Data on the incidence and magnitude of sexual functioning morbidity following the diagnosis and treatment of cancer at major organ sites, including breast, genital, colon, rectum, and bladder, are reviewed. Finally, strategies for continuing descriptive study of the sexual problems of cancer patients are suggested. Such data are necessary to eventually target preventive or therapeutic resources to patients in greatest need. PMID:3978569

  9. Do Early-Life Conditions Predict Functional Health Status in Adulthood? The Case of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Soldo, Beth J; Elo, Irma T

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few researchers have investigated early antecedents of adult functional limitations in developing countries. In this study, we assessed associations between childhood conditions and adult lower-body functional limitations (LBFL) as well as the potential mediating role of adult socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and chronic diseases or symptoms. Based on data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) of individuals born prior to 1951 and contacted in 2001 and 2003, we found that childhood nutritional deprivation, serious health problems, and family background predict adult LBFL in Mexico. Adjustment for the potential mediators in adulthood attenuates these associations only to a modest degree. PMID:21074924

  10. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The relationship between the variables was measured by point-biserial correlation. The correlation between duration of morning stiffness and functional class was positive but low [(r = 0.10, y = 0.00x + 2.37, p > 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non

  11. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The relationship between the variables was measured by point-biserial correlation. The correlation between duration of morning stiffness and functional class was positive but low [(r = 0.10, y = 0.00x + 2.37, p > 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non-significant.

  12. Acetylation of MnSOD directs enzymatic activity responding to cellular nutrient status or oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Ozkan; Park, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Jiang, Haiyan; Coleman, Mitchell C; Spitz, Douglas R; Gius, David

    2011-02-01

    A fundamental observation in biology is that mitochondrial function, as measured by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes significantly with age, suggesting a potential mechanistic link between the cellular processes governing longevity and mitochondrial metabolism homeostasis. In addition, it is well established that altered ROS levels are observed in multiple age-related illnesses including carcinogenesis, neurodegenerative, fatty liver, insulin resistance, and cardiac disease, to name just a few. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is the primary mitochondrial ROS scavenging enzyme that converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, which is subsequently converted to water by catalase and other peroxidases. It has recently been shown that MnSOD enzymatic activity is regulated by the reversible acetylation of specific, evolutionarily conserved lysine(s) in the protein. These results, suggest for the first time, that the mitochondria contain bidirectional post-translational signaling networks, similar to that observed in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and that changes in lysine acetylation alter MnSOD enzymatic activity. In addition, these new results demonstrate that the mitochondrial anti-aging or fidelity / sensing protein, SIRT3, responds to changes in mitochondrial nutrient and/or redox status to alter the enzymatic activity of specific downstream targets, including MnSOD that adjusts and/or maintains ROS levels as well as metabolic homeostatic poise. PMID:21386137

  13. Variation of Basal EROD Activities in Ten Passerine Bird Species – Relationships with Diet and Migration Status

    PubMed Central

    Rainio, Miia J.; Kanerva, Mirella; Wahlberg, Niklas; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Eeva, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Inter-specific differences in animal defence mechanisms against toxic substances are currently poorly understood. The ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) enzyme plays an important role in defence against toxic chemicals in a wide variety of animals, and it is an important biomarker for environmental contamination. We compared basal hepatic EROD activity levels among ten passerine species to see if there is inter-specific variation in enzyme activity, especially in relation to their diet and migration status. Migratory insectivores showed higher EROD activity compared to granivores. We hypothesize that the variable invertebrate diet of migratory insectivores contains a wider range of natural toxins than the narrower diet of granivores. This may have affected the evolution of mixed function oxidases (MFO) system and enzyme activities. We further tested whether metabolic rates or relative liver size were associated with the variation in detoxification capacity. We found no association between EROD activity and relative (per mass unit) basal metabolic rate (BMR). Instead, EROD activity and relative liver mass (% of body mass) correlated positively, suggesting that a proportionally large liver also functions efficiently. Our results suggest that granivores and non-migratory birds may be more vulnerable to environmental contaminants than insectivores and migratory birds. The diet and migration status, however, are phylogenetically strongly connected to each other, and their roles cannot be fully separated in our analysis with only ten passerine species. PMID:22479477

  14. Role of Educational Status in Explaining the Association between Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yi-Te; Kao, Tung-Wei; Peng, Tao-Chun; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-02-01

    Preserving physical and cognitive function becomes an important issue as people age. A growing number of studies have found that the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function changes in different age groups. It is obvious that higher educational status is linked to higher cognitive function in terms of numerous risk factors that influence cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between obesity and cognitive function categorized by different educational status.This study included 5021 participants aged 20 to 59 years who completed 3 neurocognitive function tests, including a simple reaction time test (SRTT), a symbol digit substitution test (SDST), and a serial digit learning test (SDLT) as reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III database. The associations between neurocognitive function and BMI were analyzed using multivariate linear regression while controlling for confounders.After adjusting for pertinent covariates in mode 3, the β coefficients in the female participants with more than 12 years of education (interpreted as change of 3 neurocognitive function tests for each increment in BMI) comparing obesity groups to those with normal BMI were 16.2 (P < 0.001 for SRTT), 0.14 (P < 0.05 for SDST), and 0.9 (P < 0.05 for SDLT). Male participants with more than 12 years of education and female participants with fewer than 12 years of education demonstrated increased impairment as their BMI increased. However, this association was not significant after adjustments.Obese individuals had worse neurocognitive function than those of normal weight or overweight, especially in women with a high educational level.

  15. Cardiovascular Disease is Associated with COPD Severity and Reduced Functional Status and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Black-Shinn, Jennifer L.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Wise, Anastasia L.; Regan, Elizabeth A.; Make, Barry; Krantz, Mori J.; Barr, R. Graham; Murphy, James R.; Lynch, David; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Hokanson, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is a major risk factor for both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). More individuals with COPD die from CVD than respiratory causes and the risk of developing CVD appears to be independent of smoking burden. Although CVD is a common comorbid condition within COPD, the nature of its relationships to COPD affection status and severity, and functional status is not well understood. Methods The first 2,500 members of the COPDGene cohort were evaluated. Subjects were current and former smokers with a minimum 10 pack year history of cigarette smoking. COPD was defined by spirometry as an FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal (LLN) with further identification of severity by FEV1 percent of predicted (GOLD stages 2, 3, and 4) for the main analysis. The presence of physician-diagnosed self-reported CVD was determined from a medical history questionnaire administered by a trained staff member. Results A total of 384 (15%) had pre-existing CVD. Self-reported CVD was independently related to COPD (Odds Ratio=1.61, 95% CI=1.18–2.20, p=0.01) after adjustment for covariates with CHF having the greatest association with COPD. Within subjects with COPD, pre-existing self-reported CVD placed subjects at greater risk of hospitalization due to exacerbation, higher BODE index, and greater St. George’s questionnaire score. The presence of self-reported CVD was associated with a shorter six-minute walk distance in those with COPD (p<0.05). Conclusions Self-reported CVD was independently related to COPD with presence of both self-reported CVD and COPD associated with a markedly reduced functional status and reduced quality of life. Identification of CVD in those with COPD is an important consideration in determining functional status. PMID:24831864

  16. Health and functional status in elderly patients living in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Molaschi, M; Ponzetto, M; Ferrario, E; Scarafiotti, C; Fabris, F

    1995-01-01

    Socio-economic background, functional status, multiple pathology and medical conditions requiring care have been evaluated in 506 elderly subjects living in nursing homes in Turin (Italy). In the sample 78.8% are women, mean age 84.2 years, only 21.2% are men, mean age 76.3 years. Particularly in the oldest age classes women are more represented than men. Most subjects (94.3%) require help in at least one Activity of Daily Living (ADL). Part of the sample (21.2%) comes from home, 13.2% from acute wards, 9.1% from long term care wards, 6.3% from mental hospitals, 26.3% from residential homes. Education level is rather low. Before retirement, many men were workmen (38.3%), while many women were housewives (46.6%). Multiple pathology is very common: 23.7% of patients suffer from 4 pathologies, more than 5 diseases are present in 18.8%, while only 4.7% of subjects have less than two pathologies. Half of the sample (52.6%) is affected by dementia, 37.6% by cardiovascular diseases, 29.1% by chronic obstructive lung disease and 25.5% by stroke. Bone fractures are present in 22.1% of the subjects. Severe impairments in strength and/or motility in at least two limbs affect 43.7% of patients, double incontinence 49.2%, severe disturbances in speech and communication 35.4%. The prevalence of care needs is higher in women compared with men. More females than males need aid in walking, help in eating, diapers, pressure sores prevention and bedposts. PMID:15374202

  17. Differences in menstrual bleeding characteristics, functional status, and attitudes toward menstruation in three groups of women.

    PubMed

    Geller, S E; Harlow, S D; Bernstein, S J

    1999-05-01

    This report examines differences in bleeding characteristics, functional status, and attitudes toward menstruation among three groups of women: (1) women who complain of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), (2) women who have similar menstrual patterns as those complaining of AUB but who do not perceive themselves to have abnormal bleeding, and (3) women without evidence of prolonged or excessive bleeding. Women who complain of AUB and women with heavy bleeding but not complaining of AUB, although similar on two important menstrual symptoms (very heavy bleeding or episodes of unusually heavy bleeding) differ on a number of other menstrual characteristics, including the frequency of short cycles, the probability of having an abnormally long period, and reporting of unusually heavy bleeding lasting longer than 1 day. Whether women reported concerns with menstruation or not, the majority of women in this analysis had fairly negative attitudes toward menstruation. However, this negativity toward menstruation did not translate into women wanting a hysterectomy, even for those with heavy bleeding. The major difference among the three groups of women was the strong negative effect of AUB on functional status. A majority of women complaining of AUB reported that the bleeding interfered significantly with their daily routine, making them unable to function at work and at home. These results suggest that although the main complaint of women with AUB is very heavy bleeding, a number of other specific menstrual characteristics differentiate women with AUB from other women with very heavy bleeding who do not perceive the bleeding to be problematic. The complaint of AUB appears to be related to how significantly bleeding affects daily functioning. Therefore, an important factor to assess when considering treatment of AUB is the extent to which bleeding symptoms significantly affect functional status.

  18. Status of Older Adult Physical Activity Programs in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitmann, Helen M.

    1984-01-01

    Physical fitness and recreation programs can be a deterrent to premature aging. State-funded physical activity programs for older adults in Illinois offer minimal benefits due to volunteer and untrained personnel. Results of this study are presented. (DF)

  19. DDE-MURR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; M.H. Sprenger; G.K. Housley

    2013-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (DDE-MURR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the MURR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in a 200mm channel at the Belgium Reactor 2 (BR2). Revision 0 of this report was prepared at the end of government fiscal year 2012 when most of the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. Hence, the conceptual design efforts were summarized to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. Revision 1 of this report was prepared at the end of fiscal year 2013 in order to include results from a neutronic study performed by BR2, to incorporate further details that had been achieved in the engineering sketches of the irradiation devices, and to provide an update of the DDE-MURR campaign in relation to program objectives and opportunities for its eventual irradiation. These updates were purposed to bring the DDE-MURR conceptual design to level of maturity similar to that of the other two DDE efforts (DDE-MITR and DDE-NBSR). This report demonstrates that the DDE-MURR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also puts forth several recommendations in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign.

  20. Association of Renal Function and Menopausal Status with Bone Mineral Density in Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yueh-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lee, Yue-Yuan; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The association between mild renal dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been fully explored. It is also unclear how menopausal status and the use of Chinese herb affect this association. This is a cross-sectional study that included a total of 1,419 women aged 40 to 55 years old who were recruited from the MJ Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2009 and 2010. Spinal BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). The multivariable logistic regression and general linear models were employed to assess the association between renal function and BMD. Stratification analyses were performed by menopausal status and use of Chinese herbs. Low CCr levels were significantly associated with low BMD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15–1.90]. This association was observed in premenopausal women (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.07–1.92) and in women not taking Chinese herbs (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14–1.94). CCr is a better predictor for low BMD in middle-aged women. Menopausal status and the use of Chinese herbs also affected this association. PMID:26459876

  1. Cardiovascular function following reduced aerobic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raven, P. B.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Shi, X.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a sustained reduction of physical activity (deconditioning) would alter the cardiovascular regulatory function. METHODS: Nineteen young, healthy volunteers participated in physical deconditioning for a period of 8 wk. Before (pre) and following (post) physical deconditioning, the responses of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP, measured by Finapres), central venous pressure (CVP), stroke volume (SV, Doppler), and forearm blood flow (FBF, plethysmography) were determined during lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The carotid baroreflex (CBR) function was assessed using a train of pulsatile neck pressure (NP) and suction, and the aortic baroreflex control of HR was assessed during steady-state phenylephrine (PE) infusion superimposed by LBNP and NP to counteract the PE increased CVP and carotid sinus pressure, respectively. RESULTS: Active physical deconditioning significantly decreased maximal oxygen uptake (-7%) and LBNP tolerance (-13%) without a change in baseline hemodynamics. Plasma volume (-3% at P = 0.135), determined by Evans Blue dilution, and blood volume (-4% at P = 0.107) were not significantly altered. During LBNP -20 to -50 torr, there was a significantly greater drop of SV per unit decrease in CVP in the post- (14.7 +/- 1.6%/mm Hg) than predeconditioning (11.2 +/- 0.7%/mm Hg) test accompanied by a greater tachycardia. Deconditioning increased the aortic baroreflex sensitivity (pre vs post: -0.61 +/- 0.12 vs -0.84 +/- 0.14 bpm.mm-1 Hg, P = 0.009) and the slope of forearm vascular resistance (calculated from [MAP-CVP]/FBF) to CVP (-2.75 +/- 0.26 vs -4.94 +/- 0.97 PRU/mm Hg, P = 0.086). However, neither the CBR-HR (-0.28 +/- 0.03 VS -0.39 +/- 0.10 bpm.mm-1 Hg) nor the CBR-MAP (-0.37 +/- 0.16 vs -0.25 +/- 0.07 mm Hg/mm Hg) gains were statistically different between pre- and postdeconditioning. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the functional modification of the cardiac pressure

  2. Differences in Amounts and Types of Physical Activity by Obesity Status in US Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spees, Colleen K.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Taylor, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the physical activity patterns across levels of obesity among US adults. Methods: The frequency, intensity, and duration of physical activities were compared across obesity status in 7695 adults from NHANES, 1999-2006. Results: Significantly more normal-weight adults engaged in moderate- and vigorous- intensity activities…

  3. Associations of Weight Status, Social Factors, and Active Travel among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Melissa; Behrens, Timothy K.; Velecina, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active travel (AT) is associated with various health benefits and may help prevent the decline in physical activity during college years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of several factors with AT to campus by weight status. Methods: Students at a large northeastern US campus completed an online…

  4. Psychosocial and metabolic function by smoking status in individuals with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Morgan, Peter; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) report smoking to control appetite and weight. Smoking in BED is associated with increased risk for comorbid psychiatric disorders, but its impact on psychosocial functioning and metabolic function has not been evaluated. Participants were 429 treatment-seeking adults (72.4% women; mean age 46.2±11.0years old) with BED comorbid with obesity. Participants were categorized into current smokers (n=66), former smokers (n=145), and never smokers (n=218). Smoking status was unrelated to most historical eating/weight variables and to current eating disorder psychopathology. Smoking status was associated with psychiatric, psychosocial, and metabolic functioning. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were more likely to meet lifetime diagnostic criteria for alcohol (OR=5.51 [95% CI=2.46-12.33]) and substance use disorders (OR=7.05 [95% CI=3.37-14.72]), poorer current physical quality of life, and increased risk for metabolic syndrome (OR=1.80 [95% CI=0.97-3.35]) and related metabolic risks (reduced HDL, elevated total cholesterol). On the other hand, the odds of meeting criteria for lifetime psychiatric comorbidity or metabolic abnormalities were not significantly greater in former smokers, relative to never smokers. Our findings suggest the importance of promoting smoking cessation in treatment-seeking patients with BED and obesity for its potential long-term implications for psychiatric and metabolic functioning.

  5. Associations among Physical Activity, Diet Quality, and Weight Status in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Liese, Angela D.; Dowda, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nearly 70% of adult Americans are overweight or obese, but the associations between physical activity, diet quality, and weight status have not been examined in a representative sample of U.S. adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), diet quality, and weight status within and across age groups in U.S. adults. Methods Participants included 2,587 men and 2,412 women ages 20 to ≥70 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and 2005–2006. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Diet quality was assessed with overall Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores. Measures of weight status, BMI and waist circumference, were assessed using standard NHANES protocols. Results Across age groups, MVPA was lower in the older age groups for both men and women while diet quality was higher (P<.001). BMI and waist circumference were also higher in the older age groups (P<0.05). Within age groups, MVPA was inversely associated with BMI and waist circumference for men and women in nearly every age group (P<0.05). Diet quality was inversely associated with the weight status variables only in men ages 30–39, 40–49 (BMI only), and 50–59 years, and women ages 50–59 years (P<0.05). Conclusions We observed clear age-related trends for measures of weight status, physical activity, and diet quality in U.S. men and women. MVPA was very consistently related to weight status in both genders. The relationship between diet quality and weight status was less consistent. These findings provide support for public health efforts to prevent obesity by promoting increased physical activity in adult Americans. PMID:25058328

  6. Soil Moisture Active Passive Satellite Status and Recent Validation Results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched in January, 2015 and began its calibration and validation (cal/val) phase in May, 2015. Cal/Val will begin with a focus on instrument measurements, brightness temperature and backscatter, and evolve to the geophysical products that include...

  7. Phagocytic cell function in active brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ocon, P; Reguera, J M; Morata, P; Juarez, C; Alonso, A; Colmenero, J D

    1994-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed phagocytic cell function in 51 patients with active brucellosis and its relationship with different clinical, serological, and evolutionary variables. A control group was made up of 30 blood donors of similar geographic extraction, age, and sex, with no previous history of brucellosis or known exposure ot the infection or specific antibodies. The investigations were carried out at the time of diagnosis, at the conclusion of treatment, and after 6 months of follow-up. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte adherence and nitroblue tetrazolium reduction in response to Brucella antigen were significantly increased in the patients at the time of diagnosis with respect to the control group. In contrast, chemotaxis in response to Brucella antigen and phagocytosis were significantly reduced in the patients with respect to the control group. The alterations in phagocytic cell function were greater in patients with bacteremia, with focal forms of the disease, or with a longer diagnostic delay. Most of these initial alterations tended to normalize with treatment, indicating their transient character. PMID:8112863

  8. Extra-curricular physical activity and socioeconomic status in Italian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Giuseppe La; Masala, Daniele; De Vito, Elisabetta; Langiano, Elisa; Capelli, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Background The relationship between physical activity and health status has been thoroughly investigated in several studies, while the relation between physical activity and socio-economic status (SES) is less investigated. The aim of this study was to measure the extra-curricular physical activity of adolescents related to the socio-economic status (SES) of their families. Methods The survey was carried out by submitting an anonymous questionnaire to junior high school students in the following Regions: Lazio, Abruzzo, Molise, Campania, Puglia, during the school year 2002–2003. Extra-curriculum physical activity was evaluated considering whether or not present and hours of activity weekly conducted. 2411 students agreed to participate in the study. Results Participants were 1121 males (46.5%) and 1290 females (53.5%), aged between 11 and 17 years (median age: 12 years). 71.1% of the students reported to practice extra-curricular physical activity. Parents' educational levels and work activities play an important role in predicting students' physical activity, with the more remunerative activities and higher educational levels being more predictive. Conclusion The results confirm the relationship between adolescents' physical activity and their families' SES. In particular, a positive relationship between participation in extra-curricular physical activity and their families high SES was found. These data will be useful for school administrators and for politicians in order to reduce the gap between adolescents from the least and most disadvantaged families. PMID:16448561

  9. Active Rack Isolation System Program and Technical Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Glenn; Fialho, Ian; Allen, James; Quraishi, Naveed

    2000-01-01

    The Boeing Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) is one of the means used to isolate acceleration-sensitive scientific experiments from structurally transmitted disturbances aboard the International Space Station. The presentation provides an overview of ARIS and technical issues associated with the development of the active control system. An overview of ARIS analytical models is presented along with recent isolation performance predictions made using these models. Issues associated with commanding and capturing ARIS data are discussed and possible future options based on the ARIS ISS Characterization Experiment (ICE) Payload On-orbit Processor (POP) are outlined. An overview of the ARIS-ICE experiment scheduled to fly on ISS Flight 6A is presented. The presentation concludes with a discussion of recent- developmental work that includes passive rack damping, umbilical redesigns and advanced multivariable control design methods.

  10. A status of the Turbine Technology Team activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Lisa W.

    1992-01-01

    The recent activities of the Turbine Technology Team of the Consortium for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Application in Propulsion Technology is presented. The team consists of members from the government, industry, and universities. The goal of this team is to demonstrate the benefits to the turbine design process attainable through the application of CFD. This goal is to be achieved by enhancing and validating turbine design tools for improved loading and flowfield definition and loss prediction, and transferring the advanced technology to the turbine design process. In order to demonstrate the advantages of using CFD early in the design phase, the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) turbines for the National Launch System (NLS) were chosen on which to focus the team's efforts. The Turbine Team activities run parallel to the STME design work.

  11. Current status of pyrazole and its biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Naim, Mohd Javed; Alam, Ozair; Nawaz, Farah; Alam, Md. Jahangir; Alam, Perwaiz

    2016-01-01

    Pyrazole are potent medicinal scaffolds and exhibit a full spectrum of biological activities. This review throws light on the detailed synthetic approaches which have been applied for the synthesis of pyrazole. This has been followed by an in depth analysis of the pyrazole with respect to their medical significance. This follow-up may help the medicinal chemists to generate new leads possessing pyrazole nucleus with high efficacy. PMID:26957862

  12. Cognitive functions and neuropsychological status of medical students with different attitudes to alcohol use: a study conducted at the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk, Belarus.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Menizibeya O; Razvodovsky, Yury E; Pereverzeva, Elena V; Pereverzev, Vladimir A

    2014-04-10

    This article presents findings on the effects of alcohol use on cognitive performance, functional (well-being, activity, mood) and neuropsychological status and anxiety levels of medical students. A total of 265 medical students (107 males and 158 females) from the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk (Belarus) were administered questionnaire, containing the AUDIT, CAGE, MAST, and PAS, and other alcohol related questions. Academic Performance questionnaire was administered together with other tests. For analysis of cognitive functions, a "correction probe" test was used. The number of students who reported consumption of alcohol was 74 males and 142 females. Medical students who reported alcohol consumption had lower cognitive performance and academic success, poor self-assessment of their functional and neuropsychological states, compared to the non-alcohol users. The results of this study suggest an inverse dose-dependent relationship between alcohol consumption, and cognitive functions, academic performance and neuropsychological status of medical students.

  13. Water Load Test in Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: No Relation to Food Intake and Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; Speridião, Patricia da Graça Leite; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the relations between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (P < 0.05). Among patients who ingested ≤560 mL (n = 17) or >560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relation between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index, or height. PMID:26317680

  14. Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children's development irrespective of the child's level on the other factor.

  15. Antibodies to paraoxonase 1 are associated with oxidant status and endothelial activation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrio, Javier; Alperi-López, Mercedes; López-Mejías, Raquel; López, Patricia; Ballina-García, Francisco J; Abal, Francisco; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Suárez, Ana

    2016-11-01

    Traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors underlie CV disease occurrence in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, a functional impairment of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has been observed. Although the actual players are unknown, anti-HDLs were associated with altered lipid profile, decreased paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and CV disease in RA. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether the presence of antibodies against PON1 may be involved in this scenario. IgG anti-PON1 antibodies were quantified by ELISA in serum samples from 212 RA patients, 175 healthy controls (HC) and 54 subjects with traditional CV risk factors (CVR). A subgroup of 13 RA patients was prospectively followed upon tumour necrosis factor-α  (TNFα) blockade. Serum PON1 activity, nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Interferon-γ (IFNγ), interleukin 8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and TNFα serum levels were assessed by immunoassays. PON1 rs662 (Q > R) status was studied by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. IgG anti-PON1 antibodies are increased in RA patients compared with HC (P<0.0001) and CVR subjects (P<0.001), even after correcting for total IgG levels. Although no associations with lipid profile were found, a positive correlation with Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) was observed (r=0.215, P=0.004). Anti-PON1 antibodies were associated with PON1 activity, NO and TAC, a rs662-mediated gene-dosage effect being found. Similarly, anti-PON1 antibodies were associated with sICAM serum levels in univariate and multivariate models. Finally, these antibodies were not affected by TNFα blockade. Anti-PON1 antibodies can be responsible for PON1 impairment in RA patients, with a potential impact on biomarkers of oxidative status and endothelial activation. A gene-environment interaction of rs662 variants is supported. PMID:27520507

  16. Antibodies to paraoxonase 1 are associated with oxidant status and endothelial activation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrio, Javier; Alperi-López, Mercedes; López-Mejías, Raquel; López, Patricia; Ballina-García, Francisco J; Abal, Francisco; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Suárez, Ana

    2016-11-01

    Traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors underlie CV disease occurrence in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, a functional impairment of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has been observed. Although the actual players are unknown, anti-HDLs were associated with altered lipid profile, decreased paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and CV disease in RA. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether the presence of antibodies against PON1 may be involved in this scenario. IgG anti-PON1 antibodies were quantified by ELISA in serum samples from 212 RA patients, 175 healthy controls (HC) and 54 subjects with traditional CV risk factors (CVR). A subgroup of 13 RA patients was prospectively followed upon tumour necrosis factor-α  (TNFα) blockade. Serum PON1 activity, nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Interferon-γ (IFNγ), interleukin 8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and TNFα serum levels were assessed by immunoassays. PON1 rs662 (Q > R) status was studied by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. IgG anti-PON1 antibodies are increased in RA patients compared with HC (P<0.0001) and CVR subjects (P<0.001), even after correcting for total IgG levels. Although no associations with lipid profile were found, a positive correlation with Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) was observed (r=0.215, P=0.004). Anti-PON1 antibodies were associated with PON1 activity, NO and TAC, a rs662-mediated gene-dosage effect being found. Similarly, anti-PON1 antibodies were associated with sICAM serum levels in univariate and multivariate models. Finally, these antibodies were not affected by TNFα blockade. Anti-PON1 antibodies can be responsible for PON1 impairment in RA patients, with a potential impact on biomarkers of oxidative status and endothelial activation. A gene-environment interaction of rs662 variants is supported.

  17. Population Distributions of Thymic Function in Adults: Variation by Sociodemographic Characteristics and Health Status.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Lydia; Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; Leal, Manuel; Zhou, Xuan; Sempowski, Gregory D; Wildman, Derek E; Uddin, Monica; Aiello, Allison E

    2016-01-01

    The thymus is critical for mounting an effective immune response and maintaining health. However, epidemiologic studies characterizing thymic function in the population setting are lacking. Using data from 263 adults in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study, we examined thymic function as measured by the number of signal joint T-cell receptor excision circles (sjTREC) and assessed associations with established indicators of physiological health. Overall, increasing age and male gender were significantly associated with reduced thymic function. Adjusting for covariates, individuals with elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (β: -0.50 [95% CI: -0.82, -0.18] for moderate elevation, β: -0.29 [95% CI: -0.59, 0.00] for high elevation) and interleukin-6 (β: -0.60 [95% CI: -0.92, -0.28] for moderate elevation, β: -0.43 [95% CI: -0.77, -0.08] for severe elevation) also had lower thymic function. Compared to individuals with a BMI < 25, individuals who were overweight (β: 0.36 [95% CI: 0.07, 0.64]) or obese (β: 0.27 [95% CI: -0.03, 0.56]) had higher thymic function. Differences by self-rated health were not statistically significant. Our findings underscore demographic- and health-related gradients in thymic function among adult residents of Detroit, suggesting thymic function may be an important biomarker of health status in adults at the population level. PMID:27337555

  18. Vertical Ground Reaction Forces are Associated with Pain and Self-Reported Functional Status in Recreational Athletes with Patellofemoral Pain.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Briani, Ronaldo; Pazzinatto, Marcella; Ferrari, Deisi; Aragão, Fernando; de Azevedo, Fábio

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP) use different motor strategies during unipodal support in stair climbing activities, which may be assessed by vertical ground reaction force parameters. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate possible differences in first peak, valley, second peak, and loading rate between recreational female athletes with PFP and pain-free athletes during stair climbing in order to determine the association and prediction capability between these parameters, pain level, and functional status in females with PFP. Thirty-one recreational female athletes with PFP and 31 pain-free recreational female athletes were evaluated with three-dimensional kinetics while performing stair climbing to obtain vertical ground reaction force parameters. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate the usual knee pain. The anterior knee pain scale was used to evaluate knee functional score. First peak and loading rate were associated with pain (r = .46, P = .008; r = .56, P = .001, respectively) and functional limitation (r = .31, P = .049; r = -.36, P = .032, respectively). Forced entry regression revealed the first peak was a significant predictor of pain (36.5%) and functional limitation (28.7%). Our findings suggest that rehabilitation strategies aimed at correcting altered vertical ground reaction force may improve usual knee pain level and self-reported knee function in females with PFP. PMID:26286949

  19. Status report of CPHS and neutron activities at Tsinghua University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Xing, Q.; Zheng, S.; Yang, Y.; Gong, H.; Xiao, Y.; Wu, H.; Guan, X.; Du, T.

    2016-11-01

    The Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) project that was launched in September 2009 at Tsinghua University has reached a first commissioning stage in conjunction with ongoing activities to fulfill the eventual design goal of a ˜ 1013 n/s epithermal-to-cold neutron yield for education, instrumentation development, and industrial applications. Here, we report the latest progress on the commissioning and applications of 3MeV proton and neutron beam lines in the last one and half years, and the design, fabrication, engineering of the 13MeV/16kW proton accelerator system.

  20. Data Mining Activities for Bone Discipline - Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Johnston, S. L.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The disciplinary goals of the Human Research Program are broadly discussed. There is a critical need to identify gaps in the evidence that would substantiate a skeletal health risk during and after spaceflight missions. As a result, data mining activities will be engaged to gather reviews of medical data and flight analog data and to propose additional measures and specific analyses. Several studies are briefly reviewed which have topics that partially address these gaps in knowledge, including bone strength recovery with recovery of bone mass density, current renal stone formation knowledge, herniated discs, and a review of bed rest studies conducted at Ames Human Research Facility.

  1. Association between Cognitive Status and Physical Activity: Study Profile on Baseline Survey of the My Mind Project

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Cristina; Papa, Roberta; Postacchini, Demetrio; Giuli, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of people with dementia is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, but it seems that there is a relationship between an active lifestyle and cognitive decline. The present study aimed to compare the characteristics and engagement in the physical activity (PA) of three groups of Italian elderly with different cognitive statuses at baseline phase. Methods: Data were examined using the results from the “My Mind Project” on 305 community-dwelling Italians. The sample was comprised of 93 subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 109 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 103 healthy elderly (HE). Results: Classification of subjects on the basis of Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) score showed that 47% of HE performed the highest level of physical activity while 40% of AD performed the lowest level. MCI subjects were distributed quite homogeneously across the levels (p < 0.001). Physical activity such as walking and light sports was carried out mainly and more frequently by HE as compared to the others (p < 0.05). As regards functional status, AD presented worse conditions in basic and instrumental activities of daily living than the other groups (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results evidenced that subjects with cognitive decline had the tendency to engage in PA less than HE. In particular, age and education negatively affected engagement in PA. PMID:27314365

  2. Immune parameters identify Italian centenarians with a longer five-year survival independent of their health and functional status.

    PubMed

    Bucci, L; Ostan, R; Giampieri, E; Cevenini, E; Pini, E; Scurti, M; Vescovini, R; Sansoni, P; Caruso, C; Mari, D; Ronchetti, F; Borghi, M O; Ogliari, G; Grossi, C; Capri, M; Salvioli, S; Castellani, G; Franceschi, C; Monti, D

    2014-06-01

    Centenarians are rare and exceptional individuals characterized by a peculiar phenotype. They are the best example of healthy aging in humans as most of them have escaped or substantially delayed the onset of major age-related diseases. Within this scenario, the purpose of the present work was to understand if immune status is associated with survival and health status in centenarians. To this aim, 116 centenarians were concomitantly characterized for their immunological, health and functional status, and followed-up for five-year survival. On the basis of previous knowledge we focused on a core of fundamental and basic immune parameters (number of leukocytes, monocytes, total lymphocytes, CD3(+) T lymphocytes, CD4(+) helper T lymphocytes, CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes, CD19(+) B lymphocytes and plasma levels of IgM), and the most important findings can be summarized as follows: i. a hierarchical cluster analysis was able to define Cluster1 (88 centenarians) and Cluster2 (28 centenarians) characterized by low and high values of all these immune parameters, respectively; ii. centenarians of Cluster2 showed a statistically longer five-year survival and more favorable values of other important immune (naïve, activated/memory and effector/memory T cells) and metabolic (glycemia, insulin and HOMA-IR) parameters, in accord with previous observations that centenarians have a peculiar immune profile, a preserved insulin pathway and a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes; and iii. unexpectedly, parameters related to frailty, as well as functional and cognitive status, did not show any significant correlation with the immune clustering, despite being capable per se of predicting survival. In conclusion, high values of basic immunological parameters and important T cell subsets correlate with five-year survival in centenarians, independent of other phenotypic characteristics. This unexpected biological scenario is compatible with the general hypothesis that in centenarians a

  3. Status of Safety& Environmental Activities for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S; Cadwallader, L C; Sharpe, J P; Marshall, T D; Merrill, B J; Moore, R L; Petti, D A; Falquina, R; Rodriguez, A; Sanz, J; Cabellos, O

    2002-11-25

    Over the past several years, significant progress has been made in the analysis of safety and environmental (S&E) issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Detailed safety assessments have been performed for the baseline power plant concepts, as well as for a conceptual target fabrication facility. Safety analysis results are helping to drive the agenda for experiments. A survey of the S&E characteristics--both radiological and chemical--of candidate target materials has been completed. Accident initiating events have been identified and incorporated into master logic diagrams, which will be essential to the detailed safety analyses that will be needed in the future. Studies of aerosol generation and transport will have important safety implications. A Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analysis procedure has been developed for use in neutron activation calculations. Finally, waste management issues are receiving increased attention and are deserving of further discussion.

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Status Quality Indicators for Older Persons with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dy, Sydney M.; Pfoh, Elizabeth R.; Salive, Marcel E.; Boyd, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To explore central challenges with translating self-reported measurement tools for functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) into ambulatory quality indicators for older people with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). DESIGN Review. SETTING Sources including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse and National Quality Forum were reviewed for existing ambulatory quality indicators relevant to functional status, HRQOL, and people with MCCs. PARTICIPANTS Seven informants with expertise in indicators using functional status and HRQOL. MEASUREMENTS Informant interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about these types of indicators, particularly usability and feasibility. RESULTS Nine important existing indicators were identified in the review. For process, identified indicators addressed whether providers assessed functional status; outcome indicators addressed quality of life. In interviews, informants agreed that indicators using self-reported data were important in this population. Challenges identified included concerns about usability due to inability to discriminate quality of care adequately between organizations and feasibility concerns regarding high data collection burden, with a correspondingly low response rate. Validity was also a concern because evidence is mixed that healthcare interventions can improve HRQOL or functional status for this population. As a possible first step, a structural standard could be systematic collection of these measures in a specific setting. CONCLUSION Although functional status and HRQOL are important outcomes for older people with MCCs, few relevant ambulatory quality indicators exist, and there are concerns with usability, feasibility, and validity. Further research is needed on how best to incorporate these outcomes into quality indicators for people with MCCs. PMID:24320819

  5. APOE polymorphism, socioeconomic status and cognitive function in mid-life--the Whitehall II longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing Hua; Brunner, Eric; Kumari, Meena; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Hawe, Emma; Talmud, Philippa; Marmot, Mickael; Humphries, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the common apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) variants with cognitive function and cognitive decline in adult mid-life, and explore the possibility that APOE genotype mediates the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and cognitive function. Methods Data on cognitive function, as measured by five cognitive tests, together with APOE genotype were obtained in an occupational cohort (the Whitehall II study) of 6,004 participants aged 44–69 years (1997–1999). Cognitive change was examined in 2,717 participants who had cognitive function measured at baseline (1991–1993). Results SES based on civil service employment grade was strongly related to cognitive function. There was no association between APOE genotype and employment grade. In women, participants with APOE-ε4 had a lower memory score (p<0.05) but the result was sensitive to data from a small number of individuals. A marginal cross-sectional difference in the semantic fluency score was found (p=0.07) and there was a relative decline at follow-up (p<0.001, net change =−1.19, 95%CI = 1.90 ~ −0.49) in those with APOE-ε4 genotypes. Conclusions APOE-ε4 has little influence on cognitive decline in mid-life while SES is a strong determinant, although APOE genotype may emerge as an important factor in cognitive function in later life. PMID:16021346

  6. Parental socioeconomic status and child intellectual functioning in a Norwegian sample.

    PubMed

    Eilertsen, Thomas; Thorsen, Anders Lillevik; Holm, Silje Elisabeth Hasmo; Bøe, Tormod; Sørensen, Lin; Lundervold, Astri J

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood has been linked to cognitive function and future academic and occupational success in studies from several countries. However, previous Nordic studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the strength of this link. We therefore investigated the association between SES and cognitive functioning in a sample of 255 Norwegian children, including 151 typically developing children and 104 children with a psychiatric diagnosis. The third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) to assess cognitive function was used. SES was defined from maternal and paternal education and family income of typically developing children and of a subsample of children with a psychiatric diagnosis. Multiple adjusted regression analyses were used to investigate the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. The analyses showed that SES explained a significant part of the variance of the full-scale WISC-III score and two WISC-III indices (Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility). Overall, the strength of the relations was weaker than expected from reports from other non-Nordic countries. Parental education was the only significant individual predictor, suggesting that income was of minor importance as a predictor of cognitive functioning. Further studies should investigate how diverse political and socioeconomic contexts influence the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. PMID:27589048

  7. The facial massage reduced anxiety and negative mood status, and increased sympathetic nervous activity.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, Tomoko; Kitamura, Shingo; Tamura, Chihiro; Nagano, Mayumi; Ohnuki, Koichiro

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of 45 min of facial massage on the activity of autonomic nervous system, anxiety and mood in 32 healthy women. Autonomic nervous activity was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, we evaluated the high-frequency components (HF) and the low- to high-frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio), reflecting parasympathetic nervous activity and sympathetic nervous activity, respectively. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Profile of Mood Status (POMS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. The score of STAI and negative scale of POMS were significantly reduced following the massage, and only the LF/HF ratio was significantly enhanced after the massage. It was concluded that the facial massage might refresh the subjects by reducing their psychological distress and activating the sympathetic nervous system.

  8. Current status of active surveillance in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mun Su

    2016-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a management strategy involving close monitoring the course of disease with the expectation to intervene if the cancer progress, in a super-selected group of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Determining AS candidates should be based on careful individualized weighing of numerous factors: life expectancy, general health condition, disease characteristics, potential side effects of treatment, and patient preference. Several protocols have been developed to determine insignificant PCa for choosing ideal AS candidates. Results regarding disease reclassification during AS have been also reported. In an effort to enhance accuracy during selection of AS candidate, there were several reports on using magnetic resonance imaging for prediction of insignificant PCa. Currently, there is an urgent need for further clinical studies regarding the criteria for recommending AS, the criteria for reclassification on AS, and the schedule for AS. Considering the racial differences in behavior of PCa between Western and Asian populations, more stringent AS protocols for Asian patients should be established from additional, well-designed, large clinical studies. PMID:26966722

  9. Present status of some technological activities supporting the MOLCARE project

    SciTech Connect

    Torazza, A.; Rocchini, G.; Scagliotti, M.

    1996-12-31

    The development of MCFC stack technology is carried out at Ansaldo Ricerche in the framework of the MOLCARE project, a cooperation with Spanish companies under a partial UE funding, while a specific research program concerning the physico-chemical characterization of materials is performed jointly by CISE and ENEL. The project includes the development, the construction and the testing of a full scale 100 kW prototype, the assessment of stack technology on subscale stacks, the mathematical modelling of the MCFC based plants and the basic researches. The aim of the basic researches, carried out on single cells, is to improve the effectiveness and durability of both the active and the hardware materials. The Ansaldo stack technology is based on external manifolding. The full scale 100 kW prototype will be integrated with the sensible heat reformer and other ancillary equipments according to the {open_quote}Compact Unit (CU){close_quotes} concept. These technical choices stress requirements for manifold gasket configuration. electrolyte migration control, {Delta}p management and porous component compaction.

  10. DNA methylation status predicts cell type-specific enhancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Wiench, Malgorzata; John, Sam; Baek, Songjoon; Johnson, Thomas A; Sung, Myong-Hee; Escobar, Thelma; Simmons, Catherine A; Pearce, Kenneth H; Biddie, Simon C; Sabo, Pete J; Thurman, Robert E; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Hager, Gordon L

    2011-01-01

    Cell-selective glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding to distal regulatory elements is associated with cell type-specific regions of locally accessible chromatin. These regions can either pre-exist in chromatin (pre-programmed) or be induced by the receptor (de novo). Mechanisms that create and maintain these sites are not well understood. We observe a global enrichment of CpG density for pre-programmed elements, and implicate their demethylated state in the maintenance of open chromatin in a tissue-specific manner. In contrast, sites that are actively opened by GR (de novo) are characterized by low CpG density, and form a unique class of enhancers devoid of suppressive effect of agglomerated methyl-cytosines. Furthermore, treatment with glucocorticoids induces rapid changes in methylation levels at selected CpGs within de novo sites. Finally, we identify GR-binding elements with CpGs at critical positions, and show that methylation can affect GR–DNA interactions in vitro. The findings present a unique link between tissue-specific chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation and transcription factor binding and show that DNA methylation can be an integral component of gene regulation by nuclear receptors. PMID:21701563

  11. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    PubMed

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable. PMID:26961225

  12. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Autonomic Nervous System Activity.

    PubMed

    Burt, Morton G; Mangelsdorf, Brenda L; Stranks, Stephen N; Mangoni, Arduino A

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m², 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L) underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Subjects with 25 hydroxy vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L were restudied after 200,000 International Units 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Plasma metanephrine was positively associated with AIx (p = 0.02) independent of age, sex, smoking and cholesterol and negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.002) independent of age, sex and season. In contrast, there was no association between baroreflex sensitivity and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.54). Treatment with vitamin D increased 25 hydroxy vitamin D from 43 ± 5 to 96 ± 24 nmol/L (p < 0.0001) but there was no significant change in plasma metanephrine (115 ± 25 vs. 99 ± 39 pmol/L, p = 0.12). We conclude that as plasma metanephrine was negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D and positively with AIx, it could mediate an association between these two variables. This hypothesis should be tested in larger interventional studies. PMID:27649235

  13. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Morton G.; Mangelsdorf, Brenda L.; Stranks, Stephen N.; Mangoni, Arduino A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2, 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L) underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Subjects with 25 hydroxy vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L were restudied after 200,000 International Units 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Plasma metanephrine was positively associated with AIx (p = 0.02) independent of age, sex, smoking and cholesterol and negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.002) independent of age, sex and season. In contrast, there was no association between baroreflex sensitivity and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.54). Treatment with vitamin D increased 25 hydroxy vitamin D from 43 ± 5 to 96 ± 24 nmol/L (p < 0.0001) but there was no significant change in plasma metanephrine (115 ± 25 vs. 99 ± 39 pmol/L, p = 0.12). We conclude that as plasma metanephrine was negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D and positively with AIx, it could mediate an association between these two variables. This hypothesis should be tested in larger interventional studies. PMID:27649235

  14. Implantable and ingestible medical devices with wireless telemetry functionalities: a review of current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kiourti, Asimina; Psathas, Konstantinos A; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2014-01-01

    Wireless medical telemetry permits the measurement of physiological signals at a distance through wireless technologies. One of the latest applications is in the field of implantable and ingestible medical devices (IIMDs) with integrated antennas for wireless radiofrequency (RF) communication (telemetry) with exterior monitoring/control equipment. Implantable medical devices (MDs) perform an expanding variety of diagnostic and therapeutic functions, while ingestible MDs receive significant attention in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Design of such wireless IIMD telemetry systems is highly intriguing and deals with issues related to: operation frequency selection, electronics and powering, antenna design and performance, and modeling of the wireless channel. In this paper, we attempt to comparatively review the current status and challenges of IIMDs with wireless telemetry functionalities. Full solutions of commercial IIMDs are also recorded. The objective is to provide a comprehensive reference for scientists and developers in the field, while indicating directions for future research.

  15. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Technology Development Status and Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in Fiscal Year (FY) 2011, Extravehicular activity (EVA) technology development became a technology foundational domain under a new program Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration. The goal of the EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA technology life and limited availability of the EMUs will become a critical issue eventually. The current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has vastly served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability could be an option for the future mission applications building off of the technology development over the last several years. Besides ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for

  16. Obesity and diabetes as accelerators of functional decline: can lifestyle interventions maintain functional status in high risk older adults?

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Karabetian, Christy; Naugle, Kelly; Buford, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for the development of physical disability among older adults. With the number of seniors with these conditions rising worldwide, the prevention and treatment of physical disability in these persons have become a major public health challenge. Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, has been identified as a common pathway associated with the initial onset and progression of physical disability among older adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity and diabetes accelerates the progression of sarcopenia, and subsequently functional decline in older adults. The focus of this brief review is on the contributions of obesity and diabetes in accelerating sarcopenia and functional decline among older adults. We also briefly discuss the underexplored interaction between obesity and diabetes that may further accelerate sarcopenia and place obese older adults with diabetes at particularly high risk of disability. Finally, we review findings from studies that have specifically tested the efficacy of lifestyle-based interventions in maintaining the functional status of older persons with obesity and/or diabetes.

  17. HIV Serosorting, Status Disclosure, and Strategic Positioning Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Moody, Raymond L; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-10-01

    Researchers have identified harm reduction strategies that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) use to reduce HIV transmission--including serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning. We report on patterns of these behaviors among 376 highly sexually active (i.e., 9+partners, <90 days) GBMSM: mean age of 37, 49.5% men of color, 87.8% gay identified, 57.5% college educated. We found evidence that many men engaged in serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning; however, rates varied based on the participant's HIV status. HIV-positive and HIV-negative men both engaged in sex with men of similar status more often than they engaged in sex with men known to be a different HIV status (i.e., serosorting). However, HIV-negative men disclosed their HIV-status with about half of their partners, whereas HIV-positive participants disclosed with only about one-third. With regard to strategic positioning, HIV-positive participants were the receptive partner about half the time with their HIV-negative partners and with their HIV-positive partners. In contrast, strategic positioning was very common among HIV-negative participants-they rarely bottomed with HIV-positive partners, bottomed about one-third of the time with status-unknown partners, and 42% of the time (on average) with HIV-negative partners. Highly sexually active GBMSM are a critical population in which to both investigate HIV prevention strategies as well as develop effective intervention programs. Providers and clinicians might be well served to include a wide range of behavioral harm reduction strategies in addition to condom use and biomedical approaches to reduce onward HIV transmission.

  18. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5 years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households. PMID:21107891

  19. 77 FR 22068 - Proposed Information Collection (Financial Status Report) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Financial Status Report) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Office... collection of certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995, Federal... information, including each proposed extension of a currently approved collection, and allow 60 days...

  20. Status of the Usage of Active Learning and Teaching Method and Techniques by Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akman, Özkan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the active learning and teaching methods and techniques which are employed by the social studies teachers working in state schools of Turkey. This usage status was assessed using different variables. This was a case study, wherein the research was limited to 241 social studies teachers. These teachers…

  1. Energy Efficiency in Gait, Activity, Participation, and Health Status in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Claire; Parkes, Jackie; Stevenson, Mike; Cosgrove, Aidan P.; McDowell, Brona C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish if a relationship exists between the energy efficiency of gait, and measures of activity limitation, participation restriction, and health status in a representative sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Secondary aims were to investigate potential differences between clinical subtypes and gross motor…

  2. Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

  3. 78 FR 48941 - Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number: 2900-0495. Type of Review: Extension of a currently...

  4. The Effects and Functions of Speaker Status in CALL-Oriented Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Do you know how to change your relationship status on Facebook? What about your language status? In most web 2.0 contexts, music preference or relationship status are more important than information about one's linguistic repertoire. In language learning communities and affinity spaces (Gee, 2004), however, language status is forefronted. This…

  5. Influence of the Plantar Cutaneous Information in Postural Regulation Depending on the Age and the Physical Activity Status

    PubMed Central

    Maitre, Julien; Paillard, Thierry P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to compare the balance control adaptation to different supporting surfaces depending on the age and the physical activity status. The balance control of two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who practiced regular physical activity (active groups) and two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who did not practice physical activity (non-active groups) was compared on a firm surface and on a foam surface. The parameters of the center of foot pressure (COP) displacement were compared between the groups. The two older groups were more disturbed than the two younger groups when they stood on a foam surface and there was no difference between active and non-active groups. This result may be linked to the structural and functional involutions of the plantar cutaneous sole and foot that occur with age advancement. The participants’ physical activity practice might be not specific enough to generate a more efficient postural adaption to the foam condition for the active groups than the non-active groups within their respective age groups. PMID:27582699

  6. Influence of the Plantar Cutaneous Information in Postural Regulation Depending on the Age and the Physical Activity Status.

    PubMed

    Maitre, Julien; Paillard, Thierry P

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to compare the balance control adaptation to different supporting surfaces depending on the age and the physical activity status. The balance control of two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who practiced regular physical activity (active groups) and two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who did not practice physical activity (non-active groups) was compared on a firm surface and on a foam surface. The parameters of the center of foot pressure (COP) displacement were compared between the groups. The two older groups were more disturbed than the two younger groups when they stood on a foam surface and there was no difference between active and non-active groups. This result may be linked to the structural and functional involutions of the plantar cutaneous sole and foot that occur with age advancement. The participants' physical activity practice might be not specific enough to generate a more efficient postural adaption to the foam condition for the active groups than the non-active groups within their respective age groups. PMID:27582699

  7. Newly generated neurons at 2 months post-status epilepticus are functionally integrated into neuronal circuitry in mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming; Zhu, Kun; Chen, Xin-Lin; Zhang, Yao-Jie; Zhang, Jian-Shui; Xiao, Xin-Li; Liu, Jian-Xin; Liu, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Emerging evidence has linked chronic temporal lobe epilepsy to dramatically reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. However, the profile of different components of neurogenesis in the chronically epileptic hippocampus is still unclear, especially the incorporation of newly generated cells. To address the issue, newly generated cells in the sub-granular zone of the dentate gyrus were labeled by the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) or retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein 2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. The newly generated neurons that extended axons to CA3 area or integrated into memory circuits were visualized by cholera toxin B subunit retrograde tracing, and detecting activation of BrdU(+) cells following a recall of spatial memory test at the chronic stage of TLE. We found that the microenvironment was still able to sustain significant neuronal differentiation of newly generated cells at 2 months post-status epilepticus time-point, and newly added neurons into granular cell layer were still able to integrate into neuronal circuitry, both anatomically and functionally. Quantified analyses of BrdU(+) or Ki-67(+) cells demonstrated that there was a reduced proliferation of progenitor cells and diminished survival of newly generated cells in the epileptic hippocampus. Both decreased levels of neurotrophic factors in the surrounding milieu and cell loss in the CA3 area might contribute the decreased production of new cells and their survival following chronic epilepsy. These results suggest that decreased neurogenesis in the chronically epileptic hippocampus 2 months post status epilepticus is not associated with altered integration of newly generated neurons, and that developing strategies to augment hippocampal neurogenesis in chronic epilepsy might be protective.

  8. Physical Activity, Health Status and Risk of Hospitalization in Patients with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Benzo, Roberto P.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Farrell, Max H.; Kaplan, Robert; Ries, Andrew; Martinez, Fernando J.; Wise, Robert; Make, Barry; Sciurba, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death and 70% of the cost of COPD is due to hospitalizations. Self-reported daily physical activity and health status have been reported as predictors of a hospitalization in COPD but are not routinely assessed. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that self-reported daily physical activity and health status assessed by a simple question were predictors of a hospitalization in a well-characterized cohort of patients with severe emphysema. Methods Investigators gathered daily physical activity and health status data assessed by a simple question in 597 patients with severe emphysema and tested the association of those patient-reported outcomes to the occurrence of a hospitalization in the following year. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine predictors of hospitalization during the first 12 months after randomization. Results The two variables tested in the hypothesis were significant predictors of a hospitalization after adjusting for all univariable significant predictors: >2 h of physical activity per week had a protective effect [odds ratio (OR) 0.60; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.41–0.88] and self-reported health status as fair or poor had a deleterious effect (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.10–2.23). In addition, two other variables became significant in the multivariate model: total lung capacity (every 10% increase) had a protective effect (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.78–0.99) and self-reported anxiety had a deleterious effect (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.13–2.70). Conclusion Self-reported daily physical activity and health status are independently associated with COPD hospitalizations. Our findings, assessed by simple questions, suggest the value of patient-reported outcomes in developing risk assessment tools that are easy to use. PMID:20234126

  9. Impact of enteral nutrition on postoperative immune function and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Hou, M X; Wu, X L; Bao, L D; Dong, P D

    2015-06-10

    We studied the effects of enteral nutrition (EN) support initiated 1 week before surgery on postoperative nutritional status, immune function, and inflammatory response in gastric cancer patients. A total of 200 gastric cancer patients were randomly divided into two groups: EN starting 1 week before surgery (study group) and EN starting early after surgery (control group). The two groups received EN support, following different therapeutic schedules, until the 9th day after operation. In the patients, body weight, skinfold thickness, upper-arm circumference, white blood cell count, albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, peripheral immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM), T lymphocyte subsets, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured 10 days before and after surgery and on the first day after surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in the results of recovery time of passage of gas by anus, abdominal distension, stomachache, blood glucose, hepatic and renal functions, and electrolytes between the two groups of patients (P > 0. 05). Adverse reactions occurred to both groups at 1 and 2 days after operation. Such conditions was improved after the intravenous drip rate was adjusted. The albumin and prealbumin levels of the patients in both groups decreased at 1 day after operation (P < 0. 05). The levels rose when the research was finished (P < 0. 05). The prealbumin level of the study group was higher than that of the control group at 10 days after operation (P < 0. 05). The IgG level of the study group was higher than that of the control group at 10 days after operation (P < 0. 05). The two groups of inflammatory reaction indicators of the study group were lower than those of the control group at 10 days after operation (P < 0. 05). This study indicates that appropriate preoperative EN support for gastric cancer patients can improve their postoperative nutritional status and immune function, can reduce inflammatory response, and is

  10. Classification of debtor credit status and determination amount of credit risk by using linier discriminant function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidi, Muhammad Nur; Sari, Resty Indah

    2012-05-01

    A decision of credit that given by bank or another creditur must have a risk and it called credit risk. Credit risk is an investor's risk of loss arising from a borrower who does not make payments as promised. The substantial of credit risk can lead to losses for the banks and the debtor. To minimize this problem need a further study to identify a potential new customer before the decision given. Identification of debtor can using various approaches analysis, one of them is by using discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis in this study are used to classify whether belonging to the debtor's good credit or bad credit. The result of this study are two discriminant functions that can identify new debtor. Before step built the discriminant function, selection of explanatory variables should be done. Purpose of selection independent variable is to choose the variable that can discriminate the group maximally. Selection variables in this study using different test, for categoric variable selection of variable using proportion chi-square test, and stepwise discriminant for numeric variable. The result of this study are two discriminant functions that can identify new debtor. The selected variables that can discriminating two groups of debtor maximally are status of existing checking account, credit history, credit amount, installment rate in percentage of disposable income, sex, age in year, other installment plans, and number of people being liable to provide maintenance. This classification produce a classification accuracy rate is good enough, that is equal to 74,70%. Debtor classification using discriminant analysis has risk level that is small enough, and it ranged beetwen 14,992% and 17,608%. Based on that credit risk rate, using discriminant analysis on the classification of credit status can be used effectively.

  11. Neural responses to visual food cues according to weight status: a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Pursey, Kirrilly M; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E; Burrows, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n = 26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n = 17), and weight-loss interventions (n = 12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n = 36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies.

  12. Neighborhood environment and physical activity among older adults: Do the relationships differ by driving status?

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Saelens, Brian; Kerr, Jaqueline; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Hovell, Melbourne Frank; Hofstetter, C. Richard; King, Abby C.

    2015-01-01

    Some attributes of neighborhood environments are associated with physical activity among older adults. This study examined whether the associations were moderated by driving status. Older adults from neighborhoods differing in walkability and income completed written surveys and wore accelerometers (N=880, mean age=75 years, 56% women). Neighborhood environments were measured by geographic information systems and validated questionnaires. Driving status was defined on the basis of a driver’s license, car ownership, and feeling comfortable to drive. Outcome variables included accelerometer-based physical activity and self-reported transport and leisure walking. Multilevel generalized linear regression was used. There was no significant Neighborhood Attribute × Driving Status interaction with objective physical activity or reported transport walking. For leisure walking, almost all environmental attributes were positive and significant among driving older adults but not among nondriving older adults (five significant interactions at p<0.05). The findings suggest that driving status is likely to moderate the association between neighborhood environments and older adults’ leisure walking. PMID:24084049

  13. Progranulin promotes activation of microglia/macrophage after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shanshan; Tai, Chao; Petkau, Terri L; Zhang, Si; Liao, Chengyong; Dong, Zhifang; Wen, Wendy; Chang, Qing; Tian Wang, Yu; MacVicar, Brian A; Leavitt, Blair R; Jia, William; Cynader, Max S

    2013-09-12

    Progranulin (PGRN) haploinsufficiency accounts for up to 10% of frontotemporal lobe dementia. PGRN has also been implicated in neuroinflammation in acute and chronic neurological disorders. Here we report that both protein and mRNA levels of cortical and hippocampal PGRN are significantly enhanced following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. We also identify intense PGRN immunoreactivity that colocalizes with CD11b in seizure-induced animals, suggesting that PGRN elevation occurs primarily in activated microglia and macrophages. To test the role of PGRN in activation of microglia/macrophages, we apply recombinant PGRN protein directly into the hippocampal formation, and observe no change in the number of CD11b(+) microglia/macrophages in the dentate gyrus. However, with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, PGRN application significantly increases the number of CD11b(+) microglia/macrophages in the dentate gyrus, without affecting the extent of hilar cell death. In addition, the number of CD11b(+) microglia/macrophages induced by status epilepticus is not significantly different between PGRN knockout mice and wildtype. Our findings suggest that status epilepticus induces PGRN expression, and that PGRN potentiates but is not required for seizure-induced microglia/macrophage activation.

  14. Neighborhood environment and physical activity among older adults: do the relationships differ by driving status?

    PubMed

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F; Norman, Gregory J; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; King, Abby C

    2014-07-01

    Some attributes of neighborhood environments are associated with physical activity among older adults. This study examined whether the associations were moderated by driving status. Older adults from neighborhoods differing in walkability and income completed written surveys and wore accelerometers (N = 880, mean age = 75 years, 56% women). Neighborhood environments were measured by geographic information systems and validated questionnaires. Driving status was defined on the basis of a driver's license, car ownership, and feeling comfortable to drive. Outcome variables included accelerometer-based physical activity and self-reported transport and leisure walking. Multilevel generalized linear regression was used. There was no significant Neighborhood Attribute × Driving Status interaction with objective physical activity or reported transport walking. For leisure walking, almost all environmental attributes were positive and significant among driving older adults but not among nondriving older adults (five significant interactions at p < .05). The findings suggest that driving status is likely to moderate the association between neighborhood environments and older adults' leisure walking. PMID:24084049

  15. Individualized Immunosuppressive Protocol of Liver Transplant Recipient Should be Made Based on Splenic Function Status

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ji-Yong; Du, Guo-Sheng; Xiao, Li; Chen, Wen; Suo, Long-Long; Gao, Yu; Feng, Li-Kui; Shi, Bing-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lymphocyte subsets play important roles in rejection in liver transplant recipients, and the effect of splenic function on these roles remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility to adjust immunosuppressive agents based on splenic function status through detecting the lymphocyte subsets in liver transplant recipients. Methods: The lymphocyte subsets of 49 liver transplant recipients were assessed in the 309th Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army between June 2014 and August 2015. The patients were divided into splenectomy group (n = 9), normal splenic function group (n = 24), and hypersplenism group (n = 16). The percentages and counts of CD4+ T, CD8+ T, natural killer (NK) cell, B-cell, regulatory B-cell (Breg), and regulatory T-cell (Treg) were detected by flow cytometer. In addition, the immunosuppressive agents, histories of rejection and infection, and postoperative time of the patients were compared among the three groups. Results: There was no significant difference of clinical characteristics among the three groups. The percentage of CD19+CD24+CD38+ Breg was significantly higher in hypersplenism group than normal splenic function group and splenectomy group (3.29 ± 0.97% vs. 2.12 ± 1.08% and 1.90 ± 0.99%, P = 0.001). The same result was found in CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg percentage (0.97 ± 0.39% vs. 0.54 ± 0.31% and 0.56 ± 0.28%, P = 0.001). The counts of CD8+ T-cell, CD4+ T-cell, and NK cell were significantly lower in hypersplenism group than normal splenic function group (254.25 ± 149.08 vs. 476.96 ± 225.52, P = 0.002; 301.69 ± 154.39 vs. 532.50 ± 194.42, P = 0.000; and 88.56 ± 63.15 vs. 188.33 ± 134.51, P = 0.048). Moreover, the counts of CD4+ T-cell and NK cell were significantly lower in hypersplenism group than splenectomy group (301.69 ± 154.39 vs. 491.89 ± 132.31, P = 0.033; and 88.56 ± 63.15 vs. 226.00 ± 168.85, P = 0.032). Conclusion: Splenic function status might affect the immunity of

  16. Determinants of functional status among survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock: One-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Al Khalaf, Mustafa S.; Al Ehnidi, Fatimah H.; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Tamim, Hani M.; Abd-Aziz, Noorizan; Tangiisuran, Balamurugan; Hassan, Yahaya; Arabi, Yaseen M.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Sepsis is a leading cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions worldwide and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Limited data exist regarding the outcomes and functional status among survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the functional status among survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock a year after hospital discharge. METHODS: Adult patients admitted between April 2007 and March 2010 to the medical-surgical ICU of a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia, were included in this study. The ICU database was investigated for patients with a diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock. Survival status was determined based on hospital discharge. Patients who required re-admission, stayed in ICU for less than 24 hours, had incomplete data were all excluded. Survivors were interviewed through phone calls to determine their functional status one-year post-hospital discharge using Karnofsky performance status scale. RESULTS: A total of 209 patients met the eligibility criteria. We found that 38 (18.1%) patients had severe disability before admission, whereas 109 (52.2%) patients were with severe disability or died one-year post-hospital discharge. Only one-third of the survivors had good functional status one-year post-discharge (no/mild disability). After adjustment of baseline variables, age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.04] and pre-sepsis functional status of severe disability (aOR = 50.9, 95% CI = 6.82-379.3) were found to be independent predictors of functional status of severe disability one-year post-hospital discharge among survivors. CONCLUSIONS: We found that only one-third of the survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock had good functional status one-year post-discharge (no/mild disability). Age and pre-sepsis severe disability were the factors that highly predicted the level of functional status one-year post-hospital discharge. PMID:25829965

  17. Nutritional status in peritoneal dialysis: studies in body composition, lipoprotein metabolism and peritoneal function.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Cathrine

    2002-01-01

    concentration of triglycerides and triglyceride-rich complex lipoproteins. There are indications that dialytic variables may influence this development. When peritoneal function was assessed by the Peritoneal Dialysis Capacity test at start of dialysis, it was observed that peritoneal function reflected patient characteristics and co-morbidity. Patients with systemic disease had enhanced diffusion capacity compared to patients with primary renal disorders. Furthermore, in patients with more severe co-morbidity. peritoneal protein losses were increased. Finally, elderly patients had ultrafiltration conditions that were different from those of younger patients. Peritoneal function remained essentially stable during medium-long term follow up. Body composition features in dialysis patients are similar to those seen in severe disease in general. Thus, it is difficult to separate the effects of malnutrition from the effects of the underlying disease. Specific standards for nutritional status adapted for patients with renal failure are required.

  18. Perinatal HIV Status and Executive Function During School-Age and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ezeamama, Amara E.; Kizza, Florence N.; Zalwango, Sarah K.; Nkwata, Allan K.; Zhang, Ming; Rivera, Mariana L.; Sekandi, Juliet N.; Kakaire, Robert; Kiwanuka, Noah; Whalen, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether perinatal HIV infection (PHIV), HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) versus HIV-unexposed (PHU) status predicted long-term executive function (EF) deficit in school-aged Ugandan children. Perinatal HIV status was determined by 18 months via DNA polymerase chain reaction test and confirmed at cognitive assessment between 6 and 18 years using HIV rapid-diagnostic test. Primary outcome is child EF measured using behavior-rating inventory of executive function questionnaire across 8 subscales summed to derive the global executive composite (GEC). EF was proxy-reported by caregivers and self-reported by children 11 years or older. Descriptive analyses by perinatal HIV status included derivation of mean, standard deviations (SD), number, and percent (%) of children with EF deficits warranting clinical vigilance. Raw scores were internally standardized by age and sex adjustment. EF scores warranting clinical vigilance were defined as ≥ mean + 1.5∗SD. t Tests for mean score differences by perinatal HIV status and linear-regression models were implemented in SAS version 9.4 to derive HIV status-related EF deficits (β) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Proxy-reported and self-reported EF were assessed in 166 and 82 children, respectively. GEC deficit was highest for PHIV (mean = 121.9, SD = 29.9), intermediate for PHEU (mean = 107.5, SD = 26.8), and lowest for PHU (mean = 103.4, SD = 20.7; P-trend < 0.01). GEC deficit levels warranting clinical vigilance occurred in 9 (15.8%), 5 (9.3%) and 0 (0%) PHIV, PHEU, and PHU children, respectively (P-trend = 0.01). Nineteen percent (n = 32) children had deficits requiring clinical vigilance in ≥2 proxy-reported EF subscales. Of these, multisubscale deficits occurred in 35.1%, 13.0%, and 9.3% of PHIV, PHEU, and PHU respectively (P-trend = 0.001). Multivariable analyses find significantly higher GEC deficits for PHIV compared with PHU

  19. Influence of maternal nutritional status on vascular function in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Poston, Lucilla

    2011-05-01

    Suboptimal maternal nutritional status has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular risk in the child. Initially inferred from studies of low-birthweight children, investigations in cohorts of women subjected to famine provide direct evidence for an independent influence of the mother's diet on the cardiovascular health of her child. Animal studies from rodents and sheep have shown associations between maternal undernutrition and raised blood pressure, as well as abnormalities in resistance artery function, particularly in endothelium-dependent responses. Early life exposure to the influences of maternal over nutritional states, e.g. obesity and excessive gestational weight gain, has also been associated with markers of cardiovascular risk in man, and animal models have shown raised blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction in offspring of diet-induced obese dams. Increased sympathetic tone is commonly associated with hypertension in animal models of both under nutritional and over nutritional states. This and several other similarities may indicate commonality of mechanism and could reflect supranormal nutritional status in postnatal life in both conditions.

  20. Does “difficult patient” status contribute to functional demedicalization? The case of borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sulzer, Sandra H.

    2015-01-01

    A diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) often signals the quintessential “difficult patient” status to clinicians, with at least one scholar arguing the condition itself was created to name and group difficult patients. While patients who are deemed difficult are often dispreferred for care, does this have an impact on their overall status as medicalized patients who have successfully achieved a sick role? This study relies on (n=22) in-depth interviews with mental health clinicians in the United States from 2012 to evaluate how they describe patients with BPD, how the diagnosis of BPD affects the treatment clinicians are willing to provide, and the implications for patients. My findings suggest patients with BPD are routinely labeled “difficult,” and subsequently routed out of care through a variety of direct and indirect means. This process creates a functional form of demedicalization where the actual diagnosis of BPD remains de jure medicalized, but the treatment component of medicalization is harder to secure for patients. PMID:26298091

  1. Assessment of the lung function status of the goldsmiths working in an unorganized sector of India

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Subhashis; Roy, Biswajit; Moitra, Subhabrata

    2013-01-01

    Context: Exposure to various types of fumes and gases are very common in Jewelery industries. No Report is available regarding the effects of those fumes and gases on the respiratory functions of the goldsmiths. Due to lack of proper monitoring of the workplace environments in these unorganized sectors, workers get very much affected by the occupational exposures to those irritants. Aims: The present study aimed to investigate whether the occupational exposures to fumes and gases might alter the lung functions of the goldsmiths. Materials and Methods: A total of 118 goldsmiths and 66 unexposed control subjects were taken randomly for the study. The goldsmiths were further classified in 3 groups according to duration (year) of exposures in the work environment, ETA1 (less than 5 years), ETA2 (more than 5 years but less than 10 years), and ETA3 (more than 10 years). Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow rates of different intervals (FEF25%, FEF50%, FEF75%, FEF25-75%) were measured using computerized Spirometer (Maestros Mediline, India). The statistical analyses were carried out using Minitab software version 3. Results: Lung functions of the goldsmiths significantly (P < 0.01) decreased from that of the control group. Inter-group comparison also showed the deteriorations of lung functions was associated with exposure time, and more exposed workers had significantly less (P < 0.01) efficiencies of lung functions. Conclusions: Workplace fumes and gases were responsible for deterioration of the lung function status of the goldsmiths. PMID:23661914

  2. A Structural Analysis of Executive Functions and Socioeconomic Status in School-Age Children: Cognitive Factors as Effect Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…

  3. Predicting Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence as a Function of Hearing Status, Gender, and Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of…

  4. The Mediating Role of Physical Self-Concept on Relations between Biological Maturity Status and Physical Activity in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Sean P.; Standage, Martyn; Loney, Tom; Gammon, Catherine; Neville, Helen; Sherar, Lauren B.; Malina, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and self-reported physical activity in adolescent British females. Biological maturity status, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 407 female British year 7-9 pupils (M age = 13.2 years, SD = 1.0).…

  5. P2X7 receptor-mediated PARP1 activity regulates astroglial death in the rat hippocampus following status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yang; Ko, Ah-Reum; Kim, Ji-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) plays a regulatory role in apoptosis, necrosis, and other cellular processes after injury. Recently, we revealed that PARP1 regulates the differential neuronal/astroglial responses to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in the distinct brain regions. In addition, P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel, activation accelerates astroglial apoptosis, while it attenuates clasmatodendrosis (lysosome-derived autophagic astroglial death). Therefore, we investigated whether P2X7R regulates regional specific astroglial PARP1 expression/activation in response to SE. In the present study, P2X7R activation exacerbates SE-induced astroglial apoptosis, while P2X7R inhibition attenuates it accompanied by increasing PARP1 activity in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus following SE. In the CA1 region, however, P2X7R inhibition deteriorates SE-induced clasmatodendrosis via PARP1 activation following SE. Taken together, our findings suggest that P2X7R function may affect SE-induced astroglial death by regulating PARP1 activation/expression in regional-specific manner. Therefore, the selective modulation of P2X7R-mediated PARP1 functions may be a considerable strategy for controls in various types of cell deaths. PMID:26388738

  6. Growth, Nutritional Status, and Pulmonary Function in Children with Chronic Recurrent Bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Umławska, Wioleta; Lipowicz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Bronchitis is a common health problem in children. Frequent bronchitis in infancy increases the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the level of growth and the nutritional status in children and youths with special regard to the level of body fatness assessed by measuring skin-fold thickness. Relationships between somatic development, pulmonary function and the course of the disease were also explored. The study was carried out using anthropometric and spirometric measurements and also information on the severity and course of the disease in 141 children with chronic or recurrent bronchitis. All of the subjects were patients of the Pulmonary Medicine and Allergology Center in Karpacz, Poland. The mean body height did not differ significantly between the children examined and their healthy peers. However, the infection-prone children had excessive body fatness and muscle mass deficiency. The increased level of subcutaneous adipose tissue occurred especially in children with short duration of the disease, i.e. a maximum of 1 year. The functional lung parameters were generally normal. The presence of atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis did not impair the course of the children's somatic development. Also, long-term disease or the presence of additional allergic diseases did not impair lung function in the examined children. Taking appropriate preventive measures is recommended to achieve and maintain normal body weight in children who receive therapy due to bronchitis.

  7. Effect of steroids on the activation status of platelets in patients with Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).

    PubMed

    Bhoria, Preeti; Sharma, Saniya; Varma, Neelam; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Subhash; Luthra-Guptasarma, Manni

    2015-01-01

    The activation status of platelets in Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients--which is still somewhat controversial--is of potential interest, because activated platelets tend to aggregate (leading to excessive clotting or thromboembolic events) but cannot do so when platelet numbers are low, as in ITP. Although corticosteroids are the first line of therapy in ITP, the effect of steroids on activation of platelets has not been evaluated so far. We examined the status of platelet activation (with and without stimulation with ADP) in ITP patients, at the start of therapy (pre-steroid treatment, naive) and post-steroid treatment (classified on the basis of steroid responsiveness). We used flow cytometry to evaluate the levels of expression of P-selectin, and PAC-1 binding to platelets of 55 ITP patients and a similar number of healthy controls, treated with and without ADP. We found that platelets in ITP patients exist in an activated state. In patients who are responsive to steroids, the treatment reverses this situation. Also, the fold activation of platelets upon treatment with ADP is more in healthy controls than in ITP patients; treatment with steroids causes platelets in steroid-responsive patients to become more responsive to ADP-activation, similar to healthy controls. Thus steroids may cause changes in the ability of platelets to get activated with an agonist like ADP. Our results provide new insights into how, and why, steroid therapy helps in the treatment of ITP.

  8. Antioxidant activity and nutritional status in anorexia nervosa: effects of weight recovery.

    PubMed

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-03-30

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60 μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system.

  9. Antioxidant Activity and Nutritional Status in Anorexia Nervosa: Effects of Weight Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944

  10. Modulatory effects of curcumin on redox status, mitochondrial function, and caspace-3 expression during atrazin-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Keshk, Walaa A; Soliman, Nema A; Abo El-Noor, Mona M; Wahdan, Amira A; Shareef, Mohamed M

    2014-08-01

    Atrazin is currently the most widely used herbicide in agriculture with lots of adverse effects on human health. Curcumin is a polyphenol known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. In the present study, the protective effect of curcumin on atrazin-intoxicated rats is evaluated. Toxicity was induced by oral administration of atrazine (400 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks. Curcumin at a dose of 400 mg/kg/day was given simultaneously by oral route. Redox status, mitochondrial function, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) level by immunoassay, and caspace-3 expression by immunohistochemistry were evaluated. Curcumin showed significant cardiac protection with improvement of redox status, mitochondrial function, 8-OHdG level, caspase-3 immunoreactivity, and cardiac muscle degeneration. From this current study, it can be concluded that administration of curcumin improved atrazine-induced cardiotoxicity through its modulatory effect on redox status, mitochondrial function, and caspase-3 expression. PMID:24863870

  11. Function of streptokinase fragments in plasminogen activation.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, G Y; Chang, B I; Chen, S M; Wu, D H; Wu, H L

    1994-01-01

    Several peptide fragments of streptokinase (SK) were prepared by incubating SK with immobilized human plasmin (hPlm) and purified by h.p.l.c. with a reverse-phase phenyl column. The N-terminal sequences, amino acid compositions and molecular masses of these peptide fragments were determined. The SK peptide fragment of 36 kDa consisting of Ser60-Lys387 (SK-p), was the only peptide fragment that could be tightly bound to immobilized hPlm. Another three large SK peptide fragments, SK-m, SK-n and SK-o, with molecular masses of 7 kDa, 18 kDa and 30 kDa, and consisting of Ile1-Lys59, Glu148-Lys333, Ser60-Lys333 respectively, were also obtained from the supernatant of the reaction mixture. The purified SK-p had high affinity with hPlm and could activate human plasminogen (hPlg) with a kPlg one-sixth that of the native SK. SK-o had low affinity with hPlm and could also activate hPlg, although the catalytic constant was less than 1% of the native SK. SK-n, as well as SK-m, which is the N-terminal 59 amino acid peptide of the native SK, had no activator activity. However, SK-m could enhance the activator activity of both SK-o and SK-p and increase their second-order rate constants by two- and six-fold respectively. It was concluded from these studies that (1) SK-o, the Ser60-Lys333 peptide of SK, was essential for minimal SK activator activity, (2) the C-terminal peptide of SK-p, Ala334-Lys387, was essential for high affinity with hPlm, and (3) the N-terminal 59-amino-acid peptide was important in maintaining the proper conformation of SK to have its full activator activity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7998939

  12. The association between worksite physical environment and employee nutrition, and physical activity behavior and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fabio A.; Wall, Sarah S.; You, Wen; Harden, Samantha M.; Hill, Jennie L.; Krippendorf, Blake E.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Explore the relationship between worksite physical environment and employee dietary intake, physical activity behavior, and weight status. Methods Two trained research assistants completed audits (Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites) at each worksite (n = 28). Employees (n = 6,261) completed a brief health survey prior to participation in a weight loss program. Results Employees’ access to outdoor areas was directly associated with lower BMI, while access to workout facilities within a worksite was associated with higher BMI. The presence of a cafeteria and fewer vending machines were directly associated with better eating habits. Better eating habits and meeting physical activity recommendations were both related to lower BMI. Conclusions Selected environmental factors in worksites were significantly associated with employee behaviors and weight status; providing additional intervention targets to change the worksite environment and promote employee weight loss. PMID:24988105

  13. Physical activity status of academic professors during their early career transition: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Megan A; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2012-01-01

    Life-transitions (e.g. parenthood) have been linked to physical inactivity, yet the topic requires further exploration. In this study, we evaluated changes in the physical activity (PA) of adults during their early career transition using retrospective analysis and the theory of planned behavior. Recruitment from January to March 2010 yielded a random sample of 267 assistant professors, ages 25-44, employed within the last five years. Repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) concluded that PA declined across the transition (d = 0.36-0.43) and was further attenuated by marriage, work hours, and parenthood status. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) identified specific behavioral and control correlates about PA enjoyment, limited time, inconsistent schedule, work demands, and job pressures to distinguish between those who remained active from those who did not across the transition. PA interventions administered prior to career transitions may be needed to prevent physical inactivity.

  14. Physical activity status of academic professors during their early career transition: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Megan A; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2012-01-01

    Life-transitions (e.g. parenthood) have been linked to physical inactivity, yet the topic requires further exploration. In this study, we evaluated changes in the physical activity (PA) of adults during their early career transition using retrospective analysis and the theory of planned behavior. Recruitment from January to March 2010 yielded a random sample of 267 assistant professors, ages 25-44, employed within the last five years. Repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) concluded that PA declined across the transition (d = 0.36-0.43) and was further attenuated by marriage, work hours, and parenthood status. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) identified specific behavioral and control correlates about PA enjoyment, limited time, inconsistent schedule, work demands, and job pressures to distinguish between those who remained active from those who did not across the transition. PA interventions administered prior to career transitions may be needed to prevent physical inactivity. PMID:22348598

  15. K(+) channel activity and redox status are differentially required for JNK activation by UV and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Wu, Dan; Guo, Taylor B; Ruan, Qin; Li, Tie; Lu, Zhenyu; Xu, Ming; Dai, Wei; Lu, Luo

    2004-07-15

    Upon exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, osmotic changes or the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are rapidly activated. Extensive studies have elucidated molecular components that mediate the activation of JNKs. However, it remains unclear whether activation of JNKs by various stress signals involves different pathways. Here we show that K(+) channel activity is involved in mediating apoptosis induced by UV but not by H(2)O(2) in myelocytic leukemic ML-1 cells. Specifically, JNKs were rapidly phosphorylated upon treatment of ML-1 cells with UV and H(2)O(2). UV-induced, but not H(2)O(2)-induced, JNK-1 phosphorylation was inhibited by pretreatment with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a K(+) channel blocker. 4-AP also blocked UV-induced increase in JNK activity as well as p38 phosphorylation. Immunofluorescent microscopy revealed that phosphorylated JNKs were concentrated at centrosomes in ML-1 cells and that these proteins underwent rapid subcellular translocation upon UV treatment. Consistently, the subcellular translocation of JNKs induced by UV was largely blocked by 4-AP. Furthermore, UV-induced JNK activation was blocked by NEM, a sulfhydryl alkylating agent also affecting K(+) current. Both UV- and H(2)O(2)-induced JNK activities were inhibited by glutathione, suggesting that the redox status does play an important role in the activation of JNKs. Taken together, our findings suggest that JNK activation by UV and H(2)O(2) is mediated by distinct yet overlapping pathways and that K(+) channel activity and redox status are differentially required for UV- and H(2)O(2)-induced activation of JNKs.

  16. The relationship between physical activity and perceived health status in older women: findings from the Woman's College Alumni Study.

    PubMed

    Eifert, Elise K; Wideman, Laurie; Oberlin, D J; Labban, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected from the Woman's College (WC) Alumni Study, the purpose of this study was to determine whether perceived health status is related to physical activity in older women. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between amounts of physical activity and self-reported health status. The results of the current study reveal that the level of physical activity is significantly correlated with perceived health status. The findings of this study have implications for the assessment of older individuals' health and may lead to interventions that are tailored to increase physical activity among older women.

  17. Central European MetEor NeTwork: Current status and future activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srba, J.; Koukal, J.; Ferus, M.; Lenža, L.; Gorková, S.; Civiš, S.; Simon, J.; Csorgei, T.; Jedlièka, M.; Korec, M.; Kaniansky, S.; Polák, J.; Spurný, M.; Brázdil, T.; Mäsiar, J.; Zima, M.; Delinèák, P.; Popek, M.; Bahýl, V.; Piffl, R.; Èechmánek, M.

    2016-06-01

    The Central European video Meteor Network (CEMeNt) established in 2010 is a platform for cross-border cooperation in the field of video meteor observations between Czech Republic and Slovakia. During five years of operation the CEMeNt network went through an extensive development. In total, 37 video systems were working on 20 permanent stations located in Czech Republic and Slovakia during 2015. In this paper we summarize CEMeNt current status and introduce some future activities.

  18. Guided imagery in people with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial of effects on pain, functional status and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Verkaik, Renate; Busch, Martine; Koeneman, Trees; van den Berg, Rianny; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Francke, Anneke L

    2014-05-01

    Studies on the effects of guided imagery in patients with fibromyalgia show varying results. This randomized controlled trial (n = 65) aims to give more insight into the effects on pain, functional status, and self-efficacy. Daily pain was assessed with a pain diary using a Visual Analogue Scale. Functional status and self-efficacy were measured at pretest, posttest, and follow-up using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the Chronic Pain Self-Efficacy Scale. No effects of guided imagery could be established. Explanations for the diverging results between studies might be found in the content of the exercises, length of the intervention period, and background of participants. PMID:23520350

  19. Association between statin use at admission to inpatient rehabilitation and functional status at discharge among older patients.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Alessandro; Girard, Timothy D; Shintani, Ayumi; Turco, Renato; Guerini, Fabio; Torpilliesi, Tiziana; Gentile, Simona; Trabucchi, Marco; Bellelli, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    The effect of statins on functional status in older patients is unclear. Statins might carry a deleterious effect on muscle function leading to myopathy and therefore affecting functional recovery. We evaluated the relationship between statin exposure at in-hospital rehabilitation admission and functional outcome at discharge. This was a retrospective cohort study of older patients 70 years and older consecutively admitted to an in-hospital rehabilitation after an acute hospitalization. Statin exposure was measured at the time of rehabilitation admission. Functional status was defined with the Barthel Index (BI) score at the time of discharge. A multi-variable linear regression model was used to evaluate the association between statin exposure and functional status at discharge adjusting for potential confounders through a propensity score for statin exposure. A total of 2435 patients were included. The cohort had a mean age of 81.1 years. Of these 9% (n=220) were on statins at the time of admission. In the multi-variable analysis, the use of statins at the time of admission was independently associated with an improved functional status at discharge (point estimate 5.2; 95% confidence interval 1.5-8.9; p<0.01) after adjusting for relevant confounders. Patients who were receiving statins at the time of admission had a BI score 5 points higher compared to those who were not receiving statins. The use of statins was overall safe in a group of co-morbid older patients undergoing rehabilitation training after an acute hospitalization. Additionally, a possible benefit was found given the positive association between statin use and higher functional status at discharge.

  20. Reference sequence (RefSeq) database at NCBI: current status, taxonomic expansion, and functional annotation

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Nuala A.; Wright, Mathew W.; Brister, J. Rodney; Ciufo, Stacy; Haddad, Diana; McVeigh, Rich; Rajput, Bhanu; Robbertse, Barbara; Smith-White, Brian; Ako-Adjei, Danso; Astashyn, Alexander; Badretdin, Azat; Bao, Yiming; Blinkova, Olga; Brover, Vyacheslav; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Choi, Jinna; Cox, Eric; Ermolaeva, Olga; Farrell, Catherine M.; Goldfarb, Tamara; Gupta, Tripti; Haft, Daniel; Hatcher, Eneida; Hlavina, Wratko; Joardar, Vinita S.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Li, Wenjun; Maglott, Donna; Masterson, Patrick; McGarvey, Kelly M.; Murphy, Michael R.; O'Neill, Kathleen; Pujar, Shashikant; Rangwala, Sanjida H.; Rausch, Daniel; Riddick, Lillian D.; Schoch, Conrad; Shkeda, Andrei; Storz, Susan S.; Sun, Hanzhen; Thibaud-Nissen, Francoise; Tolstoy, Igor; Tully, Raymond E.; Vatsan, Anjana R.; Wallin, Craig; Webb, David; Wu, Wendy; Landrum, Melissa J.; Kimchi, Avi; Tatusova, Tatiana; DiCuccio, Michael; Kitts, Paul; Murphy, Terence D.; Pruitt, Kim D.

    2016-01-01

    The RefSeq project at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) maintains and curates a publicly available database of annotated genomic, transcript, and protein sequence records (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/refseq/). The RefSeq project leverages the data submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC) against a combination of computation, manual curation, and collaboration to produce a standard set of stable, non-redundant reference sequences. The RefSeq project augments these reference sequences with current knowledge including publications, functional features and informative nomenclature. The database currently represents sequences from more than 55 000 organisms (>4800 viruses, >40 000 prokaryotes and >10 000 eukaryotes; RefSeq release 71), ranging from a single record to complete genomes. This paper summarizes the current status of the viral, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic branches of the RefSeq project, reports on improvements to data access and details efforts to further expand the taxonomic representation of the collection. We also highlight diverse functional curation initiatives that support multiple uses of RefSeq data including taxonomic validation, genome annotation, comparative genomics, and clinical testing. We summarize our approach to utilizing available RNA-Seq and other data types in our manual curation process for vertebrate, plant, and other species, and describe a new direction for prokaryotic genomes and protein name management. PMID:26553804

  1. Health, functioning and disability in older adults – current status and future implications

    PubMed Central

    Chatterji, Somnath; Byles, Julie; Cutler, David; Seeman, Teresa; Verdes, Emese

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aging is a dynamic process with trends in health status of older adults varying over time due to a range of factors. We examined reported trends in morbidity and mortality among older adults over the past two decades in order to determine patterns of ageing across the world. We found some evidence for compression of morbidity, i.e., less amount of time spent in worse health, when: a) studies were of a good quality based on evaluation criteria scores; b) a disability- or impairment-related measure of morbidity was used; c) studies were longitudinal or; d) studies were conducted in the United States and some other high income countries. Many studies reported evidence to the contrary, i.e., for an expansion of morbidity but with different methods these are not directly comparable. Expansion of morbidity was more common when trends in chronic disease prevalence were studied. Our secondary analysis of data from longitudinal ageing surveys present a similar picture. However, there are considerable variations across countries in patterns of limitations in functioning and within countries over time with no discernible explanations. Data from low income countries is very sparse and efforts to collect information on the health of older adults in less-developed regions of the world is urgently required. Studies focussing on refining measurement with a core set of domains of functioning and studying the impacts of these evolving patterns on the health care system and their economic implications are needed. PMID:25468158

  2. Constructive feedforward neural networks using hermite polynomial activation functions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liying; Khorasani, K

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, a constructive one-hidden-layer network is introduced where each hidden unit employs a polynomial function for its activation function that is different from other units. Specifically, both a structure level as well as a function level adaptation methodologies are utilized in constructing the network. The functional level adaptation scheme ensures that the "growing" or constructive network has different activation functions for each neuron such that the network may be able to capture the underlying input-output map more effectively. The activation functions considered consist of orthonormal Hermite polynomials. It is shown through extensive simulations that the proposed network yields improved performance when compared to networks having identical sigmoidal activation functions.

  3. Green spaces and General Health: Roles of mental health status, social support, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Bartoll, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Borrell, Carme; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Green spaces are associated with improved health, but little is known about mechanisms underlying such association. We aimed to assess the association between greenness exposure and subjective general health (SGH) and to evaluate mental health status, social support, and physical activity as mediators of this association. This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based sample of 3461 adults residing in Barcelona, Spain (2011). We characterized outcome and mediators using the Health Survey of Barcelona. Objective and subjective residential proximity to green spaces and residential surrounding greenness were used to characterize greenness exposure. We followed Baron and Kenny's framework to establish the mediation roles and we further quantified the relative contribution of each mediator. Residential surrounding greenness and subjective residential proximity to green spaces were associated with better SGH. We found indications for mediation of these associations by mental health status, perceived social support, and to less extent, by physical activity. These mediators altogether could explain about half of the surrounding greenness association and one-third of the association for subjective proximity to green spaces. We observed indications that mental health and perceived social support might be more relevant for men and those younger than 65years. The results for objective residential proximity to green spaces were not conclusive. In conclusion, our observed association between SGH and greenness exposure was mediated, in part, by mental health status, enhanced social support, and physical activity. There might be age and sex variations in these mediation roles.

  4. IGF-I regulates redox status in breast cancer cells by activating the amino acid transport molecule xC-.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuzhe; Yee, Douglas

    2014-04-15

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) stimulate cell growth in part by increasing amino acid uptake. xCT (SLC7A11) encodes the functional subunit of the cell surface transport system xC(-), which mediates cystine uptake, a pivotal step in glutathione synthesis and cellular redox control. In this study, we show that IGF-I regulates cystine uptake and cellular redox status by activating the expression and function of xCT in estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer cells by a mechanism that relies on the IGF receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). Breast cancer cell proliferation mediated by IGF-I was suppressed by attenuating xCT expression or blocking xCT activity with the pharmacologic inhibitor sulfasalazine (SASP). Notably, SASP sensitized breast cancer cells to inhibitors of the type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR) in a manner reversed by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Thus, IGF-I promoted the proliferation of ER(+) breast cancer cells by regulating xC(-) transporter function to protect cancer cells from ROS in an IRS-1-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that inhibiting xC(-) transporter function may synergize with modalities that target the IGF-IR to heighten their therapeutic effects.

  5. Postural Effects of Vestibular Manipulation Depend on the Physical Activity Status.

    PubMed

    Maitre, Julien; Paillard, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on postural control for participants of different physical activity status (i.e. active and non-active). Two groups of participants were recruited: one group of participants who regularly practised sports activities (active group, n = 17), and one group of participants who did not practise physical and/or sports activities (non-active group, n = 17). They were compared in a reference condition (i.e bipedal stance with eyes open) and four vestibular manipulation condition (i.e. GVS at 0.5 mA and 3 mA, in accordance with two designs) lasting 20 seconds. The centre of foot pressure displacement velocities were compared between the two groups. The main results indicate that the regular practice of sports activities counteracts postural control disruption caused by GVS. The active group demonstrated better postural control than the non-active group when subjected to higher vestibular manipulation. The active group may have developed their ability to reduce the influence of inaccurate vestibular signals. The active participants could identify the relevant sensory input, thought a better central integration, which enables them to switch faster between sensory inputs. PMID:27627441

  6. Postural Effects of Vestibular Manipulation Depend on the Physical Activity Status

    PubMed Central

    Maitre, Julien; Paillard, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on postural control for participants of different physical activity status (i.e. active and non-active). Two groups of participants were recruited: one group of participants who regularly practised sports activities (active group, n = 17), and one group of participants who did not practise physical and/or sports activities (non-active group, n = 17). They were compared in a reference condition (i.e bipedal stance with eyes open) and four vestibular manipulation condition (i.e. GVS at 0.5 mA and 3 mA, in accordance with two designs) lasting 20 seconds. The centre of foot pressure displacement velocities were compared between the two groups. The main results indicate that the regular practice of sports activities counteracts postural control disruption caused by GVS. The active group demonstrated better postural control than the non-active group when subjected to higher vestibular manipulation. The active group may have developed their ability to reduce the influence of inaccurate vestibular signals. The active participants could identify the relevant sensory input, thought a better central integration, which enables them to switch faster between sensory inputs. PMID:27627441

  7. Selenium-enriched probiotics improve antioxidant status, immune function, and selenoprotein gene expression of piglets raised under high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Gan, Fang; Chen, Xingxiang; Liao, Shengfa F; Lv, Chenhui; Ren, Fei; Ye, Gengping; Pan, Cuiling; Huang, Da; Shi, Jun; Shi, Xiuli; Zhou, Hong; Huang, Kehe

    2014-05-21

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP) on growth performance, antioxidant status, immune function, and selenoprotein gene expression of piglets under natural high ambient temperature in summer. Forty-eight crossbred weanling piglets randomly allocated to four groups were fed for 42 days ad libitum a basal diet without (Con, 0.16 mg Se/kg) and with supplementation of probiotics (P, 0.16 mg Se/kg), sodium selenite (SS, 0.46 mg Se/kg), and SP (0.46 mg Se/kg). From each group, three piglets were randomly selected for blood collection on days 0, 14, 28, and 42 and tissue collection on day 42. The SP improved growth performance of piglets. Both SS and SP increased blood glutathione peroxidase activity and tissue thioredoxin reductase 1 mRNA expression, with SP being higher than SS. All P, SS, and SP supplementation increased the superoxide dismutase activity (40.1, 53.0, and 64.5%), glutathione content (84.6, 104, and 165%), TCR-induced T lymphocyte proliferation (20.8, 26.4, and 50.0%), and IL-2 concentration (24.9, 27.2, and 46.2%) and decreased malondialdehyde content (25.1, 26.3, and 49.3%), respectively. The greatest effects of SP supplementation suggest that SP may serve as a better feed additive than P or SS for piglets under high-temperature environments.

  8. Effect of Pd precursor status on sonochemical surface activation in Cu electroless deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kanghoon; Jin, Seonok; Kwon, Oh Joong

    2016-02-01

    Pd surface activation via a sonochemical approach was studied by varying Pd precursor status in the aqueous solution. By aging a K2PdCl6 activation solution overnight with added NH4OH, the chlorinated Pd complex was changed to an ammonia-based Pd complex. The Pd surface activation carried out with the NH4OH complexing agent resulted in improved surface condition following Cu electroless deposition. The Cu thin film deposited on a substrate sonochemically activated with the aged, ammonia-based Pd complex showed improved surface roughness and resistivity compared to that for Cu films deposited via two other precursors (chlorinated Pd complex and ammonia-based complex) without aging. In addition, nitrogen purging during sonochemical activation improved Cu film quality.

  9. Do general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status account for performance on the Children's Gambling Task?

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Fernanda; Sallum, Isabela; Miranda, Débora M.; Bechara, Antoine; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2013-01-01

    Studies that use the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and its age-appropriate versions as indices of affective decision-making during childhood and adolescence have demonstrated significant individual differences in scores. Our study investigated the association between general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status (SES) and its effect on the development of affective decision-making in preschoolers by using a computerized version of the Children's Gambling Task (CGT). We administered the CGT and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS) to 137 Brazilian children between the ages of 3 and 5 years old to assess their general intellectual functioning. We also used the Brazilian Criterion of Economic Classification (CCEB) to assess their SES. Age differences between 3- and 4-years-old, but not between 4- and 5-years-old, confirmed the results obtained by Kerr and Zelazo (2004), indicating the rapid development of affective decision-making during the preschool period. Both 4- and 5-years-old performed significantly above chance on blocks 3, 4, and 5 of the CGT, whereas 3-years-old mean scores did not differ from chance. We found that general intellectual functioning was not related to affective decision-making. On the other hand, our findings showed that children with high SES performed better on the last block of the CGT in comparison to children with low SES, which indicates that children from the former group seem more likely to use the information about the gain/loss aspects of the decks to efficiently choose cards from the advantageous deck throughout the task. PMID:23760222

  10. A mainstay of functional food science in Japan--history, present status, and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Arai, S; Osawa, T; Ohigashi, H; Yoshikawa, M; Kaminogawa, S; Watanabe, M; Ogawa, T; Okubo, K; Watanabe, S; Nishino, H; Shinohara, K; Esashi, T; Hirahara, T

    2001-01-01

    The development of food science in the near future probably depends on the advance in functional food science, the concept of which was proposed first in Japan nearly 15 years ago. The new science has been internationally distributed and accepted as conceptually being beyond nutrition. In Japan, however, it traced a unique path of progress in the form of a product-driven rather than concept-driven science. Actually, a number of substances and products with potential for disease risk reduction rather than simply for health maintenance have been investigated for their body-modulating functions. Some of them have been applied in practice to the industrialization of functional foods in terms of "foods for specified health uses" legally defined by new legislation. A variety of sophisticated methods have been introduced as well, including the so-called "XYZ" evaluation system, database construction for assessment of the function, and even the DNA microarray technique. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF) and the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) also commenced their scientific as well as political activity, with its spread to industries which almost simultaneously began to vigorously investigate functional food products for enlargement of the food market. With all of this as a background, the Japan Liaison of the International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST) hold a function food science symposium on behalf of related scientific bodies including the Japan Section of the International Life Science Institute (ILSI). This paper is an overview compiled from 12 presentations made in the symposium, with the aim of internationally publicizing the activity of functional food science in Japan.

  11. Usage Of New Activation Function In Neuro-Symbolic Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Sathasivam, Saratha

    2010-12-23

    New activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing logic programming in Hopfield network. This method has a higher capacity and upgrades the neuro symbolic integration. Computer simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the new activation function. Empirical results obtained support our theory.

  12. Usage Of New Activation Function In Neuro-Symbolic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathasivam, Saratha

    2010-12-01

    New activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing logic programming in Hopfield network. This method has a higher capacity and upgrades the neuro symbolic integration. Computer simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the new activation function. Empirical results obtained support our theory.

  13. Functional SNP in stem of mir-146a affects Her2 status and breast cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Meshkat, Mahboobeh; Tanha, Hamzeh Mesrian; Naeini, Marjan Mojtabavi; Ghaedi, Kamran; Sanati, Mohammad H; Meshkat, Marzieh; Bagheri, Fatemeh

    2016-07-01

    In-silico investigation suggested a common variant within stem of miR-146a-5p precursor (rs2910164, n.60C>G) associated with breast cancer (BC) phenotypes. Our aim was computationally predicting possible targets of miR-146a-5p and probable rs2910164 mechanism of action in expression of phenotypes in BC. Additionally, a case-control study was designated to examine experimentally the correlation of mir-146a rs2910164 variant and BC phenotypes. In this study, 152 BC subjects and healthy controls were genotyped using RFLP-PCR. Allelic and genotypic association and Armitage's trend tests were run to investigate the correlation between the alleles and genotypes and expressed phenotypes of BC. Bioinformatics analyses introduce regulatory function of miR-146a-5p in numerous signaling pathways and impact of allele substitution upon mir-146a stem-loop stability. Logistic regression data represented the C allele of rs2910164 (OR = 4.00, p= 0.0037) as the risk allele and associated with Her2-positive phenotype. In a similar vein, data revealed the correlation of the C allele and cancer death less than two years in BC patients (OR = 2.65, p= 0.0217). Ultimately, unconditional logistical regression models suggested log-additive model for inheritance manner of rs2910164 in either Her2 status or BC survival (OR = 5.64, p= 0.0025 and OR = 3.13, p= 0.019, respectively). Using bioinformatics connected association of Her2 status to altered function of miR-146a-5p in regulation of focal adhesion and Ras pathway. Furthermore, computations inferred the association between death phenotype and studied SNP upon specific target genes of miR-146a-5p involved in focal adhesion, EGF receptor, Ras, ErbB, interleukin, Toll-like receptor, NGF, angiogenesis, and p53 feedback loops 2 signaling pathways. These verdicts may enhance our perceptions of how mir-146a rs2910164 affect expressed phenotypes in BC, and might have potential implications to develop BC treatment in future. PMID:27434289

  14. A Pilot Physical Activity Initiative to Improve Mental Health Status amongst Iranian Institutionalized Older People

    PubMed Central

    Matlabi, Hossein; Shaghaghi, Abdolreza; Amiri, Shahriar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sufficient level of physical activity may promote overall and mental health of old people. This study was carried out to investigate the practi­cability of a physical activity promotion initiative amongst institutionalized older people in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: Purposive sampling method was used in this semi-experimental study to recruit 31 older people living in a selected residential care in Tabriz. Moderate-intensity aerobic and mus­cle-strengthening activity was planned for those who had not severe baseline cognitive impairment or were not too frail to undertake the survey. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used to measure mental health status be­fore and after intervention through a face-to-face interview. Descriptive statistics, Wilkcoxon rank-sum, Mann-Whitney U and Chi-Square tests were employed to analyses the data. Results: The applied intervention was significantly improved status of physical health, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression. Conclusion: Incorporation of physical activity promotion programs into routines of older people residential care homes in Iran is feasible but may need training of physical activity specialists to work with older people based on their physical endurance and limitations. PMID:25097839

  15. Association analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 axis parameters with survival and functional status in nonagenarians of the Leiden Longevity Study

    PubMed Central

    Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; van Heemst, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling has been associated with longevity in various model organisms. However, the role of insulin/IGF-1 signaling in human survival remains controversial. The aim of this study was to test whether circulating IGF-1 axis parameters associate with old age survival and functional status in nonagenarians from the Leiden Longevity Study. This study examined 858 Dutch nonagenarian (males≥89 years; females≥91 years) siblings from 409 families, without selection on health or demographic characteristics. Nonagenarians were divided over sex-specific strata according to their levels of IGF-1, IGF binding protein 3 and IGF-1/IGFBP3 molar ratio. We found that lower IGF-1/IGFBP3 ratios were associated with improved survival: nonagenarians in the quartile of the lowest ratio had a lower estimated hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.73 (0.59 – 0.91) compared to the quartile with the highest ratio (ptrend=0.002). Functional status was assessed by (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Living ((I)ADL) scales. Compared to those in the quartile with the highest IGF-1/IGFBP3 ratio, nonagenarians in the lowest quartile had higher scores for ADL (ptrend=0.001) and IADL (ptrend=0.003). These findings suggest that IGF-1 axis parameters are associated with increased old age survival and better functional status in nonagenarians from the Leiden Longevity Study. PMID:26568155

  16. Comparing demographic, health status and psychosocial strategies of audience segmentation to promote physical activity.

    PubMed

    Boslaugh, Sarah E; Kreuter, Matthew W; Nicholson, Robert A; Naleid, Kimberly

    2005-08-01

    The goal of audience segmentation is to identify population subgroups that are homogeneous with respect to certain variables associated with a given outcome or behavior. When such groups are identified and understood, targeted intervention strategies can be developed to address their unique characteristics and needs. This study compares the results of audience segmentation for physical activity that is based on either demographic, health status or psychosocial variables alone, or a combination of all three types of variables. Participants were 1090 African-American and White adults from two public health centers in St Louis, MO. Using a classification-tree algorithm to form homogeneous groups, analyses showed that more segments with greater variability in physical activity were created using psychosocial versus health status or demographic variables and that a combination of the three outperformed any individual set of variables. Simple segmentation strategies such as those relying on demographic variables alone provided little improvement over no segmentation at all. Audience segmentation appears to yield more homogeneous subgroups when psychosocial and health status factors are combined with demographic variables.

  17. Physical activity interventions and children's mental function: An introduction and overview

    PubMed Central

    Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Lambourne, Kate; Okumura, Michelle S.

    2011-01-01

    Background This review provides a historical overview of physical activity interventions designed by American educators and an evaluation of research that has assessed the effects of exercise on children's mental function. Method Historical descriptions of the emergence of American physical education doctrine throughout the 20th century were evaluated. Prior reviews of studies that assessed the effects of single acute bouts of exercise and the effects of chronic exercise training on children's mental function were examined and the results of recent studies were summarized. Results Physical activity interventions designed for American children have reflected two competing views: activities should promote physical fitness and activities should promote social, emotional, and intellectual development. Research results indicate that exercise fosters the emergence of children's mental function; particularly executive functioning. The route by which physical activity impacts mental functioning is complex and is likely moderated by several variables, including physical fitness level, health status, and numerous psycho-social factors. Conclusion Physical activity interventions for children should be designed to meet multiple objectives; e.g., optimize physical fitness, promote health-related behaviors that offset obesity, and facilitate mental development. PMID:21420981

  18. 20 CFR 641.864 - What functions and activities constitute programmatic activity costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... programmatic activity costs? 641.864 Section 641.864 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... Requirements § 641.864 What functions and activities constitute programmatic activity costs? Programmatic activity costs include, but are not limited to, the costs of the following functions: (a) Participant...

  19. New approaches to enhance active steering system functionalities: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serarslan, Benan

    2014-09-01

    An important development of the steering systems in general is active steering systems like active front steering and steer-by-wire systems. In this paper the current functional possibilities in application of active steering systems are explored. A new approach and additional functionalities are presented that can be implemented to the active steering systems without additional hardware such as new sensors and electronic control units. Commercial active steering systems are controlling the steering angle depending on the driving situation only. This paper introduce methods for enhancing active steering system functionalities depending not only on the driving situation but also vehicle parameters like vehicle mass, tyre and road condition. In this regard, adaptation of the steering ratio as a function of above mentioned vehicle parameters is presented with examples. With some selected vehicle parameter changes, the reduction of the undesired influences on vehicle dynamics of these parameter changes has been demonstrated theoretically with simulations and with real-time driving measurements.

  20. The mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and physical activity in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Sean P; Standage, Martyn; Loney, Tom; Gammon, Catherine; Neville, Helen; Sherar, Lauren B; Malina, Robert M

    2011-06-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and self-reported physical activity in adolescent British females. Biological maturity status, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 407 female British year 7-9 pupils (M age = 13.2 years, SD = 1.0). Participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (Kowalski, Crocker, & Donen, 2004) and the Children and Youth Physical Self-Perceptions Profile (Whitehead, 1995). Percentage of predicted adult height attained at measurement was used as an estimate of biological maturity status. Structural equation modelling using maximum likelihood estimation and bootstrapping procedures revealed that perceptions of sports competence, body attractiveness and physical self-worth mediated an inverse relation between maturity status and physical activity. The results provide partial support for Petersen and Taylor's (1980) Mediated Effects Model of Psychological and Behavioural Adaptation to Puberty within the context of physical activity. PMID:20655102

  1. Results of the ACSUS for pediatric AIDS patients: utilization of services, functional status, and social severity.

    PubMed Central

    Fahs, M C; Waite, D; Sesholtz, M; Muller, C; Hintz, E A; Maffeo, C; Arno, P; Bennett, C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study describes demographic characteristics of pediatric AIDS patients, describes hospital and community-based service utilization patterns, and analyzes medical and social support service usage patterns with respect to patient demographic characteristics, clinical trial participation, functional/developmental status, and social environment. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. Data reported in this study are from the AIDS Costs and Service Utilization Survey (ACSUS) and cover the six-month period beginning March 1991 (N = 135). Pediatric patients who sought care for HIV-related problems were sampled at seven different hospitals in five metropolitan regions of the United States. All of the participating hospitals had clinics specifically serving pediatric patients infected with HIV. The sample consists of HIV-positive patients who had had at least one HIV-related symptom or condition. STUDY DESIGN. A stratified probability sample design guided the sampling strategy, which included oversampling in two large hospitals from two of the five metropolitan areas. Survey data cover an 18-month time period of health care utilization, cost, and financing information from HIV-infected patients and their providers. Utilization measures are standardized to a six-month period. Per capita income, family structure, informal personal network, functional status, and clinical trial participation are tested for associations with patterns of utilization. In addition, a weighted ten-point social severity scale was developed to assess family/household stability. DATA COLLECTION. Data were collected through a screener instrument completed by the person accompanying the child to a hospital clinic visit (usually a a parent), and through two interviews conducted in person with the patients' primary caregivers. Data from the questionnaires were coded and assembled into computerized SAS analysis files by WESTAT. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Children in this sample are 62 percent African

  2. The relationship between housing status and HIV risk among active drug users: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Hilario, Helena; Convey, Mark; Corbett, A Michelle; Weeks, Margaret; Martinez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between housing status and HIV risk using longitudinal, qualitative data collected in 2004-2005, from a purposeful sample of 65 active drug users in a variety of housed and homeless situations in Hartford, Connecticut. These data were supplemented with observations and in-depth interviews regarding drug use behavior collected in 2001-2005 to evaluate a peer-led HIV prevention intervention. Data reveal differences in social context within and among different housing statuses that affect HIV risk or protective behaviors including the ability to carry drug paraphernalia and HIV prevention materials, the amount of drugs in the immediate environment, access to subsidized and supportive housing, and relationships with those with whom drug users live. Policy implications of the findings, limitations to the data, and future research are discussed.

  3. [Physical and sedentary activity as modulating factors of the nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Mascaraque Camino, María; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behavior and physical exercise seem to influence the nutritional status of the population independently. In this sense, sedentary behavior is associated inversely with healthy eating patterns and directly with BMI, body fat, risk of chronic diseases and psychological problems. By contrast, regular exercise is associated with a healthier diet and health benefits as the prevention or reduction of excess weight and disease prevention. However, it seems difficult to completely compensate, sedentary behavior and risk factors for health, with physical activity. To improve the nutritional status and health of the population would be advisable to increase non-sedentary behaviors and decrease the time spent in front of the screen. Also, it is encouraged to exercise regularly. PMID:26267770

  4. [Physical and sedentary activity as modulating factors of the nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Mascaraque Camino, María; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-07-18

    Sedentary behavior and physical exercise seem to influence the nutritional status of the population independently. In this sense, sedentary behavior is associated inversely with healthy eating patterns and directly with BMI, body fat, risk of chronic diseases and psychological problems. By contrast, regular exercise is associated with a healthier diet and health benefits as the prevention or reduction of excess weight and disease prevention. However, it seems difficult to completely compensate, sedentary behavior and risk factors for health, with physical activity. To improve the nutritional status and health of the population would be advisable to increase non-sedentary behaviors and decrease the time spent in front of the screen. Also, it is encouraged to exercise regularly.

  5. The Relationship between Housing Status and HIV Risk among Active Drug Users: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Hilario, Helena; Convey, Mark; Corbett, A. Michelle; Weeks, Margaret; Martinez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between housing status and HIV risk using longitudinal, qualitative data collected in 2004-2005, from a purposeful sample of 65 active drug users in a variety of housed and homeless situations in Hartford, Connecticut. These data were supplemented with observations and in-depth interviews regarding drug use behavior collected in 2001-2005 to evaluate a peer-led HIV prevention intervention. Data reveal differences in social context within and among different housing statuses that affect HIV risky or protective behaviors including the ability to carry drug paraphernalia and HIV prevention materials, the amount of drugs in the immediate environment, access to subsidized and supportive housing, and relationships with others with whom drug users live. Policy implications of the findings, limitations to the data and future research are discussed. PMID:19142817

  6. A Comparison between Older Persons with Down Syndrome and a Control Group: Clinical Characteristics, Functional Status and Sensori-Motor Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmeli, Eli; Kessel, Shlomo; Merrick, Joav; Bar-Chad, Shmuel

    2004-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy within the general population has resulted in an increasing number of elderly adults with intellectual disability, and this is reflected in the increased life expectancy in persons with Down syndrome, currently about 56 years. The aim of this study was to study the clinical characteristics, the functional status and…

  7. Study of Functional Status of CNS in Human-Operator in Conditions of Imitation Deep Spase Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marina, Skedina; Michael, Potapov; Anna, Kovaleva

    Functional status (FS) of CNS may influence human’s behavior and his professional activity. The purpose of study - analysis of FS CNS of human-operator in conditions of long-term isolation. The studies were conducted within the framework of the project «Mars-500» which simulates of interplanetary flight isolation conditions of different durations. We examined nine people aged from 26 to 40 years. Synchronous registration of classical bioelectric activity of brain (EEG) and a cerebral power exchange (a level of constant brain potential (LCP)) was carried out for study of functional status of CNS using the hardware-software complex «Neuro-KM - Omega-Neyroanalizator» (Ltd. «Statokin», Russia). The synchronical registration was performed in seven unipolar leads on a «10-20» (Fp1, Fp2, T3, T4, O1, O2, Cz) combined with the placement of reference electrode on the earlobe and «biological zero» electrode - on the wrist. During 105-days isolation with 3 volunteers on day 52 the following was observed: simultaneous displacement of α-rhythm localization, increase of its frequency by 10% with a decrease in the index and disorganization of α-activity, emergence of asymmetry. Appearance of LCP asymmetry for more than 5 mV (in one case - with a strong dominance of the left hemisphere) was registered with the overall reduction of the amplitude, indicating a stress reaction in isolation. Before 520-days isolation (6 volunteers) 3 from them had signs of stress reaction in accordance to EEG with: displacement of α-rhythm localization, increase of its frequency by 1-2 Hz and increase level LCP. During isolation before «exit on a surface of Mars» individual fluctuations of EEG and LCP were observed depending on the specifics of the crew activities. Directly «exit on a surface of Mars» for 2 volunteers of «crew of Mars» the increase in power of α-rhythm was observed. Other members of crew showed decrease power of α-rhythm. At various stages of experiment in 35

  8. The Relations of Majority-Minority Group Status and Having an Other-Religion Friend to Indonesian Youths' Socioemotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Sallquist, Julie; French, Doran C.; Purwono, Urip; Suryanti, Telie Ari; Pidada, Sri

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the relations of Indonesian adolescents' socioemotional functioning to their majority-minority status and the presence of cross-religion friendships and whether sex moderated these relations. At Time 1, 1,254 7th graders and their peers in Bandung, Indonesia, reported on their friendships, prosocial behavior,…

  9. Comparison of African American and Afro-Caribbean Older Adults' Self-Reported Health Status, Function, and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Florence; Tappen, Ruth M.; Williams, Christine L.; Rosselli, Monica

    2009-01-01

    African American and Afro-Caribbean elders differ in regard to ethnic group membership, place of birth, and years of residence in the United States. In this study, the authors compare self-rated health status, function, and reports of substance use in these two groups. Fifty low-income African American and fifty low-income Afro-Caribbean adults…

  10. Mediation and Moderation: Testing Relationships between Symptom Status, Functional Health, and Quality of Life in HIV Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Ehri; West, Stephen G.; Sousa, Karen H.

    2009-01-01

    We extended Wilson and Cleary's (1995) health-related quality of life model to examine the relationships among symptom status (Symptoms), functional health (Disability), and quality of life (QOL). Using a community sample (N = 956) of male HIV positive patients, we tested a mediation model in which the relationship between Symptoms and QOL is…

  11. Observations of Adolescent Peer Group Interactions as a Function of Within- and Between-Group Centrality Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Dumas, Tara M.; Mahdy, Jasmine C.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of adolescent (n = 258; M age = 15.45) peer group triads (n = 86) were analyzed to identify conversation and interaction styles as a function of within-group and between-group centrality status. Group members' discussions about hypothetical dilemmas were coded for agreements, disagreements, commands, and opinions. Interactions during…

  12. Identifying Differential Item Functioning Related to Student Socioeconomic Status and Investigating Sources Related to Classroom Opportunities to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkes, LaShona L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study identified socioeconomic status (SES) group differences in student performance on an eighth grade mathematics assessment derived from the Third/Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003. Differential item functioning (DIF) methodology was applied to examine SES group differences on item performance for…

  13. Socioeconomic status and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables

    PubMed Central

    Granero, Roser; Louwaars, Leonie; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES) as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children's executive functioning (EF) as the mediating factors. Method: The sample included 622 three-year-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed. Results: Structural Equation Modeling showed that the associations between SES, EF, parenting style and ODD levels differed by children's gender: (a) for girls, the association of low SES and high ODD scores was partially mediated by difficulties in EF inhibition, and parenting practices defined by corporal punishment and inconsistent discipline obtained a quasi-significant indirect effect into the association between SES and ODD; (b) for boys, SES and EF (inhibition and emotional control) had a direct effect on ODD with no mediation. Conclusion: SES seems a good indicator to identify children at high-risk for prevention and intervention programs for ODD. Girls with ODD in families of low SES may particularly benefit from parent training practices and training in inhibition control. PMID:26441784

  14. Criterion validity of the financial skills subscale of the direct assessment of functional status scale.

    PubMed

    Barrett, John J; Hart, Kathleen J; Schmerler, Jeanne T; Willmarth, Kevin; Carey, Jo Anne; Mohammed, Somaia

    2009-04-30

    Among the severely mentally ill, some individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder can manage their finances independently, while others depend upon a court-appointed guardian or a representative payee. The present study examined the criterion validity of the financial skills subscale of the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS) scale in classifying those who manage their finances independently from those who do not. Scores on the financial skills subscale of the DAFS scale of 25 severely mentally ill outpatients without a guardian/payee were compared to scores of 24 severely mentally ill outpatients with a guardian/payee; 25 non-mentally ill participants served as controls. Logistic regression analyses, Bayesian statistics, and Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses revealed moderate classification accuracy in a sample with mild cognitive impairment. These analyses were also conducted on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and revealed generally lower accuracy than the DAFS financial skills subscale. The DAFS financial skills subscale can inform the clinician's opinion about the financial capacity of the severely mentally ill. PMID:19269693

  15. Reduced risk of breast cancer associated with recreational physical activity varies by HER2 status

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huiyan; Xu, Xinxin; Ursin, Giske; Simon, Michael S; Marchbanks, Polly A; Malone, Kathleen E; Lu, Yani; McDonald, Jill A; Folger, Suzanne G; Weiss, Linda K; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Deapen, Dennis M; Press, Michael F; Bernstein, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Convincing epidemiologic evidence indicates that physical activity is inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Whether this association varies by the tumor protein expression status of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), or p53 is unclear. We evaluated the effects of recreational physical activity on risk of invasive breast cancer classified by the four biomarkers, fitting multivariable unconditional logistic regression models to data from 1195 case and 2012 control participants in the population-based Women’s Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences Study. Self-reported recreational physical activity at different life periods was measured as average annual metabolic equivalents of energy expenditure [MET]-hours per week. Our biomarker-specific analyses showed that lifetime recreational physical activity was negatively associated with the risks of ER-positive (ER+) and of HER2-negative (HER2−) subtypes (both Ptrend ≤ 0.04), but not with other subtypes (all Ptrend > 0.10). Analyses using combinations of biomarkers indicated that risk of invasive breast cancer varied only by HER2 status. Risk of HER2–breast cancer decreased with increasing number of MET-hours of recreational physical activity in each specific life period examined, although some trend tests were only marginally statistically significant (all Ptrend ≤ 0.06). The test for homogeneity of trends (HER2– vs. HER2+ ) reached statistical significance only when evaluating physical activity during the first 10 years after menarche (Phomogeneity = 0.03). Our data suggest that physical activity reduces risk of invasive breast cancers that lack HER2 overexpression, increasing our understanding of the biological mechanisms by which physical activity acts. PMID:25924995

  16. Relationship of skeletal muscle atrophy to functional status: a systematic research review.

    PubMed

    Michael, K

    2000-10-01

    In the realm of muscle atrophy research, many studies address minute details of molecular function but few examine the effects of atrophy in terms of mobility, strength, endurance, and performance of activities of daily living. The relationship between impairment and functional limitation is the focus of this research review. A wide array of studies constitute this area of inquiry, including investigations as diverse and widely disparate as molecular chemistry and space travel and populations as different as rats, healthy young men, and elderly women. Thirty-four studies were selected based on their fit with the Enabling-Disabling Model. Three paradigms of atrophy and function emerged. Adaptation reflects the plastic nature of muscle when placed under certain conditions, ranging from disuse to high-resistance exercise. Injury/loss describes damage to muscle tissue from ischemia, medications, or reloading or reperfusion trauma. Also in this category is the loss of muscle that is seen with aging. Integrity relates to the muscle's tendency to protect itself and maintain structural adjacencies and cellular proportions. Based on the 3 muscle research paradigms, the relationship of muscle atrophy to function is portrayed as a bidirectional interaction wherein form and function have an influence on each other by way of physical changes, including those of adaptation, injury/loss, or integrity. A conceptual model is constructed to reflect this relationship.

  17. Clinical Relevance of Telomere Status and Telomerase Activity in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marcelo, Tamara; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Pascua, Irene; De Juan, Carmen; Head, Jacqueline; Torres-García, Antonio-José; Iniesta, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The role of telomeres and telomerase in colorectal cancer (CRC) is well established as the major driving force in generating chromosomal instability. However, their potential as prognostic markers remains unclear. We investigated the outcome implications of telomeres and telomerase in this tumour type. We considered telomere length (TL), ratio of telomere length in cancer to non-cancer tissue (T/N ratio), telomerase activity and TERT levels; their relation with clinical variables and their role as prognostic markers. We analyzed 132 CRCs and paired non-cancer tissues. Kaplan-Meier curves for disease-free survival were calculated for TL, T/N ratio, telomerase activity and TERT levels. Overall, tumours had shorter telomeres than non-tumour tissues (P < 0.001) and more than 80% of CRCs displayed telomerase activity. Telomere lengths of non-tumour tissues and CRCs were positively correlated (P < 0.001). Considering telomere status and clinical variables, the lowest degree of telomere shortening was shown by tumours located in the rectum (P = 0.021). Regarding prognosis studies, patients with tumours showing a mean TL < 6.35 Kb experienced a significantly better clinical evolution (P < 0.001) and none of them with the highest degree of tumour telomere shortening relapsed during the follow-up period (P = 0.043). The mean TL in CRCs emerged as an independent prognostic factor in the Cox analysis (P = 0.017). Telomerase-positive activity was identified as a marker that confers a trend toward a poor prognosis. In CRC, our results support the use of telomere status as an independent prognostic factor. Telomere status may contribute to explaining the different molecular identities of this tumour type.

  18. Association of physical activity and health status with intelligence quotient of high school students in Jeddah

    PubMed Central

    El-Kholy, Thanaa; Elsayed, Enas

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the relationships of physical activity and healthiness with the intelligence quotients of high school students in Jeddah. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 135 male and female students were randomly drawn from public and private secondary schools in Jeddah. A self-designed questionnaire was distributed to the students that included demographic, physical activity, and health status sections. Body mass index measurement and an intelligence quotient test were carried out for all students. In addition, samples of blood were collected to estimate hemoglobin and serum iron. [Results] The highest proportions of males and females (39.1% and 51% respectively) had an intelligence quotient score of more than 75%. Moreover, the findings revealed that about 35% of the students were categorized as overweight obesity, and there was aninverse correlation between body mass index and physical activity. Students who shared physical education classes and exercising at and outside school showed a positive correlation with high IQ scores. Regarding hemoglobin and iron levels, there were significant correlations between their levels in blood and IQ. [Conclusion] The intelligence quotient of adolescent students is positively associated with physical activity and health status. PMID:26311922

  19. Association of physical activity and health status with intelligence quotient of high school students in Jeddah.

    PubMed

    El-Kholy, Thanaa; Elsayed, Enas

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the relationships of physical activity and healthiness with the intelligence quotients of high school students in Jeddah. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 135 male and female students were randomly drawn from public and private secondary schools in Jeddah. A self-designed questionnaire was distributed to the students that included demographic, physical activity, and health status sections. Body mass index measurement and an intelligence quotient test were carried out for all students. In addition, samples of blood were collected to estimate hemoglobin and serum iron. [Results] The highest proportions of males and females (39.1% and 51% respectively) had an intelligence quotient score of more than 75%. Moreover, the findings revealed that about 35% of the students were categorized as overweight obesity, and there was aninverse correlation between body mass index and physical activity. Students who shared physical education classes and exercising at and outside school showed a positive correlation with high IQ scores. Regarding hemoglobin and iron levels, there were significant correlations between their levels in blood and IQ. [Conclusion] The intelligence quotient of adolescent students is positively associated with physical activity and health status.

  20. Association of physical activity and health status with intelligence quotient of high school students in Jeddah.

    PubMed

    El-Kholy, Thanaa; Elsayed, Enas

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the relationships of physical activity and healthiness with the intelligence quotients of high school students in Jeddah. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 135 male and female students were randomly drawn from public and private secondary schools in Jeddah. A self-designed questionnaire was distributed to the students that included demographic, physical activity, and health status sections. Body mass index measurement and an intelligence quotient test were carried out for all students. In addition, samples of blood were collected to estimate hemoglobin and serum iron. [Results] The highest proportions of males and females (39.1% and 51% respectively) had an intelligence quotient score of more than 75%. Moreover, the findings revealed that about 35% of the students were categorized as overweight obesity, and there was aninverse correlation between body mass index and physical activity. Students who shared physical education classes and exercising at and outside school showed a positive correlation with high IQ scores. Regarding hemoglobin and iron levels, there were significant correlations between their levels in blood and IQ. [Conclusion] The intelligence quotient of adolescent students is positively associated with physical activity and health status. PMID:26311922

  1. Effect of virtual reality dance exercise on the balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status of Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam-Yong; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Song, Hyun-Seung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined the effects of virtual reality dance exercise on the balance, activities of daily living and depressive disorder status of Parkinson's disease patients. [Subjects] Twenty patients were assigned either the experimental group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). All participants received 30 minutes of neurodevelopment treatment and 15 minutes of functional electrical stimulation 5 times per week for 6 weeks. The experimental group additionally performed 30 minutes of dance exercise. Balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status were assessed before and after the 6-week treatment period using the Berg balance scale, the Modified Barthel Index, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The paired t-test was used to detect differences before and after treatment, and the independent t-test was used to detect differences between the treatment groups. [Results] The values for balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status significantly differed between before and after treatment in the experimental group, and significantly differed between the experimental group and control group. [Conclusion] Virtual reality dance exercise has a positive effect on balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status of Parkinson's disease patients.

  2. Effect of virtual reality dance exercise on the balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status of Parkinson’s disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam-Yong; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Song, Hyun-Seung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined the effects of virtual reality dance exercise on the balance, activities of daily living and depressive disorder status of Parkinson’s disease patients. [Subjects] Twenty patients were assigned either the experimental group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). All participants received 30 minutes of neurodevelopment treatment and 15 minutes of functional electrical stimulation 5 times per week for 6 weeks. The experimental group additionally performed 30 minutes of dance exercise. Balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status were assessed before and after the 6-week treatment period using the Berg balance scale, the Modified Barthel Index, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The paired t-test was used to detect differences before and after treatment, and the independent t-test was used to detect differences between the treatment groups. [Results] The values for balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status significantly differed between before and after treatment in the experimental group, and significantly differed between the experimental group and control group. [Conclusion] Virtual reality dance exercise has a positive effect on balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status of Parkinson’s disease patients. PMID:25642060

  3. Long-term benefits in lung function and nutritional status of strict metabolic control of cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.

    PubMed

    Martín-Frías, María; Máiz, Luis; Carcavilla, Atilano; Barrio, Raquel

    2011-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD) is a strong determinant for lung function decline and increased mortality. Insulin treatment of CFRD is reportedly beneficial for this situation. We report on the long-term impact of insulin treatment of CFRD on pulmonary function and nutritional status in a CF male patient since diagnosis of diabetes. We report the case of a patient diagnosed with CF at the age of 16. Two years later, he experienced a rapidly evolving decrease in pulmonary function, some months later criteria were met warranting lung transplantation. Concomitantly, he was diagnosed with CFRD and insulin therapy was started. Lung function (spirometry), nutritional status (body mass index) and metabolic control (HbA(1c)) were determined every 3 months. After the introduction of insulin treatment, pulmonary function and nutritional status progressively improved and good glycemic control was achieved. The significant and sustained improvement in pulmonary function allowed for the patient's withdrawal from the lung transplantation program within 4 months, a situation which has been maintained until now, 8 years later. The long follow-up of our patient documents the rapid and prolonged beneficial effect of proper metabolic control of CFRD on the respiratory deterioration in CF.

  4. Reaction to Frustration as a Function of Learning Potential Status. Volume 1, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budoff, Milton; Pines, Ayala

    Twenty seven educable retarded children (ages 11 to 16) were divided into three groups based on learning potential status: highscorers, gainers, and nongainers. A dexterity test and a mirror drawing of a six-pointed star were administered, the latter in a stress-producing manner. Learning potential status mainly predicted the rate of learning on…

  5. Designing and Implementing a System for Tracking Functional Status after Stroke: a Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandel, M. Elizabeth; Jette, Alan M.; Appelman, Jed; Terdiman, Joseph; TeSelle, Marian; Delmonico, Richard L.; Wang, Hua; Camicia, Michelle; Rasch, Elizabeth K.; Brandt, Diane E.; Chan, Leighton

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the feasibility of tracking stroke patients’ functional outcomes in an integrated health system across a care continuum using the computer version of the Activity Measure of Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC). Setting A large integrated healthcare system in northern California. Participants 222 stroke patients (aged 18 or older) hospitalized after an acute cerebrovascular accident. Methods An AM-PAC assessment was made at discharge from sites of care, including acute hospital, inpatient rehabilitation hospital, skilled nursing facility, home during home care, and in outpatient settings. Assessments were also completed in the patient’s home at six months. Data from the AM-PAC program was integrated with the health care system’s databases. Main Outcome Measurements 1) AM-PAC administration time at the various sites of care; 2) assessment of a floor or a ceiling effect, 3) administrative burden of tracking participants Results AM-PAC assessment sessions averaged 7.9 minutes for data acquisition in 3 domains: Basic Mobility, Activities of Daily Living, and Applied Cognition. Participants answered, on average, 27 AM-PAC questions per session. A small ceiling effect was observed at 6 months and there was a larger ceiling effect when the instrument was administered in an institution, i.e., using the AM-PAC institutional item bank, rather than the community item bank. It was feasible to track patients and assess their function using the AM-PAC instrument from institutional to community settings. Implementation of the AM-PAC in clinical environments, and success of the project was influenced by instrumental, technological, operational, resource, and cultural factors. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of implementing a single functional outcome instrument in clinical and community settings to measure rehabilitation functional outcomes of stroke patients. Integrating the AM-PAC measurement system into clinical workflows and the electronic

  6. Comparative analysis of signature genes in PRRSV-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these c...

  7. Metabolic functions of atypical protein kinase C: "good" and "bad" as defined by nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Farese, Robert V; Sajan, Mini P

    2010-03-01

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms mediate insulin effects on glucose transport in muscle and adipose tissues and lipid synthesis in liver and support other metabolic processes, expression of enzymes needed for islet insulin secretion and hepatic glucose production/release, CNS appetite suppression, and inflammatory responses. In muscle, selective aPKC deficiency impairs glucose uptake and produces insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, which, by activating hepatic aPKC, provokes inordinate increases in lipid synthesis and produces typical "metabolic syndrome" features. In contrast, hepatic aPKC deficiency diminishes lipid synthesis and protects against metabolic syndrome features. Unfortunately, aPKC is deficient in muscle but paradoxically conserved in liver in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus; this combination is particularly problematic because it promotes lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities. Accordingly, metabolic effects of aPKCs can be "good" or "bad," depending upon nutritional status; thus, muscle glucose uptake, islet insulin secretion, hepatic glucose and lipid production/release, and adipose fat synthesis/storage would be important for survival during periods of limited food availability and therefore be "good." However, during times of food surfeit, excessive activation of hepatic aPKC, whether caused by overnutrition or impairments in extrahepatic effects of insulin, would lead to inordinate increases in hepatic lipid synthesis and metabolic syndrome features and therefore be "bad." In keeping with these ideas, the inhibition of hepatic aPKC markedly ameliorates lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities in experimental models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We postulate that a similar approach may be useful for treating humans. PMID:19996389

  8. Metabolic functions of atypical protein kinase C: "good" and "bad" as defined by nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Farese, Robert V; Sajan, Mini P

    2010-03-01

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms mediate insulin effects on glucose transport in muscle and adipose tissues and lipid synthesis in liver and support other metabolic processes, expression of enzymes needed for islet insulin secretion and hepatic glucose production/release, CNS appetite suppression, and inflammatory responses. In muscle, selective aPKC deficiency impairs glucose uptake and produces insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, which, by activating hepatic aPKC, provokes inordinate increases in lipid synthesis and produces typical "metabolic syndrome" features. In contrast, hepatic aPKC deficiency diminishes lipid synthesis and protects against metabolic syndrome features. Unfortunately, aPKC is deficient in muscle but paradoxically conserved in liver in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus; this combination is particularly problematic because it promotes lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities. Accordingly, metabolic effects of aPKCs can be "good" or "bad," depending upon nutritional status; thus, muscle glucose uptake, islet insulin secretion, hepatic glucose and lipid production/release, and adipose fat synthesis/storage would be important for survival during periods of limited food availability and therefore be "good." However, during times of food surfeit, excessive activation of hepatic aPKC, whether caused by overnutrition or impairments in extrahepatic effects of insulin, would lead to inordinate increases in hepatic lipid synthesis and metabolic syndrome features and therefore be "bad." In keeping with these ideas, the inhibition of hepatic aPKC markedly ameliorates lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities in experimental models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We postulate that a similar approach may be useful for treating humans.

  9. Cognitive function, stress hormones, heart rate and nutritional status during simulated captivity in military survival training.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Harris R; Farina, Emily K; Caldwell, John; Williams, Kelly W; Thompson, Lauren A; Niro, Philip J; Grohmann, Kyle A; McClung, James P

    2016-10-15

    Stress influences numerous psychological and physiological processes, and its effects have practical implications in a variety of professions and real-world activities. However, few studies have concurrently assessed multiple behavioral, hormonal, nutritional and heart-rate responses of humans to acute, severe stress. This investigation simultaneously assessed cognitive, affective, hormonal, and heart-rate responses induced by an intensely stressful real-world environment designed to simulate wartime captivity. Sixty males were evaluated during and immediately following participation in U.S. Army Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) school, three weeks of intense but standardized training for Soldiers at risk of capture. Simulated captivity and intense mock interrogations degraded grammatical reasoning (p<0.005), sustained-attention (p<0.001), working memory (p<0.05) and all aspects of mood assessed by the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire: Tension/Anxiety, Depression/Dejection, Anger/Hostility, Vigor/Activity, Fatigue/Inertia; Confusion/Bewilderment, and Total Mood Disturbance (p<0.001) It also elevated heart rate (p<0.001); increased serum and salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-s) (p<0.01); elevated serum epinephrine, norepinephrine, and soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR) (p<0.01); increased salivary neuropeptide-Y (NPY) (p<0.001); and decreased serum prolactin and serum and salivary testosterone (p<0.001). Partial recovery was observed immediately after training, but stress-induced changes, particularly in body weight and several of the biomarkers, persisted. This study demonstrates that when individuals were exposed to realistic and controlled simulated captivity, cognition, mood, stress hormones, nutritional status and heart rate are simultaneously altered, and each of these subsequently recovers at different rates. PMID:27374427

  10. Prematurity, Birth Weight, and Socioeconomic Status Are Linked to Atypical Diurnal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Suzy Barcelos; Sullivan, Mary C; Roberts, Mary B; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-02-01

    In a prospective, case-controlled longitudinal design, 180 preterm and fullterm infants who had been enrolled at birth participated in a comprehensive assessment battery at age 23. Of these, 149 young adults, 34 formerly full-term and 115 formerly preterm (22 healthy preterm, 48 with medical complications, 21 with neurological complications, and 24 small for gestational age) donated five saliva samples from a single day that were assayed for cortisol to assess diurnal variation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Analyses were conducted to determine whether prematurity category, birth weight, and socioeconomic status were associated with differences in HPA axis function. Pre- and perinatal circumstances associated with prematurity influenced the activity of this environmentally sensitive physiological system. Results are consistent with the theory of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and highlight a possible mechanism for the link between prematurity and health disparities later in life. PMID:26676400

  11. Development and qualification of functional materials for the EU Test Blanket Modules: Strategy and R&D activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmitko, M.; Poitevin, Y.; Boccaccini, L.; Salavy, J.-F.; Knitter, R.; Möslang, A.; Magielsen, A. J.; Hegeman, J. B. J.; Lässer, R.

    2011-10-01

    Europe has developed two reference tritium breeder blankets concepts for a DEMO fusion reactor: the Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed. Both will be tested in ITER under the form of Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). The paper reviews the current status of development and qualification of the EU TBMs functional materials; i.e. ceramic solid breeder materials, beryllium/beryllides multiplier materials and Lithium-Lead liquid metal breeder material Pb-15.7Li. For each functional material the main functional/performance requirements with key qualification issues, current status of the R&D activities and the EU development strategy are presented. In the development strategy major steps considered are listed pointing out importance of the 'Development/qualification/procurement plan', currently under elaboration, for definition of a roadmap of further activities aiming at delivery of qualified functional materials to be used in the European TBMs in ITER.

  12. Cellular redox status influences both cytotoxic and NF-kappa B activation in natural killer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Valle Blázquez, M; Luque, I; Collantes, E; Aranda, E; Solana, R; Peña, J; Muñoz, E

    1997-01-01

    The role of cellular redox status in both cytotoxic activity and NF-kappa B activation in natural killer (NK) cells was investigated. The results indicate that stimulation of NK cells, either freshly isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) or long-term cultured NK clones, with specific cell targets results in an increased binding activity of NF-kappa B and AP-1 transcription factors measured by gel retardation. Pretreatment of NK cells with the antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbarmate (PDTC) leads to the inhibition of NF-kappa B activation but the AP-1 binding to DNA was superinduced. The inhibition of NF-kappa B by PDTC paralleled with an inhibition of spontaneous cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells. Moreover, the inhibitors of serine proteases, N-alpha-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone and N-alpha-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone, also blocked the cytolytic activity of NK cells against the sensitive target K562. In contrast, NK activity was not affected by pretreatment of the effector cells with the proteasome inhibitor N-acetyl-leu-leu-norleucinal which selectively inhibits NF-kappa B activation. Altogether, these results support the hypothesis that the activation of NK cells involved transcriptional and post-transcriptional events, and that reactive intermediates may play an important role in the molecular processes related with the generation of a cytotoxic response by NK cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9155655

  13. Smoking Status and a Pulmonary Function Test in Patients with Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Chiharu; Uchida, Soushi; Noguchi, Shingo; Torii, Ryo; Shimabukuro, Ikuko; Yatera, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects one in several smokers, only a few patients are correctly diagnosed compared to the estimated number of patients. Several recent reports indicate that the development of rotator cuff tears is related to smoking. In this study, we investigated smoking status in patients with rotator cuff tears and evaluated the possibility of undiagnosed COPD by a pulmonary function test. The subjects were 150 consecutive patients over 40 years old, who had been diagnosed with rotator cuff tears and had been examined by a pulmonary function test before surgery in our orthopedic department between April 2011 and June 2015. They consisted of 96 men and 54 women, which included 59 non-smokers (39.3%), 62 ex-smokers (41.3%), and 29 smokers (19.3%). The smoking rate of the subjects was the same as that of the general Japanese population. However, the ever-smokers who smoked more than 21 cigarettes per day were 31.9%, which was high compared to the Japanese ever-smokers population, i.e. 15.2% of men and 5.5% of women. Twenty-five subjects (16.7%) showed airflow limitation, and they consisted of 7 cases of COPD, 3 cases of bronchial asthma, one case of bronchiectasis, and 14 undiagnosed cases. The undiagnosed cases consisted of 7 non-smokers, 5 ex-smokers, and 2 smokers. Their stages of COPD were stage 1 in 11 cases and stage 2 in 3 cases. The prevalence of airflow limitation increased with increasing age: 0% for 40's, 8.3% for 50's, 20.7% for 60's, and 25.6% for over 70's. From these results, we recognized that paying attention to the numbers of cigarettes smoked per day are important in addition to the smoking history, for the patients with rotator cuff tears. Also, sharing the data of a pulmonary function test before surgery can contribute to the early diagnosis of COPD. PMID:27627973

  14. [Functional status of submariners after short-time submarine raid in the sea].

    PubMed

    Kalmanov, A S; Pisarev, A A; Khankevich, Yu R; Bloshchinskii, I A; Valskii, A V

    2015-10-01

    Short-time sea submarine raids (from a few days to a few weeks), performed during one working cycle, negatively influence on the functional state of the submariners organism. Upon returning to the point of basing the crew involved in the maintenance of the material and performs preparations for further access to the sea. Due to the high workload and lack of time personnel are not held in any correctional and rehabilitation activities, and therefore the time for the next release in the sea functional condition and functional reserves of the body does not have time to fully recover. The transfer of the submarine crew and referral to medical and psychological rehabilitation assumed only after the end of the operating cycle after the crew the task of further voyage. Based on the assessment of the functional systems of the submarine after a short voyage concluded on the need to develop a set of remedial measures for the recovery of submarine crews during inter-cruise period. PMID:26827506

  15. Maternal Eating and Physical Activity Strategies and their Relation with Children's Nutritional Status1

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Ortiz-Félix, Rosario Edith; Cárdenas-Villarreal, Velia Margarita; Ávila-Alpirez, Hermelinda; Alba-Alba, Corina Mariela; Hernández-Carranco, Roandy Gaspar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to describe the maternal eating and physical activity strategies (monitoring, discipline, control, limits and reinforcement) [MEES]; to determine the relation between MEES and the child's nutritional status [body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BFP)]; to verify whether the MEES differ according to the child's nutritional status. Method participants were 558 mothers and children (3 to 11 years of age) who studied at public schools. The Parental Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) was applied and the child's weight, height and BFP were measured. For analysis purposes, descriptive statistics were obtained, using multiple linear regression and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results the highest mean score was found for reinforcement (62.72) and the lowest for control (50.07). Discipline, control and limits explained 12% of the BMI, while discipline and control explained 6% of the BFP. Greater control is found for obese children (χ2=38.36, p=0.001) and greater reinforcement for underweight children (χ2=7.19, p<0.05). Conclusions the mothers exert greater control (pressure to eat) over obese children and greater recognition (congratulating due to healthy eating) in underweight children. Modifications in parental strategies are recommended with a view to strengthening healthy eating and physical activity habits. PMID:26107837

  16. The current status and future applicability of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) in predicting toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Mark T D

    2002-12-01

    The current status of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) in predicting toxicity is assessed. Widespread use of these methods to predict toxicity from chemical structure is possible, both by industry to develop new compounds, and also by regulatory agencies. The current use of QSARs is restricted by the lack of suitable toxicity data available for modelling, the suitability of simplistic modelling approaches for the prediction of certain endpoints, and the poor definition and utilisation of the applicability domain of models. Suggestions to resolve these issues are made.

  17. Sleep Duration or Bedtime? Exploring the Relationship between Sleep Habits and Weight Status and Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Olds, Tim S.; Maher, Carol A.; Matricciani, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the effects of early and late bedtimes and wake up times on use of time and weight status in Australian school-aged children. Design: Observational cross-sectional study involving use of time interviews and pedometers. Setting: Free-living Australian adolescents. Participants: 2200 9- to 16-year-olds from all states of Australia Interventions: NA. Measurements and Results: Bedtimes and wake times were adjusted for age and sex and classified as early or late using median splits. Adolescents were allocated into 4 sleep-wake pattern groups: Early-bed/Early-rise; Early-bed/Late-rise; Late-bed/Early-rise; Late-bed/Late-rise. The groups were compared for use of time (screen time, physical activity, and study-related time), sociodemographic characteristics, and weight status. Adolescents in the Late-bed/Late-rise category experienced 48 min/d more screen time and 27 min less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (P < 0.0001) than adolescents in the Early-bed/Early-rise category, in spite of similar sleep durations. Late-bed/Late-rise adolescents had a higher BMI z-score (0.66 vs. 0.45, P = 0.0015). Late-bed/Late-rise adolescents were 1.47 times more likely to be overweight or obese than Early-bed/Early-rise adolescents, 2.16 times more likely to be obese, 1.77 times more likely to have low MVPA, and 2.92 times more likely to have high screen time. Late-bed/Late-rise adolescents were more likely to come from poorer households, to live in major cities, and have fewer siblings. Conclusions: Late bedtimes and late wake up times are associated with an unfavorable activity and weight status profile, independent of age, sex, household income, geographical remoteness, and sleep duration. Citation: Olds TS; Maher CA; Matricciani L. Sleep duration or bedtime? Exploring the relationship between sleep habits and weight status and activity patterns. SLEEP 2011;34(10):1299-1307. PMID:21966061

  18. Wind tunnel productivity status and improvement activities at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Lawrence E.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last three years, a major effort has been underway to re-engineering the way wind tunnel testing is accomplished at the NASA Langley Research Center. This effort began with the reorganization of the LaRC and the consolidation of the management of the wind tunnels in the Aerodynamics Division under one operations branch. This paper provides an overview of the re-engineering activities and gives the status of the improvements in the wind tunnel productivity and customer satisfaction that have resulted from the new ways of working.

  19. Review of X-43A Return to Flight Activities and Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reubush, David E.; Nguyen, Luat T.; Rausch, Vincent L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and status of the return to flight activities for the X-43A scramjet flight demonstrator after the first flight mishap. The first flight was attempted on June 2, 2001 and resulted in vehicle destruction by range safety when the booster went out of control early in the flight. In the time since the mishap much work has been done to examine the causes of the failure and make modifications to the booster to insure that the boost for the second flight will be successful. In addition, all other aspects of the flight have been examined to maximize the probability of a successful flight.

  20. Influence of Sports, Physical Education, and Active Commuting to School on Adolescent Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Michael L.; Longacre, Meghan R.; MacKenzie, Todd; Titus, Linda J.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the associations between weight status and different forms of physical activity among adolescents. METHODS: We conducted telephone surveys with 1718 New Hampshire and Vermont high school students and their parents as part of a longitudinal study of adolescent health. We surveyed adolescents about their team sports participation, other extracurricular physical activity, active commuting, physical education, recreational activity for fun, screen time, diet quality, and demographics. Overweight/obesity (BMI for age ≥ 85th percentile) and obesity (BMI for age ≥ 95 percentile) were based on self-reported height and weight. RESULTS: Overall, 29.0% (n = 498) of the sample was overweight/obese and 13.0% (n = 223) were obese. After adjustments, sports team participation was inversely related to overweight/obesity (relative risk [RR] = 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61, 0.87] for >2 sports teams versus 0) and obesity (RR = 0.61 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.81] for >2 sports teams versus 0). Additionally, active commuting to school was inversely related to obesity (RR = 0.67 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.99] for >3.5 days per week versus 0). Attributable risk estimates suggest obesity prevalence would decrease by 26.1% (95% CI: 9.4%, 42.8%) if all adolescents played on 2 sports teams per year and by 22.1% (95% CI: 0.1%, 43.3%) if all adolescents walked/biked to school at least 4 days per week. CONCLUSIONS: Team sport participation had the strongest and most consistent inverse association with weight status. Active commuting to school may reduce the risk of obesity, but not necessarily overweight, and should be studied further. Obesity prevention programs should consider strategies to increase team sport participation among all students. PMID:22802608

  1. Diverse Activities of Histone Acylations Connect Metabolism to Chromatin Function.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Arnob; Abmayr, Susan M; Workman, Jerry L

    2016-08-18

    Modifications of histones play important roles in balancing transcriptional output. The discovery of acyl marks, besides histone acetylation, has added to the functional diversity of histone modifications. Since all modifications use metabolic intermediates as substrates for chromatin-modifying enzymes, the prevalent landscape of histone modifications in any cell type is a snapshot of its metabolic status. Here, we review some of the current findings of how differential use of histone acylations regulates gene expression as response to metabolic changes and differentiation programs. PMID:27540855

  2. Antioxidant Effect of Melatonin on the Functional Activity of Colostral Phagocytes in Diabetic Women

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Danny L. G.; Calderon, Iracema M. P.; França, Eduardo L.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin is involved in a number of physiological and oxidative processes, including functional regulation in human milk. The present study investigated the mechanisms of action of melatonin and its effects on the functional activity of colostral phagocytes in diabetic women. Colostrum samples were collected from normoglycemic (N = 38) and diabetic (N = 38) women. We determined melatonin concentration, superoxide release, bactericidal activity and intracellular Ca2+ release by colostral phagocytes treated or not with 8-(Diethylamino) octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate hydrochloride (TMB-8) and incubated with melatonin and its precursor (N-acetyl-serotonin-NAS), antagonist (luzindole) and agonist (chloromelatonin-CMLT). Melatonin concentration was higher in colostrum samples from hyperglycemic than normoglycemic mothers. Melatonin stimulated superoxide release by colostral phagocytes from normoglycemic but not hyperglycemic women. NAS increased superoxide, irrespective of glycemic status, whereas CMTL increased superoxide only in cells from the normoglycemic group. Phagocytic activity in colostrum increased significantly in the presence of melatonin, NAS and CMLT, irrespective of glycemic status. The bactericidal activity of colostral phagocytes against enterophatogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) increased in the presence of melatonin or NAS in the normoglycemic group, but not in the hyperglycemic group. Luzindole blocked melatonin action on colostrum phagocytes. Phagocytes from the normoglycemic group treated with melatonin exhibited an increase in intracellular Ca2+ release. Phagocytes treated with TMB-8 (intracellular Ca2+ inhibitor) decreased superoxide, bactericidal activity and intracellular Ca2+ release in both groups. The results obtained suggest an interactive effect of glucose metabolism and melatonin on colostral phagocytes. In colostral phagocytes from normoglycemic mothers, melatonin likely increases the ability of colostrum to protect against EPEC

  3. Diet, Physical Activity, Weight Status, and Culture in a Sample of Children from the Developing World

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Pamela S.; Lai, Pamela; Guy, Devon; Knight, JaDon; Jackson, Maria; Nielsen, Anders L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Barbados, a small developing state at the end of the nutrition transition, faces an obesity epidemic. Although there is hope of stemming the epidemic in childhood, no descriptions of children's dietary and physical activity (PA) patterns are available for planning purposes. We describe the food and activity preferences and adult encouragement of active and sedentary behaviors for children 9–11 years in relation to weight status and the cultural context. Design. We used data from a pilot study preceding a large-scale ongoing study on the local drivers of the obesity epidemic among preadolescent children. PA, sedentary activity, and dietary intakes were assessed from recalls. Weight and height were measured. Setting. Barbados. Subjects. Sixty-two (62), 9–11-year-old school children. Results. Sugar-sweetened beverages provided 21% of energy consumed. Energy intake significantly explained BMI. Parents selected significantly more of children's sedentary activities and encouraged mostly homework and chores (59%). Children's self-selected school-based activity was significantly related to BMI. Conclusions. Childhood obesity prevention recommendations and research should focus on culture-specific practices that promote acquired taste for excess sugar and parent-child interactions regarding PA. Child influenced by school-based activity intervention may an important area for preventive intervention research. PMID:23193460

  4. Employment Status as an Indicator of Recovery and Function One Year after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Eleshia J; Ehlers, Shawna L; Bronars, Carrie A; Patten, Christi A; Brockman, Tabetha A; Cerhan, James R; Hogan, William J; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Gastineau, Dennis A

    2016-09-01

    Employment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an indicator of post-transplantation recovery and function, with economic and social implications. As survival rates for HSCT continue to improve, greater emphasis can be placed on factors affecting the quality of post-transplantation survival, including the ability to resume employment. A sample of recipients of autologous or allogeneic HSCT was accrued (n = 1000) to complete a longitudinal lifestyle survey before transplantation and at 1 year after transplantation. The present study examines associations between employment and patient characteristics, disease variables, illness status, and quality of life among 1-year survivors (n = 702). Participants had a mean age of 55 years (range, 18 to 78) and were predominately male (59.7%), married/partnered (77.1%), and non-Hispanic Caucasian (89.5%); most (79.4%) had received autologous transplantation. Of the 690 participants reporting some form of employment before illness diagnosis, 62.4% had returned to work by 1 year after HSCT. Full-time employment at 1 year after HSCT was significantly associated with remission of illness, improved illness, fewer post-transplantation hospitalizations, less fatigue and pain, higher quality of life, and higher rating of perceived health. Those unemployed because of their health reported the highest rates of fatigue and pain and lowest quality of life, and they were most likely to report poor perceived health. These findings highlight work reintegration as an important outcome and marker of survivors' overall adjustment after transplantation. Identifying factors affecting post-transplantation employment offers opportunities for behavioral interventions to target modifiable risk factors to optimize post-transplantation survivorship, inclusive of increased rates of return to work and decreased rates of associated disability.

  5. Employment Status as an Indicator of Recovery and Function One Year after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Eleshia J; Ehlers, Shawna L; Bronars, Carrie A; Patten, Christi A; Brockman, Tabetha A; Cerhan, James R; Hogan, William J; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Gastineau, Dennis A

    2016-09-01

    Employment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an indicator of post-transplantation recovery and function, with economic and social implications. As survival rates for HSCT continue to improve, greater emphasis can be placed on factors affecting the quality of post-transplantation survival, including the ability to resume employment. A sample of recipients of autologous or allogeneic HSCT was accrued (n = 1000) to complete a longitudinal lifestyle survey before transplantation and at 1 year after transplantation. The present study examines associations between employment and patient characteristics, disease variables, illness status, and quality of life among 1-year survivors (n = 702). Participants had a mean age of 55 years (range, 18 to 78) and were predominately male (59.7%), married/partnered (77.1%), and non-Hispanic Caucasian (89.5%); most (79.4%) had received autologous transplantation. Of the 690 participants reporting some form of employment before illness diagnosis, 62.4% had returned to work by 1 year after HSCT. Full-time employment at 1 year after HSCT was significantly associated with remission of illness, improved illness, fewer post-transplantation hospitalizations, less fatigue and pain, higher quality of life, and higher rating of perceived health. Those unemployed because of their health reported the highest rates of fatigue and pain and lowest quality of life, and they were most likely to report poor perceived health. These findings highlight work reintegration as an important outcome and marker of survivors' overall adjustment after transplantation. Identifying factors affecting post-transplantation employment offers opportunities for behavioral interventions to target modifiable risk factors to optimize post-transplantation survivorship, inclusive of increased rates of return to work and decreased rates of associated disability. PMID:27220264

  6. Effects of psychological well-being, physical status, and social support on oxygen-dependent COPD patients' level of functioning.

    PubMed

    Lee, R N; Graydon, J E; Ross, E

    1991-10-01

    Thirty oxygen-dependent patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participated in a descriptive correlational study in which investigators examined the relationship between oxygen-dependent COPD patients' psychological well-being, physical status, social support, and level of functioning. Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) theory of psychological stress and coping was used to guide the study. Using multiple regression analysis, physical symptoms had the most predictive power in relation to the level of functioning, accounting for 44.3% of the variance. Among the symptoms, dyspnea had the greatest influence on functioning.

  7. Acceleration of reverse analysis method using hyperbolic activation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pwasong, Augustine; Sathasivam, Saratha

    2015-10-01

    Hyperbolic activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing data mining by using a technique named as Reverse Analysis method. In this paper, we describe how Hopfield network perform better with hyperbolic activation function and able to induce logical rules from large database by using reverse analysis method: given the values of the connections of a network, we can hope to know what logical rules are entrenched in the database. We limit our analysis to Horn clauses.

  8. Identity statuses and psychosocial functioning in Turkish youth: a person-centered approach.

    PubMed

    Morsunbul, Umit; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Cok, Figen; Meeus, Wim

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we tested whether the five identity statuses of the original Meeus-Crocetti model could be extracted in a Turkish sample. Their three-factor model of identity was used to examine identity formation. Participants were 1201 (59.6% females) youth aged between 12 and 24 years (Mage = 17.53 years, SDage = 3.25). Findings revealed that the five identity statuses extracted in previous studies (Crocetti, Rubini, Luyckx, & Meeus, 2008; Crocetti, Schwartz, Fermani, Klimstra, & Meeus, 2012) also emerged in a sample of Turkish adolescents and emerging adults. Findings indicated that gender and age affected the distribution of the individuals among the five identity statuses. Furthermore, individuals in the five identity statuses represented distinct profiles according to personality and self characteristics, problem behaviors and well-being, and interpersonal and group relationships. Finally, the status × age interactions indicated that the searching moratorium status became more problematic with age. Implications and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

  9. Soil moisture active passive (SMAP) satellite status and cal/val activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite will be launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in November 2014. This satellite is the culmination of basic research and applications development over the past thirty years. During most of this period, research and development ...

  10. Consideration of the use of health status, functional outcome, and quality-of-life to monitor neonatal intensive care practice.

    PubMed

    Hack, M

    1999-01-01

    Measures of health status, functional abilities, and quality-of-life are being used increasingly to evaluate health care practice, and to measure outcomes from the patient's perspective. There is thus a need to reassess the use of growth and neurodevelopmental status that have traditionally been used as measures of outcome after neonatal intensive care. The quality of neonatal intensive care constitutes only one factor among many that determine the functional health and quality-of-life of survivors of neonatal intensive care. These include genetic disposition, intrauterine events, the effects of sociodemographic factors on the health and development of the child, and on the parents' assessment of their child's functioning. To obtain health status, functional and quality-of-life measures, parents need to act as proxy for the child during infancy and childhood. The parents' cultural, social, and educational background and the specific experience of the parent with children may influence their responses. Furthermore, their perspective may differ from that of the child. Measures that have been used or have the potential to measure health status, functioning, and quality-of-life include the National Health Interview Survey, the National Health Insurance Study, the Functional Status II, the Multi-Attribute Health System, the Functional Independence Measure for Children, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, the Adolescent Child Health and Illness Profile, and the Child Health Questionnaire for children, infants, and toddlers. Knowledge of the validity of the use of these measures among survivors of neonatal intensive care is, however, sparse. Studies have shown that the collection of a standard core of data from various national sources with specific criteria for defining severe disability at 2 years of age is feasible in Great Britain. However, questionnaires or available national databases provide global and epidemiologic information on outcomes rather than

  11. Muscle power of lower extremities in relation to functional ability and nutritional status in very elderly people.

    PubMed

    Bonnefoy, M; Jauffret, M; Jusot, J F

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leg power and functional and nutritional status in very elderly people. A cross sectional analysis was conducted. Participants were men and women (n = 30, age: 82 +/- 5,3 years). Leg extension maximal power was measured. Physical performance measures included chair rise time, time to walk 6 meters, and steps number (SN) necessary to cover a 6 meters walk at habitual gait speed. Nutritional status measurement included Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Body Mass Index (BMI), calf circumference, and thigh volume. Leg extension power was significantly correlated with all the performance measures: chair rise time (r= - 0.57, p < 0.01), time to walk six meters (r = - 0.56, p < 0.01), number of steps to cover a six meters walk (r = - 0.46, p < 0.01). A curvilinear association was found between SN and maximal power (r2 = 0.43, p < 0.001). Maximal power and thigh volume explained significantly time to walk 6 meters in a non-linear regression analysis (r2 = 0.82, p < 0.001). In conclusion, a low level of muscle power is associated with poor functional performances. Both weak muscle power and thigh volume are predictive of poor functional status. Because a decline in functional performances is highly predictive of subsequent disability and adverse events as falls, future studies should evaluate the effects of specific training designed to improve muscle power on disability and falls prevention.

  12. Coming Together and Pulling Apart: Exploring the Influence of Functional Status on Co-resident Relationships in Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Navtej K.; Kemp, Candace L.; Ball, Mary M.; Burgess, Elisabeth O.; Perkins, Molly M.

    2013-01-01

    Social relationships can have considerable influence on physical and mental well-being in later life, particularly for those in long-term care settings such as assisted living (AL). Research set in AL suggests that other residents are among the most available social contacts and that co-resident relationships can affect life satisfaction, quality of life, and well-being. Functional status is a major factor influencing relationships, yet AL research has not studied in-depth or systematically considered the role it plays in residents’ relationships. This study examines the influences of physical and mental function on co-resident relationships in AL and identifies the factors shaping the influence of functional status. We present an analysis of qualitative data collected over a one-year period in two distinct AL settings. Data collection included: participant observation, informal interviews, and formal in-depth interviews with staff, residents, administrators and visitors, as well as surveys with residents. Grounded theory methods guided our data collection and analysis. Our analysis identified the core category, “coming together and pulling apart”, which signifies that functional status is multi-directional, fluid, and operates in different ways in various situations and across time. Key facility- (e.g., admission and retention practices, staff intervention) and resident-level (e.g., personal and situational characteristics) factors shape the influence of functional status on co-resident relationships. Based on our findings, we suggest strategies for promoting positive relationships among residents in AL, including the need to educate staff, families, and residents. PMID:24300052

  13. Effect of Early Rehabilitation during Intensive Care Unit Stay on Functional Status: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Avila, Ana Cristina; Serón, Pamela; Fan, Eddy; Gaete, Mónica; Mickan, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Critically ill survivors may have functional impairments even five years after hospital discharge. To date there are four systematic reviews suggesting a beneficial impact for mobilisation in mechanically ventilated and intensive care unit (ICU) patients, however there is limited information about the influence of timing, frequency and duration of sessions. Earlier mobilisation during ICU stay may lead to greater benefits. This study aims to determine the effect of early rehabilitation for functional status in ICU/high-dependency unit (HDU) patients. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH, PEDro, Cochrane Library, AMED, ISI web of science, Scielo, LILACS and several clinical trial registries were searched for randomised and non-randomised clinical trials of rehabilitation compared to usual care in adult patients admitted to an ICU/HDU. Results were screened by two independent reviewers. Primary outcome was functional status. Secondary outcomes were walking ability, muscle strength, quality of life, and healthcare utilisation. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment using the PEDro scale was performed by primary reviewer and checked by two other reviewers. The authors of relevant studies were contacted to obtain missing data. Results 5733 records were screened. Seven articles were included in the narrative synthesis and six in the meta-analysis. Early rehabilitation had no significant effect on functional status, muscle strength, quality of life, or healthcare utilisation. However, early rehabilitation led to significantly more patients walking without assistance at hospital discharge (risk ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.72). There was a non-significant effect favouring intervention for walking distance and incidence of ICU-acquired weakness. Conclusions Early rehabilitation during ICU stay was not associated with improvements in functional status, muscle strength, quality of life or healthcare utilisation

  14. Geography Influences Dietary Intake, Physical Activity and Weight Status of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Shauna M.; Fraser, Shawn N.; Storey, Kate E.; Forbes, Laura E.; Spence, John C.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Raine, Kim D.; Hanning, Rhona M.; McCargar, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in the dietary intakes, physical activity levels and weight status of a large sample of Canadian youth in both 2005 and 2008. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study of rural and urban adolescents (n = 10, 023) in Alberta was conducted in both 2005 and 2008 using a web-based survey. Results. There was an overall positive change in nutrient intakes between 2005 and 2008; however, rural residents generally had a poorer nutrient profile than urban residents (P < .001). They consumed less fibre and a greater percent energy from saturated fat. The mean physical activity scores increased among rural youth between 2005 and 2008 (P < .001), while remaining unchanged among urban youth. Residence was significantly related to weight status in 2005 (P = .017), but not in 2008. Conclusion. Although there were small improvements in nutrient intakes from 2005 to 2008, several differences in the lifestyle behaviours of adolescents living in rural and urban areas were found. The results of this study emphasize the importance of making policy and program recommendations to support healthy lifestyle behaviours within the context of the environments in which adolescents live. PMID:22685637

  15. Aeroservoelastic wind-tunnel investigations using the Active Flexible Wing Model: Status and recent accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Thomas E.; Perry, Boyd, III; Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Cole, Stanley R.; Buttrill, Carey S.; Adams, William M., Jr.; Houck, Jacob A.; Srinathkumar, S.; Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Pototzky, Anthony S.

    1989-01-01

    The status of the joint NASA/Rockwell Active Flexible Wing Wind-Tunnel Test Program is described. The objectives are to develop and validate the analysis, design, and test methodologies required to apply multifunction active control technology for improving aircraft performance and stability. Major tasks include designing digital multi-input/multi-output flutter-suppression and rolling-maneuver-load alleviation concepts for a flexible full-span wind-tunnel model, obtaining an experimental data base for the basic model and each control concept and providing comparisons between experimental and analytical results to validate the methodologies. The opportunity is provided to improve real-time simulation techniques and to gain practical experience with digital control law implementation procedures.

  16. Effects of Physical (In)activity on Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Heber, Stefan; Volf, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    As platelet activation is closely related to the liberation of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, platelets play a central role in the development of CVD. Virtually all cardiovascular risk factors favor platelet hyperreactivity and, accordingly, also physical (in)activity affects platelet function. Within this paper, we will summarize and discuss the current knowledge on the impact of acute and habitual exercise on platelet function. Although there are apparent discrepancies regarding the reported effects of acute, strenuous exercise on platelet activation, a deeper analysis of the available literature reveals that the applied exercise intensity and the subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness represent critical determinants for the observed effects. Consideration of these factors leads to the summary that (i) acute, strenuous exercise can lead to platelet activation, (ii) regular physical activity and/or physical fitness diminish or prevent platelet activation in response to acute exercise, and (iii) habitual physical activity and/or physical fitness also favorably modulate platelet function at physical rest. Notably, these effects of exercise on platelet function show obvious similarities to the well-recognized relation between exercise and the risk for cardiovascular events where vigorous exercise transiently increases the risk for myocardial infarction and a physically active lifestyle dramatically reduces cardiovascular mortality. PMID:26557653

  17. Habitual physical activity (HPA) as a factor in sustained executive function in Alzheimer-type dementia: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Farina, Nicolas; Tabet, Naji; Rusted, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from studies on healthy older adults and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) populations suggests that physical activity interventions have a positive effect on executive function. In this study, we consider whether HPA is positively associated with executive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Eighty-two participants with a diagnosis of mild to moderate AD completed six measures of executive function. Objective measures of physical status were taken. In addition, informants completed questionnaires on the participants' HPA and other lifestyle factors. A composite measure of executive function was the primary outcome. A multistage multiple regression was used to determine how much variance HPA accounted for. The final model comprised disease severity, cognitive reserve, cognitive activities, neuropsychiatric status and HPA status. The final model accounted for a total of 57% of the variance of executive performance, of which HPA itself accounted for 8% of the variance. HPA status is associated executive performance in an AD population even after controlling for key covariates. The findings encourage clinicians to recommend HPA and its cognitive benefits to AD patients and their carers.

  18. Effect of reproductive status on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and reactivity in male California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    PubMed

    Harris, Breanna N; Saltzman, Wendy

    2013-03-15

    Previous studies indicate that reproductive condition can alter stress response and glucocorticoid release. Although the functional significance of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation by breeding condition is not fully understood, one possible explanation is the behavior hypothesis, which states that an animal's need to express parental behavior may be driving modulation of the HPA axis. This possibility is consistent with findings of blunted activity and reactivity of the HPA axis in lactating female mammals; however, effects of reproductive status on HPA function have not been well characterized in male mammals that express parental behavior. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in the monogamous and biparental California mouse. Several aspects of HPA activity were compared in males from three reproductive conditions: virgin males (housed with another male), non-breeding males (housed with a tubally ligated female), and first-time fathers (housed with a female and their first litter of pups). In light of the behavior hypothesis we predicted that new fathers would differ from virgin and non-breeding males in several aspects of HPA function and corticosterone (CORT) output: decreased amplitude of the diurnal rhythm in CORT, a blunted CORT increase following predator-odor stress, increased sensitivity to glucocorticoid negative feedback, and/or a blunted CORT response to pharmacological stimulation. In addition, we predicted that first-time fathers would be more resistant to CORT-induced suppression of testosterone secretion, as testosterone is important for paternal behavior in this species. We found that virgin males, non-breeding males and first-time fathers did not display any CORT differences in diurnal rhythm, response to a predator-odor stressor, or response to pharmacological suppression or stimulation. Additionally, there were no differences in circulating testosterone concentrations. Adrenal mass was, however, significantly lower in new

  19. A current type PWM rectifier with active damping function

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Yukihiko; Kataoka, Teruo

    1995-12-31

    A new control method for current type PWM rectifiers which can provide active damping function is presented. This damping function is effective only on the harmonic components of ac input current selectively. Thus steady state waveform distortion and transient oscillation of the input current are reduced by the active damping effects. The active damping function can be realized by feed-back control of an LC filter connected to the ac side of the rectifier, and it does not require any additional components in the main circuits, permitting a simple circuit configuration. The control system of the proposed PWM rectifier is analyzed by using a simple block diagram developed in the present paper. From the analytical results, the influence of the circuit parameters and control delay on the active damping effects and the stability of the operation is clarified to establish the design method. To confirm the effectiveness of the active damping function, some results of basic experiments are included. As an example of application of the active damping function, the proposed rectifier is applied to reduce the harmonic currents generated by conventional rectifiers operating in parallel with the proposed rectifier. Some experimental results in this application are also included.

  20. A current-type PWM rectifier with active damping function

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Yukihiko; Kataoka, Teruo

    1996-05-01

    A new control method for current-type pulse-width modulation (PWM) rectifiers which can provide active damping function is presented. This damping function is effective only on the harmonic components of ac input current selectively. Thus steady-state waveform distortion and transient oscillation of the input current are reduced by the active damping effects. The active damping function can be realized by feedback control of an LC filter connected to the ac side of the rectifier, and it does not require any additional components in the main circuits, permitting a simple circuit configuration. The control system of the proposed PWM rectifier is analyzed by using a simple block diagram developed in the present paper. From the analytical results, the influence of the circuit parameters and control delay on the active damping effects and the stability of the operation are clarified to establish the design method. To confirm the effectiveness of the active damping function, some results of basic experiments are included. As an example of application of the active damping function, the proposed rectifier is applied to reduce the harmonic currents generated by conventional rectifiers operating in parallel with the proposed rectifier. Some experimental results in this application are also included.

  1. Technosocial Modeling for Determining the Status and Nature of a State’s Nuclear Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Harvey, Julia B.

    2009-09-25

    The International Atomic Energy Agency State Evaluation Process: The Role of Information Analysis in Reaching Safeguards Conclusions (Mathews et al. 2008), several examples of nonproliferation models using analytical software were developed that may assist the IAEA with collecting, visualizing, analyzing, and reporting information in support of the State Evaluation Process. This paper focuses on one of the examples a set of models developed in the Proactive Scenario Production, Evidence Collection, and Testing (ProSPECT) software that evaluates the status and nature of a state’s nuclear activities. The models use three distinct subject areas to perform this assessment: the presence of nuclear activities, the consistency of those nuclear activities with national nuclear energy goals, and the geopolitical context in which those nuclear activities are taking place. As a proof-of-concept for the models, a crude case study was performed. The study, which attempted to evaluate the nuclear activities taking place in Syria prior to September 2007, yielded illustrative, yet inconclusive, results. Due to the inconclusive nature of the case study results, changes that may improve the model’s efficiency and accuracy are proposed.

  2. Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on paraoxonase 1 activities and oxidative stress status in young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Baralic, Ivana; Djordjevic, Brizita; Dikic, Nenad; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena; Spasic, Slavica; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana; Radivojevic, Nenad; Andjelkovic, Marija; Pejic, Snezana

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of astaxanthin (Asx) on paraoxonase (PON1) activities and oxidative stress status in soccer players. Forty soccer players were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to Asx and placebo (P) group. Blood samples were obtained before, 45 and 90 days after supplementation. PON1 activity was assessed by using two substrates: paraoxon and diazoxon. The oxidative stress biomarkers were also examined: total sulphydryl group content (-SH groups), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), advanced oxidation protein products and redox balance. The significant interaction effect of supplementation and training (p < 0.05) on PON1 activity toward paraoxon was observed. The PON1 activity toward diazoxon increased in Asx group after 90 days (p < 0.01), while there was no significant difference in P group. SH groups content rose from pre- to post-supplementation period only in Asx group (supplementation and training, p < 0.05; training, p < 0.01). TBARS levels decreased after 45 days and increased after 90 days of regular soccer training in both groups (training, p < 0.001). Redox balance decreased significantly in response to the regular training, regardless of treatment group (training, p < 0.001). Asx supplementation might increase total SH groups content and improve PON1 activity through protection of free thiol groups against oxidative modification.

  3. Mothers Secretor Status Affects Development of Childrens Microbiota Composition and Function: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Brown, Paula; Morrison, Mark; Krause, Lutz; Davies, Peter S. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background One mechanism by which early life environment may influence long term health is through modulation of the gut microbiota. It is widely accepted that the optimal source of nutrition in early life is breast milk, with Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) thought to play an important role in nourishing the developing microbiota. However, mothers with inactive secretor genes have altered HMO composition and quantities in their breast milk. In this pilot study we examine the influence of secretor status and breast-feeding on microbiota composition at 2 to 3 years of age. Methods 37 children and 17 eligible mothers were recruited. Secretor status was determined from blood and saliva samples using hemagglutination inhibition technique and faecal microbiota composition was examined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Secretor status was determined for 28 eligible children with 20 being secretors (S, 71.4%). Eleven of the 17 mothers were secretors (S, 64.7%). Unweighted UniFrac distances were significantly associated with child secretor status (R2 = 0.069, p = 0.030) and with mother secretor status in children exclusively breastfed for at least 4 months (R2 = 0.167, p = 0.028), suggesting an influence on the presence/absence of microbes, with Prevotella not detected in samples from secretor children and children of secretor mothers. In children who were exclusively breast-fed for at least 4 months of life the abundance of the known HMO consumers Bifidobacterium were increased in the children of secretor mothers compared to non-secretor mothers. The relative abundance of an OTU related to Bacteroides plebeius, a bacterium noted for its capacity to utilise sulphated polysaccharides for growth, was decreased in these children. Conclusions Child and mothers’ secretor status have an impact on childrens’ microbiota composition at 2 to 3 years of age. PMID:27644050

  4. In vitro antioxidant activity and effect of Parkia biglobosa bark extract on mitochondrial redox status.

    PubMed

    Komolafe, Kayode; Olaleye, Tolulope Mary; Omotuyi, Olaposi Idowu; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Akindahunsi, Akintunde Afolabi; Teixeira da Rocha, Joao Batista

    2014-08-01

    Aqueous-methanolic extract of Parkia biglobosa bark (PBB) was screened for its polyphenolic constituents, in vitro antioxidant activity, and effect on mitochondria redox status. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed by using the scavenging abilities and the reducing powers of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) diammonium salt radical cation against Fe(3+). Subsequently, the ability of PBB to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO(4) (10 μm) and its metal-chelating potential were investigated. The effects of the extract on basal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and on the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in isolated mitochondria were determined by using 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin (DCFH) oxidation and safranin fluorescence, respectively. PBB mitigated the Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat tissues and showed dose-dependent scavenging of DPPH (IC(50): 98.33 ± 10.0 μg/mL) and ABTS. (trolox equivalent antioxidant concentration, TEAC value = 0.05), with considerable ferric-reducing and moderate metal-chelating abilities. PBB caused slight decreases in both the liver and the brain mitochondria potentials and resulted in a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in DCFH oxidation. Screening for polyphenolics using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) revealed the presence of caffeic acid, gallic acid, catechin, epigalocatechin, rutin, and quercetin. These results demonstrate for the first time the considerable in vitro antioxidant activity and favorable effect of PBB on mitochondria redox status and provide justification for the use of the plant in ethnomedicine.

  5. Social status alters defeat-induced neural activation in Syrian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Kathleen E.; Curry, Daniel W.; Cooper, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    While exposure to social stress leads to increased depression-like and anxiety-like behavior, some individuals are more vulnerable than others to these stress-induced changes in behavior. Prior social experience is one factor that can modulate how individuals respond to stressful events. In this study we investigated whether experience-dependent resistance to the behavioral consequences of social defeat was associated with a specific pattern of neural activation. We paired weight-matched male Syrian hamsters in daily aggressive encounters for two weeks, during which they formed a stable dominance relationship. We also included controls that were exposed to an empty cage each day for two weeks. Twenty-four hours after the final pairing or empty cage exposure, half of the subjects were socially defeated in 3, 5-min encounters, while the others were not socially defeated. Twenty-four hours after social defeat, animals were tested for conditioned defeat in a 5-min social interaction test with a non-aggressive intruder. We collected brains following social defeat and processed tissue for c-Fos immunoreactivity. We found that dominants were more likely to counter-attack the resident aggressor during social defeat than were subordinates, and they showed less submissive and defensive behavior at conditioned defeat testing compared to subordinates. Also, social status was associated with distinct patterns of defeat-induced neural activation in select brain regions including the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, and lateral septum. Our results indicate that social status is an important form of prior experience that predicts both initial coping style and the degree of resistance to social defeat. Further, the differences in defeat-induced neural activation suggest possible brain regions that may control resistance to conditioned defeat in dominant individuals. PMID:22433296

  6. Social status alters defeat-induced neural activation in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Morrison, K E; Curry, D W; Cooper, M A

    2012-05-17

    Although exposure to social stress leads to increased depression-like and anxiety-like behavior, some individuals are more vulnerable than others to these stress-induced changes in behavior. Prior social experience is one factor that can modulate how individuals respond to stressful events. In this study, we investigated whether experience-dependent resistance to the behavioral consequences of social defeat was associated with a specific pattern of neural activation. We paired weight-matched male Syrian hamsters in daily aggressive encounters for 2 weeks, during which they formed a stable dominance relationship. We also included control animals that were exposed to an empty cage each day for 2 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the final pairing or empty cage exposure, half of the subjects were socially defeated in 3, 5-min encounters, whereas the others were not socially defeated. Twenty-four hours after social defeat, animals were tested for conditioned defeat in a 5-min social interaction test with a non-aggressive intruder. We collected brains after social defeat and processed the tissue for c-Fos immunoreactivity. We found that dominants were more likely than subordinates to counter-attack the resident aggressor during social defeat, and they showed less submissive and defensive behavior at conditioned defeat testing compared with subordinates. Also, social status was associated with distinct patterns of defeat-induced neural activation in select brain regions, including the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, and lateral septum. Our results indicate that social status is an important form of prior experience that predicts both initial coping style and the degree of resistance to social defeat. Further, the differences in defeat-induced neural activation suggest possible brain regions that may control resistance to conditioned defeat in dominant individuals.

  7. Ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films functionalized with therapeutically active collagen networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Chen, M.; Bruno, P.; Lam, R.; Robinson, E.; Gruen, D.; Ho, D.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication of biologically amenable interfaces in medicine bridges translational technologies with their surrounding biological environment. Functionalized nanomaterials catalyze this coalescence through the creation of biomimetic and active substrates upon which a spectrum of therapeutic elements can be delivered to adherent cells to address biomolecular processes in cancer, inflammation, etc. Here, we demonstrate the robust functionalization of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) with type I collagen and dexamethasone (Dex), an anti-inflammatory drug, to fabricate a hybrid therapeutically active substrate for localized drug delivery. UNCD oxidation coupled with a pH-mediated collagen adsorption process generated a comprehensive interface between the two materials, and subsequent Dex integration, activity, and elution were confirmed through inflammatory gene expression assays. These studies confer a translational relevance to the biofunctionalized UNCD in its role as an active therapeutic network for potent regulation of cellular activity toward applications in nanomedicine.

  8. Geometrical modulation transfer function for different pixel active area shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly

    2000-04-01

    In this work we consider the effect of the pixel active area geometrical shape on the modulation transfer function (MTF) of an image sensor. When designing a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor, or a CCD or CID sensor for this matter, the active area of the pixel would have a certain geometrical shape which might not cover the whole pixel area. To improve the device performance, it is important to understand the effect this has on the pixel sensitivity and on the resulting MTF. We perform a theoretical analysis of the MTF for the active area shape and derive explicit formulas for the transfer function for pixel arrays with a square, a rectangular and an L shaped active area (most commonly used), and generalize for any connected active area shape. Preliminary experimental results of subpixel scanning sensitivity maps and the corresponding MTFs have also bee obtained, which confirm the theoretical derivations. Both the simulation results and the MTF calculated from the point spread function measurements of the actual pixel arrays show that the active area shape contributes significantly to the behavior of the overall MTF. The results also indicate that for any potential pixel active area shape, the effect of its diversion from the square pixel could be calculated, so that tradeoff between the conflicting requirements, such as SNR and MTF, could be compared per each pixel design for better overall sensor performance.

  9. Content comparison of 115 health status measures in sleep medicine using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a reference.

    PubMed

    Gradinger, Felix; Glässel, Andrea; Bentley, Alison; Stucki, Armin

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this systematic review and content analysis was to identify and quantify the concepts contained in patient-administered health status measures in sleep medicine practice and research using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a reference. Both generic and condition-specific patient-administered measures/questionnaires used in sleep medicine practice and research were identified and selected. A comprehensive search strategy for reviews, National/International Guidelines and Standard References to ensure that all areas of functioning, disability and health were captured was used. The contents of the selected measures were examined and linked to the ICF using established linking rules. The frequencies of ICF categories covering the concepts contained in the 115 patient-administered measures were used for the descriptive analysis and content comparison. Of these, 35 were of a generic nature, 17 were symptom-related, and 63 condition-specific. The concepts identified in the questionnaires' items were predominantly linked to categories of the ICF component related to body functions (61.4%), followed by activities and participation (15.3%), and then environmental factors (9.8%). The measures vary greatly with regard to the number and specificity of the ICF categories covered, as indicated by the proportional indices of content density and content diversity. The ICF provides a useful reference to identify, quantify and compare the concepts contained in health status measures used in sleep medicine practice and research.

  10. Relationship between cognitive impairment and nutritional assessment on functional status in Calabrian long-term-care

    PubMed Central

    Malara, Alba; Sgrò, Giovanni; Caruso, Chiara; Ceravolo, Francesco; Curinga, Giuseppe; Renda, Grazia Francesca; Spadea, Fausto; Garo, Michele; Rispoli, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Objective The interaction between dementia and nutritional state is very complex and not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the interaction between cognitive impairment and nutritional state in a cohort of residential elderly in relationship with functional condition of patients and their load of assistance in long-term-care facilities of the National Association of Third Age Structures (ANASTE) Calabria. Methods One hundred seventy-four subjects (122 female and 52 male) were admitted to the long-term-care ANASTE Calabria study. All patients underwent multidimensional geriatric assessment. Nutritional state was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), whereas cognitive performance was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The functional state was assessed by Barthel Index (BI) and Activity Daily Living (ADL). The following nutritional biochemical parameters were also evaluated: albumin, cholesterol, iron, and hemoglobin. All patients were reassessed 180 days later. Results A severe cognitive impairment in MMSE performance was displayed in 49.7% patients, while 39.8% showed a moderate deficit; 6.9% had a slight deficit; and 3.4% evidenced no cognitive impairment. In MNA, 30% of patients exhibited an impairment of nutritional state; 56% were at risk of malnutrition; and 14% showed no nutritional problems. Malnutrition was present in 42% of patients with severe cognitive impairment, but only 4% of malnourished patients showed moderate cognitive deficit. The statistical analysis displayed a significant correlation between MNA and MMSE (P<0.001), as did MMSE correlated with Activity Daily Living (P<0.001) and BI (P<0.05). MNA correlated with BI (P<0.001) and albumin (P<0.001). The follow-up showed a strong correlation between cognitive deterioration and worsening of nutritional state (P<0.005) as well as with the functional state (P<0.05) and mortality (P<0.01). Conclusion The present study clearly shows that

  11. Berberine Improves Kidney Function in Diabetic Mice via AMPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Long; Sun, Li-Na; Nie, Hui-Bin; Wang, Xue-Ling; Guan, Guang-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Effective therapies to prevent the development of this disease are required. Berberine (BBR) has several preventive effects on diabetes and its complications. However, the molecular mechanism of BBR on kidney function in diabetes is not well defined. Here, we reported that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is required for BBR-induced improvement of kidney function in vivo. AMPK phosphorylation and activity, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), kidney function including serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance (Ccr), and urinary protein excretion, morphology of glomerulus were determined in vitro or in vivo. Exposure of cultured human glomerulus mesangial cells (HGMCs) to BBR time- or dose-dependently activates AMPK by increasing the thr172 phosphorylation and its activities. Inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA or mutant abolished BBR-induced AMPK activation. Incubation of cells with high glucose (HG, 30 mM) markedly induced the oxidative stress of HGMCs, which were abolished by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside, AMPK gene overexpression or BBR. Importantly, the effects induced by BBR were bypassed by AMPK siRNA transfection in HG-treated HGMCs. In animal studies, streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia dramatically promoted glomerulosclerosis and impaired kidney function by increasing serum BUN, urinary protein excretion, and decreasing Ccr, as well as increased oxidative stress. Administration of BBR remarkably improved kidney function in wildtype mice but not in AMPKα2-deficient mice. We conclude that AMPK activation is required for BBR to improve kidney function in diabetic mice. PMID:25409232

  12. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Status and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entekhabi, D.; Yueh, S. H.; O'Neill, P. E.; Entin, J. K.; Njoku, E. G.; Kellogg, K.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched on January 31, 2015. SMAP provides high-resolution, frequent revisit global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state based on coincident L-band radiometer and L-band radar measurements. The primary science goal of SMAP is to provide new perspectives on how the three fundamental cycles of the Earth system, the water, energy and carbon cycles, are linked together over land. Soil moisture is the key variable that links the three cycles and makes their co-variations synchronous in time. Soil moisture products with varying resolution and coverage are produced from the radiometer alone, radar alone, radiometer-radar combination and data assimilation. In this session the status of the SMAP observatory and early results based on the science data products will be included. The science data acquisition began in May 2015 following several weeks of observatory and instrument commissioning. An intense calibration and validation period followed. Preliminary science products on instrument measurements, soil moisture, landscape frozen or thawed status, and net ecosystem exchange are available at publicly-accessible data archives. The presentation will include early and summary results on the validation of these products. The instrument measurements can also be used to map sea-ice coverage, ocean surface winds and sea surface salinity. Examples of these global retrievals are also presented.

  13. Vitamin and mineral status in physically active men: effects of a high-potency supplement.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Moses, F M; Deuster, P A

    1992-01-01

    Changes in nutritional status during supplementation with a high-potency multivitamin-mineral supplement were examined in 22 physically active men randomly assigned to take a supplement (n = 11) or placebo (n = 11) for approximately 12 wk. Four-day dietary intakes, blood concentrations, and urinary excretions of selected vitamins and minerals were measured before, during (approximately 6 and 12 wk), and after supplementation. No changes were observed in blood concentrations of vitamins A and C and measures of zinc, magnesium, and calcium status; the supplement provided less than 300% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of these nutrients. In contrast, blood concentrations of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamins B-6 and B-12, pantothenate, and biotin increased significantly (P less than 0.05) by 6 wk to values that were maintained until the end of the supplementation. These vitamins were provided in amounts that ranged from 396% (biotin) to 6250% (vitamin B-6) of the RDA. Urinary excretions of these vitamins also increased during supplementation and both blood and urine values returned to presupplementation concentrations at approximately 13.5 wk postsupplementation. PMID:1728807

  14. Status of Animal Experiments on International Space Station, and Animal Care Activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Ryutaro; Ishioka, Noriaki; Yumoto, Akane; Ito, Isao; Shirakawa, Masaki

    We would like to introduce animal experiments status on International Space Station (ISS) of Japan. Aquatic Habitat (AQH) was launched at 2012 July, by H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV, ‘Kounotori’) from Tanegashima island in Japan, which could house small fish (Medaka, or Zebrafish) at most three months. First experiment using AQH was carried out for two months from Oct. 26, 2012, and second experiment would start from February, 2014. Mice housing hardware is now under development. For animal care activities, current topic in Japan is self-estimation for animal experiment status by each institute, and to open the result for public. JAXA conducted self-estimation of fiscal year 2011 (from 2011 April until 2012 March) for the first time, and would continue every fiscal year. JAXA already have its own animal care regulation, under animal care law and policy in Japan, and also referred COSPAR animal care guideline. And this year, JAXA made handbook for animal experiments in space (only Japanese).

  15. Further thoughts on the definitions of economic activity and employment status.

    PubMed

    Blacker Jgc

    1980-01-01

    The author cites problems in the definitions of different categories of economic activity and employment status which have been made by the UN. The term "casual workers" has never been clarified and these people were described as both employed and unemployed on different occasions; there is also no allowance for the term underemployed in the UN classification. The latter term, he concludes, is not included in most censuses. The UN in its Principles and Recommendations for Population Censuses, discusses sex-based stereotypes which he states are based on a set of conventions that are arbitrary, irrational, and complex. However on the basis of the UN rules it is possible to divide the population into 3 categories: 1) those who are economically active (black), 2) those who are not active (white), and 3) those whose classification is in doubt (gray). In developed countries most people are either in the black or the white area and the amount in the gray area is small, but in developing countries the gray area may be the majority of the population. In the Swaziland census no attempt was made to provide a clear picture of employment. In view of the complexity of the underlying concepts, the decisions as to whether a person should be classified as economically active or not should be left to the statisticians, not the census enumerators.

  16. Hematological and Biochemical Markers of Iron Status in a Male, Young, Physically Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Lázaro Alessandro Soares; Grotto, Helena Zerlotti W.; Brenzikofer, René; Macedo, Denise Vaz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals (RIs) for the hemogram and iron status biomarkers in a physically active population. The study population included male volunteers (n = 150) with an average age of 19 ± 1 years who had participated in a regular and controlled exercise program for four months. Blood samples were collected to determine hematological parameters using a Sysmex XE-5000 analyzer (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). Iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation and ferritin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in serum samples were measured using commercial kits (Roche Diagnostics, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and a Roche/Hitachi 902 analyzer. The RIs were established using the RefVal program 4.1b. The leucocyte count, TIBC, and CRP and ferritin concentrations exhibited higher RIs compared with those in a nonphysically active population. Thirty volunteers (outliers) were removed from the reference population due to blood abnormalities. Among the outliers, 46% exhibited higher CRP concentrations and lower concentrations of iron and reticulocyte hemoglobin compared with the nonphysically active population (P < 0.001). Our results showed that it is important to establish RIs for certain laboratory parameters in a physically active population, especially for tests related to the inflammatory response and iron metabolism. PMID:25045665

  17. Somatic and Functional Status of Boys from Various Social and Environmental Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Ignasiak, Zofia; Slawinska, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the somatic and fitness status of adolescent boys from polluted industrial areas. Material and methods: A group of 313 boys aged 11-15 years from 5 villages located in the copper mine area in South-Western Poland were classified by the degree of lead and cadmium pollution (high--very high) and by parents' education…

  18. Does being a mom help or hurt? Workplace incivility as a function of motherhood status.

    PubMed

    Miner, Kathi N; Pesonen, Amanda D; Smittick, Amber L; Seigel, Michael L; Clark, Emily K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which motherhood status predicts being a target of workplace incivility and moderates the relationship between incivility and negative outcomes among employed women. Participants included a nationwide sample of law school faculty members (N = 1,234; 48% female, 85% White) who completed measures of workplace incivility, parenting status, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and depression. Results showed that mothers with 3 children were treated more uncivilly than women with fewer children and that mothering mitigated negative outcomes associated with being the target of incivility. Exploratory analyses examining fatherhood status as a predictor of workplace incivility and moderator of incivility and outcomes showed that fathers reported experiencing more workplace incivility than nonfathers, but being a father did not attenuate the negative outcomes of incivility. In addition, mothers reported more incivility than fathers and childless women reported more incivility than childless men. Childless women were also the most negatively affected by incivility at work. This study advances our understanding of how motherhood status affects women's experiences at work.

  19. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  20. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, Michael D.; Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2009-04-17

    Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.

  1. Pentose phosphate pathway activity: effect on in vitro maturation and oxidative status of bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gutnisky, Cynthia; Dalvit, Gabriel C; Thompson, Jeremy G; Cetica, Pablo D

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activity in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and oxidative and mitochondrial activity in bovine oocytes was evaluated with the aim of analysing the impact of two inhibitors (NADPH and 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN)) and a stimulator (NADP) of the key enzymes of the PPP on the maturation rate, oxidative and mitochondrial activity and the mitochondrial distribution in oocytes. The proportion of COCs with measurable PPP activity (assessed using brilliant cresyl blue staining), glucose uptake, lactate production and meiotic maturation rate diminished when 6-AN (0.1, 1, 5 and 10mM for 22h) was added to the maturation medium (P<0.05). The addition of NADPH did not modify glucose uptake or lactate production, but reduced PPP activity in COCs and meiotic maturation rates (P<0.05). The presence of NADP (0.0125, 0.125, 1.25 and 12.5mM for 22h of culture) in the maturation medium had no effect on PPP activity in COCs, glucose uptake, lactate production and meiotic maturation rate. However, in the absence of gonadotropin supplementation, NADP stimulated both glucose uptake and lactate production at 12.5mM (the highest concentration tested; P<0.05). NADP did not modify cleavage rate, but decreased blastocyst production (P<0.05). During IVM, oocyte oxidative and mitochondrial activity was observed to increase at 15 and 22h maturation, which was also related to progressive mitochondrial migration. Inhibiting the PPP with 6-AN or NADPH led to reduced oxidative and mitochondrial activity compared with the respective control groups and inhibition of mitochondrial migration (P<0.05). Stimulation of the PPP with NADP increased oxidative and mitochondrial activity at 9h maturation (P<0.05) and delayed mitochondrial migration. The present study shows the significance of altering PPP activity during bovine oocyte IVM, revealing that there is a link between the activity of the PPP and the oxidative status of the oocyte.

  2. Serum inflammatory mediators correlate with disease activity in electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) syndrome.

    PubMed

    van den Munckhof, Bart; de Vries, Evelien E; Braun, Kees P J; Boss, H Myrthe; Willemsen, Michèl A; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; de Jager, Wilco; Jansen, Floor E

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to study serum cytokine levels in 11 electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) patients and 20 healthy control children. Patients showed significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-10, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)8/IL-8 than controls, while macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and CCL3 were significantly lower. Follow-up analyses in five patients revealed a significant decrease of IL-6 levels after immunomodulating treatment. IL-6 changes were accompanied by clear improvement of electroencephalography (EEG) patterns and neuropsychological evaluation. We hypothesize that IL-6 correlates with disease activity and immunomodulating treatment efficacy.

  3. Serum inflammatory mediators correlate with disease activity in electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) syndrome.

    PubMed

    van den Munckhof, Bart; de Vries, Evelien E; Braun, Kees P J; Boss, H Myrthe; Willemsen, Michèl A; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; de Jager, Wilco; Jansen, Floor E

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to study serum cytokine levels in 11 electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) patients and 20 healthy control children. Patients showed significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-10, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)8/IL-8 than controls, while macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and CCL3 were significantly lower. Follow-up analyses in five patients revealed a significant decrease of IL-6 levels after immunomodulating treatment. IL-6 changes were accompanied by clear improvement of electroencephalography (EEG) patterns and neuropsychological evaluation. We hypothesize that IL-6 correlates with disease activity and immunomodulating treatment efficacy. PMID:26666401

  4. Perceived and Police Reported Neighborhood Crime: Linkages to Adolescent Activity Behaviors and Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie; Choo, Tse; Larson, Nicole; Van Riper, David; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Inadequate physical activity and obesity during adolescence are areas of public health concern. Questions exist about the role of neighborhoods in the etiology of these problems. This research addressed the relationships of perceived and objective reports of neighborhood crime to adolescent physical activity, screen media use, and BMI. Methods Socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (N=2,455, 53.4% female) from 20 urban, public middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota responded to a classroom survey in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study. Body mass index (BMI) was measured by research staff. Participants’ mean age was 14.6 (SD=2.0); 82.7% represented racial/ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic white. Linear regressions examined associations between crime perceived by adolescents and crime reported to police and the outcomes of interest (BMI z-scores, physical activity, and screen time). Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school. Results BMI was positively associated with perceived crime among girls and boys and with reported crime in girls. For girls, there was an association between higher perceived crime and increased screen time; for boys, between higher reported property crime and reduced physical activity. Perceived crime was associated with reported crime, both property and personal, in both genders. Conclusions Few prior studies of adolescents have studied the association between both perceived and reported crime and BMI. Community-based programs for youth should consider addressing adolescents’ safety concerns along with other perceived barriers to physical activity. Interventions targeting actual crime rates are also important. PMID:26206444

  5. Socioeconomic status indicators, physical activity, and overweight/obesity in Brazilian children

    PubMed Central

    Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Mire, Emily; Barreira, Tiago V; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Katzmarzyk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and physical activity and overweight/obesity in children. Methods: 485 children wore accelerometers for 7 days. Variables included time in sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and steps/day. Children were further categorized as meeting or not meeting guidelines of ≥60min/day MVPA and ≥12,000 steps/day. Body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) were measured using bioelectrical impedance. Overweight/obesity was defined as BMI >+1 SD and BF% ≥85th percentile. Parents answered questionnaires that questioned total annual household income, parental education level, parental employment status and automobile ownership. Results: Children averaged 59.5min/day in MVPA (44.1% met MVPA guidelines), and 9639 steps/day (18.4% met steps/day guidelines). 45.4% and 33% were overweight/obese classified by BMI and BF% respectively. Higher relative total annual household income level (Odds Ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval=0.15-0.65), and relatively higher maternal (OR=0.38; 95%CI=0.20-0.72) and paternal (OR=0.36; 95%CI=0.17-0.75) education levels were associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA guidelines. Household automobile ownership was associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA (OR=0.48; 95%CI=0.31-0.75) and steps/day guidelines (OR=0.44; 95%CI=0.26-0.74). Conclusions: SES indicators were not associated with overweight/obesity, but higher SES was associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA guidelines. PMID:26975562

  6. Dipeptides Increase Functional Activity of Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Malinin, V V; Durnova, A O; Polyakova, V O; Kvetnoi, I M

    2015-05-01

    We analyzed the effect of dipeptide Glu-Trp and isovaleroyl-Glu-Trp in concentrations of 0.2, 2 and 20 μg/ml and Actovegin preparation on functional activity of human skin fibroblasts. Dipeptides, especially Glu-Trp, produce a stimulating effect on human skin fibroblasts and their effect is equivalent to that of Actovegin. Dipeptides stimulate cell renewal processes by activating synthesis of Ki-67 and reducing expression of caspase-9 and enhance antioxidant function of the cells by stimulating the expression of Hsp-90 and inducible NO-synthase. These findings suggest that dipeptides are promising candidates for preparations stimulating reparative processes.

  7. Association between smoking status and the parameters of vascular structure and function in adults: results from the EVIDENT study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study analyses the relation between smoking status and the parameters used to assess vascular structure and function. Methods This cross-sectional, multi-centre study involved a random sample of 1553 participants from the EVIDENT study. Measurements: The smoking status, peripheral augmentation index and ankle-brachial index were measured in all participants. In a small subset of the main population (265 participants), the carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity were also measured. Results After controlling for the effect of age, sex and other risk factors, present smokers have higher values of carotid intima-media thickness (p = 0.011). Along the same lines, current smokers have higher values of pulse wave velocity and lower mean values of ankle-brachial index but without statistical significance in both cases. Conclusions Among the parameters of vascular structure and function analysed, only the IMT shows association with the smoking status, after adjusting for confounders. PMID:24289208

  8. Informational Complexity and Functional Activity of RNA Structures

    PubMed Central

    Carothers, James M.; Oestreich, Stephanie C.; Davis, Jonathan H.

    2004-01-01

    Very little is known about the distribution of functional DNA, RNA, and protein molecules in sequence space. The question of how the number and complexity of distinct solutions to a particular biochemical problem varies with activity is an important aspect of this general problem. Here we present a comparison of the structures and activities of eleven distinct GTP-binding RNAs (aptamers). By experimentally measuring the amount of information required to specify each optimal binding structure, we show that defining a structure capable of 10-fold tighter binding requires approximately 10 additional bits of information. This increase in information content is equivalent to specifying the identity of five additional nucleotide positions and corresponds to an ∼1000-fold decrease in abundance in a sample of random sequences. We observe a similar relationship between structural complexity and activity in a comparison of two catalytic RNAs (ribozyme ligases), raising the possibility of a general relationship between the complexity of RNA structures and their functional activity. Describing how information varies with activity in other heteropolymers, both biological and synthetic, may lead to an objective means of comparing their functional properties. This approach could be useful in predicting the functional utility of novel heteropolymers. PMID:15099096

  9. Model of local temperature changes in brain upon functional activation.

    PubMed

    Collins, Christopher M; Smith, Michael B; Turner, Robert

    2004-12-01

    Experimental results for changes in brain temperature during functional activation show large variations. It is, therefore, desirable to develop a careful numerical model for such changes. Here, a three-dimensional model of temperature in the human head using the bioheat equation, which includes effects of metabolism, perfusion, and thermal conduction, is employed to examine potential temperature changes due to functional activation in brain. It is found that, depending on location in brain and corresponding baseline temperature relative to blood temperature, temperature may increase or decrease on activation and concomitant increases in perfusion and rate of metabolism. Changes in perfusion are generally seen to have a greater effect on temperature than are changes in metabolism, and hence active brain is predicted to approach blood temperature from its initial temperature. All calculated changes in temperature for reasonable physiological parameters have magnitudes <0.12 degrees C and are well within the range reported in recent experimental studies involving human subjects.

  10. Spatial and sustained attention in relation to smoking status: behavioural performance and brain activation patterns.

    PubMed

    Vossel, Simone; Warbrick, Tracy; Mobascher, Arian; Winterer, Georg; Fink, Gereon R

    2011-11-01

    Nicotine enhances attentional functions. Since chronic nicotine exposure through smoking induces neuroadaptive changes in the brain at a structural and molecular level, the present functional MRI (fMRI) study aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms underlying visuospatial and sustained attention in smokers and non-smokers. Visuospatial attention was assessed with a location-cueing paradigm, while sustained attention was measured by changes in response speed over time. During invalid trials, neural activity within the basal forebrain was selectively enhanced in smokers and higher basal forebrain activity was associated with increased parietal cortex activation. Moreover, higher levels of expired carbon monoxide in smokers before scanning were associated with higher parietal cortex activation and faster responses to invalidly cued targets. Smokers showed a slowing of responses and additionally recruited an area within the right supramarginal gyrus with increasing time on task. Activity decreases over time were observed in visual areas in smokers. The data provide evidence for altered attentional functions in smokers as compared with non-smokers, which were partly modulated by residual nicotine levels and were observed at a behavioural level for sustained and at a neural level for spatial and sustained attention.

  11. Neural progenitor cells regulate microglia functions and activity.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Kira I; Andres, Robert H; Fukuhara, Takeshi; Bieri, Gregor; Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko; He, Yingbo; Guzman, Raphael; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2012-11-01

    We found mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to have a secretory protein profile distinct from other brain cells and to modulate microglial activation, proliferation and phagocytosis. NPC-derived vascular endothelial growth factor was necessary and sufficient to exert at least some of these effects in mice. Thus, neural precursor cells may not only be shaped by microglia, but also regulate microglia functions and activity.

  12. Role of external oversight in quality activities: accreditation, credentialing, licensure, and deemed status.

    PubMed

    Wish, J B

    1998-12-01

    There currently exist a number of organizations which provide quality oversight to the ESRD program in the United States. The state surveyors confirm that dialysis facilities comply with Medicare's conditions of coverage, but surveyor activities have traditionally followed a quality assurance rather than a continuous quality improvement (CQI) model. State surveyors focus primarily on nursing homes, so their content knowledge of ESRD quality issues may be limited. The ESRD Networks have CQI expertise on their staffs, and their quality agenda is driven by their medical review boards, whose members bring scientific and technical expertise from the provider community. The success of the Networks in achieving quality goals has been hampered by personnel and resource limitations and by inconsistent direction by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA). Texas has developed a dialysis facility licensure program that partners its ESRD Network and its Medicare state surveyors in quality oversight activities. This collaboration has led to improved patient outcomes and may prove to be a model for other states. Non-Medicare payers may contract with dialysis providers based on performance specifications that exceed those of Medicare's conditions of coverage. A private credentialing mechanism for dialysis facilities that satisfies the performance specifications of all payers has been proposed but, in the absence of deemed status for Medicare survey and certification activities, is unlikely to achieve widespread acceptance. PMID:9892388

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and active ingredients of medicinal plants: current research status and prospectives.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Chen, Bao-Dong; Hao, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Ji-Yong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yang, Guang; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Li; Wu, Zhao-Xiang; Chen, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Medicinal plants have been used world-wide for thousands of years and are widely recognized as having high healing but minor toxic side effects. The scarcity and increasing demand for medicinal plants and their products have promoted the development of artificial cultivation of medicinal plants. Currently, one of the prominent issues in medicinal cultivation systems is the unstable quality of the products. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) affects secondary metabolism and the production of active ingredients of medicinal plants and thus influence the quality of herbal medicines. In this review, we have assembled, analyzed, and summarized the effects of AM symbioses on secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. We conclude that symbiosis of AM is conducive to favorable characteristics of medicinal plants, by improving the production and accumulation of important active ingredients of medicinal plants such as terpenes, phenols, and alkaloids, optimizing the composition of different active ingredients in medicinal plants and ultimately improving the quality of herbal materials. We are convinced that the AM symbiosis will benefit the cultivation of medicinal plants and improve the total yield and quality of herbal materials. Through this review, we hope to draw attention to the status and prospects of, and arouse more interest in, the research field of medicinal plants and mycorrhiza.

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness, weight status and objectively measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity in rural and urban Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J; Mota, Jorge; Padez, Cristina; Ronque, Enio; Cumming, Sean P; Malina, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    Relationships among weight status (body mass index [BMI]), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objective measures of sedentary behaviour and physical activity (PA) were considered in a cross-sectional sample of Portuguese adolescents. The sample included 362 youth aged 13-16 years (165 males, 197 females) from urban and rural regions of the Portuguese midlands. CRF was assessed with the 20-m shuttle-run test. An uniaxial accelerometer was used to obtain five consecutive days of activity behaviours including time being sedentary. Pearson correlations and logistic regression analysis were used to examine relationships among variables. Rural adolescents were less active than their urban peers over the weekend. Both rural and urban youth with higher levels of CRF had a lower relative risk of being overweight/obese. The observations indicate important associations between weight status and CRF in both rural and urban Portuguese adolescents. In addition, place of residence has an important impact on weight status of this sample of adolescents.

  15. Functional modifications of macrophage activity after sublethal irradiation. [Toxoplasma gondii

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The modifications of macrophage activity following sublethal irradiation, both in vivo and in vitro, were studied using spreading and C3b-receptor-mediated ingestion assays. Nonelicited peritoneal washout cells were examined for changes in activity and selected population characteristics. The cells from irradiated mice were from a resident peritoneal population and not immigrating cells. The macrophage population showed enhanced activity early with a refractory period (24-48) when the macrophages were unresponsive to stimulation by irradiated lymphocytes. The enhanced activity was inversely dose dependent on macrophage. The lymphocytes showed a regulatory function(s) on the time post irradiation at which they were examined. Early lymphocytes exhibited the ability to enhance the activity of normal macrophages while lymphocytes removed 24 hours post irradiation could suppress the activity of already activated macrophages. The effect(s) of the various lymphocyte populations were reproduced with cell-free supernatants which was indicative of the production of lymphokines. Separation on nylon wool columns indicated that the activity resided primarily in the T-cell population of lymphocytes. In vitro irradiation indicated that stimulation of the lymphocytes is macrophage dependent. Additional work indicated that sublethally irradiated macrophages did not inhibit replication of the coccidian protozoon Toxoplasma gondii although they did show increased phagocytosis. Examination of the serum from whole body irradiated mice showed the presence of a postirradiation substance which enhanced the phagocytosis of normal macrophages. It was not present in the serum of normal mice and was not endotoxin.

  16. Stability of Early Identified Aggressive Victim Status in Elementary School and Associations with Later Mental Health Problems and Functional Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive victims – children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression – experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim subgroups have focused on preadolescents and/or adolescents. Further, whether children who exhibit early and persistent patterns of aggression and victimization continue to experience greater mental health problems and functional impairments through the transition to adolescence is not known. This study followed 344 children (180 girls) previously identified as socially adjusted, victims, aggressors, or aggressive victims at Grade 1 (Burk et al., 2008) to investigate their involvement in peer bullying through Grade 5. The children, their mothers, and teachers reported on children’s involvement in peer aggression and victimization at Grades 1, 3, and 5; and reported on internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, inattention and impulsivity, as well as academic functioning, physical health, and service use at Grades 5, 7, and 9. Most children categorized as aggressive victims in Grade 1 continued to be significantly involved in peer bullying across elementary school. Children with recurrent aggressive victim status exhibited higher levels of some mental health problems and greater school impairments across the adolescent transition when compared to other longitudinal peer status groups. This study suggests screening for aggressive victim status at Grade 1 is potentially beneficial. Further early interventions may need to be carefully tailored to prevent and/or attenuate later psychological, academic, and physical health problems. PMID:20811772

  17. The level of association between functional performance status measures and patient-reported outcomes in cancer patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Charissa F.; Roberts, Kailey E.; Saracino, Rebecca M.; Hernandez, Marisol; Basch, Ethan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The process of assessing patient symptoms and functionality using patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and functional performance status (FPS) is an essential aspect of patient-centered oncology research and care. However, PRO and FPS measures are often employed separately or inconsistently combined. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the level of association between PRO and FPS measures to determine their differential or combined utility. Methods A systematic search was conducted using five databases (1966 to February 2014) to identify studies that described an association between PRO and FPS. Studies were excluded if they were non-cancer specific, did not include adults aged 18 or older, or were review articles. Publications were selected for review by consensus among two authors, with a third author arbitrating as needed. Results A total of 18 studies met inclusion criteria. FPS was primarily assessed by clinicians using the ECOG Performance Status or Karnofsky Performance Status measures. PROs were captured using a variety of measures, with numerous domains assessed (e.g., pain, fatigue, and general health status). Concordance between PROs and FPS measures was widely variable, falling in the low to moderate range (0.09–0.72). Conclusions Despite consistency in the method of capture of PROs or FPS, domain capture varied considerably across reviewed studies. Irrespective of the method of capturing PROs or FPS, the quantified level of association between these two areas was moderate at best, providing evidence that FPS and PRO assessments offer unique information to assist clinicians in their decision-making. PMID:26314706

  18. [Characteristics of central nervous system activity in patients with complications of arterial hypertension and dependence on psychomotor status and treatment].

    PubMed

    Usenko, A G; Velichko, N P; Usenko, G A; Nishcheta, O V; Kozyreva, T Iu; Demin, A A

    2013-01-01

    Changes in certain CNS characteristics were used as indicators of the efficacy of antihypertensive therapy (AHT) both targeted (T-AHT) and empirical (E-AHT) designed to suppress activity of the sympathetic component of vegetative nervous system (VNS) and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in patients of different psychic status and AH. A group of 835 men (mean age 54.2+-1.8yr) was divided into cholerics, sanguinics, melancholics and phlegmatics with a high and low anxiety level (HA and LA). 416 healthy men served as controls. The following parameters were estimated: mobility of cortical processes, balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, blood corrisol and aldosterone levels, oxygen utilization coefficient, resistance to breath holding, severity of dyscirculatory encephalopathy and the fraction of patients with AH complications during 12 month T-AHT for the suppression of sympathetic activity in cholerics and sanguinics by beta-adrenoblockers and PAA C- ACE inhibitors in phlegmatics and melancholics and during E-AHT (ACE inhibitors in cholerics and sanguinics, BAB in phlegmatics and melancholics). The functional activity of CNS in phlegmatics and melancholics before and during AHT was lower and severity of encephalopathy and the number ofAH complications higher than in cholerics and sanguinics. . The changes wiere more pronounced in patients with HA than in those with LA. Unlike E-AHT T-AHT (anxiolytics for cholerics and sanguinics with HA, antidepressants for phlegmatics and melancholics with HA) normalized the study parameters and decreased the frequency of complications by 2-3 times.

  19. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function

    PubMed Central

    Raichle, Marcus E.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally studies of brain function have focused on task-evoked responses. By their very nature such experiments tacitly encourage a reflexive view of brain function. While such an approach has been remarkably productive at all levels of neuroscience, it ignores the alternative possibility that brain functions are mainly intrinsic and ongoing, involving information processing for interpreting, responding to and predicting environmental demands. I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information and a dynamic, intrinsic functional organization. The nature of this intrinsic activity, which exhibits a surprising level of organization with dimensions of both space and time, is revealed in the ongoing activity of the brain and its metabolism. As we look to the future, understanding the nature of this intrinsic activity will require integrating knowledge from cognitive and systems neuroscience with cellular and molecular neuroscience where ion channels, receptors, components of signal transduction and metabolic pathways are all in a constant state of flux. The reward for doing so will be a much better understanding of human behaviour in health and disease. PMID:25823869

  20. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function.

    PubMed

    Raichle, Marcus E

    2015-05-19

    Traditionally studies of brain function have focused on task-evoked responses. By their very nature such experiments tacitly encourage a reflexive view of brain function. While such an approach has been remarkably productive at all levels of neuroscience, it ignores the alternative possibility that brain functions are mainly intrinsic and ongoing, involving information processing for interpreting, responding to and predicting environmental demands. I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information and a dynamic, intrinsic functional organization. The nature of this intrinsic activity, which exhibits a surprising level of organization with dimensions of both space and time, is revealed in the ongoing activity of the brain and its metabolism. As we look to the future, understanding the nature of this intrinsic activity will require integrating knowledge from cognitive and systems neuroscience with cellular and molecular neuroscience where ion channels, receptors, components of signal transduction and metabolic pathways are all in a constant state of flux. The reward for doing so will be a much better understanding of human behaviour in health and disease.

  1. [Significance of the functional activity of antibodies in influenza immunity].

    PubMed

    Naĭkhin, A N; Artem'eva, S A; Bosak, L V; Katorgina, L G

    1995-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive test for mass examination of the functional activity of serum antibodies was developed. The test is based on a kinetic serologic reaction that reflects the time course of changes in antibody titers depending on the time of contact of the tested material with antigen. The curves of serum kinetic titration were processed on a computer by the special programme. As a result, an integral factor, an antibody functional activity index (AFAI) was calculated for each serum sample under study. The titers and AFAI were determined in more than 2,000 healthy persons, patients with influenza A and B, and those immunized with different influenza vaccines. The persons having similar antibody titers were demonstrated to greatly differ in AFAI. The functional activity of antibodies is a more precise marker of protection from influenza than the routine quantitative characteristics of antibodies, i.e. titers. The high baseline AFAI decreased the severity of influenza infection. Live influenza vaccines stimulated the production of antibodies having higher AFAI than inactivated ones. The live influenza strains (candidates for vaccine ones) significantly differed in their ability to stimulate the production of antibodies having a high functional activity.

  2. Heated Proteins are Still Active in a Functionalized Nanoporous Support

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Qi, Wen N.; Li, Xiaolin; Lei, Chenghong; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-08

    We report that even under the heated condition, the conformation and activity of a protein can be hoarded in a functionalized nanoporous support via non-covalent interaction, although the hoarded protein was not exhibiting the full protein activity, the protein released subsequently still maintained its native conformation and activity. Glucose oxidase (GOX) was spontaneously and largely entrapped in aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica (NH2-FMS) at 20 oC via a dominant electrostatic interaction. Although FMS-GOX displayed 45% activity of the free enzyme in solution, the GOX released from FMS exhibited its 100% activity prior to the entrapment. Surprisingly, the released GOX from FMS still maintained 89% of its initial activity prior to the entrapment after FMS-GOX was incubated at 60 oC for 1 h prior to release, while the free GOX in solution lost nearly all activity under the same incubation. Intrinsic fluorescence emission of GOX and native electrophoresis demonstrated that the heating resulted in significant conformational changes and oligomeric structures of the free GOX, but FMS efficiently maintained the thermal stability of GOX therein and resisted the thermal denaturation and oligomeric aggregation.

  3. Functional constituents of the active site of human neutrophil collagenase.

    PubMed

    Mookhtiar, K A; Wang, F; Van Wart, H E

    1986-05-01

    A series of chemical modification reactions has been carried out to identify functional constituents of the active site of human neutrophil collagenase. The enzyme is reversibly inhibited by the transition metal chelating agent 1,10-phenanthroline, and inhibition is fully reversed by zinc. Removal of weakly bound metal ions by gel filtration inactivates collagenase, and activity is fully restored on immediate readdition of calcium. The enzyme is unaffected by reagents that modify serine, cysteine, and arginine residues. However, reaction with the carboxyl reagents cyclohexylmorpholinocarbodiimide and Woodward's Reagent K lowers the activity of the enzyme substantially. Acetylimidazole inactivates the enzyme, but activity is completely restored on addition of hydroxylamine. The enzyme is also inactivated by tetranitromethane, indicating that it contains an essential tyrosine residue. Acylation of collagenase with diethyl pyrocarbonate, diketene, acetic anhydride, or trinitrobenzenesulfonate inactivates the enzyme, and activity is not restored on addition of hydroxylamine, indicating the presence of an essential lysine residue.

  4. [Effect of physical activity on age involution of functional abilities of humans].

    PubMed

    Miskotnykh, V V; Khodasevich, L S; Mel'tser, V L

    2012-01-01

    A survey of 433 healthy, mature- and middle-aged men with different modes of habitual daily physical activity was made. Depending on the modes of motor activity all the surveyed were divided into 4 groups, each of which has been ranked by the ten-year age interval. The assessment of functional status using automated hardware-software complex "AMSAT-Covert" to determine the level of maximum oxygen consumption, lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant defense system was performed. Results of the study enabled the authors to formulate a provision under which to extend the period of active, creative longevity and increased life expectancy we need to review the approaches to the regulation of physical activity by rationally constructed motor mode as part of a comprehensive system of health protection. Exercises, not increasing the requirements to the functionality involved and not causing physiological changes should be included in the recommended motor mode, which are incomparably less than officially accepted in modern practice fitness training.

  5. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activation improves endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Costa-Fraga, Fabiana P; Murça, Tatiane M; Moraes, Patrícia L; Martins Lima, Augusto; Lautner, Roberto Q; Castro, Carlos H; Soares, Célia Maria A; Borges, Clayton L; Nadu, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Marilene L; Shenoy, Vinayak; Katovich, Michael J; Santos, Robson A S; Raizada, Mohan K; Ferreira, Anderson J

    2013-06-01

    Diminished release and function of endothelium-derived nitric oxide coupled with increases in reactive oxygen species production is critical in endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidences have shown that activation of the protective axis of the renin-angiotensin system composed by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, angiotensin-(1-7), and Mas receptor promotes many beneficial vascular effects. This has led us to postulate that activation of intrinsic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 would improve endothelial function by decreasing the reactive oxygen species production. In the present study, we tested 1-[[2-(dimetilamino)etil]amino]-4-(hidroximetil)-7-[[(4-metilfenil)sulfonil]oxi]-9H-xantona-9 (XNT), a small molecule angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activator, on endothelial function to validate this hypothesis. In vivo treatment with XNT (1 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks) improved the endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats and of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats when evaluated through the vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine/sodium nitroprusside. Acute in vitro incubation with XNT caused endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation in aortic rings of rats. This vasorelaxation effect was attenuated by the Mas antagonist D-pro7-Ang-(1-7), and it was reduced in Mas knockout mice. These effects were associated with reduction in reactive oxygen species production. In addition, Ang II-induced reactive oxygen species production in human aortic endothelial cells was attenuated by preincubation with XNT. These results showed that chronic XNT administration improves the endothelial function of hypertensive and diabetic rat vessels by attenuation of the oxidative stress. Moreover, XNT elicits an endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation response, which was mediated by Mas. Thus, this study indicated that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activation promotes beneficial effects on the endothelial function and it is a potential target for treating cardiovascular disease.

  6. Children at familial risk for obesity: an examination of dietary intake, physical activity and weight status.

    PubMed

    Eck, L H; Klesges, R C; Hanson, C L; Slawson, D

    1992-02-01

    A large cohort of children was divided into two groups based on their parents' weight status. The high risk group had one or two overweight parent(s) (n = 92, 4.4 +/- 0.5 years), while the low risk group had no parent overweight (n = 95, 4.5 +/- 0.5 years). Weight of the two groups was similar at the start of the study but the high risk group gained marginally more weight over a one year period (P = 0.05). Although total energy intake was similar, the high risk group was consuming a larger percentage of energy from fat (P = 0.0004) and a smaller percentage from carbohydrate (P = 0.0002). Observed physical activity as similar for most levels but marginally higher for the stationary level and marginally lower in total activity in the high risk group. These results suggest a pattern that may lead to increased weight gain in a high risk group as they grow older.

  7. Relationships Between Changes in Patient-Reported Health Status and Functional Capacity in Outpatients With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Kathryn E.; Lin, Li; Moe, Gordon W.; Howlett, Jonathan G.; Fine, Lawrence J.; Spertus, John A.; McConnell, Timothy R.; Piña, Ileana L.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Heart failure trials use a variety of measures of functional capacity and quality of life. Lack of formal assessments of the relationships between changes in multiple aspects of patient-reported health status and measures of functional capacity over time limit the ability to compare results across studies. Methods Using data from HF-ACTION (N = 2331), we used Pearson correlation coefficients and predicted change scores from linear mixed-effects modeling to demonstrate associations between changes in patient-reported health status measured with the EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS) and the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) and changes in peak VO2 and 6-minute walk distance at 3 and 12 months. We examined a 5-point change in KCCQ within individuals to provide a framework for interpreting changes in these measures. Results After adjustment for baseline characteristics, correlations between changes in the VAS and changes in peak VO2 and 6-minute walk distance ranged from 0.13 to 0.28, and correlations between changes in the KCCQ overall and subscale scores and changes in peak VO2 and 6-minute walk distance ranged from 0.18 to 0.34. A 5-point change in KCCQ was associated with a 2.50 ml/kg/min change in peak VO2 (95% confidence interval, 2.21–2.86) and a 112-meter change in 6-minute walk distance (95% confidence interval, 96–134). Conclusions Changes in patient-reported health status are not highly correlated with changes in functional capacity. Our findings generally support the current practice of considering a 5-point change in the KCCQ within individuals to be clinically meaningful. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00047437 PMID:22172441

  8. Risks of Decreased Renal Function and Increased Albuminuria for Glycemic Status and Metabolic Syndrome Components: Taichung Community Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lai, Ming-May; Lee, Yih-Dar; Yang, Chuan-Wei; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to assess the association of glycemic status and decreased renal function as determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria in an adult Taiwanese metropolitan population. Methods. We did a cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of 2,350 Taiwanese adults aged 40 years and over living in a metropolitan city in Taiwan from 2004 to 2005. Glycemic status was classified as normal glycemia, hyperglycemia, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Renal function was assessed with eGFR using modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation for Chinese. Albuminuria was determined by the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio. Decreased renal function was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and albuminuria as the albumin-creatinine ratio >30 mg g−1 creatinine. Results. 593 (25.23%) had hyperglycemia and 287 (12.21%) had T2D. As glycemia level increased, the prevalence of albuminuria and decreased eGFR increased. After adjustment, T2D was associated with an OR of 2.93 (95% CI: 2.11–4.07) for albuminuria, and an OR of 2.05 (95% CI: 1.18–3.58) for decreased eGFR. Conclusions. In a representative sample from a metropolitan city in Taiwan, T2D was associated with albuminuria and decreased eGFR. PMID:24900991

  9. Motivational activation: a unifying hypothesis of orexin/hypocretin function.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Stephen V; Moorman, David E; Smith, Rachel J; James, Morgan H; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Orexins (hypocretins) are two peptides (orexin A and B) produced from the pre-pro-orexin precursor and expressed in a limited region of dorsolateral hypothalamus. Orexins were originally thought to specifically mediate feeding and promote wakefulness, but it is now clear that they participate in a wide range of behavioral and physiological processes under select circumstances. Orexins primarily mediate behavior under situations of high motivational relevance, such as during physiological need states, exposure to threats or reward opportunities. We hypothesize that many behavioral functions of orexins (including regulation of sleep/wake cycling) reflect a fundamentally integrated function for orexins in translating motivational activation into organized suites of psychological and physiological processes supporting adaptive behaviors. We also discuss how numerous forms of neural heterogeneity modulate this function, allowing orexin neurons to organize diverse, adaptive responses in a variety of motivationally relevant situations. Thus, the involvement of orexins in diverse behaviors may reflect a common underlying function for this peptide system.

  10. Motivational activation: a unifying hypothesis of orexin/hypocretin function

    PubMed Central

    Mahler, Stephen V; Moorman, David E; Smith, Rachel J; James, Morgan H; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Orexins (hypocretins) are two peptides (orexin A and B) produced from the pre-pro-orexin precursor and expressed in a limited region of dorsolateral hypothalamus. Orexins were originally thought to specifically mediate feeding and promote wakefulness, but it is now clear that they participate in a wide range of behavioral and physiological processes under select circumstances. Orexins primarily mediate behavior under situations of high motivational relevance, such as during physiological need states, exposure to threats or reward opportunities. We hypothesize that many behavioral functions of orexins (including regulation of sleep/wake cycling) reflect a fundamentally integrated function for orexins in translating motivational activation into organized suites of psychological and physiological processes supporting adaptive behaviors. We also discuss how numerous forms of neural heterogeneity modulate this function, allowing orexin neurons to organize diverse, adaptive responses in a variety of motivationally relevant situations. Thus, the involvement of orexins in diverse behaviors may reflect a common underlying function for this peptide system. PMID:25254979

  11. Improvements in Iron Status and Cognitive Function in Young Women Consuming Beef or Non-Beef Lunches

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n = 43; age 21.1 ± 0.4 years) were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g), 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p < 0.0001), with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p < 0.0001). Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p < 0.05), and ferritin responders (n = 17) vs. non-responders (n = 26) showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p < 0.05). Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women. PMID:24379009

  12. Improvements in iron status and cognitive function in young women consuming beef or non-beef lunches.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n=43; age 21.1±0.4 years) were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g), 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p<0.0001), with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p<0.0001). Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p<0.05), and ferritin responders (n=17) vs. non-responders (n=26) showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p<0.05). Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women. PMID:24379009

  13. Self-assembly of active colloidal molecules with dynamic function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Rodrigo; Golestanian, Ramin

    Catalytically active colloids maintain non-equilibrium conditions in which they produce and deplete chemicals at their surface. While individual colloids that are symmetrically coated do not exhibit dynamical activity, the concentration fields resulting from their chemical activity decay as 1/r and produce gradients that attract or repel other colloids depending on their surface chemistry and ambient variables. This results in a non-equilibrium analogue of ionic systems, but with the remarkable novel feature of action-reaction symmetry breaking. In dilute conditions these active colloids join up to form molecules via generalized ionic bonds. Colloids are found to join up to form self-assembled molecules that could be inert or have spontaneous activity in the form of net translational velocity and spin depending on their symmetry properties and their constituents. As the interactions do not satisfy detailed-balance, it is possible to achieve structures with time dependent functionality. We study a molecule that adopts spontaneous oscillations and another that exhibits a run-and-tumble dynamics similar to bacteria. Our study shows that catalytically active colloids could be used for designing self-assembled structures that posses dynamical functionalities.

  14. Immunomodulation of phloretin by impairing dendritic cell activation and function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Chen; Chu, Ching-Liang; Ng, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Yen; Chen, Der-Yuan; Pan, I-Hong; Huang, Kao-Jean

    2014-05-01

    Dietary compounds in fruits and vegetables have been shown to exert many biological activities. In addition to antioxidant effects, a number of flavonoids are able to modulate inflammatory responses. Here, we demonstrated that phloretin (PT), a natural dihydrochalcone found in many fruits, suppressed the activation and function of mouse dendritic cells (DCs). Phloretin disturbed the multiple intracellular signaling pathways in DCs induced by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), including ROS, MAPKs (ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK), and NF-κB, and thereby reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Phloretin also effectively suppressed the activation of DCs treated with different dosages of LPS or various TLR agonists. The LPS-induced DC maturation was attenuated by phloretin because the expression levels of the MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules were down-regulated, which then inhibited the LPS-stimulating DCs and the subsequent naïve T cell activation in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. Moreover, in vivo administration of phloretin suppressed the phenotypic maturation of the LPS-challenged splenic DCs and decreased the IFN-γ production from the activated CD4 T cells. Thus, we suggest that phloretin may potentially be an immunomodulator by impairing the activation and function of DCs and phloretin-contained fruits may be helpful in the improvement of inflammation and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24651121

  15. Chemical Signaling and Functional Activation in Colloidosome-Based Protocells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shiyong; Li, Mei; Dong, Faqin; Wang, Shengjie; Tian, Liangfei; Mann, Stephen

    2016-04-13

    An aqueous-based microcompartmentalized model involving the integration of partially hydrophobic Fe(III)-rich montmorillonite (FeM) clay particles as structural and catalytic building blocks for colloidosome membrane assembly, self-directed membrane remodeling, and signal-induced protocell communication is described. The clay colloidosomes exhibit size- and charge-selective permeability, and show dual catalytic functions involving spatially confined enzyme-mediated dephosphorylation and peroxidase-like membrane activity. The latter is used for the colloidosome-mediated synthesis and assembly of a temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAM)/clay-integrated hybrid membrane. In situ PNIPAM elaboration of the membrane is coupled to a glucose oxidase (GOx)-mediated signaling pathway to establish a primitive model of chemical communication and functional activation within a synthetic "protocell community" comprising a mixed population of GOx-containing silica colloidosomes and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-containing FeM-clay colloidosomes. Triggering the enzyme reaction in the silica colloidosomes gives a hydrogen peroxide signal that induces polymer wall formation in a coexistent population of the FeM-clay colloidosomes, which in turn generates self-regulated membrane-gated ALP-activity within the clay microcompartments. The emergence of new functionalities in inorganic colloidosomes via chemical communication between different protocell populations provides a first step toward the realization of interacting communities of synthetic functional microcompartments. PMID:26923794

  16. Function and biotechnology of extremophilic enzymes in low water activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Enzymes from extremophilic microorganisms usually catalyze chemical reactions in non-standard conditions. Such conditions promote aggregation, precipitation, and denaturation, reducing the activity of most non-extremophilic enzymes, frequently due to the absence of sufficient hydration. Some extremophilic enzymes maintain a tight hydration shell and remain active in solution even when liquid water is limiting, e.g. in the presence of high ionic concentrations, or at cold temperature when water is close to the freezing point. Extremophilic enzymes are able to compete for hydration via alterations especially to their surface through greater surface charges and increased molecular motion. These properties have enabled some extremophilic enzymes to function in the presence of non-aqueous organic solvents, with potential for design of useful catalysts. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of extremophilic enzymes functioning in high salinity and cold temperatures, focusing on their strategy for function at low water activity. We discuss how the understanding of extremophilic enzyme function is leading to the design of a new generation of enzyme catalysts and their applications to biotechnology. PMID:22480329

  17. Function and biotechnology of extremophilic enzymes in low water activity.

    PubMed

    Karan, Ram; Capes, Melinda D; Dassarma, Shiladitya

    2012-02-02

    Enzymes from extremophilic microorganisms usually catalyze chemical reactions in non-standard conditions. Such conditions promote aggregation, precipitation, and denaturation, reducing the activity of most non-extremophilic enzymes, frequently due to the absence of sufficient hydration. Some extremophilic enzymes maintain a tight hydration shell and remain active in solution even when liquid water is limiting, e.g. in the presence of high ionic concentrations, or at cold temperature when water is close to the freezing point. Extremophilic enzymes are able to compete for hydration via alterations especially to their surface through greater surface charges and increased molecular motion. These properties have enabled some extremophilic enzymes to function in the presence of non-aqueous organic solvents, with potential for design of useful catalysts. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of extremophilic enzymes functioning in high salinity and cold temperatures, focusing on their strategy for function at low water activity. We discuss how the understanding of extremophilic enzyme function is leading to the design of a new generation of enzyme catalysts and their applications to biotechnology.

  18. Acetylation of pregnane X receptor protein determines selective function independent of ligand activation

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Arunima; Pasquel, Danielle; Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar; Mani, Sridhar

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a major regulatory protein, is modified by acetylation. {yields} PXR undergoes dynamic deacetylation upon ligand-mediated activation. {yields} SIRT1 partially mediates PXR deacetylation. {yields} PXR deacetylation per se induces lipogenesis mimicking ligand-mediated activation. -- Abstract: Pregnane X receptor (PXR), like other members of its class of nuclear receptors, undergoes post-translational modification [PTM] (e.g., phosphorylation). However, it is unknown if acetylation (a major and common form of protein PTM) is observed on PXR and, if it is, whether it is of functional consequence. PXR has recently emerged as an important regulatory protein with multiple ligand-dependent functions. In the present work we show that PXR is indeed acetylated in vivo. SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1), a NAD-dependent class III histone deacetylase and a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, partially mediates deacetylation of PXR. Most importantly, the acetylation status of PXR regulates its selective function independent of ligand activation.

  19. XIAP reverses various functional activities of FRNK in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Sunyoung; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Chi, Sung-Gil; Park, Heonyong

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FRNK domain is recruited into focal adhesion (FA), controlling endothelial cell adhesion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XIAP binds the FRNK domain of FAK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XIAP inhibits recruitment of FRNK into Fas and FRNK-promoted cell adhesion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XIAP plays a key role in vascular functions of FRNK or FRNK domain-mediated vascular functions of FAK. -- Abstract: In endothelial cells, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, and shear-stimulated activation of MAPK. We recently found that FAK is recruited into focal adhesion (FA) sites through interactions with XIAP (X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) and activated by Src kinase in response to shear stress. In this study, we examined which domain(s) of FAK is(are) important for various vascular functions such as FA recruiting, XIAP-binding and shear stress-stimulated ERK activation. Through a series of experiments, we determined that the FRNK domain is recruited into FA sites and promotes endothelial cell adhesion. Interestingly, XIAP knockdown was shown to reduce FA recruitment of FRNK and the cell adhesive effect of FRNK. In addition, we found that XIAP interacts with FRNK, suggesting cross-talk between XIAP and FRNK. We also demonstrated that FRNK inhibits endothelial cell migration and shear-stimulated ERK activation. These inhibitory effects of FRNK were reversed by XIAP knockdown. Taken together, we can conclude that XIAP plays a key role in vascular functions of FRNK or FRNK domain-mediated vascular functions of FAK.

  20. EGFR regulates macrophage activation and function in bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Hardbower, Dana M; Singh, Kshipra; Asim, Mohammad; Verriere, Thomas G; Olivares-Villagómez, Danyvid; Barry, Daniel P; Allaman, Margaret M; Washington, M Kay; Peek, Richard M; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Wilson, Keith T

    2016-09-01

    EGFR signaling regulates macrophage function, but its role in bacterial infection has not been investigated. Here, we assessed the role of macrophage EGFR signaling during infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that causes persistent inflammation and gastric cancer. EGFR was phosphorylated in murine and human macrophages during H. pylori infection. In human gastric tissues, elevated levels of phosphorylated EGFR were observed throughout the histologic cascade from gastritis to carcinoma. Deleting Egfr in myeloid cells attenuated gastritis and increased H. pylori burden in infected mice. EGFR deficiency also led to a global defect in macrophage activation that was associated with decreased cytokine, chemokine, and NO production. We observed similar alterations in macrophage activation and disease phenotype in the Citrobacter rodentium model of murine infectious colitis. Mechanistically, EGFR signaling activated NF-κB and MAPK1/3 pathways to induce cytokine production and macrophage activation. Although deletion of Egfr had no effect on DC function, EGFR-deficient macrophages displayed impaired Th1 and Th17 adaptive immune responses to H. pylori, which contributed to decreased chronic inflammation in infected mice. Together, these results indicate that EGFR signaling is central to macrophage function in response to enteric bacterial pathogens and is a potential therapeutic target for infection-induced inflammation and associated carcinogenesis.

  1. EGFR regulates macrophage activation and function in bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Hardbower, Dana M; Singh, Kshipra; Asim, Mohammad; Verriere, Thomas G; Olivares-Villagómez, Danyvid; Barry, Daniel P; Allaman, Margaret M; Washington, M Kay; Peek, Richard M; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Wilson, Keith T

    2016-09-01

    EGFR signaling regulates macrophage function, but its role in bacterial infection has not been investigated. Here, we assessed the role of macrophage EGFR signaling during infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that causes persistent inflammation and gastric cancer. EGFR was phosphorylated in murine and human macrophages during H. pylori infection. In human gastric tissues, elevated levels of phosphorylated EGFR were observed throughout the histologic cascade from gastritis to carcinoma. Deleting Egfr in myeloid cells attenuated gastritis and increased H. pylori burden in infected mice. EGFR deficiency also led to a global defect in macrophage activation that was associated with decreased cytokine, chemokine, and NO production. We observed similar alterations in macrophage activation and disease phenotype in the Citrobacter rodentium model of murine infectious colitis. Mechanistically, EGFR signaling activated NF-κB and MAPK1/3 pathways to induce cytokine production and macrophage activation. Although deletion of Egfr had no effect on DC function, EGFR-deficient macrophages displayed impaired Th1 and Th17 adaptive immune responses to H. pylori, which contributed to decreased chronic inflammation in infected mice. Together, these results indicate that EGFR signaling is central to macrophage function in response to enteric bacterial pathogens and is a potential therapeutic target for infection-induced inflammation and associated carcinogenesis. PMID:27482886

  2. Effect of Elective Bentall Procedure on Left Ventricular Systolic Function and Functional Status: Long-Term Follow-Up in 90 patients

    PubMed Central

    Otasevic, Petar; Micovic, Slobodan; Tomic, Slobodan; Milojevic, Predrag; Boskovic, Srdjan; Djukanovic, Bosko

    2016-01-01

    Because there are so few data on the long-term effects on left ventricular systolic function and functional status in patients who electively undergo Bentall procedures, we established a retrospective study group of 90 consecutive patients. This group consisted of 71 male and 19 female patients (mean age, 54 ± 10 yr) who had undergone the Bentall procedure to correct aortic valve disease and aneurysm of the ascending aorta, from 1997 through 2003 in a single tertiary-care center. We monitored these patients for a mean period of 117 ± 41 months for death, left ventricular ejection fraction and volume indices, and functional capacity as determined by New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. There were no operative deaths. The survival rate was 73.3% during follow-up. There were 10 cardiac and 13 noncardiac deaths, and 1 death of unknown cause. Echocardiography was performed before the index procedure and again after 117 ± 41 months. In surviving patients, statistically significant improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction, in comparison with preoperative values (0.49 ± 0.11 vs 0.41 ± 0.11; P <0.0001), was noted at follow-up. Similarly, we observed statistically significant reductions in left ventricular end-systolic (39.24 ± 28.7 vs 48.77 ± 28.62 mL/m2) and end-diastolic volumes (54.63 ± 6.97 vs 59.17 ± 8.92 mL/m2; both P <0.0001). Most patients (53/66 [80.3%]) progressed from a higher to a lower NYHA class during the follow-up period. The Bentall procedure significantly improved long-term left ventricular systolic function and functional status in surviving patients who underwent operation on a nonemergency basis. PMID:27127424

  3. The relationship between vitamin D status, physical activity and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kavadar, Gülis; Demircioğlu, Demet Tekdöş; Özgönenel, Levent; Emre, Tuluhan Yunus

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence has been increasing worldwide along with the rise of obesity and sedantery lifestyle. Decreased physical activity (PA) and obesity have also been associated with the low vitamin D levels. We aimed to determine the association between PA, vitamin D status and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects. A total of 294 (186 female, 108 male) overweight or obese subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), insulin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c levels were measured in blood samples. Body mass index (BMI), HOMA-index and total score of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form (IPAQ)were calculated. Insulin resistant subjects were compared with the non-resistant group. The mean age of the participants was 45±12.25 and 41.39±10.32; 25(OH)D levels were 8.91 ± 4.30 and 17.62 ± 10.47 ng/dL; BMIs were 31.29 ± 4.48 and 28.2 ± 3.16 kg/m², IPAQ total scores were 548.71±382.81 and 998±486.21 in the insulin resistant and nonresistant subjects, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in terms of 25(OH)D, FPG, insulin levels, IPAQ total score and BMI between the two groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001). Significantly low 25(OH)D levels, high BMI and low PA in insulin resistant subjects confirm the importance of active lifestyle and the maintenance of normal vitamin D levels in overweight and obese subjects in prevention of T2DM. PMID:26042515

  4. [Status of lung function in females of a North Rhine-Westphalia rural and urban-industrial area].

    PubMed

    Islam, M S; Dolgner, R; Schlipköter, H W

    1990-02-01

    A comparative investigation of the pulmonary function status was carried out in women, aged between 52 and 56 years, from a rural and a municipal industrial area in North Rhine Westphalia. A questionnaire that the subjects had to complete themselves, provided us with information on personal medical history, smoking habits, the nature of domestic heating, and social status (education). The function tests were performed in a mobile pulmonary function laboratory (Jäger, Inc.). The airway resistance (Raw) and the intrathoracic gas volume (ITGV) were measured with the aid of a constant-volume body plethysmograph; a pneumotachographic system was employed to measure the ventilatory pulmonary function. All lung volumes were recalculated in terms of BTPS, and expressed as a percentage of the predicted values. Women from Leverkusen complained somewhat more frequently of hay fever, allergies of all kinds, and non-respiratory disturbances, than did women from Borken. In contrast, respiratory symptoms were indicated equally frequently in both areas. In the case of the Leverkusen group, a mean Raw of 0.323 +/- 0.183 kPa.1-1.s, was obtained, and in the case of the Borken group, a mean Raw of 0.258 +/- 0.182 kPa.1-1.s; this difference is statistically significant (p less than 0.05). On average, the women from Leverkusen also had a significantly higher SRaw (p less than 0.005) and ITGV (p less than 0.05) than did the women from Borken. These results argue in favour of a negative influence of air pollution on the pulmonary function.

  5. Active Acetylcholinesterase Immobilization on a Functionalized Silicon Surface.

    PubMed

    Khaldi, K; Sam, S; Gouget-Laemmel, A C; Henry de Villeneuve, C; Moraillon, A; Ozanam, F; Yang, J; Kermad, A; Ghellai, N; Gabouze, N

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we studied the attachment of active acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme on a silicon substrate as a potential biomarker for the detection of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. A multistep functionalization strategy was developed on a crystalline silicon surface: a carboxylic acid-terminated monolayer was grafted onto a hydrogen-terminated silicon surface by photochemical hydrosilylation, and then AChE was covalently attached through amide bonds using an activation EDC/NHS process. Each step of the modification was quantitatively characterized by ex-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated-total-reflection geometry (ATR-FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The kinetics of enzyme immobilization was investigated using in situ real-time infrared spectroscopy. The enzymatic activity of immobilized acetylcholinesterase enzymes was determined with a colorimetric test. The surface concentration of active AChE was estimated to be Γ = 1.72 × 10(10) cm(-2).

  6. Pressure is not a state function for generic active fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solon, A. P.; Fily, Y.; Baskaran, A.; Cates, M. E.; Kafri, Y.; Kardar, M.; Tailleur, J.

    2015-08-01

    Pressure is the mechanical force per unit area that a confined system exerts on its container. In thermal equilibrium, it depends only on bulk properties--such as density and temperature--through an equation of state. Here we show that in a wide class of active systems the pressure depends on the precise interactions between the active particles and the confining walls. In general, therefore, active fluids have no equation of state. Their mechanical pressure exhibits anomalous properties that defy the familiar thermodynamic reasoning that holds in equilibrium. The pressure remains a function of state, however, in some specific and well-studied active models that tacitly restrict the character of the particle-wall and/or particle-particle interactions.

  7. Activity limitations and participation restrictions in women with hand osteoarthritis: patients' descriptions and associations between dimensions of functioning

    PubMed Central

    Kjeken, I; Dagfinrud, H; Slatkowsky-Christ..., B; Mowinckel, P; Uhlig, T; Kvien, T; Finset, A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe the functional consequences of hand osteoarthritis, and analyse associations between personal factors, hand impairment, activity limitations, and participation restrictions within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Methods: 87 women with hand osteoarthritis completed a clinical examination including recording of sociodemographic data, measures of hand impairment, and completion of self reported health status measures. The function subscale of the AUSCAN Osteoarthritis Hand Index was used as a measure of hand related activity limitations, while the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to describe and measure activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual. The study variables were categorised using the dimensions in the ICF framework and analysed using bivariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Results: The patients described problems in many domains of activity and participation. The most frequently described hand related problems were activities requiring considerable grip strength combined with twisting of the hands. On the impairment level, the patients had reduced grip force and joint mobility in the hands, and resisted motion was painful. Regression analyses showed that hand related activity limitations were associated with measures of hand impairment, while activity and participation (as measured by the COPM) were more strongly associated with personal factors than with hand impairment. Conclusions: Hand osteoarthritis has important functional consequences in terms of pain, reduced hand mobility and grip force, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Rehabilitation programmes should therefore be multidisciplinary and multidimensional, focusing on hand function, occupational performance, and coping strategies. PMID:15829571

  8. Low Income, Mexican Mothers' Perception of Their Infants' Weight Status and Beliefs about Their Foods and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Mandujano-Trujillo, Zally; Pichardo-Osuna, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is being considered a global health epidemic, and one of the countries mostly affected by it is Mexico. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of low-income mothers with regard to their child's weight status and physical activity and their beliefs about healthy and high-density foods. A total of 813 mothers attending…

  9. Efficacy of an Integrated School Curriculum Pedometer Intervention to Enhance Physical Activity and to Reduce Weight Status in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael; Birch, Samantha; Woodfield, Lorayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an integrated school curriculum pedometer intervention on children's physical activity and weight status. Following ethics approval and informed consent, 59 children (22 boys, 27 girls, aged 10-11) from a primary school in central England completed a four-week integrated physical activity…

  10. Summary and Status of DNAPL Characterization and Remediation Activities in the A/M-Area, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K.M.

    2001-03-02

    This report summarizes historical A/M-Area DNAPL activities and data, and presents the overall A/M-Area strategy flowchart, the status work for each DNAPL source zone (or potential source zone), and future A/M-Area DNAPL plans.

  11. Status of Participation in Physical Activity among International Students Attending Colleges and Universities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoh, Taeho; Yang, Heewon; Gordon, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the status of participation in physical activity among international students attending colleges and universities in the United States. Participants for the study were 521 international students from five universities in the Midwestern part of the United States. Descriptive statistics revealed that international college…

  12. Active Commuting to School, Weight Status, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children from Rural Areas: The Cuenca Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez-Zornoza, Myriam; Sánchez-López, Mairena; García-Hermoso, Antonio; González-García, Alberto; Chillón, Palma; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine (a) whether distance from home to school is a determinant of active commuting to school (ACS), (b) the relationship between distance from home to heavily used facilities (school, green spaces, and sports facilities) and the weight status and cardiometabolic risk categories, and (c) whether ACS has a…

  13. Review: Production and functionality of active peptides from milk.

    PubMed

    Muro Urista, C; Álvarez Fernández, R; Riera Rodriguez, F; Arana Cuenca, A; Téllez Jurado, A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, research on the production of active peptides obtained from milk and their potential functionality has grown, to a great extent. Bioactive peptides have been defined as specific protein fragments that have a positive impact on body functions or conditions, and they may ultimately have an influence on health. Individual proteins of casein or milk-derived products such as cheese and yogurt have been used as a protein source to study the isolation and activity of peptides with several applications. Currently, the milk whey waste obtained in the production of cheese also represents a protein source from which active peptides could be isolated with potential industrial applications. The active properties of milk peptides and the results found with regard to their physiological effects have led to the classification of peptides as belonging to the group of ingredients of protein nature, appropriate for use in functional foods or pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, the main peptides obtained from milk protein and the past research studies about its production and biological activities will be explained. Second, an analysis will be made on the methods to determinate the biological activities, the separation of bioactive peptides and its structure identification. All of these form the base required to obtain synthetic peptides. Finally, we explain the experimental animal and human trials done in the past years. Nevertheless, more research is required on the design and implementation of equipment for the industrial production and separation of peptides. In addition, different authors suggest that more emphasis should therefore be given to preclinical studies, proving that results are consistent and that effects are demonstrated repeatedly by several research human groups.

  14. Muscle metabolic function and free-living physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Sirikul, Bovorn; Newcomer, Bradley R

    2006-11-01

    We have previously shown that muscle metabolic function measured during exercise is related to exercise performance and subsequent 1-yr weight gain. Because it is well established that physical activity is important in weight maintenance, we examined muscle function relationships with free-living energy expenditure and physical activity. Subjects were 71 premenopausal black and white women. Muscle metabolism was evaluated by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy during 90-s isometric plantar flexion contractions (45% maximum). Free-living energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water, activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated as 0.9 x TEE - sleeping energy expenditure from room calorimetry, and free-living physical activity (ARTE) was calculated by dividing AEE by energy cost of standard physical activities. At the end of exercise, anaerobic glycolytic rate (ANGLY) and muscle concentration of phosphomonoesters (PME) were negatively related to TEE, AEE, and ARTE (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that both PME (partial r = -0.29, <0.02) and ANGLY (partial r = -0.24, P < 0.04) were independently related to ARTE. PME, primarily glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, was significantly related to ratings of perceived exertion (r = 0.21, P < or = 0.05) during a maximal treadmill test. PME was not related to ARTE after inclusion of RPE in the multiple regression model, suggesting that PME may be obtaining its relationship with ARTE through an increased perception of effort during physical activity. In conclusion, physically inactive individuals tend to be more dependent on anaerobic glycolysis during exercise while relying on a glycolytic pathway that may not be functioning optimally. PMID:16825516

  15. Muscle metabolic function and free-living physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Sirikul, Bovorn; Newcomer, Bradley R

    2006-11-01

    We have previously shown that muscle metabolic function measured during exercise is related to exercise performance and subsequent 1-yr weight gain. Because it is well established that physical activity is important in weight maintenance, we examined muscle function relationships with free-living energy expenditure and physical activity. Subjects were 71 premenopausal black and white women. Muscle metabolism was evaluated by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy during 90-s isometric plantar flexion contractions (45% maximum). Free-living energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water, activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated as 0.9 x TEE - sleeping energy expenditure from room calorimetry, and free-living physical activity (ARTE) was calculated by dividing AEE by energy cost of standard physical activities. At the end of exercise, anaerobic glycolytic rate (ANGLY) and muscle concentration of phosphomonoesters (PME) were negatively related to TEE, AEE, and ARTE (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that both PME (partial r = -0.29, <0.02) and ANGLY (partial r = -0.24, P < 0.04) were independently related to ARTE. PME, primarily glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, was significantly related to ratings of perceived exertion (r = 0.21, P < or = 0.05) during a maximal treadmill test. PME was not related to ARTE after inclusion of RPE in the multiple regression model, suggesting that PME may be obtaining its relationship with ARTE through an increased perception of effort during physical activity. In conclusion, physically inactive individuals tend to be more dependent on anaerobic glycolysis during exercise while relying on a glycolytic pathway that may not be functioning optimally.

  16. 20 CFR 641.864 - What functions and activities constitute programmatic activity costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... program, except that no amounts provided under the grant may be used to pay the cost of pension benefits... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What functions and activities constitute programmatic activity costs? 641.864 Section 641.864 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...

  17. 20 CFR 641.864 - What functions and activities constitute programmatic activity costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... program, except that no amounts provided under the grant may be used to pay the cost of pension benefits... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What functions and activities constitute programmatic activity costs? 641.864 Section 641.864 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...

  18. FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM: ACTIVATION OF SHAPE & FUNCTION FEATURES DURING OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Eiling; Huffstetler, Stacy; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of semantic memory characterize knowledge of a given object as comprising a set of semantic features. But how does conceptual activation of these features proceed during object identification? We present the results of a pair of experiments that demonstrate that object recognition is a dynamically unfolding process in which function follows form. We used eye movements to explore whether activating one object’s concept leads to the activation of others that share perceptual (shape) or abstract (function) features. Participants viewed four-picture displays and clicked on the picture corresponding to a heard word. In critical trials, the conceptual representation of one of the objects in the display was similar in shape or function (i.e., its purpose) to the heard word. Importantly, this similarity was not apparent in the visual depictions (e.g., for the target “frisbee,” the shape-related object was a triangular slice of pizza – a shape that a frisbee cannot take); preferential fixations on the related object were therefore attributable to overlap of the conceptual representations on the relevant features. We observed relatedness effects for both shape and function, but shape effects occurred earlier than function effects. We discuss the implications of these findings for current accounts of the representation of semantic memory. PMID:21417543

  19. Polyhexamethylene biguanide functionalized cationic silver nanoparticles for enhanced antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sumaira; Akhtar, Nasrin; Ghauri, Muhammad Afzal; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Khalid, Zafar M.; Hussain, Irshad

    2012-05-01

    Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), a broad spectrum disinfectant against many pathogens, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles. The particles formed were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and TEM to measure their morphology and surface chemistry. PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles were then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against a gram-negative bacterial strain, Escherichia coli. These silver nanoparticles were found to have about 100 times higher bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, compared to the previous reports, due to the combined antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles and PHMB. In addition to other applications, PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles would be extremely useful in textile industry due to the strong interaction of PHMB with cellulose fabrics.

  20. Functions of AMP-activated protein kinase in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Daval, Marie; Foufelle, Fabienne; Ferré, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is involved in cellular energy homeostasis. Its functions have been extensively studied in muscles and liver. AMPK stimulates pathways which increase energy production (glucose transport, fatty acid oxidation) and switches off pathways which consume energy (lipogenesis, protein synthesis, gluconeogenesis). This has led to the concept that AMPK has an interesting pharmaceutical potential in situations of insulin resistance and it is indeed the target of existing drugs and hormones which improve insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue is a key player in energy metabolism through the release of substrates and hormones involved in metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Activation of AMPK in adipose tissue can be achieved through situations such as fasting and exercise. Leptin and adiponectin as well as hypoglycaemic drugs are activators of adipose tissue AMPK. This activation probably involves changes in the AMP/ATP ratio and the upstream kinase LKB1. When activated, AMPK limits fatty acid efflux from adipocytes and favours local fatty acid oxidation. Since fatty acids have a key role in insulin resistance, especially in muscles, activating AMPK in adipose tissue might be found to be beneficial in insulin-resistant states, particularly as AMPK activation also reduces cytokine secretion in adipocytes. PMID:16709632

  1. Toxoplasma gondii Actively Inhibits Neuronal Function in Chronically Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Haroon, Fahad; Händel, Ulrike; Angenstein, Frank; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Kreutzmann, Peter; Lison, Holger; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Scheich, Henning; Wetzel, Wolfram; Schlüter, Dirk; Budinger, Eike

    2012-01-01

    Upon infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, fast replicating tachyzoites infect a broad spectrum of host cells including neurons. Under the pressure of the immune response, tachyzoites convert into slow-replicating bradyzoites, which persist as cysts in neurons. Currently, it is unclear whether T. gondii alters the functional activity of neurons, which may contribute to altered behaviour of T. gondii–infected mice and men. In the present study we demonstrate that upon oral infection with T. gondii cysts, chronically infected BALB/c mice lost over time their natural fear against cat urine which was paralleled by the persistence of the parasite in brain regions affecting behaviour and odor perception. Detailed immunohistochemistry showed that in infected neurons not only parasitic cysts but also the host cell cytoplasm and some axons stained positive for Toxoplasma antigen suggesting that parasitic proteins might directly interfere with neuronal function. In fact, in vitro live cell calcium (Ca2+) imaging studies revealed that tachyzoites actively manipulated Ca2+ signalling upon glutamate stimulation leading either to hyper- or hypo-responsive neurons. Experiments with the endoplasmatic reticulum Ca2+ uptake inhibitor thapsigargin indicate that tachyzoites deplete Ca2+ stores in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Furthermore in vivo studies revealed that the activity-dependent uptake of the potassium analogue thallium was reduced in cyst harbouring neurons indicating their functional impairment. The percentage of non-functional neurons increased over time In conclusion, both bradyzoites and tachyzoites functionally silence infected neurons, which may significantly contribute to the altered behaviour of the host. PMID:22530040

  2. Comparative studies of brain activation with MEG and functional MRI

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.S.; Aine, C.J.; Sanders, J.A.; Lewine, J.D.; Caprihan, A.

    1993-12-31

    The past two years have witnessed the emergence of MRI as a functional imaging methodology. Initial demonstrations involved the injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent and required ultrafast echo planar imaging capability to adequately resolve the passage of the injected bolus. By measuring the local reduction in image intensity due to magnetic susceptibility, it was possible to calculate blood volume, which changes as a function of neural activation. Later developments have exploited endogenous contrast mechanisms to monitor changes in blood volume or in venous blood oxygen content. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that it is possible to make such measurements in a clinical imager, suggesting that the large installed base of such machines might be utilized for functional imaging. Although it is likely that functional MRI (fMRI) will subsume some of the clinical and basic neuroscience applications now touted for MEG, it is also clear that these techniques offer different largely complementary, capabilities. At the very least, it is useful to compare and cross-validate the activation maps produced by these techniques. Such studies will be valuable as a check on results of neuromagnetic distributed current reconstructions and will allow better characterization of the relationship between neurophysiological activation and associated hemodynamic changes. A more exciting prospect is the development of analyses that combine information from the two modalities to produce a better description of underlying neural activity than is possible with either technique in isolation. In this paper we describe some results from initial comparative studies and outline several techniques that can be used to treat MEG and fMRI data within a unified computational framework.

  3. Relationship of Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Taster Status to Olfactory and Gustatory Function in Patients with Chemosensory Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; De Fonte, Tatiana Prosini

    2016-10-01

    Poor sensitivity to the bitter taste of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and related substances has been associated with a number of diseases. We determined, in patients with chemosensory dysfunction from multiple etiologies, whether PTC "tasters" (n = 511) exhibit less smell and taste dysfunction than their non-PTC-tasting counterparts (n = 432) on a comprehensive battery of olfactory and gustatory tests. The proportion of tasters (54%) in our study population was much lower than that calculated from 11 North American population studies (76.5%; P < 0.0001). This taster/nontaster ratio was maintained across a range of etiologic categories. More women (60.7%) than men (45.5%) were PTC tasters (P < 0.0001). Although PTC tasting status was unrelated to scores on the olfactory tests (which included tests of odor identification, detection threshold, and odor memory/discrimination), tasters significantly outperformed nontasters on suprathreshold identification and intensity taste tests employing both bitter (caffeine) and nonbitter (sucrose, citric acid, sodium chloride) tasting stimuli. Regardless of PTC taster status, women outperformed men on the taste tests. Our findings suggest the possibility that the T2R38 gene may protect against significant olfactory dysfunction, but once such dysfunction becomes manifest at a level where professional help is sought, such protection is not evident. However, other hypotheses for this phenomenon are possible. This study demonstrates that patients with chemosensory disturbances who are PTC tasters outperform their non-PTC taster counterparts in both identifying and perceiving the intensity of a range of suprathreshold tastants, including ones that do not taste bitter.

  4. Relationship of Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Taster Status to Olfactory and Gustatory Function in Patients with Chemosensory Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; De Fonte, Tatiana Prosini

    2016-10-01

    Poor sensitivity to the bitter taste of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and related substances has been associated with a number of diseases. We determined, in patients with chemosensory dysfunction from multiple etiologies, whether PTC "tasters" (n = 511) exhibit less smell and taste dysfunction than their non-PTC-tasting counterparts (n = 432) on a comprehensive battery of olfactory and gustatory tests. The proportion of tasters (54%) in our study population was much lower than that calculated from 11 North American population studies (76.5%; P < 0.0001). This taster/nontaster ratio was maintained across a range of etiologic categories. More women (60.7%) than men (45.5%) were PTC tasters (P < 0.0001). Although PTC tasting status was unrelated to scores on the olfactory tests (which included tests of odor identification, detection threshold, and odor memory/discrimination), tasters significantly outperformed nontasters on suprathreshold identification and intensity taste tests employing both bitter (caffeine) and nonbitter (sucrose, citric acid, sodium chloride) tasting stimuli. Regardless of PTC taster status, women outperformed men on the taste tests. Our findings suggest the possibility that the T2R38 gene may protect against significant olfactory dysfunction, but once such dysfunction becomes manifest at a level where professional help is sought, such protection is not evident. However, other hypotheses for this phenomenon are possible. This study demonstrates that patients with chemosensory disturbances who are PTC tasters outperform their non-PTC taster counterparts in both identifying and perceiving the intensity of a range of suprathreshold tastants, including ones that do not taste bitter. PMID:27402661

  5. Water status and associated processes mark critical stages in pollen development and functioning

    PubMed Central

    Firon, Nurit; Nepi, Massimo; Pacini, Ettore

    2012-01-01

    Background The male gametophyte developmental programme can be divided into five phases which differ in relation to the environment and pollen hydration state: (1) pollen develops inside the anther immersed in locular fluid, which conveys substances from the mother plant – the microsporogenesis phase; (2) locular fluid disappears by reabsorption and/or evaporation before the anther opens and the maturing pollen grains undergo dehydration – the dehydration phase; (3) the anther opens and pollen may be dispersed immediately, or be held by, for example, pollenkitt (as occurs in almost all entomophilous species) for later dispersion – the presentation phase; (4) pollen is dispersed by different agents, remaining exposed to the environment for different periods – the dispersal phase; and (5) pollen lands on a stigma and, in the case of a compatible stigma and suitable conditions, undergoes rehydration and starts germination – the pollen–stigma interaction phase. Scope This review highlights the issue of pollen water status and indicates the various mechanisms used by pollen grains during their five developmental phases to adjust to changes in water content and maintain internal stability. Conclusions Pollen water status is co-ordinated through structural, physiological and molecular mechanisms. The structural components participating in regulation of the pollen water level, during both dehydration and rehydration, include the exine (the outer wall of the pollen grain) and the vacuole. Recent data suggest the involvement of water channels in pollen water transport and the existence of several molecular mechanisms for pollen osmoregulation and to protect cellular components (proteins and membranes) under water stress. It is suggested that pollen grains will use these mechanisms, which have a developmental role, to cope with environmental stress conditions. PMID:22523424

  6. Cognitive-psychomotor functions and nutritional status in maintenance hemodialysis patients: are they related?

    PubMed

    Radić, Josipa; Ljutic, Dragan; Radić, Mislav; Kovacic, Vedran; Curković, Katarina Dodig; Sain, Milenka

    2011-12-01

    Both cognitive impairment and malnutrition are common in hemodialysis patients and associated with adverse clinical outcome. The aim of the study was to investigate performance on a detailed cognitive and psychomotor battery in maintenance hemodialysis patients in correlation to nutritional status. A selected population of 65 adult (20 females and 45 males, aged 57.84±12.28 years) hemodialysis (4.78±3.62 years) patients were investigated. The total time of test solving was correlated with Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS) in tests of simple visual discrimination of signal location (r=0.215, P=0.042), simple convergent visual orientation (r=0.262, P=0.020), and convergent thinking (r=0.244, P=0.034). The minimum time of test solving was also correlated with DMS in the test of simple convergent visual orientation (r=0.227, P=0.038), and in the test of convergent thinking (r=0.223, P=0.048). Total ballast, as a descriptor of stability in reaction time, was correlated with DMS in the test of simple visual discrimination of signal location (r=0.281, P=0.012), and in a test of short term memory actualization (r=0.239, P=0.028). Furthermore, significant correlation was noted between body mass index, serum creatinine, total cholesterol and albumin level with cognitive-psychomotor performance. Hemodialysis patients with a poorer nutritional status performed worse on cognitive and psychomotor tests. Further research is needed to assess the effects of treating malnutrition on cognitive-psychomotor performance in these patients.

  7. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Yoon Shin; Cho, Yong-Sung; Yun, Seong-Taek; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution. PMID:22645468

  8. Current status of trace metal pollution in soils affected by industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Yoon Shin; Cho, Yong-Sung; Yun, Seong-Taek; Brown, Richard J C

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution.

  9. Studies of higher nervous activity in functional phychoses.

    PubMed

    Astrup, C

    1975-01-01

    Psychiatric illnesses can be conceived of as experiments of nature, providing a variety of pathopsychological mechanisms which may elucidate normal psychological processes. Clinically the reactive psychoses are predominantly psychogenic reaction types. They present disturbances of higher nervous activity, similar to those of the neuroses. The unconditional reflex activity is practically as in normal controls, and the most outstanding finding was the large effect of psychodynamic complex structures. This is a physiological parallel to the clinical manifestations with great concern over experienced mental trauma. In the manic-depressive psychoses the most characteristic feature is a marked disturbance of unconditional reflex activity. This factor may be an important physiological mechanism underlying the more biological than psychodynamic reaction type and partly explain the changes of mood and associated interferences with sleep, body weight, sexual activity, aggression and other instinctual and vegetative functions. Schizophrenic psychoses also present changes of unconditional reflex activity, predominantly in the direction of inhibition of response. In addition there are severe dissociations within and between the three levels of unconditional reflexes and the two signaling systems. It is suggested that schizophrenia represents a functional maladaptation, which can be explained from the principles of autokinesis and schizokinesis established by Gantt in animal experiments. Prognostic models based on experimentally established impairment of performances were shown to predict long-term risks of schizophrenic defects just as well as models based on constellations of clinical symptoms. I would predict that psychophysiology and experimental psychology will become increasingly more important for establishing diagnosis and prognosis in the functional psychoses. The data of this article point toward a basis for a prophylactic psychiatry. PMID:1236657

  10. Respiratory gas transport, metabolic status, and locomotor capacity of the Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis assessed in the field with respect to dichotomous seasonal activity levels.

    PubMed

    Adamczewska, A M; Morris, S

    2000-05-01

    Red crabs, Gecarcoidea natalis, exhibit seasonal activity patterns: low activity during the dry season when they shelter in burrows to avoid dehydration, and high activity during the wet season. Red crabs were examined in situ in the rainforest of Christmas Island to determine if there were underlying seasonal differences in the capacity for exercise and associated metabolism. During both seasons, free-ranging (FR) crabs engaged in their normal activities and, together with crabs induced to exercise for 5 min, were sampled for haemolymph and muscle tissue. Respiratory gases in the haemolymph and key metabolites were measured to assess differences in metabolic status of FR and exercised crabs. Actively foraging FR crabs during the wet season exhibited a relative haemolymph hypoxia (2.9 kPa) and accumulated an extra 3 mmol. litre(-1) of CO(2) compared to the relatively inactive FR crabs during the dry season. Wet-season crabs appeared to be in a state of relative respiratory acidosis compared to dry-season animals. This hypercapnia may arise as a consequence of a relative hypoventilation in animals with a relatively higher metabolic rate during the wet season. Oxygenation of pulmonary and arterial haemolymph was similar and remained high after 5 min of exercise, indicating that the gills and lungs functioned similarly in gas exchange in both FR and exercised crabs. During exercise, venous O(2) reserves decreased and red crabs experienced a mixed respiratory/metabolic acidosis. Similar changes, after 5 min of enforced exercise, in metabolite concentrations, pH and respiratory gas status in the haemolymph during both sampling seasons suggest that the crabs maintain similar capacity to increase exercise during the wet and the dry seasons, despite the differences in underlying physiological status. This is important since after prolonged inactivity during the dry season, with the arrival of moonsoonal rains, red crabs must engage in their annual breeding migration.

  11. The Transcriptional Signature of Active Tuberculosis Reflects Symptom Status in Extra-Pulmonary and Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Blankley, Simon; Graham, Christine M.; Turner, Jacob; Berry, Matthew P. R.; Bloom, Chloe I.; Xu, Zhaohui; Pascual, Virginia; Banchereau, Jacques; Chaussabel, Damien; Breen, Ronan; Santis, George; Blankenship, Derek M.; Lipman, Marc; O’Garra, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is a leading cause of infectious death worldwide. Gene-expression microarray studies profiling the blood transcriptional response of tuberculosis (TB) patients have been undertaken in order to better understand the host immune response as well as to identify potential biomarkers of disease. To date most of these studies have focused on pulmonary TB patients with gene-expression profiles of extra-pulmonary TB patients yet to be compared to those of patients with pulmonary TB or sarcoidosis. Methods A novel cohort of patients with extra-pulmonary TB and sarcoidosis was recruited and the transcriptional response of these patients compared to those with pulmonary TB using a variety of transcriptomic approaches including testing a previously defined 380 gene meta-signature of active TB. Results The 380 meta-signature broadly differentiated active TB from healthy controls in this new dataset consisting of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. The top 15 genes from this meta-signature had a lower sensitivity for differentiating extra-pulmonary TB from healthy controls as compared to pulmonary TB. We found the blood transcriptional responses in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB to be heterogeneous and to reflect the extent of symptoms of disease. Conclusions The transcriptional signature in extra-pulmonary TB demonstrated heterogeneity of gene expression reflective of symptom status, while the signature of pulmonary TB was distinct, based on a higher proportion of symptomatic individuals. These findings are of importance for the rational design and implementation of mRNA based TB diagnostics. PMID:27706152

  12. Bohmian Conditional Wave Functions (and the status of the quantum state)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norsen, Travis

    2016-03-01

    The de Broglie - Bohm pilot-wave theory - uniquely among realistic candidate quantum theories - allows a straightforward and simple definition of the wave function of a subsystem of some larger system (such as the entire universe). Such sub-system wave functions are called “Conditional Wave Functions” (CWFs). Here we explain this concept and indicate the CWF's role in the Bohmian explanation of the usual quantum formalism, and then develop (and motivate) the more speculative idea that something like single-particle wave functions could replace the (ontologically problematical) universal wave function in some future, empirically adequate, pilot-wave-type theory. Throughout the presentation is pedagogical and points are illustrated with simple toy models.

  13. Evaluation of a wearable physiological status monitor during simulated fire fighting activities.

    PubMed

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Dolezal, Brett A; Cooper, Christopher B; Fehling, Patricia C

    2014-01-01

    A physiological status monitor (PSM) has been embedded in a fire-resistant shirt. The purpose of this research study was to examine the ability of the PSM-shirt to accurately detect heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) when worn under structural fire fighting personal protective equipment (PPE) during the performance of various activities relevant to fire fighting. Eleven healthy, college-aged men completed three activities (walking, searching/crawling, and ascending/descending stairs) that are routinely performed during fire fighting operations while wearing the PSM-shirt under structural fire fighting PPE. Heart rate and RR recorded by the PSM-shirt were compared to criterion values measured concurrently with an ECG and portable metabolic measurement system, respectively. For all activities combined (overall) and for each activity, small differences were found between the PSM-shirt and ECG (mean difference [95% CI]: overall: -0.4 beats/min [-0.8, -0.1]; treadmill: -0.4 beats/min [-0.7, -0.1]; search: -1.7 beats/min [-3.1, -.04]; stairs: 0.4 beats/min [0.04, 0.7]). Standard error of the estimate was 3.5 beats/min for all tasks combined and 1.9, 5.9, and 1.9 beats/min for the treadmill walk, search, and stair ascent/descent, respectively. Correlations between the PSM-shirt and criterion heart rates were high (r = 0.95 to r = 0.99). The mean difference between RR recorded by the PSM-shirt and criterion overall was 1.1 breaths/min (95% CI: -1.9 to -0.4). The standard error of the estimate for RR ranged from 4.2 breaths/min (treadmill) to 8.2 breaths/min (search), with an overall value of 6.2 breaths/min. These findings suggest that the PSM-shirt provides valid measures of HR and useful approximations of RR when worn during fire fighting duties. PMID:24433269

  14. Jungle honey enhances immune function and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Miki; Kobayashi, Kengo; Hirono, Yuriko; Miyagawa, Mayuko; Ishida, Takahiro; Ejiogu, Emenike C; Sawai, Masaharu; Pinkerton, Kent E; Takeuchi, Minoru

    2011-01-01

    Jungle honey (JH) is collected from timber and blossom by wild honey bees that live in the tropical forest of Nigeria. JH is used as a traditional medicine for colds, skin inflammation and burn wounds as well as general health care. However, the effects of JH on immune functions are not clearly known. Therefore, we investigated the effects of JH on immune functions and antitumor activity in mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were injected with JH (1 mg/mouse/day, seven times intra-peritoneal). After seven injections, peritoneal cells (PC) were obtained. Antitumor activity was assessed by growth of Lewis Lung Carcinoma/2 (LL/2) cells. PC numbers were increased in JH-injected mice compared to control mice. In Dot Plot analysis by FACS, a new cell population appeared in JH-injected mice. The percent of Gr-1 surface antigen and the intensity of Gr-1 antigen expression of PC were increased in JH-injected mice. The new cell population was neutrophils. JH possessed chemotactic activity for neutrophils. Tumor incidence and weight were decreased in JH-injected mice. The ratio of reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing cells was increased in JH-injected mice. The effective component in JH was fractionized by gel filtration using HPLC and had an approximate molecular weight (MW) of 261. These results suggest that neutrophils induced by JH possess potent antitumor activity mediated by ROS and the effective immune component of JH is substrate of MW 261. PMID:19141489

  15. Platelet Serotonin Transporter Function Predicts Default-Mode Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kasess, Christian H.; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Hofmaier, Tina; Diers, Kersten; Bartova, Lucie; Pail, Gerald; Huf, Wolfgang; Uzelac, Zeljko; Hartinger, Beate; Kalcher, Klaudius; Perkmann, Thomas; Haslacher, Helmuth; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kasper, Siegfried; Freissmuth, Michael; Windischberger, Christian; Willeit, Matthäus; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Esterbauer, Harald; Brocke, Burkhard; Moser, Ewald; Sitte, Harald H.; Pezawas, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence. Methods A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy subjects and maximal 5-HT uptake velocity (Vmax) was assessed in blood platelets. We used a mixed-effects multilevel analysis technique (MEMA) to test for linear relationships between whole-brain, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity and platelet Vmax. Results The present study demonstrates that increases in platelet Vmax significantly predict default-mode network (DMN) suppression in healthy subjects independent of genetic variation within SLC6A4. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses indicate that platelet Vmax is related to global DMN activation and not intrinsic DMN connectivity. Conclusion This study provides evidence that platelet Vmax predicts global DMN activation changes in healthy subjects. Given previous reports on platelet-synaptosomal Vmax coupling, results further suggest an important role of neuronal 5-HT reuptake in DMN regulation. PMID:24667541

  16. The impact of chromospheric activity on observed initial mass functions

    SciTech Connect

    Stassun, Keivan G.; Scholz, Aleks; Dupuy, Trent J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2014-12-01

    Using recently established empirical calibrations for the impact of chromospheric activity on the radii, effective temperatures, and estimated masses of active low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, we reassess the shape of the initial mass function (IMF) across the stellar/substellar boundary in the Upper Sco star-forming region (age ∼ 5-10 Myr). We adjust the observed effective temperatures to warmer values using the observed strength of the chromospheric Hα emission, and redetermine the estimated masses of objects using pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks in the H-R diagram. The effect of the activity-adjusted temperatures is to shift the objects to higher masses by 3%-100%. While the slope of the resulting IMF at substellar masses is not strongly changed, the peak of the IMF does shift from ≈0.06 to ≈0.11 M {sub ☉}. Moreover, for objects with masses ≲ 0.2 M {sub ☉}, the ratio of brown dwarfs to stars changes from ∼80% to ∼33%. These results suggest that activity corrections are essential for studies of the substellar mass function, if the masses are estimated from spectral types or from effective temperatures.

  17. Participation of functionally active plasma cells in acute rejection and response to therapy in renal allografts.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Zeenat Yousuf; Bostwick, David G; Hossain, Deloar; Zeng, Xu

    2014-07-01

    Acute rejection (AR) includes T-cell-mediated and antibody-mediated rejection. The inflammatory infiltrate comprised not only T cells but also varying amounts of B cells (CD20(+)) and plasma cells (CD138(+)). The latter are associated with poor clinical outcomes, but their functional status is not clear. The phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein (p-S6RP) is present in cells that are metabolically active, thus identifying functionally active antibody-secreting plasma cells. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical significance of functionally active p-S6RP plasma cells in AR in renal allografts. Renal allografts with biopsy evidence of AR during 2006-2009 were included. Immunohistochemistry staining for CD20, CD138, and p-S6RP was performed on paraffin-embedded slides and scaled as 0-6. The response to antirejection treatment was assessed by the serum creatinine ratio (CrR) at rejection episode (time 0) and following treatment (4 and 12 weeks). Patients with lower scores (0-2) were compared with a higher scored group (3-6). The T-test was conducted using statistical significance of p<0.05. A total of 28 patients (40.7 ± 14.3 year; M:F=15:13) were diagnosed with acute T-cell-mediated rejection (I and II). The p-S6RP staining in the high-score group had a significantly higher CrR (p<0.05) than the low-score group at the time of biopsy, 4 and 12 weeks following treatment. There was no significant difference in the CrR between groups for CD20 or CD138 staining. Functional antibody-secreting p-S6RP plasma cells are actively participating in AR and associated with poor response to treatment in renal allografts. PMID:24684655

  18. Electrical activity patterns and the functional maturation of the neocortex.

    PubMed

    Kilb, Werner; Kirischuk, Sergei; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2011-11-01

    At the earliest developmental stages, sensory neocortical areas in various species reveal distinct patterns of spontaneous neuronal network activity. These activity patterns either propagate over large neocortical areas or synchronize local neuronal ensembles. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that these spontaneous activity patterns are generated from neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex, in subcortical structures or in the sensory periphery (retina, cochlea, whiskers). At early stages spontaneous periphery-driven and also sensory evoked activity is relayed to the developing cerebral cortex via the thalamus and the neocortical subplate, which amplifies the afferent sensory input. These early local and large-scale neuronal activity patterns influence a variety of developmental processes during corticogenesis, such as neurogenesis, apoptosis, neuronal migration, differentiation and network formation. The experimental data also indicate that disturbances in early neuronal patterns may have an impact on the development of cortical layers, columns and networks. In this article we review our current knowledge on the origin of early electrical activity patterns in neocortical sensory areas and their functional implications on shaping developing cortical networks.

  19. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  20. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-05-29

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  1. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-06-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  2. Dynamic measurement of extracellular opioid activity: status quo, challenges, and significance in rewarded behaviors.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Niall P

    2015-01-21

    Opioid peptides are the endogenous ligands of opioid receptors, which are also the molecular target of naturally occurring and synthetic opiates, such as morphine and heroin. Since their discovery in the 1970s, opioid peptides, which are found widely throughout the central nervous system and the periphery, have been intensely studied because of their involvement in pain and pleasure. Over the years, our understanding of opioid peptides has widened to cover a multitude of functions, including learning and memory, affective state, gastrointestinal transit, feeding, immune function, and metabolism. Unsurprisingly, aberrant opioid activity is implicated in numerous pathologies, including drug addiction, overeating, pain, depression, and obesity. To date, virtually all preclinical and clinical studies aimed at understanding the function of endogenous opioids have relied upon manipulating endogenous opioid fluxes using opioid receptor ligands or genetic manipulations of opioid receptors and endogenous opioids. Difficulties in directly monitoring endogenous opioid fluxes, particularly in the central nervous system, have presented a major obstacle to fully understanding endogenous opioid function. This review summarizes these challenges and offers suggestions for future goals while focusing on the neurobiology of reward, specifically drawing attention to studies that have succeeded in dynamically measuring opioid peptides. PMID:25585132

  3. Transfer Function between EEG and BOLD Signals of Epileptic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marco; Leal, Alberto; Figueiredo, Patrícia

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG)-functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) recordings have seen growing application in the evaluation of epilepsy, namely in the characterization of brain networks related to epileptic activity. In EEG-correlated fMRI studies, epileptic events are usually described as boxcar signals based on the timing information retrieved from the EEG, and subsequently convolved with a hemodynamic response function to model the associated Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) changes. Although more flexible approaches may allow a higher degree of complexity for the hemodynamics, the issue of how to model these dynamics based on the EEG remains an open question. In this work, a new methodology for the integration of simultaneous EEG-fMRI data in epilepsy is proposed, which incorporates a transfer function from the EEG to the BOLD signal. Independent component analysis of the EEG is performed, and a number of metrics expressing different models of the EEG-BOLD transfer function are extracted from the resulting time courses. These metrics are then used to predict the fMRI data and to identify brain areas associated with the EEG epileptic activity. The methodology was tested on both ictal and interictal EEG-fMRI recordings from one patient with a hypothalamic hamartoma. When compared to the conventional analysis approach, plausible, consistent, and more significant activations were obtained. Importantly, frequency-weighted EEG metrics yielded superior results than those weighted solely on the EEG power, which comes in agreement with previous literature. Reproducibility, specificity, and sensitivity should be addressed in an extended group of patients in order to further validate the proposed methodology and generalize the presented proof of concept. PMID:23355832

  4. Insilico studies of organosulfur-functional active compounds in garlic.

    PubMed

    Singh, Yogendra P; Singh, Ram A

    2010-01-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity because of its antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity, antioxidant activity, ability to reduce cardiovascular diseases, improving immune functions, and antidiabetic activities and also in reducing cardiovascular diseases and improving immune functions. Recent studies identify that the wide variety of medicinal functions are attributed to the sulfur compounds present in garlic. Epidemiological observations and laboratory studies in animal models have also showed anticarcinogenic potential of organosulfur compounds of garlic. In this study, in silico analysis of organosulfur compounds is reported using the methods of theoretical chemistry to elucidate the molecular properties of garlic as it is more time and cost efficient, reduces the number of wet experiments, and offers the possibility of replacing some animal tests with suitable in silico models. The analysis of molecular descriptors defined by Lipinski has been done. The solubility of drug in water has been determined as it is of useful importance in the process of drug discovery from molecular design to pharmaceutical formulation and biopharmacy. All toxicities associated with candidate drug have been calculated. P-Glycoprotein expressed in normal tissues as a cause of drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics has been examined. Drug-plasma protein binding and volume of distribution have also been calculated. To avoid rejection of drugs, it is becoming more important to determine pK(a), absorption, polar surface area, and other physiochemical properties associated with a drug, before synthetic work is undertaken. The present in silico study is aimed at examining these compounds of garlic to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans. PMID:20641079

  5. Impact of prolonged storm activity on the Ecological Status of intertidal benthic habitats within oyster (Crassostrea gigas) trestle cultivation sites.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Jack P J; Quinn, Christina; Forde, James; Patterson, Adrian; O'Beirn, Francis X; Kennedy, Robert

    2016-09-15

    The Ecological Status (ES; sensu the Water Framework Directive) of intertidal benthic communities within six oyster trestle cultivation sites was found to be negatively impacted along the access routes to trestles in a 2013 study. All cultivation sites occur within Natura 2000 sites. The current study revisited four of the 2013 cultivation sites in February 2014 one month after the storm activity of winter 2013/14 to test if the compaction effect along access routes persisted after the storms. Three levels of the fixed factor treatment were sampled; immediately below the trestles, along the access route and 300m away from any anthropogenic activity. The compaction effect at the Access treatment persisted in spite of the major storm activity. The current study showed the IQI to be effective for assessing the impacts of aquaculture and highlights the IQI as a tool for monitoring Conservation Status of intertidal communities under the Habitats Directive.

  6. Impact of prolonged storm activity on the Ecological Status of intertidal benthic habitats within oyster (Crassostrea gigas) trestle cultivation sites.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Jack P J; Quinn, Christina; Forde, James; Patterson, Adrian; O'Beirn, Francis X; Kennedy, Robert

    2016-09-15

    The Ecological Status (ES; sensu the Water Framework Directive) of intertidal benthic communities within six oyster trestle cultivation sites was found to be negatively impacted along the access routes to trestles in a 2013 study. All cultivation sites occur within Natura 2000 sites. The current study revisited four of the 2013 cultivation sites in February 2014 one month after the storm activity of winter 2013/14 to test if the compaction effect along access routes persisted after the storms. Three levels of the fixed factor treatment were sampled; immediately below the trestles, along the access route and 300m away from any anthropogenic activity. The compaction effect at the Access treatment persisted in spite of the major storm activity. The current study showed the IQI to be effective for assessing the impacts of aquaculture and highlights the IQI as a tool for monitoring Conservation Status of intertidal communities under the Habitats Directive. PMID:27373942

  7. Constraints of recreational sport participation: measurement invariance and latent mean differences across sex and physical activity status.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing Dong; Chung, Pak Kwong; Chen, Wing Ping

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to (a) examine the measurement invariance of the Constraint Scale of Sport Participation across sex and physical activity status among the undergraduate students (N = 630) in Hong Kong and (b) compare the latent mean differences across groups. Measurement invariance of the Constraint Scale of Sport Participation across sex of and physical activity status of the participants was examined first. With receiving support on the measurement invariance across groups, latent mean differences of the scores across groups were examined. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the configural, metric, scalar, and structural invariance of the scale was supported across groups. The results of latent mean differences suggested that the women reported significantly higher constraints on time, partner, psychology, knowledge, and interest than the men. The physically inactive participants reported significantly higher scores on all constraints except for accessibility than the physically active participants.

  8. Constraints of recreational sport participation: measurement invariance and latent mean differences across sex and physical activity status.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing Dong; Chung, Pak Kwong; Chen, Wing Ping

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to (a) examine the measurement invariance of the Constraint Scale of Sport Participation across sex and physical activity status among the undergraduate students (N = 630) in Hong Kong and (b) compare the latent mean differences across groups. Measurement invariance of the Constraint Scale of Sport Participation across sex of and physical activity status of the participants was examined first. With receiving support on the measurement invariance across groups, latent mean differences of the scores across groups were examined. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the configural, metric, scalar, and structural invariance of the scale was supported across groups. The results of latent mean differences suggested that the women reported significantly higher constraints on time, partner, psychology, knowledge, and interest than the men. The physically inactive participants reported significantly higher scores on all constraints except for accessibility than the physically active participants. PMID:25310228

  9. Kyphoplasty Increases Vertebral Height, Decreases Both Pain Score and Opiate Requirements While Improving Functional Status

    PubMed Central

    Tolba, Reda; Bolash, Robert B.; Shroll, Joshua; Costandi, Shrif; Dalton, Jarrod E.; Sanghvi, Chirag; Mekhail, Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral compression fractures can result from advanced osteoporosis, or less commonly from metastatic or traumatic insults to the vertebral column, and result in disabling pain and decreased functional capacity. Various vertebral augmentation options including kyphoplasty aim at preventing the sequelae of pain and immobility that can develop as the result of the vertebral fractures. The mechanism for pain relief following kyphoplasty is not entirely understood, and the restoration of a portion of the lost vertebral height is a subject of debate. We retrospectively reviewed radiographic imaging, pain relief, analgesic intake and functional outcomes in 67 consecutive patients who underwent single- or multilevel kyphoplasty with the primary goal of quantifying the restoration of lost vertebral height. We observed a mean of 45% of the lost vertebral height restored postprocedurally. Secondarily, kyphoplasty was associated with significant decreases in pain scores, daily morphine consumption and improvement in patient-reported functional measures. PMID:24165285

  10. Kyphoplasty increases vertebral height, decreases both pain score and opiate requirements while improving functional status.

    PubMed

    Tolba, Reda; Bolash, Robert B; Shroll, Joshua; Costandi, Shrif; Dalton, Jarrod E; Sanghvi, Chirag; Mekhail, Nagy

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral compression fractures can result from advanced osteoporosis, or less commonly from metastatic or traumatic insults to the vertebral column, and result in disabling pain and decreased functional capacity. Various vertebral augmentation options including kyphoplasty aim at preventing the sequelae of pain and immobility that can develop as the result of the vertebral fractures. The mechanism for pain relief following kyphoplasty is not entirely understood, and the restoration of a portion of the lost vertebral height is a subject of debate. We retrospectively reviewed radiographic imaging, pain relief, analgesic intake and functional outcomes in 67 consecutive patients who underwent single- or multilevel kyphoplasty with the primary goal of quantifying the restoration of lost vertebral height. We observed a mean of 45% of the lost vertebral height restored postprocedurally. Secondarily, kyphoplasty was associated with significant decreases in pain scores, daily morphine consumption and improvement in patient-reported functional measures.

  11. Kyphoplasty increases vertebral height, decreases both pain score and opiate requirements while improving functional status.

    PubMed

    Tolba, Reda; Bolash, Robert B; Shroll, Joshua; Costandi, Shrif; Dalton, Jarrod E; Sanghvi, Chirag; Mekhail, Nagy

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral compression fractures can result from advanced osteoporosis, or less commonly from metastatic or traumatic insults to the vertebral column, and result in disabling pain and decreased functional capacity. Various vertebral augmentation options including kyphoplasty aim at preventing the sequelae of pain and immobility that can develop as the result of the vertebral fractures. The mechanism for pain relief following kyphoplasty is not entirely understood, and the restoration of a portion of the lost vertebral height is a subject of debate. We retrospectively reviewed radiographic imaging, pain relief, analgesic intake and functional outcomes in 67 consecutive patients who underwent single- or multilevel kyphoplasty with the primary goal of quantifying the restoration of lost vertebral height. We observed a mean of 45% of the lost vertebral height restored postprocedurally. Secondarily, kyphoplasty was associated with significant decreases in pain scores, daily morphine consumption and improvement in patient-reported functional measures. PMID:24165285

  12. “Obese Equals Lazy?” Analysis of the Association between Weight Status and Physical Activity in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kreuser, F.; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K.; Gollhofer, A.; Korsten-Reck, U.; Röttger, K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Literature provides evidence that overweight children are more sedentary. To verify this generalized statement behavior patterns of overweight and nonoverweight children needs to be understood. Therefore, we investigated the distribution of sedentary and activity levels in a quantitative and qualitative way. Methods. Data was collected from 37 randomly selected nonoverweight and 55 overweight children. They were 8 to 11 years of age. Height and weight were measured and weight status was characterized by BMI (BMI-percentile, BMI-SDS). Daily PA (physical activity) was measured by direct accelerometry. Spare time and screen time entertainment were obtained by questionnaires. Results. The amount of time spent “passive” was significantly higher in overweight children, while nonoverweight children were more “active.” The multiple regression model shows a significant association between weight status (BMI-SDS) and activity parameters. Additionally, screen time entertainment was significantly related to BMI-SDS. Conclusion. The results support the statement that overweight children are less active than nonoverweight children. The high amount of PA seems to be an important factor to prevent overweight in children given that PA shows the highest correlation to weight status. Quantitative and qualitative measurements are needed for further analysis. PMID:23533723

  13. Physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Physical activity plays an important role in preventing further progression of metabolic syndrome conditions to cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. This study investigated physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients. The fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) data were analyzed (n=19,831). A revised definition of the US National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III was used for screening metabolic syndrome patients. Using International Physical Activity Questionnaire, physical activity adherence was defined as participating in 150+ minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, 75+ minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week. Socioeconomic status was measured by level of education and house-hold income. Among metabolic syndrome patients, physical activity adherence rate of first (lowest), second, third, and fourth quartile house-hold income group were 28.31% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.14-30.28%), 34.68% (95% CI, 32.71-36.70), 37.44% (95% CI, 35.66-39.25), and 43.79% (95% CI, 41.85-45.75). Physical activity adherence rate of groups with elementary or lower, middle-school, high-school, and college or higher education degree were 25.17% (95% CI, 22.95-27.54), 38.2% (95% CI, 35.13-41.00), 39.60% (95% CI, 38.24-41.77), and 36.89% (95% CI, 35.77-38.03), respectively. This study found that physical activity adherence rate was lower in socioeconomically disadvantaged metabolic syndrome patients, which may aggravate health inequity status of Korean society.

  14. Emotional and Sexual Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse as a Function of Self-Definition Status.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion.

  15. Emotional and Sexual Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse as a Function of Self-Definition Status.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. PMID:27364540

  16. Aspartame degradation as a function of "water activity".

    PubMed

    Bell, L N; Labuza, T P

    1991-01-01

    The incorporation of aspartame into an increasing number of foods necessitates evaluation of its degradation kinetics as a function of "water activity" (aw). The kinetics of degradation were followed in model systems as a function of initial pH, temperature, and aw. An increase in aw, for each 0.1 units in the 0.3 to 0.7 range, resulted in about a 30-80% increase in degradation rate, which then decreased only slowly up to dilute solution. The presence of oil increased the degradation rate at high aw, but glucose had no effect on the rate of aspartame loss. The activation energies for loss ranged from 25 to 20 kcal/mole, decreasing as aw increased, as expected. The rates as a function of pH showed that the actual pH of the water in the condensed phase, based on the Bronsted relationship, may be very different than the initial pH. This caused a shift in the pH at which the fastest rate of degradation occurred, as aw increased.

  17. Regulation of lipin1 by nutritional status, adiponectin, sex and pituitary function in rat white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    González, C Ruth; Novelle, Marta G; Caminos, Jorge E; Vázquez, María J; Luque, Raul M; López, Miguel; Nogueiras, Ruben; Diéguez, Carlos

    2012-02-01

    Lipin1 is a member of the lipin protein family that plays an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. The endogenous role of lipin1 was demonstrated by the fact that mutations in lipin1 caused lipodystrophy and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of nutritional status, pregnancy, insulin-sensitizers and pituitary hormones on lipin1 mRNA levels in adipose tissue of rats. Lipin1 gene expression was induced in conditions of hypoleptinemia (fasting) and leptin resistance (high fat diet), whereas it was decreased by high circulating leptin levels (leptin administration, pregnancy) and in leptin-deficient mice. Lipin1 mRNA levels were also decreased in adiponectin-deficient mice. Lipin1 mRNA levels are influenced by age in female rats, with peak expression at 25th day of life and decreasing thereafter. Consistently, ovariectomy increased lipin1 expression indicating that estrogens modulate lipin1. Finally, lipin1 was also regulated by pituitary hormones, since its expression was modified by thyroid status and growth hormone deficiency. Our observations indicate that: a) gWAT lipin1 mRNA levels are regulated by nutritional status, and leptin plays an important role in this regard, b) lipin1 is modulated by adiponectin, c) lipin1 is influenced by age and sex, and d) alterations in pituitary function modify lipin1 mRNA levels. To dissect the complicated interactions between key regulators of lipid metabolism like lipin1, may be important for the development of new therapies for the treatment and prevention of obesity and its associated disorders.

  18. [The gaze and functional hemispheric activation in normal subjects].

    PubMed

    Gallois, P; Hautecoeur, P; Ovelacq, E; Gras, P; Dereux, J F

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine whether the study of lateral and vertical conjugated eye movement could serve as an indicator of the functional hemispheric activation. Questions of vocabulary, calculation, logic (V.C.L.) and visuo-spatial instructions, as well as music-listening (V.S.M.), were proposed to 60 control subjects (21 men, 39 women). They were divided in 4 groups of 15 according to their laterality (complete right handed, incomplete right handed, ambidextrous, left handed). Eye movements were recorded using a video system. Deviations of the eyes towards the right and left, upwards and downwards, as well as episodes of staring were noted. Concerning V.C.L. questions, there was a significant correlation between conjugated lateral eye movements and the contralateral hemisphere activation. The study of vertical eye movements revealed a correlation only in complete right-handed and left-handed subjects: deviation upwards during the left hemisphere activation, and downwards during the right hemisphere activation. This pattern of response was no longer found during V.S.M. questions which, in the 4 groups, evoked staring episodes in 56 to 72 per cent of the cases. The negative emotional stimuli (emotional words, non verbal stimuli, stressful situations) evoked preferentially, but independently of laterality, deviations towards the left and downwards in favor of the right hemisphere activation. This method of observation of eye movements seems therefore of significant interest in Neuropsychology, provided that methodologic rules are rigorously respected.

  19. [Biodiversity and Function Analyses of BIOLAK Activated Sludge Metagenome].

    PubMed

    Tian, Mei; Liu, Han-hu; Shen, Xin; Zhao, Fang-qing; Chen, Shuai; Yao, Yong-jia

    2015-05-01

    The BIOLAK is a multi-stage activated sludge process, which has been successfully promoted worldwide. However, the biological community and function of the BIOLAK activated sludge ( the core component in the process) have not been reported so far. In this study, taking Lianyungang Dapu Industrial Zone WWTP as an example, a large-scale metagenomic data (428 588 high-quality DNA sequences) of the BIOLAK activated sludge were obtained by means of a new generation of high-throughput sequencing technology. Amazing biodiversity was revealed in the BIOLAK activated sludge, which included 47 phyla, 872 genera and 1351 species. There were 33 phyla identified in the Bacteria domain (289 933 sequences). Proteohacteria was the most abundant phylum (62.54%), followed by Bacteroidetes (11.29%), Nitrospirae ( 5. 65%) and Planctomycetes (4.79%), suggesting that these groups played a key role in the BIOLAK wastewater treatment system. Among the 748 bacterial genera, Nitrospira (5.60%) was the most prevalent genus, which was a key group in the nitrogen cycle. Followed by Gemmatimonas (2.45%), which was an important genus in the biological phosphorus removal process. In Archaea domain (1019 sequences), three phyla and 39 genera were detected. In Eukaryota domain (1055 sequences), 60 genera and 10 phyla were identified, among which Ciliophora was the largest phylum (257 sequences). Meanwhile, 448 viral sequences were detected in the BIOLAK sludge metagenome, which were dominated by bacteriophages. The proportions of nitrogen, aromatic compounds and phosphorus metabolism in the BIOLAK sludge were 2.50%, 2.28% and 1.56%, respectively, which were higher than those in the sludge of United States and Australia. Among four processes of nitrogen metabolism, denitrification-related genes were most abundant (80.81%), followed by ammonification (12.78%), nitrification,(4.38%) and nitrogen fixation (2.04%). In conclusion, the BIOLAK activated sludge had amazing biodiversity, meanwhile

  20. Biological function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritu; DiMenna, Lauren J; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Evans, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) is an essential regulator of B cell diversification, but its full range of action has until recently been an enigma. Based on homology, it was originally proposed to be an RNA-editing enzyme, but so far, no RNA substrates are known. Rather, it functions by deaminating cytidine, and in this manner, coupled with base-excision repair or mismatch repair machinery, it is a natural mutator. This allows it to play a central role in adaptive immunity, whereby it initiates the processes of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation to help generate a diverse and high-affinity repertoire of immunoglobulin isotypes. More recently, it has been appreciated that methylated cytidine, already known as a key epigenetic mark on DNA controlling gene expression, can also be a target for AID modification. Coupled with repair machinery, this can facilitate the active removal of methylated DNA. This activity can impact the process of cellular reprogramming, including transition of a somatic cell to pluripotency, which requires major reshuffling of epigenetic memory. Thus, seemingly disparate roles for AID in controlling immune diversity and epigenetic memory have a common mechanistic basis. However, the very activity that is so useful for B cell diversity and cellular reprogramming is dangerous for the integrity of the genome. Thus, AID expression and activity is tightly regulated, and deregulation is associated with diseases including cancer. Here, we review the range of AID functions with a focus on its mechanisms of action and regulation. Major questions remain to be answered concerning how and when AID is targeted to specific loci and how this impacts development and disease.

  1. The Status of Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA): Adherence to Standard Practice in FBA Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Kimberly P.; Killu, Kim; Derby, K. Mark; Barretto, Anjali

    2005-01-01

    The application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) has become increasingly visible in school settings since its inclusion in the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Despite the mandate for FBAs within the educational program of students with disabilities displaying behavior problems, the federal…

  2. The Effect of Depressive Symptoms on the Association between Functional Status and Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostir, Glenn V.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Fried, Linda P.; Guralnik, Jack M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the interactive effects of depressive symptoms and lower extremity functioning on social participation for a group of moderately to severely disabled older women. The study used a cross-sectional community based sample, enrolled in the Women's Health and Aging Study I, randomly selected from the Centers…

  3. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) in Ibero-America: Review of Current Status and Some Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Martinez, Amanda; Novoa-Gomez, Monica; Gutierrez, Rochy Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) has been making an important rise in Ibero-America in recent years. This paper presents a review of different contributions, problems and some proposals. Three principal topics are reviewed: (a) general characteristics and theoretical bases of FAP, (b) the uses of FAP and its relationship with other…

  4. Nurses' Assessment of Rehabilitation Potential and Prediction of Functional Status at Discharge from Inpatient Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jamie S.; Grigsby, Jim; Teel, Cynthia S.; Kramer, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of nurses' predictions of rehabilitation potential in older adults admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities and to ascertain whether the addition of a measure of executive cognitive function would enhance predictive accuracy. Secondary analysis was performed on prospective data collected…

  5. Functional Impairments in Children with ADHD: Unique Effects of Age and Comorbid Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booster, Genery D.; DuPaul, George J.; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Power, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD and comorbid disorders display poorer overall functioning compared with children with ADHD alone, though little research has examined the differential impact of externalizing versus internalizing comorbidities. Method: This study examined the impact of internalizing and externalizing comorbidities on the academic and…

  6. Function, therapeutic potential and cell biology of BACE proteases: current status and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Vassar, Robert; Kuhn, Peer-Hendrik; Haass, Christian; Kennedy, Matthew E.; Rajendran, Lawrence; Wong, Philip C.; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F.

    2014-01-01

    The β-site APP cleaving enzymes 1 and 2 (BACE1 and BACE2) were initially identified as transmembrane aspartyl proteases cleaving the amyloid precursor protein (APP). BACE1 is a major drug target for Alzheimer’s disease because BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP is the first step in the generation of the pathogenic amyloid-β peptides. BACE1, which is highly expressed in the nervous system, is also required for myelination by cleaving neuregulin 1. Several recent proteomic and in vivo studies usingBACE1-andBACE2-deficient mice demonstrate a much wider range of physiological substrates and functions for both proteases within and outside of the nervous system. For BACE1 this includes axon guidance, neurogenesis, muscle spindle formation, and neuronal network functions, whereas BACE2 was shown to be involved in pigmentation and pancreatic β-cell function. This review highlights the recent progress in understanding cell biology, substrates, and functions of BACE proteases and discusses the therapeutic options and potential mechanism-based liabilities, in particular for BACE inhibitors in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24646365

  7. Family-Based Training Program Improves Brain Function, Cognition, and Behavior in Lower Socioeconomic Status Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakulak, Eric; Stevens, Courtney; Bell, Theodore A.; Fanning, Jessica; Klein, Scott; Isbell, Elif; Neville, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Over the course of several years of research, the authors have employed psychophysics, electrophysiological (ERP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to study the development and neuroplasticity of the human brain. During this time, they observed that different brain systems and related functions display markedly different degrees or…

  8. The functional status of the human vestibular analysor following 56 days in an aqueous immersion medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsnev, E. I.; Shulzhenko, Y. B.

    1981-01-01

    Two male volunteers were kept hypokinetic in the immersion and physiological parameters were evaluated following the experiment. Prophylactic measures (g-forces, physical exercises, and supplementary salt and water) were applied daily. Caloric and equilibrium tests were utilized to evaluate the physiological responses. The functional changes observed after the 56 day immersion were found to be of a moderate type which normalized quite quickly.

  9. Influence of natural acidity and fisheries management activities upon the status of Adirondack fish populations

    SciTech Connect

    Retzsch, W.C.; Everett, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Acidification and the disappearance of fish from some Adirondack waters does not appear to be caused solely by acid rain. Acidification is a natural process under certain conditions and precipitation acidified by industrial emissions appears to be only one of many possible causes of pond, lake and stream acidification. Factors other than acid precipitation can cause acidification or reduce fish stocks. As a result of glaciation, northern New York State has hundreds of glacial ponds and lakes, most of which are dystrophic or oligotrophic. Many such waters are located in the western and central portions of the Adirondacks, an area frequently cited as exhibiting the most pronounced effects of acid rain. It is widely recognized that natural unpolluted bogs and peat deposits result in low pH environments. Seasonal and weather conditions also appear to have a substantial effect upon the acidity of peat-bog outflows. An evaluation of recent survey data on critically acidified Adirondack waters indicates that of 192 waters with values less than pH 5.0, approximately 61 percent appear to be directly influenced by natural bog conditions and an additional 14 percent are probably influenced. A review of historical and recent survey data suggest that significant factors, such as natural causes of acidification, low oxygen concentrations, high CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S concentrations, and extreme temperatures may have been ignored or underestimated in evaluating the cause of acidification and fish disappearances in some Adirondack waters. Another factor responsible for the current status of fish stocks in the Adirondacks involves past and present fishery resource management activities.

  10. Association of Socioeconomic Status with Treatment Delays, Disease Activity, Joint Damage and Disability in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Emily; del Rincon, Inmaculada; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Battafarano, Daniel F.; Escalante, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of socioeconomic status (SES) and delays in DMARD treatment with clinical measures in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods RA patients were recruited from rheumatology clinics. We assessed SES based on education, occupation and income and divided patients into tertiles. The time from RA symptom onset to DMARD initiation (DMARD lag) was determined by self-report of the two dates, and distance to the rheumatologist (Distance) was obtained from Google Maps. We examined disease activity, determined by DAS28ESR, joint damage, determined from hand radiographs by Sharp scores, and physical disability, determined by the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ). We used linear regression models to examine the relationship between clinical measures and SES, Distance, and DMARD lag. Results We recruited 1,209 RA patients, 1159 of whom had received DMARD treatment. Average ± SD DMARD lag was 6.9 ± 9.0 years. On average, patients with lower SES waited 8.5 ± 10.2 years after onset of RA symptoms to begin DMARD treatment, compared to those in middle and upper SES tertiles who waited 6.1 ± 7.9 years (P=0.002) and 6.1 ± 8.6 years (P=0.009), respectively. Each year of delayed treatment was associated with a DAS28ESR increase of 0.02 (P≤0.001), a Sharp score increase of 1.33 (P≤0.001) and MHAQ score increase of 0.01 (P≤0.001). Conclusion Low SES was associated with delay in DMARD initiation, and both were independently associated with worse clinical measures in RA. Strategies to reduce treatment delay in low SES RA patients are needed. PMID:25581770

  11. Neighborhood socioeconomic status predictors of physical activity through young to middle adulthood: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Lewis, Cora E; Guilkey, David K.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2011-01-01

    Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) is related to a wide range of health outcomes, but existing research is dominated by cross-sectional study designs, which are particularly vulnerable to bias by unmeasured characteristics related to both residential location decisions and health-related outcomes. Further, little is known about the mechanisms by which neighborhood SES might influence health. Therefore, we estimated longitudinal relationships between neighborhood SES and physical activity (PA), a theorized mediator of the neighborhood SES-health association. We used data from four years of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (n=5,115, 18–30 years at baseline, 1985–86), a cohort of U.S. young adults followed over 15 years, and a time-varying geographic information system. Using two longitudinal modeling strategies, this is the first study to explicitly examine how the estimated association between neighborhood SES (deprivation) and PA is biased by (a) measured characteristics theorized to influence residential decisions (e.g., controlling for individual SES, marriage, and children in random effects models), and (b) time-invariant, unmeasured characteristics (e.g., controlling for unmeasured motivation to exercise that is constant over time using repeated measures regression modeling, conditioned on the individual). After controlling for sociodemographics (age, sex, race) and individual SES, associations between higher neighborhood deprivation and lower PA were strong and incremental in blacks, but less consistent in whites. Furthermore, adjustment for measured characteristics beyond sociodemographics and individual SES had little influence on the estimated associations; adjustment for unmeasured characteristics attenuated negative associations more strongly in whites than in blacks. PMID:21316829

  12. Impact of fatty acid status on immune function of children in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M; van der Merwe, Liandré

    2011-04-01

    In vitro and animal studies point to numerous mechanisms by which fatty acids, especially long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), can modulate the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. These data strongly suggest that improving the fatty acid supply of young children in low-income countries might have immune benefits. Unfortunately, there have been virtually no studies of fatty acid/immune interactions in such settings. Clinical trial registers list over 150 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving PUFAs, only one in a low-income setting (the Gambia). We summarize those results here. There was evidence for improved growth and nutritional status, but the primary end point of chronic environmental enteropathy showed no benefit, possibly because the infants were still substantially breastfed. In high-income settings, there have been RCTs with fatty acids (usually LCPUFAs) in relation to 18 disease end points, for some of which there have been numerous trials (asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis). For these diseases, the evidence is judged reasonable for risk reduction for childhood asthma (but not in adults), as yielding possible benefit in Crohn's disease (insufficient evidence in ulcerative colitis) and for convincing evidence for rheumatoid arthritis at sufficient dose levels, though formal meta-analyses are not yet available. This analysis suggests that fatty acid interventions could yield immune benefits in children in poor settings, especially in non-breastfed children and in relation to inflammatory conditions such as persistent enteropathy. Benefits might include improved responses to enteric vaccines, which frequently perform poorly in low-income settings, and these questions merit randomized trials.

  13. Effect of rice straw application on microbial community and activity in paddy soil under different water status.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fuxia; Li, Yaying; Chapman, Stephen James; Yao, Huaiying

    2016-03-01

    Rice straw application and flooding are common practices in rice production, both of which can induce changes in the microbial community. This study used soil microcosms to investigate the impact of water