Science.gov

Sample records for activity functional status

  1. Associations of Smoking and Alcohol Consumption With Disease Activity and Functional Status in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bing; Rho, Young Hee; Cui, Jing; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Frits, Michelle L.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Shadick, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of smoking and alcohol consumption with disease activity and functional status in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We conducted a prospective study consisting of 662 RA patients followed up to 7 years from the Brigham and Women’s Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study. Smoking and alcohol consumption were assessed through yearly questionnaires. The disease activity and functional status were measured by the Disease Activity Score examined in 28 commonly affected joints (DAS28-CRP3) and Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ) assessed annually. Linear mixed models were developed to assess the longitudinal effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on DAS28-CRP3 and MHAQ after adjustment for potential confounders. The HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (HLA-SE) by smoking and alcohol interactions were also evaluated in the analysis. Results The median follow-up time of the cohort was 4 years. Current smoking was not associated with DAS28-CRP3 in this study, but was associated with a higher MHAQ than non-smokers in seropositive RA (p=0.05). Alcohol consumption showed an approximate J-shaped relationship with MHAQ, with the minima occurring at 5.1–10.0 grams/day. Compared to no alcohol use, alcohol consumption of 5.1–10.0 grams/day was associated with a significant decrease of MHAQ (P=0.02). When stratified by HLA-SE, the effect of alcohol consumption appeared to be stronger in HLA-SE positive RA than HLA-SE negative RA. Conclusion We found that current smoking was associated with a worse functional status, while moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a better functional status in RA. Replications of these findings in other prospective studies are needed. PMID:24293566

  2. Family Functioning: Associations with Weight Status, Eating Behaviors, and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010

  3. Longitudinal Analysis of Physical Performance, Functional Status, Physical Activity, and Mood in Relation to Executive Function Among Older Fallers

    PubMed Central

    Best, John R.; Davis, Jennifer C.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Older fallers are at risk of experiencing functional decline within 1 to 3 years; however, not all older fallers show near-term decline. Executive function (EF), which refers to the cognitive processes important for goal-oriented and controlled behavior, may be one factor that underlies resiliency against decline. OBJECTIVES To examine whether good EF at baseline and maintenance of EF over time predict maintenance of physical performance, functional status, physical activity, and mood over a one-year period. Conversely, to examine whether baseline functioning in these non-cognitive domains predicts maintenance of EF over the same period of time. DESIGN 12-month prospective cohort study. SETTING Vancouver Falls Prevention Clinic. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling older adults (N = 199; mean age = 81.6; 63% female) referred to the clinic after suffering a fall. MEASURMENTS At each time point, structural equation modeling created a latent EF variable from performance on five EF tasks. Physical performance (physiological falls risk and gait speed), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), physical activity, and depressive symptoms were also assessed at each time point. RESULTS Higher baseline EF predicted decreases in depressive symptoms and maintenance of IADLs from baseline to follow-up (p<.01). Improvements in EF correlated with increases in gait speed and physical activity, and with the maintenance of IADLs over the follow-up (p<.05). All effects were independent of demographic characteristics and global cognitive function. Baseline performance in the non-cognitive domains did not predict changes in EF. CONCLUSION Among older fallers, EF is a marker for resiliency in several non-cognitive domains, and therefore, should be assessed. Furthermore, interventions to improve EF should be tested among older fallers with EF deficits. PMID:26096385

  4. [Effect of geomagnetic activity on the functional status of the body].

    PubMed

    Oraevskiĭ, V N; Breus, T K; Baevskiĭ, R M; Rapoport, S I; Petrov, V M; Barsukova, Zh V; Gurfinkel', Iu I; Rogoza, A T

    1998-01-01

    A complicated nonlinear biological system should be in principal more sensitive to the external factors activity including geomagnetic disturbances. The complex of experimental studies based on this hypothesis were done simultaneously in two hospitals in Moscow as well as in condition of space orbital station, where just above-mentioned conditions are the case. This studies revealed that the reaction of astronauts to the geomagnetic storm involves a mobilization and activation of all centers of the sympathetic link, and as a result,--a significant increase and stabilization of pulse (heart rate), decrease of the heart rhythm variability and the power of respiratory waves. This nonspecific adaptation stress-reaction was accompanied by variations in the regulation of vascular tonus which is correspond to specific adaptation stress-reaction. The results of clinical examinations of healthy people and patients with the ischemic heart disease lead us to the conclusion that the reaction to the geomagnetic disturbances are mainly of one type and manifests themselves in deterioration of the physiological status, rheologic blood characteristics and the heart rate disturbances similar to ones observed in astronautes. PMID:9914843

  5. Social participation and the onset of functional disability by socioeconomic status and activity type: The JAGES cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Toyo; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-08-01

    The impact of social participation on older adults' health may differ by individual socioeconomic status (SES). Consequently, we examined SES effect modification on the associations between types of social activity participation and incident functional disability. Cohort data from the 2003 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) was utilized. This included individuals who were aged 65 or older and functionally independent at baseline. Analysis was carried out on 12,991 respondents after acquisition of information about their long-term care (LTC) status in Japan. Incident functional disability was defined based on medical certification and LTC information was obtained from municipal insurance databases. Cox proportional hazard regression was conducted for analysis. Results indicated that participants in a sport (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51, 0.85) or hobby group (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.87), or who had a group facilitator role (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.02) were less likely to be disabled. While men with 13 or more years of education were less likely to become disabled if they held facilitator roles, this association was weak among men with 0-5years of education (HR of interaction term between 0 and 5years of education and facilitator role dummy variable=3.95; 95% CI: 1.30, 12.05). In conclusion, the association between group participation and smaller risk of the functional disability was stronger among highly educated older adults. Intervention programs promoting social participation should consider participants' socioeconomic backgrounds. PMID:27235600

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorβ/δ activation is essential for modulating p-Foxo1/Foxo1 status in functional insulin-positive cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, L; Li, T; Zhang, Y; Pan, Z; Wu, B; Huang, X; Zhang, Y; Mei, Y; Ge, L; Shen, G; Ge, R-s; Zhu, D; Lou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) participate in energy homeostasis and play essential roles in diabetes therapy through their effects on non-pancreas tissues. Pathological microenvironment may influence the metabolic requirements for the maintenance of stem cell differentiation. Accordingly, understanding the mechanisms of PPARs on pancreatic β-cell differentiation may be helpful to find the underlying targets of disrupted energy homeostasis under the pancreatic disease condition. PPARs are involved in stem cell differentiation via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, but the subtype member activation and the downstream regulation in functional insulin-positive (INS+) cell differentiation remain unclear. Here, we show a novel role of PPARβ/δ activation in determining INS+ cell differentiation and functional maturation. We found PPARβ/δ expression selectively upregulated in mouse embryonic pancreases or stem cells-derived INS+ cells at the pancreatic mature stage in vivo and in vitro. Strikingly, given the inefficiency of generating INS+ cells in vitro, PPARβ/δ activation displayed increasing mouse and human ES cell-derived INS+ cell numbers and insulin secretion. This phenomenon was closely associated with the forkhead box protein O1 (Foxo1) nuclear shuttling, which was dependent on PPARβ/δ downstream PI3K/Akt signaling transduction. The present study reveals the essential role of PPARβ/δ activation on p-Foxo1/Foxo1 status, and in turn, determining INS+ cell generation and insulin secretion via affecting pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 expression. The results demonstrate the underlying mechanism by which PPARβ/δ activation promotes functional INS+ cell differentiation. It also provides potential targets for anti-diabetes drug discovery and hopeful clinical applications in human cell therapy. PMID:25855963

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorβ/δ activation is essential for modulating p-Foxo1/Foxo1 status in functional insulin-positive cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Li, T; Zhang, Y; Pan, Z; Wu, B; Huang, X; Zhang, Y; Mei, Y; Ge, L; Shen, G; Ge, R-s; Zhu, D; Lou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) participate in energy homeostasis and play essential roles in diabetes therapy through their effects on non-pancreas tissues. Pathological microenvironment may influence the metabolic requirements for the maintenance of stem cell differentiation. Accordingly, understanding the mechanisms of PPARs on pancreatic β-cell differentiation may be helpful to find the underlying targets of disrupted energy homeostasis under the pancreatic disease condition. PPARs are involved in stem cell differentiation via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, but the subtype member activation and the downstream regulation in functional insulin-positive (INS+) cell differentiation remain unclear. Here, we show a novel role of PPARβ/δ activation in determining INS+ cell differentiation and functional maturation. We found PPARβ/δ expression selectively upregulated in mouse embryonic pancreases or stem cells-derived INS+ cells at the pancreatic mature stage in vivo and in vitro. Strikingly, given the inefficiency of generating INS+ cells in vitro, PPARβ/δ activation displayed increasing mouse and human ES cell-derived INS+ cell numbers and insulin secretion. This phenomenon was closely associated with the forkhead box protein O1 (Foxo1) nuclear shuttling, which was dependent on PPARβ/δ downstream PI3K/Akt signaling transduction. The present study reveals the essential role of PPARβ/δ activation on p-Foxo1/Foxo1 status, and in turn, determining INS+ cell generation and insulin secretion via affecting pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 expression. The results demonstrate the underlying mechanism by which PPARβ/δ activation promotes functional INS+ cell differentiation. It also provides potential targets for anti-diabetes drug discovery and hopeful clinical applications in human cell therapy. PMID:25855963

  8. Synthetic substrates specific to activated plasmin can monitor the enzymatic functional status in situ in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gohda, Keigo; Fujimori, Ko; Teno, Naoki; Wanaka, Keiko; Tsuda, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    We here strove to overcome the limitations of expression analyses such as PCR and IHC, based on molecular recognition between target and probe molecules, by designing synthetic substrates specific to the target molecules to directly estimate the enzymatic functionality in situ. The specific substrate contains a probing unit, which is an organic fragment for specific enzyme binding, and a reactive unit, which is a natural peptide subject to catalysis. In this study, the activation of plasminogen to plasmin was examined in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells using the plasmin-specific synthetic substrates designed from their inhibitors. The localization and function of the activated plasmin were successfully visualized by fluorophore combined with the specific substrate concurrently. This would be the first time for activated plasmin at work in situ by direct observation. Our concept to directly monitor the functionality of target enzymes can be used straightforwardly for other proteases such as cathepsins or caspases. Also, this substrate concept as a 'tailor-made substrate' would be utilized as a novel functional molecular probe in vivo with appropriate detectable probes. PMID:24112688

  9. Functional Status Assessment of Patients With COPD

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Li, Honghe; Ding, Ning; Wang, Ningning; Wen, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Presently, there is no recommendation on how to assess functional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study aimed to summarize and systematically evaluate these measures. Studies on measures of COPD patients’ functional status published before the end of January 2015 were included using a search filters in PubMed and Web of Science, screening reference lists of all included studies, and cross-checking against some relevant reviews. After title, abstract, and main text screening, the remaining was appraised using the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) 4-point checklist. All measures from these studies were rated according to best-evidence synthesis and the best-rated measures were selected. A total of 6447 records were found and 102 studies were reviewed, suggesting 44 performance-based measures and 14 patient-reported measures. The majority of the studies focused on internal consistency, reliability, and hypothesis testing, but only 21% of them employed good or excellent methodology. Their common weaknesses include lack of checks for unidimensionality, inadequate sample sizes, no prior hypotheses, and improper methods. On average, patient-reported measures perform better than performance-based measures. The best-rated patient-reported measures are functional performance inventory (FPI), functional performance inventory short form (FPI-SF), living with COPD questionnaire (LCOPD), COPD activity rating scale (CARS), University of Cincinnati dyspnea questionnaire (UCDQ), shortness of breath with daily activities (SOBDA), and short-form pulmonary functional status scale (PFSS-11), and the best-rated performance-based measures are exercise testing: 6-minute walk test (6MWT), endurance treadmill test, and usual 4-meter gait speed (usual 4MGS). Further research is needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of performance-based measures since present studies failed to

  10. Rising U.S. income inequality and the changing gradient of socioeconomic status on physical functioning and activity limitations, 1984-2007.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui; George, Linda K

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the interactive contextual effect of income inequality on health. Specifically, we hypothesize that income inequality will moderate the relationships between individual-level risk factors and health. Using National Health Interview Survey data 1984-2007 (n = 607,959) and U.S. Census data, this paper estimates the effect of the dramatic increase in income inequality in the U.S. over the past two decades on the gradient of socioeconomic status on two measures of health (i.e., physical functioning and activity limitations). Results indicate that increasing income inequality strengthens the protective effects of family income, employment, college education, and marriage on these two measures of health. In contrast, high school education's protective effect (relative to less than a high school education) weakens in the context of increasing income inequality. In addition, we find that increasing income inequality exacerbates men's disadvantages in physical functioning and activity limitations. These findings shed light on research about growing health disparities in the U.S. in the last several decades. PMID:22959768

  11. Functional Status in Older Women Diagnosed with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    SANSES, Tatiana V.D.; SCHILTZ, Nicholas K.; COURI, Bruna M.; MAHAJAN, Sangeeta T.; RICHTER, Holly E.; WARNER, David F.; GURALNIK, Jack; KOROUKIAN, Siran M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Functional status plays an important role in the comprehensive characterization of older adults. Functional limitations are associated with an increased risk of adverse treatment outcomes, but there is limited data on the prevalence of functional limitations in older women with pelvic floor disorders. Objective The aim of the study was to describe the prevalence of functional limitations based on health status in older women with pelvic organ prolapse. Study Design This pooled, cross-sectional study utilized data from the linked Health and Retirement Study and Medicare files between 1992 and 2008. The analysis included 890 women ≥65 years with pelvic organ prolapse. We assessed self-reported functional status, categorized in strength, upper and lower body mobility, activities of daily living, and instrumental activities of daily living domains. Functional limitations were evaluated and stratified by respondents self-reported general health status. Descriptive statistics were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, and logistic regression was used to measure differences in the odds of functional limitation by increasing age. Results The prevalence of functional limitations was 76.2% in strength, 44.9% in upper and 65.8% in lower body mobility, 4.5% in activities of daily living and 13.6% in instrumental activities of daily living. Limitations were more prevalent in women with poor or fair health status than in women with good health status, including 91.5% vs 69.9% in strength, 72.9% vs 33.5% in upper and 88.0% vs 56.8% in lower body mobility, 11.6% vs 0.9% in activities of daily living, and 30.6% vs 6.7% in instrumental activities of daily living, all p<0.01. The odds of all functional limitations also increased significantly with advancing age. Conclusion Functional limitations, especially in strength and body mobility domains, are highly prevalent in older women with pelvic organ prolapse, particularly in those with poor or fair self

  12. Structure functions: Their status and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1988-09-29

    I discuss the current status of structure functions. Attention is given to the uncertainties in them and the implications of these uncertainties for experimental predictions. I indicate which experiments are capable of removing these uncertainties. 17 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Adjusting Population Risk for Functional Health Status.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard L; Hughes, John S; Goldfield, Norbert I

    2016-04-01

    Risk adjustment accounts for differences in population mix by reducing the likelihood of enrollee selection by managed care plans and providing a correction to otherwise biased reporting of provider or plan performance. Functional health status is not routinely included within risk-adjustment methods, but is believed by many to be a significant enhancement to risk adjustment for complex enrollees and patients. In this analysis a standardized measure of functional health was created using 3 different source functional assessment instruments submitted to the Medicare program on condition of payment. The authors use a 5% development sample of Medicare claims from 2006 and 2007, including functional health assessments, and develop a model of functional health classification comprising 9 groups defined by the interaction of self-care, mobility, incontinence, and cognitive impairment. The 9 functional groups were used to augment Clinical Risk Groups, a diagnosis-based patient classification system, and when using a validation set of 100% of Medicare data for 2010 and 2011, this study found the use of the functional health module to improve the fit of observed enrollee cost, measured by the R(2) statistic, by 5% across all Medicare enrollees. The authors observed complex nonlinear interactions across functional health domains when constructing the model and caution that functional health status needs careful handling when used for risk adjustment. The addition of functional health status within existing risk-adjustment models has the potential to improve equitable resource allocation in the financing of care costs for more complex enrollees if handled appropriately. (Population Health Management 2016;19:136-144). PMID:26348621

  14. Active sensor assessment of corn nitrogen status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of active sensor measurements of in-season corn (Zea mays L.) nitrogen (N) status for directing spatially-variable N applications has been advocated to improve N use efficiency. However, first it is necessary to confirm that active sensors can reliably assess corn N status. Our research goals we...

  15. Biofunctional activity of tortillas and bars enhanced with nopal. Preliminary assessment of functional effect after intake on the oxidative status in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prickly pear cactus stem (nopal) has been used in folk medicine and a raw material since ancient times. Stems have been proved to possess components with valuable biological activities: anti inflamatory, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, hypoglycemic, and so forth. Nowadays, people consume foods not only to cover the nutritional requirements, they also demand for healty, natural and convenient foods that show biological activity. This study evaluated the bio-functional effects of consuming tortillas or bars (filled with prickly pear fruit jam) supplemented or not with nopal dietary fiber. Results The addition of nopal increased the fiber and polyphenols content in both tortillas (16.67%, 2.33 mg QE/L) and bars (13.79%, 1.99 mg QE/L). Furthermore the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, 1.47 mmol/L), polyphenols (7.67 mg QE/L) and vitamin C (77.91 μmol/L) showed increased levels in volunteer's plasma after intake. Also lower levels of glucose (4.43 mmol/L), total cholesterol (4.27 mmol/L), LDL (1.96 mmol/L) and triglycerides (1.54 mmol/L) were observed in plasma after the supplementation scheme with nopal-based tortilla, while GSH:GSSG ratio in erythrocytes was higher. Conclusions The results suggested that the intake of nopal-based tortillas with high content in fiber and antioxidant compounds can help to improve the overall oxidative status in healthy humans, which can reduce the risk of some chronic diseases. In addition, these products showed suitable physicochemical characteristics to be marketed. PMID:21371324

  16. Status report of RMS active damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Mike; Demeo, Martha E.

    1993-01-01

    A status report of Remote Manipulator System (RMS) active damping augmentation is presented. Topics covered include: active damping augmentation; benefits of RMS ADA; simulated payload definition; sensor and actuator definition; ADA control law design; Shuttle Engineering Simulator (SES) real-time simulation; and astronaut evaluation.

  17. Relationship of depressive symptoms to functional status in women with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Song, Eun Kyeung; Moser, Debra K.; Lennie, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Among patients with heart failure, women have worse functional status than do men, but little research has focused on determining factors that influence functional status in either sex. Objectives To compare factors that influence functional status in men and women with heart failure and to test whether depressive symptoms mediate the relationship between physical symptoms and functional status. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study design was used. A total of 231 patients, 133 men and 98 women, were recruited from an inpatient heart failure clinic in South Korea. Functional status (the Korean Activity Scale/Index), physical symptoms (the Symptom Status Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (the Beck Depression Inventory), and situational factors (living status, socioeconomic status) were measured. Hierarchical multiple regression and mediation analysis were used for data analysis. Results Women (mean score, 24.5; SD, 17.3) had worse functional status than did men (mean score, 31.9; SD, 20.1; P=.004). Dyspnea on exertion (β = −0.16), ankle swelling (β = −0.19), fatigue (β = −0.20), and depressive symptoms (β = −0.19) were independently associated with functional status in women, whereas only dyspnea on exertion (β = −0.30) influenced functional status of men in hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Mediation analysis indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between physical symptoms and functional status in women with heart failure, but not in men. Conclusions Distinct physical and psychological symptoms influence functional status in women with heart failure. A systematic multidimensional intervention may be required to target depressive symptoms to improve functional status in women with heart failure. PMID:19556413

  18. Direct and Functional Biomarkers of Vitamin B6 Status.

    PubMed

    Ueland, Per Magne; Ulvik, Arve; Rios-Avila, Luisa; Midttun, Øivind; Gregory, Jesse F

    2015-01-01

    Measures of B6 status are categorized as direct biomarkers and as functional biomarkers. Direct biomarkers measure B6 vitamers in plasma/serum, urine and erythrocytes, and among these plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is most commonly used. Functional biomarkers include erythrocyte transaminase activities and, more recently, plasma levels of metabolites involved in PLP-dependent reactions, such as the kynurenine pathway, one-carbon metabolism, transsulfuration (cystathionine), and glycine decarboxylation (serine and glycine). Vitamin B6 status is best assessed by using a combination of biomarkers because of the influence of potential confounders, such as inflammation, alkaline phosphatase activity, low serum albumin, renal function, and inorganic phosphate. Ratios between substrate-products pairs have recently been investigated as a strategy to attenuate such influence. These efforts have provided promising new markers such as the PAr index, the 3-hydroxykynurenine:xanthurenic acid ratio, and the oxoglutarate:glutamate ratio. Targeted metabolic profiling or untargeted metabolomics based on mass spectrometry allow the simultaneous quantification of a large number of metabolites, which are currently evaluated as functional biomarkers, using data reduction statistics. PMID:25974692

  19. Active Debris Removal: Current Status of Activities in CNES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnal, Christophe; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Desjean, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-01

    Most of the ongoing studies led at worldwide level, mainly through IADC Actions, conclude that in order to keep a stable Low Earth Orbit environment in the coming decades, it may be necessary to retrieve some 5 to 10 large objects annually. These operations, known as Active Debris Removal (ADR), raise a huge amount of difficulties in numerous domains: political, legal, insurance, defense, financing and, last but not least, technical questions. The current paper aims at reviewing the current status of the ADR activities led by CNES both at National and Multi-lateral level. The first question which is raised is that of the high level requirements to be applied. What are the requirements coming from the operators; do we want to stabilize the environment, decrease it or could we accept some increase over the years; when do we have to act; can we baseline random reentry of such large objects or do we have to stick to controlled destructive reentries?… There may not yet be clear answers to these points, so efforts at international level are required. The second part of the paper deals with the potential solutions at system level. Numerous possibilities can be identified, depending on the size of the launcher and of the strategy selected to de-orbit the debris. Large space tugs visiting some 10 debris or small dedicated chasers launched as piggyback are among the solutions which have been traded. The currently preferred solution is described in details. The third part of the paper is devoted to the chaser-debris operations themselves, following five key functions; - the long range rendezvous, - the short range rendezvous up to contact, - the mechanical interfacing of the debris, - its control by the chaser, when required, - the de-orbiting maneuver itself. For each of these functions, the current status of available technologies is described, enabling the identification of the most critical ones requiring additional R&T effort and subsequent demonstrations. Among them

  20. Detoxification enzyme activities (CYP1A1 and GST) in the skin of humpback whales as a function of organochlorine burdens and migration status.

    PubMed

    Bengtson Nash, S; Dawson, A; Burkhard, M; Waugh, C; Huston, W

    2014-10-01

    The activities of glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1) enzymes were measured in freshly extracted epidermis of live-biopsied, migrating, southern hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). The two quantified enzyme activities did not correlate strongly with each other. Similarly, neither correlated strongly with any of the organochlorine compound groups previously measured in the superficial blubber of the sample biopsy core, likely reflecting the anticipated low levels of typical aryl-hydrocarbon receptor ligands. GST activity did not differ significantly between genders or between northward (early migration) or southward (late migration) migrating cohorts. Indeed, the inter-individual variability in GST measurements was relatively low. This observation raises the possibility that measured activities were basal activities and that GST function was inherently impacted by the fasting state of the sampled animals, as seen in other species. These results do not support the implementation of CYP1A1 or GST as effective biomarkers of organochlorine contaminant burdens in southern hemisphere populations of humpback whales as advocated for other cetacean species. Further investigation of GST activity in feeding versus fasting cohorts may, however, provide some insight into the fasting metabolism of these behaviourally adapted populations. PMID:25058559

  1. Functional Status Assessment of COPD Based on Ability to Perform Daily Living Activities: A Systematic Review of Paper and Pencil Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Monjazebi, Fateme; Dalvandi, Asghar; Ebadi, Abbas; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Rahgozar, Mahdi; Richter, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Context: Activity of daily living (ADL) is an important predictor of mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Increasing ADL is important in patients with COPD and assessment of ADL is one of the best ways to evaluate the status of COPD patients. Objectives: The objective of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the psychometric properties of paper and pencil instruments measuring ADL in patients with COPD. Data Sources: English papers published from 1980 to 2014 regarding ADL in patients with COPD were searched in Web of Science, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane, PubMed, ProQuest, and CINAHL databases using the following keywords: “COPD”, “ADL”, “activities of daily living”, “daily activities”, “instrument”, “questionnaire”, “paper-and-pencil instruments”, and “measure”. Following the Internet search, manual search was also done to find article references. Study Selection: A total of 186 articles were found. Of those, 31 met the inclusion criteria. Full texts of articles meeting the inclusion criteria were studied. Consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments”(COSMIN) were used to assess the quality of the studies. Data Extraction: Data extraction form based on research aims developed by researchers and psychometric experts, with 17 questions was used. Results: In these articles, 14 pen and paper instruments were identified for examining ADL in patients with COPD; of which, 4 dealt directly with ADL while 9 assessed other criteria i.e. dyspnea as ADL indicator. The majority of instruments only dealt with two main dimensions of ADL: Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), and did not consider Advanced Activities of Daily Living (AADL), which is influenced by cultural and motivational factors. Conclusion: Despite several ADL instruments identified, complete psychometric processes have only been done in

  2. Status and trends in active control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Szalai, K. J.

    1975-01-01

    The emergence of highly reliable fly-by-wire flight control systems makes it possible to consider a strong reliance on automatic control systems in the design optimization of future aircraft. This design philosophy has been referred to as the control configured vehicle approach or the application of active control technology. Several studies and flight tests sponsored by the Air Force and NASA have demonstrated the potential benefits of control configured vehicles and active control technology. The present status and trends of active control technology are reviewed and the impact it will have on aircraft designs, design techniques, and the designer is predicted.

  3. Predictors of functional status in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, L; van Schaardenburg, D; van der Horst-Bru..., I E; Bezemer, P; Dijkmans, B

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To find disease parameters that can predict the functional capacity of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at the first visit to the rheumatologist and one year after entry.
METHODS—Patients referred to the outpatients clinic between 1995 and 1996, with a symptom duration of less than three years and fulfilling the American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for RA within one year after entry were included. Assessments of the duration of morning stiffness, the Disease Activity Score (DAS: a composite score based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), number of painful and swollen joints and patient global assessment), pain (Visual Analogue Scale), the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (AIMS) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) were performed every three months. Possible predictors of the HAQ at entry and after one year were analysed by logistic regression.
RESULTS—133 patients were included in the study. The median duration of complaints was three months (range 0-35) and the median HAQ score at entry was 1.12 (range 0-3). There was no correlation between duration of complaints and the HAQ at entry (r = 0.01). An HAQ score under the 50th percentile at entry could be predicted correctly for 74% of the patients by entry DAS and C reactive protein concentration, and at one year could be predicted correctly for 73% of the patients by entry HAQ and pain score.
CONCLUSION—Disease activity is strongly correlated with a lower functional capacity at entry, whereas disease duration is not. The functional status at entry is a good predictor for functional status at one year. Severity rather than duration of arthritis prompts referral in this cohort.

 PMID:10700432

  4. Significance of functional status data for payment and quality.

    PubMed

    Clauser, Steven B; Bierman, Arlene S

    2003-01-01

    To date, the Medicare Program has used functional status information (FSI) in patient assessment tools, performance assessment, payment mechanisms, and--most recently--in quality measures to inform consumer choice. This article explores the rationale for the collection of functional status data to promote innovative models of care and examines issues related to data collection for quality improvement, performance measurement, and payment. In this issue of the Health Care Financing Review, articles focus on collection and classification of functional status for payment and quality purposes. PMID:12894631

  5. Status of LDEF activation measurements and archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. Alan; Parnell, Thomas A.; Laird, Christopher E.

    1995-01-01

    We review the status of induced radioactivity measurements for the LDEF spacecraft which includes studies of the nuclide, target, directional and depth dependences of the activation. Analysis of the data has focused on extraction of the specific activities for many materials to develop a global picture of the low Earth orbital environment to which the LDEF was subjected. Preliminary comparisons of data in a previous review showed that it was possible to make meaningful intercomparisons between results obtained at different facilities. Generally these comparisons were good and gave results to within 10-20 percent, although some analysis remains. These results clearly provide constraints for recent calculations being performed of the radiation environment of the LDEF. We are not anticipating a period of production of final activation results. An archive is being prepared jointly between NASA/Marshall and Eastern Kentucky University which will include gamma ray spectra and other intermediate results.

  6. Online social activity reflects economic status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  7. Functional Status of Thyroid and Cognitive Functions after Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bojar, Iwona; Owoc, Alfred; Gujski, Mariusz; Witczak, Mariusz; Gnatowski, Maciej; Walecka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid activity plays a role in cognition. However, the relation between the functional state of thyroid and neuropsychiatric changes proceeding with age among people without clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction is still unknown. The aim of this study was analysis of cognitive function levels in reference to thyroid examination: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4), triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO-AB), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-AB), TSH receptor antibodies (AB-TSHR) in women after menopause. Material/Methods A group of 383 women was recruited for the study. The inclusion criteria were: minimum two years after the last menstruation and no dementia signs on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Computerized battery of Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) test was used to diagnostic cognitive functions. The blood plasma values were determined: TSH, FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, Tg-AB, and AB-TSHR. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and analysis of variance in STATISTICA software. Results In women after menopause, TSH was negatively correlated with NCI results, executive functions, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. FT4 was positively correlated with results of psychomotor speed. TT3 and TT4 were negatively correlated with results of memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, TT4 was negatively correlated with NCI, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility. TPO-AB was negatively correlated with results of memory, verbal memory, and psychomotor speed. Tg-AB was positively correlated with results of reaction time. AB-TSHR was negatively correlated with NCI results, memory, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions Our study supports the importance of thyroid functionality in cognitive functioning in a group of women after menopause. The values

  8. Regression-Based Estimates of Observed Functional Status in Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Meghan B.; Miller, L. Stephen; Woodard, John L.; Davey, Adam; Martin, Peter; Burgess, Molly; Poon, Leonard W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: There is lack of consensus on the best method of functional assessment, and there is a paucity of studies on daily functioning in centenarians. We sought to compare associations between performance-based, self-report, and proxy report of functional status in centenarians. We expected the strongest relationships between proxy…

  9. Lifestyle engagement affects cognitive status differences and trajectories on executive functions in older adults.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A

    2014-02-01

    The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

  10. [EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: CURRENT STATUS].

    PubMed

    Balbi, Paula; Roussos, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to bring clinicians closer to the current discussion about the complex concept of Executive Functions in mental disorders that the DSM includes in axis 1, such as Bipolar Disorder, Depression, Social Phobia, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. The present controversies about the definitions of Executive Functions are exposed as well as the importance of its study. The article also presents the idea that patients with these disorders suffer alterations in their Executive Functions and as the knowledge in this area is fragmented and contradictory, it is important to continue its study. Fi- nally, the review concludes that not only it is necessary to define the neuropsychological profile in different disorders but also to work together with the clinicians to build a common place of study and discussion. PMID:26323107

  11. The Value Adults Place on Child Health and Functional Status

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Benjamin M.; Brown, Derek S.; Reeve, Bryce B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives By summarizing the value adults place on child health and functional status, this study provides a new quantitative tool that enhances our understanding of the benefits of new health technologies and illustrates the potential contributions of existing datasets for comparative effectiveness research in pediatrics. Methods Respondents, ages 18 and older, were recruited from a nationally representative panel between August 2012 and February 2013 to complete an online survey. The survey included a series of paired comparisons that asked respondents to choose between child health and functional status outcomes, which were described using the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a 14-item descriptive system of child health outcomes. Using respondent choices regarding an unnamed 7- or 10-year-old child, generalized linear model analyses estimated the value of child health and functional status on a quality-adjusted life year scale. Results Across the domains of health and functional status, repeated or chronic physical pain, feeling anxious or depressed, and behavioral problems (such as acting out, fighting, bullying, or arguing) were most valuable, as indicated by adult respondents’ preference of other health problems to avoid outcomes along these domains. Discussion These findings may inform comparative effectiveness research, health technology assessments, clinical practice guidelines, and public resource allocation decisions by enhancing understanding of the value adults place on health and functional status of children. Improved measurement of public priorities can promote national child health by drawing attention to what adults value most and complementing conventional measures of public health surveillance. PMID:26091599

  12. Assessing the Functional Status of Older Cancer Patients in an Ambulatory Care Visit

    PubMed Central

    Overcash, Janine

    2015-01-01

    Functional status assessment is a useful and essential component of the complete history and physical exam of the older patient diagnosed with cancer. Functional status is the ability to conduct activities that are necessary for independence and more executive activities, such as money management, cooking, and transportation. Assessment of functional status creates a portal into interpreting the health of in older persons. Understanding limitations and physical abilities can help in developing cancer treatment strategies, patient/family teaching needs, and in-home services that enhance patient/family care. This article will review the benefits of functional assessment, instruments that can be used during an ambulatory care visit, and interventions that can address potential limitations. PMID:27417801

  13. MODIS instrument status and operational activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, William L.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2004-10-01

    The Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS have been successfully operated on-orbit for a total of more than six and a half years, collecting data for the science and applications communities to develop and enhance their understanding of the Earth/atmosphere system and to support studies of the climate and climate changes. Since its launch in December 1999, the Terra MODIS has experienced several changes of its operational configuration either caused by the failure of individual electronics subsystems or purposely switched for better signal response or data quality. Excluding minor anomalies related to instrument reset events during initial on-orbit operation, the Aqua MODIS has been operating in a single configuration since its launch in May 2002. There are approximately 40 science products that are being produced using the calibrated data sets from each instrument. In addition, several products are generated using the combined observations from both instruments. This paper provides an overview of Terra and Aqua MODIS instrument status and summarizes those on-orbit operational activities designed and implemented to provide and support instrument calibration and characterization. The assessments of instrument performance are based on the use of on-board calibrators (OBC) and other activities specially developed and implemented by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) at NASA/GSFC. Both instruments are performing well. During four and a half years of Terra MODIS on-orbit operation, 11 detectors became noisy and one inoperable out of a total of 490 detectors. Except for band 6 at 1.6m that had many inoperable detectors (identified pre-launch and immediately after launch), there have been no new noisy or inoperable detectors in Aqua MODIS during its two years of on-orbit operation. The sensors' spectral and spatial performance have also been very stable.

  14. APOE genotype influences functional status among elderly without dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, S.M.; Jacobs, D.M.; Stern, Y.

    1995-12-18

    The presence of apolipoprotein-{epsilon}4 (APOE-{epsilon}4) significantly increases the risk of Alzheimer`s disease (AD). The association between APOE-{epsilon}4 status and functional abilities was explored further in a multicultural sample of community-dwelling, nondemented elders. The sample was limited to cognitively-intact, community-dwelling elders, who were free of stroke or other neurologic disability. In 218 elders who met research criteria, the presence of APOE-{epsilon}4 was associated with poorer functional status, apart from the effects of neuropsychological performance, gender, age, and education (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.9). In 158 subjects without an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele, 50% reported no functional limitation; in the 60 subjects with an {epsilon}4 allele, only 28% reported no functional limitation (P < .01). The relationship was not explained by the distribution of co-morbidities. The association between poorer function and the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was evident in each ethnic group. In path analyses, the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was associated with decreased functional ability in non-demented elders not simply through an association with poorer cognitive status, but also independently. These results suggest that the APOE-{epsilon}4 genotype is associated with functional deficit in people with normal neuropsychological profiles. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Changes in functional status and functional capacity following coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Douki, Z Esmaeili; Vaezzadeh, N; Zakizad, M; Shahmohammadi, S; Sadeghi, R; Mohammadpour, R A

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare changes in health related-quality of life (H-RQOL) on physical functioning and mental health domains, changes in functional capacity before and 18 months after CABG surgery. Comprehensive data on 187 patients who underwent CABG surgery were prospectively collected, including preoperative factors and postoperative morbidity. Assessing functional status, the change in physical functioning score and change in mental health score were obtained using the physical functioning and mental health subscales out of the eight total subscales of the (SF-36) questionnaire. Also, functional capacity was estimated according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. The results showed 18 months after CABG surgery survival rates were (95.7%). Significant improvements in functional status were seen in physical functioning (p < 0.001), mental health (p < 0.000). However, there were no significant changes in the mean of functional status scores among patients in three age groups. Other significant improvement was found in functional capacity and NYHA class before and the 18 months after CABG. Functional status markedly and significantly improved after CABG surgery, particularly in physical functioning. However, the functional status among survivors of CABG surgery is worse than that of the general population. It seems further research is needed to identify factors explaining the change in H-RQOL to develop interventions to support patients. PMID:20836288

  16. Socioeconomic Status and Executive Function: Developmental Trajectories and Mediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Daniel A.; Gallop, Robert; Evans, Gary W.; Farah, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function (EF), but fundamental aspects of this relation remain unknown: the developmental course of the SES disparity, its continued sensitivity to SES changes during that course, and the features of childhood experience responsible for the SES-EF relation. Regarding course, early disparities…

  17. Socioeconomic Status and Functional Brain Development--Associations in Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G.; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.; Kushnerenko, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject…

  18. Measuring changes in functional status among patients with schizophrenia: the link with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Matza, Louis S; Buchanan, Robert; Purdon, Scot; Brewster-Jordan, Jessica; Zhao, Yang; Revicki, Dennis A

    2006-10-01

    Cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) includes neuropsychological deficits in attention, working memory, verbal learning, and problem solving. These deficits have been shown to be linked to impairment in functional status (eg, social behavior, work performance, and activities of daily living) among patients with schizophrenia in cross-sectional studies. Less is known about the relationship between cognitive and functional change over time, such as potential functional implications of treatment-related improvement in CIAS. The purpose of this review is to summarize research on the association between change in CIAS and change in functional status, to discuss responsiveness of functional outcomes measures, and to provide recommendations for future research and measure development. Nine longitudinal studies were located on the link between CIAS and functional status, and 8 functional outcomes measures were used across these studies. The 9 studies offer initial support for a link between change in cognitive function and change in functional status. However, inconsistent findings across studies indicate that available research is preliminary, and substantial questions remain unanswered. Shortcomings of functional status measures are noted: most instruments were not developed for the target population, and none have demonstrated responsiveness to cognitive change among schizophrenic patients. It is recommended that new functional outcome measures be developed that are specifically designed to be responsive to change in cognition, with domains previously shown to be related to cognitive ability. When creating new functional outcomes measures for assessment of patients with schizophrenia, responsiveness to change in CIAS should be evaluated as part of the development and validation process. PMID:16829550

  19. [Increase of physical activity by improvement of the nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Torún, B

    1989-09-01

    Physical activity is affected by nutritional modifications and, in turn, influences growth, cognition, social behavior, work performance and other functions. Studies in preschool children showed that: 1. A decrease in energy intake during four to seven days reduced the time allocated to energy-demanding activities and increased sedentary activities. 2. Children with mild weight deficit were more sedentary than well-nourished counterparts. 3. Children became more active when nutritional status improved. 4. A 10% reduction in energy intake reduced total energy expenditure by 15% without affecting weight gain nor basal metabolism. Studies of men working in non-mechanized agriculture showed that: 1. Dietary improvements led to faster salaried work, reduction of napping time and greater physical activity after work. 2. An increase in energy intake increased total daily energy expenditure, tending to maintain energy balance and relatively stable body weight within the cyclic variations of the agricultural year. 3. Food supplementation did not necessarily improve productivity. Other labor incentives without dietary improvements increased energy expenditure during working hours, which resulted in weight loss. In conclusion, good health and nutrition provide the biological basis for adequate physical activity that may improve cognitive development, social interactions, economic productivity and the quality of life of an individual or a population, but other incentives are required for the optimal expression of that biologic potential. PMID:2518785

  20. Associations between preoperative functional status and functional outcomes of total joint replacement in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jamie E.; Ghazinouri, Roya; Alcantara, Luis; Thornhill, Thomas S.; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. In developed countries, the functional status scores of patients with poor preoperative scores undergoing total joint replacement (TJR) improve more following TJR than those for patients with better preoperative scores. However, those with better preoperative scores achieve the best postoperative functional outcomes. We determined whether similar associations exist in a developing country. Methods. Dominican patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement completed WOMAC and SF-36 surveys preoperatively and at 12-month follow-up. Patients were stratified into low-, medium- and high-scoring preoperative groups based on their preoperative WOMAC function scores. We examined the associations between the baseline functional status of these groups and two outcomes—improvement in functional status over 12 months and functional status at 12 months—using analysis of variance with multivariable linear regression. Results. Patients who scored the lowest preoperatively made the greatest gains in function and pain relief following their TJRs. However, there were no significant differences in pain or function at 12-month follow-up between patients who scored low and those who scored high on preoperative WOMAC and SF-36 surveys. Conclusion. Patients with poor preoperative functional status had greater improvement but similar 12-month functional outcomes compared with patients who had a higher level of function before surgery. These results suggest that a policy of focusing scarce resources on patients with worse functional status in developing countries may optimize improvement following TJR without threatening functional outcome. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings in other developing countries and to understand why these associations vary between patients in the Dominican Republic and patients from developed countries. PMID:23748412

  1. Functional Status and Health Information in Canada: Proposals and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Bickenbach, Jerome E.

    2003-01-01

    The primary obstacle to evidence-based health care quality assessment in Canada is reliable data on health encounters and episodes of care. The recent Federal/Provincial Health Accord will enhance health data collection, including standardized functional status information (FSI) for administrative records. Canadian health policy developers also agree that FSI is needed to bridge data gaps since alterations in functional status create the continuity that links all episodes of care and health service utilization. Given Canada's universal, single-payer, health financing structure, the prospects for coherent and systemwide data collection are good. This article describes the Canadian health care from the perspective of health information, and surveys proposals in electronic health technology development, the obstacles that need to be faced, and the prospects of doing so. PMID:12894637

  2. The Aftermath of Hip Fracture: Discharge Placement, Functional Status Change, and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Bentler, Suzanne E.; Liu, Li; Obrizan, Maksym; Cook, Elizabeth A.; Wright, Kara B.; Geweke, John F.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Pavlik, Claire E.; Wallace, Robert B.; Ohsfeldt, Robert L.; Jones, Michael P.; Rosenthal, Gary E.; Wolinsky, Fredric D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors prospectively explored the consequences of hip fracture with regard to discharge placement, functional status, and mortality using the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). Data from baseline (1993) AHEAD interviews and biennial follow-up interviews were linked to Medicare claims data from 1993–2005. There were 495 postbaseline hip fractures among 5,511 respondents aged ≥69 years. Mean age at hip fracture was 85 years; 73% of fracture patients were white women, 45% had pertrochanteric fractures, and 55% underwent surgical pinning. Most patients (58%) were discharged to a nursing facility, with 14% being discharged to their homes. In-hospital, 6-month, and 1-year mortality were 2.7%, 19%, and 26%, respectively. Declines in functional-status-scale scores ranged from 29% on the fine motor skills scale to 56% on the mobility index. Mean scale score declines were 1.9 for activities of daily living, 1.7 for instrumental activities of daily living, and 2.2 for depressive symptoms; scores on mobility, large muscle, gross motor, and cognitive status scales worsened by 2.3, 1.6, 2.2, and 2.5 points, respectively. Hip fracture characteristics, socioeconomic status, and year of fracture were significantly associated with discharge placement. Sex, age, dementia, and frailty were significantly associated with mortality. This is one of the few studies to prospectively capture these declines in functional status after hip fracture. PMID:19808632

  3. Functional Status of Elderly Adults Before and After Interventions for Critical Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Todd R.; Petroski, Gregory F.; Kruse, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The impact of interventions for Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) on functional status in the elderly remains unclear. Open and endovascular procedures were evaluated. Methods Medicare inpatient claims were linked with nursing home assessment data to identify elective admissions for lower extremity procedures for CLI. A functional impairment score (0-28; higher scores indicating greater impairment) based on residents' need for assistance with self-care activities, walking, and locomotion was calculated before and after interventions. Hierarchical modeling determined the effect of the surgery on residents' function, controlling for comorbidity, cognition, and pre-hospital function. Results 352 and 350 patients underwent open and endovascular procedures, respectively (rest pain: 84; ulceration: 351; and gangrene: 267). Hospitalization was associated with a significant worsening in function following both procedures. Disease severity was associated with the amount of initial decline but not with the rate of recovery (p>.35). Residents who received open surgery improved more quickly following hospital discharge (p=.011). Conclusions In the frail elderly, open and endovascular procedures for CLI were associated with similar initial declines in functional status, suggesting that compared with open procedures, less invasive endovascular procedures were not associated with maintaining baseline function. In this select population, endovascular procedures for CLI were not associated with improved functional status over time compared to open. Six months post-hospital, patients who received traditional open bypass had significantly better functional status than those who received endovascular procedures for all CLI diagnoses. Further analysis is required to assist stakeholders in performing procedures most likely to preserve functional status in the frail elderly and nursing home population. PMID:24139567

  4. Social status modulates neural activity in the mentalizing network

    PubMed Central

    Muscatell, Keely A.; Morelli, Sylvia A.; Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Galinsky, Adam D.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Dapretto, Mirella; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2013-01-01

    The current research explored the neural mechanisms linking social status to perceptions of the social world. Two fMRI studies provide converging evidence that individuals lower in social status are more likely to engage neural circuitry often involved in ‘mentalizing’ or thinking about others' thoughts and feelings. Study 1 found that college students' perception of their social status in the university community was related to neural activity in the mentalizing network (e.g., DMPFC, MPFC, precuneus/PCC) while encoding social information, with lower social status predicting greater neural activity in this network. Study 2 demonstrated that socioeconomic status, an objective indicator of global standing, predicted adolescents' neural activity during the processing of threatening faces, with individuals lower in social status displaying greater activity in the DMPFC, previously associated with mentalizing, and the amygdala, previously associated with emotion/salience processing. These studies demonstrate that social status is fundamentally and neurocognitively linked to how people process and navigate their social worlds. PMID:22289808

  5. Perceived health status and daily activity participation of older Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng

    2011-07-01

    This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being. PMID:20685663

  6. WHO's ICF and Functional Status Information in Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Üstün, T. Bedirhan; Chatterji, Somnath; Kostansjek, Nenad; Bickenbach, Jerome

    2003-01-01

    A common framework for describing functional status information (FSI) in health records is needed in order to make this information comparable and of value. The World Health Organization's (WHO's) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), which has been approved by all its member States, provides this common language and framework. The biopsychosocial model of functioning and disability embodied in the ICF goes beyond disease and conceptualizes functioning from the individual's body, person, and lived experience vantage points, thereby allowing for planning interventions targeted at the individual's body, the individual as a whole or toward the environment. This framework then permits the evaluation of both the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of these different interventions in devising programs at the personal or societal level. PMID:12894636

  7. Trajectories of cognitive decline and functional status in the frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Rossitza; Demers, Louise; Béland, François

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the implications of different levels of cognitive decline on functional status in frail older adults. Four cognitive trajectories, including two with catastrophic cognitive decline, were defined in a 3-year study. Participants with complete cognitive and functional status data at baseline, 12 and 36 months of follow-up were included in the study (n=456). Data were analysed with repeated measures statistics. Substantial functional deterioration over time was observed for the participants with catastrophic cognitive decline. Catastrophic cognitive decline influenced performance in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and activities of daily living (ADL) at 12 months, whereas basic physical and mental actions were affected at 36 months. IADL were found to deteriorate more than ADL. The results have implications on planning appropriate geriatric rehabilitation and long-term care program. PMID:17976840

  8. Psychiatric Morbidity, Pain Perception, and Functional Status of Chronic Pain Patients in Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Rajmohan, V; Kumar, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Context: Psychological factors, such as that exist when we experience pain, can profoundly alter the strength of pain perception. Aim: The study aims to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, and its association with perception of pain and functional status in chronic patients in palliative care. Materials and Methods: The sample was selected via simple randomisation and post consent were assessed using (1) a semi- structured questionnaire to elicit socio-demographic information and medical data (2) Brief Pain Inventory (3) ICD-10 Symptom Checklist (4) ICD-10-Diagnostic Criteria for Research (DCR) (5) Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (6) Covi Anxiety Rating Scale (7) Karnofsky Performance Status Scale. Data was analysed using independent sample t test and chi square test. Results: The psychiatric morbidity was 67% with depression and adjustment disorders being the major diagnosis. There was a significant association between psychiatric morbidity pain variables (P = 0.000). Psychiatric morbidity significantly impaired activity, mood, working, walk, sleep, relationship, and enjoyment. There was no association between aetiology of pain, type of cancer, treatment for primary condition and treatment for pain and psychiatric morbidity. The functional status of cancer patients was also poorer in patients with psychiatric morbidity (P = 0.008). Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of psychiatric illness in chronic pain patients of any aetiology. Psychiatric morbidity is associated with increased pain perception, impairment in activity and poor functional status. PMID:24347904

  9. Modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis function by social status in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Jennifer D; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Vijayan, Mathilakath M; Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2012-04-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) form stable dominance hierarchies when confined in pairs. These hierarchies are driven by aggressive competition over limited resources and result in one fish becoming dominant over the other. An important indicator of low social status is sustained elevation of circulating cortisol levels as a result of chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. In the present study it was hypothesized that social status modulates the expression of key proteins involved in the functioning of the HPI axis. Cortisol treatment and fasting were used to assess whether these characteristics seen in subordinate fish also affected HPI axis function. Social status modulated plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, cortisol synthesis, and liver glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. Plasma ACTH levels were lower by approximately 2-fold in subordinate and cortisol-treated fish, consistent with a negative feedback role for cortisol in modulating HPI axis function. Although cortisol-treated fish exhibited differences in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP) mRNA relative abundances in the preoptic area and telencephalon, respectively, no effect of social status on CRF or CRF-BP was detected. Head kidney melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) mRNA relative levels were unaffected by social status, while mRNA relative abundances of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme were elevated in dominant fish. Liver GR2 mRNA and total GR protein levels in subordinate fish were lower than control values by approximately 2-fold. In conclusion, social status modulated the functioning of the HPI axis in rainbow trout. Our results suggest altered cortisol dynamics and reduced target tissue response to this steroid in subordinate fish, while the higher transcript levels for steroid biosynthesis in dominant fish leads us to propose an

  10. Spacecraft active thermal control technology status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Four advanced space radiator concepts that were pursued in an integrated effort to develop multi-mission-use and low cost heat rejection systems which can overcome the limitations of current radiator systems are briefly discussed and described. Also, in order to establish a firm background to compare the advanced space radiator concepts, the Orbiter active thermal control system is also briefly described.

  11. Assessment of Functional Status and Quality of Life in Claudication

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Ryan J.; Casserly, Ivan P.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Ho, P. Michael; Hiatt, William R.; Nehler, Mark R.; Regensteiner, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Treadmill walking is commonly used to evaluate walking impairment and efficacy of treatment for intermittent claudication (IC) in clinical and research settings. Although this is an important measure, it does not provide information about how patients perceive the effects of their treatments on more global measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods PubMed/Medline was searched to find publications about the most commonly used questionnaires to assess functional status and/or general and disease-specific HRQOL in patients with PAD who experience IC. Inclusion criteria for questionnaires were based on existence of a body of literature in symptomatic PAD. Results Six general questionnaires and 7 disease-specific questionnaires are included with details about the number of domains covered and how each tool is scored. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 item questionnaire and Walking Impairment Questionnaire are currently the most used general and disease-specific questionnaires at baseline and following treatment for IC, respectively. Conclusions The use of tools which assess functional status and HRQOL has importance in both the clinical and research areas to assess treatment efficacy from the patient perspective. Therefore, assessing HRQOL in addition to treadmill-measured walking ability provides insight as to effects of treatments on patient outcomes and may help guide therapy. PMID:21334172

  12. Functional Status and Search for Meaning After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Skaggs, Brenda G; Yates, Bernice C

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the search for meaning and functional status (psychological and physical) between persons who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention and have recurrent angina symptoms and those who do not have recurrent symptoms. Participants (224; 147 male, 77 female) who underwent PCI completed the following study materials: Meaning in Heart Disease instrument, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and SF36v2™. Persons with recurrent angina symptoms (40% of the sample) were more likely to have higher disrupted meaning, greater anxiety, greater depression, lower physical functioning, and greater use of meaning-based coping (searching for answers and refocusing global meaning) compared with individuals without recurrent symptoms. Interventions are needed to identify the risk of recurrent symptoms after percutaneous coronary intervention and provide coping and cognitive behavioral interventions focused on managing the psychological and physical disruptions. PMID:25512267

  13. Rhetorical Status: A Study of Its Origins, Functions, and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Cal M.; Miller, Eugene F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of rhetorical status, compares it to ethos and source credibility, and discusses social status and rhetorical status. Shows how rhetorical status enters into everyday communication by examining a protracted set of interactions between two sisters and a small-town mayor over disputed water bills. (SR)

  14. 76 FR 67556 - Proposed Information Collection (Notice of Change in Student Status) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Notice of Change in Student Status) Activity: Comment Request... proper performance of VBA's functions, including whether the information will have practical utility; (2... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Titles: Notice of Change in Student...

  15. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Function in Late Life.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Andrea L; Flatt, Jason D; Carlson, Michelle C; Lovasi, Gina S; Rosano, Caterina; Brown, Arleen F; Matthews, Karen A; Gianaros, Peter J

    2016-06-15

    Neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive function, independently of individual demographic, health, and socioeconomic characteristics. However, research has been largely cross-sectional, and mechanisms of the association are unknown. In 1992-1993, Cardiovascular Health Study participants (n = 3,595; mean age = 74.8 years; 15.7% black) underwent cognitive testing and magnetic resonance imaging of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and their addresses were geocoded. NSES was calculated using 1990 US Census data (block groups; 6 measures of wealth, education, and occupation). The Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) was used to assess general cognition, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) was used to assess speed of processing annually for 6 years. Associations of race-specific NSES tertiles with 3MS, DSST, and WMH were estimated using linear mixed-effects models accounting for geographic clustering, stratified by race, and adjusted for demographic, health, and individual socioeconomic status (education, income, lifetime occupational status) variables. In fully adjusted models, higher NSES was associated with higher 3MS scores in blacks (mean difference between highest and lowest NSES = 2.4 points; P = 0.004) and whites (mean difference = 0.7 points; P = 0.02) at baseline but not with changes in 3MS over time. NSES was marginally associated with DSST and was not associated with WMH. Adjustment for WMH did not attenuate NSES-3MS associations. Associations of NSES with cognition in late adulthood differ by race, are not explained by WMH, and are evident only at baseline. PMID:27257114

  16. Active Correlation Technique: Status and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, Yury

    2010-04-30

    During the recent years, at the FLNR (JINR) a successful cycle of experiments has been accomplished on the synthesis of the superheavy elements with Z = 112-118 with {sup 48}Ca beam. From the viewpoint of the detection of rare decays and background suppression, this success was achieved due to the application of a new radical technique--the method of active correlations. The method employs search in a real-time mode for a pointer to a probable correlation like recoil-alpha for switching the beam off. In the case of detection in the same detector strip an additional alpha-decay event, of 'beam OFF' time interval is prolonged automatically.

  17. Socioeconomic Status and Longitudinal Lung Function of Healthy Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Briseño, David; Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to estimate the longitudinal effect of Socioeconomic status (SES) on lung function growth of Mexican children and adolescents. Materials and Methods A cohort of Mexican children in third grade of primary school was followed with spirometry twice a year for 6 years through secondary school. Multilevel mixed-effects lineal models were fitted for the spirometric variables of 2,641 respiratory-healthy Mexican children. Monthly family income (in 2002 U.S. dollars [USD]) and parents’ years completed at school were used as proxies of SES. Results Individuals with higher SES tended to have greater height for age, and smaller sitting height/standing height and crude lung function. For each 1-year increase of parents’ schooling, Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and Forced vital capacity (FVC) increased 8.5 (0.4%) and 10.6 mL (0.4%), respectively (p <0.05) when models were adjusted for gender. Impact of education on lung function was reduced drastically or abolished on adjusting by anthropometric variables and ozone. Conclusions Higher parental schooling and higher monthly family income were associated with higher lung function in healthy Mexican children, with the majority of the effect likely due to the increase in height-for-age. PMID:26379144

  18. Influence of dominance status on adrenal activity and ovarian cyclicity status in captive African elephants.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Christine M; Freeman, Elizabeth W; Brown, Janine L

    2010-01-01

    The North American African (Loxodonta africana) elephant population is not self-sustaining, in part because of a high rate of abnormal ovarian activity. About 12% of adult females exhibit irregular cycles and 31% do not cycle at all. Our earlier work revealed a relationship between dominance status and ovarian acyclicity, with dominant females being more likely to not cycle normally. One theory is that dominant females may be expending more energy to maintaining peace within the captive herd than for supporting reproduction. The goal of this study was to determine if there was a relationship among dominance status, serum cortisol concentrations, and ovarian acyclicity. We hypothesized that adrenal glucocorticoid activity would be increased in dominant, noncycling elephants as compared with subdominant individuals. Blood samples were collected weekly over a 2-year period in 81 females of known dominance and cyclicity status, and analyzed for cortisol. Based on a path analysis model (Reticular Action Model Or Near Approximation [RAMONA]), noncycling, dominant African elephant females did not have higher mean serum cortisol concentrations, or exhibit more variability (i.e., coefficient of variation, standard deviation) in cortisol secretion. This study suggests that alterations in adrenal activity are not related to dominance status nor contribute directly to acyclicity in captive African elephants. PMID:20033989

  19. Field Operations Program Activities Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Francfort; D. V. O'Hara; L. A. Slezak

    1999-05-01

    The Field Operations Program is an electric vehicle testing and evaluation program sponsored by US Department of Energy and managed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Program's goals are to evaluate electric vehicles in real-world applications and environments, support electric vehicle technology advancement, develop infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use, support increased use of electric vehicles in federal fleets, and increase overall awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles. This report covers Program activities from fiscal year 1997 through mid-fiscal year 1999. The Field Operations Program succeeded the Site Operator Program, which ended in September 1996. Electric vehicle testing conducted by the Program includes baseline performance testing (EV America testing), accelerated reliability (life-cycle) testing, and fleet testing. The baseline performance parameters include accelerations, braking, range, energy efficiency, and charging time. The Program collects accelerated reliability and fleet operations data on electric vehicles operated by the Program's Qualified Vehicle Testing (QVT) partners. The Program's QVT partners have over 3 million miles of electric vehicle operating experience.

  20. Body mass index and functional status in community dwelling older Turkish males.

    PubMed

    Bahat, Gulistan; Muratlı, Sevilay; İlhan, Birkan; Tufan, Asli; Tufan, Fatih; Aydin, Yucel; Erten, Nilgun; Karan, Mehmet Akif

    2015-01-01

    Disability is utmost important on an aging population's health. Obesity is associated with increased risk for disability. On-the-other-hand, higher-BMI is reported as associated with better functionality in older people in some reports defined as "obesity paradox". There is some evidence on differential relationship between body weight status and functionality by living setting gender, and different populations. We studied the relation between body mass index and functionality in Turkish community dwelling older males accounting for the most confounding factors: age, multimorbidity, polypharmacy and nutritional status. This is a cross-sectional study in a geriatric outpatient clinic of a university hospital. Functionality was assessed with evaluation of activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scales. Nutrition was assessed by mini-nutritional assessment test. Two hundred seventy-four subjects comprised our study cohort. Mean age was 74.4 ± 7.1 years, BMI was 25.8 ± 4.4 kg/m(2). Linear regression analysis revealed significant and independent association of lower BMI with higher ADL and IADL scores (B = 0.047 and B = 0.128, respectively) (p < 0.05) and better nutritional status (B = 1.94 and B = 3.05, respectively) (p < 0.001) but not with the total number of medications. Higher IADL score was associated with younger age and lower total number of diseases (B = 0.121, B = 0.595, respectively) (p < 0.05) while ADL was not. We suggest that lower BMI is associated with better functional status in Turkish community-dwelling male older people. Our study recommends longitudinal studies with higher participants from different populations, genders and living settings are needed to comment more. PMID:26134728

  1. Bullied Status and Physical Activity in Texas Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Case, Kathleen R; Pérez, Adriana; Saxton, Debra L; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Springer, Andrew E

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the association between having been bullied at school during the past 6 months ("bullied status") and not meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations of 60 minutes of daily PA during the past week among 8th- and 11th-grade Texas adolescents. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine this association, adjusted for weight status, grade, race/ethnicity, and stratified by gender; furthermore, a significant interaction was found between bullied status and weight status. Results are presented by interaction status. Results indicated that overweight girls who reported never being bullied, as well as those who reported being bullied more than twice, had higher odds of not meeting PA recommendations than normal weight girls who were never bullied (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.12, 3.99]; AOR = 9.18, 95% CI [2.26, 37.27], respectively). Obese girls who were bullied once or twice had higher odds of not meeting PA recommendations than normal weight girls who were never bullied (AOR = 2.89, 95% CI [1.06, 7.89]). Overweight boys who reported never being bullied had lower odds of not meeting PA recommendations than normal weight boys who were never bullied (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI [0.39, 0.97]). Conversely, obese boys who were bullied once or twice reported higher odds of not meeting PA recommendations than normal weight boys who were never bullied (AOR = 3.61, 95% CI [1.22, 10.67]). Findings from this study indicate that the association between bullied status and meeting PA recommendations is complex and may differ by gender and the interaction between bullied status and weight status. PMID:26304711

  2. Bullied Status and Physical Activity in Texas Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Kathleen R.; Pérez, Adriana; Saxton, Debra L.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Springer, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between having been bullied at school during the past 6 months ("bullied status") and not meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations of 60 minutes of daily PA during the past week among 8th- and 11th-grade Texas adolescents. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine this…

  3. Factors Impacting Functional Status in Veterans of Recent Conflicts With PTSD.

    PubMed

    Kozel, F Andrew; Didehbani, Nyaz; DeLaRosa, Bambi; Bass, Christina; Schraufnagel, Caitlin D; Morgan, Cassie Rae; Jones, Penelope; Spence, Jeffrey S; Hart, John

    2016-01-01

    Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) underwent a systematic evaluation to determine which factors were associated with the degree of functional status. Demographic information, self-report scales, and symptom ratings performed by trained evaluators were investigated in multiple regression models to determine their contribution to functional status. Ninety-six participants were included in the model assessing degree of functional status. Depressive symptoms, a depressive disorder diagnosis, and to a lesser extent, the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale were selected in the final model that best predicted the degree of functional status. Depressive symptoms significantly affect the function of veterans with PTSD. PMID:26670785

  4. Vitamin K status and cognitive function in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Presse, Nancy; Belleville, Sylvie; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Greenwood, Carol E; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Morais, Jose A; Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna; Ferland, Guylaine

    2013-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating that vitamin K could have a role in cognition, especially in aging. Using data from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge), a cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the associations between vitamin K status, measured as serum phylloquinone concentrations, and performance in verbal and non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. The sample included 320 men and women aged 70 to 85 years who were free of cognitive impairment. After adjustment for covariates, higher serum phylloquinone concentration (log-transformed) was associated with better verbal episodic memory performances (F = 2.43, p = 0.048); specifically with the scores (Z-transformed) on the second (β = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.82), third (β = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.06-0.75), and 20-minute delayed (β = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.12-0.82) free recall trials of the RL/RI-16 Free and Cued Recall Task. No associations were found with non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. Our study adds evidence to the possible role of vitamin K in cognition during aging, specifically in the consolidation of the memory trace. PMID:23850343

  5. The longitudinal and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and host genotype upon neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Levine, Andrew J; Reynolds, Sandra; Cox, Christopher; Miller, Eric N; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Becker, James T; Martin, Eileen; Sacktor, Ned

    2014-06-01

    Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and illicit stimulant use can adversely impact neurocognitive functioning, and these effects can be additive. However, significant variability exists such that as-of-yet unidentified exogenous and endogenous factors affect one's risk for neurocognitive impairment. Literature on both HIV and stimulant use indicates that host genetic variants in immunologic and dopamine-related genes are one such factor. In this study, the individual and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and genotype upon neurocognitive functioning were examined longitudinally over a 10-year period. Nine hundred fifty-two Caucasian HIV+ and HIV- cases from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were included. All cases had at least two comprehensive neurocognitive evaluations between 1985 and 1995. Pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) data were examined in order to avoid the confounding effect of variable drug regimens. Linear mixed models were used, with neurocognitive domain scores as the outcome variables. No four-way interactions were found, indicating that HIV and stimulant use do not interact over time to affect neurocognitive functioning as a function of genotype. Multiple three-way interactions were found that involved genotype and HIV status. All immunologically related genes found to interact with HIV status affected neurocognitive functioning in the expected direction; however, only C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CCL3 affected HIV+ individuals specifically. Dopamine-related genetic variants generally affected HIV-negative individuals only. Neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals who also used stimulants was not significantly different from those who did not use stimulants. The findings support the role of immunologically related genetic differences in CCL2 and CCL3 in neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals; however, their impact is minor. Being consistent with findings from another cohort

  6. Functional Status of Long-Term Breast Cancer Survivors: Demonstrating Chronicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polinsky, Margaret L.

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed 223 breast cancer survivors 16 months to 32 years from original surgery to assess their current physical, psychological, and social functional status. Although general measures of functioning indicated high physical, psychological, and social functional status, measures specific to breast cancer diagnosis and treatment indicated problems…

  7. Symptoms and functional health status of individuals with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS).

    PubMed

    Berglund, B; Nordström, G

    2001-10-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an inherited connective tissue disorder that can have a substantial impact on daily life. The aims of this study were to describe the symptoms reported in a group of individuals with EDS and to investigate the impact on functional health status by means of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP). Seventy-seven individuals, members of the Swedish EDS Association, completed 2 mailed questionnaires. The most frequent symptoms were related to activity, e.g., joint problems (75%), to pain (71%), and to skin/tissue (52%). Pain was reported by 37 individuals (48%) as their most severe symptom. The SIP results showed an overall mean score of 13.0 (females 13.9, males 5.6), compared with a Swedish reference group with a SIP score 1.3. Women with EDS reported a better functional health status than females with rheumatoid arthritis (overall SIP score 13.9 versus 21.4). In comparison with women with fibromyalgia, the EDS females rated their functional health status as worse on the physical dimension (p <0.05) and the subscale home management (p <0.05), and as better on the subscale work (p <0.05). Impact of EDS on the individual's daily life needs to be acknowledged, assessed, and evaluated in healthcare. PMID:17039161

  8. Correlates of functional status, self-management, and developmental competence outcomes in adolescents with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Sawin, Kathleen J; Buran, Constance F; Brei, Timothy J; Fastenau, Philip S

    2003-01-01

    Adolescents with spina bifida (SB), a congenital spinal cord impairment, are at high risk for negative outcomes. Even those with favorable cognitive status often fail to achieve independence, exhibiting poor functional and psychosocial outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adaptation outcomes (functional status, self-management, and developmental competence) and SB condition-specific, adolescent protective factors, and family protective factors in a sample of adolescents with SB. Individual, interpersonal, and social developmental competence were explored. Sixty-six adolescent/parent pairs were interviewed. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Cronbach alpha coefficients, and partial correlations controlling for age. All instruments had acceptable reliabilities. Factors associated with outcomes generally fell into two patterns. SB condition-specific variables and adolescent activities (e.g., decision-making, household responsibilities) were related to functional status, self-management, and social competence. In contrast, adolescent beliefs (hope, attitude, and communication efficacy) were predominantly related to individual, interpersonal, and overall developmental competence. PMID:14626030

  9. Systematic biases in functional status assessment of elderly adults: effects of different data sources.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, L Z; Schairer, C; Wieland, G D; Kane, R

    1984-11-01

    Measuring functional status using specific instruments is an important part of geriatric assessment. These instruments, however, often rely on data sources different from those with which they were originally validated. To study possible biasing effects of different data sources on functional status scores, we examined scores for two widely used instruments (the Lawton Personal Self-Maintenance Scale, PSMS, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, IADL, Scale) on a group of hospitalized elderly (n = 61) using three different data sources (the patients themselves, the patients' nurses, and significant others). Analysis showed that PSMS scores derived from patients were significantly higher than scores derived from significant others (p less than .025) and that patient-derived IADL scores were significantly higher than both nurse-derived scores (p less than .001) and significant-other-derived scores (p less than .001). We also compared scores for a group of nursing home patients (n = 68) on the Katz Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Scale, using data obtained from patients and their nurses. Again, the patient-derived scores were significantly higher than those from nurses (p less than .001). We conclude that data sources for determining patient functional ability are not interchangeable and that patients may overstate their functional abilities, whereas significant others may understate them, relative to judgments of skilled nursing personnel. PMID:6436360

  10. Paraoxonase Activity and Oxidative Status in Patients with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Akyüz, Servet; Somuk, Battal Tahsin; Soyalic, Harun; Yılmaz, Beyhan; Taskin, Abdullah; Bilinc, Hasan; Aksoy, Nurten

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate serum paraoxanase-1 (PON) activity, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and the oxidative stress index (OSI) in tinnitus; and to compare the results with data from healthy subjects. Subjects and Methods A total of 114 subjects-54 patients with tinnitus and 60 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum PON activity, TOS, TAS, and OSI levels were measured. Results In the tinnitus group, TAS, and PON were significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.001). However, the TOS, and OSI levels were significantly higher in the tinnitus group than in the control group (p<0.001). Conclusions According to the data obtained from the present study, patients with tinnitus were exposed to potent oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may be the key contributing factor to the pathogenesis of tinnitus. PMID:27144229

  11. Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    With the demographic aging of populations worldwide, diseases associated with aging are becoming more prevalent and costly to individuals, families, and healthcare systems. Among aging-related impairments, a decline in cognitive function is of particular concern, as it erodes memory and processing abilities and eventually leads to the need for institutionalized care. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutritional status is a key factor in the loss of cognitive abilities with aging. This is of tremendous importance, as dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that can be improved to help reduce the burden of cognitive impairment. With respect to nutrients, there is evidence to support the critical role of several B vitamins in particular, but also of vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins (including vitamin E), and omega-3 fatty acids, which are preferentially taken up by brain tissue. On the other hand, high intakes of nutrients that contribute to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and poor glycemic control may have negative effects on cognition through these conditions. Collectively, the evidence suggests that considerable slowing and reduction of cognitive decline may be achieved by following a healthy dietary pattern, which limits intake of added sugars, while maximizing intakes of fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. PMID:27116240

  12. Zinc and copper status of women by physical activity and menstrual status

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.; Deuster, P.A.; Kyle, S.B.; Moser, P.B.

    1986-03-01

    The zinc and copper status of 33 eumenorrheic (EU) and 12 amenorrheic (AM) female marathon runners and 19 EU and 8 AM nonrunners were determined from 3-day diet records and plasma and erythrocyte (RBC) levels. The study was conducted as a completely randomized 2 x 2 factorial. Mean daily zinc intakes of all groups fell below the recommended dietary allowances. Copper intakes of runners (EU = 1.3 mg; AM = 1.3 mg) were not significantly different. Menstrual status did not affect plasma zinc, RBC zinc or plasma copper levels. Physical activity however, affected RBC zinc and plasma copper levels. Both these parameters were significantly higher in runners. These findings suggest that exercise influences blood zinc and copper levels.

  13. Functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Wemmer, David E.; Spence, Megan; Rubin, Seth

    2003-11-25

    A functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor that selectively associates with one or more target species, and a method for assaying and screening for one or a plurality of target species utilizing one or a plurality of functionalized active-nucleus complexes with at least two of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes having an attraction affinity to different corresponding target species. The functionalized active-nucleus complex has an active-nucleus and a targeting carrier. The method involves functionalizing an active-nucleus, for each functionalized active-nucleus complex, by incorporating the active-nucleus into a macromolucular or molecular complex that is capable of binding one of the target species and then bringing the macromolecular or molecular complexes into contact with the target species and detecting the occurrence of or change in a nuclear magnetic resonance signal from each of the active-nuclei in each of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes.

  14. S-sulfocysteine synthase function in sensing chloroplast redox status

    PubMed Central

    Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C.

    2013-01-01

    The minor chloroplastic O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase isoform encoded by the CS26 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana has been described as an S-sulfocysteine synthase enzyme that plays an important role in chloroplast function. This enzyme is located in the thylakoid lumen, and its S-sulfocysteine activity is essential for the proper photosynthetic performance of the chloroplast under long-day growth conditions. Based on the present knowledge of this enzyme, we suggest that S-sulfocysteine synthase functions as a protein sensor to detect the accumulation of thiosulfate as a result of the inadequate detoxification of reactive oxygen species generated under conditions of excess light to produce the S-sulfocysteine molecule that triggers protection mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:23333972

  15. Socioeconomic status and executive function: developmental trajectories and mediation.

    PubMed

    Hackman, Daniel A; Gallop, Robert; Evans, Gary W; Farah, Martha J

    2015-09-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function (EF), but fundamental aspects of this relation remain unknown: the developmental course of the SES disparity, its continued sensitivity to SES changes during that course, and the features of childhood experience responsible for the SES-EF relation. Regarding course, early disparities would be expected to grow during development if caused by accumulating stressors at a given constant level of SES. Alternatively, they would narrow if schooling partly compensates for the effects of earlier deprivation, allowing lower-SES children to 'catch up'. The potential for later childhood SES change to affect EF is also unknown. Regarding mediating factors, previous analyses produced mixed answers, possibly due to correlation amongst candidate mediators. We address these issues with measures of SES, working memory and planning, along with multiple candidate mediators, from the NICHD Study of Early Childcare (n = 1009). Early family income-to-needs and maternal education predicted planning by first grade, and income-to-needs predicted working memory performance at 54 months. Effects of early SES remained consistent through middle childhood, indicating that the relation between early indicators of SES and EF emerges in childhood and persists without narrowing or widening across early and middle childhood. Changes in family income-to-needs were associated with significant changes in planning and trend-level changes in working memory. Mediation analyses supported the role of early childhood home characteristics in explaining the association between SES and EF, while early childhood maternal sensitivity was specifically implicated in the association between maternal education and planning. Early emerging and persistent SES-related differences in EF, partially explained by characteristics of the home and family environment, are thus a potential source of socioeconomic disparities in achievement and health across

  16. Representation of Functional Status Concepts from Clinical Documents and Social Media Sources by Standard Terminologies

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April F.; Rashmi, V.H.; Weir, Charlene R.; Bray, Bruce E.; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Patient-reported functional status is widely recognized as an important patient-centered outcome that adds value to medical care, research, and quality improvement. Functional status outcomes are, however, not routinely or uniformly collected in the medical record, except in certain small patient populations (e.g. geriatrics, nursing home residents). To utilize patient reported functional status for clinical research and practice, we manually collected 2,763 terms from clinical records and social media sites and modeled them on the widely used Short Form-36 Health Survey. We then examined the coverage of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) for these functional status terms through automated mapping. Most terms (85.9%) did not have exact matches in the UMLS. The partial matches were prevalent, however, they typically did not capture the terms’ exact semantics. Our study suggests that there is a need to extend existing standard terminologies to incorporate functional status terms used by patients and clinicians. PMID:26958215

  17. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates. PMID:24666596

  18. FY15 Status Report on NEAMS Neutronics Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C. H.; Shemon, E. R.; Smith, M. A.; Connaway, H. M.; Aliberti, G.

    2015-09-30

    This report summarizes the current status of NEAMS activities in FY2015. The tasks this year are (1) to improve solution methods for steady-state and transient conditions, (2) to develop features and user friendliness to increase the usability and applicability of the code, (3) to improve and verify the multigroup cross section generation scheme, (4) to perform verification and validation tests of the code using SFRs and thermal reactor cores, and (5) to support early users of PROTEUS and update the user manuals.

  19. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare. PMID:26658480

  20. Motor Ability and Weight Status Are Determinants of Out-of-School Activity Participation for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Lee, Velma Y. L.; Chan, Nerita N. C.; Chan, Rachel S. H.; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with…

  1. Validation of the Malay Version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Aziz, Aniza Abd.; Mostapa, Mohd Rosmizaki; Awang, Zainudin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to examine the psychometric properties of Malay version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth (IFSAC). Design. A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods. A total of 108 postpartum mothers attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia, were involved. Construct validity and internal consistency were performed after the translation, content validity, and face validity process. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Moment Structure version 18 and Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences version 20. Results. The final model consists of four constructs, namely, infant care, personal care, household activities, and social and community activities, with 18 items demonstrating acceptable factor loadings, domain to domain correlation, and best fit (Chi-squared/degree of freedom = 1.678; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.923; comparative fit index = 0.936; and root mean square error of approximation = 0.080). Composite reliability and average variance extracted of the domains ranged from 0.659 to 0.921 and from 0.499 to 0.628, respectively. Conclusion. The study suggested that the four-factor model with 18 items of the Malay version of IFSAC was acceptable to be used to measure functional status after childbirth because it is valid, reliable, and simple. PMID:25667932

  2. Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function.

    PubMed

    Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Wagner, Márcia Santos; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2009-11-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function. PMID:20126850

  3. Activities To Help in Learning about Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Stephen S.

    1997-01-01

    Describes several activities and games that provide an introduction to the concept of function. Suggests that experiences should depend more on students' experiences and understanding and less on the memorization of unmotivated conventions with abstract symbols. Includes activities for a calculator as a function machine, composite functions, and…

  4. Voluntary Delay of Reinforcement as a Function of Model Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; Smith, Tennie S.

    1970-01-01

    Adult vocational rehabilitation clients in a resident training program were engaged in a task involving the assemble of bolts, washers, and nuts, and were given their choice of a smaller reward immediately or a delayed larger reward. Subjects tended to imitate the decision of the video-tape model (both high and medium status). (Author)

  5. Beyond Social Address: Linking Socioeconomic Status to Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom

    The present study attempts to move beyond the social address research design to investigate the process by which socioeconomic status (SES) exerts its influence on parenting practices. Of particular interest were maternal practices related to cognitive outcomes in children. The conceptual model of the study was based on the reliable finding that…

  6. Role Conflict in Women as a Function of Marital Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy; Damico, Sandra

    1975-01-01

    Questionnaires on eight role conflict categories (time management, relations with husband, household management, financial, child care, expectations for self, expectations of others, and guilt) were administered to 518 women. Marital status was found to be a significant variable with married women expressing more conflict than did other women.…

  7. Decreased Functional Status as a Risk Factor for Severe Clostridium difficile Infection among Hospitalized Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Krishna; Micic, Dejan; Chenoweth, Elizabeth; Deng, Lili; Galecki, Andrzej T.; Ring, Cathrin; Young, Vincent B.; Aronoff, David M.; Malani, Preeti N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized older adults, who are among the patients at highest risk of severe infection. The role of impaired functional status as a risk factor for severe CDI remains poorly understood. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The University of Michigan Health System, a 930-bed tertiary care hospital. Participants Hospitalized patients with CDI, age ≥50 years. Measurements Included demographics; clinical characteristics; and a composite outcome, the CDI severity score: fever [T >38°C]; acute organ dysfunction; white blood cell count >15 000/mm3; lack of response to therapy; intensive care unit admission, need for colectomy, or death due to CDI. Pre-admission functional status was assessed by ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs); patients were assigned to an ADL Class (independent, some assistance, or full assistance). Secondary outcomes included length of stay; 90-day mortality and readmission; and CDI recurrence. Results We identified 90 hospitalized patients with CDI (mean age 66.6 [± SD 10.2]). Fifty-eight patients (64.4%) had severe CDI as measured by a positive severity score. At baseline, 25 (27.8%) required assistance with ADLs. On univariate analysis, an ADL Class of “full assistance” was associated with severity score (OR 7, CI 95 1.83–26.79, P = .004). In a multivariable model which included age, ADL Class, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, depression, weighted Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score, immunosuppression, prior CDI, and PPI use, an ADL Class of “full assistance” retained its association with severity score (OR 8.1, CI 95 1.24–52.95, P = .029). ADL Class was not associated with secondary outcomes. Conclusion Among this cohort of hospitalized older adults, impaired functional status was an independent risk factor for severe CDI. PMID:24083842

  8. Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: the roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood.

    PubMed

    Sarsour, Khaled; Sheridan, Margaret; Jutte, Douglas; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Hinshaw, Stephen; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and child executive functions is well-documented. However, few studies have examined the role of potential mediators and moderators. We studied the independent and interactive associations between family SES and single parenthood to predict child executive functions of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory and examined child expressive language abilities and family home environment as potential mediators of these associations. Sixty families from diverse SES backgrounds with a school-age target child (mean [SD] age = 9.9 [0.96] years) were evaluated. Child executive functioning was measured using a brief battery. The quality of the home environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory. Family SES predicted the three child executive functions under study. Single parent and family SES were interactively associated with children's inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility; such that children from low SES families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive function tests than children from similarly low SES who were living with two parents. Parental responsivity, enrichment activities and family companionship mediated the association between family SES and child inhibitory control and working memory. This study demonstrates that family SES inequalities are associated with inequalities in home environments and with inequalities in child executive functions. The impact of these disparities as they unfold in the lives of typically developing children merits further investigation and understanding. PMID:21073770

  9. 77 FR 29690 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection, Comments Requested; Status of COPS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection, Comments Requested; Status of COPS Grant... (DOJ) Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), has submitted the following information... Collection: Proposed collection; comments requested. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Status of COPS...

  10. 78 FR 24469 - Proposed Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY... information technology. Title: Marital Status Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number:...

  11. 75 FR 62636 - Proposed Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Status of Dependents Questionnaire,...

  12. The role of partnership status on late-life physical function.

    PubMed

    Clouston, Sean A P; Lawlor, Andrea; Verdery, Ashton M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic pathways linking partnership status to physical functioning, assessed using objective measures of late life physical functioning, including peak flow and grip strength. Using Wave 4 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we ran multilevel models to examine the relationship between partnership status and physical function in late life, adjusting for social-network characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviours. We found a robust relationship between partnership status and physical function. Incorporating social-network characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviours showed independent robust relationships with physical function. Co-variates attenuated the impact of cohabitation, separation, and widowhood on physical function; robust effects were found for singlehood and divorce. Sex-segregated analyses suggest that associations between cohabitation, singlehood, divorce, and widowhood were larger for men than for women. Results suggest that social ties are important to improved physical function. PMID:25222477

  13. The Role of Partnership Status on Late-Life Physical Function*

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, Sean; Lawlor, Andrea; Verdery, Ashton

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic pathways linking partnership status to physical functioning, assessed using objective measures of late life physical functioning including peak flow and grip strength. Using Wave 4 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we ran multilevel models to examine the relationship between partnership status and physical function in late life, adjusting for social-network characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviours. We found a robust relationship between partnership status and physical function. Incorporating social-network characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviours showed independent robust relationships with physical function. Co-variates attenuated the impact of cohabitation, separation, and widowhood on physical function; robust effects were found for singlehood and divorce. Sex-segregated analyses suggest that associations between cohabitation, singlehood, divorce, and widowhood were larger for men than for women. Results suggest that social ties are important to improved physical function. PMID:25222477

  14. Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…

  15. IHY Activities in Africa: Current Status and Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiu, A. B.; Balogun, E. E.

    2006-11-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) has already gained a global acceptance as international research cooperation. This paper assesses the current status of IHY; its organization, activities and challenges in Nigeria and THE African continent as a whole. The tremendous impact and successes of the program is highlighted. Two successful annual workshops have been held at different locations with wide national representation. A few facilities already installed or secured are presented for probable exploration and forging of partnership in research. On-going research involvement with SCINDA, AWESOME and MAGDAS are presented. With the passing of the dip equator through the country, Nigeria is presented as a region for ground observation and measurements of geo- and helio-physical variables. Ways by which Nigerian scientists are taking advantage of the opportunities embedded in the international program are exposed. Benefits of IHY including training, collaboration, workshop participation and publications, are explored.

  16. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, James J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T

    2014-03-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of 'motivation to change': (1) current treatment status (i.e. currently receiving versus not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and (2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients. PMID:22458561

  17. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Related to Impaired Cognitive and Functional Status after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, Justine A.; van Bennekom, Coen A.M.; Hofman, Winni F.; van Bezeij, Tijs; van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Groet, Erny; Kylstra, Wytske A.; Schmand, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients and is associated with prolonged hospitalization, decreased functional outcome, and recurrent stroke. Research on the effect of OSA on cognitive functioning following stroke is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to compare stroke patients with and without OSA on cognitive and functional status upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation. Design: Case-control study. Setting and Patients: 147 stroke patients admitted to a neurorehabilitation unit. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: All patients underwent sleep examination for diagnosis of OSA. We assessed cognitive status by neuropsychological examination and functional status by two neurological scales and a measure of functional independence. Results: We included 80 stroke patients with OSA and 67 stroke patients without OSA. OSA patients were older and had a higher body mass index than patients without OSA. OSA patients performed worse on tests of attention, executive functioning, visuoperception, psychomotor ability, and intelligence than those without OSA. No differences were found for vigilance, memory, and language. OSA patients had a worse neurological status, lower functional independence scores, and a longer period of hospitalization in the neurorehabilitation unit than the patients without OSA. OSA status was not associated with stroke type or classification. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a lower cognitive and functional status in patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. This underlines the importance of OSA as a probable prognostic factor, and calls for well-designed randomized controlled trials to study its treatability. Citation: Aaronson JA, van Bennekom CA, Hofman WF, van Bezeij T, van den Aardweg JG, Groet E, Kylstra WA, Schmand B. Obstructive sleep apnea is related to impaired cognitive and functional status after stroke. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1431–1437. PMID

  18. Phenotypic Variability in Resting-State Functional Connectivity: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We reviewed the extant literature with the goal of assessing the extent to which resting-state functional connectivity is associated with phenotypic variability in healthy and disordered populations. A large corpus of work has accumulated to date (125 studies), supporting the association between intrinsic functional connectivity and individual differences in a wide range of domains—not only in cognitive, perceptual, motoric, and linguistic performance, but also in behavioral traits (e.g., impulsiveness, risky decision making, personality, and empathy) and states (e.g., anxiety and psychiatric symptoms) that are distinguished by cognitive and affective functioning, and in neurological conditions with cognitive and motor sequelae. Further, intrinsic functional connectivity is sensitive to remote (e.g., early-life stress) and enduring (e.g., duration of symptoms) life experience, and it exhibits plasticity in response to recent experience (e.g., learning and adaptation) and pharmacological treatment. The most pervasive associations were observed with the default network; associations were also widespread between the cingulo-opercular network and both cognitive and affective behaviors, while the frontoparietal network was associated primarily with cognitive functions. Associations of somatomotor, frontotemporal, auditory, and amygdala networks were relatively restricted to the behaviors linked to their respective putative functions. Surprisingly, visual network associations went beyond visual function to include a variety of behavioral traits distinguished by affective function. Together, the reviewed evidence sets the stage for testing causal hypothesis about the functional role of intrinsic connectivity and augments its potential as a biomarker for healthy and disordered brain function. PMID:23294010

  19. Family-based training program improves brain function, cognition, and behavior in lower socioeconomic status preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Helen J.; Stevens, Courtney; Pakulak, Eric; Bell, Theodore A.; Fanning, Jessica; Klein, Scott; Isbell, Elif

    2013-01-01

    Using information from research on the neuroplasticity of selective attention and on the central role of successful parenting in child development, we developed and rigorously assessed a family-based training program designed to improve brain systems for selective attention in preschool children. One hundred forty-one lower socioeconomic status preschoolers enrolled in a Head Start program were randomly assigned to the training program, Head Start alone, or an active control group. Electrophysiological measures of children’s brain functions supporting selective attention, standardized measures of cognition, and parent-reported child behaviors all favored children in the treatment program relative to both control groups. Positive changes were also observed in the parents themselves. Effect sizes ranged from one-quarter to half of a standard deviation. These results lend impetus to the further development and broader implementation of evidence-based education programs that target at-risk families. PMID:23818591

  20. Functions of Symbolizing Activity: A Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillema, Erik

    2010-01-01

    I propose that attending how symbolizing activity functions for teachers and students helps to characterize student-teacher communication, and allows for an investigation of how symbolizing activity contributes to learning. I begin this discussion by articulating four ideas-schemes, symbolizing activity, communication, and learning. Then I propose…

  1. 78 FR 4155 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Foreign Trade Zone and/or Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Foreign Trade Zone and/or Status Designation, and Application for Foreign Trade Zone Activity Permit... Application for Foreign Trade Zone Admission and/or Status Designation, and Application for Foreign Trade Zone... Foreign Trade Zone Admission and/or Status Designation, and Application for Foreign Trade......

  2. The Relationship between Occupational Status and Physical Activity in Korea.

    PubMed

    So, Wi-Young; Yoo, Byoung-Wook; Sung, Dong Jun

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between occupational status and physical activity (PA) in Korea. A total of 9,000 Koreans age 10 to 89 years participated in the Korean Survey of Citizens' Sports Participation project in 2012. However, 3,851 participants were excluded from the analysis (housewives, students, and the jobless), providing a sample size of 5,149 participants (3,165 men and 1,984 women) for this study. The association between occupational status and PA was then evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for reporting at least weekly PA according to job intensity, after adjusting for sex and age, were as follows: moderate-intensity jobs, 1.164 [1.026, 1.320], p = .018; and vigorous-intensity jobs, 1.591 [1.318, 1.921], p < .001, compared with low-intensity jobs as a reference category. For PA intensity in low- and moderate-intensity jobs, after adjusting for sex and age, the ORs (95% CI) were as follows: low-intensity PA, 1.355 [1.033, 1.778], p = .028, moderate PA, 1.227 [1.096, 1.487], p = .002, and vigorous PA, 1.570 [1.213, 2.032], p < .001, compared with sedentary as a reference category. For the intensity of PA among participants with low- or vigorous-intensity jobs, after adjusting for sex and age, the ORs (95% CI) were as follows: low-intensity PA, 1.015 [0.649, 1.586], p = .948, moderate-intensity PA, 1.890 [1.416, 2.522], p < .001, and vigorous-intensity PA, 2.403 [1.395, 4.139], p = .002, compared with sedentary as a reference category. For the intensity of PA between moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity jobs, after adjusting for sex and age, the ORs (95% CI) were as follows: low-intensity PA, 1.010 [0.759, 1.344], p = .945, moderate-intensity PA, 1.381 [1.136, 1.678], p = .001, and vigorous-intensity PA, 1.595 [1.023, 2.486], p = .039, compared to sedentary as a reference category. The presented findings show a strong association between

  3. From Wasting to Obesity: The Contribution of Nutritional Status to Immune Activation in HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Koethe, John R; Heimburger, Douglas C; PrayGod, George; Filteau, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on innate and adaptive immune activation occurs in the context of host factors, which serve to augment or dampen the physiologic response to the virus. Independent of HIV infection, nutritional status, particularly body composition, affects innate immune activation through a variety of conditions, including reduced mucosal barrier defenses and microbiome dysbiosis in malnutrition and the proinflammatory contribution of adipocytes and stromal vascular cells in obesity. Similarly, T-cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine expression are reduced in the setting of malnutrition and increased in obesity, potentially due to adipokine regulatory mechanisms restraining energy-avid adaptive immunity in times of starvation and exerting a paradoxical effect in overnutrition. The response to HIV infection is situated within these complex interactions between host nutritional health and immunologic function, which contribute to the varied phenotypes of immune activation among HIV-infected patients across a spectrum from malnutrition to obesity. PMID:27625434

  4. Current status of health promotion activities in four midwest cities.

    PubMed

    Weisbrod, R R; Bracht, N F; Pirie, P L; Veblen-Mortenson, S

    1991-01-01

    Community-wide surveys were conducted in Winona and St. Cloud, MN, Eau Claire, WI, and Sioux Falls, SD, in 1986 and 1987 to determine the current status of the supply and demand of health promotion activities in nine categories. Supply and demand indicators were conceptualized and defined as program options (different activities in a coded list) and participation (registrations). An annual inventory of all health promotion activities in each community was complied from interviews with providers of such activities. Interviews of probable community providers was followed by a nomination process to identify others. Providers at worksites were interviewed in a separate study with matching data endpoints. Results show that exercise programs have the highest levels of options and participation in all four cities. On the supply side of total programs offered, there was similarity in rates among three of the cities, with only Winona offering more health promotion opportunities. There was similarity also in the areas of health where most programs are offered, favoring exercise, followed by the heart disease risk factor areas of screening, smoking cessation, and nutrition education. On the demand side of participation, there was similarity in total participation rates among three of the four cities with Sioux Falls showing substantially higher demand. Exercise showed the highest participation in all cities, but there was little similarity among the cities in ranking participation in the other areas of health promotion. In the four cities combined, high levels of program options with low participation were characteristic of smoking cessation. In contrast, low levels of program options and high participation were shown in chemical dependency. Worksites are the main providers of health promotion programs for adults, with schools and colleges also major program providers. Educational organizations account for the largest percentage of total participation in health promotion

  5. The Complex Association between Religious Activities and Functional Limitations in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hybels, Celia F.; Blazer, Dan G.; George, Linda K.; Koenig, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To examine the longitudinal associations between 3 dimensions of religious involvement--religious attendance, use of religious media, and private religious activities--and 3 domains of functional status--limitations in basic activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and mobility in…

  6. Status report on the survey and alignment activities at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Oshinowo, Babatunde O'Sheg; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The surveying and alignment activities at Fermilab are the responsibility of the Alignment and Metrology Group. The Group supports and interacts with physicists and engineers working on any particular project, from the facility construction phase to the installation and final alignment of components in the beam line. One of the goals of the Alignment and Metrology Group is to upgrade the old survey networks in the tunnel using modern surveying technology, such as the Laser Tracker for tunnel networks and GPS for the surface networks. According to the job needs, all surveys are done with Laser Trackers and/or Videogrammetry (V-STARS) systems for spatial coordinates; optical and electronic levels are used for elevations, Gyro-Theodolite for azimuths, Mekometer for distances and GPS for baseline vectors. The group has recently purchased two new API Laser Trackers, one INCA3 camera for the V-Stars, and one DNA03 digital level. This report presents the projects and major activities of the Alignment and Metrology Group at Fermilab during the period of 2000 to 2004. It focuses on the most important current projects, especially those that have to be completed during the currently scheduled three-month shutdown period. Future projects, in addition to the status of the current projects, are also presented.

  7. Obstacles to activity pacing: assessment, relationship to activity and functioning.

    PubMed

    Cane, Douglas; McCarthy, Mary; Mazmanian, Dwight

    2016-07-01

    Activity pacing is frequently included among the strategies provided to individuals with chronic pain to manage pain and improve functioning. Individuals with chronic pain may, however, limit their use of activity pacing because they perceive significant obstacles to its use. This study describes the development of a measure to assess obstacles to activity pacing and examines the relationship of this measure to activity patterns and functioning. A sample of 637 individuals with chronic pain completed items describing potential obstacles to activity pacing as part of their pretreatment assessment. Item analyses were used to construct a 14-item measure of obstacles to activity pacing. A subset of these individuals completed the measure again after completion of a group treatment program. The resulting measure demonstrated excellent internal consistency and was minimally affected by social desirability. Correlations with measures of activity and psychosocial functioning provided initial construct validity for the measure. Sex differences were found with women initially identifying more obstacles to activity pacing. Fewer obstacles were identified by both men and women after treatment, and these changes were related to modest changes in activity patterns and functioning. The present results identify a number of obstacles that may limit the use of activity pacing by individuals with chronic pain. Treatment may result in a decrease in the number of obstacles identified, and this change is related to changes in the individual's activity pattern and psychosocial functioning. PMID:26963845

  8. Thyroid function and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-10-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction is recognized as a risk factor for neuropsychological deficits in aging populations, yet evidence for how changes in levels of circulatory thyroid hormones impact specific neuropsychological domains is limited. Here we report cross-sectional associations between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and several neuropsychological function domains among men and women aged 55-74years. We administered neuropsychological tests to assess memory, learning, executive function, measures of attention, visuospatial function, affective state, and motor function. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking. Effects were reported as differences in test scores per one interquartile range (IQR) increase in hormone concentration. Higher total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were associated with improved visuospatial function, as measured by Block Design Subtest total scores; associated increments per IQR differences in T4 and fT4 were 15% and 19%, respectively (false discovery rate q-values <0.05). We also detected statistical interactions between age and fT4 for effects in tasks of memory and learning. Concurrent increases in age and fT4 were associated with deficits in memory and learning as measured by California Verbal Learning Test subtests (10% and 16% deficits in t-score and short delay free recall score, respectively). Our findings suggest that changes in thyroid hormones may have important implications for neuropsychological function in aging populations. Further large-scale studies with comprehensive thyroid function and neuropsychological outcome assessments are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:27221367

  9. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Kidney Injury: Present Status

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai Ying; Chen, Tian Wu; Zhang, Xiao Ming

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of hospitalization that is characterized by a sudden loss of renal excretory function and associated with the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease, poor prognosis, and increased mortality. Although the pathophysiology of renal functional impairment in the setting of AKI remains poorly understood, previous studies have identified changes in renal hemodynamics, perfusion, and oxygenation as key factors in the development and progression of AKI. The early assessment of these changes remains a challenge. Many established approaches are not applicable to humans because of their invasiveness. Functional renal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers an alternative assessment tool that could be used to evaluate renal morphology and function noninvasively and simultaneously. Thus, the purpose of this review is to illustrate the principle, application, and role of the techniques of functional renal MR imaging, including blood oxygen level-dependent imaging, arterial spin labeling, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging, in the management of AKI. The use of gadolinium in MR imaging may exacerbate renal impairment and cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Therefore, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging will not be discussed in this paper. PMID:26925411

  10. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Kidney Injury: Present Status.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai Ying; Chen, Tian Wu; Zhang, Xiao Ming

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of hospitalization that is characterized by a sudden loss of renal excretory function and associated with the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease, poor prognosis, and increased mortality. Although the pathophysiology of renal functional impairment in the setting of AKI remains poorly understood, previous studies have identified changes in renal hemodynamics, perfusion, and oxygenation as key factors in the development and progression of AKI. The early assessment of these changes remains a challenge. Many established approaches are not applicable to humans because of their invasiveness. Functional renal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers an alternative assessment tool that could be used to evaluate renal morphology and function noninvasively and simultaneously. Thus, the purpose of this review is to illustrate the principle, application, and role of the techniques of functional renal MR imaging, including blood oxygen level-dependent imaging, arterial spin labeling, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging, in the management of AKI. The use of gadolinium in MR imaging may exacerbate renal impairment and cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Therefore, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging will not be discussed in this paper. PMID:26925411

  11. What Are the Links between Maternal Social Status, Hippocampal Function, and HPA Axis Function in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; How, Joan; Araujo, Melanie; Schamberg, Michelle A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The association of parental social status with multiple health and achievement indicators in adulthood has driven researchers to attempt to identify mechanisms by which social experience in childhood could shift developmental trajectories. Some accounts for observed linkages between parental social status in childhood and health have hypothesized…

  12. Advisory Councils: Role, Function, Status, Responsibility and Operation. Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuay, Paul L.; Watters, Edmond A.

    After defining trade advisory committees as groups of individuals who have been selected because of their special knowledge and expertise to give advice on education programs, this report identifies the functions of the advisory committee in the areas of educational objectives, instructional content, program evaluation, review of equipment and…

  13. Parenting, Family Socioeconomic Status, and Child Executive Functioning: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…

  14. NEUTROPHIL FUNCTION AND ENERGY STATUS IN HOLSTEIN COWS WITH UTERINE HEALTH DISORDERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between peripheral blood neutrophil (PMN) function, energy status, and uterine health in periparturient dairy cows. Data were collected from 83 multiparous Holstein cows. Blood samples for PMN function determination were collected w...

  15. Effect of Circulation Parameters on Functional Status of HepaRG Spheroids Cultured in Microbioreactor.

    PubMed

    Semenova, O V; Petrov, V A; Gerasimenko, T N; Aleksandrova, A V; Burmistrova, O A; Khutornenko, A A; Osipyants, A I; Poloznikov, A A; Sakharov, D A

    2016-07-01

    We studied the relationship between microcirculation parameters and functional status of HepaRG cells in spheroids and chose an optimal regimen within the physiologically permissible limits of mechanical impact for the cells that maintains the expression of functional genes of the liver. PMID:27496037

  16. Predicting Functional Status Following Amputation After Lower Extremity Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Suckow, Bjoern D.; Goodney, Philip P.; Cambria, Robert A.; Bertges, Daniel J.; Eldrup-Jorgensen, Jens; Indes, Jeffrey E.; Schanzer, Andres; Stone, David H.; Kraiss, Larry W.; Cronenwett, Jack L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Some patients who undergo lower extremity bypass (LEB) for critical limb ischemia ultimately require amputation. The functional outcome achieved by these patients after amputation is not well known. Therefore, we sought to characterize the functional outcome of patients who undergo amputation after LEB, and to describe the pre- and perioperative factors associated with independent ambulation at home after lower extremity amputation. Methods Within a cohort of 3,198 patients who underwent an LEB between January, 2003 and December, 2008, we studied 436 patients who subsequently received an above-knee (AK), below-knee (BK), or minor (forefoot or toe) ipsilateral or contralateral amputation. Our main outcome measure consisted of a “good functional outcome,” defined as living at home and ambulating independently. We calculated univariate and multivariate associations among patient characteristics and our main outcome measure, as well as overall survival. Results Of the 436 patients who underwent amputation within the first year following LEB, 224 of 436 (51.4%) had a minor amputation, 105 of 436 (24.1%) had a BK amputation, and 107 of 436 (24.5%) had an AK amputation. The majority of AK (75 of 107, 72.8%) and BK amputations (72 of 105, 70.6%) occurred in the setting of bypass graft thrombosis, whereas nearly all minor amputations (200 of 224, 89.7%) occurred with a patent bypass graft. By life-table analysis at 1 year, we found that the proportion of surviving patients with a good functional outcome varied by the presence and extent of amputation (proportion surviving with good functional outcome = 88% no amputation, 81% minor amputation, 55% BK amputation, and 45% AK amputation, p = 0.001). Among those analyzed at long-term follow-up, survival was slightly lower for those who had a minor amputation when compared with those who did not receive an amputation after LEB (81 vs. 88%, p = 0.02). Survival among major amputation patients did not significantly

  17. Association of Impaired Functional Status at Hospital Discharge and Subsequent Rehospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Erik H.; Needham, Dale M.; Atanelov, Levan; Knox, Brenda; Friedman, Michael; Brotman, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether functional status near the time of discharge from acute care hospitalization is associated with acute care readmission. PATIENTS AND METHODS Retrospective cohort study of 9405 consecutive patients admitted from an acute care hospital to an inpatient rehabilitation facility between July 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012. Patients’ functional status at admission to the rehabilitation facility was assessed by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score, and divided into low, middle, or high functional status. The main outcome was readmission to an acute care hospital within 30 days of acute care discharge (for all patients and by subgroup according to diagnostic group: medical, orthopedic, or neurologic). RESULTS There were 1182 (13%) readmissions. FIM score was significantly associated with readmission, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for low and middle versus high FIM score category of 3.0 (2.5-3.6; P < 0.001) and 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3-1.8; P < 0.001), respectively. This relationship between FIM score and read-mission held across diagnostic category. Medical patients with low functional status had the highest readmission rate (OR: 29%; 95% CI: 25%-32%) and an adjusted OR for readmission of 3.2 (95% CI: 2.4-4.3, P < 0.001) compared to medical patients with high FIM scores. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE For patients admitted to an acute inpatient rehabilitation facility, functional status near the time of discharge from an acute care hospital is strongly associated with acute care readmission, particularly for medical patients with greater functional impairments. Reducing functional status decline during acute care hospitalization may be an important strategy to lower readmissions. PMID:24616216

  18. Radio Astronomy in Malaysia: Current Status and Outreach Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Umar, R.; Hassan, M. S. R.; Rosli, Z.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Ibrahim, Z. A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we will present the current status of radio astronomical research and outreach in Malaysia. We will also present a short history of our research group, which is currently the only radio astronomical facility in Malaysia. Our group is called the Radio Cosmology Research Lab and was established in 2005 by Dr Zamri Zainal Abidin and Prof Dr Zainol Abidin Ibrahim. We will discuss the future plans for this group including our keen interest in being part of a more global network of radio astronomers. We are already an active member of the South-East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and aims to have a radio astronomical facility in order to join the Global Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) as well becoming a research hub for the future Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project. We will also present some of the scientific goals of our group including providing a platform for radio astronomers to be able to do observations of weak and high red-shifted radio objects such as galaxy clusters and supernovae.

  19. The hyporheic zone and its functions: revision and research status in Neotropical regions.

    PubMed

    Mugnai, R; Messana, G; Di Lorenzo, T

    2015-08-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ), as the connecting ecotone between surface- and groundwater, is functionally part of both fluvial and groundwater ecosystems. Its hydrological, chemical, biological and metabolic features are specific of this zone, not belonging truly neither to surface- nor to groundwater. Exchanges of water, nutrients, and organic matter occur in response to variations in discharge and bed topography and porosity. Dynamic gradients exist at all scales and vary temporally. Across all scales, the functional significance of the HZ relates to its activity and connection with the surface stream. The HZ is a relatively rich environment and almost all invertebrate groups have colonized this habitat. This fauna, so-called hyporheos, is composed of species typical from interstitial environment, and also of benthic epigean and phreatic species. The hyporheic microbiocenose consists in bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. The HZ provides several ecosystem services, playing a pivotal role in mediating exchange processes, including both matter and energy, between surface and subterranean ecosystems, functioning as regulator of water flow, benthic invertebrates refuge and place of storage, source and transformation of organic matter. The hyporheic zone is one of the most threatened aquatic environments, being strongly influenced by human activities, and the least protected by legislation worldwide. Its maintenance and conservation is compelling in order to preserve the ecological interconnectivity among the three spatial dimensions of the aquatic environment. Although several researchers addressed the importance of the hyporheic zone early, and most contemporary stream ecosystem models explicitly include it, very little is known about the HZ of Neotropical regions. From a biological standpoint, hyporheos fauna in Neotropical regions are still largely underestimated. This review focuses on a brief presentation of the hyporheic zone and its functions and significance as

  20. Current Status of Functional Imaging in Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Guido K.W.; Kaye, Walter H.

    2013-01-01

    Eating Disorders are complex psychiatric problems that involve biologic and psychological factors. Brain imaging studies provide insights how functionally connected brain networks may contribute to disturbed eating behavior, resulting in food refusal and altered body weight, but also body preoccupations and heightened anxiety. In this article we review the current state of brain imaging in eating disorders, and how such techniques may help identify pathways that could be important in the treatment of those often detrimental disorders. PMID:22532388

  1. Proteins: sequence to structure and function--current status.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Sandhya R; Jayaram, B

    2010-11-01

    In an era that has been dominated by Structural Biology for the last 30-40 years, a dramatic change of focus towards sequence analysis has spurred the advent of the genome projects and the resultant diverging sequence/structure deficit. The central challenge of Computational Structural Biology is therefore to rationalize the mass of sequence information into biochemical and biophysical knowledge and to decipher the structural, functional and evolutionary clues encoded in the language of biological sequences. In investigating the meaning of sequences, two distinct analytical themes have emerged: in the first approach, pattern recognition techniques are used to detect similarity between sequences and hence to infer related structures and functions; in the second ab initio prediction methods are used to deduce 3D structure, and ultimately to infer function, directly from the linear sequence. In this article, we attempt to provide a critical assessment of what one may and may not expect from the biological sequences and to identify major issues yet to be resolved. The presentation is organized under several subtitles like protein sequences, pattern recognition techniques, protein tertiary structure prediction, membrane protein bioinformatics, human proteome, protein-protein interactions, metabolic networks, potential drug targets based on simple sequence properties, disordered proteins, the sequence-structure relationship and chemical logic of protein sequences. PMID:20887265

  2. Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) Parton Distribution Functions: Status and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, I. I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F. A.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; Ferrera, G.; Grados Luyando, J.; Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Kasemets, T.; Kutak, K.; Lansberg, J. P.; Lelek, A.; Lykasov, G.; Madrigal Martinez, J. D.; Mulders, P. J.; Nocera, E. R.; Petreska, E.; Pisano, C.; Plačakytė, R.; Radescu, V.; Radici, M.; Schnell, G.; Scimemi, I.; Signori, A.; Szymanowski, L.; Taheri Monfared, S.; Van der Veken, F. F.; van Haevermaet, H. J.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vladimirov, A. A.; Wallon, S.

    We provide a concise overview on transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum q_T spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low q_T, and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present an application of a new tool, TMDlib, to parton density fits and parameterizations.

  3. Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions: Status and prospects*

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, Ian I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F. A.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; et al

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we review transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum qT spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low qT, and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present the application of a new tool, TMDLIB, to parton density fits and parameterizations.

  4. Socioeconomic status and neuropsychological functioning: Associations in an ethnically diverse HIV+ cohort

    PubMed Central

    Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree; Monzones, Jennifer; Coulehan, Kelly; Fuentes, Armando; Rosario, Ana; Miranda, Caitlin; Morgello, Susan; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is limited research examining the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and neuropsychological functioning, particularly in racial/ethnic minority and HIV+ populations. However, there are complex associations between poverty, education, HIV disease, race/ethnicity, and health outcomes in the US. Method We explored these relationships among an ethnically diverse sample of 134 HIV+ adults using a standardized SES measure (i.e., the Hollingshead scale), a comprehensive NP test battery, and a functional evaluation (i.e., Patient’s Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory and Modified Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale). Results Bivariate analyses showed that adult SES was significantly, positively correlated with neuropsychological performance on specific tests within the domains of verbal fluency, attention/concentration, learning, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, and childhood SES was significantly linked to measures of verbal fluency, processing speed, and executive functioning. In a series of linear regressions, controlling for SES significantly attenuated group differences in NP test scores between racial/ethnic minority individuals and non-Hispanic white individuals. Finally, SES scores significantly differed across HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) diagnoses. In a binary logistic regression, SES was the only independent predictor of HAND diagnosis. Conclusions HIV+ individuals with lower SES may be more vulnerable to HIV-associated neuropsychological sequelae due to prominent health disparities, although the degree to which this is influenced by factors such as test bias remains unclear. Overall, our results suggest that SES is significantly linked to neuropsychological test performance in HIV+ individuals, and is an important factor to consider in clinical practice. PMID:25871409

  5. 78 FR 16701 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Foreign Trade Zone and/or Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Foreign Trade Zone and/or Status Designation, and Application for Foreign Trade Zone Activity Permit... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Application for Foreign Trade Zone Admission and/or Status Designation, and Application for Foreign Trade Zone Activity Permit (CBP Forms 214,...

  6. Active Sensor Reflectance Measurements of Corn Nitrogen Status and Yield Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of active crop canopy sensor reflectance measurements of in-season corn (Zea mays L.) nitrogen (N) status for directing spatially-variable N applications has been advocated to improve N use efficiency. However, first it is necessary to confirm that active sensors can reliably assess N status. Ou...

  7. Vitamin B12 intake and status and cognitive function in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Doets, Esmée L; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Szczecińska, Anna; Dullemeijer, Carla; Souverein, Olga W; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; van 't Veer, Pieter; Brzozowska, Anna; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2013-01-01

    Current recommendations on vitamin B12 intake vary from 1.4 to 3.0 μg per day and are based on the amount needed for maintenance of hematologic status or on the amount needed to compensate obligatory losses. This systematic review evaluates whether the relation between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function should be considered for underpinning vitamin B12 recommendations in the future. The authors summarized dose-response evidence from randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies on the relation of vitamin B12 intake and status with cognitive function in adults and elderly people. Two randomized controlled trials and 6 cohort studies showed no association or inconsistent associations between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that serum/plasma vitamin B12 (50 pmol/L) was not associated with risk of dementia (4 cohort studies), global cognition z scores (4 cohort studies), or memory z scores (4 cohort studies). Although dose-response evidence on sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status (methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamin) was scarce, 4 of 5 cohort studies reported significant associations with risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or global cognition. Current evidence on the relation between vitamin B12 intake or status and cognitive function is not sufficient for consideration in the development of vitamin B12 recommendations. Further studies should consider the selection of sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status. PMID:23221971

  8. Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions: Status and prospects*

    SciTech Connect

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, Ian I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F. A.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; Ferrera, G.; Grados Luyando, J.; Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Kasemets, T.; Kutak, K.; Lansberg, J. P.; Lykasov, G.; Madrigal Martinez, J. D.; Mulders, P. J.; Nocera, E. R.; Petreska, E.; Pisano, C.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Radici, M.; Schnell, G.; Signori, A.; Szymanowski, L.; Taheri Monfared, S.; Van der Veken, F. F.; van Haevermaet, H. J.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vladimirov, A. A.; Wallon, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we review transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum qT spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low qT, and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present the application of a new tool, TMDLIB, to parton density fits and parameterizations.

  9. [The neuromotor functional status of patients with circulatory encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Ivaniv, A P; Shmakova, I P

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the secondary neuromuscular disorders in 104 patients with spondylogenic discirculatory encephalopathy and to study the influence of different methods of combined physiotherapy (laser irradiation, troxevasin vacuum-phonophoresis, vacuum-message) on dynamics of electroneuromyographic (ENMG) indices. The application of electroneuromyography (ENMGST-01 apparatus) permitted to establish that pathological neurophysiological phenomena developed in patients progrediently and were qualitatively unstable. It was also determined that combined usage of laser-photobiostimulation and troxevasin vacuum-phonophoresis promoted more steadfast liquidation of neurological signs of the disease as well as the improvement of functional state of neuromotor system. Moreover, the usage of combined ENMG methods significantly contributed to understanding of pathological processes underlying the evaluated neurophysiological syndromes. The authors made the conclusion about high effectiveness and good perspectives of craniocaudal coefficient's application for determination of correlations between clinical state of patients and diagnostic tests' data. PMID:9281282

  10. Quantifying Health Status and Function in Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sandesh S; Venuti, Kristen D; Dietz, Harry C; Sponseller, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Two hundred thirty patients were prospectively enrolled in this study and completed various portions of the Short Form 36 and a study-specific questionnaire (visual analog scale 1 to 10, comprising three separate questionnaires) to evaluate quality of life and function in patients with Marfan syndrome. The greatest health concern was cardiac problems (high in 70% of patients), followed by spine issues and generalized fatigue (both high, in 53%). The most severe reported pain involved the back: 105 patients (46%) rated pain as 6 to 10 on the visual analog scale. Among the 72 patients who responded to work life questions, work hours were reduced because of treatment in 59 (82%) or directly because of Marfan syndrome in 29 (40%). Across all Short Form 36 domains, patients scored significantly lower than United States population norms (p<.05); physical health scores were considerably lower than mental health scores. PMID:27082886

  11. Status of point spread function determination for Keck adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragland, S.; Jolissaint, L.; Wizinowich, P.; Neyman, C.

    2014-07-01

    There is great interest in the adaptive optics (AO) science community to overcome the limitations imposed by incomplete knowledge of the point spread function (PSF). To address this limitation a program has been initiated at the W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) to demonstrate PSF determination for observations obtained with Keck AO science instruments. This paper aims to give a broad view of the progress achieved in this area. The concept and the implementation are briefly described. The results from on-sky on-axis NGS AO measurements using the NIRC2 science instrument are presented. On-sky performance of the technique is illustrated by comparing the reconstructed PSFs to NIRC2 PSFs. Accuracy of the reconstructed PSFs in terms of Strehl ratio and FWHM are discussed. Science cases for the first phase of science verification have been identified. More technical details of the program are presented elsewhere in the conference.

  12. The influence of zinc status and malnutrition on immunological function in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Ainley, C; Cason, J; Slavin, B M; Wolstencroft, R A; Thompson, R P

    1991-06-01

    Cellular immunity is likely to be important in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease; whether it is abnormal is not clear. The heterogeneity of patients with Crohn's disease probably underlies the disparity of reports, but attempts to determine which clinical features influence cellular immunity have been largely unsuccessful. This is probably caused by the omission of nutritional status as a potential factor, even though zinc deficiency has frequently been linked with abnormal immunity. Therefore, a detailed study of nutritional and tissue zinc status, nonspecific cellular immunity, and a measure of phagocytic function was performed in 32 patients with Crohn's disease and in a control group of 18 normal subjects and 12 patients with anorexia nervosa. Fourteen patients with Crohn's disease, all patients with anorexia nervosa, but none of the normal controls were malnourished. Peripheral blood lymphocyte population levels were normal in patients with Crohn's disease and in normal controls, but there was a small decrease in the levels of patients with anorexia nervosa. In vivo delayed hypersensitivity skin test responses were profoundly depressed in patients with anorexia nervosa and decreased in patients with Crohn's disease who were malnourished or receiving systemic glucocorticoids. In vitro lymphocyte transformation was reduced in malnourished patients with Crohn's disease, but there were only minor changes in patients with anorexia nervosa. There were alterations of in vitro immunoregulation in Crohn's disease, but they were not responsible for the abnormal lymphocyte transformation responses in malnourished patients. In vitro phagocytic function was reduced in patients with active Crohn's disease. These findings suggest that depressed in vivo and in vitro cellular immunity in malnourished patients with Crohn's disease is caused by a qualitative lymphocyte defect and that depressed in vivo but normal in vitro cellular immunity in anorexia nervosa is caused by a

  13. Scaling functional status within the interRAI suite of assessment instruments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As one ages, physical, cognitive, and clinical problems accumulate and the pattern of loss follows a distinct progression. The first areas requiring outside support are the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and over time there is a need for support in performing the Activities of Daily Living. Two new functional hierarchies are presented, an IADL hierarchical capacity scale and a combination scale integrating both IADL and ADL hierarchies. Methods A secondary analyses of data from a cross-national sample of community residing persons was conducted using 762,023 interRAI assessments. The development of the new IADL Hierarchy and a new IADL-ADL combined scale proceeded through a series of interrelated steps first examining individual IADL and ADL item scores among persons receiving home care and those living independently without services. A factor analysis demonstrated the overall continuity across the IADL-ADL continuum. Evidence of the validity of the scales was explored with associative analyses of factors such as a cross-country distributional analysis for persons in home care programs, a count of functional problems across the categories of the hierarchy, an assessment of the hours of informal and formal care received each week by persons in the different categories of the hierarchy, and finally, evaluation of the relationship between cognitive status and the hierarchical IADL-ADL assignments. Results Using items from interRAI’s suite of assessment instruments, two new functional scales were developed, the interRAI IADL Hierarchy Scale and the interRAI IADL-ADL Functional Hierarchy Scale. The IADL Hierarchy Scale consisted of 5 items, meal preparation, housework, shopping, finances and medications. The interRAI IADL-ADL Functional Hierarchy Scale was created through an amalgamation of the ADL Hierarchy (developed previously) and IADL Hierarchy Scales. These scales cover the spectrum of IADL and ADL challenges faced by persons in the community

  14. Contractile Function During Angiotensin-II Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Prosser, Benjamin L.; Bamboye, Moradeke A.; Gondim, Antonio N.S.; Santos, Celio X.; Martin, Daniel; Ghigo, Alessandra; Perino, Alessia; Brewer, Alison C.; Ward, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Emilio; Lederer, W. Jonathan; Shah, Ajay M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Renin-angiotensin system activation is a feature of many cardiovascular conditions. Activity of myocardial reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NADPH oxidase 2 or Nox2) is enhanced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and contributes to increased hypertrophy, fibrosis, and adverse remodeling. Recent studies found that Nox2-mediated reactive oxygen species production modulates physiological cardiomyocyte function. Objectives This study sought to investigate the effects of cardiomyocyte Nox2 on contractile function during increased Ang II activation. Methods We generated a cardiomyocyte-targeted Nox2-transgenic mouse model and studied the effects of in vivo and ex vivo Ang II stimulation, as well as chronic aortic banding. Results Chronic subpressor Ang II infusion induced greater cardiac hypertrophy in transgenic than wild-type mice but unexpectedly enhanced contractile function. Acute Ang II treatment also enhanced contractile function in transgenic hearts in vivo and transgenic cardiomyocytes ex vivo. Ang II–stimulated Nox2 activity increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ uptake in transgenic mice, increased the Ca2+ transient and contractile amplitude, and accelerated cardiomyocyte contraction and relaxation. Elevated Nox2 activity increased phospholamban phosphorylation in both hearts and cardiomyocytes, related to inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 activity. In a model of aortic banding–induced chronic pressure overload, heart function was similarly depressed in transgenic and wild-type mice. Conclusions We identified a novel mechanism in which Nox2 modulates cardiomyocyte SR Ca2+ uptake and contractile function through redox-regulated changes in phospholamban phosphorylation. This mechanism can drive increased contractility in the short term in disease states characterized by enhanced renin-angiotensin system activation. PMID:26184620

  15. Adrenal function in patients with active tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, D J; Naraqi, S; Temu, P; Turtle, J R

    1989-01-01

    Although tuberculosis is a recognised cause of adrenal insufficiency, little is known about adrenal function in patients with active tuberculosis. Ninety Melanesian adults with active tuberculosis (30 pulmonary, 30 miliary, 30 extrapulmonary) had adrenal function assessed prospectively before and three to four weeks after starting antituberculous chemotherapy. Basal serum cortisol concentrations were normal in 55 (61%) and raised in 35 (39%) of the subjects. No patient had a low basal cortisol concentration. After Synacthen stimulation, cortisol responses were normal in 81 (92%) of the patients and subnormal in seven (8%). After antituberculous chemotherapy the response to Synacthen stimulation was normal in all but one patient. It is concluded that adrenal dysfunction is an uncommon problem in patients with active tuberculosis, and that, contrary to recent reports, antituberculous chemotherapy regimens that include rifampicin do not have an adverse effect on adrenal function. PMID:2763243

  16. [The functional status of the cerebral cortex after replacement of skull base bone defects].

    PubMed

    Shevtsov, V I; Khudiaev, A T; Shein, A P; D'iachkov, A N; Men'shchikova, I A; Krivonogova, Z M; Mukhtiaeva, S V

    2002-01-01

    The functional status of the cerebral cortex was evaluated by EEG before and different periods after prolonged cranial osteoplasty made by the type of replacement of skull base bone defects in patients with dyscirculatory encephalopathies of various genesis. Seven patients aged 20 to 50 years undergone repair of skull base bone defects (both posttraumatic and simulated) by the procedures developed at the Russian Research Center "VTO" were examined. The bioelectrical activity of the brain was recorded and analyzed on a PEGASUS digital 16-channel EEG system (EMS, Austria) by using the Fourie prompt conversion test (spectral analysis) and amplitude-frequency mapping. After multimodality treatment, all the patients showed a positive changes in the whole range of EEG parameters, which appeared as an increase in basic rhythm power, a decrease in the focal area of slow-wave activity and in the interhemispheral asymmetry coefficient, which in combination of neurological regression is regarded as indirect evidence for the vasoactivity of prolonged cranial osteoplasty. PMID:11989290

  17. Effect of Functional Status on the Quality of Bowel Preparation in Elderly Patients Undergoing Screening and Surveillance Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Akash; Lin, Lisa; Bernheim, Oren; Bagiella, Emilia; Jandorf, Lina; Itzkowitz, Steven H.; Shah, Brijen J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Optimal bowel preparation is essential for successful screening or for surveillance colonoscopy (SC). Inadequate bowel preparation is associated with older age, the male gender, and the presence of certain comorbidities. However, the association between patients’ functional status and bowel preparation quality has not been studied. We prospectively examined the relationship between functional status, namely, the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and ambulate, and the quality of bowel preparation in elderly patients undergoing SC. Methods Before undergoing SC, 88 elderly patients were surveyed regarding their functional status, specifically regarding their ability to perform ADLs and ambulate a quarter of a mile. Gastroenterologists then determined the quality of the bowel preparation, which was classified as either adequate or inadequate. Then, the frequency of inadequate bowel preparation in patients who did or did not experience difficulty performing ADLs and ambulating was calculated. Results Difficulty ambulating (unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.83; p<0.001), difficulty performing ADLs (OR, 2.93; p=0.001), and history of diabetes (OR, 2.88; p=0.007) were significant univariate predictors of inadequate bowel preparation. After adjusting for the above variables, only difficulty ambulating (adjusted OR, 5.78; p=0.004) was an independent predictor of inadequate bowel preparation. Conclusions Difficulty with ambulation is a strong predictor of inadequate bowel preparation in elderly patients undergoing SC. PMID:27021501

  18. Differences in Field Dependence-Independence Cognitive Style as a Function of Socioeconomic Status, Sex, and Cognitive Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forns-Santacana, Maria; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed field dependence-independence (FDI) cognitive style as function of socioeconomic status, sex, and cognitive competence in seven year olds (n=117). Subjects of upper-middle socioeconomic status achieved significantly higher scores that did subjects of low socioeconomic status on five McCarthy Scales and on FDI variable. Boys scored higher…

  19. Iron Status is Associated with Asthma and Lung Function in US Women

    PubMed Central

    Brigham, Emily P.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Takemoto, Clifford M.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Asthma and iron deficiency are common conditions. Whether iron status affects the risk of asthma is unclear. Objective To determine the relationship between iron status and asthma, lung function, and pulmonary inflammation. Methods Relationships between measures of iron status (serum ferritin, serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and sTfR/log10ferritin (sTfR-F Index)) and asthma, lung function, and pulmonary inflammation were examined in women 20-49 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Logistic, linear, and quadratic regression models accounting for the survey design of NHANES were used to evaluate associations between iron status and asthma-related outcomes and were adjusted for race/ethnicity, age, smoking status, income, and BMI. Results Approximately 16% reported a lifetime history of asthma, 9% reported current asthma, and 5% reported a recent asthma episode/attack (n = 2906). Increased ferritin (iron stores) was associated with decreased odds of lifetime asthma, current asthma, and asthma attacks/episodes in the range of ferritin linearly correlated with iron stores (20-300ng/ml). The highest quintile of ferritin (>76 ng/ml) was also associated with a decreased odds of asthma. Ferritin levels were not associated with FEV1. Increased values of the sTfR-F Index and sTfR, indicating lower body iron and higher tissue iron need, respectively, were associated with decreased FEV1, but neither was associated with asthma. None of the iron indices were associated with FeNO. Conclusion In US women, higher iron stores were inversely associated with asthma and lower body iron and higher tissue iron need were associated with lower lung function. Together, these findings suggest that iron status may play a role in asthma and lung function in US women. PMID:25689633

  20. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total antioxidant status, and total oxidant status of endemic Thermopsis turcica

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Laçine; Kolay, Erdi; Ağılönü, Yasin; Aslan, Zeyneb; Kargıoğlu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Thermopsis turcica, endemic to Turkey, is in danger of extinction. Studies on this species are very few due to the fact that it was only discovered in 1983 and grows in a small circumscribed area in Turkey. In this study, free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant status (TAS) of methanol (TTM) and acetone (TTA) extracts of T. turcica were measured spectroscopically. Free radical scavenging activity was determined according to the elimination of DPPH radicals and total phenol content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu reaction. Total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured with commercially available kits. Methanol and acetone extracts of T. turcica were found to have a specific radical scavenging effect. This effect was found to be related to the total phenolic content of the extracts. Since the TTA had a higher phenolic content than the methanol extract, it had a stronger radical scavenging effect. In addition, the total antioxidant capacity of the methanol extract was observed to be higher than that of its acetone counterpart. As a result, due to its antioxidative properties, T. turcica is thought to be a natural source of antioxidants. PMID:23961240

  1. Metabolic status, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian function during acute nutrient restriction of beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of acute nutritional restriction on metabolic status, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian function of heifers was determined in 2 experiments. In Exp. 1, 14-mo-old heifers were fed a diet supplying 1.2 × maintenance energy requirements (1.2M). After 10 d, heifers were fed 1.2M or were res...

  2. Children's Sleep and Cognitive Functioning: Race and Socioeconomic Status as Moderators of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Race and socioeconomic status (SES) moderated the link between children's sleep and cognitive functioning. One hundred and sixty-six 8- to 9-year-old African and European American children varying in SES participated. Sleep measures were actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-report; cognitive measures were from the Woodcock-Johnson III and reaction…

  3. Developmental Status and Social-Emotional Functioning of Young Children Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…

  4. The Correlates of Tracking Policy: Opportunity Hoarding, Status Competition, or a Technical-Functional Explanation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sean; Price, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this analysis, the authors explore the relationship between the social context of high schools and school-to-school variation in tracking policies. The authors consider three explanations for the implementation of highly elaborated tracking systems: opportunity hoarding, status competition, and a technical-functional explanation. Building on…

  5. Enzyme Specific Activity in Functionalized Nanoporous Supports

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A.; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Jun; Ackerman, Eric J.

    2008-03-26

    Enzyme specific activity can be increased or decreased to a large extent by changing protein loading density in functionalized nanoporous support, where organophosphorus hydrolase can display a constructive orientation and thus leave a completely open entrance for substrate even at higher protein loading density, but glucose oxidase can not.

  6. Opiates and cerebral functional activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Trusk, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral activity was measured using the free-fatty acid (1-/sup 14/C) octanoate as a fast functional tracer in conscious, unrestrained rats 5 minutes after intravenous injection of heroin, cocaine or saline vehicle. Regional changes of octanoate labeling density in the autoradiograms relative to saline-injected animals were used to determine the functional activity effects of each drug. Heroin and cocaine each produced a distinctive pattern of activity increases and suppression throughout the rat brain. Similar regional changes induced by both drugs were found in limbic brain regions implicated in drug reinforcement. Labeled octanoate autoradiography was used to measure the cerebral functional response to a tone that had previously been paired to heroin injections. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administration animal, and two animals receiving yoked infusion of heroin or saline. A tone was paired with each infusion during training. Behavioral experiments in similarly trained rats demonstrated that these training conditions impart secondary reinforcing properties to the tone in animals previously self-administering heroin, while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion rats. Cerebral functional activity was measured during presentation of the tone without drug infusion. Octanoate labeling density changed in fifteen brain areas in response to the tone previously paired to heroin without response contingency. Labeling density was significantly modified in sixteen regions as a result of previously pairing the tone to response-contingent heroin infusions.

  7. Oxidant and enzymatic antioxidant status (gene expression and activity) in the brain of chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Nasiri, Leila; Mohebbi, Abdonnaser; Bahadoran, Shahab

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain (hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain) in chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension, the measurements of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, antioxidant capacity, enzymatic activity, and gene expression (for catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutases) were done. There were high lipid peroxidation/protein oxidation and low antioxidant capacity in the hindbrain of cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens compared to control ( P < 0.05). In the hypertensive chickens, superoxide dismutase activity was decreased (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain), while catalase activity was increased (forebrain and midbrain) ( P < 0.05). Glutathione peroxidase activity did not change. Relative gene expression of catalase and superoxide dismutases (1 and 2) was downregulated, while glutathione peroxidase was upregulated in the brain of the cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens. Probably, these situations in the oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain especially hindbrain may change its function at cardiovascular center and sympathetic nervous system to exacerbate pulmonary hypertension.

  8. Self-perceived physical functioning and health status among fully ambulatory multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Pugliatti, Maura; Riise, Trond; Nortvedt, Monica W; Carpentras, Giovanni; Sotgiu, M Alessandra; Sotgiu, Stefano; Rosati, Giulio

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the self-perceived health status among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with no or mild disability according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the impact of self-rated physical functioning. A sample of fully ambulatory (EDSS < or = 3.5) consecutive patients with MS was included after screening for major cognitive impairment. The EDSS was used to measure nervous system signs or disability, and the self-rated health status was assessed using the SF-36 Health Survey. The normative SF-36 data for the general population of Italy were used for comparison. The 197 MS patients analyzed (150 women and 47 men) had significantly lower mean SF-36 scores than the general population, except for bodily pain. The scores did not differ significantly by gender. The same analysis performed on a subsample of 105 patients (79 women and 26 men) with minimal disability in one functional system (EDSS < or = 2.0) yielded similar results. EDSS was weakly correlated with the physical functioning subscale and explained only 2% of the variance in the physical functioning subscale. The regression of the physical functioning subscale on the other seven SF-36 subscales was significantly lower among MS patients than in the general population for all subscales, except for role limitation due to physical health problems and social functioning. Neither disease course nor duration correlated significantly with SF-36 subscales. The SF-36 physical functioning subscale seemed to indicate physical functioning more sensitively than EDSS. These findings should encourage the implementation of specific strategies aimed at improving the quality of the self-perceived health status already in the early disease stage. PMID:18283408

  9. Urinary iodine, thyroid function, and thyroglobulin as biomarkers of iodine status.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    The accurate assessment of population iodine status is necessary to inform public health policies and clinical research on iodine nutrition, particularly the role of iodine adequacy in normal neurodevelopment. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) directly reflects dietary iodine intake and is the most common indicator used worldwide to assess population iodine status. The CDC established the Ensuring the Quality of Iodine Procedures program in 2001 to provide laboratories that measure urinary iodine with an independent assessment of their analytic performance; this program fosters improvement in the assessment of UIC. Clinical laboratory tests of thyroid function (including serum concentrations of the pituitary hormone thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine) are sometimes used as indicators of iodine status, although such use is often problematic. Even in severely iodine-deficient regions, there is a great deal of intraindividual variation in the ability of the thyroid to adapt. In most settings and in most population subgroups other than newborns, thyroid function tests are not considered sensitive indicators of population iodine status. However, the thyroid-derived protein thyroglobulin is increasingly being used for this purpose. Thyroglobulin can be measured in either serum or dried blood spot (DBS) samples. The use of DBS samples is advantageous in resource-poor regions. Improved methodologies for ascertaining maternal iodine status are needed to facilitate research on developmental correlates of iodine status. Thyroglobulin may prove to be a useful biomarker for both maternal and neonatal iodine status, but validated assay-specific reference ranges are needed for the determination of iodine sufficiency in both pregnant women and neonates, and trimester-specific ranges are possibly needed for pregnant women. UIC is currently a well-validated population biomarker, but individual biomarkers that could be used for research, patient care

  10. Effects of inpatient physical therapy on the functional status of elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Zasadzka, Ewa; Kropińska, Sylwia; Pawlaczyk, Mariola; Krzymińska-Siemaszko, Roma; Lisiński, Przemysław; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose] The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of inpatient rehabilitation on the functional status of the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 100 patients (>65 years of age) in a rehabilitation ward were enrolled in this study. Age, absence of depression and signs of dementia in screening tests constituted the inclusion criteria. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed of all of the subjects twice, at the beginning and end of hospitalization (Assessments I and II, respectively), and included fall risk assessment (Timed Up and Go Test, TUG), evaluation of physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery Test, SPPB), the handgrip strength test, as well as patients’ self-reports of pain intensity, well-being and functional status. [Results] At the end of inpatient rehabilitation, significant improvement was observed in reduction the TUG time, physical function, and handgrip strength, as well as in subjective parameters such as self-reported pain intensity, well-being, and functional status. [Conclusion] Our results show the high efficacy of inpatient rehabilitation as a means of improving functional independence. Hospital rehabilitation should be recommended for elderly people, not only in cases of absolute indications for hospital admission, but also periodically for patients at risk of physical disability. PMID:27065526

  11. Effects of inpatient physical therapy on the functional status of elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Zasadzka, Ewa; Kropińska, Sylwia; Pawlaczyk, Mariola; Krzymińska-Siemaszko, Roma; Lisiński, Przemysław; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose] The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of inpatient rehabilitation on the functional status of the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 100 patients (>65 years of age) in a rehabilitation ward were enrolled in this study. Age, absence of depression and signs of dementia in screening tests constituted the inclusion criteria. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed of all of the subjects twice, at the beginning and end of hospitalization (Assessments I and II, respectively), and included fall risk assessment (Timed Up and Go Test, TUG), evaluation of physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery Test, SPPB), the handgrip strength test, as well as patients' self-reports of pain intensity, well-being and functional status. [Results] At the end of inpatient rehabilitation, significant improvement was observed in reduction the TUG time, physical function, and handgrip strength, as well as in subjective parameters such as self-reported pain intensity, well-being, and functional status. [Conclusion] Our results show the high efficacy of inpatient rehabilitation as a means of improving functional independence. Hospital rehabilitation should be recommended for elderly people, not only in cases of absolute indications for hospital admission, but also periodically for patients at risk of physical disability. PMID:27065526

  12. Neighborhood satisfaction, functional limitations, and self-efficacy influences on physical activity in older women

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Katherine S; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Background Perceptions of one's environment and functional status have been linked to physical activity in older adults. However, little is known about these associations over time, and even less about the possible mediators of this relationship. We examined the roles played by neighborhood satisfaction, functional limitations, self-efficacy, and physical activity in a sample of older women over a 6-month period. Methods Participants (N = 137, M age = 69.6 years) completed measures of neighborhood satisfaction, functional limitations, self-efficacy, and physical activity at baseline and again 6 months later. Results Analyses indicated that changes in neighborhood satisfaction and functional limitations had direct effects on residual changes in self-efficacy, and changes in self-efficacy were associated with changes in physical activity at 6 months. Conclusion Our findings support a social cognitive model of physical activity in which neighborhood satisfaction and functional status effects on physical activity are in part mediated by intermediate individual outcomes such as self-efficacy. Additionally, these findings lend support to the position that individual perceptions of both the environment and functional status can have prospective effects on self-efficacy cognitions and ultimately, physical activity behavior. PMID:18304326

  13. Objective Measures of Physical Activity, White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Status in Adults Over Age 80

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qu; Glynn, Nancy W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Newman, Anne B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Saxton, Judith; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) are consistently shown in older adults, but the neural substrates, particularly in white matter (WM), are understudied, especially in very old adults with the fastest growth rate and the highest risk of dementia. This study quantified the association between PA and WM integrity in adults over 80. The moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations and WM hyperintensities were also examined, as they can affect PA and brain integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from normal-appearing WM via diffusion tensor imaging and WM hyperintensities were obtained in 90 participants (mean age=87.4, 51.1% female, 55.6% white) with concurrent objective measures of steps, active energy expenditure (AEE in kcal), duration (minutes), and intensity (Metabolic equivalents, METs) via SenseWear Armband. Clinical adjudication of cognitive status, prevalence of stroke and diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and gait speed were assessed at time of neuroimaging. Participants were on average sedentary (mean±SD/day: 1766±1345 steps, 202±311 kcal, 211±39 minutes, 1.8±1.1 METs). Higher steps, AEE and duration, but not intensity, were significantly associated with higher FA. Associations were localized in frontal and temporal areas. Moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations, and WM hyperintensities were not significant. Neither FA nor PA was related to cognitive status. Older adults with a sedentary lifestyle and a wide range of cardiometabolic conditions and physical functional limitations, displayed higher WM integrity in relation to higher PA. Studies of very old adults to quantify the role of PA in reducing dementia burden via WM integrity are warranted. PMID:25655514

  14. Idle Hands and Empty Pockets?: Youth Involvement in Extracurricular Activities, Social Capital, and Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Amanda M.; Gager, Constance T.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Survey of Adults and Youth, the authors examine the effect of economic status on youths' involvement in both school- and nonschool-related extracurricular activities. Specifically, they assess the association between four alternative measures of economic status--recipiency of food stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent…

  15. 77 FR 14829 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection, Comments Requested; Status of COPS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection, Comments Requested; Status of COPS Grant... (DOJ) Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), will be submitting the following..., the U.S. Department of Justice COPS Office would require the completion of the Status of COPS...

  16. 75 FR 80114 - Agency Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Title: Status of Dependents Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0538. OMB Control Number: 2900-0500....

  17. 75 FR 26346 - Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...: Marital Status Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number: 2900-0495. Type of Review: Extension...

  18. 75 FR 10027 - Proposed Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY.... Title: Marital Status Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number: 2900-0495. Type of...

  19. 77 FR 39343 - Agency Information Collection (Financial Status Report) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Financial Status Report) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission describes the... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0165.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Financial Status...

  20. Monitoring of Functioning Status in Subjects With Chronic Stroke in South Korea Using WHODAS II

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Su-Yeon; Hong, Sang-Eun; Kim, Ee-Jin; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Joa, Kyung-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Objective To follow up the long-term functioning in a community through assessing personal background and status based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) after a stroke, by using a Korean version of World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (K-WHODAS II). Methods We surveyed 146 patients diagnosed at the first-onset of acute stroke and discharged after Inha University Hospital, and 101 patients answered the K-WHODAS II survey. We analyzed the relationship of six functioning domains of K-WHODAS II with K-MMSE (Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination) and K-MBI (Korean version of Modified Barthel Index) at admission and discharge, and personal background. All subjects were divided into five groups, according to the disease durations, to assess the functional changes and the differences of K-MMSE and K-MBI at the admission and discharge. Results K-MBI and K-MMSE at admission and discharge showed no significant differences in all five groups, respectively (p>0.05), reflecting no baseline disparity for long-term follow-up. All subjects showed positive gains of K-MBI and K-MMSE at discharge (p<0.05). The six functioning domains and total scores of K-WHODAS II had decreasing trends until 3 years after the stroke onset, but rose thereafter. Higher scores of K-MBI and K-MMSE, younger age, women, working status, higher educational level, and living with a partner were correlated with lower scores of K-WHODAS II (p<0.05). Conclusion The long-term functioning after stroke was affected not only by cognitive and motor status in hospital, but also by certain kinds of personal background. K-WHODAS II may be used to monitor functioning status in a community and to assess personal backgrounds in subjects with chronic stroke. PMID:26949677

  1. Machine learning classification of resting state functional connectivity predicts smoking status

    PubMed Central

    Pariyadath, Vani; Stein, Elliot A.; Ross, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning-based approaches are now able to examine functional magnetic resonance imaging data in a multivariate manner and extract features predictive of group membership. We applied support vector machine (SVM)-based classification to resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) data from nicotine-dependent smokers and healthy controls to identify brain-based features predictive of nicotine dependence. By employing a network-centered approach, we observed that within-network functional connectivity measures offered maximal information for predicting smoking status, as opposed to between-network connectivity, or the representativeness of each individual node with respect to its parent network. Further, our analysis suggests that connectivity measures within the executive control and frontoparietal networks are particularly informative in predicting smoking status. Our findings suggest that machine learning-based approaches to classifying rsFC data offer a valuable alternative technique to understanding large-scale differences in addiction-related neurobiology. PMID:24982629

  2. The evaluation of changes in functional health status in patients with abdominal complaints.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, H M; Touw-Otten, F W; de Melker, R A

    1996-02-01

    Measuring functional status changes in various patient subgroups is important in stratifying risk, assessing disease severity, and predicting and defining clinically relevant outcomes. Data from a multi-centered study of 980 primary care patients presenting with nonspecific abdominal complaints were studied to demonstrate the importance of such an assessment procedure. Patients were prospectively followed for 6 months. Five diagnostic categories based on illness duration and seriousness were derived from the clinical course of these patients. The functional status of each patient was determined at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months using the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP). Intraclass correlation coefficients accounted for two aspects of the reliability of the SIP regarding the measurement of change over time: differences between patients which are stable over time (reproducibility) and different effects of treatment between subsets (responsiveness). A priori formulated expectations about the degree of health status change in patient subgroups were evaluated with the help of effect-size calculations. Patient impairment only partially depended on the final diagnosis and was also influenced by the presence of co-morbidity, psycho-social determinants, and other complaints. The health status change in the patient subgroups agreed with a priori formulated expectations. Standardized effect-size calculations revealed that the degree of change over time in SIP scores was in accordance with these expectations. We conclude: (a) the SIP appeared to be a reliable clinimetric instrument in detecting change over time resulting from different clinical courses, (b) clinical studies that use clinimetric instruments to assess the effects of clinical interventions must adequately control for the influence of baseline "functional status" as well as traditional demographic features such as gender and age, and (c) evaluating a priori formulated clinical expectations concerning functional

  3. Status of LHC crab activity simulations and beam studies

    SciTech Connect

    Calaga,R.; Assman, R.; Barranco, J.; Barranco, J.; Calaga, R.; Caspers, F.; Ciapala, E.; De-Maria, R.; Koutchouk, J. P.; Linnecar, T.; Metral, E.; Morita, A.; Solyak, N.; Sun, Y.; Tomas, R.; Tuckmantel, J.; Weiler, T.; Zimmermann, F.

    2009-05-04

    The LHC crab cavity program is advancing rapidly towards a first prototype which is anticipated to be tested during the early stages of the LHC phase I upgrade and commissioning. The general project status and some aspects related to crab optics, collimation, aperture constraints, impedances, noise effects. beam transparency and machine protection critical for a safe and robust operation of LHC beams with crab cavities are addressed here.

  4. Behavioral Functioning among Mexican-Origin Children: Does Parental Legal Status Matter?*

    PubMed Central

    Landale, Nancy S.; Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Oropesa, R. S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Using data on 2,535 children included in the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, we investigate how the legal status of immigrant parents shapes their children’s behavioral functioning. Variation in internalizing and externalizing problems among Mexican youth with undocumented mothers, documented or naturalized citizen mothers, and U.S.-born mothers is analyzed using a comparative framework that contrasts their experience with that of other ethnoracial groups. Our findings reinforce the importance of differentiating children of immigrants by parental legal status in studying health and well-being. Children of undocumented Mexican migrants have significantly higher risks of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems than their counterparts with documented or naturalized citizen mothers. Regression results are inconsistent with simple explanations that emphasize group differences in socioeconomic status, maternal mental health, or family routines. PMID:25722124

  5. A Study on Perception and Usage Status on Health Functional Foods in Women according to Menopause Status

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Heesook; Lee, Hae-Hyeog

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to provide a reference base for suggesting proper guidelines for the health of the people by analyzing perception and intake pattern on health functional foods and by identifying needs in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a self-administered survey in women admitted to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a university hospital between July and August, 2014. The survey questionnaire consisted of 8 items on general characteristics, 4 items on awareness on health functional foods, and 16 items on usage status. Results Of all 133 women with ages ranging between 19 to 67 years, postmenopausal women were 57 accounting for 42.9% of all subjects. Mean age was 55.4 ± 6.2 and menopausal age was 49.6 ± 4.3 in the postmenopause group. Mean age was 38.7 ± 9.0 in the postmenopause group. With respect to components of health functional foods, 76.3% of women answered "important" in the postmenopause group, significantly higher than 49.1% in the postmenopause group (P < 0.01). In regard to price, those who answered "important" accounted for the largest percentage in the premenopausal group at 56.6%, and those who answered "moderately important" accounted for 57.9% in the postmenopausal women. A significant difference was found between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion Development of products reflecting consumer needs can be considered. It is important to foster an environment allowing individuals to choose right health functional foods and further studies are warranted. PMID:27152310

  6. Functional Status Assessment of Patients With COPD: A Systematic Review of Performance-Based Measures and Patient-Reported Measures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Li, Honghe; Ding, Ning; Wang, Ningning; Wen, Deliang

    2016-05-01

    Presently, there is no recommendation on how to assess functional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study aimed to summarize and systematically evaluate these measures.Studies on measures of COPD patients' functional status published before the end of January 2015 were included using a search filters in PubMed and Web of Science, screening reference lists of all included studies, and cross-checking against some relevant reviews. After title, abstract, and main text screening, the remaining was appraised using the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) 4-point checklist. All measures from these studies were rated according to best-evidence synthesis and the best-rated measures were selected.A total of 6447 records were found and 102 studies were reviewed, suggesting 44 performance-based measures and 14 patient-reported measures. The majority of the studies focused on internal consistency, reliability, and hypothesis testing, but only 21% of them employed good or excellent methodology. Their common weaknesses include lack of checks for unidimensionality, inadequate sample sizes, no prior hypotheses, and improper methods. On average, patient-reported measures perform better than performance-based measures. The best-rated patient-reported measures are functional performance inventory (FPI), functional performance inventory short form (FPI-SF), living with COPD questionnaire (LCOPD), COPD activity rating scale (CARS), University of Cincinnati dyspnea questionnaire (UCDQ), shortness of breath with daily activities (SOBDA), and short-form pulmonary functional status scale (PFSS-11), and the best-rated performance-based measures are exercise testing: 6-minute walk test (6MWT), endurance treadmill test, and usual 4-meter gait speed (usual 4MGS).Further research is needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of performance-based measures since present studies failed to provide convincing

  7. 78 FR 46422 - Proposed Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request... of Dependents Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0538. OMB Control Number: 2900-0500. Type of...

  8. Deep Neural Networks with Multistate Activation Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chenghao; Xu, Yanyan; Ke, Dengfeng; Su, Kaile

    2015-01-01

    We propose multistate activation functions (MSAFs) for deep neural networks (DNNs). These MSAFs are new kinds of activation functions which are capable of representing more than two states, including the N-order MSAFs and the symmetrical MSAF. DNNs with these MSAFs can be trained via conventional Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) as well as mean-normalised SGD. We also discuss how these MSAFs perform when used to resolve classification problems. Experimental results on the TIMIT corpus reveal that, on speech recognition tasks, DNNs with MSAFs perform better than the conventional DNNs, getting a relative improvement of 5.60% on phoneme error rates. Further experiments also reveal that mean-normalised SGD facilitates the training processes of DNNs with MSAFs, especially when being with large training sets. The models can also be directly trained without pretraining when the training set is sufficiently large, which results in a considerable relative improvement of 5.82% on word error rates. PMID:26448739

  9. Seizures, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block as endogenous brain activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Houssaini, Kenza; Ivanov, Anton I.; Bernard, Christophe; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block are pathological brain activities whose mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a generic mathematical model of seizure activity, we show that these activities coexist under certain conditions spanning the range of possible brain activities. We perform a detailed bifurcation analysis and predict strategies to escape from some of the pathological states. Experimental results using rodent data provide support of the model, highlighting the concept that these pathological activities belong to the endogenous repertoire of brain activities.

  10. Depression, disability and functional status among community dwelling older adults in South Africa: Evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Burns, Jonathan K

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the relationship between depression and functional status among a community-dwelling elderly population of 65 years and older in South Africa. Method Data from the first wave of the South African National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) was used, this being the first longitudinal panel survey of a nationally representative sample of households. The study focused on the data for resident adults 65 years and older (n=1,429). Depression was assessed using the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Functional status, pertaining to both difficulty and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and physical functioning and mobility (PFM), were assessed using 11 items. Results Functional challenges were generally higher in the older age group. There was a significant association between depression and functional dependency in ADL (adjusted OR=2.57 [CI: 1.03-6.41]), IADL (adjusted OR=2.76 [CI: 1.89-4.04]) and PFM (adjusted OR=1.66 [CI: 1.18-2.33]) but the relationship between depression and functional status, particularly PFM, appeared weaker in older age. Conclusion The relationship between depression symptoms and function is complex. Functional characteristics between older and younger older populations are diverse, and caution is indicated against overgeneralizing the challenges related to depression and function among this target population. PMID:23512338

  11. The longitudinal and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and host genotype upon neurocognitive functioning

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Andrew J.; Reynolds, Sandra; Cox, Christopher; Miller, Eric N.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Becker, James T.; Martin, Eileen; Sacktor, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Background Both HIV-1 infection and illicit stimulant use can adversely impact neurocognitive functioning, and these effects can be additive. However, significant variability exists such that as-of-yet unidentified exogenous and endogenous factors affect ones risk for neurocognitive impairment. Both HIV and stimulant literature indicates that host genetic variants in immunologic and dopamine-related genes are one such factor. In this study the individual and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and genotype upon neurocognitive functioning was examined longitudinally over a 10 year period. Methods 952 Caucasian HIV+ and HIV− cases from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were included. All cases had at least two comprehensive neurocognitive evaluations between 1985 and 1995. Pre-HAART data was examined in order to avoid the confounding effect of variable drug regimens. Linear mixed models were used, with neurocognitive domain scores as the outcome variables. Results No 4-way interactions were found, indicating that HIV and stimulant use do not interact over time to affect neurocognitive functioning as a function of genotype. Multiple 3-way interactions were found that involved genotype and HIV status. All immunologic-related genes found to interact with HIV status affected neurocognitive functioning in the expected direction; however, only CCL2 and CCL3 affected HIV+ individuals specifically. Dopamine-related genetic variants generally affected HIV-negative individuals only. Neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals who also used stimulants was not significantly different from those who did not use stimulants. Conclusion The findings support the role of immunologic-related genetic differences in CCL2 and CCL3 in neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals; however their impact is minor. Consistent with findings from another cohort, DA-related genetic differences do not appear to impact the longitudinal neurocognitive functioning of HIV

  12. The Impact of Maternal Vitamin D Status on Offspring Brain Development and Function: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pet, Milou A; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M

    2016-07-01

    Various studies have examined associations between maternal vitamin D (VD) deficiency and offspring health, including offspring brain health. The purpose of this review was to summarize current evidence concerning the impact of maternal VD deficiency on brain development and function in offspring. A systematic search was conducted within Medline (on Ovid) for studies published through 7 May 2015. Animal and human studies that examined associations between maternal VD status or developmental VD deficiency and offspring brain development and function were included. A total of 26 animal studies and 10 human studies met the inclusion criteria. Several animal studies confirmed the hypothesis that low prenatal VD status may affect brain morphology and physiology as well as behavioral outcomes. In humans, subtle cognitive and psychological impairments in offspring of VD-deficient mothers were observed. However, data obtained from animal and human studies provide inconclusive evidence, and results seem to depend on strain or race and age of offspring. To conclude, prenatal VD status is thought to play an important role in brain development, cognitive function, and psychological function. However, results are inconclusive; validation of these findings and investigation of underlying mechanisms are required. Thus, more investigation is needed before recommending supplementation of VD during pregnancy to promote brain health of offspring. PMID:27422502

  13. KCC2 activity is critical in limiting the onset and severity of status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Silayeva, Liliya; Deeb, Tarek Z; Hines, Rochelle M; Kelley, Matt R; Munoz, Michaelanne B; Lee, Henry H C; Brandon, Nicholas J; Dunlop, John; Maguire, Jaime; Davies, Paul A; Moss, Stephen J

    2015-03-17

    The K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (KCC2) allows adult neurons to maintain low intracellular Cl(-) levels, which are a prerequisite for efficient synaptic inhibition upon activation of γ-aminobutyric acid receptors. Deficits in KCC2 activity are implicated in epileptogenesis, but how increased neuronal activity leads to transporter inactivation is ill defined. In vitro, the activity of KCC2 is potentiated via phosphorylation of serine 940 (S940). Here we have examined the role this putative regulatory process plays in determining KCC2 activity during status epilepticus (SE) using knockin mice in which S940 is mutated to an alanine (S940A). In wild-type mice, SE induced by kainate resulted in dephosphorylation of S940 and KCC2 internalization. S940A homozygotes were viable and exhibited comparable basal levels of KCC2 expression and activity relative to WT mice. However, exposure of S940A mice to kainate induced lethality within 30 min of kainate injection and subsequent entrance into SE. We assessed the effect of the S940A mutation in cultured hippocampal neurons to explore the mechanisms underlying this phenotype. Under basal conditions, the mutation had no effect on neuronal Cl(-) extrusion. However, a selective deficit in KCC2 activity was seen in S940A neurons upon transient exposure to glutamate. Significantly, whereas the effects of glutamate on KCC2 function could be ameliorated in WT neurons with agents that enhance S940 phosphorylation, this positive modulation was lost in S940A neurons. Collectively our results suggest that phosphorylation of S940 plays a critical role in potentiating KCC2 activity to limit the development of SE. PMID:25733865

  14. KCC2 activity is critical in limiting the onset and severity of status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Silayeva, Liliya; Deeb, Tarek Z.; Hines, Rochelle M.; Kelley, Matt R.; Munoz, Michaelanne B.; Lee, Henry H. C.; Brandon, Nicholas J.; Dunlop, John; Maguire, Jaime; Davies, Paul A.; Moss, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The K+/Cl– cotransporter (KCC2) allows adult neurons to maintain low intracellular Cl– levels, which are a prerequisite for efficient synaptic inhibition upon activation of γ-aminobutyric acid receptors. Deficits in KCC2 activity are implicated in epileptogenesis, but how increased neuronal activity leads to transporter inactivation is ill defined. In vitro, the activity of KCC2 is potentiated via phosphorylation of serine 940 (S940). Here we have examined the role this putative regulatory process plays in determining KCC2 activity during status epilepticus (SE) using knockin mice in which S940 is mutated to an alanine (S940A). In wild-type mice, SE induced by kainate resulted in dephosphorylation of S940 and KCC2 internalization. S940A homozygotes were viable and exhibited comparable basal levels of KCC2 expression and activity relative to WT mice. However, exposure of S940A mice to kainate induced lethality within 30 min of kainate injection and subsequent entrance into SE. We assessed the effect of the S940A mutation in cultured hippocampal neurons to explore the mechanisms underlying this phenotype. Under basal conditions, the mutation had no effect on neuronal Cl– extrusion. However, a selective deficit in KCC2 activity was seen in S940A neurons upon transient exposure to glutamate. Significantly, whereas the effects of glutamate on KCC2 function could be ameliorated in WT neurons with agents that enhance S940 phosphorylation, this positive modulation was lost in S940A neurons. Collectively our results suggest that phosphorylation of S940 plays a critical role in potentiating KCC2 activity to limit the development of SE. PMID:25733865

  15. Effects of gluten-free breads, with varying functional supplements, on the biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of rat serum.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał; Reguła, Julita; Suliburska, Joanna; Złotek, Urszula; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of gluten-free bread enriched with functional ingredients (milk powder, poppy, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, egg yolk, carum, hazel nuts and amaranth) on the morphological and biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of rats serum. Rats were provided test diets--gluten-free breads and water ad libitum. After 14 days, the animals were weighed and killed. A hazel nut-amaranth bread diet significantly increased the level of thrombocytes when compared to control bread. A mixed bread diet significantly decreased cholesterol levels in rats. All fortified breads decreased triglyceride levels and alanine transaminase activity and caused an increase in antiradical activity of the serum. In rats fed with poppy-milk bread, milk-seed bread and mixed bread, a marked decrease in superoxide dismutase activity was found. Enriched breads reduced the levels of triglyceride and improved the antiradical properties of serum, although the physiological relevance of this needs to be confirmed by human studies. PMID:25842337

  16. A Nanoparticle-based Sensor Platform for Cell Tracking and Status/Function Assessment.

    PubMed

    Yeo, David; Wiraja, Christian; Chuah, Yon Jin; Gao, Yu; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly popular choices for labeling and tracking cells in biomedical applications such as cell therapy. However, all current types of nanoparticles fail to provide real-time, noninvasive monitoring of cell status and functions while often generating false positive signals. Herein, a nanosensor platform to track the real-time expression of specific biomarkers that correlate with cell status and functions is reported. Nanosensors are synthesized by encapsulating various sensor molecules within biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. Upon intracellular entry, nanosensors reside within the cell cytoplasm, serving as a depot to continuously release sensor molecules for up to 30 days. In the absence of the target biomarkers, the released sensor molecules remain 'Off'. When the biomarker(s) is expressed, a detectable signal is generated (On). As a proof-of-concept, three nanosensor formulations were synthesized to monitor cell viability, secretion of nitric oxide, and β-actin mRNA expression. PMID:26440504

  17. A Nanoparticle-based Sensor Platform for Cell Tracking and Status/Function Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, David; Wiraja, Christian; Chuah, Yon Jin; Gao, Yu; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly popular choices for labeling and tracking cells in biomedical applications such as cell therapy. However, all current types of nanoparticles fail to provide real-time, noninvasive monitoring of cell status and functions while often generating false positive signals. Herein, a nanosensor platform to track the real-time expression of specific biomarkers that correlate with cell status and functions is reported. Nanosensors are synthesized by encapsulating various sensor molecules within biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. Upon intracellular entry, nanosensors reside within the cell cytoplasm, serving as a depot to continuously release sensor molecules for up to 30 days. In the absence of the target biomarkers, the released sensor molecules remain ‘Off’. When the biomarker(s) is expressed, a detectable signal is generated (On). As a proof-of-concept, three nanosensor formulations were synthesized to monitor cell viability, secretion of nitric oxide, and β-actin mRNA expression. PMID:26440504

  18. The Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF): Current Status as a Method of Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Rieske, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Functional assessment has now entered the mainstream for evaluation and to aid in the treatment of challenging behaviors, while experimental functional analysis was at the forefront of this movement, this particular methodology has proven to be impractical, and thus has limited utility in real world settings. As a result of these factors…

  19. Phylogenetic relatedness and leaf functional traits, not introduced status, influence community assembly.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Nathan P; Shue, Jessica; Verrico, Brittany; Erickson, David; Kress, W John; Parker, John D

    2015-10-01

    Considerable debate focuses on whether invasive species establish and become abundant by being functionally and phylogenetically distinct from native species, leading to a host of invasion-specific hypotheses of community assembly. Few studies, however, have quantitatively assessed whether similar patterns of phylogenetic and functional similarity explain local abundance of both native and introduced species, which would suggest similar assembly mechanisms regardless of origin. Using a chronosequence of invaded temperate forest stands, we tested whether the occurrence and abundance of both introduced and native species were predicted by phylogenetic relatedness, functional overlap, and key environmental characteristics including forest age. Environmental filtering against functionally and phylogenetically distinct species strongly dictated the occurrence and abundance of both introduced and native species, with slight modifications of these patterns according to forest age. Thus, once functional and evolutionary novelty were quantified, introduced status provided little information about species' presence or abundance, indicating largely similar sorting mechanisms for both native and introduced species. PMID:26649382

  20. Genome-wide analysis of antiviral signature genes in porcine macrophages at different activation statuses.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yongming; Brichalli, Wyatt; Rowland, Raymond R R; Blecha, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages (MФs) can be polarized to various activation statuses, including classical (M1), alternative (M2), and antiviral states. To study the antiviral activation status of porcine MФs during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, we used RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) for transcriptomic analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Sequencing assessment and quality evaluation showed that our RNA-Seq data met the criteria for genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. Comparisons of any two activation statuses revealed more than 20,000 DEGs that were normalized to filter out 153-5,303 significant DEGs [false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.001, fold change ≥2] in each comparison. The highest 5,303 significant DEGs were found between lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) and interferon (IFN)γ-stimulated M1 cells, whereas only 153 significant DEGs were detected between interleukin (IL)-10-polarized M2 cells and control mock-activated cells. To identify signature genes for antiviral regulation pertaining to each activation status, we identified a set of DEGs that showed significant up-regulation in only one activation state. In addition, pathway analyses defined the top 20-50 significantly regulated pathways at each activation status, and we further analyzed DEGs pertinent to pathways mediated by AMP kinase (AMPK) and epigenetic mechanisms. For the first time in porcine macrophages, our transcriptomic analyses not only compared family-wide differential expression of most known immune genes at different activation statuses, but also revealed transcription evidence of multiple gene families. These findings show that using RNA-Seq transcriptomic analyses in virus-infected and status-synchronized macrophages effectively profiled signature genes and gene response pathways for antiviral regulation, which may provide a framework for optimizing antiviral immunity and immune homeostasis. PMID:24505295

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of Antiviral Signature Genes in Porcine Macrophages at Different Activation Statuses

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Yongming; Brichalli, Wyatt; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Blecha, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages (MФs) can be polarized to various activation statuses, including classical (M1), alternative (M2), and antiviral states. To study the antiviral activation status of porcine MФs during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, we used RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) for transcriptomic analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Sequencing assessment and quality evaluation showed that our RNA-Seq data met the criteria for genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. Comparisons of any two activation statuses revealed more than 20,000 DEGs that were normalized to filter out 153–5,303 significant DEGs [false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.001, fold change ≥2] in each comparison. The highest 5,303 significant DEGs were found between lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) and interferon (IFN)γ-stimulated M1 cells, whereas only 153 significant DEGs were detected between interleukin (IL)-10-polarized M2 cells and control mock-activated cells. To identify signature genes for antiviral regulation pertaining to each activation status, we identified a set of DEGs that showed significant up-regulation in only one activation state. In addition, pathway analyses defined the top 20–50 significantly regulated pathways at each activation status, and we further analyzed DEGs pertinent to pathways mediated by AMP kinase (AMPK) and epigenetic mechanisms. For the first time in porcine macrophages, our transcriptomic analyses not only compared family-wide differential expression of most known immune genes at different activation statuses, but also revealed transcription evidence of multiple gene families. These findings show that using RNA-Seq transcriptomic analyses in virus-infected and status-synchronized macrophages effectively profiled signature genes and gene response pathways for antiviral regulation, which may provide a framework for optimizing antiviral immunity and immune homeostasis. PMID:24505295

  2. Functions for diverse metabolic activities in heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Su, Xue Bessie; Pillus, Lorraine

    2016-03-15

    Growing evidence demonstrates that metabolism and chromatin dynamics are not separate processes but that they functionally intersect in many ways. For example, the lysine biosynthetic enzyme homocitrate synthase was recently shown to have unexpected functions in DNA damage repair, raising the question of whether other amino acid metabolic enzymes participate in chromatin regulation. Using an in silico screen combined with reporter assays, we discovered that a diverse range of metabolic enzymes function in heterochromatin regulation. Extended analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (Gdh1) revealed that it regulates silent information regulator complex recruitment to telomeres and ribosomal DNA. Enhanced N-terminal histone H3 proteolysis is observed in GDH1 mutants, consistent with telomeric silencing defects. A conserved catalytic Asp residue is required for Gdh1's functions in telomeric silencing and H3 clipping. Genetic modulation of α-ketoglutarate levels demonstrates a key regulatory role for this metabolite in telomeric silencing. The metabolic activity of glutamate dehydrogenase thus has important and previously unsuspected roles in regulating chromatin-related processes. PMID:26936955

  3. Duke Activity Status Index for Cardiovascular Diseases: Validation of the Portuguese Translation

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho-Myrrha, Mariana A.; Dias, Rosângela C.; Fernandes, Aline A.; Araújo, Christiano G.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Pereira, Danielle G.; Britto, Raquel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) assesses the functional capacity of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but there is no Portuguese version validated for CVD. Objectives To translate and adapt cross-culturally the DASI for the Portuguese-Brazil language, and to verify its psychometric properties in the assessment of functional capacity of patients with CVD. Methods The DASI was translated into Portuguese, then checked by back-translation into English and evaluated by an expert committee. The pre-test version was first evaluated in 30 subjects. The psychometric properties and correlation with exercise testing was performed in a second group of 67 subjects. An exploratory factor analyses was performed in all 97 subjects to verify the construct validity of the DASI. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.87 and for the inter-rater reliability was 0.84. Cronbach's α for internal consistency was 0.93. The concurrent validity was verified by significant positive correlations of DASI scores with the VO2max (r = 0.51, p < 0.001). The factor analysis yielded two factors, which explained 54% of the total variance, with factor 1 accounting for 40% of the variance. Application of the DASI required between one and three and a half minutes per patient. Conclusions The Brazilian version of the DASI appears to be a valid, reliable, fast and easy to administer tool to assess functional capacity among patients with CVD. PMID:24652056

  4. DDE-MITR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; J.D. Wiest; J.W. Nielsen; G.A. Roth; S.D. Snow

    2012-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (DDE-MITR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the MITR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in the Advanced Test Reactor center flux trap. At the time this report was prepared the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. As such, the conceptual design effort to date is summarized herein in order to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. These demonstrate that the DDE-MITR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also exhibits several challenges for which timely resolution is recommend in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign and ultimate conversion of the MITR.

  5. DDE-MURR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; M.H. Sprenger; G.K. Housley

    2012-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (DDE-MURR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the MURR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in a 200mm channel at the Belgium Reactor 2. At the time this report was prepared the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. As such, the conceptual design effort to date is summarized herein in order to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. These demonstrate that the DDE-MURR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also exhibits several challenges for which timely resolution is recommend in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign and ultimate conversion of the MURR.

  6. DDE-NBSR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; B.P. Durtschi; C.R. Glass; G.A. Roth; D.T. Clark

    2012-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the National Bureau of Standard Reactor (DDE-NBSR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the NBSR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in the Advanced Test Reactor center flux trap. At the time this report was prepared the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. As such, the conceptual design effort to date is summarized herein in order to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. These demonstrate that the DDE-NBSR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also exhibits several challenges for which timely resolution is recommend in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign and ultimate conversion of the NBSR.

  7. [The functional status of pregnant women hemostasis according to the "global" low-frequency piezothromboelastography test].

    PubMed

    Tyutrin, I I; Ududt, V V; Klimenkova, V F

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the research of the hemostatic whole blood's potential of healthy and pregnant women (39-40 weeks) according to the clinical data using the "global" low-frequency piezothromboelastography. Three types of the hemostatic potential (hypo-, normal- and hipercoagulative) are exposed in the status of the physiological optimum. It is shown that when forming the syndrome of the general circulator adaptation of the organism to the pregnancy and the childbirth is accompanied by intensification of thrombin activity and compensatory strengthening of total antihaemostatic activity. It is shown that only the timely research of the whole blood with aliquoties of endotelium (a number of them effects in the bounded time duration) producers tests, blood corpuscle and hemostasis factors, can provide the unbiased information about "time sample" of the hemostatic potential status. PMID:25318166

  8. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The relationship between the variables was measured by point-biserial correlation. The correlation between duration of morning stiffness and functional class was positive but low [(r = 0.10, y = 0.00x + 2.37, p > 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non

  9. Do Early-Life Conditions Predict Functional Health Status in Adulthood? The Case of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Soldo, Beth J; Elo, Irma T

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few researchers have investigated early antecedents of adult functional limitations in developing countries. In this study, we assessed associations between childhood conditions and adult lower-body functional limitations (LBFL) as well as the potential mediating role of adult socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and chronic diseases or symptoms. Based on data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) of individuals born prior to 1951 and contacted in 2001 and 2003, we found that childhood nutritional deprivation, serious health problems, and family background predict adult LBFL in Mexico. Adjustment for the potential mediators in adulthood attenuates these associations only to a modest degree. PMID:21074924

  10. Sexual Functioning Morbidity Among Cancer Survivors: Current Status and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSEN, BARBARA L.

    2009-01-01

    The current article reviews available data and considers methodologic issues for future research in which sexual functioning among adult cancer patients is an endpoint variable. Circumstances that may cause sexual disruption for any cancer patient are suggested, including mood disturbance, changed health status, somatization, and reprioritization of life concerns. Data on the incidence and magnitude of sexual functioning morbidity following the diagnosis and treatment of cancer at major organ sites, including breast, genital, colon, rectum, and bladder, are reviewed. Finally, strategies for continuing descriptive study of the sexual problems of cancer patients are suggested. Such data are necessary to eventually target preventive or therapeutic resources to patients in greatest need. PMID:3978569

  11. Functional Status Predicts Acute Care Readmissions from Inpatient Rehabilitation in the Stroke Population

    PubMed Central

    Slocum, Chloe; Gerrard, Paul; Black-Schaffer, Randie; Goldstein, Richard; Singhal, Aneesh; DiVita, Margaret A.; Ryan, Colleen M.; Mix, Jacqueline; Purohit, Maulik; Niewczyk, Paulette; Kazis, Lewis; Zafonte, Ross; Schneider, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute care readmission risk is an increasingly recognized problem that has garnered significant attention, yet the reasons for acute care readmission in the inpatient rehabilitation population are complex and likely multifactorial. Information on both medical comorbidities and functional status is routinely collected for stroke patients participating in inpatient rehabilitation. We sought to determine whether functional status is a more robust predictor of acute care readmissions in the inpatient rehabilitation stroke population compared with medical comorbidities using a large, administrative data set. Methods A retrospective analysis of data from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation from the years 2002 to 2011 was performed examining stroke patients admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities. A Basic Model for predicting acute care readmission risk based on age and functional status was compared with models incorporating functional status and medical comorbidities (Basic-Plus) or models including age and medical comorbidities alone (Age-Comorbidity). C-statistics were compared to evaluate model performance. Findings There were a total of 803,124 patients: 88,187 (11%) patients were transferred back to an acute hospital: 22,247 (2.8%) within 3 days, 43,481 (5.4%) within 7 days, and 85,431 (10.6%) within 30 days. The C-statistics for the Basic Model were 0.701, 0.672, and 0.682 at days 3, 7, and 30 respectively. As compared to the Basic Model, the best-performing Basic-Plus model was the Basic+Elixhauser model with C-statistics differences of +0.011, +0.011, and + 0.012, and the best-performing Age-Comorbidity model was the Age+Elixhauser model with C-statistic differences of -0.124, -0.098, and -0.098 at days 3, 7, and 30 respectively. Conclusions Readmission models for the inpatient rehabilitation stroke population based on functional status and age showed better predictive ability than models based on medical comorbidities. PMID

  12. Variation of Basal EROD Activities in Ten Passerine Bird Species – Relationships with Diet and Migration Status

    PubMed Central

    Rainio, Miia J.; Kanerva, Mirella; Wahlberg, Niklas; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Eeva, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Inter-specific differences in animal defence mechanisms against toxic substances are currently poorly understood. The ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) enzyme plays an important role in defence against toxic chemicals in a wide variety of animals, and it is an important biomarker for environmental contamination. We compared basal hepatic EROD activity levels among ten passerine species to see if there is inter-specific variation in enzyme activity, especially in relation to their diet and migration status. Migratory insectivores showed higher EROD activity compared to granivores. We hypothesize that the variable invertebrate diet of migratory insectivores contains a wider range of natural toxins than the narrower diet of granivores. This may have affected the evolution of mixed function oxidases (MFO) system and enzyme activities. We further tested whether metabolic rates or relative liver size were associated with the variation in detoxification capacity. We found no association between EROD activity and relative (per mass unit) basal metabolic rate (BMR). Instead, EROD activity and relative liver mass (% of body mass) correlated positively, suggesting that a proportionally large liver also functions efficiently. Our results suggest that granivores and non-migratory birds may be more vulnerable to environmental contaminants than insectivores and migratory birds. The diet and migration status, however, are phylogenetically strongly connected to each other, and their roles cannot be fully separated in our analysis with only ten passerine species. PMID:22479477

  13. Role of Educational Status in Explaining the Association between Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yi-Te; Kao, Tung-Wei; Peng, Tao-Chun; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preserving physical and cognitive function becomes an important issue as people age. A growing number of studies have found that the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function changes in different age groups. It is obvious that higher educational status is linked to higher cognitive function in terms of numerous risk factors that influence cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between obesity and cognitive function categorized by different educational status. This study included 5021 participants aged 20 to 59 years who completed 3 neurocognitive function tests, including a simple reaction time test (SRTT), a symbol digit substitution test (SDST), and a serial digit learning test (SDLT) as reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III database. The associations between neurocognitive function and BMI were analyzed using multivariate linear regression while controlling for confounders. After adjusting for pertinent covariates in mode 3, the β coefficients in the female participants with more than 12 years of education (interpreted as change of 3 neurocognitive function tests for each increment in BMI) comparing obesity groups to those with normal BMI were 16.2 (P < 0.001 for SRTT), 0.14 (P < 0.05 for SDST), and 0.9 (P < 0.05 for SDLT). Male participants with more than 12 years of education and female participants with fewer than 12 years of education demonstrated increased impairment as their BMI increased. However, this association was not significant after adjustments. Obese individuals had worse neurocognitive function than those of normal weight or overweight, especially in women with a high educational level. PMID:26844489

  14. Acetylation of MnSOD directs enzymatic activity responding to cellular nutrient status or oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Ozkan; Park, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Jiang, Haiyan; Coleman, Mitchell C; Spitz, Douglas R; Gius, David

    2011-02-01

    A fundamental observation in biology is that mitochondrial function, as measured by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes significantly with age, suggesting a potential mechanistic link between the cellular processes governing longevity and mitochondrial metabolism homeostasis. In addition, it is well established that altered ROS levels are observed in multiple age-related illnesses including carcinogenesis, neurodegenerative, fatty liver, insulin resistance, and cardiac disease, to name just a few. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is the primary mitochondrial ROS scavenging enzyme that converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, which is subsequently converted to water by catalase and other peroxidases. It has recently been shown that MnSOD enzymatic activity is regulated by the reversible acetylation of specific, evolutionarily conserved lysine(s) in the protein. These results, suggest for the first time, that the mitochondria contain bidirectional post-translational signaling networks, similar to that observed in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and that changes in lysine acetylation alter MnSOD enzymatic activity. In addition, these new results demonstrate that the mitochondrial anti-aging or fidelity / sensing protein, SIRT3, responds to changes in mitochondrial nutrient and/or redox status to alter the enzymatic activity of specific downstream targets, including MnSOD that adjusts and/or maintains ROS levels as well as metabolic homeostatic poise. PMID:21386137

  15. Nutritional and functional status indicators in residents of a long-term care facility.

    PubMed

    Grieger, Jessica A; Nowson, Caryl A; Ackland, Leigh M

    2009-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we determined whether results from the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and Katz Activities of Daily Living (ADL), were associated with nutritional status and mobility in long-term care residents. One hundred and fifteen study participants (mean [SD] age: 80.2 [10.6]) provided informed consent. Fifty eight percent (n = 66) responded to all three questionnaires: 12 were assessed as malnourished (MNA < 17) and 28 were depressed (GDS >or = 6). Higher levels of depression were associated with lower serum zinc (n = 71, r = -.356, p = .001) and associated with a slower Timed Up and Go test (TUG, n = 38, r = .301, p = .030). MNA was also associated with serum zinc (n = 44, r = .307, P = .021). Non responders to questionnaires (n = 36) had a lower BMI (mean difference: -2.5 +/- 1.0 kg/m(2), p = .013) and serum 25(OH)D (-8.7 +/- 3.8 nmol/l, p = .023) vs. responders. The GDS, in addition to the MNA, is useful in identifying poor nutritional status in residential care. Intervention programs that target depression and poor nutritional status could potentially improve overall quality of life, but it is not clear if depression is leading to poor nutritional status or if poor nutrition is leading to depression. PMID:19234994

  16. Association of Renal Function and Menopausal Status with Bone Mineral Density in Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yueh-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lee, Yue-Yuan; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The association between mild renal dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been fully explored. It is also unclear how menopausal status and the use of Chinese herb affect this association. This is a cross-sectional study that included a total of 1,419 women aged 40 to 55 years old who were recruited from the MJ Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2009 and 2010. Spinal BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). The multivariable logistic regression and general linear models were employed to assess the association between renal function and BMD. Stratification analyses were performed by menopausal status and use of Chinese herbs. Low CCr levels were significantly associated with low BMD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15–1.90]. This association was observed in premenopausal women (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.07–1.92) and in women not taking Chinese herbs (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14–1.94). CCr is a better predictor for low BMD in middle-aged women. Menopausal status and the use of Chinese herbs also affected this association. PMID:26459876

  17. DDE-MURR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; M.H. Sprenger; G.K. Housley

    2013-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (DDE-MURR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the MURR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in a 200mm channel at the Belgium Reactor 2 (BR2). Revision 0 of this report was prepared at the end of government fiscal year 2012 when most of the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. Hence, the conceptual design efforts were summarized to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. Revision 1 of this report was prepared at the end of fiscal year 2013 in order to include results from a neutronic study performed by BR2, to incorporate further details that had been achieved in the engineering sketches of the irradiation devices, and to provide an update of the DDE-MURR campaign in relation to program objectives and opportunities for its eventual irradiation. These updates were purposed to bring the DDE-MURR conceptual design to level of maturity similar to that of the other two DDE efforts (DDE-MITR and DDE-NBSR). This report demonstrates that the DDE-MURR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also puts forth several recommendations in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign.

  18. Listening to Learn: The Status of Listening Activities in Secondary Instrumental Ensemble Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of listening activities as part of middle and high school instrumental music instruction. Research questions addressed teachers' beliefs in the importance of listening, outcomes associated with listening, type and frequency of listening activities, presence of guided listening, and…

  19. Differences in Amounts and Types of Physical Activity by Obesity Status in US Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spees, Colleen K.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Taylor, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the physical activity patterns across levels of obesity among US adults. Methods: The frequency, intensity, and duration of physical activities were compared across obesity status in 7695 adults from NHANES, 1999-2006. Results: Significantly more normal-weight adults engaged in moderate- and vigorous- intensity activities…

  20. Associations of Weight Status, Social Factors, and Active Travel among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Melissa; Behrens, Timothy K.; Velecina, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active travel (AT) is associated with various health benefits and may help prevent the decline in physical activity during college years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of several factors with AT to campus by weight status. Methods: Students at a large northeastern US campus completed an online…

  1. Associations among Physical Activity, Diet Quality, and Weight Status in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Liese, Angela D.; Dowda, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nearly 70% of adult Americans are overweight or obese, but the associations between physical activity, diet quality, and weight status have not been examined in a representative sample of U.S. adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), diet quality, and weight status within and across age groups in U.S. adults. Methods Participants included 2,587 men and 2,412 women ages 20 to ≥70 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and 2005–2006. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Diet quality was assessed with overall Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores. Measures of weight status, BMI and waist circumference, were assessed using standard NHANES protocols. Results Across age groups, MVPA was lower in the older age groups for both men and women while diet quality was higher (P<.001). BMI and waist circumference were also higher in the older age groups (P<0.05). Within age groups, MVPA was inversely associated with BMI and waist circumference for men and women in nearly every age group (P<0.05). Diet quality was inversely associated with the weight status variables only in men ages 30–39, 40–49 (BMI only), and 50–59 years, and women ages 50–59 years (P<0.05). Conclusions We observed clear age-related trends for measures of weight status, physical activity, and diet quality in U.S. men and women. MVPA was very consistently related to weight status in both genders. The relationship between diet quality and weight status was less consistent. These findings provide support for public health efforts to prevent obesity by promoting increased physical activity in adult Americans. PMID:25058328

  2. DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic activities. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Bifano, W.J.; Ratacajczak, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system activities sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, PV-powered medical refrigerators in six countries, PV system microprocessor control development activities and PV-hybrid system assessments. The AID project includes a large village systen in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding project in Upper Volta, five medical clinics in four countries, PV-powered medical refrigerator field tests in eighteen countries and one PV-powered remote earth station application. This paper reviews these PV activities and summarizes significant findings to date.

  3. Effects of physical activity on health status in older adults. II. Intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Buchner, D M; Beresford, S A; Larson, E B; LaCroix, A Z; Wagner, E H

    1992-01-01

    This review has focused on a specific part of the relationship of exercise to health. The overall evidence supporting the health benefits of exercise is substantial and has been critically reviewed recently (18, 94). Thus, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends that all adults exercise regularly (94). The conclusions summarized below regarding older adults do not affect this basic recommendation. There is solid evidence that exercise can improve measures of fitness in older adults, particularly strength and aerobic capacity. These exercise effects occur in chronically ill adults, as well as in healthy adults. Because physical fitness is a determinant of functional status, it is logical to ask whether exercise can prevent or improve impairments in functional status in older adults. The evidence that exercise improves functional status is promising, but inconclusive. Problems with existing studies include a lack of randomized controlled trials, a lack of evidence that effects of exercise can be sustained over long periods of time, inadequate statistical power, and failure to target physically unfit individuals. Existing studies suggest that exercise may produce improvements in gait and balance. Arthritis patients may experience long-term functional status benefits from exercise, including improved mobility and decreased pain symptoms. Nonrandomized trials suggest exercise promotes bone mineral density and thereby decreases fracture risk. Recent studies have generally concluded that short-term exercise does not improve cognitive function. Yet the limited statistical power of these studies does not preclude what may be a modest, but functionally meaningful, effect of exercise on cognition. Future research, beyond correcting methodologic deficiencies in existing studies, should systematically study how functional status effects of exercise vary with the type, intensity, and duration of exercise. It should address issues in recruiting functionally

  4. Cardiovascular function following reduced aerobic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raven, P. B.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Shi, X.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a sustained reduction of physical activity (deconditioning) would alter the cardiovascular regulatory function. METHODS: Nineteen young, healthy volunteers participated in physical deconditioning for a period of 8 wk. Before (pre) and following (post) physical deconditioning, the responses of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP, measured by Finapres), central venous pressure (CVP), stroke volume (SV, Doppler), and forearm blood flow (FBF, plethysmography) were determined during lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The carotid baroreflex (CBR) function was assessed using a train of pulsatile neck pressure (NP) and suction, and the aortic baroreflex control of HR was assessed during steady-state phenylephrine (PE) infusion superimposed by LBNP and NP to counteract the PE increased CVP and carotid sinus pressure, respectively. RESULTS: Active physical deconditioning significantly decreased maximal oxygen uptake (-7%) and LBNP tolerance (-13%) without a change in baseline hemodynamics. Plasma volume (-3% at P = 0.135), determined by Evans Blue dilution, and blood volume (-4% at P = 0.107) were not significantly altered. During LBNP -20 to -50 torr, there was a significantly greater drop of SV per unit decrease in CVP in the post- (14.7 +/- 1.6%/mm Hg) than predeconditioning (11.2 +/- 0.7%/mm Hg) test accompanied by a greater tachycardia. Deconditioning increased the aortic baroreflex sensitivity (pre vs post: -0.61 +/- 0.12 vs -0.84 +/- 0.14 bpm.mm-1 Hg, P = 0.009) and the slope of forearm vascular resistance (calculated from [MAP-CVP]/FBF) to CVP (-2.75 +/- 0.26 vs -4.94 +/- 0.97 PRU/mm Hg, P = 0.086). However, neither the CBR-HR (-0.28 +/- 0.03 VS -0.39 +/- 0.10 bpm.mm-1 Hg) nor the CBR-MAP (-0.37 +/- 0.16 vs -0.25 +/- 0.07 mm Hg/mm Hg) gains were statistically different between pre- and postdeconditioning. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the functional modification of the cardiac pressure

  5. Extrapulmonary features of bronchiectasis: muscle function, exercise capacity, fatigue, and health status

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are limited number of studies investigating extrapulmonary manifestations of bronchiectasis. The purpose of this study was to compare peripheral muscle function, exercise capacity, fatigue, and health status between patients with bronchiectasis and healthy subjects in order to provide documented differences in these characteristics for individuals with and without bronchiectasis. Methods Twenty patients with bronchiectasis (43.5 ± 14.1 years) and 20 healthy subjects (43.0 ± 10.9 years) participated in the study. Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength (maximal expiratory pressure – MIP - and maximal expiratory pressure - MEP), and dyspnea perception using the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (MMRC) were determined. A six-minute walk test (6MWT) was performed. Quadriceps muscle, shoulder abductor, and hand grip strength (QMS, SAS, and HGS, respectively) using a hand held dynamometer and peripheral muscle endurance by a squat test were measured. Fatigue perception and health status were determined using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ), respectively. Results Number of squats, 6MWT distance, and LCQ scores as well as lung function testing values and respiratory muscle strength were significantly lower and MMRC and FSS scores were significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than those of healthy subjects (p < 0.05). In bronchiectasis patients, QMS was significantly associated with HGS, MIP and MEP (p < 0.05). The 6MWT distance was significantly correlated to LCQ psychological score (p < 0.05). The FSS score was significantly associated with LCQ physical and total and MMRC scores (p < 0.05). The LCQ psychological score was significantly associated with MEP and 6MWT distance (p < 0.05). Conclusions Peripheral muscle endurance, exercise capacity, fatigue and health status were adversely affected by the presence of bronchiectasis. Fatigue was associated

  6. Soil Moisture Active Passive Satellite Status and Recent Validation Results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched in January, 2015 and began its calibration and validation (cal/val) phase in May, 2015. Cal/Val will begin with a focus on instrument measurements, brightness temperature and backscatter, and evolve to the geophysical products that include...

  7. Absence status associated with focal activity and polydipsia-induced hyponatremia

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Hideki; Akechi, Tatsuo; Furukawa, Toshi A

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of de novo absence status associated with focal discharge and polydipsia-induced hyponatremia. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is classified as absence status or complex partial status. Absence status is characterized by bilateral synchronized spike and wave complex bursts and a variety of conscious disturbances. Possible precipitating factors for NCSE include benzodiazepine withdrawal, excessive use of psychotropic drugs, and electrolyte imbalances. Hyponatremia is a rare precipitating factor. In this case, the patient was 59 years old and had suffered from primary insomnia but had no history of epilepsy. NCSE improved by means of saline infusion. However after recovery from NCSE EEG revealed some spikes in the left frontal area. Absence seizures can also show generalized spike and slow waves, and cases of focal lesion-associated absence seizures have been reported. Although absence seizures and absence status are two distinct conditions, they should not be considered together. We assumed that hyponatremia induced by polydipsia precipitated epileptogenicity in the left frontal area, and then focal activity secondarily generalized and resulted in absence status. PMID:18728738

  8. BK channel activation: structural and functional insights

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Urvi S.; Cui, Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    The voltage and Ca2+ activated K+ (BK) channels are involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and neuronal excitability. Structurally, BK channels are homologous to voltage- and ligand-gated K+ channels, having a voltage sensor and pore as the membrane-spanning domain and a cytosolic domain containing metal binding sites. Recently published electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) and X-ray crystallographic structures of the BK channel provided the first look into the assembly of these domains, corroborating the close interactions among these domains during channel gating that have been suggested by functional studies. This review discusses these latest findings and an emerging new understanding about BK channel gating and implications for diseases such as epilepsy, in which mutations in BK channel genes have been associated. PMID:20663573

  9. Communication Status and Semantic Network of Students in Small Group Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Duk Ho

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the communication status in group and the semantic network of science gifted students. Seven small groups, 5 members in each, participated in small group activities, in which they discussed the calculation of earth density. Both the communication status in group and the semantic network of science gifted students were analyzed using KrKwic, Ucinet 6.0 for Windows. As a result, the semantic network of prime movers in group represented more frequently used words, lesser rate of component, and higher density than that of out lookers. It means that the prime movers have coherent knowledge compared to out lookers, and they output more knowledge for problem solving than out lookers. Therefore, the results of this study may be applied to evaluating the cognitive level of science gifted students and group organization for small group activity. Keywords: small group activity, science gifted students, communication status, semantic network

  10. Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children's development irrespective of the child's level on the other factor. PMID:24374020

  11. Independent Effects of Bilingualism and Socioeconomic Status on Language Ability and Executive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children’s development irrespective of the child’s level on the other factor. PMID:24374020

  12. Water Load Test in Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: No Relation to Food Intake and Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; Speridião, Patricia da Graça Leite; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the relations between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (P < 0.05). Among patients who ingested ≤560 mL (n = 17) or >560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relation between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index, or height. PMID:26317680

  13. Active Rack Isolation System Program and Technical Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Glenn; Fialho, Ian; Allen, James; Quraishi, Naveed

    2000-01-01

    The Boeing Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) is one of the means used to isolate acceleration-sensitive scientific experiments from structurally transmitted disturbances aboard the International Space Station. The presentation provides an overview of ARIS and technical issues associated with the development of the active control system. An overview of ARIS analytical models is presented along with recent isolation performance predictions made using these models. Issues associated with commanding and capturing ARIS data are discussed and possible future options based on the ARIS ISS Characterization Experiment (ICE) Payload On-orbit Processor (POP) are outlined. An overview of the ARIS-ICE experiment scheduled to fly on ISS Flight 6A is presented. The presentation concludes with a discussion of recent- developmental work that includes passive rack damping, umbilical redesigns and advanced multivariable control design methods.

  14. A status of the Turbine Technology Team activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Lisa W.

    1992-01-01

    The recent activities of the Turbine Technology Team of the Consortium for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Application in Propulsion Technology is presented. The team consists of members from the government, industry, and universities. The goal of this team is to demonstrate the benefits to the turbine design process attainable through the application of CFD. This goal is to be achieved by enhancing and validating turbine design tools for improved loading and flowfield definition and loss prediction, and transferring the advanced technology to the turbine design process. In order to demonstrate the advantages of using CFD early in the design phase, the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) turbines for the National Launch System (NLS) were chosen on which to focus the team's efforts. The Turbine Team activities run parallel to the STME design work.

  15. Status of optical model activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.G.

    1995-12-01

    An update will be given of activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory aimed at developing optical model potentials for applied calculations. Recent work on a coupled-channels potential for neutron reactions on {sup 241,243}Am and spherical neutron potential updates for {sup 56}Fe and {sup 59}Co will be presented, together with examples of their application in nuclear reaction calculations with the GNASH code system. New potentials utilized in evaluations at Livermore for {sup 12}C, {sup 14}N and {sup 16}O are described and additional potentials from earlier analyses at Los Alamos of Ti, V, and Ni data are made available for possible inclusion in the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL) for nuclear model calculations of nuclear data. Specific activities directed at development of the optical potential segment of the RIPL will be summarized.

  16. Current status of pyrazole and its biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Naim, Mohd Javed; Alam, Ozair; Nawaz, Farah; Alam, Md. Jahangir; Alam, Perwaiz

    2016-01-01

    Pyrazole are potent medicinal scaffolds and exhibit a full spectrum of biological activities. This review throws light on the detailed synthetic approaches which have been applied for the synthesis of pyrazole. This has been followed by an in depth analysis of the pyrazole with respect to their medical significance. This follow-up may help the medicinal chemists to generate new leads possessing pyrazole nucleus with high efficacy. PMID:26957862

  17. Population Distributions of Thymic Function in Adults: Variation by Sociodemographic Characteristics and Health Status.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Lydia; Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; Leal, Manuel; Zhou, Xuan; Sempowski, Gregory D; Wildman, Derek E; Uddin, Monica; Aiello, Allison E

    2016-01-01

    The thymus is critical for mounting an effective immune response and maintaining health. However, epidemiologic studies characterizing thymic function in the population setting are lacking. Using data from 263 adults in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study, we examined thymic function as measured by the number of signal joint T-cell receptor excision circles (sjTREC) and assessed associations with established indicators of physiological health. Overall, increasing age and male gender were significantly associated with reduced thymic function. Adjusting for covariates, individuals with elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (β: -0.50 [95% CI: -0.82, -0.18] for moderate elevation, β: -0.29 [95% CI: -0.59, 0.00] for high elevation) and interleukin-6 (β: -0.60 [95% CI: -0.92, -0.28] for moderate elevation, β: -0.43 [95% CI: -0.77, -0.08] for severe elevation) also had lower thymic function. Compared to individuals with a BMI < 25, individuals who were overweight (β: 0.36 [95% CI: 0.07, 0.64]) or obese (β: 0.27 [95% CI: -0.03, 0.56]) had higher thymic function. Differences by self-rated health were not statistically significant. Our findings underscore demographic- and health-related gradients in thymic function among adult residents of Detroit, suggesting thymic function may be an important biomarker of health status in adults at the population level. PMID:27337555

  18. SPARSE GENERALIZED FUNCTIONAL LINEAR MODEL FOR PREDICTING REMISSION STATUS OF DEPRESSION PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yashu; Nie, Zhi; Zhou, Jiayu; Farnum, Michael; Narayan, Vaibhav A; Wittenberg, Gayle; Ye, Jieping

    2014-01-01

    Complex diseases such as major depression affect people over time in complicated patterns. Longitudinal data analysis is thus crucial for understanding and prognosis of such diseases and has received considerable attention in the biomedical research community. Traditional classification and regression methods have been commonly applied in a simple (controlled) clinical setting with a small number of time points. However, these methods cannot be easily extended to the more general setting for longitudinal analysis, as they are not inherently built for time-dependent data. Functional regression, in contrast, is capable of identifying the relationship between features and outcomes along with time information by assuming features and/or outcomes as random functions over time rather than independent random variables. In this paper, we propose a novel sparse generalized functional linear model for the prediction of treatment remission status of the depression participants with longitudinal features. Compared to traditional functional regression models, our model enables high-dimensional learning, smoothness of functional coefficients, longitudinal feature selection and interpretable estimation of functional coefficients. Extensive experiments have been conducted on the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) data set and the results show that the proposed sparse functional regression method achieves significantly higher prediction power than existing approaches. PMID:24297562

  19. Vertical Ground Reaction Forces are Associated with Pain and Self-Reported Functional Status in Recreational Athletes with Patellofemoral Pain.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Briani, Ronaldo; Pazzinatto, Marcella; Ferrari, Deisi; Aragão, Fernando; de Azevedo, Fábio

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP) use different motor strategies during unipodal support in stair climbing activities, which may be assessed by vertical ground reaction force parameters. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate possible differences in first peak, valley, second peak, and loading rate between recreational female athletes with PFP and pain-free athletes during stair climbing in order to determine the association and prediction capability between these parameters, pain level, and functional status in females with PFP. Thirty-one recreational female athletes with PFP and 31 pain-free recreational female athletes were evaluated with three-dimensional kinetics while performing stair climbing to obtain vertical ground reaction force parameters. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate the usual knee pain. The anterior knee pain scale was used to evaluate knee functional score. First peak and loading rate were associated with pain (r = .46, P = .008; r = .56, P = .001, respectively) and functional limitation (r = .31, P = .049; r = -.36, P = .032, respectively). Forced entry regression revealed the first peak was a significant predictor of pain (36.5%) and functional limitation (28.7%). Our findings suggest that rehabilitation strategies aimed at correcting altered vertical ground reaction force may improve usual knee pain level and self-reported knee function in females with PFP. PMID:26286949

  20. Functional status and quality of life in patients surviving 10 years after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Robert M; Fisher, Andrew J; Hilton, Colin; Forty, Jonathan; Hasan, Asif; Gould, Francis K; Dark, John H; Corris, Paul A

    2005-05-01

    Although many lung allograft recipients achieve long-term survival, there is a lack of published data regarding these patients' functional status and quality of life (QoL). We evaluated all 10-year survivors at our institution and, utilizing the SF-36 questionnaire, compared their QoL to population normative and chronic illness data. Twenty-eight (29%) of 96 patients survived > or =10 years following 11 single, 6 bilateral and 11 heart-lung procedures. At the most recent evaluation, median FEV(1) in single and double lung recipients was predicted to be 54% and 74%, respectively. Five (18%) patients had BOS score 0, 13 (46%) BOS 1, 5 (18%) BOS 2 and 5 (18%) BOS 3 and median time to BOS was 7 years. Four (14%) patients required renal replacement therapy. Three patients (11%) developed symptomatic osteoporosis, 2 (7%) post-transplant lymphoma and 1 (4%) an ischaemic stroke. Scores for physical function, role-physical/emotional and general health, but not mental health and bodily pain, were significantly lower compared to normative and chronic illness data. Energy and social-function scores were significantly lower than normative data alone. Long-term survival after lung transplantation is characterized by an absence or delayed development of BOS, low iatrogenic morbidity and preserved mental, but reduced physical health status. PMID:15816892

  1. Are dieting-related cognitive impairments a function of iron status?

    PubMed

    Green, Michael W; Elliman, Nicola A

    2013-01-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the impairments in cognitive function observed in unsupported dieting are related to compromised Fe status. During a non-clinical intervention, overweight participants (age: 18-45 years, BMI: 25-30 kg/m²) either participated in a commercially available weight-loss regimen (n 14), dieted without support (n 17) or acted as a non-dieting control group (n 14) for a period of 8 weeks. Measurements of cognitive function and blood chemistry were taken at a pre-diet baseline, after 1 week and 8 weeks of dieting. After 1 week, unsupported dieters displayed impaired verbal memory, executive function and slower reaction speeds than the other two groups, this difference disappearing by the end of the study. There were no significant group-related changes in blood chemistry over the course of the study, although there were group-related changes in a number of self-reported food-related cognitions. In conclusion, impaired cognition among unsupported dieters is not due to compromised Fe status and is most likely to result from psychological variables. PMID:22414889

  2. Counseling the post-radical prostatectomy patients about functional recovery: high predictiveness of current status

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Kent, Matthew; Mulhall, John; Sandhu, Jaspreet

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop prediction models to help counsel post-radical prostatectomy patients about functional recovery. Methods The study included 2162 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy at a major cancer center who reported urinary and erectile function at one year or at two years and at least 1 prior follow-up at 3, 6, 9, or 12 months. We created logistic regression models predicting function at one or two years on the basis of function at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months (2 years only), with the additional predictors of age, stage, grade, PSA, nerve-sparing status and baseline functional score. Results No variable other than current functional score had a consistent, statistically significant relationship with outcome. The area-under-the-curves for predicting function at 2 years based on current function alone at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were, respectively, 0.796, 0.831, 0.882, and 0.885 for erectile function and 0.789, 0.862, 0.869 and 0.876 for urinary function. Patients using one pad at 6 months had only a 50% probability of being pad free at 2 years; this dropped to 36% for patients using 2 pads. This suggests that there is an opportunity for early identification and possible referral of patients likely to have long-term urinary dysfunction. Conclusions Assessment of urinary and erectile function in the first post-operative year is strongly predictive of long-term outcome and can guide patient counseling and decisions about rehabilitative treatments. PMID:24824411

  3. Vitamin status and cognitive function in a long-term care population

    PubMed Central

    Paulionis, Lina; Kane, Sheri-Lynn; Meckling, Kelly A

    2005-01-01

    Background Ageing can be associated with poor dietary intake, reduced nutrient absorption, and less efficient utilization of nutrients. Loss of memory and related cognitive function are also common among older persons. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of inadequate vitamin status among long-term care patients and determine if an association exists between vitamin status and each of three variables; cognitive function, vitamin supplementation, and medications which alter gastric acid levels. Methods Seventy-five patients in a long-term care hospital in Guelph, Ontario were recruited to a cross-sectional study. 47 were female and the mean age was 80.7 (+/-11.5) years, ranging from 48 to 100 years. Blood was used to measure levels of vitamins B12 (cobalamin), B6 (pyridoxal-5'-phosphate/PLP), erythrocyte folate, vitamin B3 (niacin) and homocysteine (Hcy). The Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE) was administered to measure cognitive function. A list of medications and vitamin supplementation for each patient was provided by the pharmacy. Results The prevalence of low vitamin (B12, B6, erythrocyte folate, niacin) or high metabolite (homocysteine) levels among 75 patients were as follows: B12 <148 pmol/L in 5/75 (6.7%); B12 between 148 and 221 pmol/L in 26/75 (34.7%); B6 ≤30 nmol/L in 4/75 (5.3%); erythrocyte folate <370 nmol/L in 1/75 (1.3%); niacin ratio ≤1 in 20/75 (26.7%); homocysteine >13.3 μmol/L in 31/75 (41.3%). There was no significant difference among residents grouped into marked (n = 44), mild (n = 14), or normal (n = 9) cognitive function when evaluating the effect of vitamin status. There were no significant differences in mean B12 and homocysteine levels between users and non-users of drug therapy (Losec, Zantac, or Axid). Compared to vitamin supplement non-users, supplemented residents had significantly higher mean B12 (p < 0.0001) and erythrocyte folate (p < 0.05) concentrations and significantly lower mean homocysteine (p

  4. Modern energy density functional and the current status of the equation of state of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Shlomo, S.

    2012-11-20

    We first describe a method, based on the simulated annealing approach, for determining a modern energy density functional within the Skyrme Hartree-Fock (HF) theory by carrying out a fit to extensive set of experimental data with additional constraints on the Skyrme parameters. Next, we review the HF-based random phase approximation (RPA) approach for calculating properties of giant resonances. We then present results of calculations for the centroid energies of giant resonances within the HF-based RPA and discuss the current status of the equation of state of nuclear matter.

  5. Effect of reproductive status changes on family functioning and well-being of mothers and daughters.

    PubMed

    Paikoff, R L; Brooks-gunn, J; Carlton-ford, S

    1991-05-01

    The effects of mother and daughter reproductive changes on maternal perceptions regarding the family are assessed. Mother and daughter reproductive status changes were examined in terms of their effects on family relations and mother and daughter well-being. Controls were made for mother and daughter age and heaviness. 144 mothers (37-59 years) and daughters (14-18 years) were selected from a study of white, middle to upper middle income families in large Eastern metropolitan areas. Mothers were typically well educated and employed and from 2-parent homes; 50% were 1st born. Moos' Family Environment Scale was used to measure family functioning; other measures included daughter's age at menarche, mother's menstrual status, the Ponderal index of mother and daughter heaviness, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, an abbreviated version of the Eating Attitudes Test, and Satisfaction with Body Parts scale of Padin, Lerner and Spiro. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed after agreement to participate was confirmed by phone. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the effect of menstrual status controlling for age on family cohesion or conflict, and the effect of perception of family cohesion or conflict on well-being. Factor-covariate interactions were tested for, and none were found based on the Bonferroni procedure. The cross-sectional results show that early adolescent maturation is not related to increases in family conflict compared with on-time or late maturers, in contrast to Hill's study results. There was no link between perceptions of family conflict on the well-being of mother or daughter. Family cohesion was important to mother and daughter well-being, but was not associated with mother's reproductive status or daughter's reproductive timing. For mothers, the effect was on depression and body image. For daughters, the most important variable was maternal perceptions of family cohesion for all measures of well-being. Daughters

  6. Data Mining Activities for Bone Discipline - Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Johnston, S. L.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The disciplinary goals of the Human Research Program are broadly discussed. There is a critical need to identify gaps in the evidence that would substantiate a skeletal health risk during and after spaceflight missions. As a result, data mining activities will be engaged to gather reviews of medical data and flight analog data and to propose additional measures and specific analyses. Several studies are briefly reviewed which have topics that partially address these gaps in knowledge, including bone strength recovery with recovery of bone mass density, current renal stone formation knowledge, herniated discs, and a review of bed rest studies conducted at Ames Human Research Facility.

  7. Association between Cognitive Status and Physical Activity: Study Profile on Baseline Survey of the My Mind Project

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Cristina; Papa, Roberta; Postacchini, Demetrio; Giuli, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of people with dementia is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, but it seems that there is a relationship between an active lifestyle and cognitive decline. The present study aimed to compare the characteristics and engagement in the physical activity (PA) of three groups of Italian elderly with different cognitive statuses at baseline phase. Methods: Data were examined using the results from the “My Mind Project” on 305 community-dwelling Italians. The sample was comprised of 93 subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 109 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 103 healthy elderly (HE). Results: Classification of subjects on the basis of Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) score showed that 47% of HE performed the highest level of physical activity while 40% of AD performed the lowest level. MCI subjects were distributed quite homogeneously across the levels (p < 0.001). Physical activity such as walking and light sports was carried out mainly and more frequently by HE as compared to the others (p < 0.05). As regards functional status, AD presented worse conditions in basic and instrumental activities of daily living than the other groups (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results evidenced that subjects with cognitive decline had the tendency to engage in PA less than HE. In particular, age and education negatively affected engagement in PA. PMID:27314365

  8. Nitroso-Redox Status and Vascular Function in Marginal and Severe Ascorbate Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Saura, Maria-Francisca; Saijo, Fumito; Bryan, Nathan S.; Bauer, Selena; Rodriguez, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Marginal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency is a prevalent yet underappreciated risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Along with glutathione, ascorbate plays important roles in antioxidant defense and redox signaling. Production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species and their interaction, giving rise to nitroso and nitrosyl product formation, are key components of the redox regulation/signaling network. Numerous in vitro studies have demonstrated that these systems are interconnected via multiple chemical transformation reactions, but little is known about their dynamics and significance in vivo. Aims: We sought to investigate the time-course of changes in NO/redox status and vascular function during ascorbate depletion in rats unable to synthesize vitamin C. Results: We here show that both redox and protein nitros(yl)ation status in blood and vital organs vary dynamically during development of ascorbate deficiency. Prolonged marginal ascorbate deficiency is associated with cell/tissue-specific perturbations in ascorbate and glutathione redox and NO status. Scurvy develops earlier in marginally deficient compared to adequately supplemented animals, with blunted compensatory NO production and a dissociation of biochemistry from clinical symptomology in the former. Paradoxically, aortic endothelial reactivity is enhanced rather than impaired, irrespective of ascorbate status. Innovation/Conclusion: Enhanced NO production and protein nitros(yl)ation are integral responses to the redox stress of acute ascorbate deprivation. The elevated cardiovascular risk in marginal ascorbate deficiency is likely to be associated with perturbations of NO/redox-sensitive signaling nodes unrelated to the regulation of vascular tone. This new model may have merit for the future study of redox-sensitive events in marginal ascorbate deficiency. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 937–950. PMID:22304648

  9. Present status of clinical deployment of glucokinase activators.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akinobu; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2015-03-01

    Glucokinase is one of four members of the hexokinase family of enzymes. Its expression is limited to the major organs (such as the pancreas, liver, brain and the gastrointestinal tract) that are thought to have an integrated role in glucose sensing. In the liver, phosphorylation of glucose by glucokinase promotes glycogen synthesis, whereas in the β-cells, it results in insulin release. Studies of glucokinase-linked genetically-modified mice and mutations in humans have illustrated the important roles played by glucokinase in whole-body glucose homeostasis, and suggest that the use of pharmacological agents that augment glucokinase activity could represent a viable treatment strategy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Since 2003, many glucokinase activators (GKAs) have been developed, and their ability to lower the blood glucose has been shown in several animal models of type 2 diabetes. Also, we and others have shown in mouse models that GKAs also have the effect of stimulating the proliferation of β-cells. However, the results of recent phase II trials have shown that GKAs lose their efficacy within several months of use, and that their use is associated with a high incidence of hypoglycemia; furthermore, patients treated with GKAs frequently developed dyslipidemia. A better understanding of the role of glucokinase in metabolic effects is required to resolve several issues identified in clinical trials. PMID:25802718

  10. Geothermal activity in Italy: present status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Carella, R.; Palmerini, C.G.; Stefani, G.C.; Verdiani, G.

    1985-01-01

    In the Italian Peninsula the Apennines separate a relatively cold Po-Adriatic-Ionian ''foredeep'' external belt from a warmer Tyrrhenian ''back-arc'' internal tensional belt. The latter i characterized by high geothermal heat flow together with conspicuous recent or present-day volcani phenomena. In this area, extending from Tuscany to Campania, lie the known steam- and waterdominated fields. Other ''warm'' areas are located on some Tyrrhenian islands. Within the ''cold'' external belt, interesting locations for low enthalpy utilizations can be found in the Po river valley, particularly in the eastern part near Ferrara and Abano. Since 1977 ENEL (National Electri Energy Agency) and AGIP (State Oil Company) have been jointly conducting geothermal activities in Italy, with the exception of the Tuscan geothermal area where ENEL operates on an exclusive basis. At present the areas surveyed cover about 8250 kmS. As of December 1983 the geothermal installed capacity was 456.2 MW (net capacity 340 MW) and low-temperature geothermal resources equivalent to 100,000 OET /yr were being used. The National Energy Plant (PEN), issued on 4 December 1981, forecast for the year 1990 a geothermal power increment of 200 MW /SUB e/ above the 449.1 MW /SUB e/ already installed. The target in the low enthalpy non-electric sector is to save 300,000 OET/yr by 1990. This paper describes the activities carried out from March 1975 to December 1983 and the main projects in progress.

  11. Status differences in cross-functional teams: effects on individual member participation, job satisfaction, and intent to quit.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Richard; Alexander, Jeffrey A; McCarthy, John F; Wells, Rebecca

    2004-09-01

    Cross-functional teams (CFTs) play an increasingly important role in health care. However, despite their potential, CFTs often fail to function effectively. This paper contributes to the literature in medical sociology by examining how the steep and well-defined hierarchy characteristic of the health occupations proves to be dysfunctional in the CFT setting. Previous research has shown that status differences among members of work teams negatively affect their functioning. Yet the specific mechanisms that connect variations in status to poor team functioning remain unclear. We hypothesize that it is the suppression of participation among low status team members that leads to poor CFT functioning. Our theoretical model integrates status characteristics theory and the value attainment theory of job satisfaction to link team members' statuses to participation in team decision-making and, ultimately, to their attitudes about the job. We use causal modeling to test our hypotheses. Our results indicate that relationships between health professionals defined in broader social contexts affect status, roles, and functions within CFTs, and these, in turn, affect the team's interpersonal processes. We suggest changes in organizational structure and in team leadership styles that might make CFTs more effective. PMID:15595510

  12. Sedentary behavior is associated with disability status and walking performance, but not cognitive function, in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Elizabeth A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-02-01

    Eighty-two persons with multiple sclerosis wore an accelerometer as a measure of sedentary time (min/day) and completed measures of disability status (self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale), walking performance (timed 25-foot walk and 6-min walk), and cognitive function (symbol digit modalities test). Accelerometry-measured sedentary time was significantly correlated with disability status scores (r = 0.31, p < 0.01), 6-min walk distance (r = -0.40, p < 0.01), and timed 25-foot walk performance (r = 0.35, p < 0.01), but not cognitive function performance (r = -0.12, p = 0.29). PMID:25610951

  13. Activities of daily living, instrumental activities for daily living and predictors of functional capacity of older men in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: An extensive search of the literature found no studies that have examined functional capacity [Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities for Daily Living (I) ADL)] of Jamaican older men as well as factors that determine their functional capacity. Aims: The current study examines 1) ADL, 2) (I) ADL), 3) self-reported health status, 4) functional capacity, and 5) factors that determine functional capacity of older men. Methods and Method: Stratified multistage probability sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 2,000 55+ year men. A132-item questionnaire was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics provide background information on the sample, cross tabulations were used to examine non-metric variables and logistic regression provides a model of predictors of functional capacity. Result: Fifty-five percent of sample indicated good current health status. Four percent was mostly satisfied with life; 21.7% had moderate dependence; 77.1% had high dependence (i.e. independence); 1.2% had low dependence; 21.9% were ages 75 years and older; 35.6% were ages 65 to 74 years and 42.6% reported ages 55 to 64 years. Functional capacity can be determined by church attendance (β=0.245; 95% CI: 0.264, 1.291); social support (β=0.129; 95% CI: 0.129, 0.258), area of residence (β=-0.060; 95% CI: -0.427, -0.061) and lastly by age of respondents. Conclusion: Ageing in explains deterioration in their (I) ADL, suggesting the challenges of ageing men's independence. More rural men were rarely satisfied with life; but more of them had a greater functional capacity than urban men. Depression was found to negatively relate to functional capacity, and church attendees had a greater functional status than non-attendees. PMID:22666693

  14. Parental socioeconomic status and child intellectual functioning in a Norwegian sample.

    PubMed

    Eilertsen, Thomas; Thorsen, Anders Lillevik; Holm, Silje Elisabeth Hasmo; Bøe, Tormod; Sørensen, Lin; Lundervold, Astri J

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood has been linked to cognitive function and future academic and occupational success in studies from several countries. However, previous Nordic studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the strength of this link. We therefore investigated the association between SES and cognitive functioning in a sample of 255 Norwegian children, including 151 typically developing children and 104 children with a psychiatric diagnosis. The third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) to assess cognitive function was used. SES was defined from maternal and paternal education and family income of typically developing children and of a subsample of children with a psychiatric diagnosis. Multiple adjusted regression analyses were used to investigate the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. The analyses showed that SES explained a significant part of the variance of the full-scale WISC-III score and two WISC-III indices (Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility). Overall, the strength of the relations was weaker than expected from reports from other non-Nordic countries. Parental education was the only significant individual predictor, suggesting that income was of minor importance as a predictor of cognitive functioning. Further studies should investigate how diverse political and socioeconomic contexts influence the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. PMID:27589048

  15. Status of Safety& Environmental Activities for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S; Cadwallader, L C; Sharpe, J P; Marshall, T D; Merrill, B J; Moore, R L; Petti, D A; Falquina, R; Rodriguez, A; Sanz, J; Cabellos, O

    2002-11-25

    Over the past several years, significant progress has been made in the analysis of safety and environmental (S&E) issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Detailed safety assessments have been performed for the baseline power plant concepts, as well as for a conceptual target fabrication facility. Safety analysis results are helping to drive the agenda for experiments. A survey of the S&E characteristics--both radiological and chemical--of candidate target materials has been completed. Accident initiating events have been identified and incorporated into master logic diagrams, which will be essential to the detailed safety analyses that will be needed in the future. Studies of aerosol generation and transport will have important safety implications. A Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analysis procedure has been developed for use in neutron activation calculations. Finally, waste management issues are receiving increased attention and are deserving of further discussion.

  16. Age-related differences in white matter integrity and cognitive function are related to APOE status

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lee; Walther, Katrin; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Walker, Douglas G.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    While an extensive literature is now available on age-related differences in white matter integrity measured by diffusion MRI, relatively little is known about the relationships between diffusion and cognitive functions in older adults. Even less is known about whether these relationships are influenced by the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele, despite growing evidence that ε4 increases cognitive impairment in older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine these relationships in a group of community-dwelling cognitively normal older adults. Data were obtained from a sample of 126 individuals (ages 52–92) that included 32 ε4 heterozygotes, 6 ε4 homozygotes, and 88 non-carriers. Two measures of diffusion, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), were obtained from six brain regions – frontal white matter, lateral parietal white matter, the centrum semiovale, the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the temporal stem white matter – and were used to predict composite scores of cognitive function in two domains, executive function and memory function. Results indicated that ADC and FA differed with increasing age in all six brain regions, and these differences were significantly greater for ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Importantly, after controlling for age, diffusion measures predicted cognitive function in a region-specific way that was also influenced by ε4 status. Regardless of APOE status, frontal ADC and FA independently predicted executive function scores for all participants, while temporal lobe ADC additionally predicted executive function for ε4 carriers, but not noncarriers. Memory scores were predicted by temporal lobe ADC but not frontal diffusion for all participants, and this relationship was significantly stronger in ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Taken together, age and temporal lobe ADC accounted for a striking 53% of the variance in memory scores within the ε4 carrier

  17. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    PubMed

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable. PMID:26961225

  18. The Direct Assessment of Functional Abilities (DAFA): A Comparison to an Indirect Measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagiozis, Helen; Gray, Sarah; Sacco, Jane; Shapiro, Martha; Kawas, Claudia

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of administering the Direct Awareness of Functional Abilities (DAFA) and the Pfeefer Activities Questionnaire to 28 demented, and 15 control subjects. Results show that the DAFA may provide a more objective measure of functional status in demented subjects than is provided by indirect methods of assessment. (MKA)

  19. Present status of some technological activities supporting the MOLCARE project

    SciTech Connect

    Torazza, A.; Rocchini, G.; Scagliotti, M.

    1996-12-31

    The development of MCFC stack technology is carried out at Ansaldo Ricerche in the framework of the MOLCARE project, a cooperation with Spanish companies under a partial UE funding, while a specific research program concerning the physico-chemical characterization of materials is performed jointly by CISE and ENEL. The project includes the development, the construction and the testing of a full scale 100 kW prototype, the assessment of stack technology on subscale stacks, the mathematical modelling of the MCFC based plants and the basic researches. The aim of the basic researches, carried out on single cells, is to improve the effectiveness and durability of both the active and the hardware materials. The Ansaldo stack technology is based on external manifolding. The full scale 100 kW prototype will be integrated with the sensible heat reformer and other ancillary equipments according to the {open_quote}Compact Unit (CU){close_quotes} concept. These technical choices stress requirements for manifold gasket configuration. electrolyte migration control, {Delta}p management and porous component compaction.

  20. Current status of active surveillance in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mun Su

    2016-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a management strategy involving close monitoring the course of disease with the expectation to intervene if the cancer progress, in a super-selected group of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Determining AS candidates should be based on careful individualized weighing of numerous factors: life expectancy, general health condition, disease characteristics, potential side effects of treatment, and patient preference. Several protocols have been developed to determine insignificant PCa for choosing ideal AS candidates. Results regarding disease reclassification during AS have been also reported. In an effort to enhance accuracy during selection of AS candidate, there were several reports on using magnetic resonance imaging for prediction of insignificant PCa. Currently, there is an urgent need for further clinical studies regarding the criteria for recommending AS, the criteria for reclassification on AS, and the schedule for AS. Considering the racial differences in behavior of PCa between Western and Asian populations, more stringent AS protocols for Asian patients should be established from additional, well-designed, large clinical studies. PMID:26966722

  1. Status of the ITER plasma modeling activities in JAEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Junya; Honda, Mitsuru; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Aiba, Nobuyuki; Toma, Mitsunori; Matsuyama, Akinobu; Naito, Osamu; Miyata, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Shizuo; Narita, Emi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Ide, Shunsuke; Yagi, Masatoshi

    2015-11-01

    JAEA has been contributing to the ITER plasma modeling in a wide range of research areas. Among them we report recent integrated modeling activities in JAEA. The integrated modeling is indispensable for predictive simulations of autonomous ITER plasmas, which exhibit multi-physics nature. JAEA has been developing an integrated modeling code, the TOPICS suite. The TOPICS suite has been incorporating many physics factors to enhance its prediction capability and has delivered many important findings on ITER plasm. A recent achievement is the success of predictive simulation of toroidal rotation in ITER. The TOPICS suite has been coupled with the 3D equilibrium code VMEC and the 3D drift-kinetic solver FORTEC-3D to compute the NTV, the radial electric field, and the resultant toroidal rotation self-consistently. Another achievement is the quantitative estimate of reduction of ELM energy loss by pellet injection in ITER. The TOPICS suite has been coupled with a new pellet model and with the MHD stability code MARG2D to calculate finite-n modes for modeling the ELM-enhanced diffusivities.

  2. Influence of socioeconomic status on lung function and prediction equations in Indian children.

    PubMed

    Raju, P Sitarama; Prasad, K V V; Ramana, Y Venkata; Balakrishna, N; Murthy, K J R

    2005-06-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the influence of socioeconomic status on lung functions and to suggest prediction equations for Indian children. For this purpose, 2,616 normal, healthy schoolchildren aged between 5-15 years were recruited. Boys were classified into three groups, i.e., high-income (HIG), middle-income (MIG), and low-income (LIG), while girls were classified into HIG and LIG groups, based on socioeconomic status (SES). Height, weight, chest circumference, body surface area (BSA), fat-free mass (FFM), and body fat were assessed. Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured. The results, before and after adjustment of physical characteristics, showed that anthropometry, body composition, and lung functions were significantly higher in HIG compared to MIG and LIG children, while in girls, no differences were observed in physical characteristics after adjustments. Multiple linear regression equations were developed to predict FEV1, FVC, and PEFR, using independent variables like age, height, fat-free mass, and SES. It is opined that these equations could be used as Indian reference equations for healthy children based on the SES. PMID:15789442

  3. Clinical characteristics as a function of referral status among substance users in residential treatment.

    PubMed

    Banducci, Anne N; Dahne, Jennifer; Magidson, Jessica F; Chen, Kevin; Daughters, Stacey B; Lejuez, C W

    2013-04-01

    In the United States, substance users who voluntarily (VO) elect to receive treatment and substance users who are court-mandated (CM) to receive treatment typically obtain care within the same facilities. Little is known about the clinical characteristics that differentiate these individuals. The current study provides rates of specific DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II psychiatric and substance use disorders, comorbidities, childhood trauma, motivation, and other clinical and demographic characteristics as a function of referral status, among individuals in residential substance use treatment (463 participants, M age=43.3; 69.7% male; 88.4% African American). Participants were interviewed and diagnosed using the Structure Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Diagnostic Interview for Personality Disorders. Within our sample, VO individuals, as compared to CM individuals had significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders (68.7% versus 55.2%, respectively), including mood disorders, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Additionally, they were significantly more likely to have alcohol dependence (43.0% versus 20.8%) and cocaine dependence (66.5% versus 48.9%). Elevated rates of comorbidities and childhood abuse were also observed among VO individuals, while motivation did not differ as a function of referral status. Overall, VO individuals appeared to have more severe problems than their CM counterparts which may suggest that they require more intensive or different types of treatment. PMID:23380487

  4. Voluntary leadership roles in religious groups and rates of change in functional status during older adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hayward, R David; Krause, Neal

    2014-06-01

    Linear growth curve modeling was used to compare rates of change in functional status between three groups of older adults: Individuals holding voluntary lay leadership positions in a church, regular church attenders who were not leaders, and those not regularly attending church. Functional status was tracked longitudinally over a 4-year period in a national sample of 1,152 Black and White older adults whose religious backgrounds were either Christian or unaffiliated. Leaders had significantly slower trajectories of increase in both the number of physical impairments and the severity of those impairments. Although regular church attenders who were not leaders had lower mean levels of impairment on both measures, compared with those not regularly attending church, the two groups of non-leaders did not differ from one another in their rates of impairment increase. Leadership roles may contribute to longer maintenance of physical ability in late life, and opportunities for voluntary leadership may help account for some of the health benefits of religious participation. PMID:23606309

  5. Emotion perception and executive functioning predict work status in euthymic bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kelly A; Vederman, Aaron C; Kamali, Masoud; Marshall, David; Weldon, Anne L; McInnis, Melvin G; Langenecker, Scott A

    2013-12-15

    Functional recovery, including return to work, in Bipolar Disorder (BD) lags behind clinical recovery and may be incomplete when acute mood symptoms have subsided. We examined impact of cognition on work status and underemployment in a sample of 156 Euthymic-BD and 143 controls (HC) who were divided into working/not working groups. Clinical, health, social support, and personality data were collected, and eight cognitive factors were derived from a battery of neuropsychological tests. The HC groups outperformed the BD groups on seven of eight cognitive factors. The working-BD group outperformed the not working-BD group on 4 cognitive factors composed of tasks of emotion processing and executive functioning including processing speed and set shifting. Emotion processing and executive tasks were predictive of BD unemployment, after accounting for number of mood episodes. Four cognitive factors accounted for a significant amount of the variance in work status among the BD participants. Results indicate that patients with BD who are unemployed/unable to work exhibit greater difficulties processing emotional information and on executive tasks that comprise a set shifting or interference resolution component as compared to those who are employed, independent of other factors. These cognitive and affective factors are suggested as targets for treatment and/or accommodations. PMID:23870493

  6. [Effect of exogenously administered ATP on heart function and energy status].

    PubMed

    Chernikov, V S; Darbinian, T M; Bakuleva, N P

    1993-01-01

    It has been shown that ATP (24.10(-6) M) administered once into the circulating solution improved strength and speed characteristics of aerobically perfused hearts. The increasing demands of the hearts in oxygen and energy substrates were satisfied due to coronary vessels dilatation without harming the energy status of the myocardium. When the functional parameters of the hearts in the test and control groups did not differ, an exogenously administered ATP was included into the energy metabolism and increased considerably ATP and CP tissue levels, the sum of high-energy phosphates and ATP/ADP ratio. Artificial supplementation of tissue energy resources was accompanied by a decrease in energy-dependent end-diastolic pressure and diastolic left ventricular elasticity and by increased extensibility of the heart muscle, which may improve functional parameters. PMID:8185075

  7. The WHO-DAS II: psychometric properties in the measurement of functional health status in adults with acquired hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chisolm, Theresa H; Abrams, Harvey B; McArdle, Rachel; Wilson, Richard H; Doyle, Patrick J

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) Disability Assessment Scale II (WHO-DAS II) is a generic health-status instrument firmly grounded in the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO-ICF). As such, it assesses functioning for six domains: communication, mobility, self-care, interpersonal, life activities, and participation. Domain scores aggregate to a total score. Because the WHO-DAS II contains questions relevant to hearing and communication, it has good face validity for use as an outcome measure for audiologic intervention. The purpose of the present study was to determine the psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II on a sample of individuals with adult-onset hearing loss, including convergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest stability. Convergent validity was established by examining correlations between the WHO-DAS II (domain and total scores) and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) and the Hearing Aid Handicap for the Elderly (HHIE), two disease-specific measures, as well as with the Short Form-36 for veterans (SF-36V), a second generic measure. Data on all four measures were collected from 380 older individuals with adult-onset hearing loss who were not hearing aid users. The results of the convergent validity analysis revealed that the WHODAS II communication domain score was moderately and significantly correlated with scores on the APHAB and the HHIE. WHO-DAS II interpersonal and participation domain scores and the total scores were also moderately and significantly correlated with HHIE scores. These findings support the validity of using the WHO-DAS II for assessing activity limitations and participation restrictions of adult-onset hearing loss. Several WHO-DAS II domain scores and the total score were also significantly and moderately-markedly correlated with scores from the SF-36V. These findings support the validity of the WHO-DAS II as a generic health-status instrument

  8. Plant endosomal NHX antiporters: Activity and function.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Quan-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    The Arabidopsis NHX antiporter family contains eight members that are divided into three subclasses: vacuolar, endosomal, and plasma membrane. While the plasma membrane and vacuolar NHXs have been studied extensively, the activity and function of the endosomal NHXs are beginning to be discovered. AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 are endosomal Na(+),K(+)/H(+) antiporters that share high sequence similarity. They are localized in the Golgi, trans-Golgi network (TGN), and prevacuolear compartment (PVC). Studies have shown that AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 mediate K(+) and Na(+) transport, and regulate cellular pH homeostasis. Sequence alignment has found that AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 contain four conserved acidic amino acid residues in transmembrane domains that align with yeast and human NHXs. Three of these conserved acidic residues are critical for K(+) transport and seedling growth in Arabidopsis. Moreover, studies have shown that the precursors of the seed storage proteins are missorted to the apoplast in the nhx5 nhx6 knockout mutant, suggesting that AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 regulate protein transport into the vacuole. Further analysis found that AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 regulated the binding of VSR to its cargoes. Taken together, AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 play an important role in cellular ion and pH homeostasis, and are essential for protein transport into the vacuole. PMID:26890367

  9. HIV Serosorting, Status Disclosure, and Strategic Positioning Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Moody, Raymond L; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-10-01

    Researchers have identified harm reduction strategies that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) use to reduce HIV transmission--including serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning. We report on patterns of these behaviors among 376 highly sexually active (i.e., 9+partners, <90 days) GBMSM: mean age of 37, 49.5% men of color, 87.8% gay identified, 57.5% college educated. We found evidence that many men engaged in serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning; however, rates varied based on the participant's HIV status. HIV-positive and HIV-negative men both engaged in sex with men of similar status more often than they engaged in sex with men known to be a different HIV status (i.e., serosorting). However, HIV-negative men disclosed their HIV-status with about half of their partners, whereas HIV-positive participants disclosed with only about one-third. With regard to strategic positioning, HIV-positive participants were the receptive partner about half the time with their HIV-negative partners and with their HIV-positive partners. In contrast, strategic positioning was very common among HIV-negative participants-they rarely bottomed with HIV-positive partners, bottomed about one-third of the time with status-unknown partners, and 42% of the time (on average) with HIV-negative partners. Highly sexually active GBMSM are a critical population in which to both investigate HIV prevention strategies as well as develop effective intervention programs. Providers and clinicians might be well served to include a wide range of behavioral harm reduction strategies in addition to condom use and biomedical approaches to reduce onward HIV transmission. PMID:26348322

  10. Predicting acceptance and popularity in early adolescence as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E T; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of hearing status by gender; popularity varied as a function of hearing status and educational setting. Deaf boys in mainstream education were less accepted and popular than their hearing classmates and than deaf peers in special education. Deaf girls in mainstream education were also less popular but not less accepted. Communicative skills varied as a function of hearing status, whereas social behavior varied as a function of educational setting. Deaf mainstreamed children showed less developed pragmatic and strategic communicative skills (monitoring, improvisation, initiating/maintaining) than their hearing classmates, but more social adjustment than deaf peers in special education (more prosocial behavior, less antisocial or withdrawn behavior, and more agreeableness). For acceptance, deaf girls in mainstream education compensated the lack of improvisation with higher levels of prosocial behavior, agreeableness, monitoring, and pragmatic skills, and lower levels of antisocial behavior than deaf boys. Monitoring and pragmatic skills negatively affected a deaf mainstream boy's acceptance. In special education, gender differences in prosocial behavior explained deaf boys' lower acceptance. Popularity was explained by pragmatic skills and improvisation as a function of hearing status. Voter population difference and different social behavior norms are considered as an explanation for popularity differences as a function of educational setting. PMID:21840686

  11. Bioassessment of water quality status using a potential bioindicator based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Yong, Jiang; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-09-15

    The feasibility of a potential ecological indicator based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates for bioassessment of water quality status were studied in a bay, northern Yellow Sea. Samples were biweekly collected at five stations with different water quality status during a 1-year period. The multivariate approach based on "bootstrap-average" analysis was used to summarize the spatial variation in functional structure of the samples. The functional patterns represented a significant spatial variability, and were significantly correlated with the changes of nutrients (mainly nitrate nitrogen, NO3-N), alone or in combination with dissolve oxygen and salinity among five stations. The functional diversity represented a clear spatial variation among five stations, and was found to be significantly related to the nutrient NO3-N. According to the results, we suggest that the ecological parameter based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates may be used as a potential bioindicator of water quality status in marine ecosystems. PMID:27318762

  12. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Technology Development Status and Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in Fiscal Year (FY) 2011, Extravehicular activity (EVA) technology development became a technology foundational domain under a new program Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration. The goal of the EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA technology life and limited availability of the EMUs will become a critical issue eventually. The current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has vastly served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability could be an option for the future mission applications building off of the technology development over the last several years. Besides ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for

  13. Calcaneal Quantitative Ultrasound Indicates Reduced Bone Status Among Physically Active Adult Forager-Horticulturalists.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Madimenos, Felicia; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Sedentary lifestyle contributes to osteoporosis and fragility fracture risks among modern humans, but whether such risks are prevalent in physically active preindustrial societies with lower life expectancies is unclear. Osteoporosis should be readily observable in preindustrial societies if it was regularly experienced over human history. In this study of 142 older adult Tsimane forager-horticulturalists (mean age ± SD, 62.1 ± 8.6 years; range, 50 to 85 years; 51% female) we used calcaneal quantitative ultrasonography (qUS) to assess bone status, document prevalence of adults with reduced bone status, and identify factors (demographic, anthropometric, immunological, kinesthetic) associated with reduced bone status. Men (23%) are as likely as women (25%) to have reduced bone status, although age-related decline in qUS parameters is attenuated for men. Adiposity and fat-free mass positively co-vary with qUS parameters for women but not men. Leukocyte count is inversely associated with qUS parameters controlling for potential confounders; leukocyte count is positively correlated within adults over time, and adults with persistently low counts have higher adjusted qUS parameters (6% to 8%) than adults with a high count. Reduced bone status characteristic of osteoporosis is common among active Tsimane with minimal exposure to osteoporosis risk factors found in industrialized societies, but with energetic constraints and high pathogen burden. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26460548

  14. EFFECT OF CANOPY DEPTH ON ESTIMATES OF CORN BIOMASS AND N STATUS USING ACTIVE SENSORS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our long-term research goal is to develop practical N application systems for on-the-go remote sensing to assess crop N status and only apply N where needed at times when the crop can most efficiently utilize N. Our preliminary testing of two active sensor systems (Crop Circle and GreenSeeker) has s...

  15. 20 CFR 1002.18 - What status or activity is protected from employer discrimination by USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... employer discrimination by USERRA? 1002.18 Section 1002.18 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Retaliation Protection from Employer Discrimination and Retaliation § 1002.18 What status or activity is protected...

  16. 20 CFR 1002.18 - What status or activity is protected from employer discrimination by USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employer discrimination by USERRA? 1002.18 Section 1002.18 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Retaliation Protection from Employer Discrimination and Retaliation § 1002.18 What status or activity is protected...

  17. 20 CFR 1002.18 - What status or activity is protected from employer discrimination by USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... employer discrimination by USERRA? 1002.18 Section 1002.18 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Retaliation Protection from Employer Discrimination and Retaliation § 1002.18 What status or activity is protected...

  18. 20 CFR 1002.18 - What status or activity is protected from employer discrimination by USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... employer discrimination by USERRA? 1002.18 Section 1002.18 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Retaliation Protection from Employer Discrimination and Retaliation § 1002.18 What status or activity is protected...

  19. 20 CFR 1002.18 - What status or activity is protected from employer discrimination by USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employer discrimination by USERRA? 1002.18 Section 1002.18 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Retaliation Protection from Employer Discrimination and Retaliation § 1002.18 What status or activity is protected...

  20. 78 FR 48941 - Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number: 2900-0495. Type of Review: Extension of a currently...

  1. Arid soil microbial enzymatic activity profile as affected by geographical location and soil degradation status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluating soil health is critical for any successful remediation effort. Arid lands, with their minimal carbon and water contents, low nutritional status and restricted, seasonal microbial activity pose specific challenges to soil health restoration and by extension, restoration of ecosystem repr...

  2. 77 FR 20004 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Status of Claims...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment... general public and other public agencies to comment on the proposed information collection for the FNS-209... (the Act) are the basis for the information collected on Form FNS-209, Status of Claims...

  3. Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

  4. Energy Efficiency in Gait, Activity, Participation, and Health Status in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Claire; Parkes, Jackie; Stevenson, Mike; Cosgrove, Aidan P.; McDowell, Brona C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish if a relationship exists between the energy efficiency of gait, and measures of activity limitation, participation restriction, and health status in a representative sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Secondary aims were to investigate potential differences between clinical subtypes and gross motor…

  5. Does Weight Status Influence Associations between Children's Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Clare; Okely, Anthony; Bagley, Sarah; Telford, Amanda; Booth, Michael; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether weight status influences the association among children's fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity (PA). Two hundred forty-eight children ages 9-12 years participated. Proficiency in three object-control skills and two locomotor skills was examined. Accelerometers objectively assessed physical…

  6. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5 years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households. PMID:21107891

  7. The Effects and Functions of Speaker Status in CALL-Oriented Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Do you know how to change your relationship status on Facebook? What about your language status? In most web 2.0 contexts, music preference or relationship status are more important than information about one's linguistic repertoire. In language learning communities and affinity spaces (Gee, 2004), however, language status is forefronted. This…

  8. Newly generated neurons at 2 months post-status epilepticus are functionally integrated into neuronal circuitry in mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming; Zhu, Kun; Chen, Xin-Lin; Zhang, Yao-Jie; Zhang, Jian-Shui; Xiao, Xin-Li; Liu, Jian-Xin; Liu, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Emerging evidence has linked chronic temporal lobe epilepsy to dramatically reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. However, the profile of different components of neurogenesis in the chronically epileptic hippocampus is still unclear, especially the incorporation of newly generated cells. To address the issue, newly generated cells in the sub-granular zone of the dentate gyrus were labeled by the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) or retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein 2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. The newly generated neurons that extended axons to CA3 area or integrated into memory circuits were visualized by cholera toxin B subunit retrograde tracing, and detecting activation of BrdU(+) cells following a recall of spatial memory test at the chronic stage of TLE. We found that the microenvironment was still able to sustain significant neuronal differentiation of newly generated cells at 2 months post-status epilepticus time-point, and newly added neurons into granular cell layer were still able to integrate into neuronal circuitry, both anatomically and functionally. Quantified analyses of BrdU(+) or Ki-67(+) cells demonstrated that there was a reduced proliferation of progenitor cells and diminished survival of newly generated cells in the epileptic hippocampus. Both decreased levels of neurotrophic factors in the surrounding milieu and cell loss in the CA3 area might contribute the decreased production of new cells and their survival following chronic epilepsy. These results suggest that decreased neurogenesis in the chronically epileptic hippocampus 2 months post status epilepticus is not associated with altered integration of newly generated neurons, and that developing strategies to augment hippocampal neurogenesis in chronic epilepsy might be protective. PMID:26384773

  9. Weight Status and Differences in Mobility Performance, Pain Symptoms, and Physical Activity in Older, Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Garver, Matthew J.; Focht, Brian C.; Dials, Justin; Lucas, Alexander R.; Devor, Steven T.; Emery, Charles F.; Hackshaw, Kevin V.; Rejeski, W. Jack

    2014-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of functional disability among American adults. Obesity is a strong independent risk factor for OA. While research emphasizes the role of obesity in the OA-physical function relationship, the extent to which weight status impacts salient physical, health, and pain measures in older, knee OA patients is not well delineated. The primary aim of this study was to assess differences in mobility performance (stair climb and 400-meter walk), mobility-related self-efficacy, pain symptoms (WOMAC), and measures of accelerometer-determined physical activity (PA) as a function of weight status. Analysis of covariance was conducted to examine differences on the dependent variables. Obese class III patients were outperformed by their counterparts on nearly every measure of mobility, mobility-related self-efficacy, and the assessment of pain symptoms. These outcomes did not differ among other weight comparisons. Normal weight subjects outperformed classes I, II, and III counterparts on most measures of PA (engagement in moderate or greater PA and total weekly steps). Additionally, overweight participants outperformed obese class II participants and obese class I participants outperformed obese classes II and III participants on total weekly steps. Collectively, these findings underscore the meaningful differences observed in relevant OA outcomes as a function of increasing levels of body weight. PMID:24963401

  10. Influence of the Plantar Cutaneous Information in Postural Regulation Depending on the Age and the Physical Activity Status.

    PubMed

    Maitre, Julien; Paillard, Thierry P

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to compare the balance control adaptation to different supporting surfaces depending on the age and the physical activity status. The balance control of two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who practiced regular physical activity (active groups) and two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who did not practice physical activity (non-active groups) was compared on a firm surface and on a foam surface. The parameters of the center of foot pressure (COP) displacement were compared between the groups. The two older groups were more disturbed than the two younger groups when they stood on a foam surface and there was no difference between active and non-active groups. This result may be linked to the structural and functional involutions of the plantar cutaneous sole and foot that occur with age advancement. The participants' physical activity practice might be not specific enough to generate a more efficient postural adaption to the foam condition for the active groups than the non-active groups within their respective age groups. PMID:27582699

  11. Influence of the Plantar Cutaneous Information in Postural Regulation Depending on the Age and the Physical Activity Status

    PubMed Central

    Maitre, Julien; Paillard, Thierry P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to compare the balance control adaptation to different supporting surfaces depending on the age and the physical activity status. The balance control of two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who practiced regular physical activity (active groups) and two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who did not practice physical activity (non-active groups) was compared on a firm surface and on a foam surface. The parameters of the center of foot pressure (COP) displacement were compared between the groups. The two older groups were more disturbed than the two younger groups when they stood on a foam surface and there was no difference between active and non-active groups. This result may be linked to the structural and functional involutions of the plantar cutaneous sole and foot that occur with age advancement. The participants’ physical activity practice might be not specific enough to generate a more efficient postural adaption to the foam condition for the active groups than the non-active groups within their respective age groups. PMID:27582699

  12. Physical Activity, Health Status and Risk of Hospitalization in Patients with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Benzo, Roberto P.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Farrell, Max H.; Kaplan, Robert; Ries, Andrew; Martinez, Fernando J.; Wise, Robert; Make, Barry; Sciurba, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death and 70% of the cost of COPD is due to hospitalizations. Self-reported daily physical activity and health status have been reported as predictors of a hospitalization in COPD but are not routinely assessed. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that self-reported daily physical activity and health status assessed by a simple question were predictors of a hospitalization in a well-characterized cohort of patients with severe emphysema. Methods Investigators gathered daily physical activity and health status data assessed by a simple question in 597 patients with severe emphysema and tested the association of those patient-reported outcomes to the occurrence of a hospitalization in the following year. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine predictors of hospitalization during the first 12 months after randomization. Results The two variables tested in the hypothesis were significant predictors of a hospitalization after adjusting for all univariable significant predictors: >2 h of physical activity per week had a protective effect [odds ratio (OR) 0.60; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.41–0.88] and self-reported health status as fair or poor had a deleterious effect (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.10–2.23). In addition, two other variables became significant in the multivariate model: total lung capacity (every 10% increase) had a protective effect (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.78–0.99) and self-reported anxiety had a deleterious effect (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.13–2.70). Conclusion Self-reported daily physical activity and health status are independently associated with COPD hospitalizations. Our findings, assessed by simple questions, suggest the value of patient-reported outcomes in developing risk assessment tools that are easy to use. PMID:20234126

  13. Neural Responses to Visual Food Cues According to Weight Status: A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pursey, Kirrilly M.; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J.; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E.; Burrows, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n = 26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n = 17), and weight-loss interventions (n = 12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n = 36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies. PMID:25988110

  14. Classification of debtor credit status and determination amount of credit risk by using linier discriminant function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidi, Muhammad Nur; Sari, Resty Indah

    2012-05-01

    A decision of credit that given by bank or another creditur must have a risk and it called credit risk. Credit risk is an investor's risk of loss arising from a borrower who does not make payments as promised. The substantial of credit risk can lead to losses for the banks and the debtor. To minimize this problem need a further study to identify a potential new customer before the decision given. Identification of debtor can using various approaches analysis, one of them is by using discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis in this study are used to classify whether belonging to the debtor's good credit or bad credit. The result of this study are two discriminant functions that can identify new debtor. Before step built the discriminant function, selection of explanatory variables should be done. Purpose of selection independent variable is to choose the variable that can discriminate the group maximally. Selection variables in this study using different test, for categoric variable selection of variable using proportion chi-square test, and stepwise discriminant for numeric variable. The result of this study are two discriminant functions that can identify new debtor. The selected variables that can discriminating two groups of debtor maximally are status of existing checking account, credit history, credit amount, installment rate in percentage of disposable income, sex, age in year, other installment plans, and number of people being liable to provide maintenance. This classification produce a classification accuracy rate is good enough, that is equal to 74,70%. Debtor classification using discriminant analysis has risk level that is small enough, and it ranged beetwen 14,992% and 17,608%. Based on that credit risk rate, using discriminant analysis on the classification of credit status can be used effectively.

  15. Physical activity and functional limitations in older adults: a systematic review related to Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose was to conduct systematic reviews of the relationship between physical activity of healthy community-dwelling older (>65 years) adults and outcomes of functional limitations, disability, or loss of independence. Methods Prospective cohort studies with an outcome related to functional independence or to cognitive function were searched, as well as exercise training interventions that reported a functional outcome. Electronic database search strategies were used to identify citations which were screened (title and abstract) for inclusion. Included articles were reviewed to complete standardized data extraction tables, and assess study quality. An established system of assessing the level and grade of evidence for recommendations was employed. Results Sixty-six studies met inclusion criteria for the relationship between physical activity and functional independence, and 34 were included with a cognitive function outcome. Greater physical activity of an aerobic nature (categorized by a variety of methods) was associated with higher functional status (expressed by a host of outcome measures) in older age. For functional independence, moderate (and high) levels of physical activity appeared effective in conferring a reduced risk (odds ratio ~0.5) of functional limitations or disability. Limitation in higher level performance outcomes was reduced (odds ratio ~0.5) with vigorous (or high) activity with an apparent dose-response of moderate through to high activity. Exercise training interventions (including aerobic and resistance) of older adults showed improvement in physiological and functional measures, and suggestion of longer-term reduction in incidence of mobility disability. A relatively high level of physical activity was related to better cognitive function and reduced risk of developing dementia; however, there were mixed results of the effects of exercise interventions on cognitive function indices. Conclusions There is a consistency of

  16. Functional Limitations and Nativity Status among Older Arab, Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White Americans

    PubMed Central

    Dallo, Florence J.; Booza, Jason; Nguyen, Norma D.

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine the association between nativity status (foreign and US-born) by race/ethnicity (Arab, Asian, black, Hispanic, white) on having a functional limitation. Methods We used American Community Survey data (2001-2007; n=1,964,777; 65+ years) and estimated odds ratios (95% confidence intervals). Results In the crude model, foreign-born Blacks, Hispanics and Arabs were more likely, while Asians were less likely to report having a functional limitation compared to white. In the fully adjusted model, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians were less likely, while Arabs were more likely to report having a functional limitation. In both the crude and fully adjusted models, US-born Blacks and Hispanics were more likely, while Asians and Arabs were less likely to report having a functional limitation compared to whites. Discussion Policies and programs tailored to foreign-born Arab Americans may help prevent or delay the onset of disability, especially when initiated shortly after their arrival to the US. PMID:24165988

  17. Disease activity and health status in rheumatoid arthritis: a case-control comparison between Norway and Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Dadoniene, J; Uhlig, T; Stropuviene, S; Venalis, A; Boonen, A; Kvien, T

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare disease characteristics and health status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from two countries, Norway and Lithuania. Methods: Patients were recruited from the RA registers in Vilnius (Lithuania) and Oslo (Norway). For each patient from Vilnius, a patient matched for age and sex from the Oslo register was selected. Sociodemographic characteristics, disease process, and health status were compared between the patient groups. Results: 201 Lithuanian patients and 201 Norwegian patients were included. Mean (SD) age in both groups was 55.9 (10.0) years, and 83% were women. Patients from Lithuania were less often employed (27% v 42%; p=0.001), had higher disease activity expressed by the disease activity score (DAS28; mean (SD) 5.3 (1.0) v 4.4 (1.4); p<0.001), had worse physical function by the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ; mean (SD) 2.3 (0.8) v 1.6 (0.5); p<0.001), had more often comorbidity (73% v 53%; p<0.001) and they reported worse general health measured by Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36; mean (SD) 23.2 (13.5) v 44.5 (21.3); p<0.001). The proportions of patients who had used disease modifying drugs were similar, but the pattern of use differed. Conclusion: Important differences in employment, disease activity, physical function, and self reported health status were observed in patients with RA from two northern European countries. Socioeconomic inequalities, differences in disease management, and access to specialised health care, as well as methodological issues regarding instruments and data collection are likely explanations. These data support the view that management of RA should be adapted to country-specific needs. PMID:12594108

  18. Neighborhood environment and physical activity among older adults: do the relationships differ by driving status?

    PubMed

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F; Norman, Gregory J; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; King, Abby C

    2014-07-01

    Some attributes of neighborhood environments are associated with physical activity among older adults. This study examined whether the associations were moderated by driving status. Older adults from neighborhoods differing in walkability and income completed written surveys and wore accelerometers (N = 880, mean age = 75 years, 56% women). Neighborhood environments were measured by geographic information systems and validated questionnaires. Driving status was defined on the basis of a driver's license, car ownership, and feeling comfortable to drive. Outcome variables included accelerometer-based physical activity and self-reported transport and leisure walking. Multilevel generalized linear regression was used. There was no significant Neighborhood Attribute × Driving Status interaction with objective physical activity or reported transport walking. For leisure walking, almost all environmental attributes were positive and significant among driving older adults but not among nondriving older adults (five significant interactions at p < .05). The findings suggest that driving status is likely to moderate the association between neighborhood environments and older adults' leisure walking. PMID:24084049

  19. Individualized Immunosuppressive Protocol of Liver Transplant Recipient Should be Made Based on Splenic Function Status

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ji-Yong; Du, Guo-Sheng; Xiao, Li; Chen, Wen; Suo, Long-Long; Gao, Yu; Feng, Li-Kui; Shi, Bing-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lymphocyte subsets play important roles in rejection in liver transplant recipients, and the effect of splenic function on these roles remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility to adjust immunosuppressive agents based on splenic function status through detecting the lymphocyte subsets in liver transplant recipients. Methods: The lymphocyte subsets of 49 liver transplant recipients were assessed in the 309th Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army between June 2014 and August 2015. The patients were divided into splenectomy group (n = 9), normal splenic function group (n = 24), and hypersplenism group (n = 16). The percentages and counts of CD4+ T, CD8+ T, natural killer (NK) cell, B-cell, regulatory B-cell (Breg), and regulatory T-cell (Treg) were detected by flow cytometer. In addition, the immunosuppressive agents, histories of rejection and infection, and postoperative time of the patients were compared among the three groups. Results: There was no significant difference of clinical characteristics among the three groups. The percentage of CD19+CD24+CD38+ Breg was significantly higher in hypersplenism group than normal splenic function group and splenectomy group (3.29 ± 0.97% vs. 2.12 ± 1.08% and 1.90 ± 0.99%, P = 0.001). The same result was found in CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg percentage (0.97 ± 0.39% vs. 0.54 ± 0.31% and 0.56 ± 0.28%, P = 0.001). The counts of CD8+ T-cell, CD4+ T-cell, and NK cell were significantly lower in hypersplenism group than normal splenic function group (254.25 ± 149.08 vs. 476.96 ± 225.52, P = 0.002; 301.69 ± 154.39 vs. 532.50 ± 194.42, P = 0.000; and 88.56 ± 63.15 vs. 188.33 ± 134.51, P = 0.048). Moreover, the counts of CD4+ T-cell and NK cell were significantly lower in hypersplenism group than splenectomy group (301.69 ± 154.39 vs. 491.89 ± 132.31, P = 0.033; and 88.56 ± 63.15 vs. 226.00 ± 168.85, P = 0.032). Conclusion: Splenic function status might affect the immunity of

  20. Nutritional status in peritoneal dialysis: studies in body composition, lipoprotein metabolism and peritoneal function.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Cathrine

    2002-01-01

    concentration of triglycerides and triglyceride-rich complex lipoproteins. There are indications that dialytic variables may influence this development. When peritoneal function was assessed by the Peritoneal Dialysis Capacity test at start of dialysis, it was observed that peritoneal function reflected patient characteristics and co-morbidity. Patients with systemic disease had enhanced diffusion capacity compared to patients with primary renal disorders. Furthermore, in patients with more severe co-morbidity. peritoneal protein losses were increased. Finally, elderly patients had ultrafiltration conditions that were different from those of younger patients. Peritoneal function remained essentially stable during medium-long term follow up. Body composition features in dialysis patients are similar to those seen in severe disease in general. Thus, it is difficult to separate the effects of malnutrition from the effects of the underlying disease. Specific standards for nutritional status adapted for patients with renal failure are required. PMID:12056516

  1. Perinatal HIV Status and Executive Function During School-Age and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ezeamama, Amara E.; Kizza, Florence N.; Zalwango, Sarah K.; Nkwata, Allan K.; Zhang, Ming; Rivera, Mariana L.; Sekandi, Juliet N.; Kakaire, Robert; Kiwanuka, Noah; Whalen, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether perinatal HIV infection (PHIV), HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) versus HIV-unexposed (PHU) status predicted long-term executive function (EF) deficit in school-aged Ugandan children. Perinatal HIV status was determined by 18 months via DNA polymerase chain reaction test and confirmed at cognitive assessment between 6 and 18 years using HIV rapid-diagnostic test. Primary outcome is child EF measured using behavior-rating inventory of executive function questionnaire across 8 subscales summed to derive the global executive composite (GEC). EF was proxy-reported by caregivers and self-reported by children 11 years or older. Descriptive analyses by perinatal HIV status included derivation of mean, standard deviations (SD), number, and percent (%) of children with EF deficits warranting clinical vigilance. Raw scores were internally standardized by age and sex adjustment. EF scores warranting clinical vigilance were defined as ≥ mean + 1.5∗SD. t Tests for mean score differences by perinatal HIV status and linear-regression models were implemented in SAS version 9.4 to derive HIV status-related EF deficits (β) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Proxy-reported and self-reported EF were assessed in 166 and 82 children, respectively. GEC deficit was highest for PHIV (mean = 121.9, SD = 29.9), intermediate for PHEU (mean = 107.5, SD = 26.8), and lowest for PHU (mean = 103.4, SD = 20.7; P-trend < 0.01). GEC deficit levels warranting clinical vigilance occurred in 9 (15.8%), 5 (9.3%) and 0 (0%) PHIV, PHEU, and PHU children, respectively (P-trend = 0.01). Nineteen percent (n = 32) children had deficits requiring clinical vigilance in ≥2 proxy-reported EF subscales. Of these, multisubscale deficits occurred in 35.1%, 13.0%, and 9.3% of PHIV, PHEU, and PHU respectively (P-trend = 0.001). Multivariable analyses find significantly higher GEC deficits for PHIV compared with PHU

  2. A Structural Analysis of Executive Functions and Socioeconomic Status in School-Age Children: Cognitive Factors as Effect Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…

  3. Predicting Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence as a Function of Hearing Status, Gender, and Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of…

  4. Health Literacy, Cognitive Ability, and Functional Health Status among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Serper, Marina; Patzer, Rachel E; Curtis, Laura M; Smith, Samuel G; O'Conor, Rachel; Baker, David W; Wolf, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether previously noted associations between health literacy and functional health status might be explained by cognitive function. Data Sources/Study Setting Health Literacy and Cognition in Older Adults (“LitCog,” prospective study funded by National Institute on Aging). Data presented are from interviews conducted among 784 adults, ages 55–74 years receiving care at an academic general medicine clinic or one of four federally qualified health centers in Chicago from 2008 to 2010. Study Design Study participants completed structured, in-person interviews administered by trained research assistants. Data Collection Health literacy was measured using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, and Newest Vital Sign. Cognitive function was assessed using measures of long-term and working memory, processing speed, reasoning, and verbal ability. Functional health was assessed with SF-36 physical health summary scale and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short form subscales for depression and anxiety. Principal Findings All health literacy measures were significantly correlated with all cognitive domains. In multivariable analyses, inadequate health literacy was associated with worse physical health and more depressive symptoms. After adjusting for cognitive abilities, associations between health literacy, physical health, and depressive symptoms were attenuated and no longer significant. Conclusions Cognitive function explains a significant proportion of the associations between health literacy, physical health, and depression among older adults. Interventions to reduce literacy disparities in health care should minimize the cognitive burden in behaviors patients must adopt to manage personal health. PMID:24476068

  5. Assessment of the lung function status of the goldsmiths working in an unorganized sector of India

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Subhashis; Roy, Biswajit; Moitra, Subhabrata

    2013-01-01

    Context: Exposure to various types of fumes and gases are very common in Jewelery industries. No Report is available regarding the effects of those fumes and gases on the respiratory functions of the goldsmiths. Due to lack of proper monitoring of the workplace environments in these unorganized sectors, workers get very much affected by the occupational exposures to those irritants. Aims: The present study aimed to investigate whether the occupational exposures to fumes and gases might alter the lung functions of the goldsmiths. Materials and Methods: A total of 118 goldsmiths and 66 unexposed control subjects were taken randomly for the study. The goldsmiths were further classified in 3 groups according to duration (year) of exposures in the work environment, ETA1 (less than 5 years), ETA2 (more than 5 years but less than 10 years), and ETA3 (more than 10 years). Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow rates of different intervals (FEF25%, FEF50%, FEF75%, FEF25-75%) were measured using computerized Spirometer (Maestros Mediline, India). The statistical analyses were carried out using Minitab software version 3. Results: Lung functions of the goldsmiths significantly (P < 0.01) decreased from that of the control group. Inter-group comparison also showed the deteriorations of lung functions was associated with exposure time, and more exposed workers had significantly less (P < 0.01) efficiencies of lung functions. Conclusions: Workplace fumes and gases were responsible for deterioration of the lung function status of the goldsmiths. PMID:23661914

  6. The Mediating Role of Physical Self-Concept on Relations between Biological Maturity Status and Physical Activity in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Sean P.; Standage, Martyn; Loney, Tom; Gammon, Catherine; Neville, Helen; Sherar, Lauren B.; Malina, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and self-reported physical activity in adolescent British females. Biological maturity status, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 407 female British year 7-9 pupils (M age = 13.2 years, SD = 1.0).…

  7. Associations of Subjective Social Status with Physical Activity and Body Mass Index across Four Asian Countries

    PubMed Central

    Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry T.-K.; Chen, Duan-Rung

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aims of this study were to (1) assess physical activity and weight status differences and (2) explore the direction and shape of subjective social status (SSS) association with physical activity and weight status within four Asian countries. Methods. Cross section data of adult respondents from the nationally representative East Asian Social Survey were used for analyses. Logistic regression stratified by gender was conducted for the first aim, and simple and quadratic logistic regression models were used for the second. Results. SSS was significantly associated with odds of weekly or daily physical activity across all countries and genders, except for South Korean and Japanese females. Quadratic models provided significantly better fit for Chinese males (LR (d.f. = 1) = 6.51, P value <.05) and females (LR (d.f. = 1) = 7.36, P value <.01), South Korean males (LR (d.f. = 1) = 4.40, P value <.05), and Taiwanese females (LR (d.f. = 1) = 4.87, P value <.05). Conclusions. This study provides a comparable cross Asian country measure of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and new findings that a connection exists between SSS and physical activity. Differences of class distinction help explain the different shaped SSS relationships. PMID:24971171

  8. Irofulven induces replication-dependent CHK2 activation related to p53 status1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yutian; Wiltshire, Timothy; Senft, Jamie; Reed, Eddie; Wang, Weixin

    2007-01-01

    CHK2 and p53 are frequently mutated in human cancers. CHK2 is known to phosphorylate and stabilize p53. CHK2 has also been implicated in DNA repair and apoptosis induction. However, whether p53 affects CHK2 activation and whether CHK2 activation modulates chemosensitivity are unclear. In this study, we found that in response to the DNA damage agent, irofulven, CHK2 activation, rather than its expression, is inversely correlated to p53 status. Irofulven inhibits DNA replication and induces chromosome aberrations (breaks and radials) and p53-dependent cell cycle arrest. Pretreatment of cells with the DNA polymerase inhibitor, aphidicolin, resulted in reduction of irofulven-induced CHK2 activation and foci formation, indicating that CHK2 activation by irofulven is replication-dependent. Furthermore, by using ovarian cancer cell lines expressing dominant-negative CHK2 and CHK2-knockout HCT116 cells, we found that CHK2 activation contributes to the control of S and G2/M cell cycle arrests, but not chemosensitivity to irofulven. Overall, this study demonstrates that in response to irofulven-induced DNA damage, the activation of CHK2 is dependent on DNA replication and related to p53 status. By controlling cell cycle arrest and DNA replication, p53 affects CHK2 activation. CHK2 activation contributes to cell cycle arrest, but not chemosensitivity. PMID:17118344

  9. Effects of sodium nitroprusside on mouse erythrocyte catalase activity and malondialdehyde status.

    PubMed

    Sani, Mamane; Sebai, Hichem; Refinetti, Roberto; Mondal, Mohan; Ghanem-Boughanmi, Néziha; Boughattas, Naceur A; Ben-Attia, Mossadok

    2016-07-01

    There is controversy about the anti- or pro-oxidative effects of the nitric oxide (NO)-donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Hence, the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) and the status of malondialdehyde (MDA) were investigated after a 2.5 mg/kg dose of SNP had been i.p. administered to different and comparable groups of mice (n =  48). The drug was administered at two different circadian times (1 and 13 h after light onset [HALO]). There were, irrespectively of sampling time, no significant differences in the means of CAT activity and MDA status between control and SNP-treated groups, no matter the treatment time. However, CAT activity was significantly (Student's t-test, p < 0.001) increased 1 h following SNP administration at 1 HALO, whereas the significant (p < 0.001) increase in the enzyme activity was found only 3 h after injection at 13 HALO. The drug dosing either at 1 or 13 HALO resulted in no significant differences of MDA status between control and treated groups regardless to the sampling time. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) detected a significant (F0.05(7,88)= 5.3; p < 0.0006) interaction between sampling time and treatment in mice injected at 1 HALO, suggesting the influence of treatment on sampling-time-related changes in CAT activity. However, ANOVA validated no interaction between the two factors in mice treated at 13 HALO, illustrating that the sampling-time differences in enzyme activity were greater. Furthermore, two-way ANOVA revealed no interaction in the variation of MDA status in animals treated either at 1 or 13 HALO. This study indicates that SNP significantly affected the anti-oxidant system. PMID:26738972

  10. Unexplained chest pain in patients with normal coronary arteriograms: a follow-up study of functional status.

    PubMed

    Ockene, I S; Shay, M J; Alpert, J S; Weiner, B H; Dalen, J E

    1980-11-27

    Approximately 10 per cent of patients referred for coronary arteriography because of chest pain have angiographically normal coronary arteries and no other heart disease. We examined the functional status of 57 patients who had undergone catheterization (23 men and 34 women), all of whom were told that their hearts were normal, that their pain was noncardiac, and that no limitation on activity was necessary. At a mean follow-up time of 16 +/- 7.7 months, 27 of the 57 patients (47 per cent) still described their activity as limited by chest pain (before catheterization, 42 of 57 or 74 per cent); 29 of 57 (51 per cent) were unable to work (before catheterization, 36 of 57 or 63 per cent); and 25 of 57 (44 per cent) still believed that they had heart disease (before catheterization, 45 of 57 or 79 per cent). Use of medical facilities was significantly reduced after catheterization (P < 0.001). At follow-up the physician was more likely than the patient to believe that the symptoms had improved. We conclude that many of these patients remain limited in activity and may benefit from further efforts at comunication and rehabilitation. PMID:7421961

  11. 24 CFR 4100.1 - Functions and activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Functions and activities. 4100.1 Section 4100.1 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION ORGANIZATION AND CHANNELING OF FUNCTIONS § 4100.1 Functions and activities. (a) General statement....

  12. Growth, Nutritional Status, and Pulmonary Function in Children with Chronic Recurrent Bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Umławska, Wioleta; Lipowicz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Bronchitis is a common health problem in children. Frequent bronchitis in infancy increases the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the level of growth and the nutritional status in children and youths with special regard to the level of body fatness assessed by measuring skin-fold thickness. Relationships between somatic development, pulmonary function and the course of the disease were also explored. The study was carried out using anthropometric and spirometric measurements and also information on the severity and course of the disease in 141 children with chronic or recurrent bronchitis. All of the subjects were patients of the Pulmonary Medicine and Allergology Center in Karpacz, Poland. The mean body height did not differ significantly between the children examined and their healthy peers. However, the infection-prone children had excessive body fatness and muscle mass deficiency. The increased level of subcutaneous adipose tissue occurred especially in children with short duration of the disease, i.e. a maximum of 1 year. The functional lung parameters were generally normal. The presence of atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis did not impair the course of the children's somatic development. Also, long-term disease or the presence of additional allergic diseases did not impair lung function in the examined children. Taking appropriate preventive measures is recommended to achieve and maintain normal body weight in children who receive therapy due to bronchitis. PMID:26801150

  13. Parenting practices as mediators of child physical activity and weight status.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Cardinal, Bradley J; Loprinzi, Kristina L; Lee, Hyo

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the environmental factors that influence children's physical activity is an important prerequisite before effective physical activity interventions can be developed and implemented. Parenting is one environmental factor that has been empirically shown to positively influence children's physical activity. However, in order to promote physical activity in children, a better understanding of how parents influence children's physical activity behavior is required. Previously, Birch and Davison developed a model depicting parental factors hypothesized to influence child dietary behaviors. We extended this model by identifying parental factors hypothesized to promote physical activity in children. This review focuses on the mediational role that parenting practices and behaviors play in influencing child mediators of physical activity behavior, and, ultimately, weight status. Priorities for future research are discussed. PMID:22797369

  14. Is there an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Miles, Lisa M; Mills, Kerry; Clarke, Robert; Dangour, Alan D

    2015-08-28

    Low vitamin B12 status is common in older people; however, its public health significance in terms of neurological manifestations remains unclear. The present systematic review evaluated the association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function and clinically relevant neurological outcomes in adults aged 50+ years. A systematic search of nine bibliographic databases (up to March 2013) identified twelve published articles describing two longitudinal and ten cross-sectional analyses. The included study populations ranged in size (n 28-2287) and mean/median age (range 65-81 years). Studies reported various neurological outcomes: nerve function; clinically measured signs and symptoms of nerve function; self-reported neurological symptoms. Studies were assessed for risk of bias, and results were synthesised qualitatively. Among the general population groups of older people, one longitudinal study reported no association, and four of seven cross-sectional studies reported limited evidence of an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes. Among groups with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of low vitamin B12 status, one longitudinal study reported an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes and three cross-sectional analyses reported no association. Overall, there is limited evidence from observational studies to suggest an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people. The heterogeneity and quality of the evidence base preclude more definitive conclusions, and further high-quality research is needed to better inform understanding of public health significance in terms of neurological function of vitamin B12 status in older people. PMID:26202329

  15. Motor ability and weight status are determinants of out-of-school activity participation for children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Lee, Velma Y L; Chan, Nerita N C; Chan, Rachel S H; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y C

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This study aimed to (1) compare motor performance, weight status and pattern of out-of-school activity participation between children with DCD and those without; and (2) identify whether motor ability and weight status were determinants of participation patterns among children with DCD. We enrolled 81 children with DCD (boys, n = 63; girls, n = 18; mean age, 8.07 ± 1.5 years) and 67 typically developing children (boys, n = 48; girls, n = 19; mean age, 8.25 ± 1.6 years). Participation patterns (diversity, intensity, companionship, location, and enjoyment) were evaluated with the Children Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Motor ability was evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (MABC-2). Other factors that may influence participation such as age, gender, and body weight were also recorded. Analysis of variance was used to compare outcome variables of the two groups, and significant determinants of activity participation were identified by multiple regression analysis. Children with DCD participated in fewer activities (i.e., limited participation diversity) and participated less frequently (i.e., limited participation intensity) than their typically developing peers; however, companionship, location of participation, and enjoyment level did not differ between the two groups. Children in the DCD group demonstrated significantly worse motor ability as assessed by the MABC-2. Further, a greater proportion of children in the DCD group were in the overweight/obese category compared with their typically developing peers. After accounting for the

  16. Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Disease Activity among Rheumatology Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Zohreh; Markland, Janet; Vatanparast, Hassanali

    2013-01-01

    The co-existence of high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy among Canadians and high prevalence of systematic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) raise the question on relationship between the two situations. Objective: To determine vitamin D status in known cases of common SARDs and compare to those with non-autoimmune diseases; further, to evaluate the impact of vitamin D on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cases. Methods: In a retrospective case-control study design, we evaluated 116 patients in a community clinic classified in two groups, Control group: patients with non-rheumatic disease (n = 56), and Case group: those with rheumatic diseases (n = 60). We compared plasma vitamin D status (25(OH)D), indicators of disease activity and other potential confounders. Further, we determined factors associated with disease activity in RA cases. Results: The plasma 25(OH)D was significantly lower in Case group (64.8 ± 29.8) compared to Control group (86.8 ± 37.7). High number of SARDs outpatients 56%) had considerably low plasma 25(OH)D concentration. RA cases with low plasma 25(OH)D had over five times higher risk of disease activity (OR = 5.15 95% CI 1.16, 22.9; p = 0.031). Conclusion: Inadequate vitamin D status in SARDs cases, along with considerably strong association with disease activity in RA cases, indicate the need for proper evaluation of vitamin D status in this clinical population. Moreover, appropriate training should be given to the patients to ensure the intake of the recommended amount of vitamin D per day through diet or supplement. PMID:23803739

  17. Vitamin D Status in Botswana Children Under 2 Years Old With and Without Active Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ludmir, Jonathan; Mazhani, Loeto; Cary, Mark S; Chakalisa, Unoda A; Pettifor, John M; Molefi, Mooketsi; Redwood, Abiona; Stallings, Virginia A; Gross, Robert; Steenhoff, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Additional strategies are needed to prevent and treat tuberculosis (TB). Although vitamin D may have antimycobacterial effects, it is unknown whether low vitamin D status confers a risk for active TB in African children. This case-control study assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in children with and without active TB in Gaborone, Botswana. A total of 80 children under 2 years old with and without active TB, seen at hospitals and clinics in the greater Gaborone area between September 2010 and November 2012, were enrolled. Of these, 39 cases did not differ from the 41 controls in median 25(OH)D levels (P = 0.84). The 25(OH)D was < 20 ng/mL in 8/39 (21%) cases and 7/41 (17%) controls (P = 0.69, χ(2)). Univariate analyses of subject clinical characteristics (other than 25(OH)D levels) showed that any degree of weight loss was associated with a diagnosis of TB (P = 0.047). Other clinical characteristics, including age (P = 0.08) or weight below third percentile (P = 0.58), showed no association with TB. There was no significant difference in vitamin D status between children under 2 years old with and without active TB. Lower vitamin D status did not appear to be a risk factor for TB in this small Gaborone cohort. PMID:26976889

  18. Antioxidant activity and nutritional status in anorexia nervosa: effects of weight recovery.

    PubMed

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60 μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944

  19. Antioxidant Activity and Nutritional Status in Anorexia Nervosa: Effects of Weight Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944

  20. Functional status of the elderly in Singapore--the trend over a decade.

    PubMed

    Lee, K S; Tan, T C

    1997-11-01

    The study looks at the level and types of functional disabilities of a random sample of elderly individuals in the community through direct interviews using a questionnaire in 1992 and compares the results to that obtained from a similar study done in 1982. Two hundred and eighty-three elderly aged 60 years and above were studied. In the activities of daily living (ADL) functions category, most elderly individuals were independent in dressing (96.1%), bathing (95.4%), preparing meals (92.6%) and using the toilet (89.4%). There was increasing disabilities in the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) functions, in ascending order of difficulty--light chores (81.3% independent), shopping (67.8% independent) and heavy chores (60.1% independent). Eight (2.8%) of the elderly were confined to bed most of the time. Comparing the results with the 1982 cohort, the 1992 cohort was more dependent, with significant increase in difficulty with dressing, using the toilet, bathing, and higher functional activities. There was also significant increase in the number of elderly confined to bed most of the time, from 1% to 2.8%. The only activity that showed a reverse trend was food preparation. The trend of dependence among the elderly is growing and deserves further specific studies to examine the possible reasons for the increasing disabilities in the elderly population, especially as the population is ageing rapidly. PMID:9522968

  1. Cellular Mechanisms Controlling Caspase Activation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Amanda B.; Freel, Christopher D.; Kornbluth, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Caspases are the primary drivers of apoptotic cell death, cleaving cellular proteins that are critical for dismantling the dying cell. Initially translated as inactive zymogenic precursors, caspases are activated in response to a variety of cell death stimuli. In addition to factors required for their direct activation (e.g., dimerizing adaptor proteins in the case of initiator caspases that lie at the apex of apoptotic signaling cascades), caspases are regulated by a variety of cellular factors in a myriad of physiological and pathological settings. For example, caspases may be modified posttranslationally (e.g., by phosphorylation or ubiquitylation) or through interaction of modulatory factors with either the zymogenic or active form of a caspase, altering its activation and/or activity. These regulatory events may inhibit or enhance enzymatic activity or may affect activity toward particular cellular substrates. Finally, there is emerging literature to suggest that caspases can participate in a variety of cellular processes unrelated to apoptotic cell death. In these settings, it is particularly important that caspases are maintained under stringent control to avoid inadvertent cell death. It is likely that continued examination of these processes will reveal new mechanisms of caspase regulation with implications well beyond control of apoptotic cell death. PMID:23732469

  2. Differential gene expression of activating Fcγ receptor classifies active tuberculosis regardless of human immunodeficiency virus status or ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, J S; Loxton, A G; Haks, M C; Kassa, D; Ambrose, L; Lee, J-S; Ran, L; van Baarle, D; Maertzdorf, J; Howe, R; Mayanja-Kizza, H; Boom, W H; Thiel, B A; Crampin, A C; Hanekom, W; Ota, M O C; Dockrell, H; Walzl, G; Kaufmann, S H E; Ottenhoff, T H M

    2014-04-01

    New diagnostics and vaccines for tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed, but require an understanding of the requirements for protection from/susceptibility to TB. Previous studies have used unbiased approaches to determine gene signatures in single-site populations. The present study utilized a targeted approach, reverse transcriptase multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (RT-MLPA), to validate these genes in a multisite study. We analysed ex vivo whole blood RNA from a total of 523 participants across four sub-Saharan countries (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and The Gambia) with differences in TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status. We found a number of genes that were expressed at significantly lower levels in participants with active disease than in those with latent TB infection (LTBI), with restoration following successful TB treatment. The most consistent classifier of active disease was FCGR1A (high-affinity IgG Fc receptor 1 (CD64)), which was the only marker expressed at significantly higher levels in participants with active TB than in those with LTBI before treatment regardless of HIV status or genetic background. This is the first study to identify a biomarker for TB that is not affected by HIV status or geo-genetic differences. These data provide valuable clues for understanding TB pathogenesis, and also provide a proof-of-concept for the use of RT-MLPA in rapid and inexpensive validation of unbiased gene expression findings. PMID:24205913

  3. The association between worksite physical environment and employee nutrition, and physical activity behavior and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fabio A.; Wall, Sarah S.; You, Wen; Harden, Samantha M.; Hill, Jennie L.; Krippendorf, Blake E.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Explore the relationship between worksite physical environment and employee dietary intake, physical activity behavior, and weight status. Methods Two trained research assistants completed audits (Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites) at each worksite (n = 28). Employees (n = 6,261) completed a brief health survey prior to participation in a weight loss program. Results Employees’ access to outdoor areas was directly associated with lower BMI, while access to workout facilities within a worksite was associated with higher BMI. The presence of a cafeteria and fewer vending machines were directly associated with better eating habits. Better eating habits and meeting physical activity recommendations were both related to lower BMI. Conclusions Selected environmental factors in worksites were significantly associated with employee behaviors and weight status; providing additional intervention targets to change the worksite environment and promote employee weight loss. PMID:24988105

  4. Relationship of Right Ventricular Size and Function with Respiratory Status in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Muddassir; Ambach, Stephanie A; Taylor, Michael D; Jefferies, John L; Raman, Subha V; Taylor, Robin J; Sawani, Hemant; Mathew, Jacob; Mazur, Wojciech; Hor, Kan N; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between pulmonary function and right ventricle (RV) in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has not been evaluated. Using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), we describe the relationship of RV size and function with spirometry in a DMD cohort. Fifty-seven boys undergoing CMR and pulmonary function testing within 1 month at a single center (2013-2015) were enrolled. Comparisons of RV ejection fraction (RVEF) and end-diastolic volume index (RVEDVI) were made across categories of percent forced vital capacity (FVC%), and relationships were assessed. Mean age was 15.5 ± 3.5 years. Spirometry and CMR were performed within 3.9 ± 4.1 days. Median FVC% was 92.0 % (67.5-116.5 %). Twenty-three (40 %) patients had abnormal FVC% (<80 %) of which 13 (57 %) had mild (FVC% 60-79 %), 6 (26 %) had moderate (FVC% 40-59 %), and 4 (17 %) had severe (FVC <40 %) reductions. Mean RVEF was 58.3 ± 3.7 %. Patients with abnormal FVC% were older and had lower RVEF and RVEDVI. Both RVEF and RVEDVI were significantly associated with FVC% (r = 0.31, p = 0.02 and r = 0.39, p = 0.003, respectively). In a large DMD cohort, RVEF and RVEDVI were related to FVC%. Worsening respiratory status may guide monitoring of cardiac function in these patients. PMID:26936620

  5. Physical activity status of academic professors during their early career transition: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Megan A; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2012-01-01

    Life-transitions (e.g. parenthood) have been linked to physical inactivity, yet the topic requires further exploration. In this study, we evaluated changes in the physical activity (PA) of adults during their early career transition using retrospective analysis and the theory of planned behavior. Recruitment from January to March 2010 yielded a random sample of 267 assistant professors, ages 25-44, employed within the last five years. Repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) concluded that PA declined across the transition (d = 0.36-0.43) and was further attenuated by marriage, work hours, and parenthood status. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) identified specific behavioral and control correlates about PA enjoyment, limited time, inconsistent schedule, work demands, and job pressures to distinguish between those who remained active from those who did not across the transition. PA interventions administered prior to career transitions may be needed to prevent physical inactivity. PMID:22348598

  6. Evaluation of the Association of Menopausal Status with Delta and Beta EEG Activity during Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ian G.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Hall, Martica H.; Hardin, Kimberly A.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Matthews, Karen A.; Rasor, Marianne O'Neill; Utts, Jessica; Gold, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Women report increasing sleep difficulties during menopause, but polysomnographic measures do not detect sleep disturbances. We examined whether two spectral analysis sleep measures, delta and beta power, were related to menopausal status. Design: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study compared cross-sectionally spectral sleep measures in women in different stages of menopause. Setting: Sleep EEG was recorded in the participants' homes with ambulatory recorders. Participants: A multi-ethnic cohort of premenopausal and early perimenopausal (n = 189), late perimenopausal (n = 73), and postmenopausal (n = 59) women. Measurements: EEG power in the delta and beta frequency bands was calculated for all night NREM and all night REM sleep. Physical, medical, psychological, and socioeconomic data were collected from questionnaires and diaries. Results: Beta EEG power in NREM and REM sleep in late perimenopausal and postmenopausal women exceeded that in pre- and early perimenopausal women. Neither all night delta power nor the trend in delta power across the night differed by menopausal status. In a multivariate model that controlled for the physical, demographic, behavioral, psychological, and health-related changes that accompany menopause, beta power in both NREM and REM sleep EEG was significantly related to menopausal status. The frequency of hot flashes explained part but not all of the relation of beta power to menopausal status. Conclusions: Elevated beta EEG power in late perimenopausal and postmenopausal women provides an objective measure of disturbed sleep quality in these women. Elevated beta EEG activity suggests that arousal level during sleep is higher in these women. Citation: Campbell IG; Bromberger JT; Buysse DJ; Hall MH; Hardin KA; Kravitz HM; Matthews KA; Rasor MO; Utts J; Gold E. Evaluation of the association of menopausal status with delta and beta EEG activity during sleep. SLEEP 2011;34(11):1561-1568. PMID

  7. Updates on activities since the Durham meeting and status of the COBRA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, Kai

    2007-10-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first one is an update on activities since the Durham meeting. The aim of this meeting was to investigate experiments which should or could be performed to provide viable input for the nuclear matrix element calculations. The second part describes the status of the COBRA double beta decay experiment, using CdZnTe semiconductor detectors for the search.

  8. Central European MetEor NeTwork: Current status and future activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srba, J.; Koukal, J.; Ferus, M.; Lenža, L.; Gorková, S.; Civiš, S.; Simon, J.; Csorgei, T.; Jedlièka, M.; Korec, M.; Kaniansky, S.; Polák, J.; Spurný, M.; Brázdil, T.; Mäsiar, J.; Zima, M.; Delinèák, P.; Popek, M.; Bahýl, V.; Piffl, R.; Èechmánek, M.

    2016-06-01

    The Central European video Meteor Network (CEMeNt) established in 2010 is a platform for cross-border cooperation in the field of video meteor observations between Czech Republic and Slovakia. During five years of operation the CEMeNt network went through an extensive development. In total, 37 video systems were working on 20 permanent stations located in Czech Republic and Slovakia during 2015. In this paper we summarize CEMeNt current status and introduce some future activities.

  9. Updates on activities since the Durham meeting and status of the COBRA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zuber, Kai

    2007-10-12

    This article consists of two parts. The first one is an update on activities since the Durham meeting. The aim of this meeting was to investigate experiments which should or could be performed to provide viable input for the nuclear matrix element calculations. The second part describes the status of the COBRA double beta decay experiment, using CdZnTe semiconductor detectors for the search.

  10. Reference sequence (RefSeq) database at NCBI: current status, taxonomic expansion, and functional annotation

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Nuala A.; Wright, Mathew W.; Brister, J. Rodney; Ciufo, Stacy; Haddad, Diana; McVeigh, Rich; Rajput, Bhanu; Robbertse, Barbara; Smith-White, Brian; Ako-Adjei, Danso; Astashyn, Alexander; Badretdin, Azat; Bao, Yiming; Blinkova, Olga; Brover, Vyacheslav; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Choi, Jinna; Cox, Eric; Ermolaeva, Olga; Farrell, Catherine M.; Goldfarb, Tamara; Gupta, Tripti; Haft, Daniel; Hatcher, Eneida; Hlavina, Wratko; Joardar, Vinita S.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Li, Wenjun; Maglott, Donna; Masterson, Patrick; McGarvey, Kelly M.; Murphy, Michael R.; O'Neill, Kathleen; Pujar, Shashikant; Rangwala, Sanjida H.; Rausch, Daniel; Riddick, Lillian D.; Schoch, Conrad; Shkeda, Andrei; Storz, Susan S.; Sun, Hanzhen; Thibaud-Nissen, Francoise; Tolstoy, Igor; Tully, Raymond E.; Vatsan, Anjana R.; Wallin, Craig; Webb, David; Wu, Wendy; Landrum, Melissa J.; Kimchi, Avi; Tatusova, Tatiana; DiCuccio, Michael; Kitts, Paul; Murphy, Terence D.; Pruitt, Kim D.

    2016-01-01

    The RefSeq project at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) maintains and curates a publicly available database of annotated genomic, transcript, and protein sequence records (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/refseq/). The RefSeq project leverages the data submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC) against a combination of computation, manual curation, and collaboration to produce a standard set of stable, non-redundant reference sequences. The RefSeq project augments these reference sequences with current knowledge including publications, functional features and informative nomenclature. The database currently represents sequences from more than 55 000 organisms (>4800 viruses, >40 000 prokaryotes and >10 000 eukaryotes; RefSeq release 71), ranging from a single record to complete genomes. This paper summarizes the current status of the viral, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic branches of the RefSeq project, reports on improvements to data access and details efforts to further expand the taxonomic representation of the collection. We also highlight diverse functional curation initiatives that support multiple uses of RefSeq data including taxonomic validation, genome annotation, comparative genomics, and clinical testing. We summarize our approach to utilizing available RNA-Seq and other data types in our manual curation process for vertebrate, plant, and other species, and describe a new direction for prokaryotic genomes and protein name management. PMID:26553804

  11. Health, functioning and disability in older adults – current status and future implications

    PubMed Central

    Chatterji, Somnath; Byles, Julie; Cutler, David; Seeman, Teresa; Verdes, Emese

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aging is a dynamic process with trends in health status of older adults varying over time due to a range of factors. We examined reported trends in morbidity and mortality among older adults over the past two decades in order to determine patterns of ageing across the world. We found some evidence for compression of morbidity, i.e., less amount of time spent in worse health, when: a) studies were of a good quality based on evaluation criteria scores; b) a disability- or impairment-related measure of morbidity was used; c) studies were longitudinal or; d) studies were conducted in the United States and some other high income countries. Many studies reported evidence to the contrary, i.e., for an expansion of morbidity but with different methods these are not directly comparable. Expansion of morbidity was more common when trends in chronic disease prevalence were studied. Our secondary analysis of data from longitudinal ageing surveys present a similar picture. However, there are considerable variations across countries in patterns of limitations in functioning and within countries over time with no discernible explanations. Data from low income countries is very sparse and efforts to collect information on the health of older adults in less-developed regions of the world is urgently required. Studies focussing on refining measurement with a core set of domains of functioning and studying the impacts of these evolving patterns on the health care system and their economic implications are needed. PMID:25468158

  12. IGF-I regulates redox status in breast cancer cells by activating the amino acid transport molecule xC−

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuzhe; Yee, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate cell growth in part by increasing amino acid uptake. xCT (SLC7A11) encodes the functional subunit of the cell surface transport system xC− which mediates cystine uptake, a pivotal step in glutathione synthesis and cellular redox control. In this study, we show that IGF-I regulates cystine uptake and cellular redox status by activating the expression and function of xCT in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer cells by a mechanism that relies on the IGF receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). Breast cancer cell proliferation mediated by IGF-I was suppressed by attenuating xCT expression or blocking xCT activity with the pharmacological inhibitor sulfasalazine (SASP). Notably, SASP sensitized breast cancer cells to inhibitors of the IGF-I receptor in a manner reversed by the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Thus, IGF-I promoted the proliferation of ER+ breast cancer cells by regulating xC− transporter function to protect cancer cells from ROS in an IRS-1 dependent manner. Our findings suggest that inhibiting xC− transporter function may synergize with modalities that target the IGF-I receptor to heighten their therapeutic effects. PMID:24686172

  13. Postural Effects of Vestibular Manipulation Depend on the Physical Activity Status.

    PubMed

    Maitre, Julien; Paillard, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on postural control for participants of different physical activity status (i.e. active and non-active). Two groups of participants were recruited: one group of participants who regularly practised sports activities (active group, n = 17), and one group of participants who did not practise physical and/or sports activities (non-active group, n = 17). They were compared in a reference condition (i.e bipedal stance with eyes open) and four vestibular manipulation condition (i.e. GVS at 0.5 mA and 3 mA, in accordance with two designs) lasting 20 seconds. The centre of foot pressure displacement velocities were compared between the two groups. The main results indicate that the regular practice of sports activities counteracts postural control disruption caused by GVS. The active group demonstrated better postural control than the non-active group when subjected to higher vestibular manipulation. The active group may have developed their ability to reduce the influence of inaccurate vestibular signals. The active participants could identify the relevant sensory input, thought a better central integration, which enables them to switch faster between sensory inputs. PMID:27627441

  14. Ovarian function and gastrointestinal motor activity.

    PubMed

    Palomba, S; Di Cello, A; Riccio, E; Manguso, F; La Sala, G B

    2011-12-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders are strictly related to the ovary function. In fact, it is noted that the prevalence of visceral pain disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gallbladder and biliary tract diseases are significantly higher in women. Furthermore, symptom such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, distension, satiety, bloating, diarrhoa or constipation, frequently appears in relation with pregnancy, luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or perimenopausal and menopausal states. Further support for the contribution of ovarian steroids to functional gastrointestinal disorders comes from studies demonstrating that pharmacological ovariectomy reduces abdominal pain symptoms. Therefore, addressing the influence of sex and sex hormones in the modulation of visceral pain appears critical to develop new strategies of diagnosis and therapy sex-directed for gastro-intestinal disorders. PMID:22322653

  15. Effect of Pd precursor status on sonochemical surface activation in Cu electroless deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kanghoon; Jin, Seonok; Kwon, Oh Joong

    2016-02-01

    Pd surface activation via a sonochemical approach was studied by varying Pd precursor status in the aqueous solution. By aging a K2PdCl6 activation solution overnight with added NH4OH, the chlorinated Pd complex was changed to an ammonia-based Pd complex. The Pd surface activation carried out with the NH4OH complexing agent resulted in improved surface condition following Cu electroless deposition. The Cu thin film deposited on a substrate sonochemically activated with the aged, ammonia-based Pd complex showed improved surface roughness and resistivity compared to that for Cu films deposited via two other precursors (chlorinated Pd complex and ammonia-based complex) without aging. In addition, nitrogen purging during sonochemical activation improved Cu film quality.

  16. Do general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status account for performance on the Children's Gambling Task?

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Fernanda; Sallum, Isabela; Miranda, Débora M.; Bechara, Antoine; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2013-01-01

    Studies that use the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and its age-appropriate versions as indices of affective decision-making during childhood and adolescence have demonstrated significant individual differences in scores. Our study investigated the association between general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status (SES) and its effect on the development of affective decision-making in preschoolers by using a computerized version of the Children's Gambling Task (CGT). We administered the CGT and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS) to 137 Brazilian children between the ages of 3 and 5 years old to assess their general intellectual functioning. We also used the Brazilian Criterion of Economic Classification (CCEB) to assess their SES. Age differences between 3- and 4-years-old, but not between 4- and 5-years-old, confirmed the results obtained by Kerr and Zelazo (2004), indicating the rapid development of affective decision-making during the preschool period. Both 4- and 5-years-old performed significantly above chance on blocks 3, 4, and 5 of the CGT, whereas 3-years-old mean scores did not differ from chance. We found that general intellectual functioning was not related to affective decision-making. On the other hand, our findings showed that children with high SES performed better on the last block of the CGT in comparison to children with low SES, which indicates that children from the former group seem more likely to use the information about the gain/loss aspects of the decks to efficiently choose cards from the advantageous deck throughout the task. PMID:23760222

  17. Health, functioning, and disability in older adults--present status and future implications.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Somnath; Byles, Julie; Cutler, David; Seeman, Teresa; Verdes, Emese

    2015-02-01

    Ageing is a dynamic process, and trends in the health status of older adults aged at least 60 years vary over time because of several factors. We examined reported trends in morbidity and mortality in older adults during the past two decades to identify patterns of ageing across the world. We showed some evidence for compression of morbidity (ie, a reduced amount of time spent in worse health), in four types of studies: 1) of good quality based on assessment criteria scores; 2) those in which a disability-related or impairment-related measure of morbidity was used; 3) longitudinal studies; or 4) studies undertaken in the USA and other high-income countries. Many studies, however, reported contrasting evidence (ie, for an expansion of morbidity), but with different methods, these measures are not directly comparable. Expansion of morbidity was more common when trends in chronic disease prevalence were studied. Our secondary analysis of data from longitudinal ageing surveys presents similar results. However, patterns of limitations in functioning vary substantially between countries and within countries over time, with no discernible explanation. Data from low-income countries are very sparse, and efforts to obtain information about the health of older adults in less-developed regions of the world are urgently needed. We especially need studies that focus on refining measurements of health, functioning, and disability in older people, with a core set of domains of functioning, that investigate the effects of these evolving patterns on the health-care system and their economic implications. PMID:25468158

  18. Health and functioning among four war eras of U.S. veterans: examining the impact of war cohort membership, socioeconomic status, mental health, and disease prevalence.

    PubMed

    Villa, Valentine M; Harada, Nancy D; Washington, Donna; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn

    2002-09-01

    This analysis examines the self-rated health and functioning of World War II, Vietnam era, Korean Conflict, and Persian Gulf War veterans participating in the Veteran Identity Program Survey 2001. The results indicate that although World War II veterans are more likely to report poor health status and functioning, Vietnam-era veterans report more difficulty with specific activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living than any other era of veterans. These relationships remain when controlling for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disease prevalence, and mental health status. These findings suggest that there are characteristics unique to the Vietnam experience that negatively affect this cohort of veterans. We suggest that further analysis examine the specific pathways through which the experience of being a Vietnam veteran affects health. In the meantime, health and social service planning within the Department of Veterans Affairs should explore the services that should be developed and targeted to this cohort of veterans so that they may remain independent in the community. PMID:12363172

  19. Functional SNP in stem of mir-146a affects Her2 status and breast cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Meshkat, Mahboobeh; Tanha, Hamzeh Mesrian; Naeini, Marjan Mojtabavi; Ghaedi, Kamran; Sanati, Mohammad H; Meshkat, Marzieh; Bagheri, Fatemeh

    2016-07-01

    In-silico investigation suggested a common variant within stem of miR-146a-5p precursor (rs2910164, n.60C>G) associated with breast cancer (BC) phenotypes. Our aim was computationally predicting possible targets of miR-146a-5p and probable rs2910164 mechanism of action in expression of phenotypes in BC. Additionally, a case-control study was designated to examine experimentally the correlation of mir-146a rs2910164 variant and BC phenotypes. In this study, 152 BC subjects and healthy controls were genotyped using RFLP-PCR. Allelic and genotypic association and Armitage's trend tests were run to investigate the correlation between the alleles and genotypes and expressed phenotypes of BC. Bioinformatics analyses introduce regulatory function of miR-146a-5p in numerous signaling pathways and impact of allele substitution upon mir-146a stem-loop stability. Logistic regression data represented the C allele of rs2910164 (OR = 4.00, p= 0.0037) as the risk allele and associated with Her2-positive phenotype. In a similar vein, data revealed the correlation of the C allele and cancer death less than two years in BC patients (OR = 2.65, p= 0.0217). Ultimately, unconditional logistical regression models suggested log-additive model for inheritance manner of rs2910164 in either Her2 status or BC survival (OR = 5.64, p= 0.0025 and OR = 3.13, p= 0.019, respectively). Using bioinformatics connected association of Her2 status to altered function of miR-146a-5p in regulation of focal adhesion and Ras pathway. Furthermore, computations inferred the association between death phenotype and studied SNP upon specific target genes of miR-146a-5p involved in focal adhesion, EGF receptor, Ras, ErbB, interleukin, Toll-like receptor, NGF, angiogenesis, and p53 feedback loops 2 signaling pathways. These verdicts may enhance our perceptions of how mir-146a rs2910164 affect expressed phenotypes in BC, and might have potential implications to develop BC treatment in future. PMID:27434289

  20. Physical activity levels and functional performance in the Osteoarthritis Initiative: a graded relationship

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Dorothy D.; Song, Jing; Semanik, Pamela A.; Sharma, Leena; Chang, Rowland W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Physical activity improves function for adults with arthritis, but it is unknown if there is a graded relationship with functional benefit. We examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between self-reported physical activity and observed functional performance in adults with knee osteoarthritis. Methods The Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort included 2589 persons with knee osteoarthritis (2301 having longitudinal follow-up) aged 45 to 79 years at baseline. Two years of prospective annual functional performance was assessed from timed 20 meter walk tests. We used linear regression to estimate differences across physical activity quartiles in subsequent function (baseline and 1-year activity predicts 1- and 2-year function, respectively) adjusted for demographics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, marital status) and health factors (osteoarthritis severity, knee symptoms, knee pain, knee injury, body mass index, comorbidity, depression, smoking, alcohol use, other joint pain). Results Increasing physical activity levels had a significant graded relationship with functional performance. Adults in physical activity quartile groups, from least to most active, had average gait speed of 4.0, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5 feet/second respectively at baseline (p-value for trend <.001) and 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5 feet/second after one year (p-value for trend <.001); increasing trends remained significant after adjusting for covariates. Findings were similar within gender and age groups. Conclusion These prospective data showed a consistent graded relationship between physical activity level and better performance in adults with knee osteoarthritis. These findings support guidelines that encourage persons with arthritis who cannot attain minimum recommended physical activity to be as active as possible. PMID:20862681

  1. Association analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 axis parameters with survival and functional status in nonagenarians of the Leiden Longevity Study

    PubMed Central

    Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; van Heemst, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling has been associated with longevity in various model organisms. However, the role of insulin/IGF-1 signaling in human survival remains controversial. The aim of this study was to test whether circulating IGF-1 axis parameters associate with old age survival and functional status in nonagenarians from the Leiden Longevity Study. This study examined 858 Dutch nonagenarian (males≥89 years; females≥91 years) siblings from 409 families, without selection on health or demographic characteristics. Nonagenarians were divided over sex-specific strata according to their levels of IGF-1, IGF binding protein 3 and IGF-1/IGFBP3 molar ratio. We found that lower IGF-1/IGFBP3 ratios were associated with improved survival: nonagenarians in the quartile of the lowest ratio had a lower estimated hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.73 (0.59 – 0.91) compared to the quartile with the highest ratio (ptrend=0.002). Functional status was assessed by (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Living ((I)ADL) scales. Compared to those in the quartile with the highest IGF-1/IGFBP3 ratio, nonagenarians in the lowest quartile had higher scores for ADL (ptrend=0.001) and IADL (ptrend=0.003). These findings suggest that IGF-1 axis parameters are associated with increased old age survival and better functional status in nonagenarians from the Leiden Longevity Study. PMID:26568155

  2. Restoring Functional Status: A Long-Term Case Report of Severe Lung and Ventilatory Muscle Pump Dysfunction Involving Recurrent Bacterial Pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Sobush, Dennis C.; Laatsch, Linda; Lipchik, Randolph J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prolonged mechanical ventilation contributes to immobility and deconditioning making efforts to safely discontinue ventilator support desirable. This case report documents how implementing physical therapy treatment interventions, based on the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice, can help to restore a person's functional status even after multiple years of mechanical ventilation dependency. Case Description A patient (female; aged 63 years) with severe restrictive and obstructive ventilatory impairment has survived 34 recurrent pneumonias involving 6 bacterial pathogens while being mechanically ventilated at home. A 3-year study was approved and informed consent obtained for a home exercise program of resistive extremity and inspiratory muscle training along with exercise reconditioning. Tolerable distances walked, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, hours spent on versus off mechanical ventilation, activities performed within and around her home, and community excursions taken were charted. Outcomes Daily time tolerated off the ventilator improved from less than one to 12 hours, distance walked in 6 minutes increased 33%, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures improved 62% and 9.6% respectively. These improvements made out-of-home social excursions possible. Discussion and Conclusions This patient's functional status improved following multiple physical therapy interventions dictated by the evaluation of initial physical therapy examination findings according to the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Long term mechanical ventilator dependency in the home environment did not exclude this patient from achieving clinically significant gains in functional status even when having severe restrictive and obstructive ventilator impairment. PMID:22833704

  3. Hydrogen adsorption on functionalized nanoporous activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X B; Xiao, B; Fletcher, A J; Thomas, K M

    2005-05-12

    There is considerable interest in hydrogen adsorption on carbon nanotubes and porous carbons as a method of storage for transport and related energy applications. This investigation has involved a systematic investigation of the role of functional groups and porous structure characteristics in determining the hydrogen adsorption characteristics of porous carbons. Suites of carbons were prepared with a wide range of nitrogen and oxygen contents and types of functional groups to investigate their effect on hydrogen adsorption. The porous structures of the carbons were characterized by nitrogen (77 K) and carbon dioxide (273 K) adsorption methods. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms were studied at 77 K and pressure up to 100 kPa. All the isotherms were Type I in the IUPAC classification scheme. Hydrogen isobars indicated that the adsorption of hydrogen is very temperature dependent with little or no hydrogen adsorption above 195 K. The isosteric enthalpies of adsorption at zero surface coverage were obtained using a virial equation, while the values at various surface coverages were obtained from the van't Hoff isochore. The values were in the range 3.9-5.2 kJ mol(-1) for the carbons studied. The thermodynamics of the adsorption process are discussed in relation to temperature limitations for hydrogen storage applications. The maximum amounts of hydrogen adsorbed correlated with the micropore volume obtained from extrapolation of the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation for carbon dioxide adsorption. Functional groups have a small detrimental effect on hydrogen adsorption, and this is related to decreased adsorbate-adsorbent and increased adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. PMID:16852056

  4. A Pilot Physical Activity Initiative to Improve Mental Health Status amongst Iranian Institutionalized Older People

    PubMed Central

    Matlabi, Hossein; Shaghaghi, Abdolreza; Amiri, Shahriar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sufficient level of physical activity may promote overall and mental health of old people. This study was carried out to investigate the practi­cability of a physical activity promotion initiative amongst institutionalized older people in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: Purposive sampling method was used in this semi-experimental study to recruit 31 older people living in a selected residential care in Tabriz. Moderate-intensity aerobic and mus­cle-strengthening activity was planned for those who had not severe baseline cognitive impairment or were not too frail to undertake the survey. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used to measure mental health status be­fore and after intervention through a face-to-face interview. Descriptive statistics, Wilkcoxon rank-sum, Mann-Whitney U and Chi-Square tests were employed to analyses the data. Results: The applied intervention was significantly improved status of physical health, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression. Conclusion: Incorporation of physical activity promotion programs into routines of older people residential care homes in Iran is feasible but may need training of physical activity specialists to work with older people based on their physical endurance and limitations. PMID:25097839

  5. Usage Of New Activation Function In Neuro-Symbolic Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Sathasivam, Saratha

    2010-12-23

    New activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing logic programming in Hopfield network. This method has a higher capacity and upgrades the neuro symbolic integration. Computer simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the new activation function. Empirical results obtained support our theory.

  6. Comparing demographic, health status and psychosocial strategies of audience segmentation to promote physical activity.

    PubMed

    Boslaugh, Sarah E; Kreuter, Matthew W; Nicholson, Robert A; Naleid, Kimberly

    2005-08-01

    The goal of audience segmentation is to identify population subgroups that are homogeneous with respect to certain variables associated with a given outcome or behavior. When such groups are identified and understood, targeted intervention strategies can be developed to address their unique characteristics and needs. This study compares the results of audience segmentation for physical activity that is based on either demographic, health status or psychosocial variables alone, or a combination of all three types of variables. Participants were 1090 African-American and White adults from two public health centers in St Louis, MO. Using a classification-tree algorithm to form homogeneous groups, analyses showed that more segments with greater variability in physical activity were created using psychosocial versus health status or demographic variables and that a combination of the three outperformed any individual set of variables. Simple segmentation strategies such as those relying on demographic variables alone provided little improvement over no segmentation at all. Audience segmentation appears to yield more homogeneous subgroups when psychosocial and health status factors are combined with demographic variables. PMID:15572439

  7. The mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and physical activity in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Sean P; Standage, Martyn; Loney, Tom; Gammon, Catherine; Neville, Helen; Sherar, Lauren B; Malina, Robert M

    2011-06-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and self-reported physical activity in adolescent British females. Biological maturity status, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 407 female British year 7-9 pupils (M age = 13.2 years, SD = 1.0). Participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (Kowalski, Crocker, & Donen, 2004) and the Children and Youth Physical Self-Perceptions Profile (Whitehead, 1995). Percentage of predicted adult height attained at measurement was used as an estimate of biological maturity status. Structural equation modelling using maximum likelihood estimation and bootstrapping procedures revealed that perceptions of sports competence, body attractiveness and physical self-worth mediated an inverse relation between maturity status and physical activity. The results provide partial support for Petersen and Taylor's (1980) Mediated Effects Model of Psychological and Behavioural Adaptation to Puberty within the context of physical activity. PMID:20655102

  8. A Comparison between Older Persons with Down Syndrome and a Control Group: Clinical Characteristics, Functional Status and Sensori-Motor Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmeli, Eli; Kessel, Shlomo; Merrick, Joav; Bar-Chad, Shmuel

    2004-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy within the general population has resulted in an increasing number of elderly adults with intellectual disability, and this is reflected in the increased life expectancy in persons with Down syndrome, currently about 56 years. The aim of this study was to study the clinical characteristics, the functional status and…

  9. Health Status and ADL Functioning of Older Persons with Intellectual Disability: Community Residence versus Residential Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifshitz, Hefziba; Merrick, Joav; Morad, Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to study differences in aging phenomena among adults with intellectual disability (ID), who live in community residence versus their peers in residential care centers and to determine the contribution of health status, age, gender, etiology and level of ID to the decline in ADL function with age. Our study was based…

  10. Mediation and Moderation: Testing Relationships between Symptom Status, Functional Health, and Quality of Life in HIV Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Ehri; West, Stephen G.; Sousa, Karen H.

    2009-01-01

    We extended Wilson and Cleary's (1995) health-related quality of life model to examine the relationships among symptom status (Symptoms), functional health (Disability), and quality of life (QOL). Using a community sample (N = 956) of male HIV positive patients, we tested a mediation model in which the relationship between Symptoms and QOL is…

  11. LOW FOLATE STATUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH IMPAIRED COGNITIVE FUNCTION AND DEMENTIA IN THE SACRAMENTO AREA LATINO STUDY ON AGING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Low folate status is associated with poor cognitive function and dementia in the elderly. Since 1998, grain products in the United States have been fortified with folic acid, which has reduced the prevalence of folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia. OBJECTIVE: We investigated wheth...

  12. The Function and Status by 1980 of Vocational Education in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Years, Work Project No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uxer, John E.

    To determine the function and status of post-secondary vocational education, a literature review and nine-state survey were used in projecting the post-secondary educational needs and trends in New Mexico for 1980. Data indicated: (1) Vocational schools had a mean beginning enrollment of 192 with a projected growth of 411 by 1966, (2) The average…

  13. Comparison of African American and Afro-Caribbean Older Adults' Self-Reported Health Status, Function, and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Florence; Tappen, Ruth M.; Williams, Christine L.; Rosselli, Monica

    2009-01-01

    African American and Afro-Caribbean elders differ in regard to ethnic group membership, place of birth, and years of residence in the United States. In this study, the authors compare self-rated health status, function, and reports of substance use in these two groups. Fifty low-income African American and fifty low-income Afro-Caribbean adults…

  14. Results of the ACSUS for pediatric AIDS patients: utilization of services, functional status, and social severity.

    PubMed Central

    Fahs, M C; Waite, D; Sesholtz, M; Muller, C; Hintz, E A; Maffeo, C; Arno, P; Bennett, C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study describes demographic characteristics of pediatric AIDS patients, describes hospital and community-based service utilization patterns, and analyzes medical and social support service usage patterns with respect to patient demographic characteristics, clinical trial participation, functional/developmental status, and social environment. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. Data reported in this study are from the AIDS Costs and Service Utilization Survey (ACSUS) and cover the six-month period beginning March 1991 (N = 135). Pediatric patients who sought care for HIV-related problems were sampled at seven different hospitals in five metropolitan regions of the United States. All of the participating hospitals had clinics specifically serving pediatric patients infected with HIV. The sample consists of HIV-positive patients who had had at least one HIV-related symptom or condition. STUDY DESIGN. A stratified probability sample design guided the sampling strategy, which included oversampling in two large hospitals from two of the five metropolitan areas. Survey data cover an 18-month time period of health care utilization, cost, and financing information from HIV-infected patients and their providers. Utilization measures are standardized to a six-month period. Per capita income, family structure, informal personal network, functional status, and clinical trial participation are tested for associations with patterns of utilization. In addition, a weighted ten-point social severity scale was developed to assess family/household stability. DATA COLLECTION. Data were collected through a screener instrument completed by the person accompanying the child to a hospital clinic visit (usually a a parent), and through two interviews conducted in person with the patients' primary caregivers. Data from the questionnaires were coded and assembled into computerized SAS analysis files by WESTAT. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Children in this sample are 62 percent African

  15. Effects of acute exercise on liver function and blood redox status in heavy drinkers

    PubMed Central

    GEORGAKOULI, KALLIOPI; MANTHOU, EIRINI; FATOUROS, IOANNIS G.; DELI, CHARIKLIA K.; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.; KOURETAS, DEMETRIOS; KOUTEDAKIS, YIANNIS; THEODORAKIS, YANNIS; JAMURTAS, ATHANASIOS Z.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can induce oxidative stress, resulting in the development of several diseases. Exercise has been reported to prevent and/or improve a number of health issues through several mechanisms, including an improvement in redox status. It has also been previously suggested that exercise can help individuals with alcohol use disorders reduce their alcohol intake; however, research in this field is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigage the effects of acute exercise of moderate intensity on the liver function and blood redox status in heavy drinkers. For this purpose, a total of 17 heavy drinkers [age, 31.6±3.2 years; body mass index (BMI), 27.4±0.8 kg/m2; experimental group (EG)] and 17 controls [age, 33.5±1.3 years; BMI, 26.1±1.4 kg/m2; control group (CG), who did not exceed moderate alcohol consumption], underwent one trial of acute exercise of moderate intensity (50–60% of the heart rate reserve) for 30 min on a cycle ergometer, following an overnight fast, and abstaining from smoking and alcohol consumption. Blood samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise for later determination of the indices of liver function and blood redox status. The subjects in the EG had significantly higher (p<0.05) baseline γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) levels compared to the subjects in the CG. Exercise thus resulted in significantly higher γ-GT levels (p<0.005) only in the EG. No significant differences in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) baseline levels were observed between the 2 groups. Following exercise, the AST levels increased significantly (p<0.001) in both groups, whereas the ALT levels increased significantly (p<0.01) only in the EG. The baseline glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly lower (p<0.05) and remained low following exercise in the EG. In addition, we observed a trend for higher (p=0.07) baseline levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), which

  16. Physical activity interventions and children's mental function: An introduction and overview

    PubMed Central

    Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Lambourne, Kate; Okumura, Michelle S.

    2011-01-01

    Background This review provides a historical overview of physical activity interventions designed by American educators and an evaluation of research that has assessed the effects of exercise on children's mental function. Method Historical descriptions of the emergence of American physical education doctrine throughout the 20th century were evaluated. Prior reviews of studies that assessed the effects of single acute bouts of exercise and the effects of chronic exercise training on children's mental function were examined and the results of recent studies were summarized. Results Physical activity interventions designed for American children have reflected two competing views: activities should promote physical fitness and activities should promote social, emotional, and intellectual development. Research results indicate that exercise fosters the emergence of children's mental function; particularly executive functioning. The route by which physical activity impacts mental functioning is complex and is likely moderated by several variables, including physical fitness level, health status, and numerous psycho-social factors. Conclusion Physical activity interventions for children should be designed to meet multiple objectives; e.g., optimize physical fitness, promote health-related behaviors that offset obesity, and facilitate mental development. PMID:21420981

  17. Study of Functional Status of CNS in Human-Operator in Conditions of Imitation Deep Spase Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marina, Skedina; Michael, Potapov; Anna, Kovaleva

    Functional status (FS) of CNS may influence human’s behavior and his professional activity. The purpose of study - analysis of FS CNS of human-operator in conditions of long-term isolation. The studies were conducted within the framework of the project «Mars-500» which simulates of interplanetary flight isolation conditions of different durations. We examined nine people aged from 26 to 40 years. Synchronous registration of classical bioelectric activity of brain (EEG) and a cerebral power exchange (a level of constant brain potential (LCP)) was carried out for study of functional status of CNS using the hardware-software complex «Neuro-KM - Omega-Neyroanalizator» (Ltd. «Statokin», Russia). The synchronical registration was performed in seven unipolar leads on a «10-20» (Fp1, Fp2, T3, T4, O1, O2, Cz) combined with the placement of reference electrode on the earlobe and «biological zero» electrode - on the wrist. During 105-days isolation with 3 volunteers on day 52 the following was observed: simultaneous displacement of α-rhythm localization, increase of its frequency by 10% with a decrease in the index and disorganization of α-activity, emergence of asymmetry. Appearance of LCP asymmetry for more than 5 mV (in one case - with a strong dominance of the left hemisphere) was registered with the overall reduction of the amplitude, indicating a stress reaction in isolation. Before 520-days isolation (6 volunteers) 3 from them had signs of stress reaction in accordance to EEG with: displacement of α-rhythm localization, increase of its frequency by 1-2 Hz and increase level LCP. During isolation before «exit on a surface of Mars» individual fluctuations of EEG and LCP were observed depending on the specifics of the crew activities. Directly «exit on a surface of Mars» for 2 volunteers of «crew of Mars» the increase in power of α-rhythm was observed. Other members of crew showed decrease power of α-rhythm. At various stages of experiment in 35

  18. Geriatric Syndromes and Functional Status in NSHAP: Rationale, Measurement, and Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kocherginsky, Masha; Schumm, Phillip L.; Engelman, Michal; McClintock, Martha K.; Dale, William; Magett, Elizabeth; Rush, Patricia; Waite, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The geriatric functional measures and syndromes collected 5 years apart in Waves 1 and 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) data set included: difficulty with activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living, the timed up and go, a 3-m timed walk, repeated chair stands, self-reported physical activity, accelerometry-assessed (in)activity, falls, fractures, and frailty. The purpose of this paper was to describe the data collection methods and report preliminary population estimates for each measures. Method. Frequencies, means, or medians were estimated for each measure stratified by age and gender, using the age-eligible samples in Wave 1 (n = 3,005) and Wave 2 (n = 3,196). An adapted phenotypic frailty scale was constructed in the sample common to both waves (n = 2,261). Changes over 5 years were reported for four measures common to both waves. Results. The functional measures worsened with age (p < .001). The syndromes were more prevalent with age except “all fractures” (p value range < .001–.03). Functional measures were worse among females than males except chair stand performance and the accelerometry-assessed (in)activity measures (p value range < .001–.01). The syndromes were more common among females than males except Wave 2 falls and Wave 2 hip fractures (p value range < .001–.03). Changes from Wave 1 to 2 revealed 11.5%–25.2% of individuals reported better health and 21.3%–44.7% reported worse health. Discussion. The NSHAP provides a comprehensive assessment of geriatric health. Our findings are consistent with the literature and support the construct of the study measures. PMID:25360019

  19. The Relationship between Housing Status and HIV Risk among Active Drug Users: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Hilario, Helena; Convey, Mark; Corbett, A. Michelle; Weeks, Margaret; Martinez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between housing status and HIV risk using longitudinal, qualitative data collected in 2004-2005, from a purposeful sample of 65 active drug users in a variety of housed and homeless situations in Hartford, Connecticut. These data were supplemented with observations and in-depth interviews regarding drug use behavior collected in 2001-2005 to evaluate a peer-led HIV prevention intervention. Data reveal differences in social context within and among different housing statuses that affect HIV risky or protective behaviors including the ability to carry drug paraphernalia and HIV prevention materials, the amount of drugs in the immediate environment, access to subsidized and supportive housing, and relationships with others with whom drug users live. Policy implications of the findings, limitations to the data and future research are discussed. PMID:19142817

  20. [Physical and sedentary activity as modulating factors of the nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Mascaraque Camino, María; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behavior and physical exercise seem to influence the nutritional status of the population independently. In this sense, sedentary behavior is associated inversely with healthy eating patterns and directly with BMI, body fat, risk of chronic diseases and psychological problems. By contrast, regular exercise is associated with a healthier diet and health benefits as the prevention or reduction of excess weight and disease prevention. However, it seems difficult to completely compensate, sedentary behavior and risk factors for health, with physical activity. To improve the nutritional status and health of the population would be advisable to increase non-sedentary behaviors and decrease the time spent in front of the screen. Also, it is encouraged to exercise regularly. PMID:26267770

  1. Macrodomains: Structure, Function, Evolution, and Catalytic Activities.

    PubMed

    Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias; Perina, Dragutin; Ahel, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments indicate that macrodomains, an ancient and diverse protein domain family, are key players in the recognition, interpretation, and turnover of ADP-ribose (ADPr) signaling. Crucial to this is the ability of macrodomains to recognize ADPr either directly, in the form of a metabolic derivative, or as a modification covalently bound to proteins. Thus, macrodomains regulate a wide variety of cellular and organismal processes, including DNA damage repair, signal transduction, and immune response. Their importance is further indicated by the fact that dysregulation or mutation of a macrodomain is associated with several diseases, including cancer, developmental defects, and neurodegeneration. In this review, we summarize the current insights into macrodomain evolution and how this evolution influenced their structural and functional diversification. We highlight some aspects of macrodomain roles in pathobiology as well as their emerging potential as therapeutic targets. PMID:26844395

  2. Graves' disease: thyroid function and immunologic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gossage, A.A.; Crawley, J.C.; Copping, S.; Hinge, D.; Himsworth, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    Patients with Graves' disease were studied for two years during and after a twelve-month course of treatment. Disease activity was determined by repeated measurements of thyroidal uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)pertechnetate during tri-iodothyronine administration. These in-vivo measurements of thyroid stimulation were compared with the results of in-vitro assays of Graves, immunoglobulin (TSH binding inhibitory activity--TBIA). There was no correlation between the thyroid uptake and TBIA on diagnosis. Pertechnetate uptake and TBIA both declined during the twelve months of antithyroid therapy. TBIA was detectable in sera from 19 of the 27 patients at diagnosis; in 11 of these 19 patients there was a good correlation (p less than 0.05) throughout the course of their disease between the laboratory assay of the Graves, immunoglobulin and the thyroid uptake. Probability of recurrence can be assessed but sustained remission of Graves' disease after treatment cannot be predicted from either measurement alone or in combination.

  3. Graves' disease: thyroid function and immunologic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gossage, A.A.R.; Crawley, J.C.W.; Copping, S.; Hinge, D.; Himsworth, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    Patients with Graves' disease were studied for two years during and after a twelve-month course of treatment. Disease activity was determined by repeated measurements of thyroidal uptake of (/sup 9/-9..mu..Tc)pertechnetate during tri-iodothyronine administration. These in-vivo measurements of thyroid stimulation were compared with the results of in-vitro assays of Graves, immunoglobulin (TSH binding inhibitory activity - TBIA). There was no correlation between the thyroid uptake and TBIA on diagnosis. Pertechnetate uptake and TBIA both declined during the twelve months of antithyroid therapy. TBIA was detectable in sera from 19 of the 27 patients at diagnosis; in 11 of these 19 patients there was a good correlation (p<0.05) throughout the course of their disease between the laboratory assay of the Graves, immunoglobulin and the thyroid uptake. Probability of recurrence can be assessed but sustained remission of Graves' disease after treatment cannot be predicted from either measurement alone or in combination.

  4. Socioeconomic status and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables

    PubMed Central

    Granero, Roser; Louwaars, Leonie; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES) as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children's executive functioning (EF) as the mediating factors. Method: The sample included 622 three-year-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed. Results: Structural Equation Modeling showed that the associations between SES, EF, parenting style and ODD levels differed by children's gender: (a) for girls, the association of low SES and high ODD scores was partially mediated by difficulties in EF inhibition, and parenting practices defined by corporal punishment and inconsistent discipline obtained a quasi-significant indirect effect into the association between SES and ODD; (b) for boys, SES and EF (inhibition and emotional control) had a direct effect on ODD with no mediation. Conclusion: SES seems a good indicator to identify children at high-risk for prevention and intervention programs for ODD. Girls with ODD in families of low SES may particularly benefit from parent training practices and training in inhibition control. PMID:26441784

  5. Fistuloclysis Improves Liver Function and Nutritional Status in Patients with High-Output Upper Enteric Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yin; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Zhou, Bo; Ding, Chao; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Song; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. We aimed to determine the efficacy of fistuloclysis in patients with high-output upper enteric fistula (EF). Methods. Patients were assigned into the fistuloclysis group (n = 35, receiving fistuloclysis plus total enteral nutrition (TEN)) and the control group (n = 60, receiving TEN). Laboratory variables were measured during the four-week treatment. Results. At baseline, variables were similar between the two groups. Delta value was defined as the changes from baseline to day 28. Compared with the control group, the fistuloclysis group showed greater improvements in liver function (Delta total bilirubin (TB): 20.3 ± 9.7 in the fistuloclysis group versus 15.6 ± 6.3 in the control group, P = 0.040; Delta direct bilirubin (DB): 12.5 ± 3.4 versus 10.0 ± 3.6, P = 0.011; Delta alkaline phosphatase (ALP): 98.4 ± 33.5 versus 57.6 ± 20.9, P < 0.001); nutritional status (Delta total protein: 21.8 ± 8.7 versus 10.7 ± 2.1, P < 0.001; Delta albumin: 11.3 ± 2.5 versus 4.2 ± 1.3, P < 0.001). In the fistuloclysis subgroups, biliary fistula patients had the maximum number of variables with the greatest improvements. Conclusions. Fistuloclysis improved hepatic and nutritional parameters in patients with high-output upper EF, particularly in biliary fistula patients. PMID:24719613

  6. Criterion validity of the financial skills subscale of the direct assessment of functional status scale.

    PubMed

    Barrett, John J; Hart, Kathleen J; Schmerler, Jeanne T; Willmarth, Kevin; Carey, Jo Anne; Mohammed, Somaia

    2009-04-30

    Among the severely mentally ill, some individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder can manage their finances independently, while others depend upon a court-appointed guardian or a representative payee. The present study examined the criterion validity of the financial skills subscale of the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS) scale in classifying those who manage their finances independently from those who do not. Scores on the financial skills subscale of the DAFS scale of 25 severely mentally ill outpatients without a guardian/payee were compared to scores of 24 severely mentally ill outpatients with a guardian/payee; 25 non-mentally ill participants served as controls. Logistic regression analyses, Bayesian statistics, and Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses revealed moderate classification accuracy in a sample with mild cognitive impairment. These analyses were also conducted on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and revealed generally lower accuracy than the DAFS financial skills subscale. The DAFS financial skills subscale can inform the clinician's opinion about the financial capacity of the severely mentally ill. PMID:19269693

  7. New approaches to enhance active steering system functionalities: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serarslan, Benan

    2014-09-01

    An important development of the steering systems in general is active steering systems like active front steering and steer-by-wire systems. In this paper the current functional possibilities in application of active steering systems are explored. A new approach and additional functionalities are presented that can be implemented to the active steering systems without additional hardware such as new sensors and electronic control units. Commercial active steering systems are controlling the steering angle depending on the driving situation only. This paper introduce methods for enhancing active steering system functionalities depending not only on the driving situation but also vehicle parameters like vehicle mass, tyre and road condition. In this regard, adaptation of the steering ratio as a function of above mentioned vehicle parameters is presented with examples. With some selected vehicle parameter changes, the reduction of the undesired influences on vehicle dynamics of these parameter changes has been demonstrated theoretically with simulations and with real-time driving measurements.

  8. Effect of virtual reality dance exercise on the balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status of Parkinson’s disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam-Yong; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Song, Hyun-Seung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined the effects of virtual reality dance exercise on the balance, activities of daily living and depressive disorder status of Parkinson’s disease patients. [Subjects] Twenty patients were assigned either the experimental group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). All participants received 30 minutes of neurodevelopment treatment and 15 minutes of functional electrical stimulation 5 times per week for 6 weeks. The experimental group additionally performed 30 minutes of dance exercise. Balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status were assessed before and after the 6-week treatment period using the Berg balance scale, the Modified Barthel Index, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The paired t-test was used to detect differences before and after treatment, and the independent t-test was used to detect differences between the treatment groups. [Results] The values for balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status significantly differed between before and after treatment in the experimental group, and significantly differed between the experimental group and control group. [Conclusion] Virtual reality dance exercise has a positive effect on balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status of Parkinson’s disease patients. PMID:25642060

  9. Clinical Relevance of Telomere Status and Telomerase Activity in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Marcelo, Tamara; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Pascua, Irene; De Juan, Carmen; Head, Jacqueline; Torres-García, Antonio-José; Iniesta, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The role of telomeres and telomerase in colorectal cancer (CRC) is well established as the major driving force in generating chromosomal instability. However, their potential as prognostic markers remains unclear. We investigated the outcome implications of telomeres and telomerase in this tumour type. We considered telomere length (TL), ratio of telomere length in cancer to non-cancer tissue (T/N ratio), telomerase activity and TERT levels; their relation with clinical variables and their role as prognostic markers. We analyzed 132 CRCs and paired non-cancer tissues. Kaplan-Meier curves for disease-free survival were calculated for TL, T/N ratio, telomerase activity and TERT levels. Overall, tumours had shorter telomeres than non-tumour tissues (P < 0.001) and more than 80% of CRCs displayed telomerase activity. Telomere lengths of non-tumour tissues and CRCs were positively correlated (P < 0.001). Considering telomere status and clinical variables, the lowest degree of telomere shortening was shown by tumours located in the rectum (P = 0.021). Regarding prognosis studies, patients with tumours showing a mean TL < 6.35 Kb experienced a significantly better clinical evolution (P < 0.001) and none of them with the highest degree of tumour telomere shortening relapsed during the follow-up period (P = 0.043). The mean TL in CRCs emerged as an independent prognostic factor in the Cox analysis (P = 0.017). Telomerase-positive activity was identified as a marker that confers a trend toward a poor prognosis. In CRC, our results support the use of telomere status as an independent prognostic factor. Telomere status may contribute to explaining the different molecular identities of this tumour type. PMID:26913901

  10. Association of physical activity and health status with intelligence quotient of high school students in Jeddah.

    PubMed

    El-Kholy, Thanaa; Elsayed, Enas

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the relationships of physical activity and healthiness with the intelligence quotients of high school students in Jeddah. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 135 male and female students were randomly drawn from public and private secondary schools in Jeddah. A self-designed questionnaire was distributed to the students that included demographic, physical activity, and health status sections. Body mass index measurement and an intelligence quotient test were carried out for all students. In addition, samples of blood were collected to estimate hemoglobin and serum iron. [Results] The highest proportions of males and females (39.1% and 51% respectively) had an intelligence quotient score of more than 75%. Moreover, the findings revealed that about 35% of the students were categorized as overweight obesity, and there was aninverse correlation between body mass index and physical activity. Students who shared physical education classes and exercising at and outside school showed a positive correlation with high IQ scores. Regarding hemoglobin and iron levels, there were significant correlations between their levels in blood and IQ. [Conclusion] The intelligence quotient of adolescent students is positively associated with physical activity and health status. PMID:26311922

  11. Association of physical activity and health status with intelligence quotient of high school students in Jeddah

    PubMed Central

    El-Kholy, Thanaa; Elsayed, Enas

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the relationships of physical activity and healthiness with the intelligence quotients of high school students in Jeddah. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 135 male and female students were randomly drawn from public and private secondary schools in Jeddah. A self-designed questionnaire was distributed to the students that included demographic, physical activity, and health status sections. Body mass index measurement and an intelligence quotient test were carried out for all students. In addition, samples of blood were collected to estimate hemoglobin and serum iron. [Results] The highest proportions of males and females (39.1% and 51% respectively) had an intelligence quotient score of more than 75%. Moreover, the findings revealed that about 35% of the students were categorized as overweight obesity, and there was aninverse correlation between body mass index and physical activity. Students who shared physical education classes and exercising at and outside school showed a positive correlation with high IQ scores. Regarding hemoglobin and iron levels, there were significant correlations between their levels in blood and IQ. [Conclusion] The intelligence quotient of adolescent students is positively associated with physical activity and health status. PMID:26311922

  12. Reaction to Frustration as a Function of Learning Potential Status. Volume 1, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budoff, Milton; Pines, Ayala

    Twenty seven educable retarded children (ages 11 to 16) were divided into three groups based on learning potential status: highscorers, gainers, and nongainers. A dexterity test and a mirror drawing of a six-pointed star were administered, the latter in a stress-producing manner. Learning potential status mainly predicted the rate of learning on…

  13. Retirement Community Residents’ Physical Activity, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the types of physical activity (PA) retirement community residents report and the effects of PA and depressive symptoms on functional limitations. Elders (N = 38) enrolled in a 2-year sensor technology study in senior housing completed regular assessments of functional limitations and depressive symptoms with the Short Physical Performance Battery and Geriatric Depression Scale, respectively. Evaluation of reported PA using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly coincided with 12-month functional limitation testing. Subjects were 69% female with mean age of 85 years. Individuals reporting greater PA had significantly fewer functional limitations at 12 months. In multiple regression analysis, baseline functional limitations explained 66% of the variance in 12-month functional limitations, while current PA explained an additional 5%. Although PA explained a small amount of variance in 12-month functional limitations, as a modifiable behavior, PA should be championed and supported to help ameliorate functional limitations in older adults. PMID:24532671

  14. Designing and Implementing a System for Tracking Functional Status after Stroke: a Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandel, M. Elizabeth; Jette, Alan M.; Appelman, Jed; Terdiman, Joseph; TeSelle, Marian; Delmonico, Richard L.; Wang, Hua; Camicia, Michelle; Rasch, Elizabeth K.; Brandt, Diane E.; Chan, Leighton

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the feasibility of tracking stroke patients’ functional outcomes in an integrated health system across a care continuum using the computer version of the Activity Measure of Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC). Setting A large integrated healthcare system in northern California. Participants 222 stroke patients (aged 18 or older) hospitalized after an acute cerebrovascular accident. Methods An AM-PAC assessment was made at discharge from sites of care, including acute hospital, inpatient rehabilitation hospital, skilled nursing facility, home during home care, and in outpatient settings. Assessments were also completed in the patient’s home at six months. Data from the AM-PAC program was integrated with the health care system’s databases. Main Outcome Measurements 1) AM-PAC administration time at the various sites of care; 2) assessment of a floor or a ceiling effect, 3) administrative burden of tracking participants Results AM-PAC assessment sessions averaged 7.9 minutes for data acquisition in 3 domains: Basic Mobility, Activities of Daily Living, and Applied Cognition. Participants answered, on average, 27 AM-PAC questions per session. A small ceiling effect was observed at 6 months and there was a larger ceiling effect when the instrument was administered in an institution, i.e., using the AM-PAC institutional item bank, rather than the community item bank. It was feasible to track patients and assess their function using the AM-PAC instrument from institutional to community settings. Implementation of the AM-PAC in clinical environments, and success of the project was influenced by instrumental, technological, operational, resource, and cultural factors. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of implementing a single functional outcome instrument in clinical and community settings to measure rehabilitation functional outcomes of stroke patients. Integrating the AM-PAC measurement system into clinical workflows and the electronic

  15. Immediate and Ultimate Functions of Physical Activity Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Lorraine

    1998-01-01

    Play has been difficult to define because it is an aspect of many activities rather than of just a specific kind of activity. Classic theorists such as Piaget and Vygotsky emphasized representational play as play in its purist form, but both immediate and ultimate functions of play can be discerned in simple physical activity play. (Author)

  16. Comparative analysis of signature genes in PRRSV-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these c...

  17. Prediction of daily food intake as a function of measurement modality and restriction status

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Nicole R.; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Eating research relies on several kinds of indices (e.g., stable, momentary, neural) to accurately reflect food-related reactivity (e.g., disinhibition) and regulation (e.g., restraint) outside the laboratory. However, the degree to which the most commonly used indices predict real-world food consumption, and whether they do so differentially, is largely unknown. Additionally, the predictive validity of these indices might vary depending on whether or not an individual is actively restricting intake. METHODS We assessed food reactivity and food craving regulation in 46 healthy participants (30 female, age 18–30) using standard measurements in three modalities: (1) self-reported (stable) traits using surveys that are popular in the eating literature, and (2) momentary craving ratings and (3) neural activation using aggregated fMRI data gathered during a food reactivity-and-regulation task. We then used these data to predict variance in real-world consumption of craved energy-dense “target” foods across two weeks among normal-weight participants randomly assigned to restrict or monitor their target food intake. RESULTS The predictive validity of 4 of the 6 indices varied significantly by restriction status. When participants were not restricting intake, momentary (B = 0.21, SE = 0.05) and neural (B = 0.08, SE = 0.04) reactivity positively predicted consumption, and stable (B = −0.22, SE = 0.05) and momentary (B = −0.24, SE = 0.05) regulation negatively predicted consumption. When restricting, stable (B = 0.36, SE = 0.12) and neural (B = 0.51, SE = 0.12) regulation positively predicted consumption. CONCLUSIONS Commonly used indices of regulation and reactivity differentially relate to an ecologically-valid eating measurement depending on the presence of restriction goals, and thus have strong implications for predicting real-world behaviors. PMID:25984820

  18. Prematurity, Birth Weight, and Socioeconomic Status Are Linked to Atypical Diurnal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Suzy Barcelos; Sullivan, Mary C; Roberts, Mary B; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-02-01

    In a prospective, case-controlled longitudinal design, 180 preterm and fullterm infants who had been enrolled at birth participated in a comprehensive assessment battery at age 23. Of these, 149 young adults, 34 formerly full-term and 115 formerly preterm (22 healthy preterm, 48 with medical complications, 21 with neurological complications, and 24 small for gestational age) donated five saliva samples from a single day that were assayed for cortisol to assess diurnal variation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Analyses were conducted to determine whether prematurity category, birth weight, and socioeconomic status were associated with differences in HPA axis function. Pre- and perinatal circumstances associated with prematurity influenced the activity of this environmentally sensitive physiological system. Results are consistent with the theory of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and highlight a possible mechanism for the link between prematurity and health disparities later in life. PMID:26676400

  19. Success of antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C infection relates to functional status of myeloid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Deepa; Chawla, Yogesh; Arora, Sunil K.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C infection poses a major global health predicament and appears to be potent threat to mankind. The treatment in wide use is interferon/ribavirin combination therapy which is generally effective in about 60-70 per cent of patients carrying genotype 3 and causes significant morbidity. The response to therapy is largely guided by limited number of factors such as genotype of virus, rapid virological response, ethnicity, pre-therapy viral load, etc. While involvement of host genetic factors has been a major focus of research in playing an important role in the outcome of disease, the role of immune system cannot be marginalized. Poor cellular trafficking and suboptimal T cell responses in liver, the hall marks of chronic hepatitis C virus infection, might be attributed to defective antigen presentation. Various immunological factors, both innate and adaptive, play role in the pathogenesis of the disease and become dysfunctional in active disease. Recent reports suggest the major impact of functional and numerical status of dendritic cells in deciding the fate of antiviral therapy. In this review we take a look at the involvement of dendritic cells in playing an important role in the response to therapy. PMID:24434330

  20. Development and qualification of functional materials for the EU Test Blanket Modules: Strategy and R&D activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmitko, M.; Poitevin, Y.; Boccaccini, L.; Salavy, J.-F.; Knitter, R.; Möslang, A.; Magielsen, A. J.; Hegeman, J. B. J.; Lässer, R.

    2011-10-01

    Europe has developed two reference tritium breeder blankets concepts for a DEMO fusion reactor: the Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed. Both will be tested in ITER under the form of Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). The paper reviews the current status of development and qualification of the EU TBMs functional materials; i.e. ceramic solid breeder materials, beryllium/beryllides multiplier materials and Lithium-Lead liquid metal breeder material Pb-15.7Li. For each functional material the main functional/performance requirements with key qualification issues, current status of the R&D activities and the EU development strategy are presented. In the development strategy major steps considered are listed pointing out importance of the 'Development/qualification/procurement plan', currently under elaboration, for definition of a roadmap of further activities aiming at delivery of qualified functional materials to be used in the European TBMs in ITER.

  1. Prospective associations of vitamin D status with β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and glycemia: the impact of parathyroid hormone status.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Caroline K; Swaminathan, Balakumar; Hanley, Anthony J; Connelly, Philip W; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies have yielded conflicting findings on the relationship between low vitamin D (25-OH-D) and impaired glucose homeostasis. In this context, we hypothesized that combined assessment of 25-OH-D with its regulator parathyroid hormone (PTH) may be required for optimal evaluation of the impact of vitamin D status on glucose metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the prospective associations of 25-OH-D and PTH at 3 months postpartum with β-cell function (Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2 [ISSI-2]), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), and glycemia at 12 months postpartum in 494 women undergoing serial metabolic characterization. Notably, 32% of those with prediabetes/diabetes mellitus at 12 months postpartum had both vitamin D deficiency and PTH in the highest tertile at 3 months postpartum. On multiple-adjusted linear regression analyses, vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency with PTH in the highest tertile at 3 months independently predicted poorer β-cell function (P = 0.03) and insulin sensitivity (P = 0.01) and increased fasting (P = 0.03) and 2-h glucose (P = 0.002) at 12 months postpartum. In contrast, vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency with lower PTH did not predict these outcomes. In conclusion, only vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency with increased PTH is an independent predictor of β-cell dysfunction, insulin resistance, and glycemia, highlighting the need for consideration of the PTH/25-OH-D axis when studying the impact of vitamin D status on glucose homeostasis. PMID:24875346

  2. Maternal Eating and Physical Activity Strategies and their Relation with Children's Nutritional Status1

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Ortiz-Félix, Rosario Edith; Cárdenas-Villarreal, Velia Margarita; Ávila-Alpirez, Hermelinda; Alba-Alba, Corina Mariela; Hernández-Carranco, Roandy Gaspar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to describe the maternal eating and physical activity strategies (monitoring, discipline, control, limits and reinforcement) [MEES]; to determine the relation between MEES and the child's nutritional status [body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BFP)]; to verify whether the MEES differ according to the child's nutritional status. Method participants were 558 mothers and children (3 to 11 years of age) who studied at public schools. The Parental Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) was applied and the child's weight, height and BFP were measured. For analysis purposes, descriptive statistics were obtained, using multiple linear regression and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results the highest mean score was found for reinforcement (62.72) and the lowest for control (50.07). Discipline, control and limits explained 12% of the BMI, while discipline and control explained 6% of the BFP. Greater control is found for obese children (χ2=38.36, p=0.001) and greater reinforcement for underweight children (χ2=7.19, p<0.05). Conclusions the mothers exert greater control (pressure to eat) over obese children and greater recognition (congratulating due to healthy eating) in underweight children. Modifications in parental strategies are recommended with a view to strengthening healthy eating and physical activity habits. PMID:26107837

  3. Effect of activities of daily living status on resuming driving after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Park, Myoung-Ok; Jung, Bong-Keun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of the activities of daily living status on resuming driving after stroke. [Subjects] Thirty-one participants with stroke, who visited in Korean national rehabilitation centers, were included in this study. [Methods] The activities of daily living performance and the driving ability of the participants were assessed with the Korean-Modified Barthel Index in combination with the results obtained by using a driving simulator. [Results] Significant correlations were noted among the Korean-Modified Barthel Index, on-road driving total score, reaction time, speed anticipation tests, judgment tests, and steering wheel-pedal operation tests. Results of Stepwise multiple regression also revealed that the Korean-Modified Barthel Index total score and speed anticipation, with an R2 of 52.9%. In other words, as the Korean-Modified Barthel Index total score and speed anticipation score increased and the driving performance score also increased in patients who had suffered a stroke. [Conclusion] The activities of daily living status was positively correlated with the patients’ post stroke driving ability. PMID:26834346

  4. [Functional status of submariners after short-time submarine raid in the sea].

    PubMed

    Kalmanov, A S; Pisarev, A A; Khankevich, Yu R; Bloshchinskii, I A; Valskii, A V

    2015-10-01

    Short-time sea submarine raids (from a few days to a few weeks), performed during one working cycle, negatively influence on the functional state of the submariners organism. Upon returning to the point of basing the crew involved in the maintenance of the material and performs preparations for further access to the sea. Due to the high workload and lack of time personnel are not held in any correctional and rehabilitation activities, and therefore the time for the next release in the sea functional condition and functional reserves of the body does not have time to fully recover. The transfer of the submarine crew and referral to medical and psychological rehabilitation assumed only after the end of the operating cycle after the crew the task of further voyage. Based on the assessment of the functional systems of the submarine after a short voyage concluded on the need to develop a set of remedial measures for the recovery of submarine crews during inter-cruise period. PMID:26827506

  5. Review of X-43A Return to Flight Activities and Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reubush, David E.; Nguyen, Luat T.; Rausch, Vincent L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and status of the return to flight activities for the X-43A scramjet flight demonstrator after the first flight mishap. The first flight was attempted on June 2, 2001 and resulted in vehicle destruction by range safety when the booster went out of control early in the flight. In the time since the mishap much work has been done to examine the causes of the failure and make modifications to the booster to insure that the boost for the second flight will be successful. In addition, all other aspects of the flight have been examined to maximize the probability of a successful flight.

  6. Wind tunnel productivity status and improvement activities at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Lawrence E.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last three years, a major effort has been underway to re-engineering the way wind tunnel testing is accomplished at the NASA Langley Research Center. This effort began with the reorganization of the LaRC and the consolidation of the management of the wind tunnels in the Aerodynamics Division under one operations branch. This paper provides an overview of the re-engineering activities and gives the status of the improvements in the wind tunnel productivity and customer satisfaction that have resulted from the new ways of working.

  7. Association between Cognitive Activity and Cognitive Function in Older Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Marquine, María J.; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Barnes, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in childhood and middle age, and five domains of cognitive function. The measures of cognitive activity and cognitive resources had adequate reliability and validity in our subset of Hispanic participants (n = 81). Hispanics reported lower levels of education, lower frequency of cognitive activity and less cognitive resources than non-Hispanic White (n = 1102) and non-Hispanic Black (n = 388) participants. Despite these differences the strength of the association between cognitive activity and cognitive function was comparable across ethnic groups. Because Hispanics have lower frequency of cognitive activity, the benefit of cognitive activity to late life cognitive function may be potentially larger in this segment of the population. Thus, interventions aimed at increasing frequency of participation in cognitively stimulating activity may offer a potential target to reduce cognitive impairment in Hispanics. PMID:22676914

  8. Influence of Sports, Physical Education, and Active Commuting to School on Adolescent Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Michael L.; Longacre, Meghan R.; MacKenzie, Todd; Titus, Linda J.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the associations between weight status and different forms of physical activity among adolescents. METHODS: We conducted telephone surveys with 1718 New Hampshire and Vermont high school students and their parents as part of a longitudinal study of adolescent health. We surveyed adolescents about their team sports participation, other extracurricular physical activity, active commuting, physical education, recreational activity for fun, screen time, diet quality, and demographics. Overweight/obesity (BMI for age ≥ 85th percentile) and obesity (BMI for age ≥ 95 percentile) were based on self-reported height and weight. RESULTS: Overall, 29.0% (n = 498) of the sample was overweight/obese and 13.0% (n = 223) were obese. After adjustments, sports team participation was inversely related to overweight/obesity (relative risk [RR] = 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61, 0.87] for >2 sports teams versus 0) and obesity (RR = 0.61 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.81] for >2 sports teams versus 0). Additionally, active commuting to school was inversely related to obesity (RR = 0.67 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.99] for >3.5 days per week versus 0). Attributable risk estimates suggest obesity prevalence would decrease by 26.1% (95% CI: 9.4%, 42.8%) if all adolescents played on 2 sports teams per year and by 22.1% (95% CI: 0.1%, 43.3%) if all adolescents walked/biked to school at least 4 days per week. CONCLUSIONS: Team sport participation had the strongest and most consistent inverse association with weight status. Active commuting to school may reduce the risk of obesity, but not necessarily overweight, and should be studied further. Obesity prevention programs should consider strategies to increase team sport participation among all students. PMID:22802608

  9. Influence of exercise duration and hydration status on cognitive function during prolonged cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Grego, F; Vallier, J-M; Collardeau, M; Rousseu, C; Cremieux, J; Brisswalter, J

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of submaximal aerobic exercise duration on simple and complex cognitive performance. Eight well-trained male subjects agreed to participate in this study (trial group). A control group of eight regularly trained male subjects was included for comparative purposes. For the trial group, the experiment involved a critical flicker fusion test (CFF) and a map recognition task performed before, every 20 min during, and immediately after, a 3-h cycling task at an intensity corresponding to approximately 60 % of VO2max. Data were obtained over two experimental sessions with fluid ingestion (F) or no fluid (NF) ingestion. For the control group the experiment was the same but without exercise and fluid ingestion. In the trial group, a significant effect of hydration status was observed on physiological parameters (p <0.05). No effect was found on cognitive performance. A significant decrease in CFF performance was observed after 120 min of exercise when compared with the first 20 min (respectively for CFFmdi: 2.6 vs. 3.8 Hz), irrespective of experimental condition. A significant improvement in speed of response (respectively: 3291 vs. 3062 msec for 20 and 120 min, respectively) and a decrease in error number (21.5 % vs. 6.0 % for 20 and 120 min, respectively) during the map recognition task were recorded between 80 min and 120 min when compared with the first 20 min of exercise. After 120 min the number of recorded errors was significantly greater indicating a shift in the accuracy-speed trade-off (6.0 % vs. 14.1 % for 120 and 180 min, respectively). These results provide some evidence for exercise-induced facilitation of cognitive function. However this positive effect disappears during prolonged exercise--as evidenced within our study by an increase in errors during the complex task and an alteration in perceptual response (i.e. the appearance of symptoms of central fatigue). PMID:15643531

  10. Combined effects of HIV and marijuana use on neurocognitive functioning and immune status.

    PubMed

    Thames, April D; Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Burggren, Alison C; Karimian, Ahoo; Kuhn, Taylor P

    2016-05-01

    The current study examined the independent and combined effects of HIV and marijuana (MJ) use (no use, light use, and moderate-to-heavy use) on neurocognitive functioning among a convenience sample of HIV-positive (HIV+) and HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals recruited from HIV community care clinics and advertisements in the Greater Los Angeles area. MJ users consisted of individuals who reported regular use of MJ for at least 12 months, with last reported use within the past month. Participants included 89 HIV+ (n = 55) and HIV- (n = 34) individuals who were grouped into non-users, light users, and moderate-to-heavy users based on self-reported MJ use. Participants were administered a brief cognitive test battery and underwent laboratory testing for CD4 count and viral load. HIV+ individuals demonstrated lower performance on neurocognitive testing than controls, and moderate-to-heavy MJ users performed more poorly on neurocognitive testing than light users or non-users. Moderate-to-heavy HIV+ users performed significantly lower on learning/memory than HIV- moderate-to-heavy users (MD = -8.34; 95% CI: -16.11 to -0.56) as well as all other comparison groups. In the domain of verbal fluency, HIV+ light users outperformed HIV- light users (MD = 7.28; 95% CI: 1.62-12.39), but no HIV group differences were observed at other MJ use levels. HIV+ MJ users demonstrated lower viral load (MD = -0.58; 95% CI: -1.30 to 0.14) and higher CD4 count than non-users (MD = 137.67; 95% CI: 9.48-265.85). The current study findings extend the literature by demonstrating the complex relationship between HIV status and MJ use on neurocognitive and clinical outcomes. PMID:26694807

  11. Employment Status as an Indicator of Recovery and Function One Year after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Eleshia J; Ehlers, Shawna L; Bronars, Carrie A; Patten, Christi A; Brockman, Tabetha A; Cerhan, James R; Hogan, William J; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Gastineau, Dennis A

    2016-09-01

    Employment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an indicator of post-transplantation recovery and function, with economic and social implications. As survival rates for HSCT continue to improve, greater emphasis can be placed on factors affecting the quality of post-transplantation survival, including the ability to resume employment. A sample of recipients of autologous or allogeneic HSCT was accrued (n = 1000) to complete a longitudinal lifestyle survey before transplantation and at 1 year after transplantation. The present study examines associations between employment and patient characteristics, disease variables, illness status, and quality of life among 1-year survivors (n = 702). Participants had a mean age of 55 years (range, 18 to 78) and were predominately male (59.7%), married/partnered (77.1%), and non-Hispanic Caucasian (89.5%); most (79.4%) had received autologous transplantation. Of the 690 participants reporting some form of employment before illness diagnosis, 62.4% had returned to work by 1 year after HSCT. Full-time employment at 1 year after HSCT was significantly associated with remission of illness, improved illness, fewer post-transplantation hospitalizations, less fatigue and pain, higher quality of life, and higher rating of perceived health. Those unemployed because of their health reported the highest rates of fatigue and pain and lowest quality of life, and they were most likely to report poor perceived health. These findings highlight work reintegration as an important outcome and marker of survivors' overall adjustment after transplantation. Identifying factors affecting post-transplantation employment offers opportunities for behavioral interventions to target modifiable risk factors to optimize post-transplantation survivorship, inclusive of increased rates of return to work and decreased rates of associated disability. PMID:27220264

  12. Are morphologic and functional consequences of status epilepticus in infant rats progressive?

    PubMed

    Kubová, H; Mareš, P

    2013-04-01

    The present study examined whether status epilepticus (SE) induced by LiCl-pilocarpine in immature rats (postnatal day [P]12) interferes with normal development; leads to progressive epileptogenesis, or cognitive decline and to pathology similar to that seen in human temporal lobe epilepsy. We correlated the extent of pathologic changes with the severity of functional alterations or epilepsy. SE-induced changes were compared with those of rats with SE induced at P25. Animals of both ages were exposed to a battery of behavioral tests for up to 3months after SE. Rats with SE at P12 showed mild retardation of psychomotor development and delayed habituation, whereas rats with SE at P25 showed no habituation. Assessment in adulthood using the Morris water maze test revealed that SE at both P12 and P25 led to cognitive impairment and that the severity of the impairment increased with age. A handling test revealed increased aggression in rats with SE at P25, but not in rats with SE at P12. Epilepsy was diagnosed with continuous video-electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring for up to 7d. P25 rats were monitored at 5months after SE and seizures were detected in 83.3% of animals. P12 animals were divided into two groups and monitored at 5 or 7months after SE. Both the severity and incidence of spontaneous recurrent seizures tended to progress with time, and their incidence increased from 50% to 87.5% at 5 and 7months, respectively. Morphometric analysis and stereologic assessment of hilar neurons performed after video-EEG monitoring revealed atrophy of temporal brain structures, enlargement of lateral ventricles, and loss of hilar neurons in both age groups. In P12 rats, morphologic damage also tended to progress over time. Performance of animals in the Morris water maze correlated with the severity of damage, but not with seizure parameters. PMID:23305765

  13. Antioxidant Effect of Melatonin on the Functional Activity of Colostral Phagocytes in Diabetic Women

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Danny L. G.; Calderon, Iracema M. P.; França, Eduardo L.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin is involved in a number of physiological and oxidative processes, including functional regulation in human milk. The present study investigated the mechanisms of action of melatonin and its effects on the functional activity of colostral phagocytes in diabetic women. Colostrum samples were collected from normoglycemic (N = 38) and diabetic (N = 38) women. We determined melatonin concentration, superoxide release, bactericidal activity and intracellular Ca2+ release by colostral phagocytes treated or not with 8-(Diethylamino) octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate hydrochloride (TMB-8) and incubated with melatonin and its precursor (N-acetyl-serotonin-NAS), antagonist (luzindole) and agonist (chloromelatonin-CMLT). Melatonin concentration was higher in colostrum samples from hyperglycemic than normoglycemic mothers. Melatonin stimulated superoxide release by colostral phagocytes from normoglycemic but not hyperglycemic women. NAS increased superoxide, irrespective of glycemic status, whereas CMTL increased superoxide only in cells from the normoglycemic group. Phagocytic activity in colostrum increased significantly in the presence of melatonin, NAS and CMLT, irrespective of glycemic status. The bactericidal activity of colostral phagocytes against enterophatogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) increased in the presence of melatonin or NAS in the normoglycemic group, but not in the hyperglycemic group. Luzindole blocked melatonin action on colostrum phagocytes. Phagocytes from the normoglycemic group treated with melatonin exhibited an increase in intracellular Ca2+ release. Phagocytes treated with TMB-8 (intracellular Ca2+ inhibitor) decreased superoxide, bactericidal activity and intracellular Ca2+ release in both groups. The results obtained suggest an interactive effect of glucose metabolism and melatonin on colostral phagocytes. In colostral phagocytes from normoglycemic mothers, melatonin likely increases the ability of colostrum to protect against EPEC

  14. Antioxidant effect of melatonin on the functional activity of colostral phagocytes in diabetic women.

    PubMed

    Morceli, Gliciane; Honorio-França, Adenilda C; Fagundes, Danny L G; Calderon, Iracema M P; França, Eduardo L

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin is involved in a number of physiological and oxidative processes, including functional regulation in human milk. The present study investigated the mechanisms of action of melatonin and its effects on the functional activity of colostral phagocytes in diabetic women. Colostrum samples were collected from normoglycemic (N = 38) and diabetic (N = 38) women. We determined melatonin concentration, superoxide release, bactericidal activity and intracellular Ca(2+) release by colostral phagocytes treated or not with 8-(Diethylamino) octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate hydrochloride (TMB-8) and incubated with melatonin and its precursor (N-acetyl-serotonin-NAS), antagonist (luzindole) and agonist (chloromelatonin-CMLT). Melatonin concentration was higher in colostrum samples from hyperglycemic than normoglycemic mothers. Melatonin stimulated superoxide release by colostral phagocytes from normoglycemic but not hyperglycemic women. NAS increased superoxide, irrespective of glycemic status, whereas CMTL increased superoxide only in cells from the normoglycemic group. Phagocytic activity in colostrum increased significantly in the presence of melatonin, NAS and CMLT, irrespective of glycemic status. The bactericidal activity of colostral phagocytes against enterophatogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) increased in the presence of melatonin or NAS in the normoglycemic group, but not in the hyperglycemic group. Luzindole blocked melatonin action on colostrum phagocytes. Phagocytes from the normoglycemic group treated with melatonin exhibited an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) release. Phagocytes treated with TMB-8 (intracellular Ca(2+) inhibitor) decreased superoxide, bactericidal activity and intracellular Ca(2+) release in both groups. The results obtained suggest an interactive effect of glucose metabolism and melatonin on colostral phagocytes. In colostral phagocytes from normoglycemic mothers, melatonin likely increases the ability of colostrum to protect against

  15. Diverse Activities of Histone Acylations Connect Metabolism to Chromatin Function.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Arnob; Abmayr, Susan M; Workman, Jerry L

    2016-08-18

    Modifications of histones play important roles in balancing transcriptional output. The discovery of acyl marks, besides histone acetylation, has added to the functional diversity of histone modifications. Since all modifications use metabolic intermediates as substrates for chromatin-modifying enzymes, the prevalent landscape of histone modifications in any cell type is a snapshot of its metabolic status. Here, we review some of the current findings of how differential use of histone acylations regulates gene expression as response to metabolic changes and differentiation programs. PMID:27540855

  16. Antioxidant/oxidant status and cardiac function in bradykinin B(1)- and B(2)-receptor null mice.

    PubMed

    Delemasure, S; Blaes, N; Richard, C; Couture, R; Bader, M; Dutartre, P; Girolami, J-P; Connat, J-L; Rochette, L

    2013-01-01

    Kinin-vasoactive peptides activate two G-protein-coupled receptors (R), B(1)R (inducible) and B(2)R (constitutive). Their complex role in cardiovascular diseases could be related to differential actions on oxidative stress. This study investigated impacts of B(1)R or B(2)R gene deletion in mice on the cardiac function and plasma antioxidant and oxidant status. Echocardiography-Doppler was performed in B(1)R (B(1)R(-/-)) and B(2)R (B(2)R(-/-)) deficient and wild type (WT) adult male mice. No functional alteration was observed in B(2)R(-/-) hearts. B(1)R(-/-) mice had significantly lowered fractional shortening and increased isovolumetric contraction time. The diastolic E and A waves velocity ratio was similar in all mice groups. Thus B(1)R(-/-) mice provide a model of moderate systolic dysfunction, whereas B(2)R(-/-) mice displayed a normal cardiac phenotype. Plasma antioxidant capacity (ORAC) was significantly decreased in both B(1)R(-/-) and B(2)R(-/-) mice whereas the vitamin C levels were decreased in B(2)R(-/-) mice only. Plasma ascorbyl free radical was significantly higher in B(1)R(-/-) compared to WT and B(2)R(-/-) mice. Therefore, the oxidative stress index, ascorbyl free radical to vitamin C ratio, was increased in both B(1)R(-/-) and B(2)R(-/-) mice. Hence, B(1)R and B(2)R deficiency are associated with increased oxidative stress, but there is a differential imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defense. The interrelationship between the differential B(1)R and B(2)R roles in oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases remain to be investigated. PMID:24020815

  17. Osteoclast function and bone-resorbing activity: An overview.

    PubMed

    Soysa, Niroshani Surangika; Alles, Neil

    2016-07-29

    Bone resorption is an important cellular function in skeletal development and remodeling of the adult skeleton. Most of the pathological bone disease conditions like osteoporosis reflect increased osteoclast activity; hence, increased bone resorption. Researchers have unraveled most of the intracellular mechanisms responsible for osteoclast bone-resorbing activity in last few decades. Therefore, understanding the fundamentals of osteoclast-induced bone resorption and the cytokines and other substances that modulate the osteoclast activity unequivocally provide insights into the development of drugs to ameliorate pathological bone diseases with enhanced bone resorption. The aim of this review is to examine the literature on osteoclast function and bone-resorbing activity. PMID:27157135

  18. Contributions to gene activation by multiple functions of Bicoid.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, X; Yuan, D; Scarborough, T; Ma, J

    1999-01-01

    Bicoid is a Drosophila morphogenetic protein required for the development of anterior structures in the embryo. To gain a better understanding of how Bicoid works as a transcriptional activator, we systematically analysed various functions of Bicoid required for gene activation. We provide evidence suggesting that Bicoid is an intrinsically weak activator. First, our biochemical experiments demonstrate that the Bicoid-DNA complexes are very unstable, suggesting a weak DNA-binding function of Bicoid. This idea is further supported by our experiments demonstrating that the same number of LexA-Bicoid fusion molecules can activate transcription more effectively from LexA sites than from Bicoid sites. Secondly, we demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the weak activator Bicoid is readily influenced by the local enhancer environment. These influences are decreased when the Bicoid function is enforced by attaching to it either a known dimerization domain or the strong activation domain VP16. VP16 can also compensate for the loss of some Bicoid sites in an enhancer element. Our experiments demonstrate that the outcome of transcriptional activation by Bicoid is determined by multiple weak functions that are interconnected, a finding that can further help us to understand how this morphogenetic protein achieves its molecular functions. PMID:10024522

  19. Cellular recovery of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and thiol status after exposure to hydroperoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, A.E.; Reed, D.J. )

    1990-01-01

    The activity of the thiol-dependent enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD), in vertebrate cells, was modulated by a change in the intracellular thiol:disulfide redox status. Human lung carcinoma cells (A549) were incubated with 1-120 mM H2O2, 1-120 mM t-butyl hydroperoxide, 1-6 mM ethacrynic acid, or 0.1-10 mM N-ethylmaleimide for 5 min. Loss of reduced protein thiols, as measured by binding of the thiol reagent iodoacetic acid to GPD, and loss of GPD enzymatic activity occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation of the cells, following oxidative treatment, in saline for 30 min or with 20 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) partially reversed both changes in GPD. The enzymatic recovery of GPD activity was observed either without addition of thiols to the medium or by incubation of a sonicated cell mixture with 2 mM cysteine, cystine, cysteamine, or glutathione (GSH); GSSG had no effect. Treatment of cells with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) to decrease cellular GSH by varying amounts caused a dose-related increase in sensitivity of GPD activity to inactivation by H2O2 and decreased cellular ability for subsequent recovery. GPD responded in a similar fashion with oxidative treatment of another lung carcinoma cell line (A427) as well as normal lung tissue from human and rat. These findings indicate that the cellular thiol redox status can be important in determining GPD enzymatic activity.

  20. Identity statuses and psychosocial functioning in Turkish youth: a person-centered approach.

    PubMed

    Morsunbul, Umit; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Cok, Figen; Meeus, Wim

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we tested whether the five identity statuses of the original Meeus-Crocetti model could be extracted in a Turkish sample. Their three-factor model of identity was used to examine identity formation. Participants were 1201 (59.6% females) youth aged between 12 and 24 years (Mage = 17.53 years, SDage = 3.25). Findings revealed that the five identity statuses extracted in previous studies (Crocetti, Rubini, Luyckx, & Meeus, 2008; Crocetti, Schwartz, Fermani, Klimstra, & Meeus, 2012) also emerged in a sample of Turkish adolescents and emerging adults. Findings indicated that gender and age affected the distribution of the individuals among the five identity statuses. Furthermore, individuals in the five identity statuses represented distinct profiles according to personality and self characteristics, problem behaviors and well-being, and interpersonal and group relationships. Finally, the status × age interactions indicated that the searching moratorium status became more problematic with age. Implications and suggestions for future research are also discussed. PMID:26411790

  1. Vitamin B12 status of pregnant Indian women and cognitive function in their 9-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Bhate, Vidya; Deshpande, Swapna; Bhat, Dattatray; Joshi, Niranjan; Ladkat, Rasika; Watve, Sujala; Fall, Caroline; de Jager, Celeste A.; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent research has highlighted the influence of maternal factors on the health of the offspring. Intrauterine experiences may program metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychiatric disorders. We have shown that maternal vitamin B12 status affects adiposity and insulin resistance in the child. Vitamin B12 is important for brain development and function. Objective We investigated the relationship between maternal plasma vitamin B12 status during pregnancy and the child's cognitive function at 9 years of age. Methods We studied children born in the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. Two groups of children were selected on the basis of maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentration at 28 weeks of gestation: group 1 (n = 49) included children of mothers with low plasma vitamin B12 (lowest decile, < 77 pM) and group 2 (n = 59) children of mothers with high plasma vitamin B12 (highest decile, > 224 pM). Results Children from group 1 performed more slowly than those from group 2 on the Color Trail A test (sustained attention, 182 vs. 159 seconds; p < .05) and the Digit Span Backward test (short-term memory, p <.05), after appropriate adjustment for confounders. There were no differences between group 1 and group 2 on other tests of cognitive function (intelligence, visual agnosia). Conclusions Maternal vitamin B12 status in pregnancy influences cognitive function in offspring. PMID:19227049

  2. Coming Together and Pulling Apart: Exploring the Influence of Functional Status on Co-resident Relationships in Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Navtej K.; Kemp, Candace L.; Ball, Mary M.; Burgess, Elisabeth O.; Perkins, Molly M.

    2013-01-01

    Social relationships can have considerable influence on physical and mental well-being in later life, particularly for those in long-term care settings such as assisted living (AL). Research set in AL suggests that other residents are among the most available social contacts and that co-resident relationships can affect life satisfaction, quality of life, and well-being. Functional status is a major factor influencing relationships, yet AL research has not studied in-depth or systematically considered the role it plays in residents’ relationships. This study examines the influences of physical and mental function on co-resident relationships in AL and identifies the factors shaping the influence of functional status. We present an analysis of qualitative data collected over a one-year period in two distinct AL settings. Data collection included: participant observation, informal interviews, and formal in-depth interviews with staff, residents, administrators and visitors, as well as surveys with residents. Grounded theory methods guided our data collection and analysis. Our analysis identified the core category, “coming together and pulling apart”, which signifies that functional status is multi-directional, fluid, and operates in different ways in various situations and across time. Key facility- (e.g., admission and retention practices, staff intervention) and resident-level (e.g., personal and situational characteristics) factors shape the influence of functional status on co-resident relationships. Based on our findings, we suggest strategies for promoting positive relationships among residents in AL, including the need to educate staff, families, and residents. PMID:24300052

  3. Effect of Early Rehabilitation during Intensive Care Unit Stay on Functional Status: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Avila, Ana Cristina; Serón, Pamela; Fan, Eddy; Gaete, Mónica; Mickan, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Critically ill survivors may have functional impairments even five years after hospital discharge. To date there are four systematic reviews suggesting a beneficial impact for mobilisation in mechanically ventilated and intensive care unit (ICU) patients, however there is limited information about the influence of timing, frequency and duration of sessions. Earlier mobilisation during ICU stay may lead to greater benefits. This study aims to determine the effect of early rehabilitation for functional status in ICU/high-dependency unit (HDU) patients. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH, PEDro, Cochrane Library, AMED, ISI web of science, Scielo, LILACS and several clinical trial registries were searched for randomised and non-randomised clinical trials of rehabilitation compared to usual care in adult patients admitted to an ICU/HDU. Results were screened by two independent reviewers. Primary outcome was functional status. Secondary outcomes were walking ability, muscle strength, quality of life, and healthcare utilisation. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment using the PEDro scale was performed by primary reviewer and checked by two other reviewers. The authors of relevant studies were contacted to obtain missing data. Results 5733 records were screened. Seven articles were included in the narrative synthesis and six in the meta-analysis. Early rehabilitation had no significant effect on functional status, muscle strength, quality of life, or healthcare utilisation. However, early rehabilitation led to significantly more patients walking without assistance at hospital discharge (risk ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.72). There was a non-significant effect favouring intervention for walking distance and incidence of ICU-acquired weakness. Conclusions Early rehabilitation during ICU stay was not associated with improvements in functional status, muscle strength, quality of life or healthcare utilisation

  4. Acceleration of reverse analysis method using hyperbolic activation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pwasong, Augustine; Sathasivam, Saratha

    2015-10-01

    Hyperbolic activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing data mining by using a technique named as Reverse Analysis method. In this paper, we describe how Hopfield network perform better with hyperbolic activation function and able to induce logical rules from large database by using reverse analysis method: given the values of the connections of a network, we can hope to know what logical rules are entrenched in the database. We limit our analysis to Horn clauses.

  5. Soil moisture active passive (SMAP) satellite status and cal/val activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite will be launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in November 2014. This satellite is the culmination of basic research and applications development over the past thirty years. During most of this period, research and development ...

  6. Aeroservoelastic wind-tunnel investigations using the Active Flexible Wing Model: Status and recent accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Thomas E.; Perry, Boyd, III; Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Cole, Stanley R.; Buttrill, Carey S.; Adams, William M., Jr.; Houck, Jacob A.; Srinathkumar, S.; Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Pototzky, Anthony S.

    1989-01-01

    The status of the joint NASA/Rockwell Active Flexible Wing Wind-Tunnel Test Program is described. The objectives are to develop and validate the analysis, design, and test methodologies required to apply multifunction active control technology for improving aircraft performance and stability. Major tasks include designing digital multi-input/multi-output flutter-suppression and rolling-maneuver-load alleviation concepts for a flexible full-span wind-tunnel model, obtaining an experimental data base for the basic model and each control concept and providing comparisons between experimental and analytical results to validate the methodologies. The opportunity is provided to improve real-time simulation techniques and to gain practical experience with digital control law implementation procedures.

  7. Using activation status of signaling pathways as mechanism-based biomarkers to predict drug sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Amadoz, Alicia; Sebastian-Leon, Patricia; Vidal, Enrique; Salavert, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquin

    2015-01-01

    Many complex traits, as drug response, are associated with changes in biological pathways rather than being caused by single gene alterations. Here, a predictive framework is presented in which gene expression data are recoded into activity statuses of signal transduction circuits (sub-pathways within signaling pathways that connect receptor proteins to final effector proteins that trigger cell actions). Such activity values are used as features by a prediction algorithm which can efficiently predict a continuous variable such as the IC50 value. The main advantage of this prediction method is that the features selected by the predictor, the signaling circuits, are themselves rich-informative, mechanism-based biomarkers which provide insight into or drug molecular mechanisms of action (MoA). PMID:26678097

  8. Effects of Physical (In)activity on Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Heber, Stefan; Volf, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    As platelet activation is closely related to the liberation of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, platelets play a central role in the development of CVD. Virtually all cardiovascular risk factors favor platelet hyperreactivity and, accordingly, also physical (in)activity affects platelet function. Within this paper, we will summarize and discuss the current knowledge on the impact of acute and habitual exercise on platelet function. Although there are apparent discrepancies regarding the reported effects of acute, strenuous exercise on platelet activation, a deeper analysis of the available literature reveals that the applied exercise intensity and the subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness represent critical determinants for the observed effects. Consideration of these factors leads to the summary that (i) acute, strenuous exercise can lead to platelet activation, (ii) regular physical activity and/or physical fitness diminish or prevent platelet activation in response to acute exercise, and (iii) habitual physical activity and/or physical fitness also favorably modulate platelet function at physical rest. Notably, these effects of exercise on platelet function show obvious similarities to the well-recognized relation between exercise and the risk for cardiovascular events where vigorous exercise transiently increases the risk for myocardial infarction and a physically active lifestyle dramatically reduces cardiovascular mortality. PMID:26557653

  9. Metabolic and energy status during the dry period is crucial for the resumption of ovarian activity postpartum in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, N; Kawashima, C; van Dorland, H A; Morel, I; Miyamoto, A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2012-10-01

    It is well known that the degree of negative energy balance in high-producing dairy cows is the major cause of delayed resumption of the ovarian cyclicity that closely relates to fertility. Recent evidence suggests that the energetic situation during early lactation critically affects nutrient partitioning, metabolism, and the reproductive axis, whereas the effect of energy status during the dry period is widely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of energy status throughout the entire dry period until early lactation on the onset of the ovarian cyclicity. Blood samples were taken in 23 cows from dry off at 8 wk before expected parturition to 8 wk postpartum for the analyses of metabolites and hormones, and milk samples were obtained 3 times weekly from d 7 of lactation onward to confirm luteal activity and pregnancy by milk progesterone analysis. Energy balance (EB) was measured weekly during the last 6 wk of the dry period and every other week after parturition. Liver biopsies were obtained at 8 wk before expected calving, within 1 d after calving, and at 4 wk postpartum to measure the mRNA abundance of various gluconeogenic enzymes and metabolic hormone receptors. Cows showing luteal activity within 3 wk postpartum were defined as ovulatory during the first follicular wave postpartum (OC), whereas cows without luteal activity within 3 wk postpartum were defined as anovulatory (AC). Energy balance and, concomitantly, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were higher in OC than in AC during the dry period. Plasma thyroxine concentrations and body condition score during the postpartum period were higher in OC than in AC. At the mRNA level (19 cows), hepatic insulin receptor decreased from dry off to early lactation, and mRNA of pyruvate carboxylase was highest at parturition and decreased in early lactation in AC only, whereas both parameters remained unchanged

  10. Technosocial Modeling for Determining the Status and Nature of a State’s Nuclear Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Harvey, Julia B.

    2009-09-25

    The International Atomic Energy Agency State Evaluation Process: The Role of Information Analysis in Reaching Safeguards Conclusions (Mathews et al. 2008), several examples of nonproliferation models using analytical software were developed that may assist the IAEA with collecting, visualizing, analyzing, and reporting information in support of the State Evaluation Process. This paper focuses on one of the examples a set of models developed in the Proactive Scenario Production, Evidence Collection, and Testing (ProSPECT) software that evaluates the status and nature of a state’s nuclear activities. The models use three distinct subject areas to perform this assessment: the presence of nuclear activities, the consistency of those nuclear activities with national nuclear energy goals, and the geopolitical context in which those nuclear activities are taking place. As a proof-of-concept for the models, a crude case study was performed. The study, which attempted to evaluate the nuclear activities taking place in Syria prior to September 2007, yielded illustrative, yet inconclusive, results. Due to the inconclusive nature of the case study results, changes that may improve the model’s efficiency and accuracy are proposed.

  11. TGF-β Activation and Function in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Mark A.; Sheppard, Dean

    2014-01-01

    The cytokine TGF-β plays an integral role in regulating immune responses. TGF-β has pleiotropic effects on adaptive immunity, especially in the regulation of effector and regulatory CD4+ T cell responses. Many immune and nonimmune cells can produce TGF-β, but it is always produced as an inactive complex that must be activated to exert functional effects. Thus, activation of latent TGF-β provides a crucial layer of regulation that controls TGF-β function. In this review, we highlight some of the important functional roles for TGF-β in immunity, focusing on its context-specific roles in either dampening or promoting T cell responses. We also describe how activation of TGF-β controls its function in the immune system, with a focus on the key roles for members of the integrin family in this process. PMID:24313777

  12. A current-type PWM rectifier with active damping function

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Yukihiko; Kataoka, Teruo

    1996-05-01

    A new control method for current-type pulse-width modulation (PWM) rectifiers which can provide active damping function is presented. This damping function is effective only on the harmonic components of ac input current selectively. Thus steady-state waveform distortion and transient oscillation of the input current are reduced by the active damping effects. The active damping function can be realized by feedback control of an LC filter connected to the ac side of the rectifier, and it does not require any additional components in the main circuits, permitting a simple circuit configuration. The control system of the proposed PWM rectifier is analyzed by using a simple block diagram developed in the present paper. From the analytical results, the influence of the circuit parameters and control delay on the active damping effects and the stability of the operation are clarified to establish the design method. To confirm the effectiveness of the active damping function, some results of basic experiments are included. As an example of application of the active damping function, the proposed rectifier is applied to reduce the harmonic currents generated by conventional rectifiers operating in parallel with the proposed rectifier. Some experimental results in this application are also included.

  13. New methodology to assess activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth using laser fluorescence device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Mariana Minatel; Saveriano de Benedetto, Monique; Imparato, Jose Carlos Pettorossi; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2010-07-01

    An in vivo study was conducted to verify the ability of laser fluorescence (LF) to assess the activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth, using different air-drying times. Occlusal sites (707) were examined using LF (DIAGNOdent) after air-drying for 3 s and 15 s, and the difference between readings (DIF15 s-3 s) was calculated. For concurrent validation of LF, visual criteria-Nyvad (NY) and Lesion Activity Assessment associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (LAA-ICDAS)-were the reference standards for lesion activity. Histological exam using a pH-indicator dye (0.1% methyl red) was performed in 46 exfoliated/extracted teeth for criterion validation. LF readings and DIF15 s-3 s were compared using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed and validity parameters calculated, considering the caries activity assessment. Using NY, active lesions (3 s: 30.0+/-29.3 15 s: 34.2+/-30.6) presented higher LF readings than inactive lesions (3 s: 17.0+/-16.3 15 s: 19.2+/-17.3 p<0.05), different from LAA-ICDAS. Active cavitated caries resulted in higher LF readings (3 s: 50.3+/-3.5 15 s: 54.7+/-30.2) than inactive cavitated caries (3 s: 19.9+/-16.3 15 s: 22.8+/-16.8). Therefore, LF can distinguish cavitated active and inactive lesions classified by NY, but not by LAA-ICDAS; however, this difference might be related to the visual system rather than to LF. The air-drying time could be an alternative to improve the caries activity assessment; however, longer air-drying time is suggested to be tested subsequently.

  14. New methodology to assess activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth using laser fluorescence device.

    PubMed

    Braga, Mariana Minatel; de Benedetto, Monique Saveriano; Imparato, Jose Carlos Pettorossi; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2010-01-01

    An in vivo study was conducted to verify the ability of laser fluorescence (LF) to assess the activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth, using different air-drying times. Occlusal sites (707) were examined using LF (DIAGNOdent) after air-drying for 3 s and 15 s, and the difference between readings (DIF15 s-3 s) was calculated. For concurrent validation of LF, visual criteria-Nyvad (NY) and Lesion Activity Assessment associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (LAA-ICDAS)-were the reference standards for lesion activity. Histological exam using a pH-indicator dye (0.1% methyl red) was performed in 46 exfoliated/extracted teeth for criterion validation. LF readings and DIF15 s-3 s were compared using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed and validity parameters calculated, considering the caries activity assessment. Using NY, active lesions (3 s: 30.0+/-29.3; 15 s: 34.2+/-30.6) presented higher LF readings than inactive lesions (3 s: 17.0+/-16.3; 15 s: 19.2+/-17.3; p<0.05), different from LAA-ICDAS. Active cavitated caries resulted in higher LF readings (3 s: 50.3+/-3.5; 15 s: 54.7+/-30.2) than inactive cavitated caries (3 s: 19.9+/-16.3; 15 s: 22.8+/-16.8). Therefore, LF can distinguish cavitated active and inactive lesions classified by NY, but not by LAA-ICDAS; however, this difference might be related to the visual system rather than to LF. The air-drying time could be an alternative to improve the caries activity assessment; however, longer air-drying time is suggested to be tested subsequently. PMID:20799836

  15. Special Care Units and Traditional Care in Dementia: Relationship with Behavior, Cognition, Functional Status and Quality of Life – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Jeroen S.; Berg, Ina J.; Scherder, Erik J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Special care facilities for patients with dementia gain increasing attention. However, an overview of studies examining the differences between care facilities with respect to their effects on behavior, cognition, functional status and quality of life is lacking. Results Our literature search resulted in 32 studies published until October 2012. Overall, patients with dementia who lived at special care units (SCUs) showed a significantly more challenging behavior, more agitation/aggression, more depression and anxiety, more cases of global cognitive impairment and a better psychosocial functioning. There was a tendency towards a better functional status in specialized care facilities, and a better quality of life was found in favor of the SCU group compared to the traditional nursing home (n-SCU) group. Longitudinal studies showed an increased number of neuropsychiatric cases, more patients displaying deteriorating behavior and resistance to care as well as less decline in activities of daily living (ADL) in the SCU group compared to the n-SCU group. Patients in small-scale, homelike SCUs showed more agitation and less ADL decline compared to SCU patients. Conclusion This review shows that the patient characteristics in SCU and n-SCU settings and, to a minor extent, in SCU and small-scale, homelike SCU settings are different. Over time, there are differences between n-SCU, SCU and small-scale, homelike SCU facilities for some variables. PMID:24403908

  16. Social status alters defeat-induced neural activation in Syrian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Kathleen E.; Curry, Daniel W.; Cooper, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    While exposure to social stress leads to increased depression-like and anxiety-like behavior, some individuals are more vulnerable than others to these stress-induced changes in behavior. Prior social experience is one factor that can modulate how individuals respond to stressful events. In this study we investigated whether experience-dependent resistance to the behavioral consequences of social defeat was associated with a specific pattern of neural activation. We paired weight-matched male Syrian hamsters in daily aggressive encounters for two weeks, during which they formed a stable dominance relationship. We also included controls that were exposed to an empty cage each day for two weeks. Twenty-four hours after the final pairing or empty cage exposure, half of the subjects were socially defeated in 3, 5-min encounters, while the others were not socially defeated. Twenty-four hours after social defeat, animals were tested for conditioned defeat in a 5-min social interaction test with a non-aggressive intruder. We collected brains following social defeat and processed tissue for c-Fos immunoreactivity. We found that dominants were more likely to counter-attack the resident aggressor during social defeat than were subordinates, and they showed less submissive and defensive behavior at conditioned defeat testing compared to subordinates. Also, social status was associated with distinct patterns of defeat-induced neural activation in select brain regions including the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, and lateral septum. Our results indicate that social status is an important form of prior experience that predicts both initial coping style and the degree of resistance to social defeat. Further, the differences in defeat-induced neural activation suggest possible brain regions that may control resistance to conditioned defeat in dominant individuals. PMID:22433296

  17. In vitro antioxidant activity and effect of Parkia biglobosa bark extract on mitochondrial redox status.

    PubMed

    Komolafe, Kayode; Olaleye, Tolulope Mary; Omotuyi, Olaposi Idowu; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Akindahunsi, Akintunde Afolabi; Teixeira da Rocha, Joao Batista

    2014-08-01

    Aqueous-methanolic extract of Parkia biglobosa bark (PBB) was screened for its polyphenolic constituents, in vitro antioxidant activity, and effect on mitochondria redox status. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed by using the scavenging abilities and the reducing powers of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) diammonium salt radical cation against Fe(3+). Subsequently, the ability of PBB to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO(4) (10 μm) and its metal-chelating potential were investigated. The effects of the extract on basal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and on the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in isolated mitochondria were determined by using 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin (DCFH) oxidation and safranin fluorescence, respectively. PBB mitigated the Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat tissues and showed dose-dependent scavenging of DPPH (IC(50): 98.33 ± 10.0 μg/mL) and ABTS. (trolox equivalent antioxidant concentration, TEAC value = 0.05), with considerable ferric-reducing and moderate metal-chelating abilities. PBB caused slight decreases in both the liver and the brain mitochondria potentials and resulted in a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in DCFH oxidation. Screening for polyphenolics using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) revealed the presence of caffeic acid, gallic acid, catechin, epigalocatechin, rutin, and quercetin. These results demonstrate for the first time the considerable in vitro antioxidant activity and favorable effect of PBB on mitochondria redox status and provide justification for the use of the plant in ethnomedicine. PMID:25151454

  18. Metabolic status, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian function during acute nutrient restriction of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Lents, C A; White, F J; Ciccioli, N H; Floyd-White, L N; Rubio, I; Keisler, D H; Spicer, L J; Wettemann, R P

    2013-09-01

    The effect of acute nutritional restriction on metabolic status, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian function of heifers was determined in 2 experiments. In Exp. 1, 14-mo-old heifers were fed a diet supplying 1.2 × maintenance energy requirements (1.2M). After 10 d, heifers were fed 1.2M or were restricted to 0.4 × maintenance requirements (0.4M; d 0). Heifers received PGF2α (25 mg, intramuscularly) on d -10, 0, and 10 to synchronize ovulation. After 30 d, 1.2M and 0.4M heifers were realimented to 1.2 M for 100 d. Blood samples were collected every other day from d 0 to 14 then 3 times weekly thereafter. Heifers in Exp. 2 were managed as in Exp. 1 except that animals were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter and blood samples were collected at 10-min intervals for 8 h on d 9, 10, and 11. Concentrations of progesterone in plasma were used to quantify ovarian luteal function. All 1.2M heifers ovulated, whereas only 30% of 0.4M heifers ovulated in Exp. 1. Concentrations of NEFA were greater and concentrations of thyroxine and IGF-I were less (P < 0.05) in plasma of 0.4M heifers compared with 1.2M heifers. The size of dominant follicles in Exp. 1 was reduced (P < 0.05) in 0.4M compared with 1.2M heifers. Concentrations of IGF-I were increased and anovulatory heifers resumed ovarian cycles an average of 35 d after realimentation. Concentrations of insulin were greater (P < 0.05) in plasma of 1.2M compared with 0.4M heifers in Exp. 2. The frequency of LH pulses was reduced (P < 0.05) in 0.4M heifers on d 9, and FSH in plasma on d 11 was not influenced by treatment. Reduced concentrations of IGF-I in plasma of nutrient-restricted heifers were associated with the reduced size of dominant follicles and indicated a local effect of growth factors on follicles. The decreased LH pulse frequency of 0.4M heifers before luteolysis indicates that restriction of nutrients decreased LH support of follicle growth. A preovulatory increase in estradiol in plasma and an

  19. Experimentally induced hyperthyroidism influences oxidant and antioxidant status and impairs male gonadal functions in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Asker, M E; Hassan, W A; El-Kashlan, A M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to study the effect of hyperthyroidism on male gonadal functions and oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers in testis of adult rats. Induction of hyperthyroidism by L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1) body weight) treatment once daily for 3 or 8 weeks caused a decrease in body weight gain as well as in absolute genital sex organs weight. The epididymal sperm counts and their motility were significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner following L-T4 treatment. Significant decline in serum levels of luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone along with significant increase in serum estradiol level was observed in hyperthyroid rats compared with euthyroid ones. Significant increase in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentration associated with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity was also noticed following hyperthyroidism induction. Both reduced glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity were increased in hyperthyroid rats compared with control rats. Marked histopathological alterations were observed in testicular section of hyperthyroid rats. These results provide evidence that hypermetabolic state induced by excess level of thyroid hormones may be a causative factor for the impairment of testicular physiology as a consequence of oxidative stress. PMID:25220112

  20. Morning nutrition and executive function processes in preadolescents: gender variations in phasic modulation of frontal eeg theta activity during a go/ no-go task

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frontal EEG theta activity has been related to executive functions (i.e., goal-directed behavior such as inhibition and flexibility of action). We studied the effects of morning nutritional status on frontal theta-executive function relationships using stimulus-locked responses [event-related increa...

  1. Status of Animal Experiments on International Space Station, and Animal Care Activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Ryutaro; Ishioka, Noriaki; Yumoto, Akane; Ito, Isao; Shirakawa, Masaki

    We would like to introduce animal experiments status on International Space Station (ISS) of Japan. Aquatic Habitat (AQH) was launched at 2012 July, by H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV, ‘Kounotori’) from Tanegashima island in Japan, which could house small fish (Medaka, or Zebrafish) at most three months. First experiment using AQH was carried out for two months from Oct. 26, 2012, and second experiment would start from February, 2014. Mice housing hardware is now under development. For animal care activities, current topic in Japan is self-estimation for animal experiment status by each institute, and to open the result for public. JAXA conducted self-estimation of fiscal year 2011 (from 2011 April until 2012 March) for the first time, and would continue every fiscal year. JAXA already have its own animal care regulation, under animal care law and policy in Japan, and also referred COSPAR animal care guideline. And this year, JAXA made handbook for animal experiments in space (only Japanese).

  2. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Status and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entekhabi, D.; Yueh, S. H.; O'Neill, P. E.; Entin, J. K.; Njoku, E. G.; Kellogg, K.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched on January 31, 2015. SMAP provides high-resolution, frequent revisit global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state based on coincident L-band radiometer and L-band radar measurements. The primary science goal of SMAP is to provide new perspectives on how the three fundamental cycles of the Earth system, the water, energy and carbon cycles, are linked together over land. Soil moisture is the key variable that links the three cycles and makes their co-variations synchronous in time. Soil moisture products with varying resolution and coverage are produced from the radiometer alone, radar alone, radiometer-radar combination and data assimilation. In this session the status of the SMAP observatory and early results based on the science data products will be included. The science data acquisition began in May 2015 following several weeks of observatory and instrument commissioning. An intense calibration and validation period followed. Preliminary science products on instrument measurements, soil moisture, landscape frozen or thawed status, and net ecosystem exchange are available at publicly-accessible data archives. The presentation will include early and summary results on the validation of these products. The instrument measurements can also be used to map sea-ice coverage, ocean surface winds and sea surface salinity. Examples of these global retrievals are also presented.

  3. Vitamin and mineral status in physically active men: effects of a high-potency supplement.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Moses, F M; Deuster, P A

    1992-01-01

    Changes in nutritional status during supplementation with a high-potency multivitamin-mineral supplement were examined in 22 physically active men randomly assigned to take a supplement (n = 11) or placebo (n = 11) for approximately 12 wk. Four-day dietary intakes, blood concentrations, and urinary excretions of selected vitamins and minerals were measured before, during (approximately 6 and 12 wk), and after supplementation. No changes were observed in blood concentrations of vitamins A and C and measures of zinc, magnesium, and calcium status; the supplement provided less than 300% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of these nutrients. In contrast, blood concentrations of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamins B-6 and B-12, pantothenate, and biotin increased significantly (P less than 0.05) by 6 wk to values that were maintained until the end of the supplementation. These vitamins were provided in amounts that ranged from 396% (biotin) to 6250% (vitamin B-6) of the RDA. Urinary excretions of these vitamins also increased during supplementation and both blood and urine values returned to presupplementation concentrations at approximately 13.5 wk postsupplementation. PMID:1728807

  4. The relationship between adolescents' physical activity, fundamental movement skills and weight status.

    PubMed

    O' Brien, Wesley; Belton, Sarahjane; Issartel, Johann

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a potential relationship among physical activity (PA), fundamental movement skills and weight status exists amongst early adolescent youth. Participants were a sample of 85 students; 54 boys (mean age = 12.94 ± 0.33 years) and 31 girls (mean age = 12.75 ± 0.43 years). Data gathered during physical education class included PA (accelerometry), fundamental movement skills and anthropometric measurements. Standard multiple regression revealed that PA and total fundamental movement skill proficiency scores explained 16.5% (P < 0.001) of the variance in the prediction of body mass index. Chi-square tests for independence further indicated that compared with overweight or obese adolescents, a significantly higher proportion of adolescents classified as normal weight achieved mastery/near-mastery in fundamental movement skills. Results from the current investigation indicate that weight status is an important correlate of fundamental movement skill proficiency during adolescence. Aligned with most recent research, school- and community-based programmes that include developmentally structured learning experiences delivered by specialists can significantly improve fundamental movement skill proficiency in youth. PMID:26437119

  5. Relationship between cognitive impairment and nutritional assessment on functional status in Calabrian long-term-care

    PubMed Central

    Malara, Alba; Sgrò, Giovanni; Caruso, Chiara; Ceravolo, Francesco; Curinga, Giuseppe; Renda, Grazia Francesca; Spadea, Fausto; Garo, Michele; Rispoli, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Objective The interaction between dementia and nutritional state is very complex and not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the interaction between cognitive impairment and nutritional state in a cohort of residential elderly in relationship with functional condition of patients and their load of assistance in long-term-care facilities of the National Association of Third Age Structures (ANASTE) Calabria. Methods One hundred seventy-four subjects (122 female and 52 male) were admitted to the long-term-care ANASTE Calabria study. All patients underwent multidimensional geriatric assessment. Nutritional state was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), whereas cognitive performance was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The functional state was assessed by Barthel Index (BI) and Activity Daily Living (ADL). The following nutritional biochemical parameters were also evaluated: albumin, cholesterol, iron, and hemoglobin. All patients were reassessed 180 days later. Results A severe cognitive impairment in MMSE performance was displayed in 49.7% patients, while 39.8% showed a moderate deficit; 6.9% had a slight deficit; and 3.4% evidenced no cognitive impairment. In MNA, 30% of patients exhibited an impairment of nutritional state; 56% were at risk of malnutrition; and 14% showed no nutritional problems. Malnutrition was present in 42% of patients with severe cognitive impairment, but only 4% of malnourished patients showed moderate cognitive deficit. The statistical analysis displayed a significant correlation between MNA and MMSE (P<0.001), as did MMSE correlated with Activity Daily Living (P<0.001) and BI (P<0.05). MNA correlated with BI (P<0.001) and albumin (P<0.001). The follow-up showed a strong correlation between cognitive deterioration and worsening of nutritional state (P<0.005) as well as with the functional state (P<0.05) and mortality (P<0.01). Conclusion The present study clearly shows that

  6. Ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films functionalized with therapeutically active collagen networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Chen, M.; Bruno, P.; Lam, R.; Robinson, E.; Gruen, D.; Ho, D.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication of biologically amenable interfaces in medicine bridges translational technologies with their surrounding biological environment. Functionalized nanomaterials catalyze this coalescence through the creation of biomimetic and active substrates upon which a spectrum of therapeutic elements can be delivered to adherent cells to address biomolecular processes in cancer, inflammation, etc. Here, we demonstrate the robust functionalization of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) with type I collagen and dexamethasone (Dex), an anti-inflammatory drug, to fabricate a hybrid therapeutically active substrate for localized drug delivery. UNCD oxidation coupled with a pH-mediated collagen adsorption process generated a comprehensive interface between the two materials, and subsequent Dex integration, activity, and elution were confirmed through inflammatory gene expression assays. These studies confer a translational relevance to the biofunctionalized UNCD in its role as an active therapeutic network for potent regulation of cellular activity toward applications in nanomedicine.

  7. Hematological and Biochemical Markers of Iron Status in a Male, Young, Physically Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Lázaro Alessandro Soares; Grotto, Helena Zerlotti W.; Brenzikofer, René; Macedo, Denise Vaz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals (RIs) for the hemogram and iron status biomarkers in a physically active population. The study population included male volunteers (n = 150) with an average age of 19 ± 1 years who had participated in a regular and controlled exercise program for four months. Blood samples were collected to determine hematological parameters using a Sysmex XE-5000 analyzer (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). Iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation and ferritin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in serum samples were measured using commercial kits (Roche Diagnostics, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and a Roche/Hitachi 902 analyzer. The RIs were established using the RefVal program 4.1b. The leucocyte count, TIBC, and CRP and ferritin concentrations exhibited higher RIs compared with those in a nonphysically active population. Thirty volunteers (outliers) were removed from the reference population due to blood abnormalities. Among the outliers, 46% exhibited higher CRP concentrations and lower concentrations of iron and reticulocyte hemoglobin compared with the nonphysically active population (P < 0.001). Our results showed that it is important to establish RIs for certain laboratory parameters in a physically active population, especially for tests related to the inflammatory response and iron metabolism. PMID:25045665

  8. Neighborhood Environment Profiles Related to Physical Activity and Weight Status: A Latent Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Marc A.; Sallis, James F.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Conway, Terry L.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Norman, Gregory J.; Cain, Kelli L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Neighborhood built environments (BE) include combinations of co-existing stimuli influencing physical activity (PA). Dealing with numerous environmental variables and complexity presents a significant challenge. The current analysis explored whether a range of reported BE features associated with adults’ physical activity produced distinct multivariate patterns, and tested whether adults’ PA and body mass differed by BE profiles. Methods Participants (20-65 years, 48.2% female, 26% ethnic minority) were recruited between 2002-2005 from 32 neighborhoods from Seattle-King County, WA (N= 1,287) and Baltimore, MD - Washington, DC regions (N=912). Independent Latent Profile Analyses were conducted in each region with 11 environmental variables from the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale. Validity of the neighborhood profiles was examined by their relationship to PA (accelerometer-derived moderate-to-vigorous minutes/day, self-reported minutes/week of walking for transportation and leisure) and self-reported BMI using ANCOVA models. Results Neighborhood profiles for Seattle and Baltimore regions were visually similar, suggesting generalizability. High-walkable recreationally-dense neighborhoods differed significantly from other neighborhood types by as much as 13 MVPA minutes/day, almost 60 minutes/week of walking for transportation, and 75 minutes/week of leisure-time activity. Neighborhood profiles also differed significantly for BMI. Discussion These findings could help identify optimal patterns of environmental attributes that facilitate physical activity and improve weight status. PMID:21382400

  9. Functions of Status Testing in the Development of an Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred C.; And Others

    This paper describes status testing conducted by the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Composition Skills Program at the primary level. The outcomes of the program range from acquiring letter formation and word spacing proficiencies to writing a composition consistently organized according to a discernible framework and containing varieties of…

  10. Does being a mom help or hurt? Workplace incivility as a function of motherhood status.

    PubMed

    Miner, Kathi N; Pesonen, Amanda D; Smittick, Amber L; Seigel, Michael L; Clark, Emily K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which motherhood status predicts being a target of workplace incivility and moderates the relationship between incivility and negative outcomes among employed women. Participants included a nationwide sample of law school faculty members (N = 1,234; 48% female, 85% White) who completed measures of workplace incivility, parenting status, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and depression. Results showed that mothers with 3 children were treated more uncivilly than women with fewer children and that mothering mitigated negative outcomes associated with being the target of incivility. Exploratory analyses examining fatherhood status as a predictor of workplace incivility and moderator of incivility and outcomes showed that fathers reported experiencing more workplace incivility than nonfathers, but being a father did not attenuate the negative outcomes of incivility. In addition, mothers reported more incivility than fathers and childless women reported more incivility than childless men. Childless women were also the most negatively affected by incivility at work. This study advances our understanding of how motherhood status affects women's experiences at work. PMID:24447221

  11. Bias in the Attribution of Hyperkinetic Behavior as a Function of Ethnic Identification and Socioeconomic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Gwendolyn

    1981-01-01

    Children from various cultural backgrounds were assessed for hyperkinesis using a behavioral rating scale in order to determine whether perceived socioeconomic status and ethnic identification of assessees would influence judgement. Lower socioeconomic and ethnic minority children were rated as being more hyperkinetic than middle class and…

  12. Somatic and Functional Status of Boys from Various Social and Environmental Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Ignasiak, Zofia; Slawinska, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the somatic and fitness status of adolescent boys from polluted industrial areas. Material and methods: A group of 313 boys aged 11-15 years from 5 villages located in the copper mine area in South-Western Poland were classified by the degree of lead and cadmium pollution (high--very high) and by parents' education…

  13. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  14. Functional domain analysis of the Saccharomyces MAL-activator.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Gibson, A W; Kim, J H; Wojciechowicz, L A; Zhang, B; Michels, C A

    1999-08-01

    MAL63 of the MAL6 locus and its homologues at the other MAL loci encode transcription activators required for the maltose-inducible expression of the MAL structural genes. We carried out a deletion analysis of LexA-MAL63 gene fusions to localize the functional domains of the Mal63 MAL-activator protein. Our results indicate that the sequence-specific DNA-binding domain of Mal63p is contained in residues 1-100; that residues 60-283 constitute a functional core region including the transactivation domain; that residues 251-299 are required to inhibit the activation function of Mal63p; and that the rest of the C-terminal region of the protein contains a maltose-responsive domain that acts to relieve the inhibitory effect on the activation function. Abundant overproduction of Mal63p does not overcome the negative regulation of MAL gene expression in the absence of maltose, suggesting that a titratable MAL-specific repressor similar to Gal80p is not involved in the negative regulation of the MAL-activator. A model for maltose-inducible autoregulation of the MAL-activator is presented. PMID:10447589

  15. Association between smoking status and the parameters of vascular structure and function in adults: results from the EVIDENT study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study analyses the relation between smoking status and the parameters used to assess vascular structure and function. Methods This cross-sectional, multi-centre study involved a random sample of 1553 participants from the EVIDENT study. Measurements: The smoking status, peripheral augmentation index and ankle-brachial index were measured in all participants. In a small subset of the main population (265 participants), the carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity were also measured. Results After controlling for the effect of age, sex and other risk factors, present smokers have higher values of carotid intima-media thickness (p = 0.011). Along the same lines, current smokers have higher values of pulse wave velocity and lower mean values of ankle-brachial index but without statistical significance in both cases. Conclusions Among the parameters of vascular structure and function analysed, only the IMT shows association with the smoking status, after adjusting for confounders. PMID:24289208

  16. Perceived and Police Reported Neighborhood Crime: Linkages to Adolescent Activity Behaviors and Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie; Choo, Tse; Larson, Nicole; Van Riper, David; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Inadequate physical activity and obesity during adolescence are areas of public health concern. Questions exist about the role of neighborhoods in the etiology of these problems. This research addressed the relationships of perceived and objective reports of neighborhood crime to adolescent physical activity, screen media use, and BMI. Methods Socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (N=2,455, 53.4% female) from 20 urban, public middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota responded to a classroom survey in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study. Body mass index (BMI) was measured by research staff. Participants’ mean age was 14.6 (SD=2.0); 82.7% represented racial/ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic white. Linear regressions examined associations between crime perceived by adolescents and crime reported to police and the outcomes of interest (BMI z-scores, physical activity, and screen time). Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school. Results BMI was positively associated with perceived crime among girls and boys and with reported crime in girls. For girls, there was an association between higher perceived crime and increased screen time; for boys, between higher reported property crime and reduced physical activity. Perceived crime was associated with reported crime, both property and personal, in both genders. Conclusions Few prior studies of adolescents have studied the association between both perceived and reported crime and BMI. Community-based programs for youth should consider addressing adolescents’ safety concerns along with other perceived barriers to physical activity. Interventions targeting actual crime rates are also important. PMID:26206444

  17. Socioeconomic status indicators, physical activity, and overweight/obesity in Brazilian children

    PubMed Central

    Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Mire, Emily; Barreira, Tiago V; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Katzmarzyk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and physical activity and overweight/obesity in children. Methods: 485 children wore accelerometers for 7 days. Variables included time in sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and steps/day. Children were further categorized as meeting or not meeting guidelines of ≥60min/day MVPA and ≥12,000 steps/day. Body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) were measured using bioelectrical impedance. Overweight/obesity was defined as BMI >+1 SD and BF% ≥85th percentile. Parents answered questionnaires that questioned total annual household income, parental education level, parental employment status and automobile ownership. Results: Children averaged 59.5min/day in MVPA (44.1% met MVPA guidelines), and 9639 steps/day (18.4% met steps/day guidelines). 45.4% and 33% were overweight/obese classified by BMI and BF% respectively. Higher relative total annual household income level (Odds Ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval=0.15-0.65), and relatively higher maternal (OR=0.38; 95%CI=0.20-0.72) and paternal (OR=0.36; 95%CI=0.17-0.75) education levels were associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA guidelines. Household automobile ownership was associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA (OR=0.48; 95%CI=0.31-0.75) and steps/day guidelines (OR=0.44; 95%CI=0.26-0.74). Conclusions: SES indicators were not associated with overweight/obesity, but higher SES was associated with lower odds of children meeting MVPA guidelines. PMID:26975562

  18. 76 FR 72715 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    .../ Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border..., Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. This request for comment is being made pursuant to.../Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. OMB Number: 1651-0001....

  19. Prefrontal activation predicts social functioning improvement after initial treatment in late-onset depression.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Katsutoshi; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Nagata, Izumi; Kaneko, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    The activation of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) has been shown to be lacking in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of patients with late-onset depression (LOD), in verbal fluency task (VFT)-related near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In our previous studies, we have emphasized the connection between the lack of activation in the frontopolar cortex and social functioning disorder in patients with LOD. In this study, we investigated whether the responsiveness to medical treatment of untreated patients with LOD, particularly social functioning improvements, could be predicted by NIRS findings at the initial examination. The subjects were 29 patients with LOD who were diagnosed with major depression at 65 years or older at the initial examination (mean age ± standard deviation, 72.4 ± 5.71 years). We measured the changes in hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal and temporal cortex regions during a VFT by using 52-channel NIRS. In addition, depression status and social functioning were evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale, respectively, at the initial examination and 8 weeks after the treatment. A negative correlation was found between the NIRS activation in the right ventrolateral PFC region before treatment and the improvement in social functioning. These results suggested that the social functioning improvements were greater in LOD with initially lower NIRS activation in the right ventrolateral PFC region. NIRS is a simple technique that can be used before treatment to evaluate the social functioning levels of patients with LOD, and predict social functioning improvement after treatment. PMID:25659188

  20. The relationship between disease activity measured by the BASDAI and psychological status, stressful life events, and sleep quality in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yutong; Yang, Mingcan; Wu, Husheng; Song, Hui; Zhan, Feng; Liu, Shengyun; Gao, Guanmin; Liu, Zhangsuo; Hu, Zhaoxian; He, Peigen; Zhang, Shengtao; Hu, Zaiying; Lin, Zhiming; Zhang, Yanli; Li, Yinong; Shen, Lingxun; Huang, Anbing; Liao, Zetao; Cao, Shuangyan; Wei, Yanlin; Li, Li; Li, Qiuxia; Lv, Qing; Qi, Jun; Huang, Jianlin; Li, Tianwang; Jin, O; Pan, Yunfeng; Gu, J

    2015-03-01

    Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) is a standard instrument regularly used to assess disease activity of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, the well-being of a patient is also affected by impairment of function as well as psychological status and other factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate if psychological status, stressful life events, and sleep quality contribute significantly to BASDAI. Six hundred eighty-three AS patients satisfying the Modified New York Criteria for AS were recruited from the rheumatology clinics of seven hospitals in China. Patients with other concomitant disorders were excluded. Participants were requested to complete a set of clinical examinations and the following questionnaires: Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire (PSQI), Health Assessment Questionnaire for Spondyloarthropathies (HAQ-S), and Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS). Spearman correlation analysis showed that BASDAI was highly associated with degree and duration of morning stiffness, overall pain, nocturnal back pain, overall back pain, anxiety, and BASFI (all P < 0.001), but were not associated with education, HAQ-S, and sleep medication in PSQI (P > 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that overall pain was the maximal statistical contribution in predicting disease activity (standardized coefficient, 0.335). In hierarchic multiple regression analysis, psychological variables added an only additional 2.7% to the overall R(2) beyond that accounted for by demographic and medical variables, resulting in a final R(2) of 53.5%. Although BASDAI is a very good measurement of pain and stiffness and to a certain extent effect of functional impairment in AS, it barely takes into account psychological

  1. Synchronization-based approach for detecting functional activation of brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Lei; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhang, Jie; Zhuo, Zhao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Zhou, Pei-Ling

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate a synchronization-based, data-driven clustering approach for the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, and specifically for detecting functional activation from fMRI data. We first define a new measure of similarity between all pairs of data points (i.e., time series of voxels) integrating both complete phase synchronization and amplitude correlation. These pairwise similarities are taken as the coupling between a set of Kuramoto oscillators, which in turn evolve according to a nearest-neighbor rule. As the network evolves, similar data points naturally synchronize with each other, and distinct clusters will emerge. The clustering behavior of the interaction network of the coupled oscillators, therefore, mirrors the clustering property of the original multiple time series. The clustered regions whose cross-correlation coefficients are much greater than other regions are considered as the functionally activated brain regions. The analysis of fMRI data in auditory and visual areas shows that the recognized brain functional activations are in complete correspondence with those from the general linear model of statistical parametric mapping, but with a significantly lower time complexity. We further compare our results with those from traditional K-means approach, and find that our new clustering approach can distinguish between different response patterns more accurately and efficiently than the K-means approach, and therefore more suitable in detecting functional activation from event-related experimental fMRI data.

  2. Activation status of the Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) influences Vemurafenib availability in humanized mouse models

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, A. Kenneth; McLaughlin, Lesley A.; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland

    2015-01-01

    Vemurafenib is a revolutionary treatment for melanoma, but the magnitude of therapeutic response is highly variable and the rapid acquisition of resistance is frequent. Here, we examined how vemurafenib disposition, particularly through cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation pathways, could potentially influence these outcomes using a panel of knockout and transgenic humanized mouse models. We identified CYP3A4 as the major enzyme involved in the metabolism of vemurafenib in in vitro assays with human liver microsomes. However, mice expressing human CYP3A4 did not process vemurafenib to a greater extent than CYP3A4 null animals, suggesting that other pregnane X receptor (PXR)-regulated pathways may contribute more significantly to vemurafenib metabolism in vivo. Activation of PXR, but not of the closely related constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), profoundly reduced circulating levels of vemurafenib in humanized mice. This effect was independent of CYP3A4 and was negated by co-treatment with the drug efflux transporter inhibitor, elacridar. Finally, vemurafenib strongly induced PXR activity in vitro, but only weakly induced PXR in vivo. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that vemurafenib is unlikely to exhibit a clinically significant interaction with CYP3A4, but that modulation of bioavailability through PXR-mediated regulation of drug transporters (for example by other drugs) has the potential to markedly influence systemic exposure and thereby therapeutic outcomes. Activation status of the Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) influences Vemurafenib availability in humanized mouse models. PMID:26363009

  3. Dipeptides Increase Functional Activity of Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Malinin, V V; Durnova, A O; Polyakova, V O; Kvetnoi, I M

    2015-05-01

    We analyzed the effect of dipeptide Glu-Trp and isovaleroyl-Glu-Trp in concentrations of 0.2, 2 and 20 μg/ml and Actovegin preparation on functional activity of human skin fibroblasts. Dipeptides, especially Glu-Trp, produce a stimulating effect on human skin fibroblasts and their effect is equivalent to that of Actovegin. Dipeptides stimulate cell renewal processes by activating synthesis of Ki-67 and reducing expression of caspase-9 and enhance antioxidant function of the cells by stimulating the expression of Hsp-90 and inducible NO-synthase. These findings suggest that dipeptides are promising candidates for preparations stimulating reparative processes. PMID:26033609

  4. In vivo activation and functions of the protease factor XII.

    PubMed

    Björkqvist, Jenny; Nickel, Katrin F; Stavrou, Evi; Renné, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Combinations of proinflammatory and procoagulant reactions are the unifying principle for a variety of disorders affecting the cardiovascular system. Factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) is a plasma protease that initiates the contact system. The biochemistry of the contact system in vitro is well understood; however, its in vivo functions are just beginning to emerge. The current review concentrates on activators and functions of the FXII-driven contact system in vivo. Elucidating its physiologic activities offers the exciting opportunity to develop strategies for the safe interference with both thrombotic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:25187064

  5. The level of association between functional performance status measures and patient-reported outcomes in cancer patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Charissa F.; Roberts, Kailey E.; Saracino, Rebecca M.; Hernandez, Marisol; Basch, Ethan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The process of assessing patient symptoms and functionality using patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and functional performance status (FPS) is an essential aspect of patient-centered oncology research and care. However, PRO and FPS measures are often employed separately or inconsistently combined. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the level of association between PRO and FPS measures to determine their differential or combined utility. Methods A systematic search was conducted using five databases (1966 to February 2014) to identify studies that described an association between PRO and FPS. Studies were excluded if they were non-cancer specific, did not include adults aged 18 or older, or were review articles. Publications were selected for review by consensus among two authors, with a third author arbitrating as needed. Results A total of 18 studies met inclusion criteria. FPS was primarily assessed by clinicians using the ECOG Performance Status or Karnofsky Performance Status measures. PROs were captured using a variety of measures, with numerous domains assessed (e.g., pain, fatigue, and general health status). Concordance between PROs and FPS measures was widely variable, falling in the low to moderate range (0.09–0.72). Conclusions Despite consistency in the method of capture of PROs or FPS, domain capture varied considerably across reviewed studies. Irrespective of the method of capturing PROs or FPS, the quantified level of association between these two areas was moderate at best, providing evidence that FPS and PRO assessments offer unique information to assist clinicians in their decision-making. PMID:26314706

  6. Stability of early identified aggressive victim status in elementary school and associations with later mental health problems and functional impairments.

    PubMed

    Burk, Linnea R; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H; Essex, Marilyn J

    2011-02-01

    Aggressive victims-children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression-experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim subgroups have focused on preadolescents and/or adolescents. Further, whether children who exhibit early and persistent patterns of aggression and victimization continue to experience greater mental health problems and functional impairments through the transition to adolescence is not known. This study followed 344 children (180 girls) previously identified as socially adjusted, victims, aggressors, or aggressive victims at Grade 1 (Burk et al. 2008) to investigate their involvement in peer bullying through Grade 5. The children, their mothers, and teachers reported on children's involvement in peer aggression and victimization at Grades 1, 3, and 5; and reported on internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, inattention and impulsivity, as well as academic functioning, physical health, and service use at Grades 5, 7, and 9. Most children categorized as aggressive victims in Grade 1 continued to be significantly involved in peer bullying across elementary school. Children with recurrent aggressive victim status exhibited higher levels of some mental health problems and greater school impairments across the adolescent transition when compared to other longitudinal peer status groups. This study suggests screening for aggressive victim status at Grade 1 is potentially beneficial. Further early interventions may need to be carefully tailored to prevent and/or attenuate later psychological, academic, and physical health problems. PMID:20811772

  7. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis mediates loss of intrinsic activity measured by functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Brier, Matthew R; Day, Gregory S; Snyder, Abraham Z; Tanenbaum, Aaron B; Ances, Beau M

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous brain activity is required for the development and maintenance of normal brain function. Many disease processes disrupt the organization of intrinsic brain activity, but few pervasively reduce the amplitude of resting state blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI fluctuations. We report the case of a female with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, longitudinally studied during the course of her illness to determine the contribution of NMDAR signaling to spontaneous brain activity. Resting state BOLD fMRI was measured at the height of her illness and 18 weeks following discharge from hospital. Conventional resting state networks were defined using established methods. Correlation and covariance matrices were calculated by extracting the BOLD time series from regions of interest and calculating either the correlation or covariance quantity. The intrinsic activity was compared between visits, and to expected activity from 45 similarly aged healthy individuals. Near the height of the illness, the patient exhibited profound loss of consciousness, high-amplitude slowing of the electroencephalogram, and a severe reduction in the amplitude of spontaneous BOLD fMRI fluctuations. The patient's neurological status and measures of intrinsic activity improved following treatment. We conclude that NMDAR-mediated signaling plays a critical role in the mechanisms that give rise to organized spontaneous brain activity. Loss of intrinsic activity is associated with profound disruptions of consciousness and cognition. PMID:27025853

  8. Does Co-Existing Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis Impair Functional Outcomes and Activity Levels after Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Julio J; Banerjee, Samik; Issa, Kimona; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Mont, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a cause for substantial morbidity in the elderly population: many often undergo total hip arthroplasty for associated hip arthritis. With a matched cohort we investigated the effect of co-existing LSS on aseptic survivorship, functional outcomes, activity levels, overall subjective physical and mental health status, and satisfaction rates in patients undergoing primary THA. The aseptic-implant survivorship was similar in LSS and non-stenosis cohort. Although both cohorts significantly improved, the LSS cohort achieved lower improvements in HHS, UCLA, SF-36 physical, and satisfaction rates than the matched non-stenotic cohort. Surgeons should consider cautioning patients with LSS that although they can expect relief of their arthritic symptoms following THA, they may continue to expect limitations in function, physical-status, activity-levels, and satisfaction rates. PMID:25865814

  9. Functional Language Networks in Sedentary and Physically Active Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Towler, Stephen; McGregor, Keith M.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Bauer, Andrew; Phan, Stephanie; Cohen, Matthew; Marsiske, Michael; Manini, Todd M.; Crosson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified consistent age-related changes during various cognitive tasks, such that older individuals display more positive and less negative task-related activity than young adults. Recently, evidence shows that chronic physical exercise may alter aging-related changes in brain activity; however, the effect of exercise has not been studied for the neural substrates of language function. Additionally, the potential mechanisms by which aging alters neural recruitment remain understudied. To address these points, the present study enrolled elderly adults who were either sedentary or physically active to characterize the neural correlates of language function during semantic fluency between these groups in comparison to a young adult sample. Participants underwent fMRI during semantic fluency and transcranial magnetic stimulation to collect the ipsilateral silent period, a measure of interhemispheric inhibition. Results indicated that sedentary older adults displayed reductions in negative task-related activity compared to the active old group in areas of the attention network. Longer interhemispheric inhibition was associated with more negative task-related activity in the right and left posterior perisylvian cortex, suggesting that sedentary aging may result in losses in task facilitatory cortical inhibition. However, these losses may be mitigated by regular engagement in physical exercise. PMID:23458438

  10. Multiple measures of physical activity, dietary habits and weight status in African American and Hispanic or Latina women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Medina, Ashley V; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Banda, Jorge A; Layne, Charles S; Baxter, Meggin; O'Connor, Daniel P; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m(2)), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P < .05). IPAQ was not associated with accelerometry. Regardless of ethnicity, normal weight women did more physical activity, reported more VF consumption, and consumed more fat calories than overweight and obese women (Ps < .05). African American women did more MVPA than Hispanic or Latino women (P < .001). Relationships between behaviors and weight status suggest accelerometry and DHQ are preferable, regardless of ethnicity; and studies may capture different domains of physical activity and dietary habits depending on measure used. PMID:21519867

  11. Multiple Measures of Physical Activity, Dietary Habits and Weight Status in African American and Hispanic or Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V.; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; Banda, Jorge A.; Layne, Charles S.; Baxter, Meggin; O’Connor, Daniel P.; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m2), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P < .05). IPAQ was not associated with accelerometry. Regardless of ethnicity, normal weight women did more physical activity, reported more VF consumption, and consumed more fat calories than overweight and obese women (Ps < .05). African American women did more MVPA than Hispanic or Latino women (P < .001). Relationships between behaviors and weight status suggest accelerometry and DHQ are preferable, regardless of ethnicity; and studies may capture different domains of physical activity and dietary habits depending on measure used. PMID:21519867

  12. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function.

    PubMed

    Raichle, Marcus E

    2015-05-19

    Traditionally studies of brain function have focused on task-evoked responses. By their very nature such experiments tacitly encourage a reflexive view of brain function. While such an approach has been remarkably productive at all levels of neuroscience, it ignores the alternative possibility that brain functions are mainly intrinsic and ongoing, involving information processing for interpreting, responding to and predicting environmental demands. I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information and a dynamic, intrinsic functional organization. The nature of this intrinsic activity, which exhibits a surprising level of organization with dimensions of both space and time, is revealed in the ongoing activity of the brain and its metabolism. As we look to the future, understanding the nature of this intrinsic activity will require integrating knowledge from cognitive and systems neuroscience with cellular and molecular neuroscience where ion channels, receptors, components of signal transduction and metabolic pathways are all in a constant state of flux. The reward for doing so will be a much better understanding of human behaviour in health and disease. PMID:25823869

  13. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function

    PubMed Central

    Raichle, Marcus E.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally studies of brain function have focused on task-evoked responses. By their very nature such experiments tacitly encourage a reflexive view of brain function. While such an approach has been remarkably productive at all levels of neuroscience, it ignores the alternative possibility that brain functions are mainly intrinsic and ongoing, involving information processing for interpreting, responding to and predicting environmental demands. I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information and a dynamic, intrinsic functional organization. The nature of this intrinsic activity, which exhibits a surprising level of organization with dimensions of both space and time, is revealed in the ongoing activity of the brain and its metabolism. As we look to the future, understanding the nature of this intrinsic activity will require integrating knowledge from cognitive and systems neuroscience with cellular and molecular neuroscience where ion channels, receptors, components of signal transduction and metabolic pathways are all in a constant state of flux. The reward for doing so will be a much better understanding of human behaviour in health and disease. PMID:25823869

  14. 24 CFR 4100.1 - Functions and activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Functions and activities. 4100.1 Section 4100.1 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... to conduct a variety of programs designed primarily to revitalize older urban neighborhoods...

  15. 24 CFR 4100.1 - Functions and activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... The Corporation also supports the organizational development of, and provides technical assistance to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Functions and activities. 4100.1 Section 4100.1 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  16. 24 CFR 4100.1 - Functions and activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... The Corporation also supports the organizational development of, and provides technical assistance to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Functions and activities. 4100.1 Section 4100.1 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  17. Changes in everyday function among individuals with psychometrically defined Mild Cognitive Impairment in the ACTIVE Study

    PubMed Central

    Wadley, Virginia G.; Crowe, Michael; Marsiske, Michael; Cook, Sarah E.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Rosenberg, Adrienne L.; Rexroth, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Because many individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) will progress to a dementia diagnosis, this population is at high risk for losing functional independence. We examine trajectories of change in everyday function for individuals with cognitive deficits suggestive of MCI. Design. We utilized data from the longitudinal, multi-site Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study, which allowed for post-hoc classification of MCI status at baseline using psycho metric definitions for amnestic MCI, non-amnestic MCI, multi-domain MCI, and no MCI. Setting. Six U.S. cities. Participants. 2832 volunteers (mean age 74 years; 26% African American) living independently, recruited from senior housing, community centers, and hospitals and clinics. Measurements. Mixed effect models examined changes in self-reported instrumental and basic activities of daily living (IADLs and ADLs) from the MDS Home Care Interview in 2,358 participants over a three-year period. Results. In models for IADL performance, IADL difficulty, and a Daily Functioning Composite, there was a significant time by MCI classification interaction for each MCI subtype, indicating that all MCI groups showed faster rates of decline in everyday function relative to cognitively normal participants with no MCI. Conclusion. Results demonstrate the importance of MCI as a clinical entity that not only predicts progression to dementia but also predicts functional declines in activities that are key to autonomy and quality of life. MCI classification guidelines should allow for functional changes in MCI, and clinicians should monitor for such changes. Preservation of function may serve as a meaningful outcome for intervention efforts. PMID:17661957

  18. Self-reported functional and general health status among older respondents in China: the impact of age, gender, and place of residence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bei; Yue, Yuwen; Mao, Zongfu

    2015-03-01

    This study made comparisons of self-reported functional and general health status between Chinese women and men in different age-groups in rural and urban settings and examined multiple factors relating to these health statuses in older adults. This study included a sample of 4017 respondents, aged 55 years and older, from the Hubei subsample of the Chinese National Health Service Survey III in 2003. The results illustrate that the differences in self-rated functional and general health status between genders and between urban and rural areas diminished with age. Access to health care was strongly associated with health status. The quality of the local environment, measured by access to tap water, was a significant factor for rural residents. Our study suggests that improving access to health care services and reducing environmental health risks are critical for improving physical functioning, psychological functioning, and self-rated general health for older adults in China. PMID:22199153

  19. Heated Proteins are Still Active in a Functionalized Nanoporous Support

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Qi, Wen N.; Li, Xiaolin; Lei, Chenghong; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-08

    We report that even under the heated condition, the conformation and activity of a protein can be hoarded in a functionalized nanoporous support via non-covalent interaction, although the hoarded protein was not exhibiting the full protein activity, the protein released subsequently still maintained its native conformation and activity. Glucose oxidase (GOX) was spontaneously and largely entrapped in aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica (NH2-FMS) at 20 oC via a dominant electrostatic interaction. Although FMS-GOX displayed 45% activity of the free enzyme in solution, the GOX released from FMS exhibited its 100% activity prior to the entrapment. Surprisingly, the released GOX from FMS still maintained 89% of its initial activity prior to the entrapment after FMS-GOX was incubated at 60 oC for 1 h prior to release, while the free GOX in solution lost nearly all activity under the same incubation. Intrinsic fluorescence emission of GOX and native electrophoresis demonstrated that the heating resulted in significant conformational changes and oligomeric structures of the free GOX, but FMS efficiently maintained the thermal stability of GOX therein and resisted the thermal denaturation and oligomeric aggregation.

  20. Relationships Between Changes in Patient-Reported Health Status and Functional Capacity in Outpatients With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Kathryn E.; Lin, Li; Moe, Gordon W.; Howlett, Jonathan G.; Fine, Lawrence J.; Spertus, John A.; McConnell, Timothy R.; Piña, Ileana L.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Heart failure trials use a variety of measures of functional capacity and quality of life. Lack of formal assessments of the relationships between changes in multiple aspects of patient-reported health status and measures of functional capacity over time limit the ability to compare results across studies. Methods Using data from HF-ACTION (N = 2331), we used Pearson correlation coefficients and predicted change scores from linear mixed-effects modeling to demonstrate associations between changes in patient-reported health status measured with the EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS) and the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) and changes in peak VO2 and 6-minute walk distance at 3 and 12 months. We examined a 5-point change in KCCQ within individuals to provide a framework for interpreting changes in these measures. Results After adjustment for baseline characteristics, correlations between changes in the VAS and changes in peak VO2 and 6-minute walk distance ranged from 0.13 to 0.28, and correlations between changes in the KCCQ overall and subscale scores and changes in peak VO2 and 6-minute walk distance ranged from 0.18 to 0.34. A 5-point change in KCCQ was associated with a 2.50 ml/kg/min change in peak VO2 (95% confidence interval, 2.21–2.86) and a 112-meter change in 6-minute walk distance (95% confidence interval, 96–134). Conclusions Changes in patient-reported health status are not highly correlated with changes in functional capacity. Our findings generally support the current practice of considering a 5-point change in the KCCQ within individuals to be clinically meaningful. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00047437 PMID:22172441

  1. Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingming

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

  2. Risks of Decreased Renal Function and Increased Albuminuria for Glycemic Status and Metabolic Syndrome Components: Taichung Community Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lai, Ming-May; Lee, Yih-Dar; Yang, Chuan-Wei; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to assess the association of glycemic status and decreased renal function as determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria in an adult Taiwanese metropolitan population. Methods. We did a cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of 2,350 Taiwanese adults aged 40 years and over living in a metropolitan city in Taiwan from 2004 to 2005. Glycemic status was classified as normal glycemia, hyperglycemia, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Renal function was assessed with eGFR using modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation for Chinese. Albuminuria was determined by the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio. Decreased renal function was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and albuminuria as the albumin-creatinine ratio >30 mg g−1 creatinine. Results. 593 (25.23%) had hyperglycemia and 287 (12.21%) had T2D. As glycemia level increased, the prevalence of albuminuria and decreased eGFR increased. After adjustment, T2D was associated with an OR of 2.93 (95% CI: 2.11–4.07) for albuminuria, and an OR of 2.05 (95% CI: 1.18–3.58) for decreased eGFR. Conclusions. In a representative sample from a metropolitan city in Taiwan, T2D was associated with albuminuria and decreased eGFR. PMID:24900991

  3. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Status and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entekhabi, Dara; Yueh, Simon; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Wood, Eric F.; Njoku, Eni G.; Entin, Jared K.; Kellogg, Kent H.

    2015-04-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is launched in early 2015. The objective of SMAP is to produce global estimates of surface soil moisture at 9 km resolution every 2-3 days. It will also provide the freeze/thaw state of land surface north of 45° N at better than 3 km resolution every two days. The mission science data products are derived from the L-band radar and radiometer on board the SMAP spacecraft. The radar and radiometer share a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The instruments operate on-board the SMAP spacecraft in a 685-km Sun-synchronous near-polar orbit, viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle across the wide 1000-km swath. The radiometer includes several capabilities based on characteristics of data over time, frequency band, and polarization to detect anthropogenic Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI). This presentation includes: 1) the status of SMAP mission related to radar and radiometer performance, 2) report on detected RFI environment, 3) calibration activities, and 4) preliminary assessment of soil moisture retrieval, freeze/thaw detection and model value-added (root-zone soil moisture and Net Ecosystem Exchange) algorithms.

  4. Dynamics of mononuclear phagocyte system Fc receptor function in systemic lupus erythematosus. Relation to disease activity and circulating immune complexes.

    PubMed

    Kimberly, R P; Parris, T M; Inman, R D; McDougal, J S

    1983-02-01

    Seventeen pairs of longitudinal studies of mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) Fc receptor function in 15 patients with systemic lupus were performed to explore the dynamic range of Fc receptor dysfunction in lupus and to establish the relationships between MPS function, clinical disease activity and circulating immune complexes (CIC). Fc receptor function was measured by the clearance of IgG sensitized autologous erythrocytes. At the time of first study the degree of MPS dysfunction was correlated with both clinical activity (P less than 0.05) and CIC (P less than 0.05). At follow-up patients with a change in clinical status show significantly larger changes in clearance function compared to clinically stable patients (206 min vs 7 min; P less than 0.001). MPS function changed concordantly with a change in clinical status in all cases (P = 0.002). Longitudinal assessments did not demonstrate concordance of changes in MPS function and CIC, measured by three different assays. The MPS Fc receptor defect in systemic lupus is dynamic and closely associated with disease activity. The lack of concordance of the defect with changes in CIC suggests that either CIC does not adequately reflect receptor site saturation or that other factors may also contribute to the magnitude of MPS dysfunction. PMID:6839542

  5. Ankylosing spondylitis functional and activity indices in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, C; Trandafir, M; Bădică, AM; Morar, F; Predeţeanu, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinicians have at hand several indices to evaluate disease activity and functionality in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), in order to evaluate the prognostic and the treatment of AS patients. Objectives: to examine the relationship between functional and activity scores in AS; to note whether disease activity is associated with any clinical or laboratory variables. Methods: the study included AS patients, classified according to the revised New York criteria; data recorded: demographics, disease duration, type of articular involvement, HLA B27 presence, history of uveitis, calculation of BASFI, BASDAI and ASDASCRP, quantification of inflammation markers. Results: 50 AS patients; ASDASCRP correlated significantly (p < 0.001) with BASFI (r = 811), BASDAI (r = 0.810) and with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR; r = 0.505); HLA B27 positive patients had a median BASDAI 5 times higher than HLA B27 negative patients (p = 0.033); compared with patients with strictly axial disease form, patients with axial and peripheral disease had a median ESR 3 times higher (p = 0.042) and a median BASDAI 2 times higher (p = 0.050). Conclusions: functional and activity AS indices are strongly correlated in assessing disease severity; inflammation and HLA B27 can predict the high value of these indices; axial and peripheral disease pattern is associated with higher disease activity. PMID:24653763

  6. Evaluating Differential Item Functioning of the CES-D Scale According to Caregiver Status and Cultural Context in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heeseung; Fogg, Louis; Lee, Eunice E.; Wu, Michelle Choi

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Proper evaluation of the generalizability of an instrument is critical for its use across different social contexts such as caregiver status. OBJECTIVE To examine the differential item functioning of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, patterns of response to each item of the CES-D Scale attributable to caregiver status was assessed. STUDY DESIGN Using a cross-study comparison method, a sample of 58 matched pairs of Korean American caregivers and noncaregivers was used for matched moderated regression analysis on the CES-D Scale. RESULTS The authors identified three items that vary according to caregiver status in the present study: Item 2 (My appetite was poor), Item 4 (I felt that I was as good as other people), and Item 14 (I felt lonely). CONCLUSIONS Beyond assessing the level of depression through total CES-D scores, it is important to examine variations in the items of the CES-D Scale across different social contexts. PMID:21665810

  7. Improvements in Iron Status and Cognitive Function in Young Women Consuming Beef or Non-Beef Lunches

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n = 43; age 21.1 ± 0.4 years) were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g), 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p < 0.0001), with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p < 0.0001). Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p < 0.05), and ferritin responders (n = 17) vs. non-responders (n = 26) showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p < 0.05). Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women. PMID:24379009

  8. Serotonin and Dopamine: Unifying Affective, Activational, and Decision Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Roshan; Nakamura, Kae; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin, like dopamine (DA), has long been implicated in adaptive behavior, including decision making and reinforcement learning. However, although the two neuromodulators are tightly related and have a similar degree of functional importance, compared with DA, we have a much less specific understanding about the mechanisms by which serotonin affects behavior. Here, we draw on recent work on computational models of dopaminergic function to suggest a framework by which many of the seemingly diverse functions associated with both DA and serotonin—comprising both affective and activational ones, as well as a number of other functions not overtly related to either—can be seen as consequences of a single root mechanism. PMID:20736991

  9. Motivational activation: a unifying hypothesis of orexin/hypocretin function

    PubMed Central

    Mahler, Stephen V; Moorman, David E; Smith, Rachel J; James, Morgan H; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Orexins (hypocretins) are two peptides (orexin A and B) produced from the pre-pro-orexin precursor and expressed in a limited region of dorsolateral hypothalamus. Orexins were originally thought to specifically mediate feeding and promote wakefulness, but it is now clear that they participate in a wide range of behavioral and physiological processes under select circumstances. Orexins primarily mediate behavior under situations of high motivational relevance, such as during physiological need states, exposure to threats or reward opportunities. We hypothesize that many behavioral functions of orexins (including regulation of sleep/wake cycling) reflect a fundamentally integrated function for orexins in translating motivational activation into organized suites of psychological and physiological processes supporting adaptive behaviors. We also discuss how numerous forms of neural heterogeneity modulate this function, allowing orexin neurons to organize diverse, adaptive responses in a variety of motivationally relevant situations. Thus, the involvement of orexins in diverse behaviors may reflect a common underlying function for this peptide system. PMID:25254979

  10. Activity in older adults: cause or consequence of cognitive functioning? A longitudinal study on everyday activities and cognitive performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Aartsen, Marja J; Smits, Carolien H M; van Tilburg, Theo; Knipscheer, Kees C P M; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2002-03-01

    The impact of three types of everyday activities (i.e., social, experiential, and developmental) on four cognitive functions (i.e., immediate recall, learning, fluid intelligence, and information-processing speed) and one global indicator of cognitive functioning (Mini-Mental State Exam score) over a period of 6 years was studied in a large 55--85 year-old population-based sample (N = 2,076). A cross-lagged regression model with latent variables was applied to each combination of 1 cognitive function and 1 type of activity, resulting in 15 (3 x 5) different models. None of the activities were found to enhance cognitive functioning 6 years later when controlling for age, gender, level of education, and health, as well as for unknown confounding variables. Conversely, one cognitive function (i.e., information-processing speed) appeared to affect developmental activity. It is suggested that no specific activity, but rather socioeconomic status to which activities are closely connected, contributes to maintenance of cognitive functions. PMID:11867663

  11. Acetylation of pregnane X receptor protein determines selective function independent of ligand activation

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Arunima; Pasquel, Danielle; Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar; Mani, Sridhar

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a major regulatory protein, is modified by acetylation. {yields} PXR undergoes dynamic deacetylation upon ligand-mediated activation. {yields} SIRT1 partially mediates PXR deacetylation. {yields} PXR deacetylation per se induces lipogenesis mimicking ligand-mediated activation. -- Abstract: Pregnane X receptor (PXR), like other members of its class of nuclear receptors, undergoes post-translational modification [PTM] (e.g., phosphorylation). However, it is unknown if acetylation (a major and common form of protein PTM) is observed on PXR and, if it is, whether it is of functional consequence. PXR has recently emerged as an important regulatory protein with multiple ligand-dependent functions. In the present work we show that PXR is indeed acetylated in vivo. SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1), a NAD-dependent class III histone deacetylase and a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, partially mediates deacetylation of PXR. Most importantly, the acetylation status of PXR regulates its selective function independent of ligand activation.

  12. Activated NKT cells imprint NK-cell differentiation, functionality and education.

    PubMed

    Riese, Peggy; Trittel, Stephanie; May, Tobias; Cicin-Sain, Luka; Chambers, Benedict J; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    NK cells represent a vital component of the innate immune system. The recent discoveries demonstrating that the functionality of NK cells depends on their differentiation and education status underscore their potential as targets for immune intervention. However, to exploit their full potential, a detailed understanding of the cellular interactions involved in these processes is required. In this regard, the cross-talk between NKT cells and NK cells needs to be better understood. Our results provide strong evidence for NKT cell-induced effects on key biological features of NK cells. NKT-cell activation results in the generation of highly active CD27(high) NK cells with improved functionality. In this context, degranulation activity and IFNγ production were mainly detected in the educated subset. In a mCMV infection model, we also demonstrated that NKT-cell stimulation induced the generation of highly functional educated and uneducated NK cells, crucial players in viral control. Thus, our findings reveal new fundamental aspects of the NKT-NK cell axis that provide important hints for the manipulation of NK cells in clinical settings. PMID:25808315

  13. Self-assembly of active colloidal molecules with dynamic function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Rodrigo; Golestanian, Ramin

    Catalytically active colloids maintain non-equilibrium conditions in which they produce and deplete chemicals at their surface. While individual colloids that are symmetrically coated do not exhibit dynamical activity, the concentration fields resulting from their chemical activity decay as 1/r and produce gradients that attract or repel other colloids depending on their surface chemistry and ambient variables. This results in a non-equilibrium analogue of ionic systems, but with the remarkable novel feature of action-reaction symmetry breaking. In dilute conditions these active colloids join up to form molecules via generalized ionic bonds. Colloids are found to join up to form self-assembled molecules that could be inert or have spontaneous activity in the form of net translational velocity and spin depending on their symmetry properties and their constituents. As the interactions do not satisfy detailed-balance, it is possible to achieve structures with time dependent functionality. We study a molecule that adopts spontaneous oscillations and another that exhibits a run-and-tumble dynamics similar to bacteria. Our study shows that catalytically active colloids could be used for designing self-assembled structures that posses dynamical functionalities.

  14. Immunomodulation of phloretin by impairing dendritic cell activation and function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Chen; Chu, Ching-Liang; Ng, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Yen; Chen, Der-Yuan; Pan, I-Hong; Huang, Kao-Jean

    2014-05-01

    Dietary compounds in fruits and vegetables have been shown to exert many biological activities. In addition to antioxidant effects, a number of flavonoids are able to modulate inflammatory responses. Here, we demonstrated that phloretin (PT), a natural dihydrochalcone found in many fruits, suppressed the activation and function of mouse dendritic cells (DCs). Phloretin disturbed the multiple intracellular signaling pathways in DCs induced by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), including ROS, MAPKs (ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK), and NF-κB, and thereby reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Phloretin also effectively suppressed the activation of DCs treated with different dosages of LPS or various TLR agonists. The LPS-induced DC maturation was attenuated by phloretin because the expression levels of the MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules were down-regulated, which then inhibited the LPS-stimulating DCs and the subsequent naïve T cell activation in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. Moreover, in vivo administration of phloretin suppressed the phenotypic maturation of the LPS-challenged splenic DCs and decreased the IFN-γ production from the activated CD4 T cells. Thus, we suggest that phloretin may potentially be an immunomodulator by impairing the activation and function of DCs and phloretin-contained fruits may be helpful in the improvement of inflammation and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24651121

  15. Evaluation of organ function and oxidant/antioxidant status in goats with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    De, Ujjwal K; Dey, S

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the hemato-biochemical changes and status of oxidative stress in goats with scabies infection. The study was conducted on 12 Jamunapari goats; six clinically infected with scabies (group I) and six healthy goats as control (group II). The examination of skin scraping revealed the presence of Sarcoptes scabiei in the infected group. In hemato-biochemical indicators, hemoglobin%, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count, albumin and albumin: globulin ratio decreased whereas, globulin, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen increased significantly (p<0.05) in group I animals as compared to group II healthy goats. Among the oxidative stress indices, plasma nitrate and erythrocytic lipid peroxidation were increased and reduced glutathione levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group I goats as compared to group II healthy goats. The results of the present study suggest that scabies infection alters the hemato-biochemical indicators, increases oxidative stress and decreases antioxidant status in goat. PMID:20623336

  16. Effect of Elective Bentall Procedure on Left Ventricular Systolic Function and Functional Status: Long-Term Follow-Up in 90 patients

    PubMed Central

    Otasevic, Petar; Micovic, Slobodan; Tomic, Slobodan; Milojevic, Predrag; Boskovic, Srdjan; Djukanovic, Bosko

    2016-01-01

    Because there are so few data on the long-term effects on left ventricular systolic function and functional status in patients who electively undergo Bentall procedures, we established a retrospective study group of 90 consecutive patients. This group consisted of 71 male and 19 female patients (mean age, 54 ± 10 yr) who had undergone the Bentall procedure to correct aortic valve disease and aneurysm of the ascending aorta, from 1997 through 2003 in a single tertiary-care center. We monitored these patients for a mean period of 117 ± 41 months for death, left ventricular ejection fraction and volume indices, and functional capacity as determined by New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. There were no operative deaths. The survival rate was 73.3% during follow-up. There were 10 cardiac and 13 noncardiac deaths, and 1 death of unknown cause. Echocardiography was performed before the index procedure and again after 117 ± 41 months. In surviving patients, statistically significant improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction, in comparison with preoperative values (0.49 ± 0.11 vs 0.41 ± 0.11; P <0.0001), was noted at follow-up. Similarly, we observed statistically significant reductions in left ventricular end-systolic (39.24 ± 28.7 vs 48.77 ± 28.62 mL/m2) and end-diastolic volumes (54.63 ± 6.97 vs 59.17 ± 8.92 mL/m2; both P <0.0001). Most patients (53/66 [80.3%]) progressed from a higher to a lower NYHA class during the follow-up period. The Bentall procedure significantly improved long-term left ventricular systolic function and functional status in surviving patients who underwent operation on a nonemergency basis. PMID:27127424

  17. [Effect of occlusive cerebral ischemia on functional status of the internal organs].

    PubMed

    Molchanova, L V; Chernobaeva, G N; Shcherbakova, L N; Luk'ianova, L D

    2001-01-01

    Biochemical parameters characterizing visceral functions were measured in the plasma of rats with brain ischemia induced by double occlusion of the carotid arteries. Functional insufficiency of the viscera is gradually forming in the course of occlusive ischemia of the brain. Functional insufficiency of the liver was observed in animals with severe neurological deficiency and subsequent lethal outcome. In rats resistant to ischemia, visceral dysfunctions develop in a certain succession, starting from the pancreas and followed by the myocardium, liver, and kidneys. PMID:11855065

  18. Function and biotechnology of extremophilic enzymes in low water activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Enzymes from extremophilic microorganisms usually catalyze chemical reactions in non-standard conditions. Such conditions promote aggregation, precipitation, and denaturation, reducing the activity of most non-extremophilic enzymes, frequently due to the absence of sufficient hydration. Some extremophilic enzymes maintain a tight hydration shell and remain active in solution even when liquid water is limiting, e.g. in the presence of high ionic concentrations, or at cold temperature when water is close to the freezing point. Extremophilic enzymes are able to compete for hydration via alterations especially to their surface through greater surface charges and increased molecular motion. These properties have enabled some extremophilic enzymes to function in the presence of non-aqueous organic solvents, with potential for design of useful catalysts. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of extremophilic enzymes functioning in high salinity and cold temperatures, focusing on their strategy for function at low water activity. We discuss how the understanding of extremophilic enzyme function is leading to the design of a new generation of enzyme catalysts and their applications to biotechnology. PMID:22480329

  19. Chemical Signaling and Functional Activation in Colloidosome-Based Protocells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shiyong; Li, Mei; Dong, Faqin; Wang, Shengjie; Tian, Liangfei; Mann, Stephen

    2016-04-13

    An aqueous-based microcompartmentalized model involving the integration of partially hydrophobic Fe(III)-rich montmorillonite (FeM) clay particles as structural and catalytic building blocks for colloidosome membrane assembly, self-directed membrane remodeling, and signal-induced protocell communication is described. The clay colloidosomes exhibit size- and charge-selective permeability, and show dual catalytic functions involving spatially confined enzyme-mediated dephosphorylation and peroxidase-like membrane activity. The latter is used for the colloidosome-mediated synthesis and assembly of a temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAM)/clay-integrated hybrid membrane. In situ PNIPAM elaboration of the membrane is coupled to a glucose oxidase (GOx)-mediated signaling pathway to establish a primitive model of chemical communication and functional activation within a synthetic "protocell community" comprising a mixed population of GOx-containing silica colloidosomes and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-containing FeM-clay colloidosomes. Triggering the enzyme reaction in the silica colloidosomes gives a hydrogen peroxide signal that induces polymer wall formation in a coexistent population of the FeM-clay colloidosomes, which in turn generates self-regulated membrane-gated ALP-activity within the clay microcompartments. The emergence of new functionalities in inorganic colloidosomes via chemical communication between different protocell populations provides a first step toward the realization of interacting communities of synthetic functional microcompartments. PMID:26923794

  20. Efficacy of an Integrated School Curriculum Pedometer Intervention to Enhance Physical Activity and to Reduce Weight Status in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael; Birch, Samantha; Woodfield, Lorayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an integrated school curriculum pedometer intervention on children's physical activity and weight status. Following ethics approval and informed consent, 59 children (22 boys, 27 girls, aged 10-11) from a primary school in central England completed a four-week integrated physical activity…

  1. Summary and Status of DNAPL Characterization and Remediation Activities in the A/M-Area, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K.M.

    2001-03-02

    This report summarizes historical A/M-Area DNAPL activities and data, and presents the overall A/M-Area strategy flowchart, the status work for each DNAPL source zone (or potential source zone), and future A/M-Area DNAPL plans.

  2. Low Income, Mexican Mothers' Perception of Their Infants' Weight Status and Beliefs about Their Foods and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Mandujano-Trujillo, Zally; Pichardo-Osuna, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is being considered a global health epidemic, and one of the countries mostly affected by it is Mexico. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of low-income mothers with regard to their child's weight status and physical activity and their beliefs about healthy and high-density foods. A total of 813 mothers attending…

  3. Active Commuting to School, Weight Status, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children from Rural Areas: The Cuenca Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez-Zornoza, Myriam; Sánchez-López, Mairena; García-Hermoso, Antonio; González-García, Alberto; Chillón, Palma; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine (a) whether distance from home to school is a determinant of active commuting to school (ACS), (b) the relationship between distance from home to heavily used facilities (school, green spaces, and sports facilities) and the weight status and cardiometabolic risk categories, and (c) whether ACS has a…

  4. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activation in heart failure restores mitochondrial function and improves ventricular function and remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Katia M.S.; Campos, Juliane C.; Bechara, Luiz R.G.; Queliconi, Bruno; Lima, Vanessa M.; Disatnik, Marie-Helene; Magno, Paulo; Chen, Che-Hong; Brum, Patricia C.; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Ferreira, Julio C.B.

    2014-01-01

    Aims We previously demonstrated that pharmacological activation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) protects the heart against acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Here, we determined the benefits of chronic activation of ALDH2 on the progression of heart failure (HF) using a post-myocardial infarction model. Methods and results We showed that a 6-week treatment of myocardial infarction-induced HF rats with a selective ALDH2 activator (Alda-1), starting 4 weeks after myocardial infarction at a time when ventricular remodelling and cardiac dysfunction were present, improved cardiomyocyte shortening, cardiac function, left ventricular compliance and diastolic function under basal conditions, and after isoproterenol stimulation. Importantly, sustained Alda-1 treatment showed no toxicity and promoted a cardiac anti-remodelling effect by suppressing myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis. Moreover, accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-protein adducts and protein carbonyls seen in HF was not observed in Alda-1-treated rats, suggesting that increasing the activity of ALDH2 contributes to the reduction of aldehydic load in failing hearts. ALDH2 activation was associated with improved mitochondrial function, including elevated mitochondrial respiratory control ratios and reduced H2O2 release. Importantly, selective ALDH2 activation decreased mitochondrial Ca2+-induced permeability transition and cytochrome c release in failing hearts. Further supporting a mitochondrial mechanism for ALDH2, Alda-1 treatment preserved mitochondrial function upon in vitro aldehydic load. Conclusions Selective activation of mitochondrial ALDH2 is sufficient to improve the HF outcome by reducing the toxic effects of aldehydic overload on mitochondrial bioenergetics and reactive oxygen species generation, suggesting that ALDH2 activators, such as Alda-1, have a potential therapeutic value for treating HF patients. PMID:24817685

  5. XIAP reverses various functional activities of FRNK in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Sunyoung; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Chi, Sung-Gil; Park, Heonyong

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FRNK domain is recruited into focal adhesion (FA), controlling endothelial cell adhesion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XIAP binds the FRNK domain of FAK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XIAP inhibits recruitment of FRNK into Fas and FRNK-promoted cell adhesion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XIAP plays a key role in vascular functions of FRNK or FRNK domain-mediated vascular functions of FAK. -- Abstract: In endothelial cells, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, and shear-stimulated activation of MAPK. We recently found that FAK is recruited into focal adhesion (FA) sites through interactions with XIAP (X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) and activated by Src kinase in response to shear stress. In this study, we examined which domain(s) of FAK is(are) important for various vascular functions such as FA recruiting, XIAP-binding and shear stress-stimulated ERK activation. Through a series of experiments, we determined that the FRNK domain is recruited into FA sites and promotes endothelial cell adhesion. Interestingly, XIAP knockdown was shown to reduce FA recruitment of FRNK and the cell adhesive effect of FRNK. In addition, we found that XIAP interacts with FRNK, suggesting cross-talk between XIAP and FRNK. We also demonstrated that FRNK inhibits endothelial cell migration and shear-stimulated ERK activation. These inhibitory effects of FRNK were reversed by XIAP knockdown. Taken together, we can conclude that XIAP plays a key role in vascular functions of FRNK or FRNK domain-mediated vascular functions of FAK.

  6. Pressure is not a state function for generic active fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solon, A. P.; Fily, Y.; Baskaran, A.; Cates, M. E.; Kafri, Y.; Kardar, M.; Tailleur, J.

    2015-08-01

    Pressure is the mechanical force per unit area that a confined system exerts on its container. In thermal equilibrium, it depends only on bulk properties--such as density and temperature--through an equation of state. Here we show that in a wide class of active systems the pressure depends on the precise interactions between the active particles and the confining walls. In general, therefore, active fluids have no equation of state. Their mechanical pressure exhibits anomalous properties that defy the familiar thermodynamic reasoning that holds in equilibrium. The pressure remains a function of state, however, in some specific and well-studied active models that tacitly restrict the character of the particle-wall and/or particle-particle interactions.

  7. Effects of Active Individual Muscle Stretching on Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kouichi; Kodama, Takayuki; Mukaino, Yoshito

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effect of active individual muscle stretching (AID) on muscle function. [Subjects] We used the right legs of 40 healthy male students. [Methods] Subjects were divided into an AID group, which performed stretching, and a control group, which did not. We examined and compared muscle function before and after stretching in the AID and control groups using a goniometer and Cybex equipment. [Results] A significant increase in flexibility and a significant decrease in muscle strength output were observed in the AID group after the intervention. [Conclusion] These results suggest that AID induces an increase in flexibility and a temporary decrease in muscle output strength. PMID:24707080

  8. Education and Physical Activity Mediate the Relationship between Ethnicity and Cognitive Function in Late Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Masel, Meredith C.; Raji, Mukaila; Peek, M. Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status (SES), particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the mediating characteristics of education or physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in younger aged groups. Most research conducted focuses only on older adults during a time when degeneration of brain tissue may complicate the exploration of the relationships among ethnicity and cognitive function. The current research will expand existing knowledge about education, physical activity, and cognitive function in minority groups. Design The study presents data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults (n=9,204, mean age +-sd=55.8+-3.1). Regression and mediation testing determined the mediating effects of education and physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function. Results Significant association between white ethnicity and higher scores on cognitive tests was evident as early as late middle age. The magnitude of the association significantly diminished on adjusting for education and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion Our data suggest a potential mediating role of education and physical activity on the ethnic differences in cognitive tests in late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults. Our findings suggest a need for studies to understand if adult education and culturally-appropriate physical activity interventions in middle age influence ethnic disparities in prevalence of cognitive impairment in old age. PMID:20401816

  9. Review: Production and functionality of active peptides from milk.

    PubMed

    Muro Urista, C; Álvarez Fernández, R; Riera Rodriguez, F; Arana Cuenca, A; Téllez Jurado, A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, research on the production of active peptides obtained from milk and their potential functionality has grown, to a great extent. Bioactive peptides have been defined as specific protein fragments that have a positive impact on body functions or conditions, and they may ultimately have an influence on health. Individual proteins of casein or milk-derived products such as cheese and yogurt have been used as a protein source to study the isolation and activity of peptides with several applications. Currently, the milk whey waste obtained in the production of cheese also represents a protein source from which active peptides could be isolated with potential industrial applications. The active properties of milk peptides and the results found with regard to their physiological effects have led to the classification of peptides as belonging to the group of ingredients of protein nature, appropriate for use in functional foods or pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, the main peptides obtained from milk protein and the past research studies about its production and biological activities will be explained. Second, an analysis will be made on the methods to determinate the biological activities, the separation of bioactive peptides and its structure identification. All of these form the base required to obtain synthetic peptides. Finally, we explain the experimental animal and human trials done in the past years. Nevertheless, more research is required on the design and implementation of equipment for the industrial production and separation of peptides. In addition, different authors suggest that more emphasis should therefore be given to preclinical studies, proving that results are consistent and that effects are demonstrated repeatedly by several research human groups. PMID:21917640

  10. Self-assembly of active colloidal molecules with dynamic function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Rodrigo; Golestanian, Ramin

    2015-05-01

    Catalytically active colloids maintain nonequilibrium conditions in which they produce and deplete chemicals and hence effectively act as sources and sinks of molecules. While individual colloids that are symmetrically coated do not exhibit any form of dynamical activity, the concentration fields resulting from their chemical activity decay as 1 /r and produce gradients that attract or repel other colloids depending on their surface chemistry and ambient variables. This results in a nonequilibrium analog of ionic systems, but with the remarkable novel feature of action-reaction symmetry breaking. We study solutions of such chemically active colloids in dilute conditions when they join up to form molecules via generalized ionic bonds and discuss how we can achieve structures with time-dependent functionality. In particular, we study a molecule that adopts a spontaneous oscillatory pattern of conformations and another that exhibits a run-and-tumble dynamics similar to bacteria. Our study shows that catalytically active colloids could be used for designing self-assembled structures that possess dynamical functionalities that are determined by their prescribed three-dimensional structures, a strategy that follows the design principle of proteins.

  11. REX-1 Expression and p38 MAPK Activation Status Can Determine Proliferation/Differentiation Fates in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji-Won; Kang, Soo-Kyung; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Background REX1/ZFP42 is a well-known embryonic stem cell (ESC) marker. However, the role of REX1, itself, is relatively unknown because the function of REX1 has only been reported in the differentiation of ESCs via STAT signaling pathways. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) isolated from young tissues and cancer cells express REX1. Methodology/Principal Finding Human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hAD-MSCs) strongly express REX1 and have a lower activation status of p38 MAPK, but bone marrow-derived MSCs (hBM-MSCs) have weak REX1 expression and higher activation of p38 MAPK. These results indicated that REX1 expression in hMSCs was positively correlated with proliferation rates but inversely correlated with the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. In hUCB-MSCs, the roles of REX1 and p38 MAPK were investigated, and a knockdown study was performed using a lentiviral vector-based small hairpin RNA (shRNA). After REX1 knockdown, decreased cell proliferation was observed. In REX1 knocked-down hUCB-MSCs, the osteogenic differentiation ability deteriorated, but the adipogenic potential increased or was similar to that observed in the controls. The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in hUCB-MSCs significantly increased after REX1 knockdown. After p38 MAPK inhibitor treatment, the cell growth in REX1 knocked-down hUCB-MSCs almost recovered, and the suppressed expression levels of CDK2 and CCND1 were also restored. The expression of MKK3, an upstream regulator of p38 MAPK, significantly increased in REX1 knocked-down hUCB-MSCs. The direct binding of REX1 to the MKK3 gene was confirmed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Conclusions/Significance These findings showed that REX1 regulates the proliferation/differentiation of hMSCs through the suppression of p38 MAPK signaling via the direct suppression of MKK3. Therefore, p38 MAPK and REX-1 status can determine the cell fate of adult stem cells (ASCs). These results were the

  12. 77 FR 4574 - Agency Information Collection Activities: USCIS Case Status Online; Extension of an Existing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Status Online; Extension of an Existing Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: USCIS Case Status Online. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS),...

  13. 77 FR 6135 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (76 FR 72715) on November 25, 2011.../ Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. This is a...

  14. Water status and associated processes mark critical stages in pollen development and functioning

    PubMed Central

    Firon, Nurit; Nepi, Massimo; Pacini, Ettore

    2012-01-01

    Background The male gametophyte developmental programme can be divided into five phases which differ in relation to the environment and pollen hydration state: (1) pollen develops inside the anther immersed in locular fluid, which conveys substances from the mother plant – the microsporogenesis phase; (2) locular fluid disappears by reabsorption and/or evaporation before the anther opens and the maturing pollen grains undergo dehydration – the dehydration phase; (3) the anther opens and pollen may be dispersed immediately, or be held by, for example, pollenkitt (as occurs in almost all entomophilous species) for later dispersion – the presentation phase; (4) pollen is dispersed by different agents, remaining exposed to the environment for different periods – the dispersal phase; and (5) pollen lands on a stigma and, in the case of a compatible stigma and suitable conditions, undergoes rehydration and starts germination – the pollen–stigma interaction phase. Scope This review highlights the issue of pollen water status and indicates the various mechanisms used by pollen grains during their five developmental phases to adjust to changes in water content and maintain internal stability. Conclusions Pollen water status is co-ordinated through structural, physiological and molecular mechanisms. The structural components participating in regulation of the pollen water level, during both dehydration and rehydration, include the exine (the outer wall of the pollen grain) and the vacuole. Recent data suggest the involvement of water channels in pollen water transport and the existence of several molecular mechanisms for pollen osmoregulation and to protect cellular components (proteins and membranes) under water stress. It is suggested that pollen grains will use these mechanisms, which have a developmental role, to cope with environmental stress conditions. PMID:22523424

  15. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Yoon Shin; Cho, Yong-Sung; Yun, Seong-Taek; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution. PMID:22645468

  16. FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM: ACTIVATION OF SHAPE & FUNCTION FEATURES DURING OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Eiling; Huffstetler, Stacy; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of semantic memory characterize knowledge of a given object as comprising a set of semantic features. But how does conceptual activation of these features proceed during object identification? We present the results of a pair of experiments that demonstrate that object recognition is a dynamically unfolding process in which function follows form. We used eye movements to explore whether activating one object’s concept leads to the activation of others that share perceptual (shape) or abstract (function) features. Participants viewed four-picture displays and clicked on the picture corresponding to a heard word. In critical trials, the conceptual representation of one of the objects in the display was similar in shape or function (i.e., its purpose) to the heard word. Importantly, this similarity was not apparent in the visual depictions (e.g., for the target “frisbee,” the shape-related object was a triangular slice of pizza – a shape that a frisbee cannot take); preferential fixations on the related object were therefore attributable to overlap of the conceptual representations on the relevant features. We observed relatedness effects for both shape and function, but shape effects occurred earlier than function effects. We discuss the implications of these findings for current accounts of the representation of semantic memory. PMID:21417543

  17. Functions of AMP-activated protein kinase in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Daval, Marie; Foufelle, Fabienne; Ferré, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is involved in cellular energy homeostasis. Its functions have been extensively studied in muscles and liver. AMPK stimulates pathways which increase energy production (glucose transport, fatty acid oxidation) and switches off pathways which consume energy (lipogenesis, protein synthesis, gluconeogenesis). This has led to the concept that AMPK has an interesting pharmaceutical potential in situations of insulin resistance and it is indeed the target of existing drugs and hormones which improve insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue is a key player in energy metabolism through the release of substrates and hormones involved in metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Activation of AMPK in adipose tissue can be achieved through situations such as fasting and exercise. Leptin and adiponectin as well as hypoglycaemic drugs are activators of adipose tissue AMPK. This activation probably involves changes in the AMP/ATP ratio and the upstream kinase LKB1. When activated, AMPK limits fatty acid efflux from adipocytes and favours local fatty acid oxidation. Since fatty acids have a key role in insulin resistance, especially in muscles, activating AMPK in adipose tissue might be found to be beneficial in insulin-resistant states, particularly as AMPK activation also reduces cytokine secretion in adipocytes. PMID:16709632

  18. Functional Implications of Plasma Membrane Condensation for T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Carmel M.; Engelhardt, Karin; Williamson, David; Grewal, Thomas; Jessup, Wendy; Harder, Thomas; Gaus, Katharina

    2008-01-01

    The T lymphocyte plasma membrane condenses at the site of activation but the functional significance of this receptor-mediated membrane reorganization is not yet known. Here we demonstrate that membrane condensation at the T cell activation sites can be inhibited by incorporation of the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), which is known to prevent the formation of raft-like liquid-ordered domains in model membranes. We enriched T cells with 7KC, or cholesterol as control, to assess the importance of membrane condensation for T cell activation. Upon 7KC treatment, T cell antigen receptor (TCR) triggered calcium fluxes and early tyrosine phosphorylation events appear unaltered. However, signaling complexes form less efficiently on the cell surface, fewer phosphorylated signaling proteins are retained in the plasma membrane and actin restructuring at activation sites is impaired in 7KC-enriched cells resulting in compromised downstream activation responses. Our data emphasizes lipids as an important medium for the organization at T cell activation sites and strongly indicates that membrane condensation is an important element of the T cell activation process. PMID:18509459

  19. Spillover-mediated feedforward-inhibition functionally segregates interneuron activity

    PubMed Central

    Coddington, Luke T.; Rudolph, Stephanie; Lune, Patrick Vande; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda; Wadiche, Jacques I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Neurotransmitter spillover represents a form of neural transmission not restricted to morphologically defined synaptic connections. Communication between climbing fibers (CFs) and molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) in the cerebellum is mediated exclusively by glutamate spillover. Here, we show how CF stimulation functionally segregates MLIs based on their location relative to glutamate release. Excitation of MLIs that reside within the domain of spillover diffusion coordinates inhibition of MLIs outside the diffusion limit. CF excitation of MLIs is dependent on extrasynaptic NMDA receptors that enhance the spatial and temporal spread of CF signaling. Activity mediated by functionally segregated MLIs converges onto neighboring Purkinje cells (PCs) to generate a long-lasting biphasic change in inhibition. These data demonstrate how glutamate release from single CFs modulates excitability of neighboring PCs, thus expanding the influence of CFs on cerebellar cortical activity in a manner not predicted by anatomical connectivity. PMID:23707614

  20. Polyhexamethylene biguanide functionalized cationic silver nanoparticles for enhanced antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sumaira; Akhtar, Nasrin; Ghauri, Muhammad Afzal; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Khalid, Zafar M.; Hussain, Irshad

    2012-05-01

    Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), a broad spectrum disinfectant against many pathogens, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles. The particles formed were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and TEM to measure their morphology and surface chemistry. PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles were then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against a gram-negative bacterial strain, Escherichia coli. These silver nanoparticles were found to have about 100 times higher bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, compared to the previous reports, due to the combined antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles and PHMB. In addition to other applications, PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles would be extremely useful in textile industry due to the strong interaction of PHMB with cellulose fabrics.

  1. Efficacy of Acute Intermittent Hypoxia on Physical Function and Health Status in Humans with Spinal Cord Injury: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Astorino, Todd A.; Harness, Eric T.; White, Ailish C.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a loss of motor and sensory function and is consequent with reductions in locomotion, leading to a relatively sedentary lifestyle which predisposes individuals to premature morbidity and mortality. Many exercise modalities have been employed to improve physical function and health status in SCI, yet they are typically expensive, require many trained clinicians to implement, and are thus relegated to specialized rehabilitation centers. These characteristics of traditional exercise-based rehabilitation in SCI make their application relatively impractical considering the time-intensive nature of these regimens and patients' poor access to exercise. A promising approach to improve physical function in persons with SCI is exposure to acute intermittent hypoxia (IH) in the form of a small amount of sessions of brief, repeated exposures to low oxygen gas mixtures interspersed with normoxic breathing. This review summarizes the clinical application of IH in humans with SCI, describes recommended dosing and potential side effects of IH, and reviews existing data concerning the efficacy of relatively brief exposures of IH to modify health and physical function. Potential mechanisms explaining the effects of IH are also discussed. Collectively, IH appears to be a safe, time-efficient, and robust approach to enhance physical function in chronic, incomplete SCI. PMID:26167303

  2. Toxoplasma gondii Actively Inhibits Neuronal Function in Chronically Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Haroon, Fahad; Händel, Ulrike; Angenstein, Frank; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Kreutzmann, Peter; Lison, Holger; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Scheich, Henning; Wetzel, Wolfram; Schlüter, Dirk; Budinger, Eike

    2012-01-01

    Upon infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, fast replicating tachyzoites infect a broad spectrum of host cells including neurons. Under the pressure of the immune response, tachyzoites convert into slow-replicating bradyzoites, which persist as cysts in neurons. Currently, it is unclear whether T. gondii alters the functional activity of neurons, which may contribute to altered behaviour of T. gondii–infected mice and men. In the present study we demonstrate that upon oral infection with T. gondii cysts, chronically infected BALB/c mice lost over time their natural fear against cat urine which was paralleled by the persistence of the parasite in brain regions affecting behaviour and odor perception. Detailed immunohistochemistry showed that in infected neurons not only parasitic cysts but also the host cell cytoplasm and some axons stained positive for Toxoplasma antigen suggesting that parasitic proteins might directly interfere with neuronal function. In fact, in vitro live cell calcium (Ca2+) imaging studies revealed that tachyzoites actively manipulated Ca2+ signalling upon glutamate stimulation leading either to hyper- or hypo-responsive neurons. Experiments with the endoplasmatic reticulum Ca2+ uptake inhibitor thapsigargin indicate that tachyzoites deplete Ca2+ stores in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Furthermore in vivo studies revealed that the activity-dependent uptake of the potassium analogue thallium was reduced in cyst harbouring neurons indicating their functional impairment. The percentage of non-functional neurons increased over time In conclusion, both bradyzoites and tachyzoites functionally silence infected neurons, which may significantly contribute to the altered behaviour of the host. PMID:22530040

  3. Toxoplasma gondii actively inhibits neuronal function in chronically infected mice.

    PubMed

    Haroon, Fahad; Händel, Ulrike; Angenstein, Frank; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Kreutzmann, Peter; Lison, Holger; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Scheich, Henning; Wetzel, Wolfram; Schlüter, Dirk; Budinger, Eike

    2012-01-01

    Upon infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, fast replicating tachyzoites infect a broad spectrum of host cells including neurons. Under the pressure of the immune response, tachyzoites convert into slow-replicating bradyzoites, which persist as cysts in neurons. Currently, it is unclear whether T. gondii alters the functional activity of neurons, which may contribute to altered behaviour of T. gondii-infected mice and men. In the present study we demonstrate that upon oral infection with T. gondii cysts, chronically infected BALB/c mice lost over time their natural fear against cat urine which was paralleled by the persistence of the parasite in brain regions affecting behaviour and odor perception. Detailed immunohistochemistry showed that in infected neurons not only parasitic cysts but also the host cell cytoplasm and some axons stained positive for Toxoplasma antigen suggesting that parasitic proteins might directly interfere with neuronal function. In fact, in vitro live cell calcium (Ca(2+)) imaging studies revealed that tachyzoites actively manipulated Ca(2+) signalling upon glutamate stimulation leading either to hyper- or hypo-responsive neurons. Experiments with the endoplasmatic reticulum Ca(2+) uptake inhibitor thapsigargin indicate that tachyzoites deplete Ca(2+) stores in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Furthermore in vivo studies revealed that the activity-dependent uptake of the potassium analogue thallium was reduced in cyst harbouring neurons indicating their functional impairment. The percentage of non-functional neurons increased over time In conclusion, both bradyzoites and tachyzoites functionally silence infected neurons, which may significantly contribute to the altered behaviour of the host. PMID:22530040

  4. Cell trapping in activated micropores for functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Talasaz, AmirAli H; Powell, Ashley A; Stahl, Patrik; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Jeffrey, Stefanie S; Mindrinos, Michael; Davis, Ronald W

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel device which provides the opportunity to perform high-throughput biochemical assays on different individual cells. In particular, the proposed device is suited to screen the rare cells in biological samples for early stage cancer diagnosis and explore their biochemical functionality. In the process, single cells are precisely positioned and captured in activated micropores. To show the performance of the proposed device, cultured yeast cells and human epithelial circulating tumor cells are successfully captured. PMID:17945673

  5. Comparative studies of brain activation with MEG and functional MRI

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.S.; Aine, C.J.; Sanders, J.A.; Lewine, J.D.; Caprihan, A.

    1993-12-31

    The past two years have witnessed the emergence of MRI as a functional imaging methodology. Initial demonstrations involved the injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent and required ultrafast echo planar imaging capability to adequately resolve the passage of the injected bolus. By measuring the local reduction in image intensity due to magnetic susceptibility, it was possible to calculate blood volume, which changes as a function of neural activation. Later developments have exploited endogenous contrast mechanisms to monitor changes in blood volume or in venous blood oxygen content. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that it is possible to make such measurements in a clinical imager, suggesting that the large installed base of such machines might be utilized for functional imaging. Although it is likely that functional MRI (fMRI) will subsume some of the clinical and basic neuroscience applications now touted for MEG, it is also clear that these techniques offer different largely complementary, capabilities. At the very least, it is useful to compare and cross-validate the activation maps produced by these techniques. Such studies will be valuable as a check on results of neuromagnetic distributed current reconstructions and will allow better characterization of the relationship between neurophysiological activation and associated hemodynamic changes. A more exciting prospect is the development of analyses that combine information from the two modalities to produce a better description of underlying neural activity than is possible with either technique in isolation. In this paper we describe some results from initial comparative studies and outline several techniques that can be used to treat MEG and fMRI data within a unified computational framework.

  6. Bohmian Conditional Wave Functions (and the status of the quantum state)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norsen, Travis

    2016-03-01

    The de Broglie - Bohm pilot-wave theory - uniquely among realistic candidate quantum theories - allows a straightforward and simple definition of the wave function of a subsystem of some larger system (such as the entire universe). Such sub-system wave functions are called “Conditional Wave Functions” (CWFs). Here we explain this concept and indicate the CWF's role in the Bohmian explanation of the usual quantum formalism, and then develop (and motivate) the more speculative idea that something like single-particle wave functions could replace the (ontologically problematical) universal wave function in some future, empirically adequate, pilot-wave-type theory. Throughout the presentation is pedagogical and points are illustrated with simple toy models.

  7. Studies of higher nervous activity in functional phychoses.

    PubMed

    Astrup, C

    1975-01-01

    Psychiatric illnesses can be conceived of as experiments of nature, providing a variety of pathopsychological mechanisms which may elucidate normal psychological processes. Clinically the reactive psychoses are predominantly psychogenic reaction types. They present disturbances of higher nervous activity, similar to those of the neuroses. The unconditional reflex activity is practically as in normal controls, and the most outstanding finding was the large effect of psychodynamic complex structures. This is a physiological parallel to the clinical manifestations with great concern over experienced mental trauma. In the manic-depressive psychoses the most characteristic feature is a marked disturbance of unconditional reflex activity. This factor may be an important physiological mechanism underlying the more biological than psychodynamic reaction type and partly explain the changes of mood and associated interferences with sleep, body weight, sexual activity, aggression and other instinctual and vegetative functions. Schizophrenic psychoses also present changes of unconditional reflex activity, predominantly in the direction of inhibition of response. In addition there are severe dissociations within and between the three levels of unconditional reflexes and the two signaling systems. It is suggested that schizophrenia represents a functional maladaptation, which can be explained from the principles of autokinesis and schizokinesis established by Gantt in animal experiments. Prognostic models based on experimentally established impairment of performances were shown to predict long-term risks of schizophrenic defects just as well as models based on constellations of clinical symptoms. I would predict that psychophysiology and experimental psychology will become increasingly more important for establishing diagnosis and prognosis in the functional psychoses. The data of this article point toward a basis for a prophylactic psychiatry. PMID:1236657

  8. Progressive development of cardiomyopathy following altered autonomic activity in status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Read, Morgayn I; McCann, Dominic M; Millen, Rebecca N; Harrison, Joanne C; Kerr, D Steven; Sammut, Ivan A

    2015-11-01

    Seizures are associated with altered autonomic activity, which has been implicated in the development of cardiac dysfunction and structural damage. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in seizure-induced cardiomyopathy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (320-350 g) were implanted with EEG/ECG electrodes to allow simultaneous telemetric recordings during seizures induced by intrahippocampal (2 nmol, 1 μl/min) kainic acid and monitored for 7 days. Seizure activity occurred in conjunction with increased heart rate (20%), blood pressure (25%), and QTc prolongation (15%). This increased sympathetic activity was confirmed by the presence of raised plasma noradrenaline levels at 3 h post-seizure induction. By 48 h post-seizure induction, sympathovagal balance was shifted in favor of sympathetic dominance, as indicated by both heart rate variability (LF/HF ratio of 3.5 ± 1.0) and pharmacological autonomic blockade. Functional cardiac deficits were evident at 7 and 28 days, as demonstrated by echocardiography showing a decreased ejection fraction (14% compared with control, P < 0.05) and dilated cardiomyopathy present at 28 days following seizure induction. Histological changes, including cardiomyocyte vacuolization, cardiac fibrosis, and inflammatory cell infiltration, were evident within 48 h of seizure induction and remained present for up to 28 days. These structural changes most probably contributed to an increased susceptibility to aconitine-induced arrhythmias. This study confirms that prolonged seizure activity results in acute and chronic alterations in cardiovascular control, leading to a deterioration in cardiac structure and function. This study further supports the need for modulation of sympathetic activity as a promising therapeutic approach in seizure-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:26342065

  9. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  10. Site–Specific Monoubiquitination Activates Ras by Impeding GTPase Activating Protein Function

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Rachael; Lewis, Steven M.; Sasaki, Atsuo T.; Wilkerson, Emily M.; Locasale, Jason W.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Kuhlman, Brian; Dohlman, Henrik G.; Campbell, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Cell growth and differentiation are controlled by growth factor receptors coupled to the GTPase Ras. Oncogenic mutations disrupt GTPase activity leading to persistent Ras signaling and cancer progression. Recent evidence indicates that monoubiquitination of Ras leads to Ras activation. Mutation of the primary site of monoubiquitination impairs the ability of activated K–Ras to promote tumor growth. To determine the mechanism of human Ras activation we chemically ubiquitinated the protein and analyzed its function by NMR, computational modeling, and biochemical activity measurements. We established that monoubiquitination has little effect on Ras GTP binding, GTP hydrolysis, or exchange factor activation, but severely abrogates the response to GTPase activating proteins in a site–specific manner. These findings reveal a new mechanism by which Ras can trigger persistent signaling in the absence of receptor activation or an oncogenic mutation. PMID:23178454

  11. Platelet Serotonin Transporter Function Predicts Default-Mode Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kasess, Christian H.; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Hofmaier, Tina; Diers, Kersten; Bartova, Lucie; Pail, Gerald; Huf, Wolfgang; Uzelac, Zeljko; Hartinger, Beate; Kalcher, Klaudius; Perkmann, Thomas; Haslacher, Helmuth; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kasper, Siegfried; Freissmuth, Michael; Windischberger, Christian; Willeit, Matthäus; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Esterbauer, Harald; Brocke, Burkhard; Moser, Ewald; Sitte, Harald H.; Pezawas, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence. Methods A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy subjects and maximal 5-HT uptake velocity (Vmax) was assessed in blood platelets. We used a mixed-effects multilevel analysis technique (MEMA) to test for linear relationships between whole-brain, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity and platelet Vmax. Results The present study demonstrates that increases in platelet Vmax significantly predict default-mode network (DMN) suppression in healthy subjects independent of genetic variation within SLC6A4. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses indicate that platelet Vmax is related to global DMN activation and not intrinsic DMN connectivity. Conclusion This study provides evidence that platelet Vmax predicts global DMN activation changes in healthy subjects. Given previous reports on platelet-synaptosomal Vmax coupling, results further suggest an important role of neuronal 5-HT reuptake in DMN regulation. PMID:24667541

  12. The impact of chromospheric activity on observed initial mass functions

    SciTech Connect

    Stassun, Keivan G.; Scholz, Aleks; Dupuy, Trent J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2014-12-01

    Using recently established empirical calibrations for the impact of chromospheric activity on the radii, effective temperatures, and estimated masses of active low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, we reassess the shape of the initial mass function (IMF) across the stellar/substellar boundary in the Upper Sco star-forming region (age ∼ 5-10 Myr). We adjust the observed effective temperatures to warmer values using the observed strength of the chromospheric Hα emission, and redetermine the estimated masses of objects using pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks in the H-R diagram. The effect of the activity-adjusted temperatures is to shift the objects to higher masses by 3%-100%. While the slope of the resulting IMF at substellar masses is not strongly changed, the peak of the IMF does shift from ≈0.06 to ≈0.11 M {sub ☉}. Moreover, for objects with masses ≲ 0.2 M {sub ☉}, the ratio of brown dwarfs to stars changes from ∼80% to ∼33%. These results suggest that activity corrections are essential for studies of the substellar mass function, if the masses are estimated from spectral types or from effective temperatures.

  13. Assessment of strontium oxide functionalized graphene nanoflakes for enhanced photocatalytic activity: A density functional theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divya, A.; Mathavan, T.; Asath, R. Mohamed; Archana, J.; Hayakawa, Y.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-05-01

    A series of strontium oxide functionalized graphene nanoflakes were designed and their optoelectronic properties were studied for enhanced photocatalytic activity. The efficiency of designed molecules was studied using various parameters such as HOMO-LUMO energy gap, light harvesting efficiency and exciton binding energy. The computed results show that by increasing the degree of functionalization of strontium oxide leads to lowering the band gap of hydrogen terminated graphene nanoflakes. Furthermore, the study explores the role of strontium oxide functionalization in Frontier Molecular Orbitals, ionization potential, electron affinity, exciton binding energy and light harvesting efficiency of designed molecules. The infrared and Raman spectra were simulated for pure and SrO functionalized graphene nanoflakes. The electron rich and electron deficient regions which are favorable for electrophilic and nucleophilic attacks respectively were analyzed using molecular electrostatic potential surface analysis.

  14. Constraints of recreational sport participation: measurement invariance and latent mean differences across sex and physical activity status.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing Dong; Chung, Pak Kwong; Chen, Wing Ping

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to (a) examine the measurement invariance of the Constraint Scale of Sport Participation across sex and physical activity status among the undergraduate students (N = 630) in Hong Kong and (b) compare the latent mean differences across groups. Measurement invariance of the Constraint Scale of Sport Participation across sex of and physical activity status of the participants was examined first. With receiving support on the measurement invariance across groups, latent mean differences of the scores across groups were examined. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the configural, metric, scalar, and structural invariance of the scale was supported across groups. The results of latent mean differences suggested that the women reported significantly higher constraints on time, partner, psychology, knowledge, and interest than the men. The physically inactive participants reported significantly higher scores on all constraints except for accessibility than the physically active participants. PMID:25310228

  15. Impact of prolonged storm activity on the Ecological Status of intertidal benthic habitats within oyster (Crassostrea gigas) trestle cultivation sites.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Jack P J; Quinn, Christina; Forde, James; Patterson, Adrian; O'Beirn, Francis X; Kennedy, Robert

    2016-09-15

    The Ecological Status (ES; sensu the Water Framework Directive) of intertidal benthic communities within six oyster trestle cultivation sites was found to be negatively impacted along the access routes to trestles in a 2013 study. All cultivation sites occur within Natura 2000 sites. The current study revisited four of the 2013 cultivation sites in February 2014 one month after the storm activity of winter 2013/14 to test if the compaction effect along access routes persisted after the storms. Three levels of the fixed factor treatment were sampled; immediately below the trestles, along the access route and 300m away from any anthropogenic activity. The compaction effect at the Access treatment persisted in spite of the major storm activity. The current study showed the IQI to be effective for assessing the impacts of aquaculture and highlights the IQI as a tool for monitoring Conservation Status of intertidal communities under the Habitats Directive. PMID:27373942

  16. Physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Physical activity plays an important role in preventing further progression of metabolic syndrome conditions to cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. This study investigated physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients. The fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) data were analyzed (n=19,831). A revised definition of the US National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III was used for screening metabolic syndrome patients. Using International Physical Activity Questionnaire, physical activity adherence was defined as participating in 150+ minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, 75+ minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week. Socioeconomic status was measured by level of education and house-hold in